National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for burner fb fluidized

  1. Startup burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhao, Jian Lian (Belmont, MA); Northrop, William F. (Ann Arbor, MI); Bosco, Timothy (Dallas, TX); Rizzo, Vincent (Norfolk, MA); Kim, Changsik (Lexington, MA)

    2009-08-18

    A startup burner for rapidly heating a catalyst in a reformer, as well as related methods and modules, is disclosed.

  2. Gas phase hydrodynamics inside a circulating fluidized bed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moran, James C. (James Christopher)

    2001-01-01

    Circulating Fluidized Beds (CFB's) offer many advantages over traditional pulverized coal burners in the power generation industry. They operate at lower temperatures, have better environmental emissions and better fuel ...

  3. FLAT FLAME BURNER ANALYSES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pagni, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    in Edge Cooled F1at Flame Burners," Combust. Sci. and Tech.Subscripts w water b burner ambient, upstream bondary ufor publication FLAT FLAME BURNER ANALYSES P. J. Pagni, A.

  4. Front Burner- Issue 14

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Cybersecurity Front Burner Issue No. 14 addresses the 2013 National Cybersecurity Awareness Month (NCSAM) Campaign and Phishing Scams.

  5. Front Burner- Issue 15

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Cybersecurity Front Burner Issue No. 15 addresses the DOE eSCRM Program and Secure Online Shopping.

  6. Rotary Burner Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Flanagan

    2003-04-30

    The subject technology, the Calcpos Rotary Burner (CRB), is a burner that is proposed to reduce energy consumption and emission levels in comparison to currently available technology. burners are used throughout industry to produce the heat that is required during the refining process. Refineries seek to minimize the use of energy in refining while still meeting EPA regulations for emissions.

  7. The effects of moisture and particle size of feedlot biomass on co-firing burner performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chen-Jung

    2001-01-01

    based fuels. For coal fired power plants located around feedlots where cattle are raised, the renewable biomass is the cattle manure, called feedlot biomass (FB). Thus coal could be mixed with feedlot biomass and then fired in existing boiler burners...

  8. Front Burner- Issue 18

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Cybersecurity Front Burner Issue No. 18 addresses keeping kids safe on the Internet, cyber crime, and DOE Cyber awareness and training initiatives.

  9. Front Burner- Issue 13

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Cybersecurity Front Burner Issue No. 13 contained a message from the Associate Chief Information Officer (ACIO) for Cybersecurity as well as a listing of recommended cybersecurity practices.

  10. Combustor burner vanelets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lacy, Benjamin (Greer, SC); Varatharajan, Balachandar (Loveland, OH); Kraemer, Gilbert Otto (Greer, SC); Yilmaz, Ertan (Albany, NY); Zuo, Baifang (Simpsonville, SC)

    2012-02-14

    The present application provides a burner for use with a combustor of a gas turbine engine. The burner may include a center hub, a shroud, a pair of fuel vanes extending from the center hub to the shroud, and a vanelet extending from the center hub and/or the shroud and positioned between the pair of fuel vanes.

  11. Pulverized coal burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sivy, J.L.; Rodgers, L.W.; Koslosy, J.V.; LaRue, A.D.; Kaufman, K.C.; Sarv, H.

    1998-11-03

    A burner is described having lower emissions and lower unburned fuel losses by implementing a transition zone in a low NO{sub x} burner. The improved burner includes a pulverized fuel transport nozzle surrounded by the transition zone which shields the central oxygen-lean fuel devolatilization zone from the swirling secondary combustion air. The transition zone acts as a buffer between the primary and the secondary air streams to improve the control of near-burner mixing and flame stability by providing limited recirculation regions between primary and secondary air streams. These limited recirculation regions transport evolved NO{sub x} back towards the oxygen-lean fuel pyrolysis zone for reduction to molecular nitrogen. Alternate embodiments include natural gas and fuel oil firing. 8 figs.

  12. Pulverized coal burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sivy, Jennifer L. (Alliance, OH); Rodgers, Larry W. (Canton, OH); Koslosy, John V. (Akron, OH); LaRue, Albert D. (Uniontown, OH); Kaufman, Keith C. (Canton, OH); Sarv, Hamid (Canton, OH)

    1998-01-01

    A burner having lower emissions and lower unburned fuel losses by implementing a transition zone in a low NO.sub.x burner. The improved burner includes a pulverized fuel transport nozzle surrounded by the transition zone which shields the central oxygen-lean fuel devolatilization zone from the swirling secondary combustion air. The transition zone acts as a buffer between the primary and the secondary air streams to improve the control of near-burner mixing and flame stability by providing limited recirculation regions between primary and secondary air streams. These limited recirculation regions transport evolved NO.sub.x back towards the oxygen-lean fuel pyrolysis zone for reduction to molecular nitrogen. Alternate embodiments include natural gas and fuel oil firing.

  13. Burner control system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cade, P.J.

    1981-01-06

    A burner control apparatus for use with a furnace installation that has an operating control to produce a request for burner operation, a flame sensor to produce a signal when flame is present in the monitored combustion chamber, and one or more devices for control of ignition and/or fuel flow. The burner control apparatus comprises lockout apparatus for de-energizing the control apparatus, a control device for actuating the ignition and/or fuel control devices, and a timing circuit that provides four successive and partially overlapping timing intervals of precise relation, including a purge timing interval, a pilot ignition interval, and a main fuel ignition interval. The present invention further includes a burner control system which verifies the proper operation of certain sensors in a burner or furnace including particularly the air flow sensor. Additionally, the present system also prevents an attempt to ignite a burner if a condition is detected which indicates that the air flow sensor has been bypassed or wedged in the actuated position.

  14. Ultralean low swirl burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, R.K.

    1998-04-07

    A novel burner and burner method has been invented which burns an ultra lean premixed fuel-air mixture with a stable flame. The inventive burning method results in efficient burning and much lower emissions of pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen than previous burners and burning methods. The inventive method imparts weak swirl (swirl numbers of between about 0.01 to 3.0) on a fuel-air flow stream. The swirl, too small to cause recirculation, causes an annulus region immediately inside the perimeter of the fuel-air flow to rotate in a plane normal to the axial flow. The rotation in turn causes the diameter of the fuel-air flow to increase with concomitant decrease in axial flow velocity. The flame stabilizes where the fuel-air mixture velocity equals the rate of burning resulting in a stable, turbulent flame. 11 figs.

  15. Ultralean low swirl burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, Robert K. (Kensington, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A novel burner and burner method has been invented which burns an ultra lean premixed fuel-air mixture with a stable flame. The inventive burning method results in efficient burning and much lower emissions of pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen than previous burners and burning methods. The inventive method imparts weak swirl (swirl numbers of between about 0.01 to 3.0) on a fuel-air flow stream. The swirl, too small to cause recirculation, causes an annulus region immediately inside the perimeter of the fuel-air flow to rotate in a plane normal to the axial flow. The rotation in turn causes the diameter of the fuel-air flow to increase with concomitant decrease in axial flow velocity. The flame stabilizes where the fuel-air mixture velocity equals the rate of burning resulting in a stable, turbulent flame.

  16. Fluidization quality analyzer for fluidized beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daw, C. Stuart (Knoxville, TN); Hawk, James A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A control loop and fluidization quality analyzer for a fluidized bed utilizes time varying pressure drop measurements. A fast-response pressure transducer measures the overall bed pressure drop, or over some segment of the bed, and the pressure drop signal is processed to produce an output voltage which changes with the degree of fluidization turbulence.

  17. Fluidization quality analyzer for fluidized beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daw, C.S.; Hawk, J.A.

    1995-07-25

    A control loop and fluidization quality analyzer for a fluidized bed utilizes time varying pressure drop measurements. A fast-response pressure transducer measures the overall bed pressure drop, or over some segment of the bed, and the pressure drop signal is processed to produce an output voltage which changes with the degree of fluidization turbulence. 9 figs.

  18. Dark matter burners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moskalenko, I V; Moskalenko, Igor V.; Wai, Lawrence L.

    2007-01-01

    We show that a star orbiting close enough to an adiabatically grown supermassive black hole (SMBH) can capture weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) at an extremely high rate. The stellar luminosity due to annihilation of captured WIMPs in the stellar core may be comparable to or even exceed the luminosity of the star due to thermonuclear burning. The model thus predicts the existence of unusual stars, essentially WIMP burners, in the vicinity of a SMBH. We find that the most efficient WIMP burners are stars with degenerate electron cores, e.g. white dwarfs (WDs); such WDs may have a very high surface temperature. If found, such stars would provide evidence for the existence of particle dark matter and can possibly be used to establish its density profile. On the other hand, the lack of such unusual stars may provide constraints on the WIMP density near the SMBH, as well as the WIMP-nucleus scattering and pair annihilation cross-sections.

  19. Dark matter burners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igor V. Moskalenko; Lawrence L. Wai

    2007-02-24

    We show that a star orbiting close enough to an adiabatically grown supermassive black hole (SMBH) can capture weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) at an extremely high rate. The stellar luminosity due to annihilation of captured WIMPs in the stellar core may be comparable to or even exceed the luminosity of the star due to thermonuclear burning. The model thus predicts the existence of unusual stars, essentially WIMP burners, in the vicinity of a SMBH. We find that the most efficient WIMP burners are stars with degenerate electron cores, e.g. white dwarfs (WDs); such WDs may have a very high surface temperature. If found, such stars would provide evidence for the existence of particle dark matter and can possibly be used to establish its density profile. On the other hand, the lack of such unusual stars may provide constraints on the WIMP density near the SMBH, as well as the WIMP-nucleus scattering and pair annihilation cross-sections.

  20. Rotary Burner Demonstration Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2003-07-01

    A new Calcpos rotary burner (CRB), eliminates electric motors, providing a simple, cost effective means of retrofitting existing fired heaters for energy and environmental reasons.

  1. Registration Form Florida's Certified Pile Burner Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    Registration Form ! Florida's Certified Pile Burner Program Tuesday, September 15, 2015 ! Polk! ! ! FFS Customer Number! ! #12;! ! Florida's Certified Pile Burner Training! Tuesday, September 15, 2015;! ! ! Florida's Certified Pile Burner Training! Frequently Asked Questions! ! Q: Why should I be a certified

  2. Cambridge Stratified Slot Burner Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sweeney, Mark; Hochgreb, Simone; Barlow, Rob

    2010-09-23

    Stratified Slot Burner Operating Conditions: fs1,fs4,fs6 Axial Location z = 15 mm downstream of burner exit Distance from centreline (mm),Velocity (m/s),Turbulence Intensity (-) 0.5,3.7706,8.1882 1,3.7002,9.1183 1.5,3.5715,10.562 2,3.4403,11.638 2...

  3. TURBINE BURNERS: Engine Performance Improvements;

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heydari, Payam

    the expansion through the turbine for turbojet , turbofan , and stationary - power gas - turbine engines. StudyTURBINE BURNERS: Engine Performance Improvements; Mixing, Ignition, and Flame-Holding in High/WEIGHT Range highly undesirable Desirable Not Good #12;TURBINE BURNER CONCEPT Turbine burning has advantage

  4. Burner balancing Salem Harbor Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sload, A.W.; Dube, R.J.

    1995-12-31

    The traditional method of burner balancing is first to determine the fuel distribution, then to measure the economizer outlet excess oxygen distribution and to adjust the burners accordingly. Fuel distribution is typically measured by clean and dirty air probing. Coal pipe flow can then be adjusted, if necessary, through the use of coal pipe orificing or by other means. Primary air flow must be adjusted to meet the design criteria of the burner. Once coal pipe flow is balanced to within the desired criteria, secondary air flow to individual burners can be changed by adjusting windbox dampers, burner registers, shrouds or other devices in the secondary air stream. This paper discusses problems encountered in measuring excess O{sub 2} at the economizer outlet. It is important to recognize that O{sub 2} measurements at the economizer outlet, by themselves, can be very misleading. If measurement problems are suspected or encountered, an alternate approach similar to that described should be considered. The alternate method is not only useful for burner balancing but also can be used to help in calibrating the plant excess O{sub 2} instruments and provide an on line means of cross-checking excess air measurements. Balanced burners operate closer to their design stoichiometry, providing better NO{sub x} reduction. For Salem Harbor Station, this means a significant saving in urea consumption.

  5. Radial lean direct injection burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khan, Abdul Rafey; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2012-09-04

    A burner for use in a gas turbine engine includes a burner tube having an inlet end and an outlet end; a plurality of air passages extending axially in the burner tube configured to convey air flows from the inlet end to the outlet end; a plurality of fuel passages extending axially along the burner tube and spaced around the plurality of air passage configured to convey fuel from the inlet end to the outlet end; and a radial air swirler provided at the outlet end configured to direct the air flows radially toward the outlet end and impart swirl to the air flows. The radial air swirler includes a plurality of vanes to direct and swirl the air flows and an end plate. The end plate includes a plurality of fuel injection holes to inject the fuel radially into the swirling air flows. A method of mixing air and fuel in a burner of a gas turbine is also provided. The burner includes a burner tube including an inlet end, an outlet end, a plurality of axial air passages, and a plurality of axial fuel passages. The method includes introducing an air flow into the air passages at the inlet end; introducing a fuel into fuel passages; swirling the air flow at the outlet end; and radially injecting the fuel into the swirling air flow.

  6. Safety Topic: Bunsen Burners and Hotplates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Robert E.

    Safety Topic: Bunsen Burners and Hotplates Justin Kleingartner Advisors: Bob Cohen Gareth McKinley #12;Bunsen Burners · Produces open flame used for heating, sterilization, and combustion · Utilizes desired flame #12;Bunsen Burners Procedures · PLACE the Bunsen burner away from any overhead shelving

  7. Catalyzed Ceramic Burner Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, Amy S., Dr.

    2012-06-29

    Catalyzed combustion offers the advantages of increased fuel efficiency, decreased emissions (both NOx and CO), and an expanded operating range. These performance improvements are related to the ability of the catalyst to stabilize a flame at or within the burner media and to combust fuel at much lower temperatures. This technology has a diverse set of applications in industrial and commercial heating, including boilers for the paper, food and chemical industries. However, wide spread adoption of catalyzed combustion has been limited by the high cost of precious metals needed for the catalyst materials. The primary objective of this project was the development of an innovative catalyzed burner media for commercial and small industrial boiler applications that drastically reduce the unit cost of the catalyzed media without sacrificing the benefits associated with catalyzed combustion. The scope of this program was to identify both the optimum substrate material as well as the best performing catalyst construction to meet or exceed industry standards for durability, cost, energy efficiency, and emissions. It was anticipated that commercial implementation of this technology would result in significant energy savings and reduced emissions. Based on demonstrated achievements, there is a potential to reduce NOx emissions by 40,000 TPY and natural gas consumption by 8.9 TBtu in industries that heavily utilize natural gas for process heating. These industries include food manufacturing, polymer processing, and pulp and paper manufacturing. Initial evaluation of commercial solutions and upcoming EPA regulations suggests that small to midsized boilers in industrial and commercial markets could possibly see the greatest benefit from this technology. While out of scope for the current program, an extension of this technology could also be applied to catalytic oxidation for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Considerable progress has been made over the course of the grant period in accomplishing these objectives. Our work in the area of Pd-based, methane oxidation catalysts has led to the development of highly active catalysts with relatively low loadings of Pd metal using proprietary coating methods. The thermal stability of these Pd-based catalysts were characterized using SEM and BET analyses, further demonstrating that certain catalyst supports offer enhanced stability toward both PdO decomposition and/or thermal sintering/growth of Pd particles. When applied to commercially available fiber mesh substrates (both metallic and ceramic) and tested in an open-air burner, these catalyst-support chemistries showed modest improvements in the NOx emissions and radiant output compared to uncatalyzed substrates. More significant, though, was the performance of the catalyst-support chemistries on novel media substrates. These substrates were developed to overcome the limitations that are present with commercially available substrate designs and increase the gas-catalyst contact time. When catalyzed, these substrates demonstrated a 65-75% reduction in NOx emissions across the firing range when tested in an open air burner. In testing in a residential boiler, this translated into NOx emissions of <15 ppm over the 15-150 kBtu/hr firing range.

  8. COMBUSTION OF COAL IN AN OPPOSED FLOW DIFFUSION BURNER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chin, W.K.

    2010-01-01

    an Opposed Flow Diffusion Burner Environment Division Chinmodel furnaces, flat flame burners, flow reactors, shocktubes, single particle burners, and, no doubt, others have

  9. Pulse enhanced fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, B.

    1996-12-31

    Information is outlined on pulse enhanced fluidized bed combustion. The following topics are discussed: what is pulse enhanced fluidized bed combustion?; pulse combustors; pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (PAFBC); advantages of PAFBC; performance advantages; PAFBC facts; and PAFBC contact points.

  10. Staged fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, R.G.

    1983-05-13

    The invention relates to oil shale retorting and more particularly to staged fluidized bed oil shale retorting. Method and apparatus are disclosed for narrowing the distribution of residence times of any size particle and equalizing the residence times of large and small particles in fluidized beds. Particles are moved up one fluidized column and down a second fluidized column with the relative heights selected to equalize residence times of large and small particles. Additional pairs of columns are staged to narrow the distribution of residence times and provide complete processing of the material.

  11. Solids fluidizer-injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bulicz, Tytus R. (Hickory Hills, IL)

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus and process for fluidizing solid particles by causing rotary motion of the solid particles in a fluidizing chamber by a plurality of rotating projections extending from a rotatable cylinder end wall interacting with a plurality of fixed projections extending from an opposite fixed end wall and passing the solid particles through a radial feed orifice open to the solids fluidizing chamber on one side and a solid particle utilization device on the other side. The apparatus and process are particularly suited for obtaining intermittent feeding with continual solids supply to the fluidizing chamber. The apparatus and process are suitable for injecting solid particles, such as coal, to an internal combustion engine.

  12. Burner ignition system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carignan, Forest J. (Bedford, MA)

    1986-01-21

    An electronic ignition system for a gas burner is battery operated. The battery voltage is applied through a DC-DC chopper to a step-up transformer to charge a capacitor which provides the ignition spark. The step-up transformer has a significant leakage reactance in order to limit current flow from the battery during initial charging of the capacitor. A tank circuit at the input of the transformer returns magnetizing current resulting from the leakage reactance to the primary in succeeding cycles. An SCR in the output circuit is gated through a voltage divider which senses current flow through a flame. Once the flame is sensed, further sparks are precluded. The same flame sensor enables a thermopile driven main valve actuating circuit. A safety valve in series with the main gas valve responds to a control pressure thermostatically applied through a diaphragm. The valve closes after a predetermined delay determined by a time delay orifice if the pilot gas is not ignited.

  13. Criterion for burner design in thermal weed control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez, Telca Marisa

    2001-01-01

    A covered infrared burner was designed and constructed so that it could be compared to an open-flame burner. Two covered burners, a high configuration and a low configuration, were constructed. A low configuration covered infrared burner, high...

  14. Fluidized bed calciner apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owen, Thomas J. (West Richland, WA); Klem, Jr., Michael J. (Richland, WA); Cash, Robert J. (Richland, WA)

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately 25.degree. C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

  15. Stability of Gas-Fluidized Beds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandich, Kevin Matthew

    Temperature in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed, To Be Submitted tomechanisms of bubbling in fluidized beds. A simpler analysiswith the nature of bubbling in fluidized beds. When bubbles

  16. RENEWABLES RESEARCH Boiler Burner Energy System Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RENEWABLES RESEARCH Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST) for Firetube Boilers PIER, industrial combined heat and power (CHP) boiler burner energy system technology ("BBEST"). Their research (unrecuperated) with an ultra- low nitrous oxide (NOx) boiler burner for firetube boilers. The project goals

  17. Uniform-burning matrix burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohn, Mark S. (Golden, CO); Anselmo, Mark (Arvada, CO)

    2001-01-01

    Computer simulation was used in the development of an inward-burning, radial matrix gas burner and heat pipe heat exchanger. The burner and exchanger can be used to heat a Stirling engine on cloudy days when a solar dish, the normal source of heat, cannot be used. Geometrical requirements of the application forced the use of the inward burning approach, which presents difficulty in achieving a good flow distribution and air/fuel mixing. The present invention solved the problem by providing a plenum with just the right properties, which include good flow distribution and good air/fuel mixing with minimum residence time. CFD simulations were also used to help design the primary heat exchanger needed for this application which includes a plurality of pins emanating from the heat pipe. The system uses multiple inlet ports, an extended distance from the fuel inlet to the burner matrix, flow divider vanes, and a ring-shaped, porous grid to obtain a high-temperature uniform-heat radial burner. Ideal applications include dish/Stirling engines, steam reforming of hydrocarbons, glass working, and any process requiring high temperature heating of the outside surface of a cylindrical surface.

  18. Hybrid fluidized bed combuster

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kantesaria, Prabhudas P. (Windsor, CT); Matthews, Francis T. (Poquonock, CT)

    1982-01-01

    A first atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed furnace is combined with a second turbulent, circulating fluidized bed furnace to produce heat efficiently from crushed solid fuel. The bed of the second furnace receives the smaller sizes of crushed solid fuel, unreacted limestone from the first bed, and elutriated solids extracted from the flu gases of the first bed. The two-stage combustion of crushed solid fuel provides a system with an efficiency greater than available with use of a single furnace of a fluidized bed.

  19. Solids fluidizer-injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bulicz, T.R.

    1990-04-17

    An apparatus and process are described for fluidizing solid particles by causing rotary motion of the solid particles in a fluidizing chamber by a plurality of rotating projections extending from a rotatable cylinder end wall interacting with a plurality of fixed projections extending from an opposite fixed end wall and passing the solid particles through a radial feed orifice open to the solids fluidizing chamber on one side and a solid particle utilization device on the other side. The apparatus and process are particularly suited for obtaining intermittent feeding with continual solids supply to the fluidizing chamber. The apparatus and process are suitable for injecting solid particles, such as coal, to an internal combustion engine. 3 figs.

  20. Coleman Two Burner Stove The Coleman Matchlight 2-Burner Propane Stove is especially designed for outdoor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    Coleman Two Burner Stove The Coleman Matchlight 2-Burner Propane Stove is especially designed-burner propane stove has a high-pressure regulator that ensures a constant flame regardless of weather propane stove has a removable nickel-chrome-plated grate that makes for easy cleaning. The aluminized

  1. Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rehmat, A.G.; Patel, J.G.

    1987-05-12

    An apparatus and process are disclosed for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance. 2 figs.

  2. Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rehmat, Amirali G. (Westmont, IL); Patel, Jitendra G. (Bolingbrook, IL)

    1987-05-12

    An apparatus and process for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance.

  3. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marasco, Joseph A. (Kingston, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A fluidized bed reactor system utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

  4. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

  5. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marasco, Joseph A. (Kingston, TN)

    1996-01-01

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary and tertiary particulate phases, continuously introduced and removed simultaneously in the cocurrent and countercurrent mode, act in a role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Means for introducing and removing the sorbent phases include feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

  6. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, C.D.; Marasco, J.A.

    1995-04-25

    A fluidized bed reactor system utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figs.

  7. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, C.D.

    1993-12-14

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase is described. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figures.

  8. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, C.D.; Marasco, J.A.

    1996-02-27

    A fluidized bed reactor system is described which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary and tertiary particulate phases, continuously introduced and removed simultaneously in the cocurrent and countercurrent mode, act in a role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Means for introducing and removing the sorbent phases include feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figs.

  9. Saving Energy and Reducing Emissions with Fuel-Flexible Burners

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    using the standard fuel injectors found in fuel oil burners. This project developed fuel-flexible burners operating on biomass-derived liquid fuels with low carbon emissions....

  10. Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels This factsheet describes a project that...

  11. SEP Success Story: Biomass Burner Cogenerates Jobs and Electricity...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Biomass Burner Cogenerates Jobs and Electricity from Lumber Mill Waste SEP Success Story: Biomass Burner Cogenerates Jobs and Electricity from Lumber Mill Waste December 6, 2011 -...

  12. Porous radiant burners having increased radiant output

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tong, Timothy W. (Tempe, AZ); Sathe, Sanjeev B. (Tempe, AZ); Peck, Robert E. (Tempe, AZ)

    1990-01-01

    Means and methods for enhancing the output of radiant energy from a porous radiant burner by minimizing the scattering and increasing the adsorption, and thus emission of such energy by the use of randomly dispersed ceramic fibers of sub-micron diameter in the fabrication of ceramic fiber matrix burners and for use therein.

  13. Diesel fuel burner for diesel emissions control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webb, Cynthia C.; Mathis, Jeffrey A.

    2006-04-25

    A burner for use in the emissions system of a lean burn internal combustion engine. The burner has a special burner head that enhances atomization of the burner fuel. Its combustion chamber is designed to be submersed in the engine exhaust line so that engine exhaust flows over the outer surface of the combustion chamber, thereby providing efficient heat transfer.

  14. Fluidized bed boiler feed system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Brian C. (Windsor, CT)

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed boiler feed system for the combustion of pulverized coal. Coal is first screened to separate large from small particles. Large particles of coal are fed directly to the top of the fluidized bed while fine particles are first mixed with recycled char, preheated, and then fed into the interior of the fluidized bed to promote char burnout and to avoid elutriation and carryover.

  15. Catalytic reactor with improved burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faitani, Joseph J. (Hartford, CT); Austin, George W. (Glastonbury, CT); Chase, Terry J. (Somers, CT); Suljak, George T. (Vernon, CT); Misage, Robert J. (Manchester,all of, CT)

    1981-01-01

    To more uniformly distribute heat to the plurality of catalyst tubes in a catalytic reaction furnace, the burner disposed in the furnace above the tops of the tubes includes concentric primary and secondary annular fuel and air outlets. The fuel-air mixture from the primary outlet is directed towards the tubes adjacent the furnace wall, and the burning secondary fuel-air mixture is directed horizontally from the secondary outlet and a portion thereof is deflected downwardly by a slotted baffle toward the tubes in the center of the furnace while the remaining portion passes through the slotted baffle to another baffle disposed radially outwardly therefrom which deflects it downwardly in the vicinity of the tubes between those in the center and those near the wall of the furnace.

  16. Low Emissions Burner Technology for Metal Processing Industry using Byproducts and Biomass Derived Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, Ajay; Taylor, Robert

    2013-09-30

    This research and development efforts produced low-emission burner technology capable of operating on natural gas as well as crude glycerin and/or fatty acids generated in biodiesel plants. The research was conducted in three stages (1) Concept definition leading to the design and development of a small laboratory scale burner, (2) Scale-up to prototype burner design and development, and (3) Technology demonstration with field vefiication. The burner design relies upon the Flow Blurring (FB) fuel injection based on aerodynamically creating two-phase flow near the injector exit. The fuel tube and discharge orifice both of inside diameter D are separated by gap H. For H < 0.25D, the atomizing air bubbles into liquid fuel to create a two-phase flow near the tip of the fuel tube. Pressurized two-phase fuel-air mixture exits through the discharge orifice, which results in expansion and breakup of air bubbles yielding a spray with fine droplets. First, low-emission combustion of diesel, biodiesel and straight VO (soybean oil) was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine sprays for these fuels with significantly different physical properties. Visual images for these baseline experiments conducted with heat release rate (HRR) of about 8 kW illustrate clean blue flames indicating premixed combustion for all three fuels. Radial profiles of the product gas temperature at the combustor exit overlap each other signifying that the combustion efficiency is independent of the fuel. At the combustor exit, the NOx emissions are within the measurement uncertainties, while CO emissions are slightly higher for straight VO as compared to diesel and biodiesel. Considering the large variations in physical and chemical properties of fuels considered, the small differences observed in CO and NOx emissions show promise for fuel-flexible, clean combustion systems. FB injector has proven to be very effective in atomizing fuels with very different physical properties, and it offers a path forward to utilize both fossil and alternative liquid fuels in the same combustion system. In particular, experiments show that straight VO can be cleanly combusted without the need for chemical processing or preheating steps, which can result in significant economic and environmental benefits. Next, low-emission combustion of glycerol/methane was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine droplets of highly viscous glycerol. Heat released from methane combustion further improves glycerol pre-vaporization and thus its clean combustion. Methane addition results in an intensified reaction zone with locally high temperatures near the injector exit. Reduction in methane flow rate elongates the reaction zone, which leads to higher CO emissions and lower NOx emissions. Similarly, higher air to liquid (ALR) mass ratio improves atomization and fuel pre-vaporization and shifts the flame closer to the injector exit. In spite of these internal variations, all fuel mixes of glycerol with methane produced similar CO and NOx emissions at the combustor exit. Results show that FB concept provides low emissions with the flexibility to utilize gaseous and highly viscous liquid fuels, straight VO and glycerol, without preheating or preprocessing the fuels. Following these initial experiments in quartz combustor, we demonstrated that glycerol combustion can be stably sustained in a metal combustor. Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) measurements in glycerol/methane flames resulted in flow-weighted Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) of 35 to 40 ?m, depending upon the methane percentage. This study verified that lab-scale dual-fuel burner using FB injector can successfully atomize and combust glycerol and presumably other highly viscous liquid fuels at relatively low HRR (<10 kW). For industrial applications, a scaled-up glycerol burner design thus seemed feasible.

  17. Reverberatory screen for a radiant burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, Paul E. (North East, MD)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to porous mat gas fired radiant burner panels utilizing improved reverberatory screens. The purpose of these screens is to boost the overall radiant output of the burner relative to a burner using no screen and the same fuel-air flow rates. In one embodiment, the reverberatory screen is fabricated from ceramic composite material, which can withstand higher operating temperatures than its metallic equivalent. In another embodiment the reverberatory screen is corrugated. The corrugations add stiffness which helps to resist creep and thermally induced distortions due to temperature or thermal expansion coefficient differences. As an added benefit, it has been unexpectedly discovered that the corrugations further increase the radiant efficiency of the burner. In a preferred embodiment, the reverberatory screen is both corrugated and made from ceramic composite material.

  18. Pollutant Exposures from Natural Gas Cooking Burners: A Simulation-Based Assessment for Southern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logue, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    in Natural Gas Cooking Burners, LBNL Page 16 Palmes, E. D. ,from Natural Gas Cooking Burners: A Simulation- Basedin Natural Gas Cooking Burners, LBNL Page 1 Disclaimer This

  19. Modeling Population Exposures to Pollutants Emitted from Natural Gas Cooking Burners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lobscheid, Agnes

    2012-01-01

    Natural Gas Cooking Burners   Agnes B.  Lobscheid 1,* , from Natural Gas Cooking Burners Agnes B. Lobscheid 1,* ,resulting from cooking burners and entry with outdoor air.

  20. Silane-propane ignitor/burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, R.W.; Skinner, D.F. Jr.; Thorsness, C.B.

    1983-05-26

    A silane propane burner for an underground coal gasification process which is used to ignite the coal and to controllably retract the injection point by cutting the injection pipe. A narrow tube with a burner tip is positioned in the injection pipe through which an oxidant (oxygen or air) is flowed. A charge of silane followed by a supply of fuel, such as propane, is flowed through the tube. The silane spontaneously ignites on contact with oxygen and burns the propane fuel.

  1. Silane-propane ignitor/burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard W. (Livermore, CA); Skinner, Dewey F. (Livermore, CA); Thorsness, Charles B. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A silane propane burner for an underground coal gasification process which is used to ignite the coal and to controllably retract the injection point by cutting the injection pipe. A narrow tube with a burner tip is positioned in the injection pipe through which an oxidant (oxygen or air) is flowed. A charge of silane followed by a supply of fuel, such as propane, is flowed through the tube. The silane spontaneously ignites on contact with oxygen and burns the propane fuel.

  2. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The general specifications for a Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor Design Report (PAFBC) plant are presented. The design tasks for the PAFBC are described in the following areas: Coal/Limestone preparation and feed system; pulse combustor; fluidized bed; boiler parts; and ash handling system.

  3. Burners and combustion apparatus for carbon nanomaterial production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alford, J. Michael (Lakewood, CO); Diener, Michael D. (Denver, CO); Nabity, James (Arvada, CO); Karpuk, Michael (Boulder, CO)

    2007-10-09

    The invention provides improved burners, combustion apparatus, and methods for carbon nanomaterial production. The burners of the invention provide sooting flames of fuel and oxidizing gases. The condensable products of combustion produced by the burners of this invention produce carbon nanomaterials including without limitation, soot, fullerenic soot, and fullerenes. The burners of the invention do not require premixing of the fuel and oxidizing gases and are suitable for use with low vapor pressure fuels such as those containing substantial amounts of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The burners of the invention can operate with a hot (e.g., uncooled) burner surface and require little, if any, cooling or other forms of heat sinking. The burners of the invention comprise one or more refractory elements forming the outlet of the burner at which a flame can be established. The burners of the invention provide for improved flame stability, can be employed with a wider range of fuel/oxidizer (e.g., air) ratios and a wider range of gas velocities, and are generally more efficient than burners using water-cooled metal burner plates. The burners of the invention can also be operated to reduce the formation of undesirable soot deposits on the burner and on surfaces downstream of the burner.

  4. Burners and combustion apparatus for carbon nanomaterial production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alford, J. Michael; Diener, Michael D; Nabity, James; Karpuk, Michael

    2013-02-05

    The invention provides improved burners, combustion apparatus, and methods for carbon nanomaterial production. The burners of the invention provide sooting flames of fuel and oxidizing gases. The condensable products of combustion produced by the burners of this invention produce carbon nanomaterials including without limitation, soot, fullerenic soot, and fullerenes. The burners of the invention do not require premixing of the fuel and oxidizing gases and are suitable for use with low vapor pressure fuels such as those containing substantial amounts of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The burners of the invention can operate with a hot (e.g., uncooled) burner surface and require little, if any, cooling or other forms of heat sinking. The burners of the invention comprise one or more refractory elements forming the outlet of the burner at which a flame can be established. The burners of the invention provide for improved flame stability, can be employed with a wider range of fuel/oxidizer (e.g., air) ratios and a wider range of gas velocities, and are generally more efficient than burners using water-cooled metal burner plates. The burners of the invention can also be operated to reduce the formation of undesirable soot deposits on the burner and on surfaces downstream of the burner.

  5. CHP Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castaldini, Carlo; Darby, Eric

    2013-09-30

    The objective of this project was to engineer, design, fabricate, and field demonstrate a Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST) that integrates a low-cost, clean burning, gas-fired simple-cycle (unrecuperated) 100 kWe (net) microturbine (SCMT) with a new ultra low-NOx gas-fired burner (ULNB) into one compact Combined Heat and Power (CHP) product that can be retrofit on new and existing industrial and commercial boilers in place of conventional burners. The Scope of Work for this project was segmented into two principal phases: (Phase I) Hardware development, assembly and pre-test and (Phase II) Field installation and demonstration testing. Phase I was divided into five technical tasks (Task 2 to 6). These tasks covered the engineering, design, fabrication, testing and optimization of each key component of the CHP system principally, ULNB, SCMT, assembly BBEST CHP package, and integrated controls. Phase I work culminated with the laboratory testing of the completed BBEST assembly prior to shipment for field installation and demonstration. Phase II consisted of two remaining technical tasks (Task 7 and 8), which focused on the installation, startup, and field verification tests at a pre-selected industrial plant to document performance and attainment of all project objectives. Technical direction and administration was under the management of CMCE, Inc. Altex Technologies Corporation lead the design, assembly and testing of the system. Field demonstration was supported by Leva Energy, the commercialization firm founded by executives at CMCE and Altex. Leva Energy has applied for patent protection on the BBEST process under the trade name of Power Burner and holds the license for the burner currently used in the product. The commercial term Power Burner is used throughout this report to refer to the BBEST technology proposed for this project. The project was co-funded by the California Energy Commission and the Southern California Gas Company (SCG), a division of Sempra Energy. These match funds were provided via concurrent contracts and investments available via CMCE, Altex, and Leva Energy The project attained all its objectives and is considered a success. CMCE secured the support of GI&E from Italy to supply 100 kW Turbec T-100 microturbines for the project. One was purchased by the project’s subcontractor, Altex, and a second spare was purchased by CMCE under this project. The microturbines were then modified to convert from their original recuperated design to a simple cycle configuration. Replacement low-NOx silo combustors were designed and bench tested in order to achieve compliance with the California Air Resources Board (CARB) 2007 emission limits for NOx and CO when in CHP operation. The converted microturbine was then mated with a low NOx burner provided by Altex via an integration section that allowed flow control and heat recovery to minimize combustion blower requirements; manage burner turndown; and recover waste heat. A new fully integrated control system was designed and developed that allowed one-touch system operation in all three available modes of operation: (1) CHP with both microturbine and burner firing for boiler heat input greater than 2 MMBtu/hr; (2) burner head only (BHO) when the microturbine is under service; and (3) microturbine only when boiler heat input requirements fall below 2 MMBtu/hr. This capability resulted in a burner turndown performance of nearly 10/1, a key advantage for this technology over conventional low NOx burners. Key components were then assembled into a cabinet with additional support systems for generator cooling and fuel supply. System checkout and performance tests were performed in the laboratory. The assembled system and its support equipment were then shipped and installed at a host facility where final performance tests were conducted following efforts to secure fabrication, air, and operating permits. The installed power burner is now in commercial operation and has achieved all the performance goals.

  6. Sealed, nozzle-mix burners for silica deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adler, Meryle D. M.; Brown, John T.; Misra, Mahendra K.

    2003-07-08

    Burners (40) for producing fused silica boules are provided. The burners employ a tube-in-tube (301-306) design with flats (56, 50) on some of the tubes (305, 301) being used to limit the cross-sectional area of certain passages (206, 202) within the burner and/or to atomize a silicon-containing, liquid source material, such as OMCTS. To avoid the possibility of flashback, the burner has separate passages for fuel (205) and oxygen (204, 206), i.e., the burner employs nozzle mixing, rather than premixing, of the fuel and oxygen. The burners are installed in burner holes (26) formed in the crown (20) of a furnace and form a seal with those holes so that ambient air cannot be entrained into the furnace through the holes. An external air cooled jacket (60) can be used to hold the temperature of the burner below a prescribed upper limit, e.g., 400.degree. C.

  7. Ultra-Low NOx Premixed Industrial Burner | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology licensed to Maxon Corporation and sold as the M-PAKT burner. Over 1408 burners estimated to reduce NOx by over 1.550 million pounds in 2011. Applications Can be...

  8. Upgrade Boilers with Energy-Efficient Burners, Energy Tips: STEAM...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The purpose of the burner is to mix molecules of fuel with molecules of air. A boiler will run only as well as the burner performs. A poorly designed boiler with an...

  9. Low NO.sub.x burner system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kitto, Jr., John B. (North Canton, OH); Kleisley, Roger J. (Plain Twp., Stark County, OH); LaRue, Albert D. (Summit, OH); Latham, Chris E. (Knox Twp., Columbiana County, OH); Laursen, Thomas A. (Canton, OH)

    1993-01-01

    A low NO.sub.x burner system for a furnace having spaced apart front and rear walls, comprises a double row of cell burners on each of the front and rear walls. Each cell burner is either of the inverted type with a secondary air nozzle spaced vertically below a coal nozzle, or the non-inverted type where the coal nozzle is below the secondary air port. The inverted and non-inverted cells alternate or are provided in other specified patterns at least in the lower row of cells. A small percentage of the total air can be also provided through the hopper or hopper throat forming the bottom of the furnace, or through the boiler hopper side walls. A shallow angle impeller design also advances the purpose of the invention which is to reduce CO and H.sub.2 S admissions while maintaining low NO.sub.x generation.

  10. Fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sowards, N.K.; Murphy, M.L.

    1991-10-29

    This patent describes a vessel. It comprises a fluid bed for continuously incinerating fuel comprising tire segments and the like which comprise metallic wire tramp and for concurrently removing tramp and bed materials at a bottom effluent exit means of the vessel, the vessel further comprising static air distributor means at the periphery of the bed comprising a substantially centrally unobstructed relatively large central region in which the fluid bed and fuel only are disposed and through which bed material and tramp migrate without obstruction to and through the effluent exit means, downwardly and inwardly stepped lower vessel wall means and a plurality of peripherally located centrally directed vertically and horizontally offset spaced air influent means surrounding the central region and associated with the stepped lower vessel wall means by which the bed is supported and fluidized.

  11. Pulse enhanced fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, B.; Golan, L. [South Carolina Energy Research and Development Center, Clemson, SC (United States); Toma, M.; Mansour, M. [Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Various technologies are available for the combustion of high-sulfur, high-ash fuels, particularly coal. From performance, economic and environmental standpoints, fluidized bed combustion (FBC) is the leading candidate for utilization of high sulfur coals. ThermoChem, Inc., and the South Carolina Energy Research and Development Center (SCERDC) are installing a hybrid fluidized bed combustion system at Clemson University. This hybrid system, known as the Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor (PAFBC), will augment the University`s steam system by providing 50--60,000 lbs/hr of saturated process steam. The PAFBC, developed by Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International, Inc., (MTCI), integrates a pulse combustor with a bubbling-bed-type atmospheric fluidized bed coal combustor. The pulse combustion system imparts an acoustic effect that enhances combustion efficiency, SO{sub 2} capture, low NO{sub x} emissions, and heat transfer efficiency in the fluidized bed. These benefits of pulse combustion result in modestly sized PAFBC units with high throughput rates and lower costs when compared to conventional fluidized bed units.

  12. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014/15 Modul criteria, will be stated at the beginning of lecture #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2 · Muscle Physiology · Heart and circulatory functions · Neuroethology #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www

  13. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014%) written exam (60%) journal (20%) Preparation of course work (20%) #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www · Antioxidants #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014

  14. Fundamentals of fluidized bed chemical processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yates, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    Chemical processes based on the use of fluidized solids, although widely used on an industrial scale for some four decades, are currently increasing in importance as industry looks for improved methods for handling and reacting solid materials. This book provides background necessary for an understanding of the technique of gas-solid fluidization. Contents: Some Fundamental Aspects of Fluidization-General Features of Gas-Solid Fluidization; Minimum Fluidization Velocity; Inter-particle forces; Liquid-Solid Fluidization; Bubbles; Slugging; Entrainment and Elutriation; Particle Movement; Bed Viscosity; Fluidization Under Pressure. Fluidized-Bed Reactor Models-ome Individual Models; Model Comparisons; Multiple Region Models. Catalytic Cracking-Process Developments Riser Cracking; Catalysis; Process Chemistry; Kinetics; Process Models. Combustion and Gasification-Plant Developments; Oil and Gas Combustion; Desulphurization; No/sub x/ Emissions; Coal Gassification. Miscellaneous Processes-Phthalic Anhydride (1,3-isobezofurandione); Acrylonitrile (prop-3-enenitrile); Vinyl Chloride (chloroethene); Titanium Dioxide; Uranium Processing; Sulphide Roasting; Indexes.

  15. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014 Klausur (50%) Protokolle Grundkurs (50%) written exam (50%) journal (50%) #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www

  16. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014 Modulprüfung (MP) / Assessment of module (MP) or submodule (TP) Klausur written exam #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie

  17. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014) / Assessment of module (MP) or submodule (TP) Klausur written exam #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www

  18. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014-up to the tutorial protocol corrections communication with lecturers and students #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www

  19. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014 protocols. #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014 of the lecture #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014

  20. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014 of lecture #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014 functions · Learning, memory, sleep #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO

  1. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014 Lerntagebuches Journal #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd the different taxa #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd

  2. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, J.

    1996-03-19

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine. 1 fig.

  3. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, Juhani (Karhula, FI)

    1996-01-01

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine.

  4. Fuel burner and combustor assembly for a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leto, Anthony (Franklin Lakes, NJ)

    1983-01-01

    A fuel burner and combustor assembly for a gas turbine engine has a housing within the casing of the gas turbine engine which housing defines a combustion chamber and at least one fuel burner secured to one end of the housing and extending into the combustion chamber. The other end of the fuel burner is arranged to slidably engage a fuel inlet connector extending radially inwardly from the engine casing so that fuel is supplied, from a source thereof, to the fuel burner. The fuel inlet connector and fuel burner coact to anchor the housing against axial movement relative to the engine casing while allowing relative radial movement between the engine casing and the fuel burner and, at the same time, providing fuel flow to the fuel burner. For dual fuel capability, a fuel injector is provided in said fuel burner with a flexible fuel supply pipe so that the fuel injector and fuel burner form a unitary structure which moves with the fuel burner.

  5. Apparatus and process for controlling fluidized beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rehmat, Amirali G. (Westmont, IL); Patel, Jitendra G. (Bolingbrook, IL)

    1985-10-01

    An apparatus and process for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance.

