Sample records for burn organic fuels

  1. Clean Burn Fuels LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformation SmyrnaNewClay Electric Cooperative,North Carolina:CleanBurn

  2. U.S. BURNING PLASMA ORGANIZATION ACTIVITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond J. Fonck

    2009-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The national U.S. Burning Plasma Organization (USBPO) was formed to provide an umbrella structure in the U.S. fusion science research community. Its main purpose is the coordination of research activities in the U.S. program relevant to burning plasma science and preparations for participation in the international ITER experiment. This grant provided support for the continuing development and operations of the USBPO in its first years of existence. A central feature of the USBPO is the requirement for broad community participation in and governance of this effort. We concentrated on five central areas of activity of the USBPO during this grant period. These included: 1) activities of the Director and support staff in continuing management and development of the USBPO activity; 2) activation of the advisory Council; 3) formation and initial research activities of the research community Topical Groups; 4) formation of Task Groups to perform specific burning plasma related research and development activities; 5) integration of the USBPO community with the ITER Project Office as needed to support ITER development in the U.S.

  3. James W. Van Dam US Burning Plasma Organization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    focus: magnetically confined plasmas #12;Page 5 USBPO What is a "burning" plasma? · "Burning" plasmaJames W. Van Dam US Burning Plasma Organization US ITER Project Office Institute for Fusion Studies Plasmas -- A Tutorial -- Supported by Office of Science #12;Page 2 USBPO The next frontier · Understanding

  4. Deep-Burn Modular Helium Reactor Fuel Development Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McEachern, D

    2002-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains the workscope, schedule and cost for the technology development tasks needed to satisfy the fuel and fission product transport Design Data Needs (DDNs) for the Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR), operating in its role of transmuting transuranic (TRU) nuclides in spent fuel discharged from commercial light-water reactors (LWRs). In its application for transmutation, the GT-MHR is referred to as the Deep-Burn MHR (DB-MHR). This Fuel Development Plan (FDP) describes part of the overall program being undertaken by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), utilities, and industry to evaluate the use of the GT-MHR to transmute transuranic nuclides from spent nuclear fuel. The Fuel Development Plan (FDP) includes the work on fuel necessary to support the design and licensing of the DB-MHR. The FDP is organized into ten sections. Section 1 provides a summary of the most important features of the plan, including cost and schedule information. Section 2 describes the DB-MHR concept, the features of its fuel and the plan to develop coated particle fuel for transmutation. Section 3 describes the knowledge base for fabrication of coated particles, the experience with irradiation performance of coated particle fuels, the database for fission product transport in HTGR cores, and describes test data and calculations for the performance of coated particle fuel while in a repository. Section 4 presents the fuel performance requirements in terms of as-manufactured quality and performance of the fuel coatings under irradiation and accident conditions. These requirements are provisional because the design of the DB-MHR is in an early stage. However, the requirements are presented in this preliminary form to guide the initial work on the fuel development. Section 4 also presents limits on the irradiation conditions to which the coated particle fuel can be subjected for the core design. These limits are based on past irradiation experience. Section 5 describes the Design Data Needs to: (1) fabricate the coated particle fuel, (2) predict its performance in the reactor core, (3) predict the radionuclide release rates from the reactor core, and (4) predict the performance of spent fuel in a geological repository. The heart of this fuel development plan is Section 6, which describes the development activities proposed to satisfy the DDNs presented in Section 5. The development scope is divided into Fuel Process Development, Fuel Materials Development, Fission Product Transport, and Spent Fuel Disposal. Section 7 describes the facilities to be used. Generally, this program will utilize existing facilities. While some facilities will need to be modified, there is no requirement for major new facilities. Section 8 states the Quality Assurance requirements that will be applied to the development activities. Section 9 presents detailed costs organized by WBS and spread over time. Section 10 presents a list of the types of deliverables that will be prepared in each of the WBS elements. Four Appendices contain supplementary information on: (a) design data needs, (b) the interface with the separations plant, (c) the detailed development schedule, and (d) the detailed cost estimate.

  5. Theory of Antineutrino Monitoring of Burning MOX Plutonium Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayes, A C; Nieto, Michael Martin; WIlson, W B

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This letter presents the physics and feasibility of reactor antineutrino monitoring to verify the burnup of plutonium loaded in the reactor as a Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel. It examines the magnitude and temporal variation in the antineutrino signals expected for different MOX fuels, for the purposes of nuclear accountability and safeguards. The antineutrino signals from reactor-grade and weapons-grade MOX are shown to be distinct from those from burning low enriched uranium. Thus, antineutrino monitoring could be used to verify the destruction of plutonium in reactors, though verifying the grade of the plutonium being burned is found to be more challenging.

  6. Theory of Antineutrino Monitoring of Burning MOX Plutonium Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. C. Hayes; H. R. Trellue; Michael Martin Nieto; W. B. WIlson

    2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This letter presents the physics and feasibility of reactor antineutrino monitoring to verify the burnup of plutonium loaded in the reactor as a Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel. It examines the magnitude and temporal variation in the antineutrino signals expected for different MOX fuels, for the purposes of nuclear accountability and safeguards. The antineutrino signals from reactor-grade and weapons-grade MOX are shown to be distinct from those from burning low enriched uranium. Thus, antineutrino monitoring could be used to verify the destruction of plutonium in reactors, though verifying the grade of the plutonium being burned is found to be more challenging.

  7. Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

    1985-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone: this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe: swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone: this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

  8. Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone; this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe; swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone; this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

  9. Burning tires for fuel and tire pyrolysis: air implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, C.; Meardon, K.; Russell, D.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The document was developed in response to increasing inquiries into the environmental impacts of burning waste tires in process equipment. The document provides information on the use of whole, scrap tires and tire-derived-fuel (TDF) as combustion fuel and on the pyrolysis of scrap tires. The use of whole tires and TDF as a primary fuel is discussed for dedicated tire-to-energy facilities. The use of whole tires and TDF as a supplemental fuel is discussed for cement manufacturing plants, electric utilities, pulp and paper mills, and other industrial processes. The focus of the document is on the impact of burning whole tires and TDF on air emissions. Test data are presented and, in most instances, compared with emissions under baseline conditions (no tires or TDF in the fuel). The control devices used in these industries are discussed and, where possible, their effectiveness in controlling emissions from the burning of whole tires or TDF is described. In addition, the report provides information on the processes themselves that use whole tires or TDF, the modifications to the processes that allowed the use of whole tires or TDF, and the operational experiences of several facilities using whole tires or TDF. The economic feasibility of using whole tires and TDF for the surveyed industries is discussed. Finally, contacts for State waste tire programs are presented.

  10. Communication Support for the U. S. Burning Plasma Organization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hegna, Chris [University of Wisconsin] [University of Wisconsin

    2014-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The role of this DOE grant was to provide administrative and software support for the U. S. Burning Plasma Organization (USBPO). The USBPO is a grassroots organization of fusion plasma scientists that concentrates broadly on issues of interest in burning plasma physics in general with a particular emphasis on the needs of the ITER program. The particular role of this grant was to provide support of the communication needs of the USBPO primarily through the administration and maintenance of the USBPO server, the public USBPO website, e-mail lists and numerous members-only discussion forums and mail lists.

  11. Pellet Fueling and Control of Burning Plasmas in ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Parks, P. B. [General Atomics; Jernigan, Thomas C [ORNL; Caughman, John B [ORNL; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Foust, Charles R [ORNL; Houlberg, Wayne A [ORNL; Maruyama, S. [ITER International Team, Garching, Germany; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pellet injection from the inner wall is planned for use on ITER as the primary core fueling system since gas fueling is expected to be highly inefficient in burning plasmas. Tests of the inner wall guide tube have shown that 5mm pellets with up to 300 m/s speeds can survive intact and provide the necessary core fueling rate. Modeling and extrapolation of the inner wall pellet injection experiments from today's smaller tokamaks leads to the prediction that this method will provide efficient core fueling beyond the pedestal region. Using pellets for triggering of frequent small edge localized modes is an attractive additional benefit that the pellet injection system can provide. A description of the ITER pellet injection system capabilities for fueling and ELM triggering are presented and performance expectations and fusion power control aspects are discussed.

  12. U S Burning Plasma Organization:U.S. Burning Plasma Organization: Supporting US Scientific Contributions to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Community (TTF,...) US Technology Community USBPO mission is to coordinate US Burning Plasma related research to advance science USBPO Director, Jim Van Dam, also serves as US IPO Chief Scientist, assuring

  13. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard C. (Orono, ME)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel includes a vertical feed combustion chamber (15) for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack. A major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprises a water jacket (14) for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid for convection circulation of the fluid. The locus (31) of wood fuel combustion is thereby confined to the refractory base of the combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel (34) extending laterally from the base of the chamber affords delayed travel time in a high temperature refractory environment sufficient to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air prior to extraction of heat in heat exchanger (16). Induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion chamber and refractory high temperature zone to the heat exchanger and flue. Also included are active sources of forced air and induced draft, multiple circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  14. Microstructural Characterization of High Burn-up Mixed Oxide Fast Reactor Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melissa C. Teague; Brian P. Gorman; Steven L. Hayes; Douglas L. Porter; Jeffrey King

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High burn-up mixed oxide fuel with local burn-ups of 3.423.7% FIMA (fissions per initial metal atom) were destructively examined as part of a research project to understand the performance of oxide fuel at extreme burn-ups. Optical metallography of fuel cross-sections measured the fuel-to-cladding gap, clad thickness, and central void evolution in the samples. The fuel-to-cladding gap closed significantly in samples with burn-ups below 79% FIMA. Samples with burn-ups in excess of 79% FIMA had a reopening of the fuel-to-cladding gap and evidence of joint oxide-gain (JOG) formation. Signs of axial fuel migration to the top of the fuel column were observed in the fuel pin with a peak burn-up of 23.7% FIMA. Additionally, high burn-up structure (HBS) was observed in the two highest burn-up samples (23.7% and 21.3% FIMA). The HBS layers were found to be 35 times thicker than the layers found in typical LWR fuel. The results of the study indicate that formation of JOG and or HBS prevents any significant fuel-cladding mechanical interaction from occurring, thereby extending the potential life of the fuel elements.

  15. RIS-M-2185 CALCULATION OF HEAT RATING AND BURN-UP FOR TEST FUEL PINS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RIS-M-2185 CALCULATION OF HEAT RATING AND BURN-UP FOR TEST FUEL PINS IRRADIATED IN DR3 C. Bagger of fuel pins irradiated in HP1 rigs. The calculations are carried out rather detailed, especially of the data. INIS Descriptors . BURN-UP, CALORIMETRY, COMPUTER CALCULATIONS, DR-3, FISSION, FUEL ASSEMBLIES

  16. Sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is disclosed. The combustor includes several separately removable combustion chambers each having an annular sectoral cross section and a double-walled construction permitting separation of stresses due to pressure forces and stresses due to thermal effects. Arrangements are described for air-cooling each combustion chamber using countercurrent convective cooling flow between an outer shell wall and an inner liner wall and using film cooling flow through liner panel grooves and along the inner liner wall surface, and for admitting all coolant flow to the gas path within the inner liner wall. Also described are systems for supplying coal gas, combustion air, and dilution air to the combustion zone, and a liquid fuel nozzle for use during low-load operation. The disclosed combustor is fully air-cooled, requires no transition section to interface with a turbine nozzle, and is operable at firing temperatures of up to 3000.degree. F. or within approximately 300.degree. F. of the adiabatic stoichiometric limit of the coal gas used as fuel.

  17. Pellet Fueling Technology Development for Efficient Fueling of Burning Plasmas in ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Parks, P. B. [General Atomics; Jernigan, Thomas C [ORNL; Caughman, John B [ORNL; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Foust, Charles R [ORNL; Houlberg, Wayne A [ORNL; Maruyama, S. [ITER International Team, Garching, Germany; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pellet injection from the inner wall is planned for use on ITER as the primary core fueling system since gas fueling is expected to be highly inefficient in burning plasmas. Tests of the inner wall guide tube have shown that 5mm pellets with up to 300 m/s speeds can survive intact and provide the necessary core fueling rate. Modeling and extrapolation of the inner wall pellet injection experiments from today's smaller tokamaks leads to the prediction that this method will provide efficient core fueling beyond the pedestal region. Using pellets for triggering of frequent small edge localized modes is an attractive additional benefit that the pellet injection system can provide. A description of the ITER pellet injection system capabilities for fueling and ELM triggering are presented and performance expectations are discussed.

  18. Pellet fueling technology development leading to efficient fueling of ITER burning plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baylor, L.R.; Combs, S.K.; Jernigan, T.C.; Houlberg, W.A.; Owen, L.W.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Maruyama, S.; Parks, P.B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6169 (United States)

    2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Pellet injection is the primary fueling technique planned for core fueling of ITER [ITER Technical Basis 2002 ITER EDA Documentation Series (Vienna: IAEA)] burning plasmas. Efficient core plasma fueling with deuterium and tritium D-T is a requirement for achieving high fusion gain and it cannot be achieved with gas fueling. Injection of pellets from the inner wall has been shown on present day tokamaks to provide efficient fueling and is planned for use on ITER. Modeling of the fueling deposition from inner wall pellet injection using the Parks ExB drift model indicates that pellets have the capability to fuel well inside the separatrix. Gas fueling calculations show very poor neutral penetration due to the high density and wide scrape off layer. Isotopically mixed D-T pellets can provide efficient tritium fueling that will minimize tritium wall loading when compared to gas puffing. Currently the performance of the ITER inner wall guide tube design is under test with initial results indicating that pellet speeds in excess of 300 m/s will lead to fragmented pellets. The ITER pellet injection technology requirements and remaining development issues are discussed along with a plan to reach the design goal for employment on ITER.