  6. Refinery burner simulation design architecture summary.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pollock, Guylaine M.; McDonald, Michael James; Halbgewachs, Ronald D.

    2011-10-01

    This report describes the architectural design for a high fidelity simulation of a refinery and refinery burner, including demonstrations of impacts to the refinery if errors occur during the refinery process. The refinery burner model and simulation are a part of the capabilities within the Sandia National Laboratories Virtual Control System Environment (VCSE). Three components comprise the simulation: HMIs developed with commercial SCADA software, a PLC controller, and visualization software. All of these components run on different machines. This design, documented after the simulation development, incorporates aspects not traditionally seen in an architectural design, but that were utilized in this particular demonstration development. Key to the success of this model development and presented in this report are the concepts of the multiple aspects of model design and development that must be considered to capture the necessary model representation fidelity of the physical systems.

  7. PULSE DRYING EXPERIMENT AND BURNER CONSTRUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert States

    2006-07-15

    Non steady impingement heat transfer is measured. Impingement heating consumes 130 T-BTU/Yr in paper drying, but is only 25% thermally efficient. Pulse impingement is experimentally shown to enhance heat transfer by 2.8, and may deliver thermal efficiencies near 85%. Experimental results uncovered heat transfer deviations from steady theory and from previous investigators, indicating the need for further study and a better theoretical framework. The pulse burner is described, and its roll in pulse impingement is analyzed.

  8. Coal-water mixture fuel burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, T.D.; Reehl, D.P.; Walbert, G.F.

    1985-04-29

    The present invention represents an improvement over the prior art by providing a rotating cup burner arrangement for use with a coal-water mixture fuel which applies a thin, uniform sheet of fuel onto the inner surface of the rotating cup, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel on the inner surface of the cup, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge from the rotating cup, and further atomizes the fuel as it enters the combustion chamber by subjecting it to the high shear force of a high velocity air flow. Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide for improved combustion of a coal-water mixture fuel. It is another object of the present invention to provide an arrangement for introducing a coal-water mixture fuel into a combustion chamber in a manner which provides improved flame control and stability, more efficient combustion of the hydrocarbon fuel, and continuous, reliable burner operation. Yet another object of the present invention is to provide for the continuous, sustained combustion of a coal-water mixture fuel without the need for a secondary combustion source such as natural gas or a liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Still another object of the present invention is to provide a burner arrangement capable of accommodating a coal-water mixture fuel having a wide range of rheological and combustion characteristics in providing for its efficient combustion. 7 figs.

  9. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014 presentation #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014

  10. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014 of module (MP) or submodule (TP) Klausur written exam #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2 Rechenmethoden in den Naturwissenschaften für Studierende der Chemie und Biologie B Calculus for the Natural

  11. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014%) presentation (30%) oral exam (70%) #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO

  12. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014/15 Modul

  13. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014 Mentorenprogramm statt. The oral exam is part of the mentoring. #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2

  14. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014 (20%) report (80%) Presentation (20%) #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni

  15. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014 Modulprüfung (MP) / Assessment of module (MP) or submodule (TP) Klausur written exam #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie of brains are included. Diseases and etiologies are also presented. #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www

  16. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014 written exam #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd

  17. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014%) presentation (20%) #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd

  18. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014%) Protokolle (70%) presentation (30%) journal (70%) #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni

  19. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014 Biology" . #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014

  20. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014 percent) and computational tasks (80 percent). #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni

  1. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014 Abschluss der Module Chemie 1, Bio 2. MBW 1. Studienvarianten /The module / submodule is part exam exclusively based on lecture #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO

  2. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014 Chemie 1, Bio 2 Studienvarianten /The module / submodule is part of the following study types Vollfach) or submodule (TP) Klausur written exam #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO

  3. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014 Biochemistry". #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014

  4. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014 and to evalute the own level of knowledge through feedbacks. #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2

  5. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014: Erfolgreicher Abschluss der Module Chemie 1, Bio 2. MBW 1. Studienvarianten /The module / submodule is part work (not graded) #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011

  6. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014: Erfolgreicher Abschluss der Module Chemie 1, Bio 2. MBW 1. Studienvarianten /The module / submodule is part (MP) or submodule (TP) Klausur written exam #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni

  7. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014 Modulprüfung (MP) / Assessment of module (MP) or submodule (TP) Klausur written exam #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie, interference) #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.

  8. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014, Kleingruppenpräsentation presentation script and presentation #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni

  9. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014 (30%) report (70%) presentation (30%) #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni

  10. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014: Marine invertrebrates alternating with Marine Algae. #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2

  11. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014: Erfolgreicher Abschluss der Module Chemie 1, Bio 2. MBW 1. Studienvarianten /The module / submodule is part knowledge of genetics is relevant. #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO

  12. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014) or submodule (TP) Klausur written exam #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO

  13. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014 hours #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014

  14. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014 geregelt (§ 7). #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd

  15. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014 Modulprüfung (MP) / Assessment of module (MP) or submodule (TP) Klausur written exam #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie Kernphysik - Aufbau der Materie (Kernteilchen) - Radioaktivität content #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www

  16. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014/15 Modul written exam #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd

  17. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014/15 Modul / module their function. #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014

  18. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014 / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014/15 Modul / module code Bio 6 of vertebrates #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014

  19. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014 of the exam is 50% of each submodule #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014/15 Modul / module

  20. Initial Design of a Dual Fluidized Bed Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yun, Minyoung

    2014-01-01

    fast bed and (b) the bubbling fluidized bed on gas mixingflow regimes. (A) A bubbling fluidized bed, (B) turbulent1.5, 1.6. 1. Bubbling fluidized bed gasifiers (BFB) (Figure

  1. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray Chamberland; Aku Raino; David Towle

    2006-09-30

    For more than two decades, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has developed a range of low cost, in-furnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes ALSTOM's internally developed TFS 2000 firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). As of 2004, more than 200 units representing approximately 75,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with ALSTOM low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coals to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coals, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing (retrofit) boiler equipment. If enacted, proposed Clear Skies legislation will, by 2008, require an average, effective, domestic NOx emissions rate of 0.16 lb/MMBtu, which number will be reduced to 0.13 lb/MMBtu by 2018. Such levels represent a 60% and 67% reduction, respectively, from the effective 2000 level of 0.40 lb/MMBtu. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. In light of these needs, ALSTOM, in cooperation with the DOE, is developing an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner which, when integrated with ALSTOM's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems, will provide a means to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx at less than 3/4 the cost of an SCR with low to no impact on balance of plant issues when firing a high volatile bituminous coal. Such coals can be more economic to fire than subbituminous or Powder River Basin (PRB) coals, but are more problematic from a NOx control standpoint as existing firing system technologies do not provide a means to meet current or anticipated regulations absent the use of an SCR. The DOE/ALSTOM program performed large pilot scale combustion testing in ALSTOM's Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut. During this work, the near-field combustion environment was optimized to maximize NOx reduction while minimizing the impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down under globally reducing conditions. Initially, ALSTOM utilized computational fluid dynamic modeling to evaluate a series of burner and/or near field stoichiometry controls in order to screen promising design concepts in advance of the large pilot scale testing. The third and final test, to be executed, will utilize several variants of the best nozzle tip configuration and compare performance with 3 different coals. The fuels to be tested will cover a wide range of coals commonly fired at US utilities. The completion of this work will provide sufficient data to allow ALSTOM to design, construct, and demonstrate a commercial version of an enhanced combustion low NOx pulverized coal burner. A preliminary cost/performance analysis of the developed enhanced combustion low NOx burner applied to ALSTOM's state-of-the-art TFS 2000 firing system was performed to show that the burner enhancements is a cost effective means to reduce NOx.

  2. Modeling Population Exposures to Pollutants Emitted from Natural Gas Cooking Burners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lobscheid, Agnes

    2012-01-01

    BC et al. (2009). Natural Gas Variability in California:to Pollutants  Emitted from Natural Gas Cooking Burners  Pollutants Emitted from Natural Gas Cooking Burners Agnes B.

  3. Fluidized bed injection assembly for coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA); Salvador, Louis A. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

    1981-01-01

    A coaxial feed system for fluidized bed coal gasification processes including an inner tube for injecting particulate combustibles into a transport gas, an inner annulus about the inner tube for injecting an oxidizing gas, and an outer annulus about the inner annulus for transporting a fluidizing and cooling gas. The combustibles and oxidizing gas are discharged vertically upward directly into the combustion jet, and the fluidizing and cooling gas is discharged in a downward radial direction into the bed below the combustion jet.

  4. Turbine Burners: Flameholding in Accelerating Flow W. A. Sirignano1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Feng

    1 Turbine Burners: Flameholding in Accelerating Flow W. A. Sirignano1 , D. Dunn-Rankin2 , F. Liu3 B, Irvine Abstract A review of turbine-burner research and some relevant background issues is presented. Previous work on thermal cycle analysis for augmentative combustion in the passages of the turbine

  5. Combined Heat and Power Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    This factsheet describes a project that will seamlessly integrate a gas-fired simple-cycle 100 kWe microturbine with a new ultra-low NOx gas-fired burner to develop a CHP assembly called the Boiler Burner Energy System Technology.

  6. Residential oil burners with low input and two stages firing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butcher, T.; Krajewski, R.; Leigh, R.

    1997-12-31

    The residential oil burner market is currently dominated by the pressure-atomized, retention head burner. At low firing rates pressure atomizing nozzles suffer rapid fouling of the small internal passages, leading to bad spray patterns and poor combustion performance. To overcome the low input limitations of conventional burners, a low pressure air-atomized burner has been developed watch can operate at fining rates as low as 0.25 gallons of oil per hour (10 kW). In addition, the burner can be operated in a high/low fining rate mode. Field tests with this burner have been conducted at a fixed input rate of 0.35 gph (14 kW) with a side-wall vented boiler/water storage tank combination. At the test home, instrumentation was installed to measure fuel and energy flows and record trends in system temperatures. Laboratory efficiency testing with water heaters and boilers has been completed using standard single purpose and combined appliance test procedures. The tests quantify benefits due to low firing rates and other burner features. A two stage oil burner gains a strong advantage in rated efficiency while maintaining capacity for high domestic hot water and space heating loads.

  7. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The design of the Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor (PAFBC) as described in the Quarterly Report for the period April--June, 1992 was reviewed and minor modifications were included. The most important change made was in the coal/limestone preparation and feed system. Instead of procuring pre-sized coal for testing of the PAFBC, it was decided that the installation of a milling system would permit greater flexibility in the testing with respect to size distributions and combustion characteristics in the pulse combustor and the fluid bed. Particle size separation for pulse combustor and fluid bed will be performed by an air classifier. The modified process flow diagram for the coal/limestone handling system is presented in Figure 1. The modified process flow diagrams of the fluidized bed/steam cycle and ash handling systems are presented in Figures 2 and 3, respectively.

  8. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    During this first quarter, a lab-scale water-cooled pulse combustor was designed, fabricated, and integrated with old pilot-scale PAFBC test systems. Characterization tests on this pulse combustor firing different kinds of fuel -- natural gas, pulverized coal and fine coal -- were conducted (without fluidized bed operation) for the purpose of finalizing PAFBC full-scale design. Steady-state tests were performed. Heat transfer performance and combustion efficiency of a coal-fired pulse combustor were evaluated.

  9. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014/15 Art der Prüfung / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014/15 Modul / module code Bio 4

  10. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014/15 Modul / module

  11. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014: Erfolgreicher Abschluss der Module Chemie 1, Bio 2. MBW 1. Studienvarianten /The module / submodule is part Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014/15 Art der Prüfung

  12. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014/15 Modul) / Assessment of module (MP) or submodule (TP) Klausur written exam #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www

  13. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014 Abschluss der Module Chemie 1, Bio 2. MBW 1. Studienvarianten /The module / submodule is part Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014/15 Art der Prüfung

  14. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 20142 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014/15 Modul

  15. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014: Erfolgreicher Abschluss der Module Chemie 1, Bio 2. MBW 1. Studienvarianten /The module / submodule is part Modulprüfung (MP) / Assessment of module (MP) or submodule (TP) Klausur written exam #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie

  16. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014 / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014/15 Modul / module code FD 1 6

  17. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014, Chemisches Grundpraktikum/ P Allgemeine Chemie für den Teil Biochemie-Praktikum Unterrichtssprache / language) or submodule (TP) entspricht Studienleistung (unbenotet) course work (not graded) #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www

  18. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014 / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014/15 Modul / module code Gentec

  19. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014 / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014/15 learning outcome Domain I

  20. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014 / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014/15 Modul / module code PM 1

  1. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014 insbesondere der Biologie und in Teilen der naturwissenschaftlicher Fächer Physik und Chemie an Beispielen- und situationsgerechten Einsatz nennen und erläutern (2.1 + 2.2) #12;FB2 Biologie / Chemie www

  2. Fluidized-bed copper oxide process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, P.P.; Takahashi, G.S.; Leshock, D.G.

    1991-10-14

    The fluidized-bed copper oxide process was developed to simultaneously remove sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide contaminants from the flue gas of coal-fired utility boilers. This dry and regenerable process uses a copper oxide sorbent in a fluidized-bed reactor. Contaminants are removed without generating waste material. (VC)

  3. High temperature degradation by erosion-corrosion in bubbling fluidized bed combustors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hou, Peggy Y.; MacAdam, S.; Niu, Y.; Stringer, J.

    2003-01-01

    a Laboratory Simulated Bubbling Fluidized Bed", Wear. 235,Tube Wastage in Bubbling Fluidized Bed, a Laboratory StudyWheeldon, "Wastage in bubbling fluidized-bed combustors: an

  4. Attrition resistant fluidizable reforming catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parent, Yves O. (Golden, CO); Magrini, Kim (Golden, CO); Landin, Steven M. (Conifer, CO); Ritland, Marcus A. (Palm Beach Shores, FL)

    2011-03-29

    A method of preparing a steam reforming catalyst characterized by improved resistance to attrition loss when used for cracking, reforming, water gas shift and gasification reactions on feedstock in a fluidized bed reactor, comprising: fabricating the ceramic support particle, coating a ceramic support by adding an aqueous solution of a precursor salt of a metal selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pt, Pd, Ru, Rh, Cr, Co, Mn, Mg, K, La and Fe and mixtures thereof to the ceramic support and calcining the coated ceramic in air to convert the metal salts to metal oxides.

  5. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The Design and Engineering of most components in the Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed System was completed prior to September 1992. The components remaining to be designed at that time were: Aerovalves for the Pulse Combustor; Gas and coal injectors for the Pulse Combustor; Lines for PC tailpipes; Air plenum and inlet silencer; Refractory lined hot gas duct connecting outlet hot cyclone to boiler; Structure and platforms, and ladders around PAFBC vessel access and major equipment. Design work is currently in progress on all of the above components. Items 1, 2, 3 and 4 are 50% completed, and items 5 6 are 75% complete.

  6. Burner Designs and Controls for Variable Air Preheat Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lied, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    This paper will deal with various ways of reducing fuel costs for direct fired furnaces. Burner design relating to existing furnaces, new furnaces designed to operate initially on cold air with the ability to add preheated air in the future...

  7. Advanced Petrochemical Process Heating with the Pyrocore Burner 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krill, W. V.; Minden, A. C.; Donaldson, L. W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    PETROCHEMICAL PROCESS HEATING WITH THE PYROCORE BURNER WAYNE V. KRILL ANDREW C. MINDEN LESLIE W. DONALDSON, JR. Vice President Project Engineer Manager, Process Systems Research Alzeta Corporation Alzeta Corporation Gas Research Institute Santa Clara..., California Santa Clara, California Chicago, Illinois ABSTRACT Alzeta Corporation has developed various process heating applications using the Pyrocore burner. Applications to immersion fluid heating have been in use for several years. An advanced...

  8. Advanced burner test reactor preconceptual design report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Y. I.; Finck, P. J.; Grandy, C.; Cahalan, J.; Deitrich, L.; Dunn, F.; Fallin, D.; Farmer, M.; Fanning, T.; Kim, T.; Krajtl, L.; Lomperski, S.; Moisseytsev, A.; Momozaki, Y.; Sienicki, J.; Park, Y.; Tang, Y.; Reed, C.; Tzanos, C; Wiedmeyer, S.; Yang, W.; Chikazawa, Y.; JAEA

    2008-12-16

    The goals of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) are to expand the use of nuclear energy to meet increasing global energy demand, to address nuclear waste management concerns and to promote non-proliferation. Implementation of the GNEP requires development and demonstration of three major technologies: (1) Light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel separations technologies that will recover transuranics to be recycled for fuel but not separate plutonium from other transuranics, thereby providing proliferation-resistance; (2) Advanced Burner Reactors (ABRs) based on a fast spectrum that transmute the recycled transuranics to produce energy while also reducing the long term radiotoxicity and decay heat loading in the repository; and (3) Fast reactor fuel recycling technologies to recover and refabricate the transuranics for repeated recycling in the fast reactor system. The primary mission of the ABR Program is to demonstrate the transmutation of transuranics recovered from the LWR spent fuel, and hence the benefits of the fuel cycle closure to nuclear waste management. The transmutation, or burning of the transuranics is accomplished by fissioning and this is most effectively done in a fast spectrum. In the thermal spectrum of commercial LWRs, some transuranics capture neutrons and become even heavier transuranics rather than being fissioned. Even with repeated recycling, only about 30% can be transmuted, which is an intrinsic limitation of all thermal spectrum reactors. Only in a fast spectrum can all transuranics be effectively fissioned to eliminate their long-term radiotoxicity and decay heat. The Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) is the first step in demonstrating the transmutation technologies. It directly supports development of a prototype full-scale Advanced Burner Reactor, which would be followed by commercial deployment of ABRs. The primary objectives of the ABTR are: (1) To demonstrate reactor-based transmutation of transuranics as part of an advanced fuel cycle; (2) To qualify the transuranics-containing fuels and advanced structural materials needed for a full-scale ABR; and (3) To support the research, development and demonstration required for certification of an ABR standard design by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The ABTR should also address the following additional objectives: (1) To incorporate and demonstrate innovative design concepts and features that may lead to significant improvements in cost, safety, efficiency, reliability, or other favorable characteristics that could promote public acceptance and future private sector investment in ABRs; (2) To demonstrate improved technologies for safeguards and security; and (3) To support development of the U.S. infrastructure for design, fabrication and construction, testing and deployment of systems, structures and components for the ABRs. Based on these objectives, a pre-conceptual design of a 250 MWt ABTR has been developed; it is documented in this report. In addition to meeting the primary and additional objectives listed above, the lessons learned from fast reactor programs in the U.S. and worldwide and the operating experience of more than a dozen fast reactors around the world, in particular the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II have been incorporated into the design of the ABTR to the extent possible.

  9. Combined fluidized bed retort and combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer-Yu (Fairfax, VA); Notestein, John E. (Morgantown, WV); Mei, Joseph S. (Morgantown, WV); Zeng, Li-Wen (Morgantown, WV)

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a combined fluidized bed retorting and combustion system particularly useful for extracting energy values from oil shale. The oil-shale retort and combustor are disposed side-by-side and in registry with one another through passageways in a partition therebetween. The passageways in the partition are submerged below the top of the respective fluid beds to preclude admixing or the product gases from the two chambers. The solid oil shale or bed material is transported through the chambers by inclining or slanting the fluidizing medium distributor so that the solid bed material, when fluidized, moves in the direction of the downward slope of the distributor.

  10. Packed fluidized bed blanket for fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chi, John W. H. (Mt. Lebanon, PA)

    1984-01-01

    A packed fluidized bed blanket for a fusion reactor providing for efficient radiation absorption for energy recovery, efficient neutron absorption for nuclear transformations, ease of blanket removal, processing and replacement, and on-line fueling/refueling. The blanket of the reactor contains a bed of stationary particles during reactor operation, cooled by a radial flow of coolant. During fueling/refueling, an axial flow is introduced into the bed in stages at various axial locations to fluidize the bed. When desired, the fluidization flow can be used to remove particles from the blanket.

  11. The development of a 20-inch indirect fired fluidized bed gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanigan, V.J.; Sitton, O.C.; Huang, W.E

    1988-03-01

    This report discusses the design, fabrication and operation of a 20'' I.D. fluidized bed gasifier producing medium Btu gas. The reactor is indirectly heated using 30 x 1-inch U-tubes inserted in the inert bed. The U-tubes are heated using flue gases produced from a propane burner system located at the bottom of the reactor. The feed material was dry wood chips fed into the bed with a 6in. auger. The reactor was fed both into the bed and at the top of the bed. The fluidizing medium was superheated steam which was superheated to 1000/degree/F. The gas produced from the reactor was passed through a cyclone for char removal and routed to the flare for combustion and disposal. The parameters measured during the experimental runs were wood feed rate, steam flow rate, steam temperatures, bed temperatures, free board temperatures, product gas temperatures, bed differential pressures, char production, gas production, gas analyses, and tar production. The parameters measured in the laboratory were moisture contents (wood and char), ash contents (wood and char), and tar content. 9 refs., 19 figs., 11 tabs.

  12. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30

    For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for economic evaluation and commercial application. During the project performance period, Alstom performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and large pilot scale combustion testing in its Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut in support of these objectives. The NOx reduction approach was to optimize near-field combustion to ensure that minimum NOx emissions are achieved with minimal impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down. Several iterations of CFD and combustion testing on a Midwest coal led to an optimized design, which was extensively combustion tested on a range of coals. The data from these tests were then used to validate system costs and benefits versus SCR. Three coals were evaluated during the bench-scale and large pilot-scale testing tasks. The three coals ranged from a very reactive subbituminous coal to a moderately reactive Western bituminous coal to a much less reactive Midwest bituminous coal. Bench-scale testing was comprised of standard ASTM properties evaluation, plus more detailed characterization of fuel properties through drop tube furnace testing and thermogravimetric analysis. Bench-scale characterization of the three test coals showed that both NOx emissions and combustion performance are a strong function of coal properties. The more reactive coals evolved more of their fuel bound nitrogen in the substoichiometric main burner zone than less reactive coal, resulting in the potential for lower NOx emissions. From a combustion point of view, the more reactive coals also showed lower carbon in ash and CO values than the less reactive coal at any given main burner zone stoichiometry. According to bench-scale results, the subbituminous coal was found to be the most amenable to both low NOx, and acceptably low combustibles in the flue gas, in an air staged low NOx system. The Midwest bituminous coal, by contrast, was predicted to be the most challenging of the three coals, with the Western bituminous coal predicted to beh

  13. Dual-water mixture fuel burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Thomas D. (Finleyville, PA); Reehl, Douglas P. (Pittsburgh, PA); Walbert, Gary F. (Library, PA)

    1986-08-05

    A coal-water mixture (CWM) burner includes a conically shaped rotating cup into which fuel comprised of coal particles suspended in a slurry is introduced via a first, elongated inner tube coupled to a narrow first end portion of the cup. A second, elongated outer tube is coaxially positioned about the first tube and delivers steam to the narrow first end of the cup. The fuel delivery end of the inner first tube is provided with a helical slot on its lateral surface for directing the CWM onto the inner surface of the rotating cup in the form of a uniform, thin sheet which, under the influence of the cup's centrifugal force, flows toward a second, open, expanded end portion of the rotating cup positioned immediately adjacent to a combustion chamber. The steam delivered to the rotating cup wets its inner surface and inhibits the coal within the CWM from adhering to the rotating cup. A primary air source directs a high velocity air flow coaxially about the expanded discharge end of the rotating cup for applying a shear force to the CWM in atomizing the fuel mixture for improved combustion. A secondary air source directs secondary air into the combustion chamber adjacent to the outlet of the rotating cup at a desired pitch angle relative to the fuel mixture/steam flow to promote recirculation of hot combustion gases within the ignition zone for increased flame stability.

  14. Fluidized Bed Technology - Overview | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    fluidized bed boilers as a standard package. This success is largely due to the Clean Coal Technology Program and the Energy Department's Fossil Energy and industry partners R&D....

  15. Particle withdrawal from fluidized bed systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salvador, Louis A. (Greensburg, PA); Andermann, Ronald E. (Arlington Heights, IL); Rath, Lawrence K. (Mt. Pleasant, PA)

    1982-01-01

    Method and apparatus for removing ash formed within, and accumulated at the lower portion of, a fluidized bed coal gasification reactor vessel. A supplemental fluidizing gas, at a temperature substantially less than the average fluidized bed combustion operating temperature, is injected into the vessel and upwardly through the ash so as to form a discrete thermal interface region between the fluidized bed and the ash. The elevation of the interface region, which rises with ash accumulation, is monitored by a thermocouple and interrelated with a motor controlled outlet valve. When the interface rises above the temperature indicator, the valve opens to allow removal of some of the ash, and the valve is closed, or positioned at a minimum setting, when the interface drops to an elevation below that of the thermocouple.

  16. Fluidized-bed combustion fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich, J.W. Jr.

    1990-10-09

    This patent describes a process for producing from a solid carbonaceous refuse a high ash fuel for use in a circulating fluidized-bed combustion chamber. It comprises separating from the refuse a carbonaceous portion having an ash content in a selected range percent by weight; separating the carbonaceous portion into first and second fractions, the first fraction being at or above a selected size; crushing the first fraction; and combining the crushed first fraction with the second fraction. Also described is a process wherein the selected ash content range is between about 30 percent and about 50 percent, by weight. Also described is a process wherein the selected size is above about 1/4 inch.

  17. Fluidized bed heat treating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ripley, Edward B; Pfennigwerth, Glenn L

    2014-05-06

    Systems for heat treating materials are presented. The systems typically involve a fluidized bed that contains granulated heat treating material. In some embodiments a fluid, such as an inert gas, is flowed through the granulated heat treating medium, which homogenizes the temperature of the heat treating medium. In some embodiments the fluid may be heated in a heating vessel and flowed into the process chamber where the fluid is then flowed through the granulated heat treating medium. In some embodiments the heat treating material may be liquid or granulated heat treating material and the heat treating material may be circulated through a heating vessel into a process chamber where the heat treating material contacts the material to be heat treated. Microwave energy may be used to provide the source of heat for heat treating systems.

  18. Advanced Fluidized Bed Waste Heat Recovery Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, G. R.

    1988-01-01

    BED WASTE HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEMS G. R. PETERSON Project Manager U.S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office Idaho Falls, Idaho ABSTRACT The U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industri al Programs, has sponsored the development of a... Fluidized Bed Waste Heat Recovery System (FBWHRS) and a higher temperature variant, the Ceramic Tubular Distributor Plate (CTOP) Fluidized Bed Heat Exchanger (FBHX) system. Both systems recover energy from high-temperature flue gases and produce steam...

  19. Flame quality monitor system for fixed firing rate oil burners

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butcher, Thomas A. (Pt. Jefferson, NY); Cerniglia, Philip (Moriches, NY)

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining and indicating the flame quality, or efficiency of the air-fuel ratio, in a fixed firing rate heating unit, such as an oil burning furnace, is provided. When the flame brightness falls outside a preset range, the flame quality, or excess air, has changed to the point that the unit should be serviced. The flame quality indicator output is in the form of lights mounted on the front of the unit. A green light indicates that the flame is about in the same condition as when the burner was last serviced. A red light indicates a flame which is either too rich or too lean, and that servicing of the burner is required. At the end of each firing cycle, the flame quality indicator goes into a hold mode which is in effect during the period that the burner remains off. A yellow or amber light indicates that the burner is in the hold mode. In this mode, the flame quality lights indicate the flame condition immediately before the burner turned off. Thus the unit can be viewed when it is off, and the flame condition at the end of the previous firing cycle can be observed.

  20. OPTIMIZATION OF COAL PARTICLE FLOW PATTERNS IN LOW NOX BURNERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jost O.L. Wendt; Gregory E. Ogden; Jennifer Sinclair; Stephanus Budilarto

    2001-09-04

    It is well understood that the stability of axial diffusion flames is dependent on the mixing behavior of the fuel and combustion air streams. Combustion aerodynamic texts typically describe flame stability and transitions from laminar diffusion flames to fully developed turbulent flames as a function of increasing jet velocity. Turbulent diffusion flame stability is greatly influenced by recirculation eddies that transport hot combustion gases back to the burner nozzle. This recirculation enhances mixing and heats the incoming gas streams. Models describing these recirculation eddies utilize conservation of momentum and mass assumptions. Increasing the mass flow rate of either fuel or combustion air increases both the jet velocity and momentum for a fixed burner configuration. Thus, differentiating between gas velocity and momentum is important when evaluating flame stability under various operating conditions. The research efforts described herein are part of an ongoing project directed at evaluating the effect of flame aerodynamics on NO{sub x} emissions from coal fired burners in a systematic manner. This research includes both experimental and modeling efforts being performed at the University of Arizona in collaboration with Purdue University. The objective of this effort is to develop rational design tools for optimizing low NO{sub x} burners. Experimental studies include both cold-and hot-flow evaluations of the following parameters: primary and secondary inlet air velocity, coal concentration in the primary air, coal particle size distribution and flame holder geometry. Hot-flow experiments will also evaluate the effect of wall temperature on burner performance.

  1. $A^t_{FB}$ Meets LHC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hewett, JoAnne L.; /SLAC; Shelton, Jessie; /Yale U.; Spannowsky, Michael; /Oregon U.; Tait, Tim M.P.; /UC, Irvine; Takeuchi, Michihisa; /Heidelberg U.

    2012-02-14

    The recent Tevatron measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry of the top quark shows an intriguing discrepancy with Standard Model expectations, particularly at large t{bar t} invariant masses. Measurements of this quantity are subtle at the LHC, due to its pp initial state, however, one can define a forward-central-charge asymmetry which captures the physics. We study the capability of the LHC to measure this asymmetry and find that within the SM a measurement at the 5{sigma} level is possible with roughly 60 fb{sup -1} at {radical}s = 14 TeV. If nature realizes a model which enhances the asymmetry (as is necessary to explain the Tevatron measurements), a significant difference from zero can be observed much earlier, perhaps even during early LHC running at {radical}s = 7 TeV. We further explore the capabilities of the 7 TeV LHC to discover resonances or contact interactions which modify the t{bar t} invariant mass distribution using recent boosted top tagging techniques. We find that TeV-scale color octet resonances can be discovered, even with small coupling strengths and that contact interactions can be probed at scales exceeding 6 TeV. Overall, the LHC has good potential to clarify the situation with regards to the Tevatron forward-backward measurement.

  2. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014/15 Modulbeschreibung / Module Description Modul / module code Che 2 6 ECTS-Punkte / credit points Chemie-Praktika Lab, Chemisches Grundpraktikum/ P Allgemeine Chemie für den Teil Biochemie-Praktikum Unterrichtssprache / language

  3. FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diekmann, Martin

    FB2 Biologie / Chemie www.uni-bremen.de www.fb2.uni-bremen.de BPO Biologie 2011 / MEd 2014/15 Modulbeschreibung / Module Description Modul / module code Che 1 9 ECTS-Punkte / credit points Allgemeine Chemie Moduls ist, allen Studierenden der Biologie und Geologie Einblick in wesentliche Grundlagen der Chemie

  4. Numerical Modelling of a Pulse Combustion Burner: Limiting Conditions of Stable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuik, Kees

    Numerical Modelling of a Pulse Combustion Burner: Limiting Conditions of Stable Operation P.A. van in the burner system. Self-sustained pulse combustion and high-intensity sound waves result if the system

  5. Turbine-Burner Model: Cavity Flameholding in a Converging, Turning Channel Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Feng

    1 Turbine-Burner Model: Cavity Flameholding in a Converging, Turning Channel Flow Ben J. Colcord1 of California, Irvine Abstract A review of turbine-burner research and a discussion of some relevant background

  6. High Efficiency Burners by Retrofit - A Simple Inexpensive Way to Improve Combustion Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, W. T.

    1980-01-01

    Existing direct fired process heaters and steam boilers can have their efficiencies remarkably improved, and thus cut the fuel bill, by conversion from conventional type natural draft burners to high intensity, "forced draft" type burners...

  7. Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nodd, D.G.; Walker, R.J.

    1985-11-05

    The present invention is intended to overcome the limitations of the prior art by providing a fuel burner particularly adapted for the combustion of carbonaceous material-water slurries which includes a stationary high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer which directs a uniform fuel into a shearing air flow as the carbonaceous material-water slurry is directed into a combustion chamber, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel upon and within the atomizer, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge into the combustion chamber, and regulates the operating temperature of the burner as well as primary air flow about the burner and into the combustion chamber for improved combustion efficiency, no atomizer plugging and enhanced flame stability.

  8. Identifying Dark Matter Burners in the Galactic center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igor V. Moskalenko; Lawrence L. Wai

    2007-04-11

    If the supermassive black hole (SMBH) at the center of our Galaxy grew adiabatically, then a dense "spike" of dark matter is expected to have formed around it. Assuming that dark matter is composed primarily of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a star orbiting close enough to the SMBH can capture WIMPs at an extremely high rate. The stellar luminosity due to annihilation of captured WIMPs in the stellar core may be comparable to or even exceed the luminosity of the star due to thermonuclear burning. The model thus predicts the existence of unusual stars, i.e. "WIMP burners", in the vicinity of an adiabatically grown SMBH. We find that the most efficient WIMP burners are stars with degenerate electron cores, e.g. white dwarfs (WD) or degenerate cores with envelopes. If found, such stars would provide evidence for the existence of particle dark matter and could possibly be used to establish its density profile. In our previous paper we computed the luminosity from WIMP burning for a range of dark matter spike density profiles, degenerate core masses, and distances from the SMBH. Here we compare our results with the observed stars closest to the Galactic center and find that they could be consistent with WIMP burners in the form of degenerate cores with envelopes. We also cross-check the WIMP burner hypothesis with the EGRET observed flux of gamma-rays from the Galactic center, which imposes a constraint on the dark matter spike density profile and annihilation cross-section. We find that the EGRET data is consistent with the WIMP burner hypothesis. New high precision measurements by GLAST will confirm or set stringent limits on a dark matter spike at the Galactic center, which will in turn support or set stringent limits on the existence of WIMP burners at the Galactic center.

  9. CHP Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers- Fact Sheet, April 2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fact sheet overviewing how this project will develop and integrate the Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST)

  10. Advanced Burners and Combustion Controls for Industrial Heat Recovery Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferri, J. L.

    1988-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-88-09-52.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 10271 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-88-09-52.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ADVANCED BURNERS... AND COMBUSTION CONTROLS FOR INDUSTRIAL HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEMS J.L.FERRI GTE PRODUCTS CORPORATION TOWANDA, PA ABSTRACT When recuperators are installed on indus trial furnaces, burners and ratio control systems must continue to operate reliably under a...

  11. Development of quick repairing technique for ceramic burner in hot stove of blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kondo, Atsushi; Doura, Kouji; Nakamura, Hirofumi [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Wakayama (Japan). Wakayama Steel Works

    1997-12-31

    Refractories of ceramic burner in hot stoves at Wakayama No. 4 blast furnace were damaged. There are only three hot stoves, so repairing must be done in a short. Therefore, a quick repairing technique for ceramic burners has been developed, and two ceramic burners were repaired in just 48 hours.

  12. Modeling of Combustion in a Lamella Burner S. PARMENTIER, M. BRAACK, U. RIEDEL and J. WARNATZ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling of Combustion in a Lamella Burner S. PARMENTIER, M. BRAACK, U. RIEDEL and J. WARNATZ burner are performed to predict the temperature profile and the formation of carbon monoxide and nitric process are carried out. Key Word: combustion, modeling, lamella burner, optimization INTRODUCTION

  13. On the Similitude Between Lifted and Burner-Stabilized Triple Flames: A Numerical and Experimental Investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aggarwal, Suresh K.

    On the Similitude Between Lifted and Burner-Stabilized Triple Flames: A Numerical and Experimental first validate our simulations with detailed measurements in more tractable methane­air burner used for investigating the burner-stabilized flames. The similarities and differences between

  14. Simulation of Nitrogen Emissions in a Premixed Hydrogen Flame Stabilized on a Low Swirl Burner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, John B.

    Simulation of Nitrogen Emissions in a Premixed Hydrogen Flame Stabilized on a Low Swirl Burner J. B temperatures. Such flames can be stabilized in a low swirl burner configuration, for example, using a variety in the context of a laboratory-scale low swirl burner fueled with a lean hydrogen-air mixture at atmospheric

  15. A=B: The Case for CAS and Research in High School Mathematics by Justin Burner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yong, Alexander

    A=B: The Case for CAS and Research in High School Mathematics by Justin Burner Having excelled. The implementation of these devices, however, has been overall lackluster. #12;Burner 2 These devices are primarily does that #12;Burner 3 actually do that?' " [Young 2009]. A basic understanding of computer languages

  16. Identifying Dark Matter Burners in the Galactic center Igor V. Moskalenko*1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moskalenko, Igor V.

    Identifying Dark Matter Burners in the Galactic center Igor V. Moskalenko*1 and Lawrence L. Wai, i.e. "WIMP burners", in the vicinity of an adiabatically grown SMBH. We find that the most efficient WIMP burners are stars with degenerate electron cores, e.g. white dwarfs (WD) or degenerate cores

  17. Chaos suppression in gas-solid fluidization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pence, D.V.; Beasley, D.E.

    1997-07-01

    The present study examines the effect of an opposing oscillatory flow on local, instantaneous heat transfer and pressure in a laboratory scale gas-fluidized bed. The experimental facility models a Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor (PAFBC), a hybrid combustor concept that couples a pulsed combustor with an atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed. Time-varying data were acquired at eight angular positions around a horizontal cylinder submerged in a monodisperse distribution of particles having a weight mean diameter of 345 {micro}m. Total flow rates employed in the present study ranged from 10 to 40% greater than the flow required for minimum fluidization. Spectral analyses of local, instantaneous heat flux and pressure clearly indicate that the bed hydrodynamics were significantly altered by the opposing secondary flow. The behavior of time-varying local pressure and heat transfer in fluidized beds in the absence of a secondary flow is consistent with deterministic chaos. Kolmogorov entropy estimates from local, instantaneous pressure suggest that the degree of chaotic behavior was substantially suppressed for operating conditions with low primary and secondary flow rates, and a secondary flow forcing frequency of 15 Hz. In contrast, entropy estimates from measurements of local, instantaneous heat transfer suggest no clear indication of chaos suppression for these operating conditions.

  18. Rivesville multicell fluidized bed boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    One objective of the experimental MFB at Rivesville, WV, was the evaluation of alternate feed systems for injecting coal and limestone into a fluidized bed. A continuous, uniform feed flow to the fluid bed is essential in order to maintain stable operations. The feed system originally installed on the MFB was a gravity feed system with an air assist to help overcome the back pressure created by the fluid bed. The system contained belt, vibrating, and rotary feeders which have been proven adequate in other material handling applications. This system, while usable, had several operational and feeding problems during the MFB testing. A major portion of these problems occurred because the coal and limestone feed control points - a belt feeder and rotary feeder, respectively - were pressurized in the air assist system. These control points were not designed for pressurized service. An alternate feed system which could accept feed from the two control points, split the feed into six equal parts and eliminate the problems of the pressurized system was sought. An alternate feed system designed and built by the Fuller Company was installed and tested at the Rivesville facility. Fuller feed systems were installed on the north and south side of C cell at the Rivesville facility. The systems were designed to handle 10,000 lb/hr of coal and limestone apiece. The systems were installed in late 1979 and evaluated from December 1979 to December 1980. During this time period, nearly 1000 h of operating time was accumulated on each system.

  19. Fluidized bed selective pyrolysis of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, J.Y.; Cha, C.Y.; Merriam, N.W.

    1992-12-15

    The present invention discloses a process for the pyrolysis of coal which comprises the effective utilization of two zonal inclined fluidized beds, where said zones can be selectively controlled as to temperature and heating rate. The first zonal inclined fluidized bed serves as a dryer for crushed coal and additionally is controlled to selectively pyrolyze said coal producing substantially carbon dioxide for recycle use. The second zonal inclined fluidized bed further pyrolyses the coal to gaseous, liquid and char products under controlled temperature and heating rate zones designed to economically integrate the product mix. The gas and liquid products are recovered from the gaseous effluent stream while the char which remains can be further treated or utilized in a subsequent process step. 9 figs.

  20. Fluidized bed selective pyrolysis of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer Y. (McLean, VA); Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO); Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY)

    1992-01-01

    The present invention discloses a process for the pyrolysis of coal which comprises the effective utilization of two zonal inclined fluidized beds, where said zones can be selectively controlled as to temperature and heating rate. The first zonal inclined fluidized bed serves as a dryer for crushed coal and additionally is controlled to selectively pyrolyze said coal producing substantially carbon dioxide for recycle use. The second zonal inclined fluidized bed further pyrolyzes the coal to gaseous, liquid and char products under controlled temperature and heating rate zones designed to economically integrate the product mix. The gas and liquid products are recovered from the gaseous effluent stream while the char which remains can be further treated or utilized in a subsequent process step.

  1. Behavior of fluidized beds similar to equilibrium states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kengo Ichiki; Hisao Hayakawa

    1997-04-25

    Systematic simulations are carried out based on the model of fluidized beds proposed by the present authors [K.Ichiki and H.Hayakawa, Phys. Rev. E vol.52, 658 (1995)]. From our simulation, we confirm that fluidization is a continuous transition. We also confirm the existence of two types of fluidized phases, the channeling phase and the bubbling phase. We find the close relations between the averaged behaviors in fluidized beds and quasi equilibrium states in dense liquids. In fluidized beds, (i) the flow rate plays the role of the effective temperature, and (ii) the existence of a kind of the fluctuation-dissipation relation is suggested.

  2. Fluidized bed catalytic coal gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Euker, Jr., Charles A. (15163 Dianna La., Houston, TX 77062); Wesselhoft, Robert D. (120 Caldwell, Baytown, TX 77520); Dunkleman, John J. (3704 Autumn La., Baytown, TX 77520); Aquino, Dolores C. (15142 McConn, Webster, TX 77598); Gouker, Toby R. (5413 Rocksprings Dr., LaPorte, TX 77571)

    1984-01-01

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents (16) are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 volume percent and 21 volume percent oxygen at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 250.degree. C. in an oxidation zone (24) and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone (44) at an elevated pressure. The oxidation of the catalyst impregnated solids under these conditions insures that the bed density in the fluidized bed gasification zone will be relatively high even though the solids are gasified at elevated pressure and temperature.

  3. Fluidized bed pyrolysis to gases containing olefins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuester, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Recent gasification data are presented for a system designed to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuel from various biomass feedstocks. The factors under investigation were feedstock type, fluidizing gas type, residence time, temperature and catalyst usage. The response was gas phase composition. A fluidized bed system was utilized with a separate regenerator-combustor. An olefin content as high as 39 mole % was achieved. Hydrogen/carbon monoxide ratios were easily manipulated via steam addition over a broad range with an autocatalytic effect apparent for most feedstocks.

  4. VARIABLE FIRING RATE OIL BURNER USING PULSE FUEL FLOW CONTROL.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRISHNA,C.R.; BUTCHER,T.A.; KAMATH,B.R.

    2004-10-01

    The residential oil burner market is currently dominated by the pressure-atomized retention head burner, which has an excellent reputation for reliability and efficiency. In this burner, oil is delivered to a fuel nozzle at pressures from 100 to 150 psi. In addition, to atomizing the fuel, the small, carefully controlled size of the nozzle exit orifice serves to control the burner firing rate. Burners of this type are currently available at firing rates of more than 0.5 gallons-per-hour (70,000 Btu/hr). Nozzles have been made for lower firing rates, but experience has shown that such nozzles suffer rapid fouling of the necessarily small passages, leading to bad spray patterns and poor combustion performance. Also, traditionally burners and the nozzles are oversized to exceed the maximum demand. Typically, this is figured as follows. The heating load of the house on the coldest day for the location is considered to define the maximum heat load. The contractor or installer adds to this to provide a safety margin and for future expansion of the house. If the unit is a boiler that provides domestic hot water through the use of a tankless heating coil, the burner capacity is further increased. On the contrary, for a majority of the time, the heating system is satisfying a much smaller load, as only rarely do all these demands add up. Consequently, the average output of the heating system has to be much less than the design capacity and this is accomplished by start and stop cycling operation of the system so that the time-averaged output equals the demand. However, this has been demonstrated to lead to overall efficiencies lower than the steady-state efficiency. Therefore, the two main reasons for the current practice of using oil burners much larger than necessary for space heating are the unavailability of reliable low firing rate oil burners and the desire to assure adequate input rate for short duration, high draw domestic hot water loads. One approach to solve this problem is to develop a burner, which can operate at two firing rates, with the lower rate being significantly lower than 0.5 gallons per hour. This paper describes the initial results of adopting this approach through a pulsed flow nozzle. It has been shown that the concept of flow modulation with a small solenoid valve is feasible. Especially in the second configuration tested, where the Lee valve was integrated with the nozzle, reasonable modulation in flow of the order of 1.7 could be achieved. For this first prototype, the combustion performance is still not quite satisfactory. Improvements in operation, for example by providing a sharp and positive shut-off so that there is no flow under low pressures with consequent poor atomization could lead to better combustion performance. This could be achieved by using nozzles that have shut off or check valves for example. It is recommended that more work in cooperation with the valve manufacturer could produce a technically viable system. Marketability is of course a far more complex problem to be addressed once a technically viable product is available.

  5. Study of the Effects of Ambient Conditions Upon the Performance of Fan Powered, Infrared Natural Gas Burners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark Atlanta University

    2002-12-02

    The objective of this investigation was to characterize the operation of a fan-powered, infrared burner (IR burner) at various gas compositions and ambient conditions, develop numerical model to simulate the burner performances, and provide design guidelines for appliances containing PIR burners for satisfactory performance.

  6. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND CLB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thein; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan; Senthil Arumugam; Kevin Heflin

    2003-08-28

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain-diet diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. The manure could be used as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in an existing coal suspension fired combustion systems. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Reburn is a process where a small percentage of fuel called reburn fuel is injected above the NO{sub x} producing, conventional coal fired burners in order to reduce NO{sub x}. The manure could also be used as reburn fuel for reducing NO{sub x} in coal fired plants. An alternate approach of using animal waste is to adopt the gasification process using a fixed bed gasifier and then use the gases for firing in gas turbine combustors. In this report, the cattle manure is referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) and chicken manure as litter biomass (LB). The report generates data on FB and LB fuel characteristics. Co-firing, reburn, and gasification tests of coal, FB, LB, coal: FB blends, and coal: LB blends and modeling on cofiring, reburn systems and economics of use of FB and LB have also been conducted. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, lower in heat content, higher in moisture, and higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution) compared to coal. Small-scale cofiring experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO{sub x} emissions will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. Further experiments showed that biomass is twice or more effective than coal when used in a reburning process. Computer simulations for coal: LB blends were performed by modifying an existing computer code to include the drying and phosphorus (P) oxidation models. The gasification studies revealed that there is bed agglomeration in the case of chicken litter biomass due to its higher alkaline oxide content in the ash. Finally, the results of the economic analysis show that considerable fuel cost savings can be achieved with the use of biomass. In the case of higher ash and moisture biomass, the fuel cost savings is reduced.

  7. Fluidized bed electrowinning of copper. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-01

    The objectives of the study were to: design and construct a 10,000- amp fluidized bed electrowinning cell for the recovery of copper from acidic sulfate solutions; demonstrate the technical feasibility of continuous particle recirculation from the electrowinning cell with the ultimate goal of continuous particle removal; and measure cell efficiency as a function of operating conditions.

  8. Particle pressures in fluidized beds. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, C.S.; Rahman, K.; Jin, C.

    1996-09-01

    This project studies the particle pressure, which may be thought of as the force exerted by the particulate phase of a multiphase mixture, independently of that exerted by other phases. The project is divided into two parts, one concerning gas and the other liquid fluidized beds. Previous work on gas fluidized beds had suggested that the particle pressures are generated by bubbling action. Thus, for these gas fluidized bed studies, the particle pressure is measured around single bubbles generated in 2-D fluidized beds, using special probes developed especially for this purpose. Liquid beds are immune from bubbling and the particle pressures proved too small to measure directly. However, the major interest in particle pressures in liquid beds lies in their stabilizing effect that arises from the effective elasticity (the derivative of the particle pressure with respect to the void fraction), they impart to the bed. So rather than directly measure the particle pressure, the authors inferred the values of the elasticity from measurements of instability growth in liquid beds; the inference was made by first developing a generic stability model (one with all the normally modeled coefficients left undetermined) and then working backwards to determine the unknown coefficients, including the elasticity.

  9. Particle Pressures in Fluidized Beds. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, C.S.; Rahman, K.; Jin, C.

    1996-09-01

    This project studies the particle pressure, which may be thought of as the force exerted by the particulate phase of a multiphase mixture, independently of that exerted by other phases. The project is divided into two parts, one concerning gas and the other liquid fluidized beds. Previous work on gas fluidized beds had suggested that the particle pressures are generated by bubbling action. Thus, for these gas fluidized bed studies, the particle pressure is measured around single bubbles generated in 2-D fluidized beds, using special probes developed especially for this purpose. Liquid beds are immune from bubbling and the particle pressures proved too small to measure directly. However, the major interest in particle pressures in liquid beds lies in their stabilizing effect that arises from the effective elasticity (the derivative of the particle pressure with respect to the void fraction): they impart to the bed. So rather than directly measure the particle pressure, we inferred the values of the elasticity from measurements of instability growth in liquid beds the inference was made by first developing a generic stability model (one with all the normally modeled coefficients left undetermined)and then working backwards to determine the unknown coefficients, including the elasticity.

  10. 138 Chemical Engineering Education FLUIDIZED BED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hesketh, Robert

    138 Chemical Engineering Education FLUIDIZED BED POLYMER COATING EXPERIMENT ROBERT P. HESKETH, C,2] and is a highly visual experiment in chemical engineering pro- cesses and experimentation. In addition for the chemical engineering profession. The field encom- passes many technologies, ranging from polymerization

  11. Saving work to a CD-R using the Optical CD Drive (CD Burner) The new Workstations in the Knowledge Common are equipped with CD Burners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Machel, Hans

    Saving work to a CD-R using the Optical CD Drive (CD Burner) The new Workstations in the Knowledge Common are equipped with CD Burners and when you insert a CD (whether CD-R or CD-RW) into the drive

  12. The Zero Age Main Sequence of WIMP burners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fairbairn, Malcolm; Edsjo, Joakim

    2008-01-01

    We modify a stellar structure code to estimate the effect upon the main sequence of the accretion of weakly interacting dark matter onto stars and its subsequent annihilation. The effect upon the stars depends upon whether the energy generation rate from dark matter annihilation is large enough to shut off the nuclear burning in the star. Main sequence WIMP burners look much like protostars moving on the Hayashi track, although they are in principle completely stable. We make some brief comments about where such stars could be found, how they might be observed and more detailed simulations which are currently in progress. Finally we comment on whether or not it is possible to link the paradoxically young OB stars found at the galactic centre with WIMP burners.

  13. The zero age main sequence of WIMP burners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fairbairn, Malcolm; Scott, Pat; Edsjoe, Joakim

    2008-02-15

    We modify a stellar structure code to estimate the effect upon the main sequence of the accretion of weakly-interacting dark matter onto stars and its subsequent annihilation. The effect upon the stars depends upon whether the energy generation rate from dark matter annihilation is large enough to shut off the nuclear burning in the star. Main sequence weakly-interacting massive particles (WIMP) burners look much like proto-stars moving on the Hayashi track, although they are in principle completely stable. We make some brief comments about where such stars could be found, how they might be observed and more detailed simulations which are currently in progress. Finally we comment on whether or not it is possible to link the paradoxically hot, young stars found at the galactic center with WIMP burners.

  14. The Zero Age Main Sequence of WIMP burners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malcolm Fairbairn; Pat Scott; Joakim Edsjo

    2008-03-03

    We modify a stellar structure code to estimate the effect upon the main sequence of the accretion of weakly interacting dark matter onto stars and its subsequent annihilation. The effect upon the stars depends upon whether the energy generation rate from dark matter annihilation is large enough to shut off the nuclear burning in the star. Main sequence WIMP burners look much like protostars moving on the Hayashi track, although they are in principle completely stable. We make some brief comments about where such stars could be found, how they might be observed and more detailed simulations which are currently in progress. Finally we comment on whether or not it is possible to link the paradoxically young OB stars found at the galactic centre with WIMP burners.

  15. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF NATURAL GAS-SWIRL BURNER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ala Qubbaj

    2005-03-01

    A numerical simulation of a turbulent natural gas jet diffusion flame at a Reynolds number of 9000 in a swirling air stream is presented. The numerical computations were carried out using the commercially available software package CFDRC. The instantaneous chemistry model was used as the reaction model. The thermal, composition, flow (velocity), as well as stream function fields for both the baseline and air-swirling flames were numerically simulated in the near-burner region, where most of the mixing and reactions occur. The results were useful to interpret the effects of swirl in enhancing the mixing rates in the combustion zone as well as in stabilizing the flame. The results showed the generation of two recirculating regimes induced by the swirling air stream, which account for such effects. The present investigation will be used as a benchmark study of swirl flow combustion analysis as a step in developing an enhanced swirl-cascade burner technology.

  16. Downhole burner systems and methods for heating subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farmayan, Walter Farman (Houston, TX); Giles, Steven Paul (Damon, TX); Brignac, Jr., Joseph Phillip (Katy, TX); Munshi, Abdul Wahid (Houston, TX); Abbasi, Faraz (Sugarland, TX); Clomburg, Lloyd Anthony (Houston, TX); Anderson, Karl Gregory (Missouri City, TX); Tsai, Kuochen (Katy, TX); Siddoway, Mark Alan (Katy, TX)

    2011-05-31

    A gas burner assembly for heating a subsurface formation includes an oxidant conduit, a fuel conduit, and a plurality of oxidizers coupled to the oxidant conduit. At least one of the oxidizers includes a mix chamber for mixing fuel from the fuel conduit with oxidant from the oxidant conduit, an igniter, and a shield. The shield includes a plurality of openings in communication with the oxidant conduit. At least one flame stabilizer is coupled to the shield.

  17. Hydrodynamic aspects of a circulating fluidized bed with internals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balasubramanian, N.; Srinivasakannan, C.

    1998-06-01

    An attempt is made to examine the influence of internals (baffles) in the riser of the circulating fluidized bed. Experiments are conducted in a circulating fluidized bed, having perforated plates with different free areas. It is noticed from the present work that a circulating fluidized bed having 45% free area gives uniform solids concentration and pressure drop along the length of the riser. In addition to the uniformity, the circulating fluidized bed with internals gives higher pressure drop (solids concentration) compared to a conventional circulating fluidized bed. For internals having 67.6% free area the pressure drop is higher at the lower portion of the riser compared to the upper portion, similar to a conventional circulating fluidized bed. For 30% free area plates the solids concentration varies axially within the stage and remains uniform from stage to stage.

  18. Control of bed height in a fluidized bed gasification system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mehta, Gautam I. (Greensburg, PA); Rogers, Lynn M. (Export, PA)

    1983-12-20

    In a fluidized bed apparatus a method for controlling the height of the fdized bed, taking into account variations in the density of the bed. The method comprises taking simultaneous differential pressure measurements at different vertical elevations within the vessel, averaging the differential pressures, determining an average fluidized bed density, then periodically calculating a weighting factor. The weighting factor is used in the determination of the actual bed height which is used in controlling the fluidizing means.

  19. An experimental study of a vertical tube gas-fluidized bed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandich, Kevin Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Temperature in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed: Simulations andfluidized bed of hollow microparticles prior to onset of bubbling.to the bubbling regime of the fluidized bed, while the

  20. Flow Field Results of the Cambridge Stratified Swirl Burner Using Laser Doppler Anemometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Ruigang; Sweeney, Mark; Hochgreb, Simone

    2012-06-08

    /plain; charset=UTF-8 Turbulence Parameters for Non-Reacting conditions of Cambridge Stratified Swirl Burner Ruigang Zhou 1. Abstract The turbulence parameters of non-reacting conditions of Cambridge Stratified Swirl Burner are of interest... to the community studying the burner. The LDA data [2] was used to calculate key turbulence parameters in axial, radial and tangential directions as well as the total velocity component. This report presents the data processing routines and results...

  1. Reducing the environmental impact on solid wastes from a fluidized...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; COAL; FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION; WASTE MANAGEMENT; AIR POLLUTION ABATEMENT; ALUMINIUM OXIDES; CALCIUM OXIDES; CHEMICAL ACTIVATION;...

  2. Fluidized Bed Technology - An R&D Success Story | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    line. The Nucla fluidized bed power plant in Colorado was operated in DOE's Clean Coal Technology Program. The technology progressed into larger scale utility applications...

  3. Joint Inference of Multiple Label Types in Large Networks Deepayan Chakrabarti DEEPAY@FB.COM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    @FB.COM Stanislav Funiak SFUNIAK@FB.COM Jonathan Chang JONCHANG@FB.COM Sofus A. Macskassy SOFMAC@FB.COM Facebook Inc-passing architecture. On a billion-node subset of the Facebook social network, EDGEEXPLAIN signif- icantly outperforms the group from u's actual current city C, causing label propagation to infer C for u. However, our proposed

  4. Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aquino, Dolores C. (Houston, TX); DaPrato, Philip L. (Westfield, NJ); Gouker, Toby R. (Baton Rouge, LA); Knoer, Peter (Houston, TX)

    1986-01-01

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone (12) with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65.degree. C. and 110.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m.sup.3. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step.

  5. Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aquino, D.C.; DaPrato, P.L.; Gouker, T.R.; Knoer, P.

    1984-07-06

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65/sup 0/C and 110/sup 0/C for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution, and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m/sup 3/. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Coal-Fired Fluidized Bed Combustion Cogeneration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thunem, C.; Smith, N.

    1985-01-01

    BED COMBUSTION COGENERATION Cabot Thunem, P.E Norm Smith, P.E. Stanley Consultants, Inc. Muscatine, Iowa ABSTRACT The availability of an environmentally accep table multifuel technology, such as fluidized bed combustion, has encouraged many... steam producers/ users to investigate switching from oil or gas to coal. Changes in federal regulations encouraging cogeneration have further enhanced the economic incentives for primary fuel switching. However, this addition of cogeneration...

  7. Fluidized wall for protecting fusion chamber walls

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maniscalco, James A. (Danville, CA); Meier, Wayne R. (Livermore, CA)

    1982-01-01

    Apparatus for protecting the inner wall of a fusion chamber from microexplosion debris, x-rays, neutrons, etc. produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) targets imploded within the fusion chamber. The apparatus utilizes a fluidized wall similar to a waterfall comprising liquid lithium or solid pellets of lithium-ceramic, the waterfall forming a blanket to prevent damage of the structural materials of the chamber.

  8. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustor apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansour, Momtaz N. (Columbia, MD)

    1993-10-26

    A pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed reactor system is disclosed and claimed along with a process for utilization of same for the combustion of, e.g. high sulfur content coal. The system affords a economical, ecologically acceptable alternative to oil and gas fired combustors. The apparatus may also be employed for endothermic reaction, combustion of waste products, e.g., organic and medical waste, drying materials, heating air, calcining and the like.

  9. Gas distributor for fluidized bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worley, Arthur C. (Mt. Tabor, NJ); Zboray, James A. (Irvine, CA)

    1980-01-01

    A gas distributor for distributing high temperature reaction gases to a fluidized bed of coal particles in a coal gasification process. The distributor includes a pipe with a refractory reinforced lining and a plurality of openings in the lining through which gas is fed into the bed. These feed openings have an expanding tapered shape in the downstream or exhaust direction which aids in reducing the velocity of the gas jets as they enter the bed.

  10. 01-12-1998 - Bench Top FIre Involving Use of Alcohol and Burner...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1998 - Bench Top FIre Involving Use of Alcohol and Burner Document Number: NA Effective Date: 011998 File (public): 01-12-1998...

  11. Pollutant Exposures from Natural Gas Cooking Burners: A Simulation-Based Assessment for Southern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logue, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    P. Sullivan (2009). Natural Gas Variability in California:Singer (2012). Impact of Natural Gas Appliances on PollutantPollutant Exposures in Natural Gas Cooking Burners, LBNL

  12. Modeling Population Exposures to Pollutants Emitted from Natural Gas Cooking Burners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lobscheid, Agnes

    2012-01-01

    natural gas cooking burners without venting (kitchen exhaust systems) commonly leads to residential NO 2 concentrations that exceed ambient air quality

  13. Status of the fluidized bed unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, P.M.; Wade, J.F.

    1994-06-01

    Rocky Flats has a serious mixed waste problem. No technology or company has a license and available facilities to remedy this dilemma. One solution under study is to use a catalytic fluidized bed unit to destroy the combustible portion of the mixed waste. The fluidized bed thermal treatment program at Rocky Flats is building on knowledge gained over twenty years of successful development activity. The FBU has numerous technical advantages over other thermal technologies to treat Rocky Flats` mixed waste, the largest being the lower temperature (700{degrees}C versus 1000{degrees}C) which reduces acid corrosion and mechanical failures and obviates the need for ceramic lining. Successful demonstrations have taken place on bench, pilot, and full-scale tests using radioactive mixed wastes. The program is approaching implementation and licensing of a production-scale fluidized bed system for the safe treatment of mixed waste. The measure for success on this project is the ability to work closely with the community to jointly solve problems and respond to concerns of mixed waste treatment at Rocky Flats.

  14. Method for fluidizing and coating ultrafine particles, device for fluidizing and coating ultrafine particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Jie; Liu, Yung Y

    2015-01-20

    The invention provides a method for dispersing particles within a reaction field, the method comprising confining the particles to the reaction field using a standing wave. The invention also provides a system for coating particles, the system comprising a reaction zone; a means for producing fluidized particles within the reaction zone; a fluid to produce a standing wave within the reaction zone; and a means for introducing coating moieties to the reaction zone. The invention also provides a method for coating particles, the method comprising fluidizing the particles, subjecting the particles to a standing wave; and contacting the subjected particles with a coating moiety.

  15. Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nodd, Dennis G. (West Mifflin, PA); Walker, Richard J. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1987-01-01

    A carbonaceous material-water slurry burner includes a high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer for directing a carbonaceous material-water slurry into a combustion chamber for burning therein without requiring a support fuel or oxygen enrichment of the combustion air. Introduction of the carbonaceous material-water slurry under pressure forces it through a fixed atomizer wherein the slurry is reduced to small droplets by mixing with an atomizing air flow and directed into the combustion chamber. The atomizer includes a swirler located immediately adjacent to where the fuel slurry is introduced into the combustion chamber and which has a single center channel through which the carbonaceous material-water slurry flows into a plurality of diverging channels continuous with the center channel from which the slurry exits the swirler immediately adjacent to an aperture in the combustion chamber. The swirler includes a plurality of slots around its periphery extending the length thereof through which the atomizing air flows and by means of which the atomizing air is deflected so as to exert a maximum shear force upon the carbonaceous material-water slurry as it exits the swirler and enters the combustion chamber. A circulating coolant system or boiler feed water is provided around the periphery of the burner along the length thereof to regulate burner operating temperature, eliminate atomizer plugging, and inhibit the generation of sparklers, thus increasing combustion efficiency. A secondary air source directs heated air into the combustion chamber to promote recirculation of the hot combustion gases within the combustion chamber.

  16. Heat exchanger support apparatus in a fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawton, Carl W. (West Hartford, CT)

    1982-01-01

    A heat exchanger is mounted in the upper portion of a fluidized combusting bed for the control of the temperature of the bed. A support, made up of tubes, is extended from the perforated plate of the fluidized bed up to the heat exchanger. The tubular support framework for the heat exchanger has liquid circulated therethrough to prevent deterioration of the support.

  17. The Structure of Triple Flames Stabilized on a Slot Burner RICCARDO AZZONI, STEFANO RATTI, SURESH K. AGGARWAL, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aggarwal, Suresh K.

    The Structure of Triple Flames Stabilized on a Slot Burner RICCARDO AZZONI, STEFANO RATTI, SURESH K, not clearly understood. Herein, laminar triple flames stabilized on a Wolfhard-Parker slot burner

  18. Development, Application and Performance of Venturi Register L. E. A. Burner System for Firing Oil and Gas Fuels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cawte, A. D.

    1979-01-01

    as CEA Combustion, Ltd., to develop a more efficient suspended - flame burner. Subsequently, the CEGB (Central Electric Generating Board) in Great Britain developed standards for register type burners installed in fossil fuel fired electric generating...

  19. Development of a Low NOx Burner System for Coal Fired Power Plants Using Coal and Biomass Blends 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gomez, Patsky O.

    2010-01-16

    The low NOx burner (LNB) is the most cost effective technology used in coal-fired power plants to reduce NOx. Conventional (unstaged) burners use primary air for transporting particles and swirling secondary air to create recirculation of hot gases...

  20. Experimental and numerical analysis of isothermal turbulent flows in interacting low NOx burners in coal-fired furnaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cvoro, Valentina

    Coal firing power stations represent the second largest source of global NOx emissions. The current practice of predicting likely exit NOx levels from multi-burner furnaces on the basis of single burner test rig data has ...

  1. Development and validation of a combustion model for a fuel cell off-gas burner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, William Tristan

    2008-10-14

    Burner Details 164 C.1 Burner Inlet Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 C.2 Emission Indices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 List of References 173 List of Figures 1.1 SOFC... Steady Laminar Flamelet Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 SOFC Solid Oxide Fuel Cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 UDF User De?ned Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73...

  2. Development of the Radiation Stabilized Distributed Flux Burner - Phase III Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. D. Sullivan; A. Webb

    1999-12-01

    The development and demonstration of the Radiation Stabilized Burner (RSB) was completed as a project funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technologies. The technical goals of the project were to demonstrate burner performance that would meet or exceed emissions targets of 9 ppm NOx, 50 ppm CO, and 9 ppm unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), with all values being corrected to 3 percent stack oxygen, and incorporate the burner design into a new industrial boiler configuration that would achieve ultra-low emissions while maintaining or improving thermal efficiency, operating costs, and maintenance costs relative to current generation 30 ppm low NOx burner installations. Both the ultra-low NOx RSB and the RSB boiler-burner package are now commercially available.

  3. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    ThermoChem, under contract to the Department of Energy, conducted extensive research, development and demonstration work on a Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor (PAFBC) to confirm that advanced technology can meet these performance objectives. The ThermoChem/MTCI PAFBC system integrates a pulse combustor with an atmospheric bubbling-bed type fluidized bed combustor (BFBC) In this modular configuration, the pulse combustor burns the fuel fines (typically less than 30 sieve or 600 microns) and the fluidized bed combusts the coarse fuel particles. Since the ThermoChem/MTCI PAFBC employs both the pulse combustor and the AFBC technologies, it can handle the full-size range of coarse and fines. The oscillating flow field in the pulse combustor provides for high interphase and intraparticle mass transfer rates. Therefore, the fuel fines essentially burn under kinetic control. Due to the reasonably high temperature (>1093 C but less than the temperature for ash fusion to prevent slagging), combustion of fuel fines is substantially complete at the exit of the pulse combustor. The additional residence time of 1 to 2 seconds in the freeboard of the PAFBC unit then ensures high carbon conversion and, in turn, high combustion efficiency. A laboratory unit was successfully designed, constructed and tested for over 600 hours to confirm that the PAFBC technology could meet the performance objectives. Subsequently, a 50,000 lb/hr PAFBC demonstration steam boiler was designed, constructed and tested at Clemson University in Clemson, South Carolina. This Final Report presents the detailed results of this extensive and successful PAFBC research, development and demonstration project.

  4. Simulation of Nitrogen Emissions in a Low Swirl Burner J. B. Bell, M. S. Day, X. Gao, M. J. Lijewski

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, John B.

    Simulation of Nitrogen Emissions in a Low Swirl Burner J. B. Bell, M. S. Day, X. Gao, M. J, 2010 Abstract We present simulations of a laboratory-scale low swirl burner fueled with hydrogen in a turbulent burner if the fuel mixture is enriched with H2 [8]. Hydrogen addition enhances the effective flame

  5. First archeointensity determinations on Maya incense burners from Palenque temples, Mexico: New data to constrain the Mesoamerica secular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    First archeointensity determinations on Maya incense burners from Palenque temples, Mexico: New Keywords: archeointensity secular variation Palenque incense burner a b s t r a c t We present archeointensity data carried out on pieces of incense burners from the ancient Maya city of Palenque, Chiapas

  6. Aalborg Universitet Coal-firing and biomass-firing in a 150kW swirl stabilized burner flow reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    Aalborg Universitet Coal-firing and biomass-firing in a 150kW swirl stabilized burner flow reactor). Coal-firing and biomass-firing in a 150kW swirl stabilized burner flow reactor. Poster session-fired boiler could be far more challenging beca se b rner aerod namicsmore challenging, because burner

  7. Identifying Dark Matter Burners in the Galactic center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moskalenko, Igor V

    2007-01-01

    If the supermassive black hole (SMBH) at the center of our Galaxy grew adiabatically, then a dense "spike" of dark matter is expected to have formed around it. Assuming that dark matter is composed primarily of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a star orbiting close enough to the SMBH can capture WIMPs at an extremely high rate. The stellar luminosity due to annihilation of captured WIMPs in the stellar core may be comparable to or even exceed the luminosity of the star due to thermonuclear burning. The model thus predicts the existence of unusual stars, i.e. "WIMP burners", in the vicinity of an adiabatically grown SMBH. We find that the most efficient WIMP burners are stars with degenerate electron cores, e.g. white dwarfs (WD) or degenerate cores with envelopes. If found, such stars would provide evidence for the existence of particle dark matter and could possibly be used to establish its density profile. In our previous paper we computed the luminosity from WIMP burning for a range of dark ma...

  8. Pyrolysis reactor and fluidized bed combustion chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Green, Norman W. (Upland, CA)

    1981-01-06

    A solid carbonaceous material is pyrolyzed in a descending flow pyrolysis reactor in the presence of a particulate source of heat to yield a particulate carbon containing solid residue. The particulate source of heat is obtained by educting with a gaseous source of oxygen the particulate carbon containing solid residue from a fluidized bed into a first combustion zone coupled to a second combustion zone. A source of oxygen is introduced into the second combustion zone to oxidize carbon monoxide formed in the first combustion zone to heat the solid residue to the temperature of the particulate source of heat.

  9. Wood fuel in fluidized bed boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Virr, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Development of fluidized bed fire-tube and water-tube boilers for the burning of wood, gas, and refuse-derived fuel will be reviewed. Experience gained in already installed plants will be outlined. Research experiments results on the use of various forms of wood and other biomass fuels, such as wood chips, pellets, peach pits, nut shells and kernels and refuse-derived fuels, will be described for small and medium sized fire-tube boilers, and for larger water-tube boilers for co-generation. (Refs. 4).

  10. Predictive models of circulating fluidized bed combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gidaspow, D.

    1992-07-01

    Steady flows influenced by walls cannot be described by inviscid models. Flows in circulating fluidized beds have significant wall effects. Particles in the form of clusters or layers can be seen to run down the walls. Hence modeling of circulating fluidized beds (CFB) without a viscosity is not possible. However, in interpreting Equations (8-1) and (8-2) it must be kept in mind that CFB or most other two phase flows are never in a true steady state. Then the viscosity in Equations (8-1) and (8-2) may not be the true fluid viscosity to be discussed next, but an Eddy type viscosity caused by two phase flow oscillations usually referred to as turbulence. In view of the transient nature of two-phase flow, the drag and the boundary layer thickness may not be proportional to the square root of the intrinsic viscosity but depend upon it to a much smaller extent. As another example, liquid-solid flow and settling of colloidal particles in a lamella electrosettler the settling process is only moderately affected by viscosity. Inviscid flow with settling is a good first approximation to this electric field driven process. The physical meaning of the particulate phase viscosity is described in detail in the chapter on kinetic theory. Here the conventional derivation resented in single phase fluid mechanics is generalized to multiphase flow.

  11. Closing the Wedge with 300 fb^-1 and 3000 fb^-1 at the LHC: A Snowmass White Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ian M. Lewis

    2013-08-08

    The discovery of a Higgs boson at the LHC begins the era of directly measuring the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB). Searching for extensions of the Standard Model (SM) EWSB sector at the LHC is of vital importance. An important extension of the SM with an extended EWSB sector is the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). In this white paper, we extend current ATLAS and CMS bounds on direct searches for the heavy MSSM neutral Higgs bosons to 300 fb^-1 and 3000 fb^-1 of data at the LHC. In particular we focus on the \\tau^+\\tau^- channel and the pseudoscalar decay to light Higgs boson and Z, with additional discussion on how to further close the wedge.

  12. Coal-feeding mechanism for a fluidized bed combustion chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gall, Robert L. (Morgantown, WV)

    1981-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a fuel-feeding mechanism for a fluidized bed combustor. In accordance with the present invention a perforated conveyor belt is utilized in place of the fixed grid normally disposed at the lower end of the fluidized bed combustion zone. The conveyor belt is fed with fuel, e.g. coal, at one end thereof so that the air passing through the perforations dislodges the coal from the belt and feeds the coal into the fluidized zone in a substantially uniform manner.

  13. The backflow cell model for fluidized bed catalytic reactors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapathy, E. V

    1967-01-01

    that the backmixing of gas in a small fluidized bed with high length to diameter rati. o is relatively small. Hence, it was recommended. that reaction rate studies in fluidized bed reactors be correlated on the basis oi' piston flow~ neglecting mixing. Nay (19... Major Subject Chemical En ineerin THE BACKFLOW CELL MODEL FOR FLUIDIZED BED CATALYTIC REACTORS A Thesis E. V. Ganapathy Approved as to style and content by: chairman of Committee ~H+d d D p t t Member Member) May 1967 SO THE BACKFLOW CELL...

  14. Optimization of burners for firing solid fuel and natural gas for boilers with impact pulverizers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.T. Levit; V.Ya. Itskovich; A.K. Solov'ev (and others) [ORGRES Company (Russian Federation)

    2003-01-15

    The design of a burner with preliminary mixing of fuel and air for alternate or joint firing of coal and natural gas on a boiler is described. The burner provides steady ignition and economical combustion of coal, low emission of NOx in both operating modes, and possesses an ejecting effect sufficient for operation of pulverizing systems with a shaft mill under pressure. The downward inclination of the burners makes it possible to control the position of the flame in the furnace and the temperature of the superheated steam.

  15. EA-0575: Fundamental Fluidization Research Project, Morgantown, West Virginia

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to design, construct, and operate a 2-foot diameter, 50-foot high pressurized fluidization with particular emphasis on operation in the...

  16. Compressed supersymmetry after 1 fb?¹ at the Large Hadron Collider

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    LeCompte, Thomas J.; Martin, Stephen P.

    2012-02-01

    We study the reach of the Large Hadron Collider with 1 fb?¹ of data at ?s=7 TeV for several classes of supersymmetric models with compressed mass spectra, using jets and missing transverse energy cuts like those employed by ATLAS for summer 2011 data. In the limit of extreme compression, the best limits come from signal regions that do not require more than 2 or 3 jets and that remove backgrounds by requiring more missing energy rather than a higher effective mass.

  17. Fluidized bed boiler having a segmented grate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waryasz, Richard E. (Longmeadow, MA)

    1984-01-01

    A fluidized bed furnace (10) is provided having a perforate grate (9) within a housing which supports a bed of particulate material including some combustibles. The grate is divided into a plurality of segments (E2-E6, SH1-SH5, RH1-RH5), with the airflow to each segment being independently controlled. Some of the segments have evaporating surface imbedded in the particulate material above them, while other segments are below superheater surface or reheater surface. Some of the segments (E1, E7) have no surface above them, and there are ignitor combustors (32, 34) directed to fire into the segments, for fast startup of the furnace without causing damage to any heating surface.

  18. Inclined fluidized bed system for drying fine coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO); Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY); Boysen, John E. (Laramie, WY)

    1992-02-11

    Coal is processed in an inclined fluidized bed dryer operated in a plug-flow manner with zonal temperature and composition control, and an inert fluidizing gas, such as carbon dioxide or combustion gas. Recycled carbon dioxide, which is used for drying, pyrolysis, quenching, and cooling, is produced by partial decarboxylation of the coal. The coal is heated sufficiently to mobilize coal tar by further pyrolysis, which seals micropores upon quenching. Further cooling with carbon dioxide enhances stabilization.

  19. Development and applications of clean coal fluidized bed technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eskin, N.; Hepbasli, A. [Ege University, Izmir (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

    2006-09-15

    Power generation in Europe and elsewhere relies heavily on coal and coal-based fuels as the source of energy. The reliance will increase in the future due to the decreasing stability of price and security of oil supply. In other words, the studies on fluidized bed combustion systems, which is one of the clean coal technologies, will maintain its importance. The main objective of the present study is to introduce the development and the applications of the fluidized bed technology (FBT) and to review the fluidized bed combustion studies conducted in Turkey. The industrial applications of the fluidized bed technology in the country date back to the 1980s. Since then, the number of the fluidized bed boilers has increased. The majority of the installations are in the textile sector. In Turkey, there is also a circulating fluidized bed thermal power plant with a capacity of 2 x 160 MW under construction at Can in Canakkale. It is expected that the FBT has had, or will have, a significant and increasing role in dictating the energy strategies for Turkey.

  20. Variable firing rate power burner for high efficiency gas furnaces. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, H.H.; Demler, R.L.; Poulin, E.

    1980-02-01

    One method for increasing the efficiency of residential furnaces and boilers is to retrofit a burner capable of firing rate (FR) modulation. While maximum FR is still attainable, the average FR is significantly lower, resulting in more effective heat exchanger performance. Equally important is the capability for continuous firing at a very low rate (simmering) which eliminates off-cycle loss, a heavy contributor to inefficiency. Additional performance can be gained by reducing the excess air required by a burner. Based on its previous experience, Foster-Miller Associates, Inc. has designed and tested a low excess air (about 15%) variable firing rate (VFR) burner. The theory of operation and the construction of the test burner are described. Test results are given along with a conclusion/recommendation. A Phase II plan is outlined which suggests methods and steps for fabrication and field testing of a number of prototype units.

  1. Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Work on process design and LNS Burner design was deferred during this period, pending a reassessment of the project by TransAlta prior to commencement of Budget Period II, and only limited Balance of Plant engineering work was done.

  2. Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    The University of Alabama will develop fuel-flexible, low-emissions burner technology for the metal processing industry that is capable of using biomass-derived liquid fuels, such as glycerin or fatty acids, as a substitute for natural gas. By replacing a fossil fuel with biomass fuels, this new burner will enable a reduction in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions and an increase in fuel flexibility.

  3. Low No sub x /SO sub x burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, K.; Martin, L.; Smith, J.

    1991-05-01

    The Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner Retrofit for Utility Cyclone Boilers program consists of the retrofit and subsequent demonstration of the technology at Southern Illinois Power Cooperative's (SIPC's) 33-MW unit 1 cyclone boiler located near Marion, Illinois. The LNS Burner employs a simple innovative combustion process burning high-sulfur Illinois coal to provide substantial SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control within the burner. A complete series of boiler performance and characterization tests, called the baseline tests, was conducted in October 1990 on unit 1 of SIPC's Marion Station. The primary objective of the baseline test was to collect data from the existing plant that could provide a comparison of performance after the LNS Burner retrofit. These data could confirm the LNS Burner's SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions control and any effect on boiler operation. Further, these tests would provide to the project experience with the operating characteristics of the host unit as well as engineering design information to minimize technical uncertainties in the application of the LNS Burner technology.

  4. An Analysis of the Use of Fluidized-Bed Heat Exchangers for Heat Recovery 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vogel, G. J.; Grogan, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    The principles of fluidized-bed operation and the factors affecting the performance of a fluidized-bed waste heat boiler (FBWHB) are discussed in detail. Factors included in the discussion are bed temperature and pressure, heat transfer coefficient...

  5. Preliminary safety evaluation of the advanced burner test reactor.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, F. E.; Fanning, T. H.; Cahalan, J. E.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2006-09-15

    Results of a preliminary safety evaluation of the Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) pre-conceptual design are reported. The ABTR safety design approach is described. Traditional defense-in-depth design features are supplemented with passive safety performance characteristics that include natural circulation emergency decay heat removal and reactor power reduction by inherent reactivity feedbacks in accidents. ABTR safety performance in design-basis and beyond-design-basis accident sequences is estimated based on analyses. Modeling assumptions and input data for safety analyses are presented. Analysis results for simulation of simultaneous loss of coolant pumping power and normal heat rejection are presented and discussed, both for the case with reactor scram and the case without reactor scram. The analysis results indicate that the ABTR pre-conceptual design is capable of undergoing bounding design-basis and beyond-design-basis accidents without fuel cladding failures. The first line of defense for protection of the public against release of radioactivity in accidents remains intact with significant margin. A comparison and evaluation of general safety design criteria for the ABTR conceptual design phase are presented in an appendix. A second appendix presents SASSYS-1 computer code capabilities and modeling enhancements implemented for ABTR analyses.

  6. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion. Technical progress report, January 1995--April 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-05-31

    Progress is reported on the design of a pulsed fluidized bed combustor and component, fabrication, and construction site activities.

  7. Wavy Instability in Liquid-Fluidized Beds Maxime Nicolas, John Hinch, and E lisabeth Guazzelli*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinch, John

    . Gas-fluidized beds are very unstable and rapidly attain a bubbling regime. In this regime, bubblesWavy Instability in Liquid-Fluidized Beds Maxime Nicolas, John Hinch, and EÄ lisabeth Guazzelli. The validity of the two-phase Newtonian model is then questioned. 1. Introduction To fluidize a bed

  8. Emergent Behavior in a Low-Order Fluidized-Bed Bubble Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennessee, University of

    Emergent Behavior in a Low-Order Fluidized-Bed Bubble Model John S. Halow National Energy of this type of model to describe the dynamics of voids in bubbling fluidized beds. The model considers vertical interactions between neighboring bubbles in fluidized beds. Emergent collective behavior is shown

  9. Contributed papers Study of gas-fluidization dynamics with laser-polarized 129

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    commercial fluidized beds operate in the bubbling fluidization regime, in which gas-filled particle, Amherst, MA 01003, USA Abstract We report initial NMR studies of gas dynamics in a particle bed fluidized characteristics: gas exchange between the bubble and emulsion phases and the gas velocity distribution in the bed

  10. Characterizing the Hydrodynamics of Bubbling Fluidized Beds with Multivariate Pressure Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennessee, University of

    Characterizing the Hydrodynamics of Bubbling Fluidized Beds with Multivariate Pressure Measurements mounted on the walls of a bubbling fluidized bed. Our objective was to identify multivariate dynamic of bubbling fluidized beds with multivariate pressure measurements. 2000 AIChE Annual Meeting (Los Angeles

  11. Foam Control using a Fluidized Bed of Hydrophobic Particles by Clara Mata*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, Daniel D.

    Foam Control using a Fluidized Bed of Hydrophobic Particles by Clara Mata* & D. D. Joseph may be strongly suppressed by fluidizing hydrophilic particles in the bubbly mixture below the foam different tests (particle-induced film rupture and foam shake test), but they did not use a fluidized bed

  12. Apparatus and method for controlling heat transfer between a fluidized bed and tubes immersed therein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hodges, James L. (3 Hilltop Ave., Vernon, CT 06066); Cerkanowicz, Anthony E. (8 Fieldstone Dr., Livingston, NJ 07039)

    1982-01-01

    In a fluidized bed of solid particles having one or more heat exchange tubes immersed therein, the rate of heat transfer between the fluidized particles and a fluid flowing through the immersed heat exchange tubes is controlled by rotating an arcuate shield apparatus about each tube to selectively expose various portions of the tube to the fluidized particles.

  13. Apparatus and method for controlling heat transfer between a fluidized bed and tubes immersed therein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hodges, James L. (3 Hilltop Ave., Vernon, CT 06066); Cerkanowicz, Anthony E. (8 Fieldstone Dr., Livingston, NJ 07039)

    1983-01-01

    In a fluidized bed of solid particles having one or more heat exchange tubes immersed therein, the rate of heat transfer between the fluidized particles and a fluid flowing through the immersed heat exchange tubes is controlled by rotating an arcuate shield apparatus about each tube to selectively expose various portions of the tube to the fluidized particles.

  14. Materials performance in fluidized-bed air heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.

    1991-12-01

    Development of cogeneration systems that involve combustion of coal in a fluidized bed and use of air heaters to generate hot air for turbine systems has been in progress for a number of years. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored the Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) to assess the performance of various heat exchanger materials and establish confidence in the resultant designs of fluidized-bed-combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, in association with Babcock Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB/Combustion Engineering, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE. Argonne National Laboratory, through a contract with the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International, conducted tests in the DOE 1.8 {times} 1.8 m atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility in El Segundo, California. This paper presents an assessment of the materials performance in fluidized bed environments and examines guidelines for materials selection on the basis of corrosion resistance in air and in combustion environments, mechanical properties, fabricability/thermal stability, and cost.

  15. Materials performance in fluidized-bed air heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.

    1991-12-01

    Development of cogeneration systems that involve combustion of coal in a fluidized bed and use of air heaters to generate hot air for turbine systems has been in progress for a number of years. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored the Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) to assess the performance of various heat exchanger materials and establish confidence in the resultant designs of fluidized-bed-combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, in association with Babcock & Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB/Combustion Engineering, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE. Argonne National Laboratory, through a contract with the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International, conducted tests in the DOE 1.8 {times} 1.8 m atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility in El Segundo, California. This paper presents an assessment of the materials performance in fluidized bed environments and examines guidelines for materials selection on the basis of corrosion resistance in air and in combustion environments, mechanical properties, fabricability/thermal stability, and cost.

  16. Fluidized bed pyrolysis of terrestrial biomass feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Besler, S.; Agblevor, F.A.; Davis, M.F. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    Hybrid poplar, switchgrass, and corn stover were pyrolyzed in a bench scale fluidized-bed reactor to examine the influence of storage time on thermochemical converting of these materials. The influence of storage on the thermochemical conversion of the biomass feedstocks was assessed based on pyrolysis product yields and chemical and instrumental analyses of the pyrolysis products. Although char and gas yields from corn stover feedstock were influenced by storage time, hybrid poplar and switchgrass were not significantly affected. Liquid, char, and gas yields were feedstock dependent. Total liquid yields (organic+water) varied from 58%-73% depending on the feedstock. Char yields varied from 14%-19% while gas yields ranged from 11%-15%. The chemical composition of the pyrolysis oils from hybrid polar feedstock was slightly changed by storage, however, corn stover and switchgrass feedstock showed no significant changes. Additionally, stored corn stover and hybrid poplar pyrolysis oils showed a significant decrease in their higher heating values compared to the fresh material.

  17. COMPUTATIONAL MODELING OF CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED REACTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibrahim, Essam A

    2013-01-09

    Details of numerical simulations of two-phase gas-solid turbulent flow in the riser section of Circulating Fluidized Bed Reactor (CFBR) using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique are reported. Two CFBR riser configurations are considered and modeled. Each of these two riser models consist of inlet, exit, connecting elbows and a main pipe. Both riser configurations are cylindrical and have the same diameter but differ in their inlet lengths and main pipe height to enable investigation of riser geometrical scaling effects. In addition, two types of solid particles are exploited in the solid phase of the two-phase gas-solid riser flow simulations to study the influence of solid loading ratio on flow patterns. The gaseous phase in the two-phase flow is represented by standard atmospheric air. The CFD-based FLUENT software is employed to obtain steady state and transient solutions for flow modulations in the riser. The physical dimensions, types and numbers of computation meshes, and solution methodology utilized in the present work are stated. Flow parameters, such as static and dynamic pressure, species velocity, and volume fractions are monitored and analyzed. The differences in the computational results between the two models, under steady and transient conditions, are compared, contrasted, and discussed.

  18. Computational fluid dynamic modeling of fluidized-bed polymerization reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rokkam, Ram

    2012-11-02

    Polyethylene is one of the most widely used plastics, and over 60 million tons are produced worldwide every year. Polyethylene is obtained by the catalytic polymerization of ethylene in gas and liquid phase reactors. The gas phase processes are more advantageous, and use fluidized-bed reactors for production of polyethylene. Since they operate so close to the melting point of the polymer, agglomeration is an operational concern in all slurry and gas polymerization processes. Electrostatics and hot spot formation are the main factors that contribute to agglomeration in gas-phase processes. Electrostatic charges in gas phase polymerization fluidized bed reactors are known to influence the bed hydrodynamics, particle elutriation, bubble size, bubble shape etc. Accumulation of electrostatic charges in the fluidized-bed can lead to operational issues. In this work a first-principles electrostatic model is developed and coupled with a multi-fluid computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model to understand the effect of electrostatics on the dynamics of a fluidized-bed. The multi-fluid CFD model for gas-particle flow is based on the kinetic theory of granular flows closures. The electrostatic model is developed based on a fixed, size-dependent charge for each type of particle (catalyst, polymer, polymer fines) phase. The combined CFD model is first verified using simple test cases, validated with experiments and applied to a pilot-scale polymerization fluidized-bed reactor. The CFD model reproduced qualitative trends in particle segregation and entrainment due to electrostatic charges observed in experiments. For the scale up of fluidized bed reactor, filtered models are developed and implemented on pilot scale reactor.