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Advanced Lean-Burn DI Spark Ignition Fuels Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Sandia National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and vehicle technologies office annual merit review and peer evaluation meeting about advanced lean-burn...

  20. Assessment of an Industrial Wet Oxidation System for Burning Waste and Low-Grade Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bettinger, J.; Koppel, P.; Margulies, A.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    "Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation, under Department of Energy sponsorship, is developing a wet oxidation system to generate steam for industrial processes by burning industrial waste materials and low-grade fuels. The program involves...

  1. General analysis of breed-and-burn reactors and limited-separations fuel cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petroski, Robert C

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new theoretical framework is introduced, the "neutron excess" concept, which is useful for analyzing breed-and-burn (B&B) reactors and their fuel cycles. Based on this concept, a set of methods has been developed which ...

  2. Fuel Burn and Emissions Reduction Potential of Low Power/Low Drag Approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dumont, Jean-Marie

    Changing aircraft operational procedures is one strategy that can be used to reduce fuel burn and mitigate environmental impacts of aviation in relatively short timeframes with existing aircraft types. This study quantifies ...

  3. The use of reduced-moderation light water reactors for transuranic isotope burning in thorium fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindley, Benjamin A.

    2015-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    THE USE OF REDUCED-MODERATION LIGHT WATER REACTORS FOR TRANSURANIC ISOTOPE BURNING IN THORIUM FUEL Benjamin Andrew Lindley St Catharine?s College Department of Engineering University of Cambridge A thesis... of Engineering as stated in the Memorandum to Graduate Students. Benjamin Andrew Lindley The Use of Reduced-moderation Light Water Reactors for Transuranic Isotope Burning in Thorium Fuel B. A. Lindley Light water reactors (LWRs) are the world...

  4. Pellet Fueling Technology Development Leading to Efficient Fueling of ITER Burning Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Jernigan, Thomas C [ORNL; Houlberg, Wayne A [ORNL; Maruyama, S. [ITER International Team, Garching, Germany; Owen, Larry W [ORNL; Parks, P. B. [General Atomics; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pellet injection is the primary fueling technique planned for central fueling of the ITER burning plasma, which is a requirement for achieving high fusion gain. Injection of pellets from the inner wall has been shown on present day tokamaks to provide efficient fueling and is planned for use on ITER [1,2]. Significant development of pellet fueling technology has occurred as a result of the ITER R&D process. Extrusion rates with batch extruders have reached more than 1/2 of the ITER design specification of 1.3 cm3/s [3] and the ability to fuel efficiently from the inner wall by injecting through curved guide tubes has been demonstrated on several fusion devices. Modeling of the fueling deposition from inner wall pellet injection has been done using the Parks et al. ExB drift model [4] shows that inside launched pellets of 3mm size and speeds of 300 m/s have the capability to fuel well inside the separatrix. Gas fueling on the other hand is calculated to have very poor fueling efficiency due to the high density and wide scrape off layer compared to current machines. Isotopically mixed D/T pellets can provide efficient tritium fueling that will minimize tritium wall loading when compared to gas puffing of tritium. In addition, the use of pellets as an ELM trigger has been demonstrated and continues to be investigated as an ELM mitigation technique. During the ITER CDA and EDA the U.S. was responsible for ITER fueling system design and R&D and is in good position to resume this role for the ITER pellet fueling system. Currently the performance of the ITER guide tube design is under investigation. A mockup is being built that will allow tests with different pellet sizes and repetition rates. The results of these tests and their implication for fueling efficiency and central fueling will be discussed. The ITER pellet injection technology developments to date, specified requirements, and remaining development issues will be presented along with a plan to reach the design goal in time for employment on ITER.

  5. Method and apparatus for controlling fuel/air mixture in a lean burn engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kubesh, John Thomas (San Antonio, TX); Dodge, Lee Gene (San Antonio, TX); Podnar, Daniel James (San Antonio, TX)

    1998-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The system for controlling the fuel/air mixture supplied to a lean burn engine when operating on natural gas, gasoline, hydrogen, alcohol, propane, butane, diesel or any other fuel as desired. As specific humidity of air supplied to the lean burn engine increases, the oxygen concentration of exhaust gas discharged by the engine for a given equivalence ratio will decrease. Closed loop fuel control systems typically attempt to maintain a constant exhaust gas oxygen concentration. Therefore, the decrease in the exhaust gas oxygen concentration resulting from increased specific humidity will often be improperly attributed to an excessive supply of fuel and the control system will incorrectly reduce the amount of fuel supplied to the engine. Also, the minimum fuel/air equivalence ratio for a lean burn engine to avoid misfiring will increase as specific humidity increases. A relative humidity sensor to allow the control system to provide a more enriched fuel/air mixture at high specific humidity levels. The level of specific humidity may be used to compensate an output signal from a universal exhaust gas oxygen sensor for changing oxygen concentrations at a desired equivalence ratio due to variation in specific humidity specific humidity. As a result, the control system will maintain the desired efficiency, low exhaust emissions and power level for the associated lean burn engine regardless of the specific humidity level of intake air supplied to the lean burn engine.

  6. Organic fuel cells and fuel cell conducting sheets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masel, Richard I. (Champaign, IL); Ha, Su (Champaign, IL); Adams, Brian (Savoy, IL)

    2007-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A passive direct organic fuel cell includes an organic fuel solution and is operative to produce at least 15 mW/cm.sup.2 when operating at room temperature. In additional aspects of the invention, fuel cells can include a gas remover configured to promote circulation of an organic fuel solution when gas passes through the solution, a modified carbon cloth, one or more sealants, and a replaceable fuel cartridge.

  7. Advanced Lean-Burn DI Spark Ignition Fuels Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  8. actinide burning fuel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Waste Management Strategy when Implemented over a Limited Timeframe Part II: Thorium Fuel Cycle University of Cambridge - Dspace Summary: "utilises"the"same"plant"as"an"A...

  9. Characterizing the Aging of Biomass Burning Organic Aerosol by Use of Mixing Ratios: A Meta-analysis of Four Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jimenez, Jose-Luis

    Characterizing the Aging of Biomass Burning Organic Aerosol by Use of Mixing Ratios: A Meta: Characteristic organic aerosol (OA) emission ratios (ERs) and normalized excess mixing ratios (NEMRs) for biomass and combustion conditions in determining OA loadings from biomass burning. 1. INTRODUCTION Biomass burning

  10. Smokes from the burning of aviation fuel and their self-lofting by solar heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radke, L.F.; Lyons, J.H.; Hobbs, P.V. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA)); Weiss, R.E. (Radiance Research, Inc., Seattle, WA (USA))

    1990-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The emission factors and optical properties of smokes produced by the burning of aviation fuel were determined from airborne measurements. These rather large fires (30 m in diameter and containing as much as 4.5 {times} 10{sup 4} liters of fuel) produced dark columns of smoke. On several occasions the smoke was observed to continue to rise slowly after its initial stabilization at a temperature inversion. This rise was evidently due to the absorption of solar radiation by the smoke.

  11. Experimental investigation of burning rates of pure ethanol and ethanol blended fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parag, Shintre; Raghavan, Vasudevan [Thermodynamics and Combustion Engineering Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, Tamilnadu, 600036 (India)

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A fundamental experimental study to determine the burning rates of ethanol and ethanol-blended fossil fuels is presented. Pure liquid ethanol or its blends with liquid fossil fuels such as gasoline or diesel, has been transpired to the surface a porous sphere using an infusion pump. Burning of the fuel takes place on the surface of the porous sphere, which is placed in an air stream blowing upwards with a uniform velocity at atmospheric pressure and temperature under normal gravity conditions. At low air velocities, when ignited, a flame envelopes the sphere. For each sphere size, air stream velocity and fuel type, the fuel feed rate will vary and the same is recorded as the burning rate for that configuration. The flame stand-off distances from the sphere surface are measured by post-processing the digital image of the flame photograph using suitable imaging software. The transition velocity at which the flame moves and establishes itself at the wake region of the sphere has been determined for different diameters and fuel types. Correlations of these parameters are also presented. (author)

  12. Organic fuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall,Missouri:Energy InformationOregon: Energy Resources Jumpfuels Jump to:

  13. Cycle-to-Cycle Fluctuations of Burned Fuel Mass in Spark Ignition Combustion Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Wendeker; G. Litak; M. Krupa

    2003-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine a simple, fuel-air, model of combustion in spark ignition (si) engine with indirect injection. In our two fluid model, variations of fuel mass burned in cycle sequences appear due to stochastic fluctuations of a fuel feed amount. We have shown that a small amplitude of these fluctuations affects considerably the stability of a combustion process strongly depending on the quality of air-fulel mixture. The largest influence was found in the limit of a lean combustion. The possible effect of nonlinearities in the combustion process were also discussed.

  14. Stress Analysis of Coated Particle Fuel in the Deep-Burn Pebble Bed Reactor Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Boer; A. M. Ougouag

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High fuel temperatures and resulting fuel particle coating stresses can be expected in a Pu and minor actinide fueled Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (400 MWth) design as compared to the standard UO2 fueled core. The high discharge burnup aimed for in this Deep-Burn design results in increased power and temperature peaking in the pebble bed near the inner and outer reflector. Furthermore, the pebble power in a multi-pass in-core pebble recycling scheme is relatively high for pebbles that make their first core pass. This might result in an increase of the mechanical failure of the coatings, which serve as the containment of radioactive fission products in the PBMR design. To investigate the integrity of the particle fuel coatings as a function of the irradiation time (i.e. burnup), core position and during a Loss Of Forced Cooling (LOFC) incident the PArticle STress Analysis code (PASTA) has been coupled to the PEBBED code for neutronics, thermal-hydraulics and depletion analysis of the core. Two deep burn fuel types (Pu with or without initial MA fuel content) have been investigated with the new code system for normal and transient conditions including the effect of the statistical variation of thickness of the coating layers.

  15. Thorium Fuel Options for Sustained Transuranic Burning in Pressurized Water Reactors - 12381

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahman, Fariz Abdul; Lee, John C. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Franceschini, Fausto; Wenner, Michael [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As described in companion papers, Westinghouse is proposing the adoption of a thorium-based fuel cycle to burn the transuranics (TRU) contained in the current Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) and transition towards a less radio-toxic high level waste. A combination of both light water reactors (LWR) and fast reactors (FR) is envisaged for the task, with the emphasis initially posed on their TRU burning capability and eventually to their self-sufficiency. Given the many technical challenges and development times related to the deployment of TRU burners fast reactors, an interim solution making best use of the current resources to initiate burning the legacy TRU inventory while developing and testing some technologies of later use is desirable. In this perspective, a portion of the LWR fleet can be used to start burning the legacy TRUs using Th-based fuels compatible with the current plants and operational features. This analysis focuses on a typical 4-loop PWR, with 17x17 fuel assembly design and TRUs (or Pu) admixed with Th (similar to U-MOX fuel, but with Th instead of U). Global calculations of the core were represented with unit assembly simulations using the Linear Reactivity Model (LRM). Several assembly configurations have been developed to offer two options that can be attractive during the TRU transmutation campaign: maximization of the TRU transmutation rate and capability for TRU multi-recycling, to extend the option of TRU recycling in LWR until the FR is available. Homogeneous as well as heterogeneous assembly configurations have been developed with various recycling schemes (Pu recycle, TRU recycle, TRU and in-bred U recycle etc.). Oxide as well as nitride fuels have been examined. This enabled an assessment of the potential for burning and multi-recycling TRU in a Th-based fuel PWR to compare against other more typical alternatives (U-MOX and variations thereof). Results will be shown indicating that Th-based PWR fuel is a promising option to multi-recycle and burn TRU in a thermal spectrum, while satisfying top-level operational and safety constraints. Various assembly designs have been proposed to assess the TRU burning potential of Th-based fuel in PWRs. In addition to typical homogeneous loading patterns, heterogeneous configurations exploiting the breeding potential of thorium to enable multiple cycles of TRU irradiation and burning have been devised. The homogeneous assembly design, with all pins featuring TRU in Th, has the benefit of a simple loading pattern and the highest rate of TRU transmutation, but it can be used only for a few cycles due to the rapid rise in the TRU content of the recycled fuel, which challenges reactivity control, safety coefficients and fuel handling. Due to its simple loading pattern, such assembly design can be used as the first step of Th implementation, achieving up to 3 times larger TRU transmutation rate than conventional U-MOX, assuming same fraction of MOX assemblies in the core. As the next step in thorium implementation, heterogeneous assemblies featuring a mixed array of Th-U and Th-U-TRU pins, where the U is in-bred from Th, have been proposed. These designs have the potential to enable burning an external supply of TRU through multiple cycles of irradiation, recovery (via reprocessing) and recycling of the residual actinides at the end of each irradiation cycle. This is achieved thanks to a larger breeding of U from Th in the heterogeneous assemblies, which reduces the TRU supply and thus mitigates the increase in the TRU core inventory for the multi-recycled fuel. While on an individual cycle basis the amount of TRU burned in the heterogeneous assembly is reduced with respect to the homogeneous design, TRU burning rates higher than single-pass U-MOX fuel can still be achieved, with the additional benefits of a multi-cycle transmutation campaign recycling all TRU isotopes. Nitride fuel, due its higher density and U breeding potential, together with its better thermal properties, ideally suits the objectives and constraints of the heterogeneous assemblies. However, signi