  19. Regeneration of lime from sulfates for fluidized-bed combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T. (Middle Island, NY); Steinberg, Meyer (Huntington Station, NY)

    1980-01-01

    In a fluidized-bed combustor the evolving sulfur oxides are reacted with CaO to form calcium sulfate which is then decomposed in the presence of carbonaceous material, such as the fly ash recovered from the combustion, at temperatures of about 900.degree. to 1000.degree. C., to regenerate lime. The regenerated lime is then recycled to the fluidized bed combustor to further react with the evolving sulfur oxides. The lime regenerated in this manner is quite effective in removing the sulfur oxides.

  20. Pressurized fluidized-bed combustion technology exchange workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ,

    1980-04-01

    The pressurized fluidized-bed combustion technology exchange workshop was held June 5 and 6, 1979, at The Meadowlands Hilton Hotel, Secaucus, New Jersey. Eleven papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. The papers include reviews of the US DOE and EPRI programs in this area and papers by Swedish, West German, British and American organizations. The British papers concern the joint program of the USA, UK and FRG at Leatherhead. The key factor in several papers is the use of fluidized bed combustors, gas turbines, and steam turbines in combined-cycle power plants. One paper examines several combined-cycle alternatives. (LTN)

  1. Fluidized-Bed Waste-Heat Recovery System Advances 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patch, K. D.; Cole, W. E.

    1986-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-86-06-09.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 23561 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-86-06-09.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 FLUIDIZED-BED WASTE-HEAT... RECOVERY SYSTEM ADVANCES Keith D. Patch William E. Cole Thermo Electron Corporation Waltham, Massachusetts ABSTRACT The Fluidized-Bed Waste-Heat Recovery (FBWHR) System is a combustion air preheater designed for existing unrecuperated...

  2. Gas-phase and catalytic combustion in heat-recirculating burners Jeongmin Ahn, Craig Eastwood, Lars Sitzki* and Paul D. Ronney

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Gas-phase and catalytic combustion in heat-recirculating burners Jeongmin Ahn, Craig Eastwood title: Extinction limits in excess enthalpy burners To be published in Proceedings of the Combustion-phase and catalytic combustion in heat-recirculating burners Jeongmin Ahn, Craig Eastwood, Lars Sitzki* and Paul D

  3. Method for using fast fluidized bed dry bottom coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snell, George J. (Fords, NJ); Kydd, Paul H. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1983-01-01

    Carbonaceous solid material such as coal is gasified in a fast fluidized bed gasification system utilizing dual fluidized beds of hot char. The coal in particulate form is introduced along with oxygen-containing gas and steam into the fast fluidized bed gasification zone of a gasifier assembly wherein the upward superficial gas velocity exceeds about 5.0 ft/sec and temperature is 1500.degree.-1850.degree. F. The resulting effluent gas and substantial char are passed through a primary cyclone separator, from which char solids are returned to the fluidized bed. Gas from the primary cyclone separator is passed to a secondary cyclone separator, from which remaining fine char solids are returned through an injection nozzle together with additional steam and oxygen-containing gas to an oxidation zone located at the bottom of the gasifier, wherein the upward gas velocity ranges from about 3-15 ft/sec and is maintained at 1600.degree.-200.degree. F. temperature. This gasification arrangement provides for increased utilization of the secondary char material to produce higher overall carbon conversion and product yields in the process.

  4. Fluidized bed combustor and coal gun-tube assembly therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hosek, William S. (Mt. Tabor, NJ); Garruto, Edward J. (Wayne, NJ)

    1984-01-01

    A coal supply gun assembly for a fluidized bed combustor which includes heat exchange elements extending above the bed's distributor plate assembly and in which the gun's nozzles are disposed relative to the heat exchange elements to only discharge granular coal material between adjacent heat exchange elements and in a path which is substantially equidistant from adjacent heat exchange elements.

  5. Local, instantaneous heat transfer in pulse-stabilized fluidization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pence, D.V. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics; Beasley, D.E. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor (PAFBC), a hybrid combustor concept that couples a pulsed combustor with an atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed, has technical advantages in energy efficiency and emissions. The present study examines the effect of an opposing oscillatory flow on the local, instantaneous heat transfer in a laboratory scale bubbling gas-fluidized bed. This opposing secondary flow consisted of a steady mean component and an oscillating component thereby modeling the flow in the tailpipe of a pulsed combustor. Spectral and contact time analyses of local, instantaneous heat flux measurements from a heated, submerged horizontal cylinder clearly indicate that the bed hydrodynamics were significantly altered by the opposing secondary flow. These heat flux measurements were accomplished by employing an isothermal platinum film heat flux gage. For the present investigation, data were acquired for a monodisperse distribution of particles with a mean diameter of 345 {micro}m and total fluidization ratios ranging from 1.1 through 2.7. Heat transfer observed under conditions of secondary flows with a superimposed waveform exhibit characteristics of globally dominated, as opposed to locally dominated, hydrodynamics. For low primary and secondary flow rates and a forcing frequency of 5 Hz, a substantial enhancement in heat transfer was observed. Increases in the bubble phase and emulsion phase heat transfer coefficients were identified as the primary contributors to the observed increases in time-averaged local heat transfer coefficients.

  6. Core design studies for advanced burner test reactor.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, W. S.; Kim, T. K.; Hill, R. N.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. government announced in February 2006 the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) to expand the use of nuclear energy to meet increasing global energy demand, to address nuclear waste management concerns and to promote non-proliferation. The advanced burner reactor (ABR) based on a fast spectrum is one of the three major technologies to be demonstrated in GNEP. In FY06, a pre-conceptual design study was performed to develop an advanced burner test reactor (ABTR) that supports development of a prototype full-scale ABR, which would be followed by commercial deployment of ABRs. The primary objectives of the ABTR were (1) to demonstrate reactor-based transmutation of transuranics (TRU) as part of an advanced fuel cycle, (2) to qualify the TRU-containing fuels and advanced structural materials needed for a full-scale ABR, (3) to support the research, development and demonstration required for certification of an ABR standard design by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Based on these objectives, core design and fuel cycle studies were performed to develop ABTR core designs, which can accommodate the expected changes of the TRU feed and the conversion ratio. Various option and trade-off studies were performed to determine the appropriate power level and conversion ratio. Both ternary metal alloy (U-TRU-10Zr) and mixed oxide (UO{sub 2}-TRUO{sub 2}) fuel forms have been considered with TRU feeds from weapons-grade plutonium (WG-Pu) and TRU recovered from light water reactor spent fuel (LWR-SF). Reactor performances were evaluated in detail including equilibrium cycle core parameters, mass flow, power distribution, kinetic parameters, reactivity feedback coefficient, reactivity control requirements and shutdown margins, and spent fuel characteristics. Trade-off studies on power level suggested that about 250 MWt is a reasonable compromise to allow a low project cost, at the same time providing a reasonable prototypic irradiation environment for demonstrating TRU-based fuels. Preliminary design studies showed that it is feasible to design the ABTR to accommodate a wide range of conversion ratio (CR) by employing different assembly designs. The TRU enrichments required for various conversion ratios and the irradiation database suggested a phased approach with initial startup using conventional enrichment plutonium-based fuel and gradual transitioning to full core loading of transmutation fuel after its qualification phase (resulting in {approx}0.6 CR). The low CR transmutation fuel tests can be accommodated in the designated test assemblies, and if fully developed, core conversion to low CR fuel can be envisioned. Reference ABTR core designs with a rated power of 250 MWt were developed for ternary metal alloy and mixed oxide fuels based on WG-Pu feed. The reference core contains 54 driver, 6 test fuel, and 3 test material assemblies. For the startup core designs, the calculated TRU conversion ratio is 0.65 for the metal fuel core and 0.64 for the oxide fuel core. Both the metal and oxide cores show good performances. The metal fuel core requires an average TRU enrichment of 18.8% and yields a reactivity swing of 1.2 %{Delta}k over the 4-month cycle. The core average flux level is {approx}2.4 x 10{sup 15} n/cm{sup 2}s, and test assembly flux level is {approx}2.8 x 10{sup 15} n/cm{sup 2}s. Compared to the metal fuel core, the lower density oxide fuel core requires an average TRU enrichment of 21.8%, which results in a 780 kg TRU loading (as compared to 732 kg for metal) despite a {approx}9% smaller heavy metal inventory. The lower heavy metal inventory increases the burnup reactivity swing by {approx}10% and reduces the flux levels by {approx}8%. Alternative designs were also studied for a LWR-SF TRU feed and a low conversion ratio, including the recycle of the ABTR spent fuel TRU. The lower fissile contents of the LWR-SF TRU relative to the WG-Pu TRU significantly increase the required TRU enrichment of the startup cores to maintain the same cycle length. The even lower fissile fraction of the ABTR spent fuel TRU furt

  7. Establishing criteria for the design of a combination parallel and cross-flaming covered burner 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stark, Christopher Charles

    2003-01-01

    A burner was designed and constructed to combine weed control practices of parallel and cross-flaming with the technology of covers and insulation. It involved two covers designed to be placed on the sides of a crop row. The flame under the covers...

  8. ASU nitrogen sweep gas in hydrogen separation membrane for production of HRSG duct burner fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panuccio, Gregory J.; Raybold, Troy M.; Jamal, Agil; Drnevich, Raymond Francis

    2013-04-02

    The present invention relates to the use of low pressure N2 from an air separation unit (ASU) for use as a sweep gas in a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) to increase syngas H2 recovery and make a near-atmospheric pressure (less than or equal to about 25 psia) fuel for supplemental firing in the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) duct burner.

  9. Performance of a small scale boiler burner in the firing of fuel blends 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frazzitta, Stephen

    1993-01-01

    of the feedlot manure. A small scale boiler burner facility has been constructed to simulate a utility class boiler. Experiments were conducted with coal only and then for coal/feedlot manure. Three types of feedlot manure are examined; raw feedlot manure...

  10. Measurement and analysis of heating of paper with gas-fired infrared burner 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Husain, Abdullah Nadir

    2000-01-01

    . Gas-fired IR heaters produce combustion on the burner surface by ignition of a pre-mixed air and fuel streams. The combustion raises the surface temperature to ranges of 800-1,100°C to emit radiation, mainly in the medium IR range, which has a...

  11. Design and Evaluation of a High Temperature Burner Duct Recuperator System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parks, W. P.; DeBellis, C. L.; Kneidel, K.

    1988-01-01

    "The Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W) has completed a program to design, construct, install, and field test a ceramic-based high-temperature burner-duct-recuperator (HTBDR) in an industrial setting. The unit was capable of operating in corrosive, high...

  12. TURBULENT COMBUSTION MODELING OF COAL:BIOMASS BLENDS IN A SWIRL BURNER I -PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daripa, Prabir

    coal or by ex- haust clean up technology. For the power plants, the simplest solution is the preventive- ity well into the 21st century. This dependency on coal calls for better technologies to reduceTURBULENT COMBUSTION MODELING OF COAL:BIOMASS BLENDS IN A SWIRL BURNER I - PRELIMINARY RESULTS

  13. Low No{sub x}/SO{sub x} burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Baseline test report: Issue A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, K.; Martin, L.; Smith, J.

    1991-05-01

    The Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner Retrofit for Utility Cyclone Boilers program consists of the retrofit and subsequent demonstration of the technology at Southern Illinois Power Cooperative`s (SIPC`s) 33-MW unit 1 cyclone boiler located near Marion, Illinois. The LNS Burner employs a simple innovative combustion process burning high-sulfur Illinois coal to provide substantial SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control within the burner. A complete series of boiler performance and characterization tests, called the baseline tests, was conducted in October 1990 on unit 1 of SIPC`s Marion Station. The primary objective of the baseline test was to collect data from the existing plant that could provide a comparison of performance after the LNS Burner retrofit. These data could confirm the LNS Burner`s SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions control and any effect on boiler operation. Further, these tests would provide to the project experience with the operating characteristics of the host unit as well as engineering design information to minimize technical uncertainties in the application of the LNS Burner technology.

  14. Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the LNS Burner as retrofitted to the host cyclone boiler for effective low-cost control of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions while firing a bituminous coal. The LNS Burner employs a simple, innovative combustion process to burn pulverized coal at high temperatures and provides effective, low-cost control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions. The coal ash contains sulfur and is removed in the form of molten slag and flyash. Cyclone-fired boiler units are typically older units firing high-sulfur bituminous coals at very high temperatures which results in very high NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions. The addition of conventional emission control equipment, such as wet scrubbers, to these older cyclone units in order to meet current and future environmental regulations is generally not economic. Further, the units are generally not compatible with low sulfur coal switching for S0{sub 2} control or selective catalytic reduction technologies for NO{sub x} control. Because the LNS Burner operates at the same very high temperatures as a typical cyclone boiler and produces a similar slag product, it may offer a viable retrofit option for cyclone boiler emission control. This was confirmed by the Cyclone Boiler Retrofit Feasibility Study carried out by TransAlta and an Operating Committee formed of cyclone boiler owners in 1989. An existing utility cyclone boiler, was then selected for the evaluation of the cost and performance study. It was concluded that the LNS Burner retrofit would be a cost-effective option for control of cyclone boiler emissions. A full-scale demonstration of the LNS Burner retrofit was selected in October 1988 as part of the DOE's Clean Coal Technology Program Round II.

  15. Fluidized-bed bioreactor process for the microbial solubiliztion of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Strandberg, Gerald W. (Farragut, TN)

    1989-01-01

    A fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fluidized-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fluidized-bed bioreactor.

  16. Fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the microbial solubilization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, C.D.; Strandberg, G.W.

    1987-09-14

    A fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fluidized-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fluidized-bed bioreactor. 2 figs.

  17. Numerical and experimental studies of IFE target layering in a cryogenic fluidized bed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boehm, Kurt Julian

    2009-01-01

    most gas-solid fluidized beds show a bubbling or chuggingfluidized state which is governed by bubbling behavior, the prediction of the bed

  18. Production of activated carbon from coconut shell char in a fluidized bed reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sai, P.M.S.; Ahmed, J. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Kalpakkam (India). Centralised Waste Management Facility; Krishnaiah, K. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-09-01

    Activated carbon is produced from coconut shell char using steam or carbon dioxide as the reacting gas in a 100 mm diameter fluidized bed reactor. The effect of process parameters such as reaction time, fluidizing velocity, particle size, static bed height, temperature of activation, fluidizing medium, and solid raw material on activation is studied. The product is characterized by determination of iodine number and BET surface area. The product obtained in the fluidized bed reactor is much superior in quality to the activated carbons produced by conventional processes. Based on the experimental observations, the optimum values of process parameters are identified.

  19. Current state of atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (AFBC) technology, a coal burning method that has several environmental and technical advantages over the more conventional technologies, such as pulverized-coal methods. The AFBC approach injects an air stream into a boiler in such a way that it mixes with solid fuel and sorbent to create a dense phase region or fluidized bed. This method makes it possible to use a much wider range of low-quality fuels and to burn them at lower temperatures with less pollutant by-product. The paper presents a comprehensive overview of AFBC technology to date. It includes worldwide development of this technology since the 1950s necessary to meet ever-stricter emissions requirements while providing greater fuel flexibility.

  20. Combustion of refuse derived fuel in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piao, Guilin; Aono, Shigeru; Mori, Shigekatsu; Deguchi, Seiichi; Fujima, Yukihisa; Kondoh, Motohiro; Yamaguchi, Masataka

    1998-12-31

    Power generation from Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) is an attractive utilization technology of municipal solid waste. To explain the behavior of RDF-fired fluidized bed incinerator, the commercial size RDF was continuously burnt in a 30 x 30 cm bubbling type fluidized-bed combustor. It was found that 12 kg/h of RDF feed rate was too high feed for this test unit and the Co level was higher than 500 ppm. However, 10 kg/h of RDF was a proper feed rate and the Co level was kept under 150 ppm. Secondary air injection and changing air ratio from the pipe grid were effective for the complete combustion of RDE. It was also found that HCl concentration in flue gas was controlled by the calcium component contained in RDF and its level was decreased with decreasing the combustor temperature.

  1. Fluidized-bed technology enabling the integration of high temperature solar receiver CSP systems with steam and advanced power cycles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sakadjian, B.; Hu, S.; Maryamchik, M.; Flynn, T.; Santelmann, K.; Ma, Z.

    2015-05-01

    Solar Particle Receivers (SPR) are under development to drive concentrating solar plants (CSP) towards higher operating temperatures to support higher efficiency power conversion cycles. The novel high temperature SPR-based CSP system uses solid particles as the heat transfer medium (HTM) in place of the more conventional fluids such as molten salt or steam used in current state-of-the-art CSP plants. The solar particle receiver (SPR) is designed to heat the HTM to temperatures of 800 °C or higher which is well above the operating temperatures of nitrate-based molten salt thermal energy storage (TES) systems. The solid particles also help overcome somemore »of the other challenges associated with molten salt-based systems such as freezing, instability and degradation. The higher operating temperatures and use of low cost HTM and higher efficiency power cycles are geared towards reducing costs associated with CSP systems. This paper describes the SPR-based CSP system with a focus on the fluidized-bed (FB) heat exchanger and its integration with various power cycles. The SPR technology provides a potential pathway to achieving the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) target of $0.06/kWh that has been set by the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot initiative.« less

  2. DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF NOVEL LOW-NOx BURNERS IN THE STEEL INDUSTRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cygan, David

    2006-12-28

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI), together with Hamworthy Peabody Combustion Incorporated (formerly Peabody Engineering Corporation), the University of Utah, and Far West Electrochemical have developed and demonstrated an innovative combustion system suitable for natural gas and coke-oven gas firing within the steel industry. The combustion system is a simple, low-cost, energy-efficient burner that can reduce NOx by more than 75%. The U.S. steel industry needs to address NOx control at its steelmaking facilities. A significant part of NOx emissions comes from gas-fired boilers. In steel plants, byproduct gases – blast furnace gas (BFG) and coke-oven gas (COG) – are widely used together with natural gas to fire furnaces and boilers. In steel plants, natural gas can be fired together with BFG and COG, but, typically, the addition of natural gas raises NOx emissions, which can already be high because of residual fuel-bound nitrogen in COG. The Project Team has applied its expertise in low-NOx burners to lower NOx levels for these applications by combining advanced burner geometry and combustion staging with control strategies tailored to mixtures of natural gas and byproduct fuel gases. These methods reduce all varieties of NOx – thermal NOx produced by high flame temperatures, prompt NOx produced by complex chain reactions involving radical hydrocarbon species and NOx from fuel-bound nitrogen compounds such as ammonia found in COG. The Project Team has expanded GTI’s highly successful low-NOx forced internal recirculation (FIR) burner, previously developed for natural gas-fired boilers, into facilities that utilize BFG and COG. For natural gas firing, these burners have been shown to reduce NOx emissions from typical uncontrolled levels of 80-100 vppm to single-digit levels (9 vppm). This is done without the energy efficiency penalties incurred by alternative NOx control methods, such as external flue gas recirculation (FGR), water injection, and selective non-catalytic reduction. The FIR burner was previously demonstrated on firetube and watertube boilers, and these units are still operating at several industrial and commercial boiler sites in sizes ranging from 2.5 to 60 million Btu/h. This report covers the development of an innovative combustion system suitable for natural gas or coke-oven gas firing within the steel industry. The prototype FIR burner was evaluated on a 20 million Btu/h watertube boiler. Acceptable burner performance was obtained when firing natural gas and simulated coke-oven gas doped with ammonia. The laboratory data reveals a direct relationship between NOx formation and the ammonia concentration in the fuel. In addition, NOx formation increases as the primary stoichiometric ratio (PSR) increases. Representative ammonia concentrations, as documented in the steel industry, ranged from 200 to 500 vppm. When the laboratory burner/boiler was operated with 500 vppm ammonia in the fuel, NOx emissions ranged from 50 to 75 vppm. This, conservatively, is 75% less than state-of-the-art burner performance. When the burner is operated with 200 vppm ammonia in the fuel, the corresponding NOx emissions would range from 30 to 45 vppm, 84% less than present burner technology. During field evaluation on a 174 million Btu/h industrial prototype burner both natural gas and actual COG from on-site generation were tested. Despite the elevated hydrogen cyanide and ammonia content in the COG throughout the test program, the FIR burner showed an improvement over baseline emissions. At full load; 167 million Btu/h, NOx emissions were relatively low at 169 vppm. This represents a 30% reduction compared to baseline emissions not accounting for the higher hydrogen cyanide content in the COG. CO emissions remained below 20 vppm and were stable across the firing range. This represents a 68% reduction compared to baseline CO emissions. When firing natural gas, emissions were stable as firing rate increased over the range. At low fire; 45 million Btu/h, NOx emissions where 33 vppm and increased at full load; 144 million Btu

  3. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustor apparatus and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansour, Momtaz N. (Columbia, MD)

    1992-01-01

    A pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed reactor system is disclosed and claimed along with a process for utilization of same for the combustion of, e.g. high sulfur content coal. The system affords a economical, ecologically acceptable alternative to oil and gas fired combustors. The apparatus may also be employed for endothermic reaction, combustion of waste products, e.g. organic and medical waste, drying, calcining and the like.

  4. Instantaneous pressure and heat transfer in pulse-stabilized fluidization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beasley, D.E.; Postle, M.C. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Pence, D.V. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics

    1996-12-31

    A hybrid combustor concept that couples a pulsed combustor with an atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed was developed by Manufacturing Technology Conversion International, Inc. (MTCI, Inc.) and licensed to Thermo-Chem, Inc. This Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed technology has technical advantages in energy efficiency and emissions and is currently in pilot scale demonstration on the campus of Clemson University. The present study examines the effect of an opposing oscillatory flow on the pressure and overall heat transfer in a bubbling gas-fluidized bed. This opposing flow models the flow in the tailpipe of a pulsed combustor. Pressure measurements at the wall and on a submerged horizontal cylinder clearly indicate that the bed hydrodynamics are significantly altered by the opposing secondary flow. Under operating conditions of low secondary flow rates and pulse frequencies, the dominant frequency of the pressure fluctuations measured in the bed shifts from the natural, unforced response of the bed to the imposed frequency. For higher fluidization and secondary flow rates both the natural and forced response of the bed are present. Overall and time-averaged local heat transfer measurements from a submerged horizontal cylinder clearly indicate that the heat transfer rates are significantly altered by the opposing secondary flow. The most dramatic increases in heat transfer, on the order of 12%, were identified with operating conditions with low primary and secondary flow rates and pulse frequencies near the natural frequency of the bed. The local heat transfer was most significantly altered at the stagnation point. A modified form of the Strouhal number is shown to effectively describe the effect of pulse stabilization on overall heat transfer.

  5. Method of feeding particulate material to a fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borio, Richard W. (Somers, CT); Goodstine, Stephen L. (Windsor, CT)

    1984-01-01

    A centrifugal spreader type feeder that supplies a mixture of particulate limestone and coal to the top of a fluidized bed reactor having a flow of air upward therethrough. Large particles of particulate matter are distributed over the upper surface of the bed to utilize the natural mixing within the bed, while fine particles are adapted to utilize an independent feeder that separates them from the large particles and injects them into the bed.

  6. Fluidized bed gasification ash reduction and removal system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schenone, Carl E. (Madison, PA); Rosinski, Joseph (Vanderbilt, PA)

    1984-02-28

    In a fluidized bed gasification system an ash removal system to reduce the particulate ash to a maximum size or smaller, allow the ash to cool to a temperature lower than the gasifier and remove the ash from the gasifier system. The system consists of a crusher, a container containing level probes and a means for controlling the rotational speed of the crusher based on the level of ash within the container.

  7. Fluidized bed gasification ash reduction and removal process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schenone, Carl E. (Madison, PA); Rosinski, Joseph (Vanderbilt, PA)

    1984-12-04

    In a fluidized bed gasification system an ash removal system to reduce the particulate ash to a maximum size or smaller, allow the ash to cool to a temperature lower than the gasifier and remove the ash from the gasifier system. The system consists of a crusher, a container containing level probes and a means for controlling the rotational speed of the crusher based on the level of ash within the container.

  8. Air fluidized balls in a background of smaller beads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. E. Beverland; L. J. Daniels; D. J. Durian

    2010-12-02

    We report on quasi-two-dimensional granular systems in which either one or two large balls is fluidized by an upflow of air in the presence of a background of several hundred smaller beads. A single large ball is observed to propel ballistically in nearly circular orbits, in direct contrast to the Brownian behavior of a large ball fluidized in the absence of this background. Further, the large ball motion satisfies a Langevin equation with an additional speed-dependent force acting in the direction of motion. This results in a non-zero average speed of the large ball that is an order of magnitude faster than the root mean square speed of the background balls. Two large balls fluidized in the absence of the small-bead background experience a repulsive force depending only on the separation of the two balls. With the background beads present, by contrast, the ball-ball interaction becomes velocity-dependent and attractive. The attraction is long-ranged and inconsistent with a depletion model; instead, it is mediated by local fluctuations in the density of the background beads which depends on the large balls' motion.

  9. A NEW INTERPHASE FORCE IN TWO-PHASE FLUIDIZED BEDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. ZHANG; W. VANDERHEYDEN

    2001-05-01

    Mesoscale structures such as particle clusters have been observed both in experiments and in numerical simulations of circulating fluidized beds. In a numerical simulation, in order to account for the effects of such mesoscale structures, the computational grids have to be fine enough. The use of such fine grids is impractical in engineering applications due to excessive computational costs. To predict the macroscopic behavior of a fluidized bed with reasonable computation cost, they perform a second average over the averaged equations for two-phase flows. A mesoscale inter-phase exchange force is found to be the correlation of the particle volume fraction and the pressure gradient. This force is related to the mesoscale added mass of the two-phase flow. Typically, added mass for particle scale interactions is negligible in gas-solid flows since the gas density is small compared to density of solid particles. However, for a mesoscale structure, such as a bubble, the surrounding media is the mixture of gas and particles. The surrounding fluid density experienced by the mesoscale structure is the density of the surrounding mixture. Therefore, the added mass of a mesoscale structure, such as bubbles, cannot be neglected. The property of this new force is studied based on the numerical simulation of a fluidized bed using high grid resolution. It is shown that this force is important in the region where the particle volume fraction is high. The effects of the inhomogeneity to the interphase drag are also studied.

  10. Propagating Waves in a Monolayer of Gas-Fluidized Rods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. J. Daniels; D. J. Durian

    2010-11-12

    We report on an observation of propagating compression waves in a quasi-two-dimensional monolayer of apolar granular rods fluidized by an upflow of air. The collective wave speed is an order of magnitude faster than the speed of the particles. This gives rise to anomalously large number fluctuations dN ~ $N^{0.72 \\pm 0.04}$, which are greater than ordinary number fluctuations of N^{1/2}. We characterize the waves by calculating the spatiotemporal power spectrum of the density. The position of observed peaks, as a function of frequency w and wavevector k, yields a linear dispersion relationship in the long-time, long-wavelength limit and a wavespeed c = w/k. Repeating this analysis for systems at different densities and air speeds, we observe a linear increase in the wavespeed with increasing packing fraction with no dependence on the airflow. Although air-fluidized rods self-propel individually or in dilute collections, the parallel and perpendicular root-mean-square speeds of the rods indicate that they no longer self-propel when propagating waves are present. Based on this mutual exclusivity, we map out the phase behavior for the existence of waves vs self-propulsion as a function of density and fluidizing airflow.

  11. Fluidized-bed combustion of scrap tires: Technical note

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shang, J.Y.; Mei, J.S.; Notestein, J.E.

    1981-10-01

    An introduction to fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) is presented in Section 2.0. Based on this discussion of its technical development, FBC is then presented as a means of scrap tire disposal. In Section 3.0, scrap tire disposal is reviewed in the categories of (1) physical applications, (2) chemical applications, (3) pyrolysis, and (4) incineration for thermal energy recovery. Scrap tire disposal is reviewed on the basis of (1) environmental acceptability, (2) conservation of resources, (3) impact on existing industries, (4) operational feasibility, and (5) special features. The focus of this report is the fluidized-bed incineration of scrap tires for thermal energy recovery. The factors that affect scrap tire combustion are discussed in Section 4.0. These factors are (1) agitation, (2) temperature, (3) excess air, (4) residence time, (5) feed uniformity, (6) solid waste handling, and (7) pollutants emission control. In reviewing these incineration processes, (1) fuel flexibility, (2) environmental acceptability, (3) combustion efficiency, and (4) operational reliability are discussed. The results from a tire incineration experiment conducted at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center are presented in Section 5.0, and a conceptual fluidized-bed combustor is discussed in Section 6.0. Future considerations in the FBC of scrap tires are discussed in Section 7.0. 8 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. A Tool for the Spectral Analysis of the Laser Doppler Anemometer Data of the Cambridge Stratified Swirl Burner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Ruigang; Balusamy, Saravanan; Hochgreb, Simone

    2012-06-08

    A series of flow fields generated by a turbulent methane/air stratified swirl burner are investigated using laser Doppler anemometer (LDA). The LDA provides flow field measurements with comparatively high temporal resolutions. However, processing...

  13. Design of a Low Energy, Self Contained Subsea Burrowing Robot Based on Localized Fluidization Exhibited by Atlantic Razor Clams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorsch, Daniel S.

    The Atlantic razor clam (Ensis directus) burrows by contracting its valves, fluidizing the surrounding soil and reducing burrowing drag. Moving through a fluidized, rather than static, soil requires energy that scales ...

  14. Evaluation of Fluid Conduction and Mixing within a Subassembly of the Actinide Burner Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cliff B. Davis

    2007-09-01

    The RELAP5-3D code is being considered as a thermal-hydraulic system code to support the development of the sodium-cooled Actinide Burner Test Reactor as part of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership. An evaluation was performed to determine whether the control system could be used to simulate the effects of non-convective mechanisms of heat transport in the fluid, including axial and radial heat conduction and subchannel mixing, that are not currently represented with internal code models. The evaluation also determined the relative importance of axial and radial heat conduction and fluid mixing on peak cladding temperature for a wide range of steady conditions and during a representative loss-of-flow transient. The evaluation was performed using a RELAP5-3D model of a subassembly in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II, which was used as a surrogate for the Actinide Burner Test Reactor.

  15. Method for reducing NOx during combustion of coal in a burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhou, Bing (Cranbury, NJ); Parasher, Sukesh (Lawrenceville, NJ); Hare, Jeffrey J. (Provo, UT); Harding, N. Stanley (North Salt Lake, UT); Black, Stephanie E. (Sandy, UT); Johnson, Kenneth R. (Highland, UT)

    2008-04-15

    An organically complexed nanocatalyst composition is applied to or mixed with coal prior to or upon introducing the coal into a coal burner in order to catalyze the removal of coal nitrogen from the coal and its conversion into nitrogen gas prior to combustion of the coal. This process leads to reduced NOx production during coal combustion. The nanocatalyst compositions include a nanoparticle catalyst that is made using a dispersing agent that can bond with the catalyst atoms. The dispersing agent forms stable, dispersed, nano-sized catalyst particles. The catalyst composition can be formed as a stable suspension to facilitate storage, transportation and application of the catalyst nanoparticles to a coal material. The catalyst composition can be applied before or after pulverizing the coal material or it may be injected directly into the coal burner together with pulverized coal.

  16. Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This Public Design Report provides available nonproprietary design information on the Low NO{sub x}SO{sub x} Burner Retrofit of Utility Cyclone Boilers project. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project, the organization of the project, and the role of the funding parties are discussed. An overview of the Low NO{sub x}SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner, the cyclone boiler and the Southern Illinois Power Cooperative host site is presented. A detailed nonproprietary description of the individual process steps, plant systems, and resulting performance then follows. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions and requirements are given for each unit. The plant demonstration program and start up provisions, the environmental considerations and control, monitoring and safety factors that are considered are also addressed.

  17. Pollutant Exposures from Natural Gas Cooking Burners: A Simulation-Based Assessment for Southern California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logue, Jennifer M.; Klepeis, Neil E.; Lobscheid, Agnes B.; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-06-01

    Residential natural gas cooking burners (NGCBs) can emit substantial quantities of pollutants and they are typically used without venting. The objective of this study is to quantify pollutant concentrations and occupant exposures resulting from NGCB use in California homes. A mass balance model was applied to estimate time-dependent pollutant concentrations throughout homes and the "exposure concentrations" experienced by individual occupants. The model was applied to estimate nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations for one week each in summer and winter for a representative sample of Southern California homes. The model simulated pollutant emissions from NGCBs, NO{sub 2} and CO entry from outdoors, dilution throughout the home, and removal by ventilation and deposition. Residence characteristics and outdoor concentrations of CO and NO{sub 2} were obtained from available databases. Ventilation rates, occupancy patterns, and burner use were inferred from household characteristics. Proximity to the burner(s) and the benefits of using venting range hoods were also explored. Replicate model executions using independently generated sets of stochastic variable values yielded estimated pollutant concentration distributions with geometric means varying less than 10%. The simulation model estimates that in homes using NGCBs without coincident use of venting range hoods, 62%, 9%, and 53% of occupants are routinely exposed to NO{sub 2}, CO, and HCHO levels that exceed acute health-based standards and guidelines. NGCB use increased the sample median of the highest simulated 1-hr indoor concentrations by 100, 3000, and 20 ppb for NO{sub 2}, CO, and HCHO, respectively. Reducing pollutant exposures from NGCBs should be a public health priority. Simulation results suggest that regular use of even moderately effective venting range hoods would dramatically reduce the percentage of homes in which concentrations exceed health-based standards.

  18. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion. Technical progress report, April 1992--June 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The general specifications for a Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor Design Report (PAFBC) plant are presented. The design tasks for the PAFBC are described in the following areas: Coal/Limestone preparation and feed system; pulse combustor; fluidized bed; boiler parts; and ash handling system.

  19. Operation of a steam hydro-gasifier in a fluidized bed reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Chan Seung; Norbeck, Joseph N.

    2008-01-01

    OF A S T E A M HYDRO-GASIFIER IN A FLUIDIZED BED REACTOROF A S T E A M HYDRO-GASIFIER IN A FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR F Iis fed into a hydro-gasifier reactor. One such process was

  20. Zevenhoven & Kilpinen NITROGEN 13.4.2002 4-34 4.11 Chemistry of nitrogen oxides at atmospheric fluidized bed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    : - Bubbling fluidized bed combustion (BFBC) is a combustion method where the velocity of the gasflow upwards fluidized bed combustion, where the interaction between gas and particles is more intensive than in bubbling fluidized bed combustion In fluidized bed combustion, the combustion takes place in a bed of particles

  1. Development of the Radiation Stabilized Distributed Flux Burner, Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, A.; Sullivan, J.D.

    1997-06-01

    This report covers progress made during Phase 2 of a three-phase DOE-sponsored project to develop and demonstrate the Radiation Stabilized Distributed Flux burner (also referred to as the Radiation Stabilized Burner, or RSB) for use in industrial watertube boilers and process heaters. The goal of the DOE-sponsored work is to demonstrate an industrial boiler burner with NOx emissions below 9 ppm and CO emissions below 50 ppm (corrected to 3% stack oxygen). To be commercially successful, these very low levels of NOx and CO must be achievable without significantly affecting other measures of burner performance such as reliability, turndown, and thermal efficiency. Phase 1 of the project demonstrated that sub-9 ppm NOx emissions and sub-50 ppm CO emissions (corrected to 3% oxygen) could be achieved with the RSB in a 3 million Btu/Hr laboratory boiler using several methods of NOx reduction. The RSB was also tested in a 60 million Btu/hr steam generator used by Chevron for Thermally Enhanced Oil Recovery (TEOR). In the larger scale tests, fuel staging was demonstrated, with the RSB consistently achieving sub-20 ppm NOx and as low as 10 ppm NOx. Large-scale steam generator tests also demonstrated that flue gas recirculation (FGR) provided a more predictable and reliable method of achieving sub-9 ppm NOx levels. Based on the results of tests at San Francisco Thermal and Chevron, the near-term approach selected by Alzeta for achieving low NOx is to use FGR. This decision was based on a number of factors, with the most important being that FGR has proved to be an easier approach to transfer to different facilities and boiler designs. In addition, staging has proved difficult to implement in a way that allows good combustion and emissions performance in a fully modulating system. In Phase 3 of the project, the RSB will be demonstrated as a very low emissions burner product suitable for continuous operation in a commercial installation. As such, the Phase 3 field demonstration will represent the first installation in which the RSB will be operated continuously with a sub-9 ppm guarantee.

  2. Enhanced durability of desulfurization sorbents for fluidized-bed applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1992-11-01

    To extend the operating temperature range and further improve the durability of fluidizable sorbents, zinc titanate, another leading regenerable sorbent, was selected for development in the later part of this project. A number of zinc titanate formulations were prepared in the 50 to 300 [mu]m range using granulation and spray drying methods. Important sorbent preparation variables investigated included zinc to titanium ratio, binder type, binder amount, and various chemical additives such as cobalt and molybdenum. A number of sorbents selected on the basis of screening tests were subjected to bench-scale testing for 10 cycles at high temperature, high pressure (HTHP) conditions using the reactor system designed and constructed during the base program. This reactor system is capable of operation either as a 2.0 in. or 3.0 in. I.D. bubbling bed and is rated up to 20 atm operation at 871[degrees]C. Bench-scale testing variables included sorbent type, temperature (550 to 750[degrees]C), gas type (KRW or Texaco gasifier gas), steam content of coal gas, and fluidizing gas velocity (6 to 15 cm/s). The sorbents prepared by spray drying showed poor performance in terms of attrition resistance and chemical reactivity. On the other hand, the granulation method proved to be very successful. For example, a highly attrition-resistant zinc titanate formulation, ZT-4, prepared by granulation exhibited virtually no zinc loss and demonstrated a constant high reactivity and sulfur capacity over 10 cycles, i.e., approximately a 60 percent capacity utilization, with Texaco gas at 750[degrees]C, 15 cm/s fluidizing velocity and 15 atm pressure. The commercial potential of the granulation method for zinc titanate manufacture was demonstrated by preparing two 80 lb batches of sorbent with zinc to titanium mol ratios of 0.8 and 1.5.

  3. Enhanced durability of desulfurization sorbents for fluidized-bed applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1992-11-01

    To extend the operating temperature range and further improve the durability of fluidizable sorbents, zinc titanate, another leading regenerable sorbent, was selected for development in the later part of this project. A number of zinc titanate formulations were prepared in the 50 to 300 {mu}m range using granulation and spray drying methods. Important sorbent preparation variables investigated included zinc to titanium ratio, binder type, binder amount, and various chemical additives such as cobalt and molybdenum. A number of sorbents selected on the basis of screening tests were subjected to bench-scale testing for 10 cycles at high temperature, high pressure (HTHP) conditions using the reactor system designed and constructed during the base program. This reactor system is capable of operation either as a 2.0 in. or 3.0 in. I.D. bubbling bed and is rated up to 20 atm operation at 871{degrees}C. Bench-scale testing variables included sorbent type, temperature (550 to 750{degrees}C), gas type (KRW or Texaco gasifier gas), steam content of coal gas, and fluidizing gas velocity (6 to 15 cm/s). The sorbents prepared by spray drying showed poor performance in terms of attrition resistance and chemical reactivity. On the other hand, the granulation method proved to be very successful. For example, a highly attrition-resistant zinc titanate formulation, ZT-4, prepared by granulation exhibited virtually no zinc loss and demonstrated a constant high reactivity and sulfur capacity over 10 cycles, i.e., approximately a 60 percent capacity utilization, with Texaco gas at 750{degrees}C, 15 cm/s fluidizing velocity and 15 atm pressure. The commercial potential of the granulation method for zinc titanate manufacture was demonstrated by preparing two 80 lb batches of sorbent with zinc to titanium mol ratios of 0.8 and 1.5.

  4. Dynamical Simulation of Fluidized Beds --- Hydrodynamically Interacting Granular Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kengo Ichiki; Hisao Hayakawa

    1995-03-01

    A numerical simulation of a gas-fluidized bed is performed without introduction of any empirical parameters. Realistic bubbles and slugs are observed in our simulation. It is found that the convective motion of particles is important for the bubbling phase and there is no convection in the slugging phase. From the simulation results, non-Gaussian distributions are found in the particle velocities and the relation between the deviation from Gaussian and the local density of particles is suggested. It is also shown that the power spectra of particle velocities obey power laws. A brief explanation on the relationship between the simulation results and the Kolmogorov scaling argument is discussed.

  5. MODELING AND SIMULATION OF SOLID FLUIDIZATION IN A RESIN COLUMN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.

    2014-06-24

    The objective of the present work is to model the resin particles within the column during fluidization and sedimentation processes using computation fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. The calculated results will help interpret experimental results, and they will assist in providing guidance on specific details of testing design and establishing a basic understanding of particle’s hydraulic characteristics within the column. The model is benchmarked against the literature data and the test data (2003) conducted at Savannah River Site (SRS). The paper presents the benchmarking results and the modeling predictions of the SRS resin column using the improved literature correlations applicable for liquid-solid granular flow.

  6. Standby cooling system for a fluidized bed boiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crispin, Larry G. (Akron, OH); Weitzel, Paul S. (Canal Fulton, OH)

    1990-01-01

    A system for protecting components including the heat exchangers of a fluidized bed boiler against thermal mismatch. The system includes an injection tank containing an emergency supply of heated and pressurized feedwater. A heater is associated with the injection tank to maintain the temperature of the feedwater in the tank at or about the same temperature as that of the feedwater in the heat exchangers. A pressurized gas is supplied to the injection tank to cause feedwater to flow from the injection tank to the heat exchangers during thermal mismatch.

  7. Enhanced Productivity of Chemical Processes Using Dense Fluidized Beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sibashis Banerjee; Alvin Chen; Rutton Patel; Dale Snider; Ken Williams; Timothy O'Hern; Paul Tortora

    2008-02-29

    The work detailed in this report addresses Enabling Technologies within Computational Technology by integrating a “breakthrough” particle-fluid computational technology into traditional Process Science and Engineering Technology. The work completed under this DOE project addresses five major development areas 1) gas chemistry in dense fluidized beds 2) thermal cracking of liquid film on solids producing gas products 3) liquid injection in a fluidized bed with particle-to-particle liquid film transport 4) solid-gas chemistry and 5) first level validation of models. Because of the nature of the research using tightly coupled solids and fluid phases with a Lagrangian description of the solids and continuum description of fluid, the work provides ground-breaking advances in reactor prediction capability. This capability has been tested against experimental data where available. The commercial product arising out of this work is called Barracuda and is suitable for a wide (dense-to-dilute) range of industrial scale gas-solid flows with and without reactions. Commercial applications include dense gas-solid beds, gasifiers, riser reactors and cyclones.

  8. Naturalness Under Stress: SUSY after 5 fb-1 West Coast LHC Meeting, December, 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Naturalness Under Stress: SUSY after 5 fb-1 West Coast LHC Meeting, December, 2011 Michael Dine of us in some productive, new directions. Some of the arguments will be bottom up, some top down scale in the TeV MZ energy range. Possibly within two weeks and almost certainly within a year, we

  9. JV Task 108 - Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion and Combustion Testing of Turkish Tufanbeyli Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas Hajicek; Jay Gunderson; Ann Henderson; Stephen Sollom; Joshua Stanislowski

    2007-08-15

    Two combustion tests were performed at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) using Tufanbeyli coal from Turkey. The tests were performed in a circulating fluidized-bed combustor (CFBC) and a pulverized coal-fired furnace, referred to as the combustion test facility (CTF). One of the goals of the project was to determine the type of furnace best suited to this coal. The coal is high in moisture, ash, and sulfur and has a low heating value. Both the moisture and the sulfur proved problematic for the CTF tests. The fuel had to be dried to less than 37% moisture before it could be pulverized and further dried to about 25% moisture to allow more uniform feeding into the combustor. During some tests, water was injected into the furnace to simulate the level of flue gas moisture had the fuel been fed without drying. A spray dryer was used downstream of the baghouse to remove sufficient sulfur to meet the EERC emission standards permitted by the North Dakota Department of Health. In addition to a test matrix varying excess air, burner swirl, and load, two longer-term tests were performed to evaluate the fouling potential of the coal at two different temperatures. At the lower temperature (1051 C), very little ash was deposited on the probes, but deposition did occur on the walls upstream of the probe bank, forcing an early end to the test after 2 hours and 40 minutes of testing. At the higher temperature (1116 C), ash deposition on the probes was significant, resulting in termination of the test after only 40 minutes. The same coal was burned in the CFBC, but because the CFBC uses a larger size of material, it was able to feed this coal at a higher moisture content (average of 40.1%) compared to the CTF (ranging from 24.2% to 26.9%). Sulfur control was achieved with the addition of limestone to the bed, although the high calcium-to-sulfur rate required to reduce SO{sub 2} emissions resulted in heat loss (through limestone calcination) and additional ash handling. A more efficient downstream sulfur scrubber capable of operation at a much lower Ca/S ratio would result in significantly higher boiler efficiency for this coal. At the operating temperature of a typical CFBC, bed agglomeration and convective pass fouling are not likely to be significant problems with this fuel. Compared to pulverized coal-firing, CFBC technology is clearly the better choice for this fuel. It provides more efficient sulfur capture, lower NO{sub x} emissions, better solids-handling capability, and can utilize a wetter feedstock, requiring less crushing and sizing. The lower operating temperature of CFBC boilers (820 C) reduces the risk of fouling and agglomeration. Care must be taken to minimize heat loss in the system to accommodate the low heating value of the coal.