  16. Transuranic Waste Burning Potential of Thorium Fuel in a Fast Reactor - 12423

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wenner, Michael; Franceschini, Fausto; Ferroni, Paolo [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC,Cranberry Township, PA, 16066 (United States); Sartori, Alberto; Ricotti, Marco [Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Westinghouse Electric Company (referred to as 'Westinghouse' in the rest of this paper) is proposing a 'back-to-front' approach to overcome the stalemate on nuclear waste management in the US. In this approach, requirements to further the societal acceptance of nuclear waste are such that the ultimate health hazard resulting from the waste package is 'as low as reasonably achievable'. Societal acceptability of nuclear waste can be enhanced by reducing the long-term radiotoxicity of the waste, which is currently driven primarily by the protracted radiotoxicity of the transuranic (TRU) isotopes. Therefore, a transition to a more benign radioactive waste can be accomplished by a fuel cycle capable of consuming the stockpile of TRU 'legacy' waste contained in the LWR Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) while generating waste which is significantly less radio-toxic than that produced by the current open U-based fuel cycle (once through and variations thereof). Investigation of a fast reactor (FR) operating on a thorium-based fuel cycle, as opposed to the traditional uranium-based is performed. Due to a combination between its neutronic properties and its low position in the actinide chain, thorium not only burns the legacy TRU waste, but it does so with a minimal production of 'new' TRUs. The effectiveness of a thorium-based fast reactor to burn legacy TRU and its flexibility to incorporate various fuels and recycle schemes according to the evolving needs of the transmutation scenario have been investigated. Specifically, the potential for a high TRU burning rate, high U-233 generation rate if so desired and low concurrent production of TRU have been used as metrics for the examined cycles. Core physics simulations of a fast reactor core running on thorium-based fuels and burning an external TRU feed supply have been carried out over multiple cycles of irradiation, separation and reprocessing. The TRU burning capability as well as the core isotopic content have been characterized. Results will be presented showing the potential for thorium to reach a high TRU transmutation rate over a wide variety of fuel types (oxide, metal, nitride and carbide) and transmutation schemes (recycle or partition of in-bred U-233). In addition, a sustainable scheme has been devised to burn the TRU accumulated in the core inventory once the legacy TRU supply has been exhausted, thereby achieving long-term virtually TRU-free. A comprehensive 'back-to-front' approach to the fuel cycle has recently been proposed by Westinghouse which emphasizes achieving 'acceptable', low-radiotoxicity, high-level waste, with the intent not only to satisfy all technical constraints but also to improve public acceptance of nuclear energy. Following this approach, the thorium fuel cycle, due to its low radiotoxicity and high potential for TRU transmutation has been selected as a promising solution. Additional studies not shown here have shown significant reduction of decay heat. The TRU burning potential of the Th-based fuel cycle has been illustrated with a variety of fuel types, using the Toshiba ARR to perform the analysis, including scenarios with continued LWR operation of either uranium fueled or thorium fueled LWRs. These scenarios will afford overall reduction in actinide radiotoxicity, however when the TRU supply is exhausted, a continued U- 235 LWR operation must be assumed to provide TRU makeup feed. This scenario will never reach the characteristically low TRU content of a closed thorium fuel cycle with its associated potential benefits on waste radiotoxicity, as exemplified by the transition scenario studied. At present, the cases studied indicate ThC as a potential fuel for maximizing TRU burning, while ThN with nitrogen enriched to 95% N-15 shows the highest breeding potential. As a result, a transition scenario with ThN was developed to show that a sustainable, closed Th-cycle can be achieved starting from burning the legacy TRU stock and completing the transmutation of the residual TRU remaining in the core inventory after the legacy TRU external supply has been

  17. Vortex combustor for low NOX emissions when burning lean premixed high hydrogen content fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steele, Robert C; Edmonds, Ryan G; Williams, Joseph T; Baldwin, Stephen P

    2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A trapped vortex combustor. The trapped vortex combustor is configured for receiving a lean premixed gaseous fuel and oxidant stream, where the fuel includes hydrogen gas. The trapped vortex combustor is configured to receive the lean premixed fuel and oxidant stream at a velocity which significantly exceeds combustion flame speed in a selected lean premixed fuel and oxidant mixture. The combustor is configured to operate at relatively high bulk fluid velocities while maintaining stable combustion, and low NOx emissions. The combustor is useful in gas turbines in a process of burning synfuels, as it offers the opportunity to avoid use of diluent gas to reduce combustion temperatures. The combustor also offers the possibility of avoiding the use of selected catalytic reaction units for removal of oxides of nitrogen from combustion gases exiting a gas turbine.

  18. Vortex combustor for low NOx emissions when burning lean premixed high hydrogen content fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steele, Robert C. (Woodinville, WA); Edmonds, Ryan G. (Renton, WA); Williams, Joseph T. (Kirkland, WA); Baldwin, Stephen P. (Winchester, MA)

    2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A trapped vortex combustor. The trapped vortex combustor is configured for receiving a lean premixed gaseous fuel and oxidant stream, where the fuel includes hydrogen gas. The trapped vortex combustor is configured to receive the lean premixed fuel and oxidant stream at a velocity which significantly exceeds combustion flame speed in a selected lean premixed fuel and oxidant mixture. The combustor is configured to operate at relatively high bulk fluid velocities while maintaining stable combustion, and low NOx emissions. The combustor is useful in gas turbines in a process of burning synfuels, as it offers the opportunity to avoid use of diluent gas to reduce combustion temperatures. The combustor also offers the possibility of avoiding the use of selected catalytic reaction units for removal of oxides of nitrogen from combustion gases exiting a gas turbine.

  19. Long-term tradeoffs between nuclear- and fossil-fuel burning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A global energy/economics/environmental (E{sup 3}) model has been adapted with a nuclear energy/materials model to understand better {open_quotes}top-level{close_quotes}, long-term trade offs between civilian nuclear power, nuclear-weapons proliferation, fossil-fuel burning, and global economic welfare. Using a {open_quotes}business-as-usual{close_quotes} (BAU) point-of-departure case, economic, resource, proliferation-risk implications of plutonium recycle in LAIRs, greenhouse-gas-mitigating carbon taxes, and a range of nuclear energy costs (capital and fuel) considerations have been examined. After describing the essential elements of the analysis approach being developed to support the Los Alamos Nuclear Vision Project, preliminary examples of parametric variations about the BAU base-case scenario are presented. The results described herein represent a sampling from more extensive results collected in a separate report. The primary motivation here is: (a) to compare the BAU basecase with results from other studies; (b) to model on a regionally resolved global basis long-term (to year {approximately}2100) evolution of plutonium accumulation in a variety of forms under a limited range of fuel-cycle scenarios; and (c) to illustrate a preliminary connectivity between risks associated with nuclear proliferation and fossil-fuel burning (e.g., greenhouse-gas accumulations).

  20. Deep Burn Fuel Cycle Integration: Evaluation of Two-Tier Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bays; H. Zhang; M. Pope

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of a deep burn strategy using VHTRs (or DB-MHR), as a means of burning transuranics produced by LWRs, was compared to performing this task with LWR MOX. The spent DB-MHR fuel was recycled for ultimate final recycle in fast reactors (ARRs). This report summarizes the preliminary findings of the support ratio (in terms of MWth installed) between LWRs, DB-MHRs and ARRs in an equilibrium two-tier fuel cycle scenario. Values from literature were used to represent the LWR and DB-MHR isotopic compositions. A reactor physics simulation of the ARR was analyzed to determine the effect that the DB-MHR spent fuel cooling time on the ARR transuranic consumption rate. These results suggest that the cooling time has some but not a significant impact on the ARRs conversion ratio and transuranic consumption rate. This is attributed to fissile worth being derived from non-fissile or threshold-fissioning isotopes in the ARRs fast spectrum. The fraction of installed thermal capacity of each reactor in the DB-MHR 2-tier fuel cycle was compared with that of an equivalent MOX 2-tier fuel cycle, assuming fuel supply and demand are in equilibrium. The use of DB-MHRs in the 1st-tier allows for a 10% increase in the fraction of fleet installed capacity of UO2-fueled LWRs compared to using a MOX 1st-tier. Also, it was found that because the DB-MHR derives more power per unit mass of transuranics charged to the fresh fuel, the front-end reprocessing demand is less than MOX. Therefore, more fleet installed capacity of DB-MHR would be required to support a given fleet of UO2 LWRs than would be required of MOX plants. However, the transuranic deep burn achieved by DB-MHRs reduces the number of fast reactors in the 2nd-tier to support the DB-MHRs back-end transuranic output than if MOX plants were used. Further analysis of the relative costs of these various types of reactors is required before a comparative study of these options could be considered complete.

  1. The Cellular Burning Regime in Type Ia Supernova Explosions - I. Flame Propagation into Quiescent Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. K. Roepke; W. Hillebrandt; J. C. Niemeyer

    2003-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a numerical investigation of the cellular burning regime in Type Ia supernova explosions. This regime holds at small scales (i.e. below the Gibson scale), which are unresolved in large-scale Type Ia supernova simulations. The fundamental effects that dominate the flame evolution here are the Landau-Darrieus instability and its nonlinear stabilization, leading to a stabilization of the flame in a cellular shape. The flame propagation into quiescent fuel is investigated addressing the dependence of the simulation results on the specific parameters of the numerical setup. Furthermore, we investigate the flame stability at a range of fuel densities. This is directly connected to the questions of active turbulent combustion (a mechanism of flame destabilization and subsequent self-turbulization) and a deflagration-to-detonation transition of the flame. In our simulations we find no substantial destabilization of the flame when propagating into quiescent fuels of densities down to ~10^7 g/cm^3, corroborating fundamental assumptions of large-scale SN Ia explosion models. For these models, however, we suggest an increased lower cutoff for the flame propagation velocity to take the cellular burning regime into account.

  2. Method of burning sulfur-containing fuels in a fluidized bed boiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Brian C. (Windsor, CT)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of burning a sulfur-containing fuel in a fluidized bed of sulfur oxide sorbent wherein the overall utilization of sulfur oxide sorbent is increased by comminuting the bed drain solids to a smaller average particle size, preferably on the order of 50 microns, and reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed. In comminuting the bed drain solids, particles of spent sulfur sorbent contained therein are fractured thereby exposing unreacted sorbent surface. Upon reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed, the newly-exposed unreacted sorbent surface is available for sulfur oxide sorption, thereby increasing overall sorbent utilization.

  3. Test burning of tire-derived fuel in solid fuel combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis, D.C. [Monsanto Copany, Sauget, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was commissioned to determine the overall viability of utilizing scrap tire chips, known as tire-derived fuel (TDF), as a supplemental fuel in conventional coal-fired boilers. The study involved actual tests at Monsanto Company`s W.G. Krummrich Plant in Sauget, Illinois, as well as general extrapolations as to the feasibility of using TDF at other sites. This report will show that TDF can be an excellent supplemental fuel supply, providing a cost-effective fuel source while helping to alleviate the dilemma of scrap tire disposal.

  4. Transmutation, Burn-Up and Fuel Fabrication Trade-Offs in Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor Thorium Fuel Cycles - 13502

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindley, Benjamin A.; Parks, Geoffrey T. [University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)] [University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Franceschini, Fausto [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States)] [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiple recycle of long-lived actinides has the potential to greatly reduce the required storage time for spent nuclear fuel or high level nuclear waste. This is generally thought to require fast reactors as most transuranic (TRU) isotopes have low fission probabilities in thermal reactors. Reduced-moderation LWRs are a potential alternative to fast reactors with reduced time to deployment as they are based on commercially mature LWR technology. Thorium (Th) fuel is neutronically advantageous for TRU multiple recycle in LWRs due to a large improvement in the void coefficient. If Th fuel is used in reduced-moderation LWRs, it appears neutronically feasible to achieve full actinide recycle while burning an external supply of TRU, with related potential improvements in waste management and fuel utilization. In this paper, the fuel cycle of TRU-bearing Th fuel is analysed for reduced-moderation PWRs and BWRs (RMPWRs and RBWRs). RMPWRs have the advantage of relatively rapid implementation and intrinsically low conversion ratios. However, it is challenging to simultaneously satisfy operational and fuel cycle constraints. An RBWR may potentially take longer to implement than an RMPWR due to more extensive changes from current BWR technology. However, the harder neutron spectrum can lead to favourable fuel cycle performance. A two-stage fuel cycle, where the first pass is Th-Pu MOX, is a technically reasonable implementation of either concept. The first stage of the fuel cycle can therefore be implemented at relatively low cost as a Pu disposal option, with a further policy option of full recycle in the medium term. (authors)

  5. Development of the Cooper-Bessemer CleanBurn gas-diesel (dual-fuel) engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blizzard, D.T. (Cooper-Bessemer Reciprocating Products Div., Cooper Industries, Grove City, PA (United States)); Schaub, F.S.; Smith, J.G. (Cooper-Bessemer Reciprocating Products Div., Cooper Industries, Mount Vernon, OH (United States))

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NO[sub x] emission legislation requirements for large-bore internal combustion engines have required engine manufacturers to continue to develop and improve techniques for exhaust emission reduction. This paper describes the development of the Cooper-Bessemer Clean Burn gas-diesel (dual-fuel) engine that results in NO[sub x] reductions of up to 92 percent as compared with an uncontrolled gas-diesel engine. Historically, the gas-diesel and diesel engine combustion systems have not responded to similar techniques of NO[sub x] reduction that have been successful on straight spark-ignited natural gas burning engines. NO[sub x] levels of a nominal 1.0 g/BHP-h, equal to the spark-ignited natural gas fueled engine, have been achieved for the gas-diesel and are described. In addition, the higher opacity exhaust plume characteristic of gas-diesel combustion is significantly reduced or eliminated. This achievement is considered to be a major breakthrough, and the concept can be applied to both new and retrofit applications.

  6. 1 Characterization of carbonaceous aerosols outflow from India and 2 Arabia: Biomass/biofuel burning and fossil fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerson, Russell R.

    /biofuel burning and fossil fuel combustion 3 S. A. Guazzotti,1 D. T. Suess,1,2 K. R. Coffee,1,3 P. K. Quinn,4 T. S with potassium 17 (indicative of combustion sources), and mass concentration of submicrometer non-sea- 18 salt Peninsula, where dominance of fossil fuel combustion is suggested by 30 results from single

  7. Planning a Prescribed Burn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanselka, C. Wayne

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This leaflet explains how to plan for adequate fuel for a prescribed burn, control the fire, notify the proper authority, manage the burn itself, and conduct follow-up management. A ranch checklist for prescribed burning is included....

  8. Powder Metallurgy of Uranium Alloy Fuels for TRU-Burning Reactors Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sean M. McDeavitt

    2011-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Overview Fast reactors were evaluated to enable the transmutation of transuranic isotopes generated by nuclear energy systems. The motivation for this was that TRU isotopes have high radiotoxicity and relatively long half-lives, making them unattractive for disposal in a long-term geologic repository. Fast reactors provide an efficient means to utilize the energy content of the TRUs while destroying them. An enabling technology that requires research and development is the fabrication metallic fuel containing TRU isotopes using powder metallurgy methods. This project focused upon developing a powder metallurgical fabrication method to produce U-Zr-transuranic (TRU) alloys at relatively low processing temperatures (500C to 600C) using either hot extrusion or alpha-phase sintering for charecterization. Researchers quantified the fundamental aspects of both processing methods using surrogate metals to simulate the TRU elements. The process produced novel solutions to some of the issues relating to metallic fuels, such as fuel-cladding chemical interactions, fuel swelling, volatility losses during casting, and casting mold material losses. Workscope There were two primary tasks associated with this project: 1. Hot working fabrication using mechanical alloying and extrusion Design, fabricate, and assemble extrusion equipment Extrusion database on DU metal Extrusion database on U-10Zr alloys Extrusion database on U-20xx-10Zr alloys Evaluation and testing of tube sheath metals 2. Low-temperature sintering of U alloys Design, fabricate, and assemble equipment Sintering database on DU metal Sintering database on U-10Zr alloys Liquid assisted phase sintering on U-20xx-10Zr alloys Appendices Outline Appendix A contains a Fuel Cycle Research & Development (FCR&D) poster and contact presentation where TAMU made primary contributions. Appendix B contains MSNE theses and final defense presentations by David Garnetti and Grant Helmreich outlining the beginning of the materials processing setup. Also included within this section is a thesis proposal by Jeff Hausaman. Appendix C contains the public papers and presentations introduced at the 2010 American Nuclear Society Winter Meeting. Appendix AMSNE theses of David Garnetti and Grant Helmreich and proposal by Jeff Hausaman A.1 December 2009 Thesis by David Garnetti entitled Uranium Powder Production Via Hydride Formation and Alpha Phase Sintering of Uranium and Uranium-Zirconium Alloys for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Applications A.2 September 2009 Presentation by David Garnetti (same title as document in Appendix B.1) A.3 December 2010 Thesis by Grant Helmreich entitled Characterization of Alpha-Phase Sintering of Uranium and Uranium-Zirconium Alloys for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Applications A.4 October 2010 Presentation by Grant Helmreich (same title as document in Appendix B.3) A.5 Thesis Proposal by Jeffrey Hausaman entitled Hot Extrusion of Alpha Phase Uranium-Zirconium Alloys for TRU Burning Fast Reactors Appendix BExternal presentations introduced at the 2010 ANS Winter Meeting B.1 J.S. Hausaman, D.J. Garnetti, and S.M. McDeavitt, Powder Metallurgy of Alpha Phase Uranium Alloys for TRU Burning Fast Reactors, Proceedings of 2010 ANS Winter Meeting, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, November 7-10, 2010 B.2 PowerPoint Presentation Slides from C.1 B.3 G.W. Helmreich, W.J. Sames, D.J. Garnetti, and S.M. McDeavitt, Uranium Powder Production Using a Hydride-Dehydride Process, Proceedings of 2010 ANS Winter Meeting, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, November 7-10, 2010 B.4. PowerPoint Presentation Slides from C.3 B.5 Poster Presentation from C.3 Appendix CFuel cycle research and development undergraduate materials and poster presentation C.1 Poster entitled Characterization of Alpha-Phase Sintering of Uranium and Uranium-Zirconium Alloys presented at the Fuel Cycle Technologies Program Annual Meeting C.2 April 2011 Honors Undergraduate Thesis by William Sames, Research Fellow, entitled Uranium Metal Powder Production, Particle Dis

  9. The Cellular Burning Regime in Type Ia Supernova Explosions - II. Flame Propagation into Vortical Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. K. Roepke; W. Hillebrandt; J. C. Niemeyer

    2003-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the interaction of thermonuclear flames in Type Ia supernova explosions with vortical flows by means of numerical simulations. In our study, we focus on small scales, where the flame propagation is no longer dominated by the turbulent cascade originating from large-scale effects. Here, the flame propagation proceeds in the cellular burning regime, resulting from a balance between the Landau-Darrieus instability and its nonlinear stabilization. The interaction of a cellularly stabilized flame front with a vortical fuel flow is explored applying a variety of fuel densities and strengths of the velocity fluctuations. We find that the vortical flow can break up the cellular flame structure if it is sufficiently strong. In this case the flame structure adapts to the imprinted flow field. The transition from the cellularly stabilized front to the flame structure dominated by vortices of the flow proceeds in a smooth way. The implications of the results of our simulations for Type Ia Supernova explosion models are discussed.

  10. Performance assessment for the geological disposal of Deep Burn spent fuel using TTBX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van den Akker, B.P.; Ahn, J. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The behavior of Deep Burn Modular High Temperature Reactor Spent Fuel (DBSF) is investigated in the Yucca Mountain geological repository (YMR) with respect to the annual dose (Sv/yr) delivered to the Reasonably Maximally Exposed Individual (RMEI) from the transport of radionuclides released from the graphite waste matrix. Transport calculations are performed with a novel computer code, TTBX which is capable of modeling transport pathways that pass through heterogeneous geological formations. TTBX is a multi-region extension of the existing single region TTB transport code. Overall the peak annual dose received by the RMEI is seen to be four orders of magnitude lower than the regulatory threshold for exposure, even under pessimistic scenarios. A number of factors contribute to the favorable performance of DBSF. A reduction of one order of magnitude in the peak annual dose received by the RMEI is observed for every order of magnitude increase in the waste matrix lifetime, highlighting the importance of the waste matrix durability and suggesting graphite's utility as a potential waste matrix for the disposal of high-level waste. Furthermore, we see that by incorporating a higher fidelity far-field model the peak annual dose calculated to be received by the RMEI is reduced by two orders of magnitude. By accounting for the heterogeneities of the far field we have simultaneously removed unnecessary conservatisms and improved the fidelity of the transport model. (authors)

  11. Reactivity loss validation of high burn-up PWR fuels with pile-oscillation experiments in MINERVE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leconte, P.; Vaglio-Gaudard, C.; Eschbach, R.; Di-Salvo, J.; Antony, M.; Pepino, A. [CEA, DEN, DER, Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ALIX experimental program relies on the experimental validation of the spent fuel inventory, by chemical analysis of samples irradiated in a PWR between 5 and 7 cycles, and also on the experimental validation of the spent fuel reactivity loss with bum-up, obtained by pile-oscillation measurements in the MINERVE reactor. These latter experiments provide an overall validation of both the fuel inventory and of the nuclear data responsible for the reactivity loss. This program offers also unique experimental data for fuels with a burn-up reaching 85 GWd/t, as spent fuels in French PWRs never exceeds 70 GWd/t up to now. The analysis of these experiments is done in two steps with the APOLLO2/SHEM-MOC/CEA2005v4 package. In the first one, the fuel inventory of each sample is obtained by assembly calculations. The calculation route consists in the self-shielding of cross sections on the 281 energy group SHEM mesh, followed by the flux calculation by the Method Of Characteristics in a 2D-exact heterogeneous geometry of the assembly, and finally a depletion calculation by an iterative resolution of the Bateman equations. In the second step, the fuel inventory is used in the analysis of pile-oscillation experiments in which the reactivity of the ALIX spent fuel samples is compared to the reactivity of fresh fuel samples. The comparison between Experiment and Calculation shows satisfactory results with the JEFF3.1.1 library which predicts the reactivity loss within 2% for burn-up of {approx}75 GWd/t and within 4% for burn-up of {approx}85 GWd/t. (authors)

  12. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Constance Senior

    2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this program were to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel and to develop a greater understanding of mercury oxidation across SCR catalysts in the form of a simple model. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH provided co-funding for this program. REI used a multicatalyst slipstream reactor to determine oxidation of mercury across five commercial SCR catalysts at a power plant that burned a blend of 87% subbituminous coal and 13% bituminous coal. The chlorine content of the blend was 100 to 240 {micro}g/g on a dry basis. Mercury measurements were carried out when the catalysts were relatively new, corresponding to about 300 hours of operation and again after 2,200 hours of operation. NO{sub x}, O{sub 2} and gaseous mercury speciation at the inlet and at the outlet of each catalyst chamber were measured. In general, the catalysts all appeared capable of achieving about 90% NO{sub x} reduction at a space velocity of 3,000 hr{sup -1} when new, which is typical of full-scale installations; after 2,200 hours exposure to flue gas, some of the catalysts appeared to lose NO{sub x} activity. For the fresh commercial catalysts, oxidation of mercury was in the range of 25% to 65% at typical full-scale space velocities. A blank monolith showed no oxidation of mercury under any conditions. All catalysts showed higher mercury oxidation without ammonia, consistent with full-scale measurements. After exposure to flue gas for 2,200 hours, some of the catalysts showed reduced levels of mercury oxidation relative to the initial levels of oxidation. A model of Hg oxidation across SCRs was formulated based on full-scale data. The model took into account the effects of temperature, space velocity, catalyst type and HCl concentration in the flue gas.

  13. Activities of the US Burning Plasma Organization Vice-Chair of Council,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is the principal coordinating body for MFE burning plasma research · It exists to advance the scientific to advance burning plasma research · Began with the 2006-7 ITER Design Review ­ US MFE community contributed

  14. Observations of nonmethane organic compounds during ARCTAS - Part 1: Biomass burning emissions and plume enhancements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    burning in Siberia and Kazakhstan as an important source forgrassland fires in Kazakhstan (Warneke et al. , 2009) duringfires from East Asia/Kazakhstan. Likewise there was no sta-

  15. High Temperature Reactor (HTR) Deep Burn Core and Fuel Analysis: Design Selection for the Prismatic Block Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francesco Venneri; Chang-Keun Jo; Jae-Man Noh; Yonghee Kim; Claudio Filippone; Jonghwa Chang; Chris Hamilton; Young-Min Kim; Ji-Su Jun; Moon-Sung Cho; Hong-Sik Lim; MIchael A. Pope; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Vincent Descotes; Brian Boer

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Deep Burn (DB) Project is a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored feasibility study of Transuranic Management using high burnup fuel in the high temperature helium cooled reactor (HTR). The DB Project consists of seven tasks: project management, core and fuel analysis, spent fuel management, fuel cycle integration, TRU fuel modeling, TRU fuel qualification, and HTR fuel recycle. In the Phase II of the Project, we conducted nuclear analysis of TRU destruction/utilization in the HTR prismatic block design (Task 2.1), deep burn fuel/TRISO microanalysis (Task 2.3), and synergy with fast reactors (Task 4.2). The Task 2.1 covers the core physics design, thermo-hydraulic CFD analysis, and the thermofluid and safety analysis (low pressure conduction cooling, LPCC) of the HTR prismatic block design. The Task 2.3 covers the analysis of the structural behavior of TRISO fuel containing TRU at very high burnup level, i.e. exceeding 50% of FIMA. The Task 4.2 includes the self-cleaning HTR based on recycle of HTR-generated TRU in the same HTR. Chapter IV contains the design and analysis results of the 600MWth DB-HTR core physics with the cycle length, the average discharged burnup, heavy metal and plutonium consumptions, radial and axial power distributions, temperature reactivity coefficients. Also, it contains the analysis results of the 450MWth DB-HTR core physics and the analysis of the decay heat of a TRU loaded DB-HTR core. The evaluation of the hot spot fuel temperature of the fuel block in the DB-HTR (Deep-Burn High Temperature Reactor) core under full operating power conditions are described in Chapter V. The investigated designs are the 600MWth and 460MWth DB-HTRs. In Chapter VI, the thermo-fluid and safety of the 600MWth DB-HTRs has been analyzed to investigate a thermal-fluid design performance at the steady state and a passive safety performance during an LPCC event. Chapter VII describes the analysis results of the TRISO fuel microanalysis of the 600MWth and 450MWth DB-HTRs. The TRISO fuel microanalysis covers the gas pressure buildup in a coated fuel particle including helium production, the thermo-mechanical behavior of a CFP, the failure probabilities of CFPs, the temperature distribution in a CPF, and the fission product (FP) transport in a CFP and a graphite. In Chapter VIII, it contains the core design and analysis of sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) with deep burn HTR reactor. It considers a synergistic combination of the DB-MHR and an SFR burner for a safe and efficient transmutation of the TRUs from LWRs. Chapter IX describes the design and analysis results of the self-cleaning (or self-recycling) HTR core. The analysis is considered zero and 5-year cooling time of the spent LWR fuels.