  10. Hot repair of ceramic burner on hot blast stoves at USS/Kobe`s {number_sign}3 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernarding, T.F.; Chemorov, M.; Shimono, S.; Phillips, G.R.

    1997-12-31

    During the 1992 reline of the No. 3 blast furnace, three new stoves were constructed. The design of the stoves, equipped with internal ceramic burners, was for providing a hot blast temperature of 2,000 F at a wind rate of 140,000 SCFM. After 3 years the performance had deteriorated so the burners were cleaned. When a second cleaning did not improve the performance of No. 3 blast furnace, it was decided to repair the refractory while still hot. The paper describes the hot repair procedures, taking a stove off for repairs, maintenance heat up during repairs, two stove operation, stove commissioning, repair of a ceramic burner, and wet gas prevention.

  11. Combustion characteristics and NOx emissions of two kinds of swirl burners in a 300-MWe wall-fired pulverized-coal utility boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Z.Q.; Jing, J.P.; Chen, Z.C.; Ren, F.; Xu, B.; Wei, H.D.; Ge, Z.H.

    2008-07-01

    Measurements were performed in a 300-MWe wall-fired pulverized-coal utility boiler. Enhanced ignition-dual register (EI-DR) burners and centrally fuel rich (CFR) swirl coal combustion burners were installed in the bottom row of the furnace during experiments. Local mean concentrations of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2} and NOx gas species, gas temperatures, and char burnout were determined in the region of the two types of burners. For centrally fuel rich swirl coal combustion burners, local mean CO concentrations, gas temperatures and the temperature gradient are higher and mean concentrations of O{sub 2} and NOx along the jet flow direction in the burner region are lower than for the enhanced ignition-dual register burners. Moreover, the mean O{sub 2} concentration is higher and the gas temperature and mean CO concentration are lower in the side wall region. For centrally fuel rich swirl coal combustion burners in the bottom row, the combustion efficiency of the boiler increases from 96.73% to 97.09%, and NOx emission decreases from 411.5 to 355 ppm at 6% O{sub 2} compared to enhanced ignition-dual register burners and the boiler operates stably at 110 MWe without auxiliary fuel oil.

  12. Development of a full-flow burner regeneration type diesel particulate filter using SiC honeycomb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okazoe, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Kenji; Watanabe, Yoshito; Santiago, E.; Kugland, P.; Ruth, W.

    1996-09-01

    A diesel particulate filter (DPF) for city buses was developed that combines a SiC filter and a full-now type burner for regeneration. Filter crack problems were averted by suppressing the peak temperature inside the filter to under 900 C. This was done by setting the maximum tolerable amount of collected particulate mass before regeneration at 50 g and controlling the burner so as to increase the regeneration gas temperature slowly up to a set value. This DPF was retrofitted to a Tokyo metropolitan bus to conduct a field test. The field test has been under way for half a year without any trouble or deterioration of system performance.

  13. Interaction of water waves with fluidized mud in a rectangular trench 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lemasson, Wilfrid Joel Christian

    1994-01-01

    The dynamic response of fluidized mud in a rectangular trench to water waves propagating over the trench was studied experimentally. It was shown that the motion of the fluid mud became large compared to the surface wave ...

  14. Method and apparatus for improving heat transfer in a fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lessor, Delbert L. (Richland, WA); Robertus, Robert J. (Richland, WA)

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus contains a fluidized bed that includes particles of different triboelectrical types, each particle type acquiring an opposite polarity upon contact. The contact may occur between particles of the two types or between particles of etiher type and structure or fluid present in the apparatus. A fluidizing gas flow is passed through the particles to produce the fluidized bed. Immersed within the bed are electrodes. An alternating EMF source connected to the electrodes applies an alternating electric field across the fluidized bed to cause particles of the first type to move relative to particles of the second type and relative to the gas flow. In a heat exchanger incorporating the apparatus, the electrodes are conduits conveying a fluid to be heated. The two particle types alternately contact each conduit to transfer heat from a hot gas flow to the second fluid within the conduit.

  15. Particle simulation of vibrated gas-fluidized beds of cohesive fine powders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung Joon Moon; I. G. Kevrekidis; S. Sundaresan

    2006-08-09

    We use three-dimensional particle dynamics simulations, coupled with volume-averaged gas phase hydrodynamics, to study vertically vibrated gas-fluidized beds of fine, cohesive powders. The volume-averaged interstitial gas flow is restricted to be one-dimensional (1D). This simplified model captures the spontaneous development of 1D traveling waves, which corresponds to bubble formation in real fluidized beds. We use this model to probe the manner in which vibration and gas flow combine to influence the dynamics of cohesive particles. We find that as the gas flow rate increases, cyclic pressure pulsation produced by vibration becomes more and more significant than direct impact, and in a fully fluidized bed this pulsation is virtually the only relevant mechanism. We demonstrate that vibration assists fluidization by creating large tensile stresses during transient periods, which helps break up the cohesive assembly into agglomerates.

  16. Empirical models of emissions and energy efficiencies of coal-fired fluidized bed power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gruhl, Jim

    Mass and energy balances of fluidized bed energy technologies are to a significant degree dependent upon the specific design being investigated. It is difficult to make any generally accurate comments. about these balances. ...

  17. Design and performance of a high-pressure Fischer-Tropsch fluidized bed reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimer, A.W.; Quarderer, G.J.; Cochran, G.A.; Conway, M.M. )

    1988-01-01

    A 900 kg/day, CO/H/sub 2/, high-pressure, fluidized bed, pilot reactor was designed from first principles to achieve high reactant conversions and heat removal rates for the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG's). Suppressed bubble growth at high pressure allowed high reactant conversions which nearly matched those obtained at identical conditions in a lab scale fixed bed reactor. For GHSV approximately 1400 hr/sup -1/ and T = 658 {Kappa} at P approximately 7000 {kappa}Pa, reactant conversion exceeded 75%. The reactor heat removal capability exceeded twice design performance with the fluidized bed easily operating under thermally stable conditions. The fluidized catalyst was a potassium promoted, molybdenum on carbon (Mo/{Kappa}/C) catalyst which did not produce any detrimental waxy products. Long catalyst lifetimes of 1000 hrs on steam between regenerations allowed the fluidized bed to be operated in a batch mode.

  18. Operation of a steam hydro-gasifier in a fluidized bed reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Chan Seung; Norbeck, Joseph N.

    2008-01-01

    OPERATION OF A S T E A M HYDRO-GASIFIER IN A FLUIDIZED BEDMaterial Using Self-Sustained Hydro- Gasification." [0011]the process, using a steam hydro-gasification reactor (SHR)

  19. Modeling of char oxidation in fluidized bed biomass gasifiers : effects of transport and chemical kinetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brooks, Amelia (Amelia Samek)

    2015-01-01

    Technologies for the conversion of biomass to liquid fuels are important to develop because the demand for liquid fuels remains unchanged even with the necessity of limiting dependence on fossil fuels. Fluidized Bed Biomass ...

  20. Operating Experience of a Coal Fired Fluidized Bed at Georgetown University 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutes, I. G.; Gamble, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Operation of the 100,000 lb/hr capacity, coal fired fluidized bed steam generator at Georgetown University began in July 1979. This project, which was co-funded by Georgetown University and the U. S. Department of Energy, ...

  1. Modeling Population Exposures to Pollutants Emitted from Natural Gas Cooking Burners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobscheid, Agnes; Singer, Brett C.; Klepeis, Neil E.

    2011-06-01

    We developed a physics-based data-supported model to investigate indoor pollutant exposure distributions resulting from use of natural gas cooking appliances across households in California. The model was applied to calculate time-resolved indoor concentrations of CO, NO2 and formaldehyde resulting from cooking burners and entry with outdoor air. Exposure metrics include 1-week average concentrations and frequency of exceeding ambient air quality standards. We present model results for Southern California (SoCal) using two air-exchange scenarios in winter: (1) infiltration-only, and (2) air exchange rate (AER) sampled from lognormal distributions derived from measurements. In roughly 40percent of homes in the SoCal cohort (N=6634) the 1-hour USEPA NO2 standard (190 ?g/m3) was exceeded at least once. The frequency of exceeding this standard was largely independent of AER assumption, and related primarily to building volume, emission rate and amount of burner use. As expected, AER had a more substantial impact on one-week average concentrations.

  2. Multi-ported, internally recuperated burners for direct flame impingement heating applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbasi, Hamid A. (Naperville, IL); Kurek, Harry (Dyer, IN); Chudnovsky, Yaroslav (Skokie, IL); Lisienko, Vladimir G. (Ekaterinburg, RU); Malikov, German K. (Ekaterinburg, RU)

    2010-08-03

    A direct flame impingement method and apparatus employing at least one multi-ported, internally recuperated burner. The burner includes an innermost coaxial conduit having a first fluid inlet end and a first fluid outlet end, an outermost coaxial conduit disposed around the innermost coaxial conduit and having a combustion products outlet end proximate the first fluid inlet end of the innermost coaxial conduit and a combustion products inlet end proximate the first fluid outlet end of the innermost coaxial conduit, and a coaxial intermediate conduit disposed between the innermost coaxial conduit and the outermost coaxial conduit, whereby a second fluid annular region is formed between the innermost coaxial conduit and the intermediate coaxial conduit and a combustion products annular region is formed between the intermediate coaxial conduit and the outermost coaxial conduit. The intermediate coaxial conduit has a second fluid inlet end proximate the first fluid inlet end of the innermost coaxial conduit and a second fluid outlet end proximate the combustion products inlet end of the outermost coaxial conduit.

  3. Swozzle based burner tube premixer including inlet air conditioner for low emissions combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuthill, Richard Sterling (Bolton, CT); Bechtel, II, William Theodore (Scotia, NY); Benoit, Jeffrey Arthur (Scotia, NY); Black, Stephen Hugh (Duanesburg, NY); Bland, Robert James (Clifton Park, NY); DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne (Scotia, NY); Meyer, Stefan Martin (Troy, NY); Taura, Joseph Charles (Clifton Park, NY); Battaglioli, John Luigi (Glenville, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A burner for use in a combustion system of a heavy-duty industrial gas turbine includes a fuel/air premixer having an air inlet, a fuel inlet, and an annular mixing passage. The fuel/air premixer mixes fuel and air into a uniform mixture for injection into a combustor reaction zone. The burner also includes an inlet flow conditioner disposed at the air inlet of the fuel/air premixer for controlling a radial and circumferential distribution of incoming air. The pattern of perforations in the inlet flow conditioner is designed such that a uniform air flow distribution is produced at the swirler inlet annulus in both the radial and circumference directions. The premixer includes a swozzle assembly having a series of preferably air foil shaped turning vanes that impart swirl to the airflow entering via the inlet flow conditioner. Each air foil contains internal fuel flow passages that introduce natural gas fuel into the air stream via fuel metering holes that pass through the walls of the air foil shaped turning vanes. By injecting fuel in this manner, an aerodynamically clean flow field is maintained throughout the premixer. By injecting fuel via two separate passages, the fuel/air mixture strength distribution can be controlled in the radial direction to obtain optimum radial concentration profiles for control of emissions, lean blow outs, and combustion driven dynamic pressure activity as machine and combustor load are varied.

  4. Continuous fluidized-bed contactor with recycle of sorbent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Petersen, James N. (Moscow, ID); Davison, Brian H. (Knoxville, TN)

    1996-01-01

    A continuous fluidized-bed contactor containing sorbent particles is used to remove solutes from liquid solvents. As the sorbent particles, for example gel beads, sorb the solute, for example metal ion species, the sorbent particles tend to decrease in diameter. These smaller loaded sorbent particles rise to the top of the contactor, as larger sorbent particles remain at the bottom of the contactor as a result of normal hydraulic forces. The smaller loaded sorbent particles are then recovered, regenerated, and reintroduced into the contactor. Alternatively, the loaded sorbent particles may also slightly increase in diameter, or exhibit no change in diameter but an increase in density. As a result of normal hydraulic forces the larger loaded sorbent particles fall to the bottom of the contactor. The larger loaded sorbent particles are then recovered, regenerated, and reintroduced into the contactor.

  5. Continuous fluidized-bed contactor with recycle of sorbent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, C.D.; Petersen, J.N.; Davison, B.H.

    1996-07-09

    A continuous fluidized-bed contactor containing sorbent particles is used to remove solutes from liquid solvents. As the sorbent particles, for example gel beads, sorb the solute, for example metal ion species, the sorbent particles tend to decrease in diameter. These smaller loaded sorbent particles rise to the top of the contactor, and larger sorbent particles remain at the bottom of the contactor as a result of normal hydraulic forces. The smaller loaded sorbent particles are then recovered, regenerated, and reintroduced into the contactor. Alternatively, the loaded sorbent particles may also slightly increase in diameter, or exhibit no change in diameter but an increase in density. As a result of normal hydraulic forces the larger loaded sorbent particles fall to the bottom of the contactor. The larger loaded sorbent particles are then recovered, regenerated, and reintroduced into the contactor. 8 figs.

  6. Disposal options for burner ash from spent graphite fuel. Final study report November 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinto, A.P.

    1994-08-01

    Three major disposal alternatives are being considered for Fort St. Vrain Reactor (FSVR) and Peach Bottom Reactor (PBR) spent fuels: direct disposal of packaged, intact spent fuel elements; (2) removal of compacts to separate fuel into high-level waste (HLW) and low-level waste (LLW); and (3) physical/chemical processing to reduce waste volumes and produce stable waste forms. For the third alternative, combustion of fuel matrix graphite and fuel particle carbon coatings is a preferred technique for head-end processing as well as for volume reduction and chemical pretreatment prior to final fixation, packaging, and disposal of radioactive residuals (fissile and fertile materials together with fission and activation products) in a final repository. This report presents the results of a scoping study of alternate means for processing and/or disposal of fissile-bearing particles and ash remaining after combustion of FSVR and PBR spent graphite fuels. Candidate spent fuel ash (SFA) waste forms in decreasing order of estimated technical feasibility include glass-ceramics (GCs), polycrystalline ceramic assemblages (PCAs), and homogeneous amorphous glass. Candidate SFA waste form production processes in increasing order of estimated effort and cost for implementation are: low-density GCs via fuel grinding and simultaneous combustion and waste form production in a slagging cyclone combustor (SCC); glass or low-density GCs via fluidized bed SFA production followed by conventional melting of SFA and frit; PCAs via fluidized bed SFA production followed by hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) of SFA/frit mixtures; and high-density GCs via fluidized bed SFA production followed by HIPing of Calcine/Frit/SFA mixtures.

  7. Investigation on Flame Characteristics and Burner Operability Issues of Oxy-Fuel Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhuri, Ahsan

    2013-05-30

    Oxy-fuel combustion has been used previously in a wide range of industrial applications. Oxy- combustion is carried out by burning a hydrocarbon fuel with oxygen instead of air. Flames burning in this configuration achieve higher flame temperatures which present opportunities for significant efficiency improvements and direct capture of CO{sub 2} from the exhaust stream. In an effort to better understand and characterize the fundamental flame characteristics of oxy-fuel combustion this research presents the experimental measurements of flame stability of various oxyfuel flames. Effects of H{sub 2} concentration, fuel composition, exhaust gas recirculation ratio, firing inputs, and burner diameters on the flame stability of these fuels are discussed. Effects of exhaust gas recirculation i.e. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O (steam) acting as diluents on burner operability are also presented. The roles of firing input on flame stability are then analyzed. For this study it was observed that many oxy-flames did not stabilize without exhaust gas recirculation due to their higher burning velocities. In addition, the stability regime of all compositions was observed to decrease as the burner diameter increased. A flashback model is also presented, using the critical velocity gradient g{sub F}) values for CH{sub 4}-O{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} flames. The scaling relation (𝐠{sub F} = 𝐜 𝐒{sub 𝐋}{sup 2}/𝛂) for different burner diameters was obtained for various diameter burners. The report shows that results correlated linearly with a scaling value of c =0.0174. The second part of the study focuses on the experimental measurements of the flow field characteristics of premixed CH{sub 4}/21%O{sub 2}/79%N{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}/38%O{sub 2}/72%CO{sub 2} mixtures at constant firing input of 7.5 kW, constant, equivalence ratio of 0.8, constant swirl number of 0.92 and constant Reynolds Numbers. These measurements were taken in a swirl stabilized combustor at atmospheric pressure. The flow field visualization using Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) technique is implemented to make a better understanding of the turbulence characteristics of CH{sub 4}/air and CH{sub 4}/38%O{sub 2}/72%CO{sub 2} combustion. The velocity fluctuations, turbulence intensities and local propagation velocities along the combustion chamber have been determined. The turbulent intensities increase as we move away from the combustor axis. CH{sub 4}-38%O{sub 2}-72%CO{sub 2} flames have low radial velocity and turbulent intensity distributions at different axial distances when compared with CH{sub 4}-Air flames.

  8. Durability Testing of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JANTZEN, CAROL M.; PAREIZS, JOHN M.; LORIER, TROY H.; MARRA, JAMES C.

    2005-07-01

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of radioactive wastes but especially aqueous high sodium wastes at the Hanford site, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The FBSR technology converts organic compounds to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, converts nitrate/nitrite species to N{sub 2}, and produces a solid residue through reactions with superheated steam, the fluidizing media. If clay is added during processing a ''mineralized'' granular waste form can be produced. The mineral components of the waste form are primarily Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage-like and ring structures and iron bearing spinel minerals. The cage and ring structured minerals atomically bond radionuclides like Tc{sup 99} and Cs{sup 137} and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The spinel minerals appear to stabilize Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous species such as Cr and Ni. Durability testing of the FBSR products was performed using ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The FBSR mineral products (bed and fines) evaluated in this study were found to be two orders of magnitude more durable than the Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) glass requirement of 2 g/m{sup 2} release of Na{sup +}. The PCT responses for the FBSR samples tested were consistent with results from previous FBSR Hanford LAW product testing. Differences in the response can be explained by the minerals formed and their effects on PCT leachate chemistry.

  9. Decay constants $f_B$ and $f_{B_s}$ from HISQ simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fermilab Lattice; MILC Collaborations; :; A. Bazavov; C. Bernard; C. Bouchard; N. Brown; C. DeTar; D. Du; A. X. El-Khadra; E. D. Freeland; E. Gámiz; Steven Gottlieb; U. M. Heller; J. Komijani; A. S. Kronfeld; J. Laiho; L. Levkova; P. B. Mackenzie; C. Monahan; T. Primer; Heechang Na; E. T. Neil; J. N. Simone; R. L. Sugar; D. Toussaint; R. S. Van de Water; R. Zhou

    2015-11-07

    We give a progress report on a project aimed at a high-precision calculation of the decay constants $f_B$ and $f_{B_s}$ from simulations with HISQ heavy and light valence and sea quarks. Calculations are carried out with several heavy valence-quark masses on ensembles with 2+1+1 flavors of HISQ sea quarks at five lattice spacings and several light sea-quark mass ratios $m_{ud}/m_s$, including approximately physical sea-quark masses. This range of parameters provides excellent control of the continuum limit and of heavy-quark discretization errors. We present a preliminary error budget with projected uncertainties of 2.2~MeV and 1.5~MeV for $f_B$ and $f_{B_s}$, respectively.

  10. Decay constants $f_B$ and $f_{B_s}$ from HISQ simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lattice, Fermilab; Bazavov, A; Bernard, C; Bouchard, C; Brown, N; DeTar, C; Du, D; El-Khadra, A X; Freeland, E D; Gámiz, E; Gottlieb, Steven; Heller, U M; Komijani, J; Kronfeld, A S; Laiho, J; Levkova, L; Mackenzie, P B; Monahan, C; Primer, T; Na, Heechang; Neil, E T; Simone, J N; Sugar, R L; Toussaint, D; Van de Water, R S; Zhou, R

    2015-01-01

    We give a progress report on a project aimed at a high-precision calculation of the decay constants $f_B$ and $f_{B_s}$ from simulations with HISQ heavy and light valence and sea quarks. Calculations are carried out with several heavy valence-quark masses on ensembles with 2+1+1 flavors of HISQ sea quarks at five lattice spacings and several light sea-quark mass ratios $m_{ud}/m_s$, including approximately physical sea-quark masses. This range of parameters provides excellent control of the continuum limit and of heavy-quark discretization errors. We present a preliminary error budget with projected uncertainties of 2.2~MeV and 1.5~MeV for $f_B$ and $f_{B_s}$, respectively.

  11. Pollutant exposures from unvented gas cooking burners: A Simulation-based Assessment for Southern California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logue, Jennifer M.; Klepeis, Neil E.; Lobscheid, Agnes B.; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-01-01

    Residential natural gas cooking burners (NGCBs) can emit substantial quantities of pollutants, and they are typically used without venting range hoods. In this study, LBNL researchers quantified pollutant concentrations and occupant exposures resulting from NGCB use in California homes.The simulation model estimated that—in homes using NGCBs without coincident use of venting range hoods -- 62%, 9%, and 53% of occupants are routinely exposed to NO2, CO, and HCHO levels that exceed acute health-based standards and guidelines. NGCB use increased the sample median of the highest simulated 1-hr indoor concentrations by 100, 3,000, and 20 ppb for NO2, CO, and HCHO, respectively. The study recommends that reducing pollutant exposures from NGCBs should be a public health priority. Simulation results suggest that regular use of even moderately effective venting range hoods would dramatically reduce the percentage of homes in which concentrations exceed health-based standards.

  12. Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of combustion flames in four-burner impinging entrained-flow gasifier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niu, Miao-Ren; Yan, Zhuo-Yong; Guo, Qing-Hua; Liang, Qin-Feng; Wang, Fu-Chen; Yu, Zun-Hong

    2007-01-01

    On a laboratory-scale testing platform of impinging entrained-flow gasifier with four opposed burners, the flame images for diesel combustion and gasification process were measured with a single charge coupled device (CCD) camera. The two-dimensional multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis was employed to investigate the multifractal nature of the flame images. Sound power-law scaling in the annealed average of detrended fluctuations was unveiled when the order $q>0$ and the multifractal feature of flame images were confirmed. Further analyses identified two multifractal parameters, the minimum and maximum singularity $\\alpha_{\\min}$ and $\\alpha_{\\max}$, serving as characteristic parameters of the multifractal flames. These two characteristic multifractal parameters vary with respect to different experimental conditions.

  13. Mechanical swirler for a low-NO.sub.x, weak-swirl burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, Robert K. (Kensington, CA); Yegian, Derek T. (Berkeley, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Disclosed is a mechanical swirler for generating diverging flow in lean premixed fuel burners. The swirler of the present invention includes a central passage with an entrance for accepting a feed gas, a flow balancing insert that introduces additional pressure drop beyond that occurring in the central passage in the absence of the flow balancing insert, and an exit aligned to direct the feed gas into a combustor. The swirler also has an annular passage about the central passage and including one or more vanes oriented to impart angular momentum to feed gas exiting the annular passage. The diverging flow generated by the swirler stabilizes lean combustion thus allowing for lower production of pollutants, particularly oxides of nitrogen.

  14. Assessment of Startup Fuel Options for the GNEP Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jon Carmack; Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu; David Alberstein

    2008-02-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Program (GNEP) includes a program element for the development and construction of an advanced sodium cooled fast reactor to demonstrate the burning (transmutation) of significant quantities of minor actinides obtained from a separations process and fabricated into a transuranic bearing fuel assembly. To demonstrate and qualify transuranic (TRU) fuel in a fast reactor, an Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) prototype is needed. The ABR would necessarily be started up using conventional metal alloy or oxide (U or U, Pu) fuel. Startup fuel is needed for the ABR for the first 2 to 4 core loads of fuel in the ABR. Following start up, a series of advanced TRU bearing fuel assemblies will be irradiated in qualification lead test assemblies in the ABR. There are multiple options for this startup fuel. This report provides a description of the possible startup fuel options as well as possible fabrication alternatives available to the program in the current domestic and international facilities and infrastructure.

  15. Mechanical swirler for a low-NO{sub x}, weak-swirl burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, R.K.; Yegian, D.T.

    1999-03-09

    Disclosed is a mechanical swirler for generating diverging flow in lean premixed fuel burners. The swirler of the present invention includes a central passage with an entrance for accepting a feed gas, a flow balancing insert that introduces additional pressure drop beyond that occurring in the central passage in the absence of the flow balancing insert, and an exit aligned to direct the feed gas into a combustor. The swirler also has an annular passage about the central passage and including one or more vanes oriented to impart angular momentum to feed gas exiting the annular passage. The diverging flow generated by the swirler stabilizes lean combustion thus allowing for lower production of pollutants, particularly oxides of nitrogen. 16 figs.

  16. Investigation of Gas Solid Fluidized Bed Dynamics with Non-Spherical Particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhuri, Ahsan

    2013-06-30

    One of the largest challenges for 21st century is to fulfill global energy demand while also reducing detrimental impacts of energy generation and use on the environment. Gasification is a promising technology to meet the requirement of reduced emissions without compromising performance. Coal gasification is not an incinerating process; rather than burning coal completely a partial combustion takes place in the presence of steam and limited amounts of oxygen. In this controlled environment, a chemical reaction takes place to produce a mixture of clean synthetic gas. Gas-solid fluidized bed is one such type of gasification technology. During gasification, the mixing behavior of solid (coal) and gas and their flow patterns can be very complicated to understand. Many attempts have taken place in laboratory scale to understand bed hydrodynamics with spherical particles though in actual applications with coal, the particles are non-spherical. This issue drove the documented attempt presented here to investigate fluidized bed behavior using different ranges of non-spherical particles, as well as spherical. For this investigation, various parameters are controlled that included particle size, bed height, bed diameter and particle shape. Particles ranged from 355 µm to 1180 µm, bed diameter varied from 2 cm to 7 cm, two fluidized beds with diameters of 3.4 cm and 12.4 cm, for the spherical and non-spherical shaped particles that were taken into consideration. Pressure drop was measured with increasing superficial gas velocity. The velocity required in order to start to fluidize the particle is called the minimum fluidization velocity, which is one of the most important parameters to design and optimize within a gas-solid fluidized bed. This minimum fluidization velocity was monitored during investigation while observing variables factors and their effect on this velocity. From our investigation, it has been found that minimum fluidization velocity is independent of bed height for both spherical and non-spherical particles. Further, it decrease with decreasing particle size and decreases with decreasing bed diameter. Shadow sizing, a non-intrusive imaging and diagnostic technology, was also used to visualize flow fields inside fluidized beds for both spherical and non- spherical particles and to detect the particle sizes.

  17. Circulating fluidized-bed boiler makes inroads for waste recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    Circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) boilers have ben used for years in Scandinavia to burn refuse-derived fuel (RDF). Now, Foster Wheeler Power Systems, Inc., (Clinton, N.J.) is bringing the technology to the US. Touted as the world`s largest waste-to-energy plant to use CFB technology, the Robbins (III.) Resource Recovery Facility will have the capacity to process 1,600 tons/d of municipal solid waste (MSW) when it begins operation in early 1997. The facility will have two materials-separation and RDF-processing trains, each with dual trommel screens, magnetic and eddy current separators, and shredders. About 25% of the incoming MSW will be sorted and removed for recycling, while 75% of it will be turned into fuel, with a heat value of roughly 6,170 btu/lb. Once burned in the twin CFB boilers the resulting steam will be routed through a single turbine generator to produce 50,000 mW of electric power.

  18. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING ENABLING ORGANIC HIGH LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, M

    2008-05-09

    Waste streams planned for generation by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) and existing radioactive High Level Waste (HLW) streams containing organic compounds such as the Tank 48H waste stream at Savannah River Site have completed simulant and radioactive testing, respectfully, by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). GNEP waste streams will include up to 53 wt% organic compounds and nitrates up to 56 wt%. Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. provided by organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce NOX in the off-gas to N2 to meet Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during the waste form stabilization process regardless of the GNEP processes utilized and exists in some of the high level radioactive waste tanks at Savannah River Site and Hanford Tank Farms, e.g. organics in the feed or organics used for nitrate destruction. Waste streams containing high organic concentrations cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by pretreatment. The alternative waste stabilization pretreatment process of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operates at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). The FBSR process has been demonstrated on GNEP simulated waste and radioactive waste containing high organics from Tank 48H to convert organics to CAA compliant gases, create no secondary liquid waste streams and create a stable mineral waste form.

  19. Treating exhaust gas from a pressurized fluidized bed reaction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, J.; Koskinen, J.

    1995-08-22

    Hot gases from a pressurized fluidized bed reactor system are purified. Under super atmospheric pressure conditions hot exhaust gases are passed through a particle separator, forming a filtrate cake on the surface of the separator, and a reducing agent--such as an NO{sub x} reducing agent (like ammonia)--is introduced into the exhaust gases just prior to or just after particle separation. The retention time of the introduced reducing agent is enhanced by providing a low gas velocity (e.g. about 1--20 cm/s) during passage of the gas through the filtrate cake while at super atmospheric pressure. Separation takes place within a distinct pressure vessel, the interior of which is at a pressure of about 2--100 bar, and introduction of reducing agent can take place at multiple locations (one associated with each filter element in the pressure vessel), or at one or more locations just prior to passage of clean gas out of the pressure vessel (typically passed to a turbine). 8 figs.

  20. Treating exhaust gas from a pressurized fluidized bed reaction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, Juhani (Karhula, FI); Koskinen, Jari (Karhula, FI)

    1995-01-01

    Hot gases from a pressurized fluidized bed reactor system are purified. Under superatmospheric pressure conditions hot exhaust gases are passed through a particle separator, forming a flitrate cake on the surface of the separator, and a reducing agent--such as an NO.sub.x reducing agent (like ammonia), is introduced into the exhaust gases just prior to or just after particle separation. The retention time of the introduced reducing agent is enhanced by providing a low gas velocity (e.g. about 1-20 cm/s) during passage of the gas through the filtrate cake while at superatmospheric pressure. Separation takes place within a distinct pressure vessel the interior of which is at a pressure of about 2-100 bar, and-introduction of reducing agent can take place at multiple locations (one associated with each filter element in the pressure vessel), or at one or more locations just prior to passage of clean gas out of the pressure vessel (typically passed to a turbine).

  1. Repowering with pressurized fluidized-bed combustion units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goidich, S.J. ); Rubow, L.N. ); Kumar, S. . Environmental Services and Technologies Div.); Mukherjee, D. ); Childress, N.B. )

    1991-05-01

    Turbocharged pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) power plants operating with a gas turbine inlet temperature lower than 800{degrees}F can produce electricity more efficiently (34.2 vs. 33.5% net plant efficiency) and at a lower cost of electricity (87.8 vs. 96. 6 mill/kWh over 30 years) than conventional pulverized-coal-fired plants with scrubbers. Since the PFBC process produces lower NO{sub x} emissions than conventional pulverized-coal combustion systems and captures sulfur as part of the combustion process, and since major equipment components can be shop-assembled and shipped by barge, retrofit of an existing unit with a turbocharged PFBC boiler can be a cost-effective means for extending the life of the unit and meeting NSPS without retrofitting flue gas desulfurization systems. Using the Wisconsin Electric Power Company's Port Washington Unit 5 as an example, preliminary engineering and economic evaluations were made to investigate the merits of turbocharged PFBC retrofits. This report describes the conceptual designs of the new, major plant components; discusses how the new components are integrated with the existing balance-of-plant equipment; describes the proposed plant control system; and presents an overall economic evaluation. Because design and economic evaluations were prepared on the basis of a commercial design, first-of-a-kind costs and test programs are not included. 5 refs., 58 figs., 55 tabs.

  2. The first of a series of high efficiency, high bmep, turbocharged two-stroke cycle diesel engines; the general motors EMD 645FB engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotlin, J.J.; Dunteman, N.R.; Scott, D.I.; Williams, H.A. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The current Electro-Motive Division 645 Series turbocharged engines are the Model FB and EC. The FB engine combines the highest thermal efficiency with the highest specific output of any EMD engine to date. The FB Series incorporates 16:1 compression ratio with a fire ring piston and an improved turbocharger design. Engine components included in the FB engine provide very high output levels with exceptional reliability. This paper also describes the performance of the lower rated Model EC engine series which feature high thermal efficiency and utilize many engine components well proven in service and basic to the Model FB Series.

  3. Numerical Analysis of using a Fluidized Bed as a Prototypic Mass Production Device for IFE Target Layering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffray, A. René

    of the target to reduce the heat transfer onto the target during injection into the reactor chamber1 . After several topics, including the effect of unbalanced spheres on the bed behavior and ultimately for the fluidized bed model, as it affects the unbalance of the individual spheres. Keywords- Fluidized bed, IFE

  4. Decompaction and fluidization of a saturated and confined granular medium by injection of a viscous liquid or gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmittbuhl, Jean

    in fluidized beds under gravity is perhaps the most studied issue related to this case 26­37 . NeverthelessDecompaction and fluidization of a saturated and confined granular medium by injection of a viscous rely, are rather poorly understood and their study is in its infancy. The case of bubbling instability

  5. Limitations on fluid grid sizing for using volume-averaged fluid equations in discrete element models of fluidized beds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyce, Christopher M.; Holland, Daniel; Dennis, John S.; Scott, Stuart A.

    2015-10-13

    Bubbling and slugging fluidization were simulated in 3D cylindrical fluidized beds using a discrete element model with computational fluid dynamics (DEM-CFD). A CFD grid was used in which the volume of all fluid cells was equal. Ninety simulations...

  6. Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    Work on process design and LNS Burner design was deferred during this period, pending a reassessment of the project by TransAlta prior to commencement of Budget Period II, and only limited Balance of Plant engineering work was done.

  7. Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) plants: an operations and maintenance study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jack A. Fuller; Harvie Beavers; Robert Bessette [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). College of Business and Economics

    2006-06-15

    The authors analyzed data from a fluidized bed boiler survey distributed during the spring of 2003 to develop appropriate AFBC (Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion) performance benchmarks. The survey was sent to members of CIBO (Council of Industrial Boiler Owners), who sponsored the survey, as well as to other firms who had an operating AFBC boiler on-site. There were three primary purposes for the collection and analysis of the data contained in this fluidized bed boiler survey: (1) To develop AFBC benchmarks on technical, cost, revenue, and environmental issues; (2) to inform AFBC owners and operators of contemporary concerns and issues in the industry; (3) to improve decision making in the industry with respect to current and future plant start-ups and ongoing operations.

  8. EPA's (Environmental Protection Agency's) program for evaluation and demonstration of low-cost retrofit LIMB (Limestone Injection Multistage Burner) technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, R.D.

    1987-09-01

    This paper discusses program objectives, approaches, current status and results, future activities, and schedules for EPA's program for research and development, field evaluation, and demonstration of Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) technology. Primary emphasis is on: (1) the full-scale demonstration being conducted on Ohio Edison's 104-MW wall-fired Edgewater Station Unit 4; (2) evaluation on a 50 million Btu/hr tangentially fired prototype nearing completion; (3) on-going field evaluation on Richmond Power and Light's 61-MW tangentially fired Whitewater Valley Generating Station Unit 2. The new program for demonstration on Virginia Electric Power's 180-MW tangentially fired Yorktown II Plant is also described. The LIMB process is based on injecting dry sorbents into the boiler for direct capture of SO/sub 2/ from the combustion gases. LIMB combines sorbent injection for SO/sub 2/ control with the use of low-NOx burners, in which staged combustion is utilized for NOx control.

  9. Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Public design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This Public Design Report provides available nonproprietary design information on the Low NO{sub x}SO{sub x} Burner Retrofit of Utility Cyclone Boilers project. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project, the organization of the project, and the role of the funding parties are discussed. An overview of the Low NO{sub x}SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner, the cyclone boiler and the Southern Illinois Power Cooperative host site is presented. A detailed nonproprietary description of the individual process steps, plant systems, and resulting performance then follows. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions and requirements are given for each unit. The plant demonstration program and start up provisions, the environmental considerations and control, monitoring and safety factors that are considered are also addressed.

  10. Exploratory and basic fluidized-bed combustion studies. Quarterly report, January-March 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, I.; Myles, K.M.; Swift, W.M.

    1980-12-01

    This work supports development studies for both atmospheric and pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion. Laboratory and process development studies are aimed at providing needed information on limestone utilization, removal of particulates and alkali metal compounds from the flue gas, control of SO/sub 2/ and trace pollutants emissions, and other aspects of fluidized-bed combustion. This report presents information on: (1) the development of a limestone utilization predictive methodology, (2) studies of particle breakup and elutriation, (3) basic studies on limestone sulfation enhancement by hydration, (4) studies of the kinetics of the hydration process, and (5) an investigation of various hydration process concepts.

  11. Fluidized-bed catalytic coal-gasification process. [US patent; pretreatment to minimize agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Euker, C.A. Jr.; Wesselhoft, R.D.; Dunkleman, J.J.; Aquino, D.C.; Gouker, T.R.

    1981-09-14

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 vol % and 21 vol % oxygen at a temperature between 50 and 250/sup 0/C in an oxidation zone and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone at an elevated pressure. The oxidation of the catalyst impregnated solids under these conditions insures that the bed density in the fluidized bed gasification zone will be relatively high even though the solids are gasified at elevated pressure and temperature.

  12. A simplified model for the combustion of coal in a continuous flow fluidized bed 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, Thomas Wade

    1982-01-01

    Calibration Numbers. 120 LIST OF FIGURES ~Fi ure ~Pa e 1 Modes of Fluidization. 2 Liquidlike Behavior of Fluidized Beds. 3 Continuous Reaction Model. 12 4 Shrinking Core Model 5 Two-Film Model. 6 Differential Control Volume. 13 14 34 7 Proximate... for approximating polynomial outside surface area (m ), (chapter 3 only) cross-sectional Area of the bed (cml), (chapter 4 only) surface area normal to the direction of heat flow (mt) boundary within which the element is defined frequency factor constant molar...

  13. Model-free adaptive control of supercritical circulating fluidized-bed boilers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L

    2014-12-16

    A novel 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) Fuel-Air Ratio Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controller is introduced, which can effectively control key process variables including Bed Temperature, Excess O2, and Furnace Negative Pressure of combustion processes of advanced boilers. A novel 7-input-7-output (7.times.7) MFA control system is also described for controlling a combined 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) process of Boiler-Turbine-Generator (BTG) units and a 5.times.5 CFB combustion process of advanced boilers. Those boilers include Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Boilers and Once-Through Supercritical Circulating Fluidized-Bed (OTSC CFB) Boilers.

  14. A Fluidized Bed Chiller: A New Approach in Making Slush-Ice 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klaren, D. G.; Van Der Meer, J. S.

    1991-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-91-06-05.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 29778 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-91-06-05.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 A FLUIDIZED BED... CHILLER: A NEW APPROACH IN MAKING SLUSH-ICE Dr.Ir. D.G. Klaren M.Sc. Technical Director Gebr. Scheffers B.V. Schiedam, The Netherlands ABSTRACT A fluidized bed heat exchanger already successfully applied for heat transfer applications involving...

  15. Evaluation of models for the prediction of fluidized-bed reactor performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frederick, John Michael

    1980-01-01

    of typical gas bubble L4] Fig. 8 Sketch of two bubbles coalescing in a fluidized bed L4] presence of splitting, the coalescence quality tends to produce a wide d1stribution of bubble sizes throughout the reactor. A parameter has been dev1sed that 1s... reactor Modes of fluidizaiton Geldhart's classification of fluidized bed particles . Distributors commonly used in industry Stages of bubble formation Idealised jet-to-bubble emergance pattern Sketch of a typical gas bubble ~Pa e 13 18 Sketch...

  16. Simplified configuration for the combustor of an oil burner using a low pressure, high flow air-atomizing nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butcher, Thomas A. (Port Jefferson, NY); Celebi, Yusuf (Middle Island, NY); Fisher, Leonard (Colrain, MA)

    2000-09-15

    The invention relates to clean burning of fuel oil with air. More specifically, to a fuel burning combustion head using a low-pressure, high air flow atomizing nozzle so that there will be a complete combustion of oil resulting in a minimum emission of pollutants. The improved fuel burner uses a low pressure air atomizing nozzle that does not result in the use of additional compressors or the introduction of pressurized gases downstream, nor does it require a complex design. Inventors:

  17. Experimental study on NOx emission and unburnt carbon of a radial biased swirl burner for coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shan Xue; Shi'en Hui; Qulan Zhou; Tongmo Xu

    2009-07-15

    Pilot tests were carried out on a 1 MW thermal pulverized coal fired testing furnace. Symmetrical combustion was implemented by use of two whirl burners with dual air adjustment. The burnout air device was installed in various places at the top of the main burner, which consists of a primary air pipe with a varying cross-section and an impact ring. In the primary air pipe, the air pulverized coal (PC) stream was separated into a whirling stream that was thick inside and thin outside, thus realizing the thin-thick distribution at the burner nozzle in the radial direction. From the comparative combustion tests of three coals with relatively great characteristic differences, Shaanbei Shenhua high rank bituminous coal (SH coal), Shanxi Hejin low rank bituminous coal (HJ coal), and Shanxi Changzhi meager coal (CZ coal), were obtained such test results as the primary air ratio, inner secondary air ratio, outer secondary air ratio, impact of the change of outer secondary air, change of the relative position for the layout of burnout air, change of the swirling intensity of the primary air and secondary air, etc., on the NOx emission, and unburnt carbon content in fly ash (CFA). At the same time, the relationship between the NOx emission and burnout ratio and affecting factors of the corresponding test items on the combustion stability and economic results were also acquired. The results may provide a vital guiding significance to engineering designs and practical applications. According to the experimental results, the influence of each individual parameter on NOx formation and unburned carbon in fly ash agrees well with the existing literature. In this study, the influences of various combinations of these parameters are also examined, thus providing some reference for the design of the radial biased swirl burner, the configuration of the furnace, and the distribution of the air. 23 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Task 3.8 - pressurized fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The focus of this work on pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) is the development of sorbents for in-bed alkali control. The goal is to generate fundamental process information for development of a second-generation PFBC. Immediate objectives focus on the performance of sulfur sorbents, fate of alkali, and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) heavy metals. The studies reported here focus on emission control strategies applied in the bed. Data from shakedown testing, alkali sampling, sulfur sorbent performance tests, and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) and lignite combustion tests are presented in detail. Initial results from the characterization of alkali gettering indicate that in-bed getters can remove a significant amount of alkali from the bed. Using kaolin as a sorbent, sodium levels in the flue gas were reduced from 3.6 ppm to less than 0.22 ppm. Sulfur was also reduced by 60% using the kaolin sorbent. Preliminary sulfur sorbent testing, which was designed to develop a reliable technique to predice sorbent performance, indicate that although the total sulfur capture is significantly lower than that observed in a full-scale PFBC, the emission trends are similar. RDF and RDF-lignite fuels had combustion efficiencies exceeding 99.0% in all test cases. Sulfur dioxide emission was significantly lower for the RDF fuels than for lignite fuel alone. Nitrogen oxide emission was also lower for the RDF-based fuels than for the lignite fuel. Both emission gases were well below current regulatory limits. Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions appeared to be slightly higher for the fuels containing RDF, but were below 9 ppm for the worst case. Analysis of volatile organic compound emission does not indicate an emission problem for these fuels. Chromium appears to be the only RCRA metal that might present some disposal problem; however, processing of the RDF with the wet resource recovery method should reduce chromium levels. 2 refs., 13 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. Laminar burn rates of gun propellants measured in the high-pressure strand burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reaugh, J. E., LLNL

    1997-10-01

    The pressure dependence of the laminar burn rate of gun propellants plays a role in the design and behavior of high-performance guns. We have begun a program to investigate the effects of processing variables on the laminar burn rates, using our high-pressure strand burner to measure these rates at pressures exceeding 700 MPa. We have burned JA2 and M43 propellant samples, provided by Dr. Arpad Juhasz, ARL, from propellant lots previously used in round-robin tests. Our results at room temperature are in accord with other measurements. In addition, we present results measured for propellant that has been preheated to 50 C before burning. We used our thermochemical equilibrium code, CHEETAH, to help interpret the simultaneous pressure and temperature measurements taken during the testing, and show examples of its use. It has been modified to provide performance measures and equations of state for the products that are familiar to the gun-propellant community users of BLAKE.