  16. Contribution of Ocean, Fossil Fuel, Land Biosphere and Biomass Burning Carbon1 Fluxes to Seasonal and Interannual Variability in Atmospheric CO22

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahowald, Natalie

    1 Contribution of Ocean, Fossil Fuel, Land Biosphere and Biomass Burning Carbon1 Fluxes to Seasonal et al., 1989].18 Anthropogenic fossil fuel combustion and cement manufacture drive most of the recent by deforestation, discussed below) over the last 50 years. The fossil fuel plus4 cement input, in contrast

  17. Direct Measurement of Initial Enrichment, Burn-up and Cooling Time of Spent Fuel Assembly with a Differential Die-Away Technique Based Instrument

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henzl, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An outline of this presentation of what a Differential Die-Away (DDA) instrument can do are: (1) Principle of operation of DDA instrument; (2) Determination of initial enrichment (IE) ({sigma} < 5%); (3) Determination of burn up (BU) ({sigma} {approx} 6%); (4) Determination of cooling time (CT) ({sigma} {approx} 20-50%); and (5) DDA instrument as a standalone device. DDA response (fresh fuel vs. spent fuel) is: (1) Fresh fuel => DDA response increases (die-away time is longer) with increasing fissile content; and (2) Spent fuel => DDA response decreases (die-away time is shorter) with higher burn-up (i.e. more neutron absorbers present).

  18. Fertile free fuels for plutonium and minor actinides burning in LWRs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yi, 1979-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The feasibility of using various uranium-free fuels for plutonium incineration in present light water reactors is investigated. Two major categories of inert matrix fuels are studied: composite ceramic fuel particles ...

  19. Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Deep Burn Core and Fuel Analysis -- Complete Design Selection for the Pebble Bed Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Boer; A. M. Ougouag

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Deep-Burn (DB) concept focuses on the destruction of transuranic nuclides from used light water reactor fuel. These transuranic nuclides are incorporated into TRISO coated fuel particles and used in gas-cooled reactors with the aim of a fractional fuel burnup of 60 to 70% in fissions per initial metal atom (FIMA). This high performance is expected through the use of multiple recirculation passes of the fuel in pebble form without any physical or chemical changes between passes. In particular, the concept does not call for reprocessing of the fuel between passes. In principle, the DB pebble bed concept employs the same reactor designs as the presently envisioned low-enriched uranium core designs, such as the 400 MWth Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR-400). Although it has been shown in the previous Fiscal Year (2009) that a PuO2 fueled pebble bed reactor concept is viable, achieving a high fuel burnup, while remaining within safety-imposed prescribed operational limits for fuel temperature, power peaking and temperature reactivity feedback coefficients for the entire temperature range, is challenging. The presence of the isotopes 239-Pu, 240-Pu and 241-Pu that have resonances in the thermal energy range significantly modifies the neutron thermal energy spectrum as compared to a standard, UO2-fueled core. Therefore, the DB pebble bed core exhibits a relatively hard neutron energy spectrum. However, regions within the pebble bed that are near the graphite reflectors experience a locally softer spectrum. This can lead to power and temperature peaking in these regions. Furthermore, a shift of the thermal energy spectrum with increasing temperature can lead to increased absorption in the resonances of the fissile Pu isotopes. This can lead to a positive temperature reactivity coefficient for the graphite moderator under certain operating conditions. The effort of this task in FY 2010 has focused on the optimization of the core to maximize the pebble discharge burnup level, while retaining its inherent safety characteristics. Using generic pebble bed reactor cores, this task will perform physics calculations to evaluate the capabilities of the pebble bed reactor to perform utilization and destruction of LWR used-fuel transuranics. The task will use established benchmarked models, and will introduce modeling advancements appropriate to the nature of the fuel considered (high TRU content and high burn-up).

  20. Process for clean-burning fuel from low-rank coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY); Sethi, Vijay (Laramie, WY); Brecher, Lee E. (Laramie, WY)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for upgrading and stabilizing low-rank coal involving the sequential processing of the coal through three fluidized beds; first a dryer, then a pyrolyzer, and finally a cooler. The fluidizing gas for the cooler is the exit gas from the pyrolyzer with the addition of water for cooling. Overhead gas from pyrolyzing is likely burned to furnish the energy for the process. The product coal exits with a tar-like pitch sealant to enhance its safety during storage.

  1. Performance of an industrial type combustor burning simulated fuels of medium BTU content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goehring, Howard Lee

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    studied fuels were those produced by coal gasification (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). Other widely studied fuels include petroleum distillates, alcohol type fuel, fuel made from tar sands, fuel made from oil shale (1), petro- chemical process plants "off-gases" (2...). Harmful emissions can be reduced by using steam injection (8, 2, 9). Also the amount of equipment needed to produce and refine fuels, such as coal gas, is large; whereas, in the case of steam, the amount of' equipment needed is relatively small. Also...

  2. Advanced Lean-Burn DI Spark Ignition Fuels Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 AAcceleratedDepartment of Energy LWR Nuclear Fuel2 DOE Hydrogen

  3. Advanced Lean-Burn DI Spark Ignition Fuels Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 AAcceleratedDepartment of Energy LWR Nuclear Fuel2 DOE

  4. Advanced Lean-Burn DI Spark Ignition Fuels Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 AAcceleratedDepartment of Energy LWR Nuclear Fuel2 DOE10 DOE

  5. Advanced Lean-Burn DI Spark Ignition Fuels Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 AAcceleratedDepartment of Energy LWR Nuclear Fuel2 DOE10 DOE09

  6. Process for clean-burning fuel from low-rank coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merriam, N.W.; Sethi, V.; Brecher, L.E.

    1994-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for upgrading and stabilizing low-rank coal involving the sequential processing of the coal through three fluidized beds; first a dryer, then a pyrolyzer, and finally a cooler. The fluidizing gas for the cooler is the exit gas from the pyrolyzer with the addition of water for cooling. Overhead gas from pyrolyzing is likely burned to furnish the energy for the process. The product coal exits with a tar-like pitch sealant to enhance its safety during storage. 1 fig.

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Lean-Burn DI Spark Ignition Fuels Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Sandia National Laboratories at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advanced lean...

  8. Neutronics of accelerator-driven subcritical fission for burning transuranics in used nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sattarov, A.; Assadi, S.; Badgley, K.; Baty, A.; Comeaux, J.; Gerity, J.; Kellams, J.; Mcintyre, P.; Pogue, N.; Sooby, E.; Tsvetkov, P.; Rosaire, G. [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77845 (United States); Mann, T. [Argone National Laboratory, Argone, IL (United States)

    2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the development of a conceptual design for accelerator-driven subcritical fission in a molten salt core (ADSMS). ADSMS is capable of destroying all of the transuranics at the same rate and proportion as they are produced in a conventional nuclear power plant. The ADSMS core is fueled solely by transuranics extracted from used nuclear fuel and reduces its radiotoxicity by a factor 10,000. ADSMS offers a way to close the nuclear fuel cycle so that the full energy potential in the fertile fuels uranium and thorium can be recovered.

  9. Final Project Report INERT-MATRIX FUEL: ACTINIDE "BURNING" AND DIRECT DISPOSAL

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem Not Found Item Not Found The itemAIR57451 CleanFORTechnicalFINAL REPORTFiberProject

  10. The U.S. Burning Plasma Program C.M. Greenfield

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for burning plasma research ­ US Burning Plasma Organization (created 2005): currently 283 registered members

  11. Fuel-Burn Impact of Re-Designing Future Aircraft with Changes in Mission Specifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alonso, Juan J.

    to an airline's direct operating cost. In addition, harmful emissions derived from the engine combustion process (CO2, NOx, and others) must be significantly reduced in order to meet future targets that the industry With soaring fuel prices, environmental concerns and stringent regulations regarding emissions, reduction

  12. Soot formation in weakly buoyant acetylene-fueled laminar jet diffusion flames burning in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sunderland, P.B.; Koeylue, U.O.; Faeth, G.M. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The structure and soot properties of weakly buoyant, acetylene-fueled, laminar jet diffusion flames were studied experimentally for combustion in air at pressures of 0.125--0.250 atm. The following measurements were made: soot volume fractions using laser extinction, temperatures using both thermocouples and multiline emission, soot structure using thermophoretic sampling and analysis by transmission electron microscopy, concentrations of major gas species using sampling and analysis by gas chromatography, and velocities using laser velocimetry. As distance increased along the axis of the present acetylene-fueled flames, significant soot formation began when temperatures exceeded roughly 1250 K, and ended when fuel-equivalence ratios decreased to roughly 1.7, where the concentration of acetylene became small. This behavior allowed observations of soot growth and nucleation for acetylene concentrations of 6 [times] 10[sup [minus]6]--1 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] and temperatures of 1,000--2,100 K. Over this range of conditions, soot growth rates were comparable to past observations of new soot in premixed flames, and after correction for effects of soot oxidation yielded essentially first-order growth with respect to acetylene concentrations with a negligible activation energy, and an acetylene/soot collision efficiency of 0.53%. Present measurements of soot nucleation rates also suggested first-order behavior with respect to acetylene concentrations but with an activation energy of 32 kcal/gmol and with rates that were significantly lower than earlier estimates in the literature. Nevertheless, uncertainties about the effects of soot oxidation and age on soot growth, and about effects of surface area estimates and translucent objects on soot nucleation, must be resolved in order to adequately define soot formation processes in diffusion flames.

  13. Clean Fuel Advanced Technology Awarded Projects Organization Project Descriptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clean Fuel Advanced Technology Awarded Projects Organization Project Descriptions amount awarded - Miranda station Biodiesel (B100/B85) Pump1,3 $9,847 $13,633 $23,480 -141 152 916 92 Friends of Great Smoky Mountains National Park Biodiesel (B50) Tanks1,3 $33,681 $13,204 $46,885 -16 18 110 11 Duke Energy 2 Hybrid

  14. Global partitioning of NOx sources using satellite observations: Relative roles of fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyatt Jaegl

    Received 10th February 2005, Accepted 22nd February 2005 First published as an Advance Article on the web and biofuel), biomass burning and soils by exploiting the spatio-temporal distribution of remotely sensed

  15. Fuel processor for fuel cell power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Springer, Thomas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Huff, James R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

  16. Emissions from burning tire-derived fuel (TDF): Comparison of batch combustion of tire chips and continuous combustion of tire crumb mixed with coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levendis, Y.A.; Atal, A. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Carlson, J.B. [Army Natick R, Natick, MA (United States)

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This laboratory study investigated the emissions of waste automobile tire-derived fuel (TDF). This fuel was burned in two different modes, either segmented in small pieces (tire chunks) or in pulverized form (tire crumb). Tire chunks were burned in fixed beds in batch mode in a horizontal furnace. Tire crumb was burned in a continous flow mode, dispersed in air, either alone or mixed with pulverized coal, in a verical furnace. The gas flow was laminar, the gas temperature was 1000{degrees}C in all cases, and the residence times of the combustion products in the furnaces were similar. Chunks of waste tires had dimensions in the range of 3-9 {mu}m, tire crumb was size-classified to be 180-212 {mu}m and the high volatile bituminous coal, used herein, was 63-75. The fuel mass loading in the furnaces was varied. The following emissions were monitored at the exit of the furnaces: CO, CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and particulates. Results showed that combustion of TDF in fixed beds resulted in large yields (emissions per mass of fuel burned) of CO, soot and PAHs. Such yields increased with the size of the bed. CO, soot and PAHs yields from batch combustion of fixed beds of coal were lower by more than an order of magnitude than those from fixed beds of TDF. Continuous pulverized fuel combustion of TDF (tire crumb) resulted in dramatically lower yields of CO, soot and PAHs than those from batch combustion, especially when TDF was mixed with pulverized coal. To the contrary, switching the mode of combustion of coal (from fixed beds to pulverized fuel) did not result in large differences in the aforementioned emissions. CO{sub 2}, and, especially, NO{sub x} yields from batch combustion of TDF were lower than those from coal. Emissions of NO{sub x} were somewhat lower from batch combustion than from pulverized fuel combustion of TDF and coal.

  17. Accidental Burning of a Fuel Layer on a Waterbed: A Scale Analysis Study of the Heat Transfer Models Predicting the pre-Boilover Time and Scaling to Published Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hristov, J; Planas, E; Arnaldos, J; Casal, J

    The paper concerns the heat transfer models of liquid fuel bed burning on water sublayer. The main efforts are stressed on the qualitative assessment of models available and their adequacy as well as on the prediction of ...

  18. High Temperature Reactor (HTR) Deep Burn Core and Fuel Analysis: Design Selection for the Prismatic Block Reactor With Results from FY-2011 Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael A. Pope

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Deep Burn (DB) Project is a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored feasibility study of Transuranic Management using high burnup fuel in the high temperature helium cooled reactor (HTR). The DB Project consists of seven tasks: project management, core and fuel analysis, spent fuel management, fuel cycle integration, TRU fuel modeling, TRU fuel qualification, and HTR fuel recycle. In the Phase II of the Project, we conducted nuclear analysis of TRU destruction/utilization in the HTR prismatic block design (Task 2.1), deep burn fuel/TRISO microanalysis (Task 2.3), and synergy with fast reactors (Task 4.2). The Task 2.1 covers the core physics design, thermo-hydraulic CFD analysis, and the thermofluid and safety analysis (low pressure conduction cooling, LPCC) of the HTR prismatic block design. The Task 2.3 covers the analysis of the structural behavior of TRISO fuel containing TRU at very high burnup level, i.e. exceeding 50% of FIMA. The Task 4.2 includes the self-cleaning HTR based on recycle of HTR-generated TRU in the same HTR. Chapter IV contains the design and analysis results of the 600MWth DB-HTR core physics with the cycle length, the average discharged burnup, heavy metal and plutonium consumptions, radial and axial power distributions, temperature reactivity coefficients. Also, it contains the analysis results of the 450MWth DB-HTR core physics and the analysis of the decay heat of a TRU loaded DB-HTR core. The evaluation of the hot spot fuel temperature of the fuel block in the DB-HTR (Deep-Burn High Temperature Reactor) core under full operating power conditions are described in Chapter V. The investigated designs are the 600MWth and 460MWth DB-HTRs. In Chapter VI, the thermo-fluid and safety of the 600MWth DB-HTRs has been analyzed to investigate a thermal-fluid design performance at the steady state and a passive safety performance during an LPCC event. Chapter VII describes the analysis results of the TRISO fuel microanalysis of the 600MWth and 450MWth DB-HTRs. The TRISO fuel microanalysis covers the gas pressure buildup in a coated fuel particle including helium production, the thermo-mechanical behavior of a CFP, the failure probabilities of CFPs, the temperature distribution in a CPF, and the fission product (FP) transport in a CFP and a graphite. In Chapter VIII, it contains the core design and analysis of sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) with deep burn HTR reactor. It considers a synergistic combination of the DB-MHR and an SFR burner for a safe and efficient transmutation of the TRUs from LWRs. Chapter IX describes the design and analysis results of the self-cleaning (or self-recycling) HTR core. The analysis is considered zero and 5-year cooling time of the spent LWR fuels.

  19. Biomass burning and urban air pollution over the Central Mexican Plateau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. D. Crounse et al. : Biomass burning pollution overChemistry and Physics Biomass burning and urban airprimary anthropogenic and biomass burning organic aerosols

  20. actinide burning lead: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on the ignition and burn of ICF targets Mathematics Websites Summary: and burn of the thermonuclear fuel in inertial confinement fusion pellets at the ion kinetic level to...

  1. Estimates of global, regional, and national annual CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring: 1950--1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boden, T.A.; Marland, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Andres, R.J. [University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Inst. of Northern Engineering

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the compilation, content, and format of the most comprehensive C0{sub 2}-emissions database currently available. The database includes global, regional, and national annual estimates of C0{sub 2} emissions resulting from fossil-fuel burning, cement manufacturing, and gas flaring in oil fields for 1950--92 as well as the energy production, consumption, and trade data used for these estimates. The methods of Marland and Rotty (1983) are used to calculate these emission estimates. For the first time, the methods and data used to calculate CO, emissions from gas flaring are presented. This C0{sub 2}-emissions database is useful for carbon-cycle research, provides estimates of the rate at which fossil-fuel combustion has released C0{sub 2} to the atmosphere, and offers baseline estimates for those countries compiling 1990 C0{sub 2}-emissions inventories.

  2. Extreme organic carbon burial fuels intense methane bubbling in a temperate reservoir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Extreme organic carbon burial fuels intense methane bubbling in a temperate reservoir Sebastian. Wehrli (2012), Extreme organic carbon burial fuels intense methane bubbling in a temperate reservoir; revised 25 November 2011; accepted 30 November 2011; published 4 January 2012. [1] Organic carbon (OC

  3. Fuel Cell Technologies Office Organization Chart and Contacts | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM Flash2011-12 OPAM Revised DOEDepartmentaboutInformation Resources »

  4. Numerical and experimental study of soot formation in laminar diffusion flames burning simulated biogas fuels at elevated pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glder, mer L.

    biogas fuels at elevated pressures Marc R.J. Charest , mer L. Glder, Clinton P.T. Groth University 18 April 2014 Available online 2 June 2014 Keywords: Soot formation High pressure combustion Biogas, and other chemical species that are harmful to human health and the environment. Gaseous biofuels, or biogas

  5. Direct Measurement of Initial Enrichment and Burn-up of Spent Fuel Assembly with a Differential Die-Away Technique Based Instrument

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henzl, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A key objective of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) is to utilize non-destructive assay (NDA) techniques to determine the elemental plutonium (Pu) content in a commercial-grade nuclear spent fuel assembly (SFA). In the third year of the NGSI Spent Fuel NDA project, the research focus is on the integration of a few NDA techniques. One of the reoccurring challenges to the accurate determination of Pu content has been the explicit dependence of the measured signal on the presence of neutron absorbers which build up in the assembly in accordance with its operating and irradiation history. The history of any SFA is often summarized by the parameters of burn-up (BU), initial enrichment (IE) and cooling time (CT). While such parameters can typically be provided by the operator, the ability to directly measure and verify them would significantly enhance the autonomy of the IAEA inspectorate. Within this paper, we demonstrate that an instrument based on a Differential Die-Away technique is in principle capable of direct measurement of IE and, should the CT be known, also the BU.

  6. The origin of organic pollutants from the combustion of alternative fuels: Phase 5/6 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sidhu, S.; Graham, J.; Taylor, P.; Dellinger, B. [Univ. of Dayton, OH (United States). Research Inst.

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the US Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory program on alternative automotive fuels, the subcontractor has been conducting studies on the origin and fate of organic pollutants from the combustion of alternative fuels. Laboratory experiments were conducted simulating cold start of four alterative fuels (compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol-gasoline mix, and ethanol-gasoline mix) using a commercial three-way catalyst under fuel-lean conditions. This report summarizes the results of these experiments. It appears that temperature of the catalyst is a more important parameter for fuel conversion and pollutant formation than oxygen concentration or fuel composition.

  7. Burning rubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mario Andretti, look out You are about to be surpassed in the burning rubber category by a joint venture between Oxford Energy Company and General Electric. The two companies are building the first whole tire-to-energy facility in the US in Modesto, California. This $41 million facility does not require tires to be shredded prior to incineration; it has the capacity to burn 700 tires per minute. The electricity generated will be provided to a utility company. Oxford says there are two billion waste tires on the ground and this number is increasing by 220 million a year. Of that amount, only 18 million a year are recycled.

  8. Prospects for measuring the fuel ion ratio in burning ITER plasmas using a DT neutron emission spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hellesen, C.; Skiba, M., E-mail: mateusz.skiba@physics.uu.se; Dzysiuk, N.; Weiszflog, M.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Ericsson, G.; Conroy, S.; Andersson-Sundn, E.; Eriksson, J.; Binda, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala (EURATOM-VR Association), SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The fuel ion ratio n{sub t}/n{sub d} is an essential parameter for plasma control in fusion reactor relevant applications, since maximum fusion power is attained when equal amounts of tritium (T) and deuterium (D) are present in the plasma, i.e., n{sub t}/n{sub d} = 1.0. For neutral beam heated plasmas, this parameter can be measured using a single neutron spectrometer, as has been shown for tritium concentrations up to 90%, using data obtained with the MPR (Magnetic Proton Recoil) spectrometer during a DT experimental campaign at the Joint European Torus in 1997. In this paper, we evaluate the demands that a DT spectrometer has to fulfill to be able to determine n{sub t}/n{sub d} with a relative error below 20%, as is required for such measurements at ITER. The assessment shows that a back-scattering time-of-flight design is a promising concept for spectroscopy of 14 MeV DT emission neutrons.

  9. Winery waste makes fuel Electricity, bacteria break organics in wastewater into hydrogen gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    from agricultural wastes." Napa Wine Company's wastewater comes from grape disposal, wine makingMSNBC.com Winery waste makes fuel Electricity, bacteria break organics in wastewater into hydrogen method for generating hydrogen fuel from wastewater is now operating at a California winery

  10. Technology for the Recovery of Fuel and Adsorbent Carbons from Coal Burning Utility Ash Ponds and Landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.G. Groppo; T.L. Robl

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Several sampling techniques were evaluated to recover representative core samples from the ash ponds at Western Kentucky Energy's Coleman Station. The most successful was a combination of continuous-flight augers and specially designed soft-sediment sampling tubes driven by a Hammerhead drill mounted on an amphibious ARGO vehicle. A total of 51 core samples were recovered and analyzed in 3 ft sections and it was determined that there are 1,354,974 tons of ash in Pond C. Of the over 1.35M tons of ash present, 14% or 190K tons can be considered as coarse (+100 mesh). Pond C contains approximately 88K tons of carbon, nearly half of which is coarse and potentially recoverable with spiral concentration while the fine carbon (-100 mesh) is recoverable with froth flotation. There are 1.27M tons of carbon-free ash, 12% of which is coarse and potentially usable as block sand. Spiral concentration testing on bulk samples showed that product grade of 30 to 38% C (4200 to 5500 Btu/lb) was obtainable. When this product was cleaned again in an additional stage of spiral concentration, the product grade was improved to 7200 to 8200 Btu/lb with an accompanying 13 to 29% decrease in yield. Release analysis of hydraulically classified pond ash showed that froth flotation could provide froth products with as high a grade as 9000 Btu/lb with a yield of 5%. Increasing yield to 10% reduced froth grade to 7000 Btu/lb. Batch flotation provided froth grades as high as 6500 Btu/lb with yields of 7% with 1.5 lb/ton SPP and 1 lb/ton frother. Column flotation test results were similar to those achieved in batch flotation in terms of both grade and yield, however, carbon recoveries were lower (<70%). High airflow rate was required to achieve >50% carbon recovery and using wash water improved froth grade. Bottom ash samples were recovered from each of the units at Coleman Station. Characterization confirmed that sufficient quantity and quality of material is generated to produce a marketable lightweight aggregate and recover a high-grade fuel product. Spiral concentration provided acceptable grade lightweight aggregate with yields of only 10 to 20%. Incorporating a sieve bend into the process to recover coarse, porous ash particles from the outside race of the spirals increased aggregate yield to as high as 75%, however, the carbon content of the aggregate also increased. An opening size of 28 mesh on the sieve bend appeared to be sufficient. Lightweight concrete blocks (28 to 32 lbs) were produced from bottom ash and results show that acceptable strength could be attained with a cement/concrete ratio as low as 1/4. A mobile Proof-of-Concept (POC) field unit was designed and fabricated to meet the processing objectives of the project. The POC plant consisted of two trailer-mounted modules and was completely self sufficient with respect to power and water requirements. The POC unit was hauled to Coleman Station and operated at a feed rate of 2 tph. Results showed that the spirals operated similarly to previous pilot-scale operations and a 500 lb composite sample of coarse carbon was collected with a grade of 51.7% C or 7279 Btu/lb. Flotation results compared favorably with release analysis and 500 lbs of composite froth product was collected with a grade of 35% C or 4925 Btu/lb. The froth product was dewatered to 39% moisture with vacuum filtration. Pan pelletization and briquetting were evaluated as a means of minimizing handling concerns. Rotary pan pelletization produced uniform pellets with a compressive strength of 4 lbf without the use of any binder. Briquettes were produced by blending the coarse and fine carbon products at a ratio of 1:10, which is the proportion that the two products would be produced in a commercial operation. Using 3% lime as a binder produced the most desirable briquettes with respect to strength, attrition and drop testing. Additionally, the POC carbon products compared favorably with commercial activated carbon when used for removal of mercury from simulated flue gas. A business model was generated to summarize anti

  11. Interactive effects of vegetation, soil moisture and bulk density on depth of burning of thick organic soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benscoter, Brian W.

    5, Canada. D University of Alberta, Department of Renewable Resources, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2H1, Canada consumption. We experimentally altered soil moisture profiles of peat monoliths collected from several. Additional keywords: bog, boreal, carbon, fire, ground-layer fuels, peat, peatland, Sphagnum, smouldering

  12. Interactive effects of vegetation, soil moisture and bulk density on depth of burning of thick organic soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turetsky, Merritt

    5, Canada. D University of Alberta, Department of Renewable Resources, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2H1, Canada consumption. We experimentally altered soil moisture profiles of peat monoliths collected from several. Additional keywords: bog, boreal, carbon, fire, ground-layer fuels, peat, peatland, smouldering, Sphagnum

  13. Fuel processor for fuel cell power system. [Conversion of methanol into hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanderborgh, N.E.; Springer, T.E.; Huff, J.R.