  20. Oxy-Combustion Burner and Integrated Pollutant Removal Research and Development Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Schoenfield; Manny Menendez; Thomas Ochs; Rigel Woodside; Danylo Oryshchyn

    2012-09-30

    A high flame temperature oxy-combustion test facility consisting of a 5 MWe equivalent test boiler facility and 20 KWe equivalent IPR® was constructed at the Hammond, Indiana manufacturing site. The test facility was operated natural gas and coal fuels and parametric studies were performed to determine the optimal performance conditions and generated the necessary technical data required to demonstrate the technologies are viable for technical and economic scale-up. Flame temperatures between 4930-6120F were achieved with high flame temperature oxy-natural gas combustion depending on whether additional recirculated flue gases are added to balance the heat transfer. For high flame temperature oxy-coal combustion, flame temperatures in excess of 4500F were achieved and demonstrated to be consistent with computational fluid dynamic modeling of the burner system. The project demonstrated feasibility and effectiveness of the Jupiter Oxygen high flame temperature oxy-combustion process with Integrated Pollutant Removal process for CCS and CCUS. With these technologies total parasitic power requirements for both oxygen production and carbon capture currently are in the range of 20% of the gross power output. The Jupiter Oxygen high flame temperature oxy-combustion process has been demonstrated at a Technology Readiness Level of 6 and is ready for commencement of a demonstration project.

  1. Global Search for New Physics with 2.0 fb88-1 at CDF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaltonen, T.; Adelman, J.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, Michael G.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, Dante E.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, Alberto; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; /Fermilab /Purdue U.

    2008-09-01

    Data collected in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron are searched for indications of new electroweak-scale physics. Rather than focusing on particular new physics scenarios, CDF data are analyzed for discrepancies with the standard model prediction. A model-independent approach (VISTA) considers gross features of the data, and is sensitive to new large cross-section physics. Further sensitivity to new physics is provided by two additional algorithms: a Bump Hunter searches invariant mass distributions for 'bumps' that could indicate resonant production of new particles; and the Sleuth procedure scans for data excesses at large summed transverse momentum. This combined global search for new physics in 2.0 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV reveals no indication of physics beyond the standard model.

  2. Measurement of the anomalous like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry with 9 fb?¹ of pp? collisions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G. A.; et al

    2011-09-16

    We present an updated measurement of the anomalous like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry Absl for semileptonic b-hadron decays in 9.0 fb?¹ of pp? collisions recorded with the D0 detector at a center-of-mass energy of ?s=1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. We obtain Absl=(-0.787±0.172(stat)±0.093(syst))%. This result differs by 3.9 standard deviations from the prediction of the standard model and provides evidence for anomalously large CP violation in semileptonic neutral B decay. The dependence of the asymmetry on the muon impact parameter is consistent with the hypothesis that it originates from semileptonic b-hadron decays.

  3. Protein Expression Profile of an Environmentally Important Bacterial Strain: the Chromate Response of Arthrobacter Species Strain FB24

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henne, Kristene L.; Turse, Joshua E.; Nakatsu, C. H.; Konopka, Allan

    2011-05-03

    The global proteomic response of Arthrobacter sp. strain FB24 to different levels of chromate stress was evaluated with both two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE) and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/LC-MS/MS) [Henne et al. 2009b]. Proteome coverage of 22% and 71% was obtained with 2-DGE and LC/LC-MS/MS, respectively. The strong response of strain FB24 to chromate suggests a condition of sulfur limitation, which could be driven by competition for the sulfate transporter by the structurally similar chromate ion. Additionally, the involvement of genes hypothesized to be directly involved in chromate resistance in strain FB24 was supported at the protein level.

  4. Electrochemical struvite precipitation from digestate with a fluidized bed cathode microbial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Stabilization of excess activated and EBPR sludge in an anaerobic digester results in significant releases of nuElectrochemical struvite precipitation from digestate with a fluidized bed cathode microbial conditions. Soluble phosphorus removal using digester effluent ranged from 70 to 85% with current generation

  5. How Bubbly Mixtures Foam and Foam Control Using a Fluidized Bed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, Daniel D.

    How Bubbly Mixtures Foam and Foam Control Using a Fluidized Bed by Jos e Guiti anz Daniel Joseph to the top because it has a higher gas fraction than the bubbly mixture from which it comes. The high gas slit bubble reactor which when used with aqueous anionic surfactants gives rise to foam. This reactor

  6. Investigation of heat transfer and combustion in the advanced fluidized bed combustor (FBC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Seong W. Lee

    1998-10-01

    The objective of this project is to predict the heat transfer and combustion performance in newly-designed fluidized bed combustor (FBC) and to provide the design guide lines and innovative concept for small-scale boiler and furnace. The major accomplishments are summarized.

  7. Experimental development of a multi-solid fluidized bed reactor concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litt, R.D.; Paisley, M.A.; Tewksbury, T.L.

    1990-02-01

    Battelle's Columbus Division is developing a coal mild gasification process based upon the Multi-Solid Fluidized bed reactor system to produce high quality liquid and gaseous products. This process uses 2-stages to gasify coal at high throughputs to produce a range of products in compact reactors without requiring an oxygen plant. 8 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  8. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING FOR TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HEWITT WM

    2011-04-08

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies remaining under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper provides the reader a general understanding of fluidized bed steam reforming and its possible application to treat and immobilize Hanford low-activity waste.

  9. Characterization of Biofilm in 200W Fluidized Bed Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Michelle H.; Saurey, Sabrina D.; Lee, Brady D.; Parker, Kent E.; Eisenhauer, Emalee ER; Cordova, Elsa A.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.

    2014-09-29

    Contaminated groundwater beneath the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site in Southeast Washington is currently being treated using a pump and treat system to remove organics, inorganics, radionuclides, and metals. A granular activated carbon-based fluidized bed reactor (FBR) has been added to remove nitrate, hexavalent chromium and carbon tetrachloride. Initial analytical results indicated the microorganisms effectively reduced many of the contaminants to less than cleanup levels. However shortly thereafter operational upsets of the FBR include carbon carry over, over production of microbial extracellular polymeric substance (biofilm) materials, and over production of hydrogen sulfide. As a result detailed investigations were undertaken to understand the functional diversity and activity of the microbial community present in the FBR over time. Molecular analyses including terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses were performed on the microbial community extracted from the biofilm within the bed and from the inoculum, to determine functional dynamics of the FBR bed over time and following operational changes. Findings from these analyses indicated: 1) the microbial community within the bed was completely different than community used for inoculation, and was likely from the groundwater; 2) analyses early in the testing showed an FBR community dominated by a few Curvibacter and Flavobacterium species; 3) the final sample taken indicated that the microbial community in the FBR bed had become more diverse; and 4) qPCR analyses indicated that bacteria involved in nitrogen cycling, including denitrifiers and anaerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria, were dominant in the bed. These results indicate that molecular tools can be powerful for determining functional diversity within FBR type reactors. Coupled with micronutrient, influent and effluent chemistry evaluations, a more complete understanding of the balance between system additions (nutrients, groundwater) and biology can be achieved, thus increasing long-term predictions of performance. These analyses uniquely provide information that can be used in optimizing the overall performance, efficiency, and stability of the system both in real time as well as over the long-term, as the system design is altered or improved and/or new streams are added.

  10. Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light-Water Reactor and Fast Burner Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light-Water Reactor and Fast Burner Reactor Systems, prepared to support the U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) systems analysis, provides a technology-oriented baseline system cost comparison between the open fuel cycle and closed fuel cycle systems. The intent is to understand their overall cost trends, cost sensitivities, and trade-offs. This analysis also improves the AFCI Program’s understanding of the cost drivers that will determine nuclear power’s cost competitiveness vis-a-vis other baseload generation systems. The common reactor-related costs consist of capital, operating, and decontamination and decommissioning costs. Fuel cycle costs include front-end (pre-irradiation) and back-end (post-iradiation) costs, as well as costs specifically associated with fuel recycling. This analysis reveals that there are large cost uncertainties associated with all the fuel cycle strategies, and that overall systems (reactor plus fuel cycle) using a closed fuel cycle are about 10% more expensive in terms of electricity generation cost than open cycle systems. The study concludes that further U.S. and joint international-based design studies are needed to reduce the cost uncertainties with respect to fast reactor, fuel separation and fabrication, and waste disposition. The results of this work can help provide insight to the cost-related factors and conditions needed to keep nuclear energy (including closed fuel cycles) economically competitive in the U.S. and worldwide. These results may be updated over time based on new cost information, revised assumptions, and feedback received from additional reviews.

  11. Hurricane Disturbance Alters Secondary Forest Recovery in Puerto Rico Dan F.B. Flynn1,7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uriarte, Maria

    Hurricane Disturbance Alters Secondary Forest Recovery in Puerto Rico Dan F.B. Flynn1,7 , Mar structure and composition. How introduced species respond to disturbances such as hurricanes in post-agriculture forest recovery is of particular interest. To examine the effects of hurricane disturbance and previous

  12. Analysis/control of in-bed tube erosion phenomena in the fluidized bed combustion system. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Seong W.

    1996-11-01

    Research is presented on erosion and corrosion of fluidized bed combustor component materials. The characteristics of erosion of in-bed tubes was investigated. Anti-corrosion measures were also evaluated.

  13. The design of a fluidized bed for testing of a robotic burrowing device which mimics razor clams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorsch, Daniel Scott

    2012-01-01

    This thesis reviews the design of a fluidized bed test setup for testing digging kinematics of RoboClam, a burrowing device based on Atlantic Razor Clams. This test bed allows for in-lab testing in an environment covered ...

  14. The development of a cyclonic combustor for high particulate, low caloric value gas produced by a fluidized bed 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cardenas, Manuel Moises

    1985-01-01

    THE DEVELOPMENT OF A CYCLONIC COMBUSTOR FOR HIGH PARTICULATE, LOW CALORIC VALUE GAS PRODUCED BY A FLUIDIZED BED A Thesis by MANUEL MOISES CARDENAS JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ALM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1985 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering THE DEVELOPMENT OF A CYCLONIC COMBUSTOR FOR HIGH PARTICULATE, LOW CALORIC VALUE GAS PRODUCED BY A FLUIDIZED BED A Thesis MANUEL MOISES CARDENAS JR...

  15. Use of freeze-casting in advanced burner reactor fuel design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lang, A. L.; Yablinsky, C. A.; Allen, T. R. [Dept. of Engineering Physics, Univ. of Wisconsin Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53711 (United States); Burger, J.; Hunger, P. M.; Wegst, U. G. K. [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, 8000 Cummings Hall, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This paper will detail the modeling of a fast reactor with fuel pins created using a freeze-casting process. Freeze-casting is a method of creating an inert scaffold within a fuel pin. The scaffold is created using a directional solidification process and results in open porosity for emplacement of fuel, with pores ranging in size from 300 microns to 500 microns in diameter. These pores allow multiple fuel types and enrichments to be loaded into one fuel pin. Also, each pore could be filled with varying amounts of fuel to allow for the specific volume of fission gases created by that fuel type. Currently fast reactors, including advanced burner reactors (ABR's), are not economically feasible due to the high cost of operating the reactors and of reprocessing the fuel. However, if the fuel could be very precisely placed, such as within a freeze-cast scaffold, this could increase fuel performance and result in a valid design with a much lower cost per megawatt. In addition to competitive costs, freeze-cast fuel would also allow for selective breeding or burning of actinides within specific locations in fast reactors. For example, fast flux peak locations could be utilized on a minute scale to target specific actinides for transmutation. Freeze-cast fuel is extremely flexible and has great potential in a variety of applications. This paper performs initial modeling of freeze-cast fuel, with the generic fast reactor parameters for this model based on EBR-II. The core has an assumed power of 62.5 MWt. The neutronics code used was Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP5) transport code. Uniform pore sizes were used in increments of 100 microns. Two different freeze-cast scaffold materials were used: ceramic (MgO-ZrO{sub 2}) and steel (SS316L). Separate models were needed for each material because the freeze-cast ceramic and metal scaffolds have different structural characteristics and overall porosities. Basic criticality results were compiled for the various models. Preliminary results show that criticality is achievable with freeze-cast fuel pins despite the significant amount of inert fuel matrix. Freeze casting is a promising method to achieve very precise fuel placement within fuel pins. (authors)

  16. Dynamics of Air-Fluidized Granular System Measured by the Modulated Gradient Spin-echo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janez Stepisnik; Samo Lasic; Igor Sersa; Ales Mohoric; Gorazd Planinsic

    2005-10-05

    The power spectrum of displacement fluctuation of beads in the air-fluidized granular system is measured by a novel NMR technique of modulated gradient spin-echo. The results of measurement together with the related spectrum of the velocity fluctuation autocorrelation function fit well to an empiric formula based on to the model of bead caging between nearest neighbours; the cage breaks up after a few collisions \\cite{Menon1}. The fit yields the characteristic collision time, the size of bead caging and the diffusion-like constant for different degrees of system fluidization. The resulting mean squared displacement increases proportionally to the second power of time in the short-time ballistic regime and increases linearly with time in the long-time diffusion regime as already confirmed by other experiments and simulations.

  17. MFIX simulation of NETL/PSRI challenge problem of circulating fluidized bed

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Tingwen; Dietiker, Jean-François; Shahnam, Mehrdad

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, numerical simulations of NETL/PSRI challenge problem of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) using the open-source code Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchange (MFIX) are reported. Two rounds of simulation results are reported including the first-round blind test and the second-round modeling refinement. Three-dimensional high fidelity simulations are conducted to model a 12-inch diameter pilot-scale CFB riser. Detailed comparisons between numerical results and experimental data are made with respect to axial pressure gradient profile, radial profiles of solids velocity and solids mass flux along different radial directions at various elevations for operating conditions covering different fluidization regimes. Overall, the numericalmore »results show that CFD can predict the complex gas–solids flow behavior in the CFB riser reasonably well. In addition, lessons learnt from modeling this challenge problem are presented.« less

  18. Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei-Ping Pan; Yan Cao; Songgeng Li

    2006-04-01

    This report is to present the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period January 1, 2006 through March 31, 2006. Work was performed on the following activities. First, the fabrication and manufacture of the CFBC Facility were completed. The riser, primary cyclone and secondary cyclone of Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) Combustor have been erected. Second, the Mercury Control Workshop and the Grand Opening of Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology (ICSET) were successfully held on February 22 and 23, 2006, respectively. Third, effects of hydrogen chlorine (HCl) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) on mercury oxidation were studied in a drop tube reactor. The experimental results from this study are presented in this report. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter is described in this report.

  19. Proceedings of the sixth international conference on fluidized bed combustion. Volume II. Technical sessions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-08-01

    The Sixth International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion was held April 9-11, 1980, at the Atlanta Hilton, Atlanta, Georgia. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. The papers covered recent developments in atmospheric and pressurized fluidized-bed combustion, especially the design, operation and control of pilot and demonstration plants. The cleanup of combustion products and the erosion, corrosion and fouling of gas turbines was emphasized also. Fifty-five papers from Volume 2 of the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; five papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  20. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1992--September 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The design of the Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor (PAFBC) as described in the Quarterly Report for the period April--June, 1992 was reviewed and minor modifications were included. The most important change made was in the coal/limestone preparation and feed system. Instead of procuring pre-sized coal for testing of the PAFBC, it was decided that the installation of a milling system would permit greater flexibility in the testing with respect to size distributions and combustion characteristics in the pulse combustor and the fluid bed. Particle size separation for pulse combustor and fluid bed will be performed by an air classifier. The modified process flow diagram for the coal/limestone handling system is presented in Figure 1. The modified process flow diagrams of the fluidized bed/steam cycle and ash handling systems are presented in Figures 2 and 3, respectively.

  1. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY WITH A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei-Ping Pan; Kunlei Liu; John T. Riley

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' in this quarter (September-December of 2003). The main tasks in this quarter consisted of the following four parts. First, all documents for managing this project have been prepared and sent to the Office of Project Management at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Second, plans for the renovation of space for a new combustion laboratory for the CFBC system has progressed smoothly. Third, considerable progress in the design of the CFBC system has been made. Finally, a lab-scale simulated fluidized-bed combustion facility has been set up in order to make some fundamental investigations of the co-firing of coal with waste materials in the next quarter. Proposed work for the next quarter has been outlined in this report.

  2. MFIX simulation of NETL/PSRI challenge problem of circulating fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Tingwen; Dietiker, Jean-François; Shahnam, Mehrdad

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, numerical simulations of NETL/PSRI challenge problem of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) using the open-source code Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchange (MFIX) are reported. Two rounds of simulation results are reported including the first-round blind test and the second-round modeling refinement. Three-dimensional high fidelity simulations are conducted to model a 12-inch diameter pilot-scale CFB riser. Detailed comparisons between numerical results and experimental data are made with respect to axial pressure gradient profile, radial profiles of solids velocity and solids mass flux along different radial directions at various elevations for operating conditions covering different fluidization regimes. Overall, the numerical results show that CFD can predict the complex gas–solids flow behavior in the CFB riser reasonably well. In addition, lessons learnt from modeling this challenge problem are presented.

  3. Assessment of Drag Models for Geldart A Particles in Bubbling Fluidized Beds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Estejab, Bahareh; Battaglia, Francine

    2015-10-08

    In order to accurately predict the hydrodynamic behavior of gas and solid phases using an Eulerian–Eulerian approach, it is crucial to use appropriate drag models to capture the correct physics. In this study, the performance of seven drag models for fluidization of Geldart A particles of coal, poplar wood, and their mixtures was assessed. In spite of the previous findings that bode badly for using predominately Geldart B drag models for fine particles, the results of our study revealed that if static regions of mass in the fluidized beds are considered, these drag models work well with Geldart A particles.more »It was found that drag models derived from empirical relationships adopt better with Geldart A particles compared to drag models that were numerically developed. Overall, the Huilin–Gidaspow drag model showed the best performance for both single solid phases and binary mixtures, however, for binary mixtures, Wen–Yu model predictions were also accurate.« less

  4. Design and performance of a fluidized-bed incinerator for TRU combustible wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meile, L.J.; Meyer, F.G.

    1982-01-01

    Problems encountered in the incineration of glovebox generated waste at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) led to the development of a fluidized-bed incineration (FBI) system for transuranic (TRU) combustible wastes. Laboratory and pilot-scale testing of the process preceded the installation of an 82-kg/h production demonstration incinerator at RFP. The FBI process is discussed, and the design of the demonstration incinerator is described. Operating experience and process performance for both the pilot and demonstration units are presented.

  5. High gradient magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal via upwardly directed recirculating fluidization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eissenberg, David M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Liu, Yin-An (Opelika, AL)

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved device and method for the high gradient magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal, for the purpose of removing sulfur and ash from the coal whereby the product is a dry environmentally acceptable, low-sulfur fuel. The process involves upwardly directed recirculating air fluidization of selectively sized powdered coal in a separator having sections of increasing diameters in the direction of air flow, with magnetic field and flow rates chosen for optimum separations depending upon particulate size.

  6. Apparatus for high flux photocatalytic pollution control using a rotating fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tabatabaie-Raissi, Ali; Muradov, Nazim Z.; Martin, Eric

    2003-06-24

    An apparatus based on optimizing photoprocess energetics by decoupling of the process energy efficiency from the DRE for target contaminants. The technique is applicable to both low- and high-flux photoreactor design and scale-up. An apparatus for high-flux photocatalytic pollution control is based on the implementation of multifunctional metal oxide aerogels and other media in conjunction with a novel rotating fluidized particle bed reactor.

  7. Power plant computer aided design software char properties generated by a fluidized bed gasifier 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siebold, Walter Joachim

    1987-01-01

    POWER PLANT COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN SOFTWARE CHAR PROPERTIES GENERATED BY A FLUIDIZED BED GASIFIER A Thesis by WALTER JOACHIM SIEBOLD Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University In partial fulfillment of the requirements... incorporates the application of many engineering disciplines. Some of the design parameters are company's well kept secrets. However, using basic engineering fundamentals, a rough power plant layout can be designed. The power plant design shoul d star...

  8. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion. Technical progress report, January 1992--March 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    During this first quarter, a lab-scale water-cooled pulse combustor was designed, fabricated, and integrated with old pilot-scale PAFBC test systems. Characterization tests on this pulse combustor firing different kinds of fuel -- natural gas, pulverized coal and fine coal -- were conducted (without fluidized bed operation) for the purpose of finalizing PAFBC full-scale design. Steady-state tests were performed. Heat transfer performance and combustion efficiency of a coal-fired pulse combustor were evaluated.

  9. Proceedings of the sixth international conference on fluidized bed combustion. Volume III. Technical sessions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-08-01

    The Sixth International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion was held April 9-11, 1980, at the Atlanta Hilton, Atlanta, Georgia. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. Forty-five papers from Vol. III of the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Two papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  10. Automatic control of air to fuel ratio in a fluidized bed gasifier 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ling, Peter P.

    1984-01-01

    Co. , 1982). In the past decade digital computers have been produced which can improve the performance of electromechanical system for complex processes. Control in Gasifier Operation In a coal gasification system, although no automatic A/F ratio... in the gasifier/combustor furnace were computed. However, no A/F ratio control was attempted in their study. ln Exxon's batch fluidized bed combustion unit (Yaverbaum, 1977), pulverized coal was pneumatically injected into the unit. The fuel rate...

  11. Analysis and optimized design of airlocks for fluidized bed gasifier fuel feed systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nuboer, Benito Frans

    1991-01-01

    influence the total cost of the conversion system. Based on the experience gained in the design and operation of five feeding systems for gasifiers, Miles concluded that three individual operations are required: a) introduction of the feed stock into a...ANALYSIS AND OPTIMIZED DESIGN OF AIRLOCKS FOR FLUIDIZED BED GASIFIER FUEL FEED SYSTEMS A Thesis by BENITO FRANS NUBOER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  12. High-pressure three-phase fluidization: Hydrodynamics and heat transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, X.; Jiang, P.; Fan, L.S.

    1997-10-01

    High-pressure operations are common in industrial applications of gas-liquid-solid fluidized-bed reactors for resid hydrotreating, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, coal methanation, methanol synthesis, polymerization, and other reactions. The phase holdups and the heat-transfer behavior were studied experimentally in three-phase fluidized beds over a pressure range of 0.1--15.6 MPa. Bubble characteristics in the bed are examined by direct flow visualization. Pressure effects on the bubble coalescence and breakup are analyzed mechanistically. The study indicates that the pressure affects the hydrodynamics and heat-transfer properties of a three-phase fluidized bed significantly. The average bubble size decreases and the bubble-size distribution becomes narrower with an increase in pressure. The bubble-size reduction leads to an increase in the transition gas velocity from the dispersed bubble regime to the coalesced bubble regime, an increase in the gas holdup, and a decrease in the liquid and solids holdups. The pressure effect is insignificant above 6 MPa. The heat-transfer coefficient between an immersed surface and the bed increases to a maximum at pressure 6--8 MPa and then decreases with an increase in pressure at a given gas and liquid flow rate. This variation is attributed to the pressure effects on phase holdups and physical properties of the gas and liquid phases. A mechanistic analysis revealed that the major heat-transfer resistance in high-pressure three-phase fluidized beds resides in a liquid film surrounding the heat-0transfer surface. An empirical correlation is proposed to predict the heat-transfer coefficient under high-pressure conditions.

  13. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion. Volume 1. Plenary sessions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-08-01

    The Sixth International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion was held at the Atlanta Hilton, Atlanta, Georgia, April 9-11, 1980. The papers in this volume involved presentation of the research and development programs of the US (US DOE, TVA, EPRI and US EPA), United Kingdom, Federal Republic of Germany and the People's Republic of China. Eight papers from Vol. 1 (Plenary Sessions) of the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  14. Development of an advanced process for drying fine coal in an inclined fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boysen, J.E.; Cha, C.Y.; Barbour, F.A.; Turner, T.F.; Kang, T.W.; Berggren, M.H.; Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

    1990-02-01

    The objective of this research project was to demonstrate a technically feasible and economically viable process for drying and stabilizing high-moisture subbituminous coal. Controlled thermal drying of coal fines was achieved using the inclined fluidized-bed drying and stabilization process developed by the Western Research Institute. The project scope of work required completion of five tasks: (1) project planning, (2) characterization of two feed coals, (3) bench-scale inclined fluidized-bed drying studies, (4) product characterization and testing, and (5) technical and economic evaluation of the process. High moisture subbituminous coals from AMAX Eagle Butte mine located in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and from Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc. in Healy, Alaska were tested in a 10-lb/hr bench-scale inclined fluidized-bed. Experimental results show that the dried coal contains less than 1.5% moisture and has a heating value over 11,500 Btu/lb. The coal fines entrainment can be kept below 15 wt % of the feed. The equilibrium moisture of dried coal was less than 50% of feed coal equilibrium moisture. 7 refs., 60 figs., 47 tabs.

  15. Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion: Small gas turbine induustrial plant study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shenker, J.; Garland, R.; Horazak, D.; Seifert, F.; Wenglarz, R.

    1992-07-01

    Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) plants provide a coal-fired, high-efficiency, combined-cycle system for the generation of electricity and steam. The plants use lime-based sorbents in PFB combustors to meet environmental air standards without back-end gas desulfurization equipment. The second-generation system is an improvement over earlier PFBC concepts because it can achieve gas temperatures of 2100[degrees]F and higher for improved cycle efficiency while maintaining the fluidized beds at 1600[degrees]F for enhanced sulfur capture and minimum alkali release. Second-generation PFBC systems are capable of supplying the electric and steam process needs of industrial plants. The basic second-generation system can be applied in different ways to meet a variety of process steam and electrical requirements. To evaluate the potential of these systems in the industrial market, conceptual designs have been developed for six second-generation PFBC plants. These plants cover a range of electrical outputs from 6.3 to 41.5 MWe and steam flows from 46,067 to 442,337 lb/h. Capital and operating costs have been estimated for these six plants and for equivalent (in size) conventional, coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion cogeneration plants. Economic analyses were conducted to compare the cost of steam for both the second-generation plants and the conventional plants.

  16. Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion: Small gas turbine industrial plant study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shenker, J.; Garland, R.; Horazak, D.; Seifert, F.; Wenglarz, R.

    1992-07-01

    Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) plants provide a coal-fired, high-efficiency, combined-cycle system for the generation of electricity and steam. The plants use lime-based sorbents in PFB combustors to meet environmental air standards without back-end gas desulfurization equipment. The second-generation system is an improvement over earlier PFBC concepts because it can achieve gas temperatures of 2100{degrees}F and higher for improved cycle efficiency while maintaining the fluidized beds at 1600{degrees}F for enhanced sulfur capture and minimum alkali release. Second-generation PFBC systems are capable of supplying the electric and steam process needs of industrial plants. The basic second-generation system can be applied in different ways to meet a variety of process steam and electrical requirements. To evaluate the potential of these systems in the industrial market, conceptual designs have been developed for six second-generation PFBC plants. These plants cover a range of electrical outputs from 6.3 to 41.5 MWe and steam flows from 46,067 to 442,337 lb/h. Capital and operating costs have been estimated for these six plants and for equivalent (in size) conventional, coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion cogeneration plants. Economic analyses were conducted to compare the cost of steam for both the second-generation plants and the conventional plants.

  17. Materials performance in the atmospheric fluidized-bed cogeneration air heater experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.; Wang, D.Y.; Teats, F.G.; Gerritsen, W.; Stewart, A.; Robinson, K.

    1991-02-01

    The Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) was initiated to assess the performance of various heat-exchanger materials to be used in fluidized-bed combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, through subcontracts with Babcock & Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB Combustion Engineering Systems, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE tests. Argonne National Laboratory contracted with Rockwell International to conduct tests in the DOE atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility. This report presents an overview of the project, a description of the facility and the test hardware, the test operating conditions, a summary of the operation, and the results of analyzing specimens from several uncooled and cooled probes exposed in the facility. Extensive microstructural analyses of the base alloys, claddings, coatings, and weldments were performed on specimens exposed in several probes for different lengths of time. Alloy penetration data were determined for several of the materials as a function of specimen orientation and the exposure location in the combustor. Finally, the data were compared with earlier laboratory test data, and the long-term performance of candidate materials for air-heater applications was assessed.

  18. Materials performance in the atmospheric fluidized-bed cogeneration air heater experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.; Wang, D.Y.; Teats, F.G. ); Gerritsen, W.; Stewart, A.; Robinson, K. )

    1991-02-01

    The Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) was initiated to assess the performance of various heat-exchanger materials to be used in fluidized-bed combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, through subcontracts with Babcock Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB Combustion Engineering Systems, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE tests. Argonne National Laboratory contracted with Rockwell International to conduct tests in the DOE atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility. This report presents an overview of the project, a description of the facility and the test hardware, the test operating conditions, a summary of the operation, and the results of analyzing specimens from several uncooled and cooled probes exposed in the facility. Extensive microstructural analyses of the base alloys, claddings, coatings, and weldments were performed on specimens exposed in several probes for different lengths of time. Alloy penetration data were determined for several of the materials as a function of specimen orientation and the exposure location in the combustor. Finally, the data were compared with earlier laboratory test data, and the long-term performance of candidate materials for air-heater applications was assessed.

  19. Experimental and computational studies of hydrodynamics in three-phase and two-phase fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahary, M.

    1994-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the hydrodynamics of three-phase fluidized beds, their rheology, and experimentally verify a predictive three fluid hydrodynamic model developed at the Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. The recent reviews show that there exist no such models in the literature. The IIT hydrodynamic model computes the phase velocities and the volume fractions of gas, liquid, and particulate phases. Model verification involves a comparison of these computed velocities and volume fractions to experimental values. In this thesis, a three fluid model is presented. The input into the model can be particulate viscosities either measured with a Brookfield viscometer or derived using the mathematical techniques of kinetic theory of granular flows pioneered by Savage and others. The computer simulation of a three-phase fluidized bed in an asymmetric mode qualitatively predicts the gas, liquid and solid hold-ups (volume fractions) and flow patterns in the industrially important churn-turbulent (bubbly coalesced) regimes. The computations in a fluidized bed with a symmetric distributor incorrectly showed no bubble coalescence. A combination of X-ray and {gamma}-ray densitometers was used to measure the solids and the liquid volume fractions in a two dimensional bed in the bubble coalesced regime. There is a good agreement between the theory for an asymmetric distributor and the experiments.

  20. Preliminary core design studies for the advanced burner reactor over a wide range of conversion ratios.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, E. A.; Yang, W. S.; Hill, R. N.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-05-05

    A consistent set of designs for 1000 MWt commercial-scale sodium-cooled Advance Burner Reactors (ABR) have been developed for both metal and oxide-fueled cores with conversion ratios from breakeven (CR=1.0) to fertile-free (CR=0.0). These designs are expected to satisfy thermal and irradiation damage limits based on the currently available data. The very low conversion ratio designs require fuel that is beyond the current fuel database, which is anticipated to be qualified by and for the Advanced Burned Test Reactor. Safety and kinetic parameters were calculated, but a safety analysis was not performed. Development of these designs was required to achieve the primary goal of this study, which was to generate representative fuel cycle mass flows for system studies of ABRs as part of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). There are slight variations with conversion ratio but the basic ABR configuration consists of 144 fuel assemblies and between 9 and 22 primary control assemblies for both the metal and oxide-fueled cores. Preliminary design studies indicated that it is feasible to design the ABR to accommodate a wide range of conversion ratio by employing different assembly designs and including sufficient control assemblies to accommodate the large reactivity swing at low conversion ratios. The assemblies are designed to fit within the same geometry, but the size and number of fuel pins within each assembly are significantly different in order to achieve the target conversion ratio while still satisfying thermal limits. Current irradiation experience would allow for a conversion ratio of somewhat below 0.75. The fuel qualification for the first ABR should expand this experience to allow for much lower conversion ratios and higher bunrups. The current designs were based on assumptions about the performance of high and very high enrichment fuel, which results in significant uncertainty about the details of the designs. However, the basic fuel cycle performance trends such as conversion ratio and mass flow parameters are less sensitive to these parameters and the current results should provide a good basis for static and dynamic system analysis. The conversion ratio is fundamentally a ratio of the macroscopic cross section of U-238 capture to that of TRU fission. Since the microscopic cross sections only change moderately with fuel design and isotopic concentration for the fast reactor, a specific conversion ratio requires a specific enrichment. The approximate average charge enrichment (TRU/HM) is 14%, 21%, 33%, 56%, and 100% for conversion ratios of 1.0, 0.75, 0.50, 0.25, and 0.0 for the metal-fueled cores. The approximate average charge enrichment is 17%, 25%, 38%, 60%, and 100% for conversion ratios of 1.0, 0.75, 0.50, 0.25, and 0.0 for the oxide-fueled core. For the split batch cores, the maximum enrichment will be somewhat higher. For both the metal and oxide-fueled cores, the reactivity feedback coefficients and kinetics parameters seem reasonable. The maximum single control assembly reactivity faults may be too large for the low conversion ratio designs. The average reactivity of the primary control assemblies was increased, which may cause the maximum reactivity of the central control assembly to be excessive. The values of the reactivity coefficients and kinetics parameters show that some values appear to improve significantly at lower conversion ratios while others appear far less favorable. Detailed safety analysis is required to determine if these designs have adequate safety margins or if appropriate design modifications are required. Detailed system analysis data has been generated for both metal and oxide-fueled core designs over the entire range of potential burner reactors. Additional data has been calculated for a few alternative fuel cycles. The systems data has been summarized in this report and the detailed data will be provided to the systems analysis team so that static and dynamic system analyses can be performed.

  1. A note on comparing response times in the M/GI/1/FB and M/GI/1/PS queues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the overall mean response time (a.k.a. sojourn time) of the PS and FB queues under an M/GI/1 system. We show from optimal mean response time (a.k.a sojourn time). The Shortest-Remaining-Processing-Time (SRPT have the least attained service (a.k.a age), they time-share the processor via PS. By biasing towards

  2. A note on comparing response times in the M/GI/1/FB and M/GI/1/PS queues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the overall mean response time (a.k.a. sojourn time) of the PS and FB queues under an M/GI/1 system. We show from optimal mean response time (a.k.a sojourn time). The Shortest­Remaining­Processing­Time (SRPT have the least attained service (a.k.a age), they time­share the processor via PS. By biasing towards

  3. Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Quarterly technical progress report, June--September 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the LNS Burner as retrofitted to the host cyclone boiler for effective low-cost control of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions while firing a bituminous coal. The LNS Burner employs a simple, innovative combustion process to burn pulverized coal at high temperatures and provides effective, low-cost control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions. The coal ash contains sulfur and is removed in the form of molten slag and flyash. Cyclone-fired boiler units are typically older units firing high-sulfur bituminous coals at very high temperatures which results in very high NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions. The addition of conventional emission control equipment, such as wet scrubbers, to these older cyclone units in order to meet current and future environmental regulations is generally not economic. Further, the units are generally not compatible with low sulfur coal switching for S0{sub 2} control or selective catalytic reduction technologies for NO{sub x} control. Because the LNS Burner operates at the same very high temperatures as a typical cyclone boiler and produces a similar slag product, it may offer a viable retrofit option for cyclone boiler emission control. This was confirmed by the Cyclone Boiler Retrofit Feasibility Study carried out by TransAlta and an Operating Committee formed of cyclone boiler owners in 1989. An existing utility cyclone boiler, was then selected for the evaluation of the cost and performance study. It was concluded that the LNS Burner retrofit would be a cost-effective option for control of cyclone boiler emissions. A full-scale demonstration of the LNS Burner retrofit was selected in October 1988 as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program Round II.

  4. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 8, NO. 2, MARCH 2000 247 A Model of a Bubbling Fluidized Bed Combustor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campi, Marco

    Prandoni Abstract--Fluidized bed techniques are employed in coal com- bustion power plants, because an appearance in the power plant realm. Compared to a conventional power plant equipped with pollutant abatement, because of the wide contact surface between solid and gas. Known since the 1920's, fluidized bed

  5. Cko.efer f. (i.f\\~f':tn\\ltt E'~~CS'\\'~ A~\\ !f~ \\fb a... 'T":~4.r.-t..

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Kin-Yin

    QC~-®! Cko.efer f. (i.f\\~f':tn\\ltt E'~~CS'\\'~ A~\\ !f~ \\fb a... 'T":~4.r.-t.. ~c-l.;~. ~e...CA weo

  6. Search for Sneutrino Production in e? Final States in 5.3??fb(?1) of pp-bar Collisions at s?=1.96??TeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baringer, Philip S.; Bean, Alice; Clutter, Justace Randall; McGivern, Carrie Lynne; Sekaric, Jadranka; Wilson, Graham Wallace; Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.

    2010-11-05

    We report the results of a search for R parity violating (RPV) interactions leading to the production of supersymmetric sneutrinos decaying into e? final states using 5.3??fb(?1) of integrated luminosity collected by the ...

  7. COAL CLEANING VIA LIQUID-FLUIDIZED CLASSIFICAITON (LFBC) WITH SELECTIVE SOLVENT SWELLING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. M. Calo

    2000-12-01

    The concept of coal beneficiation due to particle segregation in water-fluidized beds, and its improvement via selective solvent-swelling of organic material-rich coal particles, was investigated in this study. Particle size distributions and their behavior were determined using image analysis techniques, and beneficiation effects were explored via measurements of the ash content of segregated particle samples collected from different height locations in a 5 cm diameter liquid-fluidized bed column (LFBC). Both acetone and phenol were found to be effective swelling agents for both Kentucky No.9 and Illinois No.6 coals, considerably increasing mean particle diameters, and shifting particle size distributions to larger sizes. Acetone was a somewhat more effective swelling solvent than phenol. The use of phenol was investigated, however, to demonstrate that low cost, waste solvents can be effective as well. For unswollen coal particles, the trend of increasing particle size from top to bottom in the LFBC was observed in all cases. Since the organic matter in the coal tends to concentrate in the smaller particles, the larger particles are typically denser. Consequently, the LFBC naturally tends to separate coal particles according to mineral matter content, both due to density and size. The data for small (40-100 {micro}m), solvent-swollen particles clearly showed improved beneficiation with respect to segregation in the water-fluidized bed than was achieved with the corresponding unswollen particles. This size range is quite similar to that used in pulverized coal combustion. The original process concept was amply demonstrated in this project. Additional work remains to be done, however, in order to develop this concept into a full-scale process.

  8. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed augmented compressed air energy storage system. Volume III. Preconceptual design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giramonti, A.J.; Lessard, R.D.; Merrick, D.; Hobson, M.J.

    1981-09-01

    A technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed combustion augmented compressed air energy storage systems is presented. The results of this assessment effort are presented in three volumes. Volume III - Preconceptual Design contains the system analysis which led to the identification of a preferred component configuration for a fluidized bed combustion augmented compressed air energy storage system, the results of the effort which transformed the preferred configuration into preconceptual power plant design, and an introductory evaluation of the performance of the power plant system during part-load operation and while load following.

  9. Method of removing sulfur emissions from a fluidized-bed combustion process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogel, Gerhard John (Elmhurst, IL); Jonke, Albert A. (Elmhurst, IL); Snyder, Robert B. (Naperville, IL)

    1978-01-01

    Alkali metal or alkaline earth metal oxides are impregnated within refractory support material such as alumina and introduced into a fluidized-bed process for the combustion of coal. Sulfur dioxide produced during combustion reacts with the metal oxide to form metal sulfates within the porous support material. The support material is removed from the process and the metal sulfate regenerated to metal oxide by chemical reduction. Suitable pore sizes are originally developed within the support material by heat-treating to accommodate both the sulfation and regeneration while still maintaining good particle strength.

  10. Fluidizable zinc titanate materials with high chemical reactivity and attrition resistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gupta, Raghubir P. (Durham, NC); Gangwal, Santosh K. (Durham, NC); Jain, Suresh C. (Morgantown, WV)

    1993-01-01

    Highly durable and chemically reactive zinc titanate materials are prepared in a particle size range of 50 to 400 .mu.m suitable for a fluidized-bed reactor for removing reduced sulfur species in a gaseous form by granulating a mixture of fine zinc oxide and titanium oxide with inorganic and organic binders and by optional additions of small amounts of activators such as CoO and MoO.sub.3 ; and then indurating it at 800.degree. to 900.degree. C. for a time sufficient to produce attrition-resistant granules.

  11. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1992--December 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The Design and Engineering of most components in the Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed System was completed prior to September 1992. The components remaining to be designed at that time were: Aerovalves for the Pulse Combustor; Gas and coal injectors for the Pulse Combustor; Lines for PC tailpipes; Air plenum and inlet silencer; Refractory lined hot gas duct connecting outlet hot cyclone to boiler; Structure and platforms, and ladders around PAFBC vessel access and major equipment. Design work is currently in progress on all of the above components. Items 1, 2, 3 and 4 are 50% completed, and items 5 & 6 are 75% complete.

  12. Fluidized bed heat exchanger with water cooled air distributor and dust hopper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jukkola, Walfred W. (Westport, CT); Leon, Albert M. (Mamaroneck, NY); Van Dyk, Jr., Garritt C. (Bethel, CT); McCoy, Daniel E. (Williamsport, PA); Fisher, Barry L. (Montgomery, PA); Saiers, Timothy L. (Williamsport, PA); Karstetter, Marlin E. (Loganton, PA)

    1981-11-24

    A fluidized bed heat exchanger is provided in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel. A steam-water natural circulation system is provided for heat exchange and the housing of the heat exchanger has a water-wall type construction. Vertical in-bed heat exchange tubes are provided and the air distributor is water-cooled. A water-cooled dust hopper is provided in the housing to collect particulates from the combustion gases and separate the combustion zone from a volume within said housing in which convection heat exchange tubes are provided to extract heat from the exiting combustion gases.

  13. Concept for a super-clean super-efficient pressurized fluidized-bed combustion system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mollott, D.J.; Reed, M.

    1994-12-31

    A paper study for a highly efficient, environmentally benign, coal-fired electric power generation system, is presented. This system falls in the category of pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) systems which has been dubbed super-clean super-efficient PFBC`s. The system presented starts with the second-generation PFBC concept and adds on advanced gas turbine, a solid oxide fuel cell, a supercritical steam cycle, a second low-temperature rankine cycle which pulls energy from the steam condenser, and inlet air cooling. The thermodynamic efficiency of the system is calculated to be 61.8 percent based on higher heating value (HHV).

  14. Performance and gas cleanup criterion for a cotton gin waste fluidized-bed gasifier 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craig, Joe David

    1980-01-01

    to gasify cottin gin waste. General objectives are: 1) Design and construct a fluidized-bed gasification reactor based on results of a study by Groves (1979). 2) Evaluate performance of the scaled up reactor based on Groves' empirical prediction equation... of Groves (1979). A gasifier of this type would supply about 238 megajoules of heat per hour based on converting 90 percent of the produced gas to heat. If the produced gas were used in an internal combustion engine with 20 per- e nt conversion effic...

  15. Fluidizable zinc titanate materials with high chemical reactivity and attrition resistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.; Jain, S.C.

    1993-10-19

    Highly durable and chemically reactive zinc titanate materials are prepared in a particle size range of 50 to 400 [mu]m suitable for a fluidized-bed reactor for removing reduced sulfur species in a gaseous form by granulating a mixture of fine zinc oxide and titanium oxide with inorganic and organic binders and by optional additions of small amounts of activators such as CoO and MoO[sub 3]; and then indurating it at 800 to 900 C for a time sufficient to produce attrition-resistant granules.

  16. In-bed tube bank for a fluidized-bed combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hemenway, Jr., Lloyd F. (Morgantown, WV)

    1990-01-01

    An in-bed tube bank (10) for a fluidized bed combustor. The tube bank (10) of the present invention comprises one or more fluid communicating boiler tubes (30) which define a plurality of selectively spaced boiler tube sections (32). The tube sections (32) are substantially parallel to one another and aligned in a common plane. The tube bank (10) further comprises support members (34) for joining adjacent tube sections (32), the support members (34) engaging and extending along a selected length of the tube sections (32) and spanning the preselected space therebetween.