    1986-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

  14. Contribution of ocean, fossil fuel, land biosphere, and biomass burning carbon fluxes to seasonal and interannual variability in atmospheric CO 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cementannual variations in fossil fuel emissions, J. Geophys.2008 Contribution of ocean, fossil fuel, land biosphere, and

  15. ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION FUELS WORKSHOP Organized by: the INNOVATIVE ENERGY and ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY WORKGROUP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garfunkel, Eric

    Department of Environmental Protection 10:00 12:00 pm Session I Natural Gas and Biomethane Moderator: Chuck Feinberg, Chairman, New Jersey Clean Cities Coalition Bill Wells, NJ Natural Gas Graham BarkerALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION FUELS WORKSHOP Organized by: the INNOVATIVE ENERGY and ENVIRONMENTAL

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    vehicles with energy-efficient vehicles including hybrid electric, advanced lean burn, fuel cell, and alternative fuel vehicles. The Cabinet must also develop a strategy to...

  17. Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change Human activities, especially the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas, have caused a substantial increase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change Human activities, especially the burning of fossil-caused CO2 emissions and to remove CO2 from the atmosphere. 2.0 What is carbon sequestration? The term "carbon sequestration" is used to describe both natural and deliberate CARBON,INGIGATONSPERYEAR 1.5 Fossil

  18. Technical Highlights April 2013 Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center (FEERC) Staff Organize and Participate in Multiple Events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Technical Highlights April 2013 Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center (FEERC) Staff Organize and Participate in Multiple Events during Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) World Congress in the SAE Vehicle Engineering Magazine. FEERC staff participated as organizers of multiple technical

  19. Molecular Characterization of Nitrogen Containing Organic Compounds...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nitrogen Containing Organic Compounds in Biomass Burning Aerosols Using High Resolution Mass Molecular Characterization of Nitrogen Containing Organic Compounds in Biomass Burning...

  20. Options for Burning LWR SNF in LIFE Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J

    2008-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We have pursued two processes in parallel for the burning of LWR SNF in the LIFE engine: (1) solid fuel option and (2) liquid fuel option. Approaches with both are discussed. The assigned Topical Report on liquid fuels is attached.

  1. The origin of organic pollutants from the combustion of alternative fuels: Phase IV report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, P.H.; Dellinger, B. [Univ. of Dayton, OH (United States). Research Institute; Sidhu, S.K. [and others

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the US-DOE`s on-going interest in the use of alternative automotive fuels, the University of Dayton Research Institute has been conducting research on pollutant emissions resulting from the combustion of candidate fuels. This research, under the direction and sponsorship of the NREL, has been concerned primarily with the combustion of compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol, and ethanol. In the first 24 months of this program, studies of the oxygen rich, stoichiometric, and fuel-rich thermal degradation of these fuels in the temperature range of 300 to 1100{degrees}C at atmospheric pressure and for reaction times of 1.0 and 2.0 s were completed. Trace organic products were identified and quantified for each fuel as a function of temperature. The results of these studies agreed well with the results of tail-pipe emission studies in that the types and quantity of emissions measured in both the laboratory and engine tests were shown to be very similar under certain operating conditions. However, some chemicals were observed in the laboratory studies that were not observed in the engine studies and vice versa. This result is important in that it has implications concerning the origin of these emissions. Experiments concerning the NO perturbed oxidation of methanol, M85, ethanol, and E85 indicated the presence of complex oxidation chemistry. At mild temperatures, NO addition resulted in enhanced fuel conversion. At elevated temperatures, an inhibitory effect was observed through increased yields of both partial oxidation and pyrolysis-type reaction products. Comparison of flow reactor product distributions with engine test results generally indicated improved comparisons when NO was added to the fuel. Analysis of secondary components of alcohol fuels resulted in some unexpected observations. Several previously unidentified species were observed in these experiments which may impact atmospheric reactivity assessments of these fuels.

  2. Global burned area and biomass burning emissions from small fires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Randerson, J. T; Chen, Y.; van der Werf, G. R; Rogers, B. M; Morton, D. C

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    use and burn- ing of agricultural waste in the developingmanagement, such as agricultural waste burning or prescribedDuring open field agricultural waste burning [e.g. , Yevich

  3. advanced burning phases: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics and Fusion Websites Summary: ons USBPO - Coordinates US burning plasma research, to advance scienfic understanding USBPO organizes the US Fusion Energy Science...

  4. acinetobacter baumannii burn: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics and Fusion Websites Summary: ons USBPO - Coordinates US burning plasma research, to advance scienfic understanding USBPO organizes the US Fusion Energy Science...

  5. Neutronic Analysis of the Burning of Transuranics in Fully Ceramic Micro-Encapsulated Tri-Isotropic Particle-Fuel in a PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael A. Pope; R. Sonat Sen; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Gilles Youinou; Brian Boer

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Calculations have been performed to assess the neutronic behavior of pins of Fully-Ceramic Micro-encapsulated (FCM) fuel in otherwise-conventional Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel pins. The FCM fuel contains transuranic (TRU) only oxide fuel in tri-isotropic (TRISO) particles with the TRU loading coming from the spent fuel of a conventional LWR after 5 years of cooling. Use of the TRISO particle fuel would provide an additional barrier to fission product release in the event of cladding failure. Depletion calculations were performed to evaluate reactivity-limited burnup of the TRU-only FCM fuel. These calculations showed that due to relatively little space available for fuel, the achievable burnup with these pins alone is quite small. Various reactivity parameters were also evaluated at each burnup step including moderator temperature coefficient (MTC), Doppler, and soluble boron worth. These were compared to reference UO2 and MOX unit cells. The TRU-only FCM fuel exhibits degraded MTC and Doppler coefficients relative to UO2 and MOX. Also, the reactivity effects of coolant voiding suggest that the behavior of this fuel would be similar to a MOX fuel of very high plutonium fraction, which are known to have positive void reactivity. In general, loading of TRU-only FCM fuel into an assembly without significant quantities of uranium presents challenges to the reactor design. However, if such FCM fuel pins are included in a heterogeneous assembly alongside LEU fuel pins, the overall reactivity behavior is dominated by the uranium pins while attractive TRU destruction performance levels in the TRU-only FCM fuel pins is. From this work, it is concluded that use of heterogeneous assemblies such as these appears feasible from a preliminary reactor physics standpoint.

  6. New Strategies for Licensing the Storage and Transportation of High Burn-up Spent Nuclear Fuel in the United States - 12546

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Easton, Earl; Bajwa, Christopher; Li, Zhian; Gordon, Matthew [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20005 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An alternative approach may be needed to the licensing of high-burnup fuel for storage and transportation based on the assumption that spent fuel cladding may not always remain intact. The approach would permit spent fuel to be retrieved on a canister basis and could lessen the need for repackaging of spent fuel. This approach is being presented as a possible engineering solution to address the uncertainties and lack of data availability for cladding properties for high burnup fuel and extended storage time frames. The proposed approach does not involve relaxing current safety standards for criticality safety, containment, or permissible external dose rates. Packaging strategies and regulations should be developed to reduce the potential for requiring fuel to be repackaged unnecessarily. This would lessen the chance of accidents and mishaps during loading and unloading of casks, and decrease dose to workers. A packaging approach that shifts the safety basis from reliance upon the fuel condition to reliance upon an inner canister could eliminate or lessen the need for repackaging. In addition, the condition of canisters can be more readily monitored and inspected than the condition of fuel cladding. Canisters can also be repaired and/or replaced when deemed necessary. In contrast, once a fuel assembly is loaded into a canister and placed in a storage overpack, there is little opportunity to monitor its condition or take mitigating measures if cladding degradation is suspected or proven to occur. (authors)

  7. Integrated production of fuel gas and oxygenated organic compounds from synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert B. (Allentown, PA); Hegarty, William P. (State College, PA); Studer, David W. (Wescosville, PA); Tirados, Edward J. (Easton, PA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygenated organic liquid product and a fuel gas are produced from a portion of synthesis gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and sulfur-containing compounds in a integrated feed treatment and catalytic reaction system. To prevent catalyst poisoning, the sulfur-containing compounds in the reactor feed are absorbed in a liquid comprising the reactor product, and the resulting sulfur-containing liquid is regenerated by stripping with untreated synthesis gas from the reactor. Stripping offgas is combined with the remaining synthesis gas to provide a fuel gas product. A portion of the regenerated liquid is used as makeup to the absorber and the remainder is withdrawn as a liquid product. The method is particularly useful for integration with a combined cycle coal gasification system utilizing a gas turbine for electric power generation.

  8. In situ thermally enhanced biodegradation of petroleum fuel hydrocarbons and halogenated organic solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Robert T. (Livermore, CA); Jackson, Kenneth J. (San Leandro, CA); Duba, Alfred G. (Livermore, CA); Chen, Ching-I (Danville, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An in situ thermally enhanced microbial remediation strategy and a method for the biodegradation of toxic petroleum fuel hydrocarbon and halogenated organic solvent contaminants. The method utilizes nonpathogenic, thermophilic bacteria for the thermal biodegradation of toxic and carcinogenic contaminants, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes, from fuel leaks and the chlorinated ethenes, such as trichloroethylene, chlorinated ethanes, such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and chlorinated methanes, such as chloroform, from past solvent cleaning practices. The method relies on and takes advantage of the pre-existing heated conditions and the array of delivery/recovery wells that are created and in place following primary subsurface contaminant volatilization efforts via thermal approaches, such as dynamic underground steam-electrical heating.

  9. In situ thermally enhanced biodegradation of petroleum fuel hydrocarbons and halogenated organic solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, R.T.; Jackson, K.J.; Duba, A.G.; Chen, C.I.

    1998-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An in situ thermally enhanced microbial remediation strategy and a method for the biodegradation of toxic petroleum fuel hydrocarbon and halogenated organic solvent contaminants are described. The method utilizes nonpathogenic, thermophilic bacteria for the thermal biodegradation of toxic and carcinogenic contaminants, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes, from fuel leaks and the chlorinated ethenes, such as trichloroethylene, chlorinated ethanes, such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and chlorinated methanes, such as chloroform, from past solvent cleaning practices. The method relies on and takes advantage of the pre-existing heated conditions and the array of delivery/recovery wells that are created and in place following primary subsurface contaminant volatilization efforts via thermal approaches, such as dynamic underground steam-electrical heating. 21 figs.

  10. Unconventional fuel: Tire derived fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hope, M.W. [Waste Recovery, Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Material recovery of scrap tires for their fuel value has moved from a pioneering concept in the early 1980`s to a proven and continuous use in the United States` pulp and paper, utility, industrial, and cement industry. Pulp and paper`s use of tire derived fuel (TDF) is currently consuming tires at the rate of 35 million passenger tire equivalents (PTEs) per year. Twenty mills are known to be burning TDF on a continuous basis. The utility industry is currently consuming tires at the rate of 48 million PTEs per year. Thirteen utilities are known to be burning TDF on a continuous basis. The cement industry is currently consuming tires at the rate of 28 million PTEs per year. Twenty two cement plants are known to be burning TDF on a continuous basis. Other industrial boilers are currently consuming tires at the rate of 6.5 million PTEs per year. Four industrial boilers are known to be burning TDF on a continuous basis. In total, 59 facilities are currently burning over 117 million PTEs per year. Although 93% of these facilities were not engineered to burn TDF, it has become clear that TDF has found acceptance as a supplemental fuel when blending with conventional fuels in existing combustion devices designed for normal operating conditions. The issues of TDF as a supplemental fuel and its proper specifications are critical to the successful development of this fuel alternative. This paper will focus primarily on TDF`s use in a boiler type unit.

  11. Case Study of Water-Soluble Metal Containing Organic Constituents...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Case Study of Water-Soluble Metal Containing Organic Constituents of Biomass Burning Aerosol. Case Study of Water-Soluble Metal Containing Organic Constituents of Biomass Burning...

  12. Promoting alternative fuels in Philadelphia. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy`s grant to Citizens Fund was designed to support a grassroots organizing campaign, local coalition building and media activity initially focused on getting the Southeastern Pennsylvania Transit Authority (SEPTA) to acquire clean burning alternative fueled buses (e.g. natural gas). In addition, Citizens Fund through Pennsylvania Citizen Action would become involved in the Philadelphia Clean Cities organization sponsored by the City of Philadelphia through a DOE grant. The city reached out to a substantial number of organizations and community leaders and actively worked to get out the message on the need to promote and use alternatively-fueled vehicles. This report summarizes these activities.

  13. Open Burning (New Mexico)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New Mexico Environment Department's Air Quality Bureau regulates the open burning rules established by the Environmental Improvement Board. These rules are established to protect public health...

  14. A numerical investigation into the anomalous slight NOx increase when burning biodiesel; A new (old) theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ban-Weiss, George A.; Chen, J.Y.; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Dibble, Robert W.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    G. et al, 2005. The Biodiesel Handbook. AOCS Publishing,x Increase When Burning Biodiesel; A New (Old) Theory GeorgeIncrease When Burning Biodiesel; A New (Old) Theory. Fuel

  15. Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two subjects are covered in this section. They are: (1) Health effects of possible contamination at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant to be studied; and (2) DOE agrees on test of MOX fuel in Canada.