  17. Method of burning sulfur-containing fuels in a fluidized bed boiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Brian C. (Windsor, CT)

    1982-01-01

    A method of burning a sulfur-containing fuel in a fluidized bed of sulfur oxide sorbent wherein the overall utilization of sulfur oxide sorbent is increased by comminuting the bed drain solids to a smaller average particle size, preferably on the order of 50 microns, and reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed. In comminuting the bed drain solids, particles of spent sulfur sorbent contained therein are fractured thereby exposing unreacted sorbent surface. Upon reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed, the newly-exposed unreacted sorbent surface is available for sulfur oxide sorption, thereby increasing overall sorbent utilization.

  18. Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Whitty

    2007-06-30

    University of Utah's project entitled 'Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer' (DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation released by the U.S. Department of Energy in December 2001, requesting proposals for projects targeted towards black liquor/biomass gasification technology support research and development. Specifically, the solicitation was seeking projects that would provide technical support for Department of Energy supported black liquor and biomass gasification demonstration projects under development at the time.

  19. Development of an advanced process for drying fine coal in an inclined fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boysen, J.E.; Kang, T.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Berggren, M.H.; Jha, M.C.; AMAX Research and Development Center, Golden, CO )

    1989-10-01

    The main objective of this research is to develop a thermal process for drying fine coal that (1) reduces explosion potential, (2) uses a fluidized bed with minimum elutriation, (3) produces a stable dry coal by preventing moisture reabsorption and autogeneous heating, (4) reduces fugitive dust emissions, and (5) is technically and economically feasible. The project scope of work requires completion of five tasks: (1) project planning, (2) characterization of the two feed coals, (3) bench-scale IFB drying studies, (4) product characterization and testing, and (5) technical and economic process evaluation. The project technical achievements are primarily related to understanding of the behavior of the two coals in the IFB reactor. Solids residence time and solids entrainment can be correlated using the Reynolds number. Gas produced from the coal during drying and the product composition can be correlated to the average dryer temperature. A dry product with minimal proximate moisture and substantially increased heating value can be produced from either of these coals under a wide variety of fluidizing gas-to-solids ratios and IFB operating temperatures. Product characterization indicates that moisture reabsorption can be significantly reduced and that fugitive dust contents can be almost completely reduced. 4 refs., 19 figs., 24 tabs.

  20. Predictive models of circulating fluidized bed combustors. 12th technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gidaspow, D.

    1992-07-01

    Steady flows influenced by walls cannot be described by inviscid models. Flows in circulating fluidized beds have significant wall effects. Particles in the form of clusters or layers can be seen to run down the walls. Hence modeling of circulating fluidized beds (CFB) without a viscosity is not possible. However, in interpreting Equations (8-1) and (8-2) it must be kept in mind that CFB or most other two phase flows are never in a true steady state. Then the viscosity in Equations (8-1) and (8-2) may not be the true fluid viscosity to be discussed next, but an Eddy type viscosity caused by two phase flow oscillations usually referred to as turbulence. In view of the transient nature of two-phase flow, the drag and the boundary layer thickness may not be proportional to the square root of the intrinsic viscosity but depend upon it to a much smaller extent. As another example, liquid-solid flow and settling of colloidal particles in a lamella electrosettler the settling process is only moderately affected by viscosity. Inviscid flow with settling is a good first approximation to this electric field driven process. The physical meaning of the particulate phase viscosity is described in detail in the chapter on kinetic theory. Here the conventional derivation resented in single phase fluid mechanics is generalized to multiphase flow.

  1. Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion for small scale market sectors. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashworth, R.A.; Plessinger, D.A.; Sommer, T.M. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Orville, OH (United States); Keener, H.M. [Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, OH (United States); Webner, R.L. [Will-Burt Co., Orrville, OH (United States)

    1997-03-31

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate and promote the commercialization of coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) systems, with limestone addition for SO{sub 2} emissions control and a baghouse for particulate emissions control. This AFBC system was targeted for small scale industrial-commercial-institutional space and process heat applications. A cost effective and environmentally acceptable AFBC technology in this size range would displace a considerable amount of gas/oil with coal while resulting in significant total cost savings to the owner/operators. In the Proof-of-Concept Phase, a 2.2 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr unit was installed and successfully operated at Cedar Lane Farms (CLF), a commercial nursery in Ohio. The heat from the fluidized bed was used to heat hot water which was recirculated through greenhouses for cool weather heating. The system was designed to be fully automated with minimal operator attention required. The AFBC system installed at CLF was an improved design that incorporated flyash/sorbent reinjection and an underbed feed system to improve limestone utilization. With these additions it was possible to lower the Ca/S ratio from {approximately} 3.0 to 2.0, and still maintain an SO{sub 2} emissions level of 1.2 lb/10{sup 6} Btu when burning the same high sulfur Ohio coal tested at OARDC.

  2. Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei-Ping Pan; Songgeng Li; John T. Riley

    2005-10-01

    This report is to present the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period July 1, 2005 through September 30, 2005. The following tasks have been completed. First, the construction of the Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Combustor Building was completed. The experimental facilities have been moved into the CFB Combustor Building. Second, the fabrication and manufacture of the CFBC Facility is in the final stage and is expected to be completed before November 30, 2005. Third, the drop tube reactor has been remodeled and installed to meet the specific requirements for the investigation of the effects of flue gas composition on mercury oxidation. This study will start in the next quarter. Fourth, the effect of sulfur dioxide on molecular chlorine via the Deacon reaction was investigated. The experimental results from this study are presented in this report. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter is described in this report.

  3. Simulation of NOx emission in circulating fluidized beds burning low-grade fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Afsin Gungor

    2009-05-15

    Nitrogen oxides are a major environmental pollutant resulting from combustion. This paper presents a modeling study of pollutant NOx emission resulting from low-grade fuel combustion in a circulating fluidized bed. The simulation model accounts for the axial and radial distribution of NOx emission in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB). The model results are compared with and validated against experimental data both for small-size and industrial-size CFBs that use different types of low-grade fuels given in the literature. The present study proves that CFB combustion demonstrated by both experimental data and model predictions produces low and acceptable levels of NOx emissions resulting from the combustion of low-grade fuels. Developed model can also investigate the effects of different operational parameters on overall NOx emission. As a result of this investigation, both experimental data and model predictions show that NOx emission increases with the bed temperature but decreases with excess air if other parameters are kept unchanged. 37 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Second-Generation System Research and Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Robertson; D. Horazak; R. Newby; H. Goldstein

    2002-11-01

    Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DE-AC21-86MC21023 to develop a new type of coal-fired plant for electric power generation. This new type of plant--called a Second-Generation or Advanced Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion (APCFB) plant--offers the promise of efficiencies greater than 45% (HHV), with both emissions and a cost of electricity that are significantly lower than conventional pulverized-coal-fired plants with scrubbers. The APCFB plant incorporates the partial gasification of coal in a carbonizer, the combustion of carbonizer char in a pressurized circulating fluidized bed boiler (PCFB), and the combustion of carbonizer syngas in a topping combustor to achieve gas turbine inlet temperatures of 2300 F and higher. A conceptual design was previously prepared for this new type of plant and an economic analysis presented, all based on the use of a Siemens Westinghouse W501F gas turbine with projected carbonizer, PCFB, and topping combustor performance data. Having tested these components at the pilot plant stage, the referenced conceptual design is being updated to reflect more accurate performance predictions together with the use of the more advanced Siemens Westinghouse W501G gas turbine and a conventional 2400 psig/1050 F/1050 F/2-1/2 in. steam turbine. This report describes the updated plant which is projected to have an HHV efficiency of 48% and identifies work completed for the October 2001 through September 2002 time period.

  5. Comminution phenomena during the fluidized bed combustion of a commercial refuse-derived fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, U.; Cammarota, A.; Chirone, R.; D`Anna, G.

    1995-12-31

    A commercial densified refuse-derived fuel (RDF), obtained as pellets from municipal solid wastes, was burned in two laboratory scale bubbling fluidized bed combustors, having an internal diameter of 41 mm. The apparatus were both batchwise operated at 850 C by injecting batches of RDF particles into a bed of silica sand (300--400 {micro}m as size range) fluidized at a superficial gas velocity of 0.8 m/s. RDF particles with equivalent mean diameter ranging from 4 to 9 mm were used. Different experimental procedures were set up to separately investigate comminution phenomena of fuel particles. Results were compared with those obtained burning a South African bituminous coal. Results pointed out that RDF particles undergo a strong primary fragmentation phenomenon, with a probability of particle breakage equal to 1 for fuel particles larger than 6 mm. Attrition and char fragmentation phenomena are particularly relevant under both inert and oxidizing conditions, generating a large amount of unburned fines which may affect overall combustion efficiency.

  6. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY WITH A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei-Ping Pan, Kunlei Liu; John T. Riley

    2004-07-30

    This report presents the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the quarter April 1--June 30, 2004. The following tasks have been completed. First, the final specifications for the renovation of the new Combustion Laboratory and the construction of the CFB Combustor Building have been delivered to the architect, and invitations for construction bids for the two tasks have been released. Second, the component parts of the CFBC system have been designed after the design work for assembly parts of the CFBC system was completed. Third, the literature pertaining to Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDD) and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDF) released during the incineration of solid waste, including municipal solid waste (MSW) and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) have been reviewed, and an experimental plan for fundamental research of MSW incineration on a simulated fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) facility has been prepared. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter has been outlined in this report.

  7. Two stage, low temperature, catalyzed fluidized bed incineration with in situ neutralization for radioactive mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wade, J.F.; Williams, P.M.

    1995-05-17

    A two stage, low temperature, catalyzed fluidized bed incineration process is proving successful at incinerating hazardous wastes containing nuclear material. The process operates at 550{degrees}C and 650{degrees}C in its two stages. Acid gas neutralization takes place in situ using sodium carbonate as a sorbent in the first stage bed. The feed material to the incinerator is hazardous waste-as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act-mixed with radioactive materials. The radioactive materials are plutonium, uranium, and americium that are byproducts of nuclear weapons production. Despite its low temperature operation, this system successfully destroyed poly-chlorinated biphenyls at a 99.99992% destruction and removal efficiency. Radionuclides and volatile heavy metals leave the fluidized beds and enter the air pollution control system in minimal amounts. Recently collected modeling and experimental data show the process minimizes dioxin and furan production. The report also discusses air pollution, ash solidification, and other data collected from pilot- and demonstration-scale testing. The testing took place at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a US Department of Energy facility, in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s.

  8. Solids circulation around a jet in a fluidized bed gasifier. Final technical report, September 1, 1978-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gidaspow, D.; Ettehadieh, B.; Lin, C.; Goyal, A.; Lyczkowski, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The object of this investigation was to develop an experimentally verified hydrodynamic model to predict solids circulation around a jet in a fluidized bed gasifier. Hydrodynamic models of fluidization use the principles of conservation of mass, momentum and energy. To account for unequal velocities of solid and fluid phases, separate phase momentum balances are developed. Other fluid bed models used in the scale-up of gasifiers do not employ the principles of conservation of momentum. Therefore, these models cannot predict fluid and particle motion. In such models solids mixing is described by means of empirical transfer coefficients. A two dimensional unsteady state computer code was developed to give gas and solid velocities, void fractions and pressure in a fluid bed with a jet. The growth, propagation and collapse of bubbles was calculated. Time-averaged void fractions were calculated that showed an agreement with void fractions measured with a gamma ray densitometer. Calculated gas and solid velocities in the jet appeared to be reasonable. Pressure and void oscillations also appear to be reasonable. A simple analytical formula for the rate of solids circulation was developed from the equations of change. It agrees with Westinghouse fluidization data in a bed with a draft tube. One dimensional hydrodynamic models were applied to modeling of entrained-flow coal gasification reactors and compared with data. Further development of the hydrodynamic models should make the scale-up and simulation of fluidized bed reactors a reality.

  9. Fluidized bed steam reformed mineral waste form performance testing to support Hanford Supplemental Low Activity Waste Immobilization Technology Selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C. M.; Pierce, E. M.; Bannochie, C. J.; Burket, P. R.; Cozzi, A. D.; Crawford, C. L.; Daniel, W. E.; Fox, K. M.; Herman, C. C.; Miller, D. H.; Missimer, D. M.; Nash, C. A.; Williams, M. F.; Brown, C. F.; Qafoku, N. P.; Neeway, J. J.; Valenta, M. M.; Gill, G. A.; Swanberg, D. J.; Robbins, R. A.; Thompson, L. E.

    2015-10-01

    This report describes the benchscale testing with simulant and radioactive Hanford Tank Blends, mineral product characterization and testing, and monolith testing and characterization. These projects were funded by DOE EM-31 Technology Development & Deployment (TDD) Program Technical Task Plan WP-5.2.1-2010-001 and are entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-Level Waste Form Qualification”, Inter-Entity Work Order (IEWO) M0SRV00054 with Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using Savannah River Site (SRS) Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”, and IEWO M0SRV00080, “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Waste Form Qualification Testing Using SRS Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”. This was a multi-organizational program that included Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), THOR® Treatment Technologies (TTT), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Office of River Protection (ORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS). The SRNL testing of the non-radioactive pilot-scale Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) products made by TTT, subsequent SRNL monolith formulation and testing and studies of these products, and SRNL Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) radioactive campaign were funded by DOE Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) Phase 2 Project in connection with a Work-For-Others (WFO) between SRNL and TTT.

  10. A Two-Stage Microbial Fuel Cell and Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Membrane Bioreactor (MFC-AFMBR) System for Effective Domestic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    interest in the use of wastewater as a source of renewable energy.1 Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are beingA Two-Stage Microbial Fuel Cell and Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Membrane Bioreactor (MFC-AFMBR) System, Pennsylvania 16802, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Microbial fuel cells (MFCs

  11. Method of and apparatus for preheating pressurized fluidized bed combustor and clean-up subsystem of a gas turbine power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Rossa W. (E. Rutherford, NJ); Zoll, August H. (Cedar Grove, NJ)

    1982-01-01

    In a gas turbine power plant having a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, gas turbine-air compressor subsystem and a gas clean-up subsystem interconnected for fluid flow therethrough, a pipe communicating the outlet of the compressor of the gas turbine-air compressor subsystem with the interior of the pressurized fluidized bed combustor and the gas clean-up subsystem to provide for flow of compressed air, heated by the heat of compression, therethrough. The pressurized fluidized bed combustor and gas clean-up subsystem are vented to atmosphere so that the heated compressed air flows therethrough and loses heat to the interior of those components before passing to the atmosphere.

  12. Low NO{sub x} combustion system with DSVS{trademark} rotating classifier retrofit for a 630 MW{sub e} cell burner unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryk, S.A.; Maringo, G.J.; Shah, A.I. [Babcock and Wilcox, Barberton, OH (United States); Madden, V.F. [New England Power, Westborough, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    New England Power Company`s (NEP) 630 MW{sub e} Brayton Point Unit 3 is a universal pressure (UP) type supercritical boiler originally equipped with pulverized coal (PC) fired cell burners. In order to comply with the Phase 1 NO{sub x} emissions requirements under Title I of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the unit has been retrofitted with a low NO{sub x} staged combustion system during the spring 1995 outage. The unit was restarted in early May 1995 and was operating under the State Compliance emission levels by the end of the month. Additional optimization testing was performed in August, 1995. The retrofit scope consisted of replacing the cell burners with low NO{sub x} DRB-XCL{reg_sign} type PC/oil burners and overfire air ports within the existing open windbox, with no change in the firing pattern. A 70% NO{sub x} reduction from baseline levels was achieved while maintaining acceptable unburned carbon (UBC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels. To maintain low UBC levels, the scope included modifying the MPS-89 pulverizers by replacing the existing stationary classifiers with the B and W DSVS{trademark} (Dynamically Staged Variable Speed) two stage rotating classifiers. The DSVS{trademark} classifiers provide higher fineness for UBC control without derating the mill capacity. This paper will describe the project and discuss the retrofit emissions data. The paper will conclude with recommendations for retrofitting other similarly designed units.

  13. Flame-synthesis limits and self-catalytic behavior of carbon nanotubes using a double-faced wall stagnation flow burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woo, S.K.; Hong, Y.T.; Kwon, O.C.

    2009-10-15

    Flame-synthesis limits of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are measured using a double-faced wall stagnation flow (DWSF) burner that shows potential in mass production of CNTs. With nitrogen-diluted premixed ethylene-air flames established on the nickel-coated stainless steel double-faced plate wall, the limits of CNT formation are determined using field-emission scanning and transmission electron microscopies and Raman spectroscopy. Also, self-catalytic behavior of the synthesized CNTs is evaluated using the DWSF burner with a CNT-deposited stainless steel double-faced plate wall. Results show narrow fuel-equivalence ratio limits of multi-walled CNT (MWCNT)-synthesis at high flame stretch rates and substantially extended limits at low flame stretch rates. This implies that the synthesis limits are very sensitive to the fuel-equivalence ratio variation for the high stretch rate conditions, yielding a lot of impurities and soot rather than MWCNTs. The enhanced ratio of tube inner diameter to wall thickness of the MWCNTs synthesized using a CNT self-catalytic flame-synthesis process is observed, indicating that the quality of metal-catalytic, flame-synthesized MWCNTs can be much improved via the process. Thus, using a DWSF burner with the CNT self-catalytic process has potential in mass production of MWCNTs with improved quality. (author)

  14. A study of cellulose gasification in a fluidized bed using a high-temperature solar furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    A 4.2-meter solar furnace was used to study the gasification of cellulose with steam in a fluidized bed. The heating value of the high-temperature equilibrium products is about twenty percent higher than that of the reactants. The increase represents stored solar energy; and the product, synthesis gas, is valuable as a chemical feedstock or pipeline gas. All experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure. Pure tabular alumina as well as crushed automotive exhaust was used as a bed material. Microcrystalline {alpha}-cellulose, entrained in argon, entered the fluidized bed just above the distributor. Steam heated to the operating temperature in a 10 cm packed bed section below the fluidized bed. In all cases, the process ran with more steam than required to produce an equimolar mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. We used a quartz reactor between 1100 and 1430 K; a steel reactor at 1500 K and an Inconel reactor at 1600 K. Reactor inside diameter, nominally 5 cm, varied slightly; the bed height was adjusted to keep the gas residence time constant. Hydrogen production rate was measured before and after experiments with steam alone, with this amount subtracted. Equilibrium mixtures were not achieved. Catalysts improved hydrogen yields with higher than expected concentrations of carbon monoxide, methane and lighter hydrocarbons such as ethylene and acetylene. Experiments performed without catalyst at 1300 K, achieved a mixture (dry, argon-free) of 46 mole% CO, 30% H{sub 2} 14% CH{sub 4} 5% CO{sub 2} and 5% C{sub 2}H{sub 4}. An equilibrium mixture at this temperature would have contained 39% CO, 30% H{sub 2} 7% CO{sub 2} and no CH{sub 4} or C{sub 2}H{sub 4}. With the catalyst, the CO and CH{sub 4} decreased to 40% and 2% respectively, the H{sub 2} increased to 47%, and CO{sub 2} remained the same. No ethylene was formed. The hydrocarbon-rich mixtures achieved are typical of rapid-pyrolysis processes.

  15. Measurement of the W boson helicity in top quark decays using 5.4 fb?¹ of pp? collision data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G. A.; et al

    2011-02-01

    We present a measurement of the helicity of the W boson produced in top quark decays using tt¯ decays in the l+jets and dilepton final states selected from a sample of 5.4 fb?¹ of collisions recorded using the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron pp? collider. We measure the fractions of longitudinal and right-handed W bosons to be f?=0.669±0.102[±0.078(stat.)±0.065(syst.)] and f?=0.023±0.053[±0.041(stat.)±0.034(syst.)], respectively. This result is consistent at the 98% level with the standard model. A measurement with f? fixed to the value from the standard model yields f?=0.010±0.037[±0.022(stat.)±0.030(syst.)].

  16. Search for WH associated production in 5.3 fb -1 of pp¯ collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G.A.; et al

    2011-03-01

    We present a search for associated production of Higgs and W bosons in collisions at a center of mass energy of in 5.3 fb -1 of integrated luminosity recorded by the D0 experiment. Multivariate analysis techniques are applied to events containing one lepton, an imbalance in transverse energy, and one or two b-tagged jets to discriminate a potential WH signal from Standard Model backgrounds. We observe good agreement between data and expected backgrounds, and set an upper limit of 4.5 (at 95% confidence level and for mH=115 GeV) on the ratio of the WH cross section multiplied by the branchingmore »fraction of H ? bb¯ to its Standard Model prediction, which is consistent with an expected limit of 4.8.« less

  17. Economic Evaluation of By-Product Power/Co-Generation Systems for Industrial Plants with Fluidized-Bed Coal Burning Facilities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mesko, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    . The plants analyzed employ fluidized bed boilers for generation of steam for process and building/heating/cooling demands, in conjunction with electric power co-generation. Results of the analysis are presented, using life cycle costs and investment payback...

  18. Operating costs and plant options analysis for the Shamokin fluidized bed boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klett, M.G.; Dowdy, T.E.; Litman, R.

    1984-03-01

    This report presents the results of a study that examined the operating costs and options to improve the Shamokin Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion Demonstration Plant located near Shamokin, Pennsylvania. The purpose of this study was to perform an operating cost analysis and compare the results with projected operating costs. An analysis was also made to identify possible cost savings options. Two base case scenarios were developed for this study: the first scenario assumed that the plant operated in a manner similar to operations during the extended test program; and the second scenario was concerned with two options. One option assumed upgrading the plant to achieve continuous full load operation, restarting, and used revised costs and revenues. The second assumed reconfiguring the plant for cogeneration.

  19. Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei-Ping Pan; Zhongxian Cheng; Yan Cao; John Smith

    2006-09-30

    This report is to present the progress made on the project entitled ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period July 1, 2006 through September 30, 2006. The following activities have been completed: the steel floor grating around the riser in all levels and the three-phase power supply for CFBC System was installed. Erection of downcomers, loop seals, ash bunker, thermal expansion joints, fuel and bed material bunkers with load cells, rotary air-lock valves and fuel flow monitors is underway. Pilot-scale slipstream tests conducted with bromine compound addition were performed for two typical types of coal. The purposes of the tests were to study the effect of bromine addition on mercury oxidization. From the test results, it was observed that there was a strong oxidization effect for Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. The proposed work for next quarter and project schedule are also described.

  20. Rocky Flats Plant fluidized-bed incinerator. Engineering design and reference manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meile, L.J.

    1982-11-05

    The information in this manual is being presented to complete the documentation of the fluidized-bed incineration (FBI) process development at the Rocky Flats Plant. The information pertains to the 82-kg/hour demonstration unit at the Rocky Flats Plant. This document continues the presentation of design reference material in the aeas of equipment drawings, space requirements, and unit costs. In addition, appendices contain an operating procedure and an operational safety analysis of the process. The cost figures presented are based on 1978 dollars and have not been converted to a current dollar value. Also, the cost of modifications are not included, since they would be insignificant if they were incorporated into a new installation.

  1. Development of a trial burn plan for a mixed waste fluidized bed incinerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kabot, F.J.; Ziegler, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    One of the more important elements of the incinerator permitting process under RCRA is the development of the Trial Burn Plan. This document describes the incinerator and defines the incinerator's process envelope within which the trial burns will be conducted. The data obtained during the trial burns will be the basis for the incinerator's operating permit. This paper describes the development of the Trial Burn Plan for a unique fluidized bed incinerator to be used for the incineration of hazardous and mixed wastes at the Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Plant. It describes a review process of the Trial Burn Plan involving a public comment period that actually preceded the trial burns. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Continuous Ethanol Production Using Immobilized-Cell/Enzyme Biocatalysts in Fluidized-Bed Bioreactor (FBR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nghiem, NP

    2003-11-16

    The immobilized-cell fluidized-bed bioreactor (FBR) was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Previous studies at ORNL using immobilized Zymomonas mobilis in FBR at both laboratory and demonstration scale (4-in-ID by 20-ft-tall) have shown that the system was more than 50 times as productive as industrial benchmarks (batch and fed-batch free cell fermentations for ethanol production from glucose). Economic analysis showed that a continuous process employing the FBR technology to produce ethanol from corn-derived glucose would offer savings of three to six cents per gallon of ethanol compared to a typical batch process. The application of the FBR technology for ethanol production was extended to investigate more complex feedstocks, which included starch and lignocellulosic-derived mixed sugars. Economic analysis and mathematical modeling of the reactor were included in the investigation. This report summarizes the results of these extensive studies.

  3. Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei-Ping Pan; Songgeng Li

    2006-01-01

    This report is to present the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period October 1, 2005 through December 31, 2005. Work was performed on the following activities. First, the fabrication and manufacture of the CFBC Facility is nearly completed. The erection of the CFBC facility is expected to start in the second week of February, 2006. Second, effect of flue gas components on mercury oxidation was investigated in a drop tube reactor. As a first step, experiment for mercury oxidation by chlorine was investigated. The experimental results from this study are presented in this report. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter is described in this report.

  4. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion. Technical progress report, April--June, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-27

    This report of activities for the second quarter of 1994 is arranged in the following order: (1) Design Activities, including Process, Mechanical, Civil and Structural, and Electrical and Instrumentation; (2) Fabrication Activities; (3) Site Construction Activities; (4) Planned Activities for Next Quarter; and (5) Schedule. In order to achieve higher horizontal penetration of the flue gases from the pulse combustor, a conical deflector must be introduced under the exit of the pulse combustor. The conical surface of the deflector will be optimally shaped to maximize redirection of the flue gases as desired. The paper discusses the design of the fluidized bed, feed system, and ash system. Drawings are included of many of the subsystems and of the auxiliary systems required at the construction site, e.g. electrical system, lighting system, and control room lay out.

  5. Synthetic aggregate compositions derived from spent bed materials from fluidized bed combustion and fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyle, Michael J. (Aston, PA)

    1994-01-01

    Cementitious compositions useful as lightweight aggregates are formed from a blend of spent bed material from fluidized bed combustion and fly ash. The proportions of the blend are chosen so that ensuing reactions eliminate undesirable constituents. The blend is then mixed with water and formed into a shaped article. The shaped article is preferably either a pellet or a "brick" shape that is later crushed. The shaped articles are cured at ambient temperature while saturated with water. It has been found that if used sufficiently, the resulting aggregate will exhibit minimal dimensional change over time. The aggregate can be certified by also forming standardized test shapes, e.g., cylinders while forming the shaped articles and measuring the properties of the test shapes using standardized techniques including X-ray diffraction.

  6. Process for generating electricity in a pressurized fluidized-bed combustor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kasper, Stanley (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1991-01-01

    A process and apparatus for generating electricity using a gas turbine as part of a pressurized fluidized-bed combustor system wherein coal is fed as a fuel in a slurry in which other constituents, including a sulfur sorbent such as limestone, are added. The coal is combusted with air in a pressurized combustion chamber wherein most of the residual sulfur in the coal is captured by the sulfur sorbent. After particulates are removed from the flue gas, the gas expands in a turbine, thereby generating electric power. The spent flue gas is cooled by heat exchange with system combustion air and/or system liquid streams, and the condensate is returned to the feed slurry.

  7. Radioactive Demonstrations Of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) With Hanford Low Activity Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C. M.; Crawford, C. L.; Burket, P. R.; Bannochie, C. J.; Daniel, W. G.; Nash, C. A.; Cozzi, A. D.; Herman, C. C.

    2012-10-22

    Several supplemental technologies for treating and immobilizing Hanford low activity waste (LAW) are being evaluated. One immobilization technology being considered is Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) which offers a low temperature (700-750?C) continuous method by which wastes high in organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, or other aqueous components may be processed into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The granular waste form produced by co-processing the waste with kaolin clay has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. The FBSR granular product will be monolithed into a final waste form. The granular component is composed of insoluble sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) feldspathoid minerals such as sodalite. Production of the FBSR mineral product has been demonstrated both at the industrial, engineering, pilot, and laboratory scales on simulants. Radioactive testing at SRNL commenced in late 2010 to demonstrate the technology on radioactive LAW streams which is the focus of this study.

  8. Carbon attrition during the circulating fluidized bed combustion of a packaging-derived fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mastellone, M.L.; Arena, U.

    1999-05-01

    Cylindrical pellets of a market-available packaging-derived fuel, obtained from a mono-material collection of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles, were batchwise fed to a laboratory scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustor. The apparatus, whose riser was 41 mm ID and 4 m high, was operated under both inert and oxidizing conditions to establish the relative importance of purely mechanical attrition and combustion-assisted attrition in generating carbon fines. Silica sand particles of two size distributions were used as inert materials. For each run, carbon load and carbon particle size distribution in the riser and rates of attrited carbon fines escaping the combustor were determined as a function of time. A parallel investigation was carried out with a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) combustor to point out peculiarities of attrition in CFB combustors. After devolatilization, PET pellets generated fragile aggregates of char and sand, which easily crumbled, leading to single particles, partially covered by a carbon-rich layer. The injected fixed carbon was therefore present in the bed in three phases: an A-phase, made of aggregates of sand and char, an S-phase, made of individual carbon-covered sand particles and an F-phase, made of carbon fines, abraded by the surfaces of the A- and S-phases. The effects of the size of inert material on the different forms under which fixed carbon was present in the bed and on the rate of escape of attrited carbon fines from the combustor were investigated. Features of carbon attrition in CFB and BFB combustors are discussed.

  9. ENERGY ECONOMY CII5fB 81 (R3) (L2) (M2) UDC 728.3 (489) Low-energy houses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    solutions as to design, choice of building materials, heating systems, energy sources, etc. (ref. 1). EachENERGY ECONOMY CII5fB 81 (R3) (L2) (M2) UDC 728.3 (489) Low-energy houses: insulation and air tightness by Bjarne Saxhof and Allan A. Nielsen 142 The Hjortekar project of six low energy house designs

  10. Low temperature SO{sub 2} removal with solid sorbents in a circulating fluidized bed absorber. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.K.; Keener, T.C.

    1994-10-10

    A novel flue gas desulfurization technology has been developed at the University of Cincinnati incorporating a circulating fluidized bed absorber (CFBA) reactor with dry sorbent. The main features of CFBA are high sorbent/gas mixing ratios, excellent heat and mass transfer characteristics, and the ability to recycle partially utilized sorbent. Subsequently, higher SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies with higher overall sorbent utilization can be realized compared with other dry sorbent injection scrubber systems.

  11. Achieving New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) Emission Standards Through Integration of Low-NOx Burners with an Optimization Plan for Boiler Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne Penrod

    2006-12-31

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the use of an Integrated Combustion Optimization System to achieve NO{sub X} emission levels in the range of 0.15 to 0.22 lb/MMBtu while simultaneously enabling increased power output. The project plan consisted of the integration of low-NO{sub X} burners and advanced overfire air technology with various process measurement and control devices on the Holcomb Station Unit 1 boiler. The plan included the use of sophisticated neural networks or other artificial intelligence technologies and complex software to optimize several operating parameters, including NO{sub X} emissions, boiler efficiency, and CO emissions. The program was set up in three phases. In Phase I, the boiler was equipped with sensors that can be used to monitor furnace conditions and coal flow to permit improvements in boiler operation. In Phase II, the boiler was equipped with burner modifications designed to reduce NO{sub X} emissions and automated coal flow dampers to permit on-line fuel balancing. In Phase III, the boiler was to be equipped with an overfire air system to permit deep reductions in NO{sub X} emissions. Integration of the overfire air system with the improvements made in Phases I and II would permit optimization of boiler performance, output, and emissions. This report summarizes the overall results from Phases I and II of the project. A significant amount of data was collected from the combustion sensors, coal flow monitoring equipment, and other existing boiler instrumentation to monitor performance of the burner modifications and the coal flow balancing equipment.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL RADIATIVELY/CONDUCTIVELY STABILIZED BURNER FOR SIGNIFICANT REDUCTION OF NOx EMISSIONS AND FOR ADVANCING THE MODELING AND UNDERSTANDING OF PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND EMISSIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noam Lior; Stuart W. Churchill

    2003-10-01

    The primary objective of the proposed study was the study and analysis of, and design recommendations for, a novel radiatively-conductively stabilized combustion (RCSC) process for pulverized coal, which, based on our prior studies with both fluid fuels and pulverized coal, holds a high promise to reduce NO{sub x} production significantly. We have primarily engaged in continuing and improving our process modeling and analysis, obtained a large amount of quantitative information about the effects of the major parameters on NO{sub x} production, conducted an extensive exergy analysis of the process, evaluated the practicalities of employing the Radiatively-Conductively Stabilized Combustor (RCSC) to large power and heat plants, and improved the experimental facility. Prior experimental work has proven the feasibility of the combustor, but slagging during coal combustion was observed and should be dealt with. The primary outcomes and conclusions from the study are: (1) we developed a model and computer program that represents the pulverized coal combustion in the RCSC, (2) the model predicts that NO{sub x} emissions can be reduced by a number of methods, detailed in the report. (3) the exergy analysis points out at least a couple of possible ways to improve the exergetic efficiency in this combustor: increasing the effectiveness of thermal feedback, and adjusting the combustor mixture exit location, (4) because of the low coal flow rates necessitated in this study to obtain complete combustion in the burner, the size of a burner operating under the considered conditions would have to be up to an order of magnitude, larger than comparable commercial burners, but different flow configurations of the RCSC can yield higher feed rates and smaller dimensions, and should be investigated. Related to this contract, eleven papers were published in journals and conference proceedings, and ten invited presentations were given at university and research institutions, as well as at the Gordon Conference on Modern Development in Thermodynamics. The results obtained are very encouraging for the development of the RCSC as a commercial burner for significant reduction of NO{sub x} emissions, and highly warrants further study and development.

  13. Combined search for the Standard Model Higgs boson using up to 4.9 fb[superscript ?1] of pp collision data at ?s = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Frank E.

    A combined search for the Standard Model Higgs boson with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC using datasets corresponding to integrated luminosities from 1.04 fb[superscript ?1] to 4.9 fb[superscript ?1] of pp collisions ...

  14. Closures for Course-Grid Simulation of Fluidized Gas-Particle Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sankaran Sundaresan

    2010-02-14

    Gas-particle flows in fluidized beds and riser reactors are inherently unstable, and they manifest fluctuations over a wide range of length and time scales. Two-fluid models for such flows reveal unstable modes whose length scale is as small as ten particle diameters. Yet, because of limited computational resources, gas-particle flows in large fluidized beds are invariably simulated by solving discretized versions of the two-fluid model equations over a coarse spatial grid. Such coarse-grid simulations do not resolve the small-scale spatial structures which are known to affect the macroscale flow structures both qualitatively and quantitatively. Thus there is a need to develop filtered two-fluid models which are suitable for coarse-grid simulations and capturing the effect of the small-scale structures through closures in terms of the filtered variables. The overall objective of the project is to develop validated closures for filtered two-fluid models for gas-particle flows, with the transport gasifier as a primary, motivating example. In this project, highly resolved three-dimensional simulations of a kinetic theory based two-fluid model for gas-particle flows have been performed and the statistical information on structures in the 100-1000 particle diameters length scale has been extracted. Based on these results, closures for filtered two-fluid models have been constructed. The filtered model equations and closures have been validated against experimental data and the results obtained in highly resolved simulations of gas-particle flows. The proposed project enables more accurate simulations of not only the transport gasifier, but also many other non-reacting and reacting gas-particle flows in a variety of chemical reactors. The results of this study are in the form of closures which can readily be incorporated into existing multi-phase flow codes such as MFIX (www.mfix.org). Therefore, the benefits of this study can be realized quickly. The training provided by this project has prepared a PhD student to enter research and development careers in DOE laboratories or chemicals/energy-related industries.

  15. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming of Hanford LAW Using THORsm Mineralizing Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, Arlin L.; Nicholas R Soelberg; Douglas W. Marshall; Gary L. Anderson

    2004-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) documented, in 2002, a plan for accelerating cleanup of the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, by at least 35 years. A key element of the plan was acceleration of the tank waste program and completion of ''tank waste treatment by 2028 by increasing the capacity of the planned Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) and using supplemental technologies for waste treatment and immobilization.'' The plan identified steam reforming technology as a candidate for supplemental treatment of as much as 70% of the low-activity waste (LAW). Mineralizing steam reforming technology, offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC would produce a denitrated, granular mineral waste form using a high-temperature fluidized bed process. A pilot scale demonstration of the technology was completed in a 15-cm-diameter reactor vessel. The pilot scale facility was equipped with a highly efficient cyclone separator and heated sintered metal filters for particulate removal, a thermal oxidizer for reduced gas species and NOx destruction, and a packed activated carbon bed for residual volatile species capture. The pilot scale equipment is owned by the DOE, but located at the Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID. Pilot scale testing was performed August 2–5, 2004. Flowsheet chemistry and operational parameters were defined through a collaborative effort involving Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and THOR Treatment Technologies personnel. Science Application International Corporation, owners of the STAR Center, personnel performed actual pilot scale operation. The pilot scale test achieved a total of 68.7 hrs of cumulative/continuous processing operation before termination in response to a bed de-fluidization condition. 178 kg of LAW surrogate were processed that resulted in 148 kg of solid product, a mass reduction of about 17%. The process achieved essentially complete bed turnover within approximately 40 hours. Samples of mineralized solid product materials were analyzed for chemical/physical properties. SRNL will report separately the results of product performance testing that were accomplished.

  16. Nitrogen and hydrogen CARS temperature measurements in a hydrogen/air flame using a near-adiabatic flat-flame burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hancock, R.D.; Bertagnolli, K.E.; Lucht, R.P.

    1997-05-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy of diatomic nitrogen and hydrogen was used to measure flame temperatures in hydrogen/air flames produced using a nonpremixed, near-adiabatic, flat-flame Hencken burner. The CARS temperature measurements are compared with adiabatic flame temperatures calculated by the NASA-Lewis equilibrium code for equivalence ratios from 0.5--2.5. The nitrogen CARS temperatures are in excellent agreement with the equilibrium code calculations. Comparison of nitrogen CARS data and the equilibrium code calculations confirms that for sufficiently high flow rates the Hencken burner produces nearly adiabatic flames. Hydrogen CARS temperature measurements are compared to both nitrogen CARS temperature measurements and equilibrium code predictions in order to evaluate and improve the accuracy of hydrogen CARS as a temperature diagnostic tool. Hydrogen CARS temperatures for fuel-rich flames are on average 70 K ({approximately}3%) above the equilibrium code predictions and nitrogen CARS temperatures. The difference between temperatures measured using hydrogen and nitrogen CARS is probably due primarily to uncertainties in hydrogen linewidths and line-broadening mechanisms at these conditions.

  17. Experimental and numerical study of the accuracy of flame-speed measurements for methane/air combustion in a slot burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selle, L.; Ferret, B. [Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, IMFT, Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse (France); CNRS, IMFT, Toulouse (France); Poinsot, T. [Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, IMFT, Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse (France); CNRS, IMFT, Toulouse (France); CERFACS, Toulouse (France)

    2011-01-15

    Measuring the velocities of premixed laminar flames with precision remains a controversial issue in the combustion community. This paper studies the accuracy of such measurements in two-dimensional slot burners and shows that while methane/air flame speeds can be measured with reasonable accuracy, the method may lack precision for other mixtures such as hydrogen/air. Curvature at the flame tip, strain on the flame sides and local quenching at the flame base can modify local flame speeds and require corrections which are studied using two-dimensional DNS. Numerical simulations also provide stretch, displacement and consumption flame speeds along the flame front. For methane/air flames, DNS show that the local stretch remains small so that the local consumption speed is very close to the unstretched premixed flame speed. The only correction needed to correctly predict flame speeds in this case is due to the finite aspect ratio of the slot used to inject the premixed gases which induces a flow acceleration in the measurement region (this correction can be evaluated from velocity measurement in the slot section or from an analytical solution). The method is applied to methane/air flames with and without water addition and results are compared to experimental data found in the literature. The paper then discusses the limitations of the slot-burner method to measure flame speeds for other mixtures and shows that it is not well adapted to mixtures with a Lewis number far from unity, such as hydrogen/air flames. (author)

  18. Proposed replacement and operation of the anhydrous hydrogen fluoride supply and fluidized-bed chemical processing systems at Building 9212, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to replace the existing anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (AHF) supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems for the Weapons Grade Highly Enriched Uranium Chemical Recovery and Recycle Facility, Building 9212, which is located within the Y-12 Plant on DOE`s Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The proposed replacement system would be based upon modern design criteria and safety analyses. The replacement AHF supply and distribution system equipment would be located on the existing Dock 8/8A at Building 9212. Utilities would be extended to the dock to service the process equipment. The following process equipment modules would be prefabricated for installation at the modified dock: an AHF cylinder enclosure, an AHF supply manifold and vaporizer module, an AHF sump tank and transfer skid, and an AHF supply off-gas scrubber assembly module. The fluidized-bed reactor system would be constructed in an area adjacent to the existing system in Building 9212. The replacement equipment would consist of a new reduction fluidized-bed reactor, a hydrofluorination fluidized-bed reactor, and associated air emission control equipment. The no-action alternative, which is the continued operation of the existing AHF supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems, was also evaluated.

  19. Development of algorithms for capacitance imaging techniques for fluidized bed flow fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loudin, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this research is to provide support for the instrumentation concept of a High Resolution Capacitance Imaging System (HRCIS). The work involves the development and evaluation of the mathematical theory and associated models and algorithms which reduce the electronic measurements to valid physical characterizations. The research and development require the investigation of techniques to solve large systems of equations based on capacitance measurements for various electrode configurations in order to estimate densities of materials in a cross-section of a fluidized bed. Capacitance measurements are made for 400 connections of the 32-electrode system; 400 corresponding electric-field curves are constructed by solving a second order partial differential equation. These curves are used to partition the circular disk into 193 regions called pixels, and the density of material in each pixel is to be estimated. Two methods of approximating densities have been developed and consideration of a third method has been initiated. One method (Method 1) is based on products of displacement currents for intersecting electric-field curves on a cross section. For each pixel one point of intersection is chosen, and the product of the capacitance measurements is found. Both the product and the square-root-of-product seem to yield good relative distribution of densities.

  20. Development of algorithms for capacitance imaging techniques for fluidized bed flow fields. 1990 Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loudin, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this research is to provide support for the instrumentation concept of a High Resolution Capacitance Imaging System (HRCIS). The work involves the development and evaluation of the mathematical theory and associated models and algorithms which reduce the electronic measurements to valid physical characterizations. The research and development require the investigation of techniques to solve large systems of equations based on capacitance measurements for various electrode configurations in order to estimate densities of materials in a cross-section of a fluidized bed. Capacitance measurements are made for 400 connections of the 32-electrode system; 400 corresponding electric-field curves are constructed by solving a second order partial differential equation. These curves are used to partition the circular disk into 193 regions called pixels, and the density of material in each pixel is to be estimated. Two methods of approximating densities have been developed and consideration of a third method has been initiated. One method (Method 1) is based on products of displacement currents for intersecting electric-field curves on a cross section. For each pixel one point of intersection is chosen, and the product of the capacitance measurements is found. Both the product and the square-root-of-product seem to yield good relative distribution of densities.

  1. Multiphase flow simulations of a moving fluidized bed regenerator in a carbon capture unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarkar, Avik; Pan, Wenxiao; Suh, Dong-Myung; Huckaby, E. D.; Sun, Xin

    2014-10-01

    To accelerate the commercialization and deployment of carbon capture technologies, computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based tools may be used to model and analyze the performance of carbon capture devices. This work presents multiphase CFD-based flow simulations for the regeneration device responsible for extracting CO2 from CO2-loaded sorbent particles before the particles are recycled. The use of solid particle sorbents in this design is a departure from previously reported systems, where aqueous sorbents are employed. Another new feature is the inclusion of a series of perforated plates along the regenerator height. The influence of these plates on sorbent distribution is examined for varying sorbent holdup, fluidizing gas velocity, and particle size. The residence time distribution of sorbents is also measured to classify the low regime as plug flow or well-mixed flow. The purpose of this work is to better understand the sorbent flow characteristics before reaction kinetics of CO2 desorption can be implemented.

  2. Desulfurization of fuel gases in fluidized bed gasification and hot fuel gas cleanup systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, M.; Farber, G.; Pruzansky, J.; Yoo, H.J.; McGauley, P.

    1983-08-26

    A problem with the commercialization of fluidized bed gasification is that vast amounts of spent sorbent are generated if the sorbent is used on a once-through basis, especially if high sulfur coals are burned. The requirements of a sorbent for regenerative service in the FBG process are: (1) it must be capable of reducing the sulfur containing gas concentration of the FBG flue gas to within acceptable environmental standards; (2) it must not lose its reactivity on cyclic sulfidation and regeneration; (3) it must be capable of regeneration with elimination of substantially all of its sulfur content; (4) it must have good attrition resistance; and, (5) its cost must not be prohibitive. It has now been discovered that calcium silicate pellets, e.g., Portland cement type III pellets meet the criteria aforesaid. Calcium silicate removes COS and H/sub 2/S according to the reactions given to produce calcium sulfide silicate. The sulfur containing product can be regenerated using CO/sub 2/ as the regenerant. The sulfur dioxide can be conveniently reduced to sulfur with hydrogen or carbon for market or storage. The basic reactions in the process of this invention are the reactions with calcium silicate given in the patent. A convenient and inexpensive source of calcium silicate is Portland cement. Portland cement is a readily available, widely used construction meterial.

  3. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 5, Appendix C, Fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix provides information on fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) technology as it has been applied to municipal waste combustion (MWC). A review of the literature was conducted to determine: (1) to what extent FBC technology has been applied to MWC, in terms of number and size of units was well as technology configuration; (2) the operating history of facilities employing FBC technology; and (3) the cost of these facilities as compared to conventional MSW installations. Where available in the literature, data on operating and performance characteristics are presented. Tabular comparisons of facility operating/cost data and emissions data have been complied and are presented. The literature review shows that FBC technology shows considerable promise in terms of providing improvements over conventional technology in areas such as NOx and acid gas control, and ash leachability. In addition, the most likely configuration to be applied to the first large scale FBC dedicated to municipal solid waste (MSW) will employ circulating bed (CFB) technology. Projected capital costs for the Robbins, Illinois 1600 ton per day CFB-based waste-to-energy facility are competitive with conventional systems, in the range of $125,000 per ton per day of MSW receiving capacity.

  4. Characterization and Leaching Tests of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Waste Form for LAW Immobilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Brown, Christopher F.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-10-01

    Several supplemental technologies for treating and immobilizing Hanford low activity waste (LAW) have been evaluated. One such immobilization technology is the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) granular product. The FBSR granular product is composed of insoluble sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) feldspathoid minerals. Production of the FBSR mineral product has been demonstrated both at the industrial and laboratory scale. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was involved in an extensive characterization campaign. This goal of this campaign was study the durability of the FBSR mineral product and the mineral product encapsulated in a monolith to meet compressive strength requirements. This paper gives an overview of results obtained using the ASTM C 1285 Product Consistency Test (PCT), the EPA Test Method 1311 Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the ASTMC 1662 Single-Pass Flow-Through (SPFT) test. Along with these durability tests an overview of the characteristics of the waste form has been collected using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), microwave digestions for chemical composition, and surface area from Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) theory.

  5. Bed-inventory Overturn Mechanism for Pant-leg Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhe; Yang, Zhiwei; West, Logan; Li, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    A numerical model was established to investigate the lateral mass transfer as well as the mechanism of bed-inventory overturn inside a pant-leg circulating fluidized bed (CFB), which are of great importance to maintain safe and efficient operation of the CFB. Results show that the special flow structure in which the solid particle volume fraction along the central line of the pant-leg CFB is relative high enlarges the lateral mass transfer rate and make it more possible for bed inventory overturn. Although the lateral pressure difference generated from lateral mass transfer inhibits continuing lateral mass transfer, providing the pant-leg CFB with self-balancing ability to some extent, the primary flow rate change due to the outlet pressure change often disable the self-balancing ability by continually enhancing the flow rate difference. As the flow rate of the primary air fan is more sensitive to its outlet pressure, it is easier to lead to bed inventory overturn. While when the solid particle is easier to c...

  6. Design considerations and operating experience in firing refuse derived fuel in a circulating fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piekos, S.J.; Matuny, M.

    1997-12-31

    The worldwide demand for cleaner, more efficient methods to dispose of municipal solid waste has stimulated interest in processing solid waste to produce refuse derived fuel (RDF) for use in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. The combination of waste processing and materials recovery systems and CFB boiler technology provides the greatest recovery of useful resources from trash and uses the cleanest combustion technology available today to generate power. Foster Wheeler Power Systems along with Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation and several other Foster Wheeler sister companies designed, built, and now operates a 1600 tons per day (TPD) (1450 metric tons) municipal waste-to-energy project located in Robbins, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago. This project incorporates waste processing systems to recover recyclable materials and produce RDF. It is the first project in the United States to use CFB boiler technology to combust RDF. This paper will provide an overview of the Robbins, Illinois waste-to-energy project and will examine the technical and environmental reasons for selecting RDF waste processing and CFB combustion technology. Additionally, this paper will present experience with handling and combusting RDF and review the special design features incorporated into the CFB boiler and waste processing system that make it work.

  7. Fine and ultrafine particles generated during fluidized bed combustion of different solid fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urciuolo, M.; Barone, A.; D'Alessio, A.; Chirone, R.

    2008-12-15

    The paper reports an experimental study carried out with a 110-mm ID fluidized bed combustor focused on the characterization of particulates formation/emission during combustion of coal and non-fossil solid fuels. Fuels included: a bituminous coal, a commercial predried and granulated sludge (GS), a refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and a biomass waste (pine seed shells). Stationary combustion experiments were carried out analyzing the fate of fuel ashes. Fly ashes collected at the combustor exhaust were characterized both in terms of particle size distribution and chemical composition, with respect to both trace and major elements. Tapping-Mode Atomic Force Microscopy (TM-AFM) technique and high-efficiency cyclone-type collector devices were used to characterize the size and morphology of the nanometric-and micronic-size fractions of fly ash emitted at the exhaust respectively. Results showed that during the combustion process: I) the size of the nanometric fraction ranges between 2 and 65 nm; ii) depending on the fuel tested, combustion-assisted attrition or the production of the primary ash particles originally present in the fuel particles, are responsible of fine particle generation. The amount in the fly ash of inorganic compounds is larger for the waste-derived fuels, reflecting the large inherent content of these compounds in the parent fuels.

  8. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor and a method of operating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, J.

    1996-02-20

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine. 1 fig.

  9. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor and a method of operating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, Juhani (Karhula, FI)

    1996-01-01

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine.

  10. Engineering systems analysis of pressurized fluidized-bed-combustion power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graves, R.L.; Griffin, F.P.; Lackey, M.E.

    1982-04-01

    This effort was conducted to provde supporting data for the research and development program on pressurized fluidized bed combustor (PFBC) systems being continued under the auspices of the Office of Coal Utilization of DOE. This report deals with the first phase of the effort, designated Task 1, which was scoped to be a somewhat broad review of PFBC technology and an analysis to determine its potential and sensitivity to key development needs. Background information pertaining to the application of PFBC to the market for coal-fired technology is included. The status of development is reviewed and the deficiencies in data are identified. Responses to a survey of PFBC developers are reviewed with emphasis on the high risk areas of the PFBC concept. Some of these problems are: uncertainty of life of gas turbine components; lack of demonstration of load following; and hot solids handling. Some high risk areas, such as the gas cleanup or gas turbine systems, can be relieved by reducing the severity of design conditions such as the turbine inlet temperature. Alternate turbine designs or plant configurations are also possible solutions. Analyses were performed to determine whether the advantages held by PFBC systems in cost, efficiency, and emissions would be nullified by measures taken to reduce risk. In general, the results showed that the attractive features of the PFBC could be preserved.

  11. Performance of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Product Under Hydraulically Unsaturated Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Williams, Benjamin D.; Rod, Kenton A.; Bowden, Mark E.; Brown, Christopher F.; Pierce, Eric M.

    2014-05-01

    Currently, several candidates for secondary waste immobilization at the Hanford site in the State of Washington, USA are being considered. To demonstrate the durability of the product in the unsaturated Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at the site, a series of tests have been performed one of the candidate materials using the Pressurized Unsaturated Flow (PUF) system. The material that was tested was the Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) granular product and the granular product encapsulated in a geopolymer matrix. The FBSR product is composed primarily of an insoluble sodium aluminosilicate matrix with the dominant phases being feldspathoid minerals mostly nepheline, sodalite, and nosean. The PUF test method allows for the accelerated weathering of materials, including radioactive waste forms, under hydraulically unsaturated conditions, thus mimicking the open-flow and transport properties that most likely will be present at the IDF. The experiments show a trend of decreasing tracer release as a function of time for several of the elements released from the material including Na, Si, Al, and Cs. However, some of the elements, notably I and Re, show a steady release throughout the yearlong test. This result suggests that the release of these minerals from the sodalite cage occurs at a different rate compared with the dissolution of the predominant nepheline phase.

  12. Radionuclide and contaminant immobilization in the fluidized bed steam reforming waste products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Westsik, Joseph H.; Brown, Christopher F.; Jantzen, Carol; Pierce, Eric M.

    2012-05-01

    The goal of this chapter is to introduce the reader to the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process and resulting waste form. The first section of the chapter gives an overview of the potential need for FBSR processing in nuclear waste remediation followed by an overview of the engineering involved in the process itself. This is followed by a description of waste form production at a chemical level followed by a section describing different process streams that have undergone the FBSR process. The third section describes the resulting mineral product in terms of phases that are present and the ability of the waste form to encapsulate hazardous and radioactive wastes from several sources. Following this description is a presentation of the physical properties of the granular and monolith waste form product including and contaminant release mechanisms. The last section gives a brief summary of this chapter and includes a section on the strengths associated with this waste form and the needs for additional data and remaining questions yet to be answered. The reader is directed elsewhere for more information on other waste forms such as Cast Stone (Lockrem, 2005), Ceramicrete (Singh et al., 1997, Wagh et al., 1999) and geopolymers (Kyritsis et al., 2009; Russell et al., 2006).

  13. Combined CDF and D0 Searches for the Standard Model Higgs Boson Decaying to Two Photons with up to 8.2 fb^-1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The CDF Collaboration; the D0 Collaboration; the Tevatron New Physics; Higgs Working Group

    2011-07-25

    We combine results from CDF and D0's direct searches for the standard model (SM) Higgs boson (H) produced in ppbar collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron at sqrt{s}=1.96 TeV, focusing on the decay H\\rightarrow\\gamma\\gamma. We compute upper limits on the Higgs boson production cross section times the decay branching fraction in the range 100Higgs boson. With datasets corresponding to 7.0 fb-1 (CDF) and 8.2 fb-1 (D0), the 95% C.L. upper limits on Higgs boson production is a factor of 10.5 times the SM cross section for a Higgs boson mass of 115 GeV/c^2.

  14. Dark matter burners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moskalenko, I V

    2006-01-01

    We show that a star orbiting close enough to an adiabatically grown supermassive black hole can capture a large number of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) during its lifetime. WIMP annihilation energy release in low- to medium-mass stars is comparable with or even exceeds the luminosity of such stars due to thermonuclear burning. The excessive energy release in the stellar core may result in an evolution scenario different from what is expected for a regular star. The model thus predicts the existence of unusual stars within the central parsec of galactic nuclei. If found, such stars would provide evidence for the existence of particle dark matter. The excess luminosity of such stars attributed to WIMP "burning" can be used to infer the local WIMP matter density. A white dwarf with a highly eccentric orbit around the central black hole may exhibit variations in brightness correlated with the orbital phase. On the other hand, white dwarfs shown to lack such orbital brightness variations can be used...

  15. Search for New Heavy Resonances Decaying To t+t^- Pairs at the LHC with Square Root S= 7 TEV (L = 5.0 FB^-1) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suarez, Indara

    2015-01-22

    for Heavy Resonances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3. THE LARGE HADRON COLLIDER AND THE CMS DETECTOR . . . 21 3.1 The Large Hadron Collider . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 3.2 The Compact Muon Solenoid Detector...V center-of-mass energy to the CMS detector. CMS recorded 5.55 fb?1 of data. . . . . . . . . . . 23 3.3 Cross-sectional View of the CMS Detector. The subdetectors in or- der from the interaction point outward are the pixel detector, the sili- con tracker...

  16. Continuous Operation of Spray-Dried Zinc Based Sorbent in a Hot Gas Desulfurization Process Consisting of a Transport Desulfurizer and a Fluidized Regenerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi, C-K.; Jo, S-H.; Jin, G-T.; Son, J-E.; Han, M-H.; Ryu, C-K.

    2002-09-19

    We see the sorbent reaction performance in a HGD process consisting of a transport desulfurizer and a fluidized regenerator in this study. We have obtained the solid hold-up and solid circulation rate necessary to reach the target desulfurization efficiency. A major obstacle for fluidized- or transport bed sorbent developments is sorbent durability withstanding attrition. Continuous operation only makes similar conditions of real processes such as rapid temperature swing, chemical transformations between sulfidation and regeneration, stresses induced by fluidization and continuous particle circulation between two reactors. Therefore, an integrated system of transport desulfurizer and bubbling regenerator is operated continuously more than 150 hours to see system reliability, sorbent reaction characteristics, sorbent morphology before and after test.

  17. Sulfur removal in advanced two stage pressurized fluidized bed combustion. Technical report, 1 March--31 May 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbasian, J.; Chowdiah, P.; Hill, A.H.; Rue, D.M. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this study is to obtain data on the rates of reaction between hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and uncalcined calcium-based sorbents under operating conditions relevant to first stage (carbonizer) of Advanced Two-Stage Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustors (PFBC). In these systems the CO{sub 2} partial pressure in the first stage generally exceeds the equilibrium value for calcium carbonate decomposition. Therefore, removal of sulfur compounds takes place through the reaction between H{sub 2}S and calcium carbonate. To achieve this objective, the rates of reaction between hydrogen sulfide and uncalcined calcium-based sorbents will be determined by conducting tests in pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and high-pressure/high-temperature fluidized-bed reactor (HPTR) units. The effects of sorbent type, sorbent particle size, reactor temperature and pressure, and CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S partial pressures on the sulfidation reaction rate will be determined. During this quarter a series of sulfidation tests were conducted in the high-pressure/high-temperature fluidized-bed reactor (HPTR) units. The effects of sorbent type, sorbent particle size, reactor temperature and pressure, and CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S partial pressures on the sulfidation reaction rate will be determined. During this quarter a series of sulfidation tests were conducted in the high-pressure high-temperature thermogravimetric analyzer (HPTGA unit) using limestone and dolomite. The results suggest that half-calcined dolomite is much more reactive than uncalcined limestone. Also, temperature in the range of 800 to 950 C did not significantly affect the sulfidation reaction rates for both limestone and dolomite.

  18. Search for Randall-Sundrum Gravitons in Dilepton and Diphoton Final States with 1 fb-1 of Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Amitabha; /Boston U.

    2007-05-01

    The work presented in this thesis is the search for Randall-Sundrum (RS) gravitons from an analysis of approximately 1 fb{sup -1} data collected with the D0 detector at Fermilab. The standard model has been a great success in explaining all experimental observations in particle physics. However, we also know that it has fundamental problems. One of these problems, called the hierarchy problem, is related to the large difference between the electroweak scale and the Planck scale. The model proposed by Randall and Sundrum presents a possible solution to the hierarchy problem by introducing physics beyond the standard model. Randall and Sundrum's theory postulates the existence of a 4th spatial dimension in addition to the conventional (3+1)-dimensional space. Gravity is localized on a 3+1 dimensional subspace, called a brane (Planck brane) that is separated in this new 4th spatial dimension from the standard model brane. As one moves away from this Planck brane, gravity is exponentially suppressed and this explains why gravity appears so weak at the standard model brane. In the simplest RS model, the only particles that propagate in the extra dimension are gravitons. The graviton manifests itself on the standard model brane as a series of excited states that couple to standard model particles with similar strength as the electroweak interaction. The ground state is the massless graviton and the order of magnitude of the mass of the lowest excited state is expected to be one TeV. The first excited mode of the graviton might be produced resonantly at the Tevatron. Gravitons can decay into fermion-antifermion or diboson pairs. Here I search for gravitons through their decay to e{sup +}e{sup -} and {gamma}{gamma} final states. These final states have similar signatures in our detector and can thus be treated together. After analyzing the data I do not find any excess over standard model expectations and set an upper limit on the production rate of such gravitons. I compare this limit to the production rate predicted by the theory for a range of possible couplings and set mass limits on the lowest excited gravitons state of up to 898 GeV.

  19. Functionalization of polymers using an atmospheric plasma jet in a fluidized bed reactor and the impact on SLM-processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sachs, M. Schmitt, A. Schmidt, J. Peukert, W. Wirth, K-E

    2014-05-15

    In order to improve thermoplastics (e.g. Polyamide, Polypropylene and Polyethylene) for Selective Laser Beam Melting (SLM) processes a new approach to functionalize temperature sensitive polymer powders in a large scale is investigated. This is achieved by combining an atmospheric pressure plasma jet and a fluidized bed reactor. Using pressurized air as the plasma gas, radicals like OH* are created. The functionalization leads to an increase of the hydrophilicity of the treated polymer powder without changing the bulk properties. Using the polymers in a SLM process to build single layers of melted material leads to an improvement of the melted layers.

  20. A One-Dimensional (1-D) Three-Region Model for a Bubbling Fluidized-Bed Adsorber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Andrew; Miller, David C.

    2012-01-01

    A general one-dimensional (1-D), three-region model for a bubbling fluidized-bed adsorber with internal heat exchangers has been developed. The model can predict the hydrodynamics of the bed and provides axial profiles for all temperatures, concentrations, and velocities. The model is computationally fast and flexible and allows for any system of adsorption and desorption reactions to be modeled, making the model applicable to any adsorption process. The model has been implemented in both gPROMS and Aspen Custom Modeler, and the behavior of the model has been verified.

  1. Combustion of liquid paint wastes in fluidized bed boiler as element of waste management system in the paint factory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soko, W.A.; Biaecka, B.

    1998-12-31

    In this paper the solution to waste problems in the paint industry is presented by describing their combustion in a fluidized bed boiler as a part of the waste management system in the paint factory. Based on the Cleaner Production idea and concept of integration of design process with a future exploitation of equipment, some modifications of the waste management scheme in the factory are discussed to reduce the quantity of toxic wastes. To verify this concept combustion tests of paint production wastes and cocombustion of paint wastes with coal in an adopted industrial boiler were done. Results of these tests are presented in the paper.

  2. Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei-Ping Pan; Yan Cao; John Smith

    2008-05-31

    On February 14, 2002, President Bush announced the Clear Skies Initiative, a legislative proposal to control the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and mercury from power plants. In response to this initiative, the National Energy Technology Laboratory organized a Combustion Technology University Alliance and hosted a Solid Fuel Combustion Technology Alliance Workshop. The workshop identified multi-pollutant control; improved sorbents and catalysts; mercury monitoring and capture; and improved understanding of the underlying reaction chemistry occurring during combustion as the most pressing research needs related to controlling environmental emissions from fossil-fueled power plants. The Environmental Control Technology Laboratory will help meet these challenges and offer solutions for problems associated with emissions from fossil-fueled power plants. The goal of this project was to develop the capability and technology database needed to support municipal, regional, and national electric power generating facilities to improve the efficiency of operation and solve operational and environmental problems. In order to effectively provide the scientific data and the methodologies required to address these issues, the project included the following aspects: (1) Establishing an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory using a laboratory-scale, simulated fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) system; (2) Designing, constructing, and operating a bench-scale (0.6 MW{sub th}), circulating fluidized-bed combustion (CFBC) system as the main component of the Environmental Control Technology Laboratory; (3) Developing a combustion technology for co-firing municipal solid waste (MSW), agricultural waste, and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with high sulfur coals; (4) Developing a control strategy for gaseous emissions, including NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, organic compounds, and heavy metals; and (5) Developing new mercury capturing sorbents and new particulate filtration technologies. Major tasks during this period of the funded project's timeframe included: (1) Conducting pretests on a laboratory-scale simulated FBC system; (2) Completing detailed design of the bench-scale CFBC system; (3) Contracting potential bidders to fabricate of the component parts of CFBC system; (4) Assembling CFBC parts and integrating system; (5) Resolving problems identified during pretests; (6) Testing with available Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and co-firing of PRB coal with first wood pallet and then chicken wastes; and (7) Tuning of CFBC load. Following construction system and start-up of this 0.6 MW CFBC system, a variety of combustion tests using a wide range of fuels (high-sulfur coals, low-rank coals, MSW, agricultural waste, and RDF) under varying conditions were performed to analyze and monitor air pollutant emissions. Data for atmospheric pollutants and the methodologies required to reduce pollutant emissions were provided. Integration with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) slipstream unit did mimic the effect of flue gas composition, including trace metals, on the performance of the SCR catalyst to be investigated. In addition, the following activities were also conducted: (1) Developed advanced mercury oxidant and adsorption additives; (2) Performed laboratory-scale tests on oxygen-fuel combustion and chemical looping combustion; and (3) Conducted statistical analysis of mercury emissions in a full-scale CFBC system.

  3. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl

    2003-05-15

    Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated several coal fired power plant configurations designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for use or sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB units results in significant Boiler Island cost savings. Additionally, ALSTOM has identified several advanced/novel plant configurations, which improve the efficiency and cost of the CO{sub 2} product cleanup and compression process. These advanced/novel concepts require long development efforts. An economic analysis indicates that the proposed oxygen-firing technology in circulating fluidized boilers could be developed and deployed economically in the near future in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications or enhanced gas recovery (EGR), such as coal bed methane recovery. ALSTOM received a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) in 2001 to carry out a project entitled ''Greenhouse Gas Emissions Control by Oxygen Firing in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers.'' This two-phased project is in effect from September 28, 2001, to October 27, 2004. (U.S. DOE NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41146). Phase I consisted of an evaluation of the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants, and supporting bench-scale testing. And Phase II consists of pilot-scale testing, supporting a refined performance and economic evaluation of the oxygen-fired AFC concept. Phase I, detailed in this report, entails a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen separate but related cases (listed below), representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated as described herein. The first seven cases represent coal combustion cases in CFB type equipment. The next four cases represent Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The last two cases represent advanced Chemical Looping systems, which were completely paid for by ALSTOM and included herein for completeness.

  4. ADVANCED SORBENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM; DEVELOPMENT OF SORBENTS FOR MOVING-BED AND FLUIDIZED-BED APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.E. AYALA; V.S. VENKATARAMANI

    1998-09-30

    The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power system using high-temperature coal gas cleanup is one of the most promising advanced technologies for the production of electric power from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. Unlike conventional low-temperature cleanup systems that require costly heat exchangers, high-temperature coal gas cleanup systems can be operated near 482-538 °C (900-1000 °F) or higher, conditions that are a closer match with the gasifier and turbine components in the IGCC system, thus resulting is a more efficient overall system. GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for the IGCC power cycle in which zinc-based regenerable sorbents are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. Zinc titanate and other proprietary zinc-based oxides are being considered as sorbents for use in the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program at Tampa Electric Co.?s (TECo) Polk Power Station. Under cold startup conditions at TECo, desulfurization and regeneration may be carried out at temperatures as low as 343 °C (650 °F), hence a versatile sorbent is desirable to perform over this wide temperature range. A key to success in the development of high-temperature desulfurization systems is the matching of sorbent properties for the selected process operating conditions, namely, sustainable desulfurization kinetics, high sulfur capacity, and mechanical durability over multiple cycles. Additionally, the sulfur species produced during regeneration of the sorbent must be in a form compatible with sulfur recovery systems, such as sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur processes. The overall objective of this program is to develop regenerable sorbents for hydrogen sulfide removal from coal-derived fuel gases in the temperature range 343-538 °C (650-1000 °F). Two categories of reactor configurations are being considered: moving-bed reactors and fluidized-bed (bubbling and circulating) reactors. In addition, a cost assessment and a market plan for large-scale fabrication of sorbents were developed. As an optional task, long-term bench-scale tests of the best moving-bed sorbents were conducted. Starting from thermodynamic calculations, several metal oxides were identified for potential use as hot gas cleanup sorbents using constructed phase stability diagrams and laboratory screening of various mixed-metal oxide formulations. Modified zinc titanates and other proprietary metal oxide formulations were evaluated at the bench scale and many of them found to be acceptable for operation in the target desulfurization temperature range of 370 °C (700 °F) to 538 °C (1000 °F) and regeneration tempera-tures up to 760 °C (1400 °F). Further work is still needed to reduce the batch-to-batch repeatability in the fabrication of modified zinc titanates for larger scale applications. The information presented in this Volume 1 report contains the results of moving-bed sorbent develop-ment at General Electric?s Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD). A separate Volume 2 report contains the results of the subcontract on fluidized-bed sorbent development at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT).

  5. ADVANCED SORBENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT OF SORBENTS FOR MOVING-BED AND FLUIDIZED-BED APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.E Ayala; V.S. Venkataramani; Javad Abbasian; Rachid B. Slimane; Brett E. Williams; Minoo K. Zarnegar; James R. Wangerow; Andy H. Hill

    2000-03-31

    The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power system using high-temperature coal gas cleanup is one of the most promising advanced technologies for the production of electric power from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. Unlike conventional low-temperature cleanup systems that require costly heat exchangers, high-temperature coal gas cleanup systems can be operated near 482-538 C (900-1000 F) or higher, conditions that are a closer match with the gasifier and turbine components in the IGCC system, thus resulting is a more efficient overall system. GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for the IGCC power cycle in which zinc-based regenerable sorbents are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. Zinc titanate and other proprietary zinc-based oxides are being considered as sorbents for use in the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program at Tampa Electric Co.'s (TECo) Polk Power Station. Under cold startup conditions at TECo, desulfurization and regeneration may be carried out at temperatures as low as 343 C (650 F), hence a versatile sorbent is desirable to perform over this wide temperature range. A key to success in the development of high-temperature desulfurization systems is the matching of sorbent properties for the selected process operating conditions, namely, sustainable desulfurization kinetics, high sulfur capacity, and mechanical durability over multiple cycles. Additionally, the sulfur species produced during regeneration of the sorbent must be in a form compatible with sulfur recovery systems, such as sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur processes. The overall objective of this program is to develop regenerable sorbents for hydrogen sulfide removal from coal-derived fuel gases in the temperature range 343-538 C (650-1000 F). Two categories of reactor configurations are being considered: moving-bed reactors and fluidized-bed (bubbling and circulating) reactors. In addition, a cost assessment and a market plan for large-scale fabrication of sorbents were developed. As an optional task, long-term bench-scale tests of the best moving-bed sorbents were conducted. Starting from thermodynamic calculations, several metal oxides were identified for potential use as hot gas cleanup sorbents using constructed phase stability diagrams and laboratory screening of various mixed-metal oxide formulations. Modified zinc titanates and other proprietary metal oxide formulations were evaluated at the bench scale and many of them found to be acceptable for operation in the target desulfurization temperature range of 370 C (700 F) to 538 C (1000 F) and regeneration temperatures up to 760 C (1400 F). Further work is still needed to reduce the batch-to-batch repeatability in the fabrication of modified zinc titanates for larger scale applications. The information presented in this Volume 1 report contains the results of moving-bed sorbent development at General Electric's Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD). A separate Volume 2 report contains the results of the subcontract on fluidized-bed sorbent development at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT).

  6. Characterization of a fluidized-bed combustion ash to determine potential for environmental impact. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassett, D.J.; Henderson, A.K.; Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.; Mann, M.D.; Eylands, K.E.

    1997-10-01

    A 440-megawatt, circulating fluidized-bed combustion (CFBC), lignite-fired power plant is planned for construction in Choctaw County north of Ackerman, Mississippi. This power plant will utilize Mississippi lignite from the first lignite mine in that state. Malcolm Pirnie, Inc., is working with the power plant developer in the current planning and permitting efforts for this proposed construction project. In order to accommodate Mississippi state regulatory agencies and meet appropriate permit requirements, Malcolm Pirnie needed to provide an indication of the characteristics of the by-products anticipated to be produced at the proposed plant. Since the Mississippi lignite is from a newly tapped mine and the CFBC technology is relatively new, Malcolm Pirnie contacted with the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to develop and perform a test plan for the production and characterization of ash similar to ash that will be eventually produced at the proposed power plant. The work performed at the EERC included two primary phases: production of by-products in a bench-scale CFBC unit using lignite provided by Malcolm Pirnie with test conditions delineated by Malcolm Pirnie to represent expected operating conditions for the full-scale plant; and an extensive characterization of the by-products produced, focusing on Mississippi regulatory requirements for leachability, with the understanding that return of the by-product to the mine site was an anticipated by-product management plan. The overall focus of this project was the environmental assessment of the by-product expected to be produced at the proposed power plant. Emphasis was placed on the leachability of potentially problematic trace elements in the by-products. The leaching research documented in this report was performed to determine trends of leachability of trace elements under leaching conditions appropriate for evaluating land disposal in monofills, such as returning the by-products to the mine site.

  7. A field study on the trace metal behavior in atmospheric circulating fluidized-bed coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lind, T.; Kauppinen, E.I.; Jokiniemi, J.K.; Maenhaut, W.

    1994-12-31

    Trace element behavior in atmospheric circulating fluidized-bed combustion (CFBC) of Venezuelan bituminous coal was studied by determining particle size distributions in the CFBC flue gas. The size distributions of calcium, iron, aluminium, and 21 trace elements, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Lu, Pb, and Th, in the size range 0.01--70{micro}m, were determined by collecting aerosols with a low-pressure impactor-cyclone sampling train from the flue gases of an 80-MW(th) CFBC boiler upstream of the electrostatic precipitator. The collected samples were analyzed gravimetrically and with instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), particle-induced X-ray emission analysis (PIXE), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The number size distributions of the aerosols were determined with a differential electrical mobility method in the size range 0.01--0.8 {micro}m. In the ultrafine particle mode, i.e., D{sub p} < 0.1 {micro}m, the CFBC number concentrations varied strongly during the experiments, being one to two orders of magnitude lower than those observed in pulverized coal combustion. For all of the elements studied, 75% or more were found in particles larger than 5{micro}m. None of the studied elements showed significant vaporization and subsequent chemical surface reaction or condensation in the CFBC. The Sr, Se, V, Zn, Ga, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Lu, and Th size distributions resembled those of aluminium, suggesting their occurrence in aluminosilicate-rich particles in the fly ash. The association of the trace elements with aluminium in the fly ash particles may result from reactions of the trace elements with the aluminosilicate mineral particles inside the burning coal particles, or their initial occurrence in association with these minerals.

  8. Novel fluidized bed reactor for integrated NOx adsorption-reduction with hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terris T. Yang; Hsiaotao T. Bi [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering

    2009-07-01

    In order to avoid the negative impact of excessive oxygen in the combustion flue gases on the selectivity of most hydrocarbon selective catalytic reduction (HC-SCR) catalysts, an integrated NOx adsorption-reduction process has been proposed in this study for the treatment of flue gases under lean burn conditions by decoupling the adsorption and reduction into two different zones. The hypothesis has been validated in a novel internal circulating fluidized bed (ICFB) reactor using Fe/ZSM-5 as the catalyst and propylene as the reducing agent. Effects of propylene to the NOx molar ratio, flue gas oxygen concentration, and gas velocity on NOx conversion were studied using simulated flue gases. The results showed that increasing the ratio of HC:NO improved the reduction performance of Fe/ZSM-5 in the ICFB reactor. NOx conversion decreased with an increasing flue gas flow velocity in the annulus U{sub A} but increased with an increasing reductant gas flow velocity in the draft tube U{sub D}. The NOx adsorption ratio decreased with increasing U{sub A}. In most cases, NOx conversion was higher than the adsorption ratio due to the relatively poor adsorption performance of the catalyst. Fe/ZSM-5 showed a promising reduction performance and a strong inhibiting ability on the negative impact of excessive O{sub 2} in the ICFB reactor, proving that such an ICFB reactor possessed the ability to overcome the negative impact of excessive O{sub 2} in the flue gas using Fe/ZSM-5 as the deNOx catalyst. 22 refs., 10 figs.

  9. Experimental study of the hydrodynamics and cluster formation in a Circulating Fluidized Bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gautam, M.; Johnson, E.

    1991-01-01

    A novel non-invasive gas-solid flow measuring technique being developed and tested for studying the hydrodynamics inside the riser of a Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB). First of the two aims of the overall program, namely, design, development and testing of the technique to characterize the particle and gas velocities in two-phase flows was accomplished in the past year. The fringe-model'' laser Doppler anemometry concept has been modified and extended by using particles coated with a fluorescent dye and introducing a narrow band pass filter in the receiving optics. The technique permits optical discrimination between the scattered light (laser wavelength from undyed particles) and the fluorescence emission (longer wavelength). Results from extensive testing of various dye-solvent combinations, counter processor settings, signal-to noise optimization and subsequent flow measurements in the test section have shown that the technique can effectively discriminate between two classes of particles--the smaller seed particles for the gas phase data and the larger bed particles. Use of a two-watt Argon-Ion laser assisted in the non-intrusive probing of the gas-solid flow and in enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio. An uncertainty analysis of LDA measurements is presented. Design of the cold flow CFB model, presently under fabrication, is outlined in this report. The Plexiglas CFB model will be employed for the riser core-annular flow studies using the fluorescence-emission based laser-Doppler anemometry. The results from this study will present a unique detailed description of the complex gas-solid behavior in the CFB riser.

  10. Fluidized-bed retorting of Colorado oil shale: Topical report. [None

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albulescu, P.; Mazzella, G.

    1987-06-01

    In support of the research program in converting oil shale into useful forms of energy, the US Department of Energy is developing systems models of oil shale processing plants. These models will be used to project the most attractive combination of process alternatives and identify future direction for R and D efforts. With the objective of providing technical and economic input for such systems models, Foster Wheeler was contracted to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates for commercial scale processing plants to produce syncrude from oil shales via various routes. This topical report summarizes the conceptual design of an integrated oil shale processing plant based on fluidized bed retorting of Colorado oil shale. The plant has a nominal capacity of 50,000 barrels per operating day of syncrude product, derived from oil shale feed having a Fischer Assay of 30 gallons per ton. The scope of the plant encompasses a grassroots facility which receives run of the mine oil shale, delivers product oil to storage, and disposes of the processed spent shale. In addition to oil shale feed, the battery limits input includes raw water, electric power, and natural gas to support plant operations. Design of the individual processing units was based on non-confidential information derived from published literature sources and supplemented by input from selected process licensors. The integrated plant design is described in terms of the individual process units and plant support systems. The estimated total plant investment is similarly detailed by plant section and an estimate of the annual operating requirements and costs is provided. In addition, the process design assumptions and uncertainties are documented and recommendations for process alternatives, which could improve the overall plant economics, are discussed.

  11. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMED MINERAL WASTE FORMS: CHARACTERIZATION AND DURABILITY TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C; Troy Lorier, T; John Pareizs, J; James Marra, J

    2006-12-06

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of high sodium low activity wastes (LAW) such as those existing at the Hanford site, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the Savannah River Site (SRS). The addition of clay, charcoal, and a catalyst as co-reactants with the waste denitrates the aqueous wastes and forms a granular mineral waste form that can subsequently be made into a monolith for disposal if necessary. The waste form produced is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage and ring structures and iron bearing spinel minerals. The mineralization occurs at moderate temperatures between 650-750 C in the presence of superheated steam. The cage and ring structured feldspathoid minerals atomically bond radionuclides like Tc-99 and Cs-137 and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The spinel minerals stabilize Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous species such as Cr and Ni. Granular mineral waste forms were made from (1) a basic Hanford Envelope A low activity waste (LAW) simulant and (2) an acidic INL simulant commonly referred to as sodium bearing waste (SBW) in pilot scale facilities at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, ID. The FBSR waste forms were characterized and the durability tested via ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the Single Pass Flow Through (SPFT) test. The results of the SPFT testing and the activation energies for dissolution are discussed in this study.

  12. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMED MINERAL WASTE FORMS: CHARACTERIZATION AND DURABILITY TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C; Troy Lorier, T; John Pareizs, J; James Marra, J

    2007-03-31

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of high sodium low activity wastes (LAW) such as those existing at the Hanford site, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the Savannah River Site (SRS). The addition of clay, charcoal, and a catalyst as co-reactants with the waste denitrates the aqueous wastes and forms a granular mineral waste form that can subsequently be made into a monolith for disposal if necessary. The waste form produced is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage and ring structures and iron bearing spinel minerals. The mineralization occurs at moderate temperatures between 650-750 C in the presence of superheated steam. The cage and ring structured feldspathoid minerals atomically bond radionuclides like Tc-99 and Cs-137 and anions such as SO4, I, F, and Cl. The spinel minerals stabilize Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous species such as Cr and Ni. Granular mineral waste forms were made from (1) a basic Hanford Envelope A low-activity waste (LAW) simulant and (2) an acidic INL simulant commonly referred to as sodium bearing waste (SBW) in pilot scale facilities at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, ID. The FBSR waste forms were characterized and the durability tested via ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the Single Pass Flow Through (SPFT) test. The results of the SPFT testing and the activation energies for dissolution are discussed in this study.

  13. Titanium subhydride potassium perchlorate (TiH1.65/KClO4) burn rates from hybrid closed bomb-strand burner experiments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Marcia A.; Oliver, Michael S.

    2012-08-01

    A hybrid closed bomb-strand burner is used to measure the burning behavior of the titanium subhydride potassium perchlorate pyrotechnic with an equivalent hydrogen concentration of 1.65. This experimental facility allows for simultaneous measurement of the closed bomb pressure rise and pyrotechnic burn rate as detected by electrical break wires over a range of pressures. Strands were formed by pressing the pyrotechnic powders to bulk densities between 60% and 90% theoretical maximum density. The burn rate dependance on initial density and vessel pressure are measured. At all initial strand densities, the burn is observed to transition from conductive to convective burning within the strand. The measured vessel pressure history is further analyzed following the closed bomb analysis methods developed for solid propellants.

  14. Search for the Standard Model Higgs Boson in the Diphoton Decay Channel with 4.9??fb[superscript -1] of pp Collision Data at ?s=7??TeV with ATLAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Frank E.

    A search for the standard model Higgs boson is performed in the diphoton decay channel. The data used correspond to an integrated luminosity of 4.9??fb[superscript -1] collected with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron ...

  15. Sulfur removal in advanced two stage pressurized fluidized bed combustion. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbasian, J.; Hill, A.; Wangerow, J.R. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The objective of this study is to obtain data on the rates and the extent of sulfation reactions involving partially sulfided calcium-based sorbents, and oxygen as well as sulfur dioxide, at operating conditions closely simulating those prevailing in the second stage (combustor) of Advanced Two-Stage Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustors (PFBC). In these systems the CO{sub 2} partial pressure generally exceeds the equilibrium value for calcium carbonate decomposition. Therefore, calcium sulfate is produced through the reactions between SO{sub 2} and calcium carbonate as well as the reaction between calcium sulfide and oxygen. To achieve this objective, the rates of reaction involving SO{sub 2} and oxygen (gaseous reactant); and calcium sulfide and calcium carbonate (solid reactants), will be determined by conducting tests in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (HPTGA) unit. The effects of sorbent type, sorbent particle size, reactor temperature and pressure; and O{sub 2} as well as SO{sub 2} partial pressures on the sulfation reactions rate will be determined. During this quarter, samples of the selected limestone and dolomite were sulfided in the fluidized-bed reactor. These tests were conducted in both calcining and non-calcining operating conditions to produce partially-sulfided sorbents containing calcium oxide and calcium carbonate, respectively. These samples which represent the carbonizer discharge material, will be used as the feed material in the sulfation tests to be conducted in the HPTGA unit during the next quarter.

  16. Performance and economics of co-firing a coal/waste slurry in advanced fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLallo, M.R.; Zaharchuk, R.; Reuther, R.B.; Bonk, D.L.

    1996-09-01

    This study`s objective was to investigate co-firing a pressurized fluidized-bed combustor with coal and refuse-derived fuel for the production of electricity and the efficient disposal of waste. Performance evaluation of the pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) power plant co-fired with refuse-derived fuel showed only slightly lower overall thermal efficiency than similar sized plants without waste co-firing. Capital costs and costs of electricity are within 4.2 percent and 3.2 percent, respectively, of waste-free operation. The results also indicate that there are no technology barriers to the co-firing of waste materials with coal in a PFBC power plant. The potential to produce cost-competitive electrical power and support environmentally acceptable waste disposal exists with this approach. However, as part of technology development, there remain several design and operational areas requiring data and verification before this concept can realize commercial acceptance. 3 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fly ash during coal and residual char combustion in a pressurized fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hongcang Zhou; Baosheng Jin; Rui Xiao; Zhaoping Zhong; Yaji Huang

    2009-04-15

    To investigate the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fly ash, the combustion of coal and residual char was performed in a pressurized spouted fluidized bed. After Soxhlet extraction and Kuderna-Danish (K-D) concentration, the contents of 16 PAHs recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in coal, residual char, and fly ash were analyzed by a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with fluorescence and diode array detection. The experimental results show that the combustion efficiency is lower and the carbon content in fly ash is higher during coal pressurized combustion, compared to the residual char pressurized combustion at the pressure of 0.3 MPa. Under the same pressure, the PAH amounts in fly ash produced from residual char combustion are lower than that in fly ash produced from coal combustion. The total PAHs in fly ash produced from coal and residual char combustion are dominated by three- and four-ring PAHs. The amounts of PAHs in fly ash produced from residual char combustion increase and then decrease with the increase of pressure in a fluidized bed. 21 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  18. Zevenhoven & Kilpinen NITROGEN 18.1.2004 4-35 4.11 Chemistry of nitrogen oxides at atmospheric fluidized bed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    oxide by air staging, and reduction of nitric oxide with char. In circulating fluidized bed combustion reactions between gas and particles become important, e.g., reduction of nitric oxide with char, which or noncatalytic. For example, the reduction of nitric oxide with char #12;Zevenhoven & Kilpinen NITROGEN 18

  19. Overall and average local heat transfer from a horizontal cylinder in a gas-fluidized bed with an opposing oscillatory flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pence, D.V. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics; Beasley, D.E. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor (PAFBC), a hybrid combustor concept that couples a pulsed combustor with an atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed, has technical advantages in energy efficiency and emissions. The present study examines fundamental aspects of heat transfer in this hybrid combustor by measuring the effect of an opposing oscillatory flow on the overall and time-averaged local heat transfer in a laboratory scale bubbling gas-fluidized bed. This opposing secondary flow consisted of a steady mean component and an oscillating component thereby modeling the flow in the tailpipe of a pulsed combustor. Data were acquired for a monodisperse distribution of particles with a mean diameter of 345 {micro}m and total fluidization ratios ranging from 1.1 through 2.7. Overall and time-averaged local heat flux measurements from the surface of a submerged horizontal cylinder show that heat transfer characteristics are significantly altered by an opposing oscillatory flow. Increases in overall heat transfer on the order of 12% were identified for operating conditions with low primary and secondary flow rates and low pulse frequencies. These enhancements were identified to be a consequence of significant localized enhancements. The fundamental trends and magnitude of the particle Nusselt number are effectively characterized by a modified form of the Strouhal number.

  20. Search for Randall-Sundrum Gravitons in Dielectron and Diphoton Final States with 5.4fb-1 of D0 Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Ning; /Columbia U.

    2010-03-01

    A search for the lightest Kaluza-Klein mode of the graviton in the Randall-Sundrum model with a warped extra dimension is performed in the dielectron and diphoton channels. The data set used for the search corresponds to 5.4 fb{sup -1} of data from p{bar p} collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV, collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron between July 2002 and Summer 2009. We search for resonances in the invariant mass spectrum of two electromagnetic showers from the decay of the graviton to either electron-positron pairs or photon pairs. To optimize the sensitivity, the dielectron and diphoton channels are analyzed separately, then the results are combined together in the end. We also investigate whether, due to the unique spin-2 nature of the graviton, the angular distribution of the final state particles can be used to significantly enhance the sensitivity of the search. We set 95% confidence level upper limits on the graviton production cross section times branching fraction into electron-positron pairs of between {approx} 7 fb and {approx} 0.5 fb for a range of graviton masses from 220 GeV and 1050 GeV, respectively. Compared with Randall-Sundrum model predictions, these results correspond to lower limits on the lightest graviton mass between 440 GeV and 1040 GeV, for the dimensionless graviton coupling to the Standard Model fields k/{bar M}{sub Pl} in the range from 0.01 to 0.1. In addition, for coupling k/{bar M}{sub Pl} of 0.01, gravitons with masses between 460 GeV and 560 GeV are also excluded at 95% confidence level. These results represent the most sensitive limits to date.