  16. Ac#vi#es of the US Burning Plasma Organiza#on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    =ons · USBPO ­ Coordinates US burning plasma research, to advance scien=fic understanding USBPO organizes the US Fusion Energy Science community to support burning plasma research 5 Charles Greenfield (Director) Amanda Hubbard (Deputy Director) Nermin

  17. Outdoor Burning Field Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , or Warmth 4 Fires for Disposal or Land Clearing 5 Prescribed Burns 8 Pipeline Breaks and Oil Spills 8 Other, the regulated community, and responsible state and local officials. This document covers all aspects nuisance condi- tions through the sensible regulation of outdoor burning. Summary of the Rule The Outdoor

  18. Uniform-burning matrix burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohn, Mark S. (Golden, CO); Anselmo, Mark (Arvada, CO)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Computer simulation was used in the development of an inward-burning, radial matrix gas burner and heat pipe heat exchanger. The burner and exchanger can be used to heat a Stirling engine on cloudy days when a solar dish, the normal source of heat, cannot be used. Geometrical requirements of the application forced the use of the inward burning approach, which presents difficulty in achieving a good flow distribution and air/fuel mixing. The present invention solved the problem by providing a plenum with just the right properties, which include good flow distribution and good air/fuel mixing with minimum residence time. CFD simulations were also used to help design the primary heat exchanger needed for this application which includes a plurality of pins emanating from the heat pipe. The system uses multiple inlet ports, an extended distance from the fuel inlet to the burner matrix, flow divider vanes, and a ring-shaped, porous grid to obtain a high-temperature uniform-heat radial burner. Ideal applications include dish/Stirling engines, steam reforming of hydrocarbons, glass working, and any process requiring high temperature heating of the outside surface of a cylindrical surface.

  19. Assessment and development of an industrial wet oxidation system for burning waste and low upgrade fuels. Final report, Phase 2B: Pilot demonstration of the MODAR supercritical water oxidation process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation is Project Manager for the Development and Demonstration of an Industrial Wet Oxidation System for Burning Wastes and Low Grade Fuel. This program has been ongoing through a Cooperative Agreement sponsored by the Department of Energy, initiated in June 1988. This report presents a comprehensive discussion of the results of the demonstration project conducted under this cooperative agreement with the overall goal of advancing the state-of-the-art in the practice of Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO). In recognition of the Government`s support of this project, we have endeavored to include all material and results that are not proprietary in as much detail as possible while still protecting MODAR`s proprietary technology. A specific example is in the discussion of materials of construction where results are presented while, in some cases, the specific materials are not identified. The report presents the results chronologically. Background material on the earlier phases (Section 2) provide an understanding of the evolution of the program, and bring all reviewers to a common starting point. Section 3 provides a discussion of activities from October 1991 through July 1992, during which the pilot plant was designed; and various studies including computational fluid dynamic modeling of the reactor vessel, and a process HAZOP analyses were conducted. Significant events during fabrication are presented in Section 4. The experimental results of the test program (December 1992--August 1993) are discussed in Section 5.

  20. Maximum Fuel Utilization in Advanced Fast Reactors without Actinides Separation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heidet, Florent

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxford ; New York ; Oxford University Press. Fuel- Trac,Spent Fuel / Reprocessing, in Nuclear Industry Statusto Burn Non-Fissile Fuels. 2008. GA. Energy Multiplier

  1. Prescribed Burning Costs: Trends and Influences in the National Forest System1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Prescribed Burning Costs: Trends and Influences in the National Forest System1 David A. Cleaves,2 Service's National Forest System prescribed burning activity and costs are examined. Fuels management officers from 95 National Forests reported costs and acreage burned for 4 types of prescribed fire

  2. A Next Step Burning Plasma Experiment Dale M. Meade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capability (more advanced) Burning Plasma Self-heating (Self organization) External- heating (control) Wave be Competitive with other Future Energy Sources EPRI Electric Supply Roadmap (1/99): Business as usual Impact

  3. Reducing burn-in voltage loss in polymer solar cells by increasing the polymer crystallinity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    period. This burn-in degradation is a severe limita- tion for the efficiency of organic photovoltaic of organic photovoltaics. Several different degradation mechanisms of organic solar cells can to be managed. This burn-in degradation is caused by light-induced traps and its characteristics depend on which

  4. affordable near-term burning-plasma: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics and Fusion Websites Summary: ons USBPO - Coordinates US burning plasma research, to advance scienfic understanding USBPO organizes the US Fusion Energy Science...

  5. Ripple burn control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhadra, D.K.; Petrie, T.W.; Peuron, U.A.; Rawls, J.M.

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ripple contribution to the ion thermal conductivity is ideally suited in magnitude, temperature dependence, and spatial dependence to serve as a burn control mechanism. Furthermore, a considerable measure of automatic burn control results because of the radial shift of the plasma to a region of higher ripple. Unfortunately, the window in ripple values consistent with both ignition and a burn equilibrium is uncomfortably narrow, given the current lack of contact between the theoretical models of ripple transport and experimental observations. A survey is made of the techniques to vary the ripple and thus broaden the design window. One new technique is discussed in some detail: the use of ferromagnetic materials in the shield with magnetic properties which are sensitive functions of the operating temperature.

  6. Demonstration of alcohol as an aviation fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A recently funded Southeastern Regional Biomass Energy Program (SERBEP) project with Baylor University will demonstrate the effectiveness of ethanols as an aviation fuel while providing several environmental and economic benefits. Part of this concern is caused by the petroleum industry. The basis for the petroleum industry to find an alternative aviation fuel will be dictated mainly by economic considerations. Three other facts compound the problem. First is the disposal of oil used in engines burning leaded fuel. This oil will contain too much lead to be burned in incinerators and will have to be treated as a toxic waste with relatively high disposal fees. Second, as a result of a greater demand for alkalites to be used in the automotive reformulated fuel, the costs of these components are likely to increase. Third, the Montreal Protocol will ban in 1998 the use of Ethyl-Di-Bromide, a lead scavenger used in leaded aviation fuel. Without a lead scavenger, leaded fuels cannot be used. The search for alternatives to leaded aviation fuels has been underway by different organizations for some time. As part of the search for alternatives, the Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) at Baylor University in Waco, Texas, has received a grant from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to improve the efficiencies of ethanol powered aircraft engines and to test other non-petroleum alternatives to aviation fuel.

  7. 7, 1733917366, 2007 Biomass burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    ACPD 7, 1733917366, 2007 Biomass burning plumes during the AMMA wet season experiment C. H. Mari a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Tracing biomass burning plumes from. Mari (marc@aero.obs-mip.fr) 17339 #12;ACPD 7, 1733917366, 2007 Biomass burning plumes during the AMMA

  8. 13, 3226932289, 2013 Biomass burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Xiquan

    ACPD 13, 3226932289, 2013 Biomass burning aerosol properties over the Northern Great Plains T (ACP). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in ACP if available. Biomass burning aerosol Geosciences Union. 32269 #12;ACPD 13, 3226932289, 2013 Biomass burning aerosol properties over the Northern

  9. Cellular burning in lean premixed turbulent hydrogen-air flames: coupling experimental and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cellular burning in lean premixed turbulent hydrogen-air flames: coupling experimental. Beckner1, M. J. Lijewski1 1 Center for Computational Science and Engineering, Lawrence Berkeley National for burning the fuel-lean mixtures of hydrogen or hydrogen-rich syngas fuels obtained from the gasification

  10. Enhancement of CO2/N2 selectivity in a metal-organic framework by cavity modification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are a strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from industrial processes. Burning of fossil fuel to generate electricity is a major source of CO2 in the atmosphere, but the capture and sequestration of CO2 from flue gasEnhancement of CO2/N2 selectivity in a metal-organic framework by cavity modification Youn-Sang Bae

  11. Organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization utilizing fossil fuel combustion waste materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Netzel, D.A.; Lane, D.C.; Brown, M.A.; Raska, K.A.; Clark, J.A.; Rovani, J.F.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A laboratory study was conducted at the Western Research Institute to evaluate the ability of innovative clean coal technology (ICCT) waste to stabilize organic and inorganic constituents of hazardous wastes. The four ICCT wastes used in this study were: (1) the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (AFBC) waste, (2) the TVA spray dryer waste, (3) the Laramie River Station spray dryer waste, and (4) the Colorado-Ute AFBC waste. Four types of hazardous waste stream materials were obtained and chemically characterized for use in evaluating the ability of the ICCT wastes to stabilize hazardous organic and inorganic wastes. The wastes included an API separator sludge, mixed metal oxide-hydroxide waste, metal-plating sludge, and creosote-contaminated soil. The API separator sludge and creosote-contaminated soil are US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-listed hazardous wastes and contain organic contaminants. The mixed metal oxide-hydroxide waste and metal-plating sludge (also an EPA-listed waste) contain high concentrations of heavy metals. The mixed metal oxide-hydroxide waste fails the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) for cadmium, and the metal-plating sludge fails the TCLP for chromium. To evaluate the ability of the ICCT wastes to stabilize the hazardous wastes, mixtures involving varying amounts of each of the ICCT wastes with each of the hazardous wastes were prepared, allowed to equilibrate, and then leached with deionized, distilled water. The leachates were analyzed for the hazardous constituent(s) of interest using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure.

  12. Plasma enhancement of combustion of solid fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Askarova, A.S.; Karpenko, E.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Institute of Combustion Problems, Alma Ata (Kazakhstan)

    2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasma fuel systems that increase the coal burning efficiency are discussed. The systems were tested for fuel oil-free startup of boilers and stabilizating a pulverized-coal flame in power-generating boilers equipped with different types of burner and burning all types of power-generating coal. Plasma ignition, thermochemical treatment of an air-fuel mixture prior to combustion, and its burning in a power-generating boiler were numerically simulated. Environmental friendliness of the plasma technology was demonstrated.

  13. High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emission fluxes for the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gurney, Kevin R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    interannual variations in fossil fuel emissions. J. Geophys.Treat CO 2 from fossil fuel burning: global distribution ofdioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement

  14. Improving the lifetime performance of ceramic fuel cells Fuel cells generate electricity from fuels more efficiently and with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    2014 Improving the lifetime performance of ceramic fuel cells Fuel cells generate electricity from to produce electricity from fuels. To speed the search for why fuel cell performance decreases over time fuels more efficiently and with fewer emissions per watt than burning fossil fuels. But as fuel cells

  15. Organization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > TheNuclear Astrophysics One ofSpeedingthis siteOrg

  16. Organization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding access toTest andOptimize carbon

  17. Thermonuclear Burning on Rapidly Accreting Neutron Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lars Bildsten

    1997-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutron stars in mass-transferring binaries are accreting the hydrogen and helium rich matter from the surfaces of their companions. This article simply explains the physics associated with how that material eventually fuses to form heavier nuclei and the observations of the time dependent phenomena (such as Type I X-ray bursts) associated with the thermally unstable thermonuclear reactions. We explain how the outcome depends on the composition of the accreting matter, the accretion rate and the mass, radius and thermal state of the neutron star. We also introduce many new analytic relations that are convenient for comparisons to both observations and computational results. After explaining nuclear burning for spherically symmetric accretion onto neutron stars, we discuss the possibility of asymmetric burning. In particular, we discuss some of the mysteries from EXOSAT observations of Type I X-Ray bursts and how the solution to these puzzles may lie in considering the lateral propagation of nuclear burning fronts around the star. Fully understanding this problem requires knowledge of parameters previously neglected such as the distribution of fresh fuel on the star, the magnetic field strength, and the stellar rotation. Recent RXTE observations of bursters may finally tell us some of these parameters.

  18. Molecular Characterization of Biomass Burning Aerosols Using...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass Burning Aerosols Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Molecular Characterization of Biomass Burning Aerosols Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Abstract: Chemical...

  19. Impact of prescribed burning on endophytic insect communities of prairie perennials (Asteraceae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanks, Lawrence M.

    Impact of prescribed burning on endophytic insect communities of prairie perennials (Asteraceae be threatened. Because they inhabit the `fuel layer' of prairies, endophytic insects would seem particularly susceptible to this management tactic. In this paper, we assess the impact of prescribed burning on endophytic

  20. Effect of inactive impurities on the burning of ICF targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gus'kov, S. Yu. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Il'in, D. V.; Sherman, V. E. [St. Petersburg State Engineering Institute (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency of thermonuclear burning of the spherical deuterium-tritium (DT) plasma of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets in the presence of low-Z impurities (such as lithium, carbon, or beryllium) with arbitrary concentrations is investigated. The effect of impurities produced due to the mixing of the thermonuclear fuel with the material of the structural elements of the target during its compression on the process of target burning is studied, and the possibility of using solid noncryogenic thermonuclear fuels in ICF targets is analyzed. Analytical dependences of the ignition energy and target thermonuclear gain on the impurity concentration are obtained. The models are constructed for homogeneous and inhomogeneous plasmas for the case in which the burning is initiated in the central heated region of the target and then propagates into the surrounding relatively cold fuel. Two possible configurations of an inhomogeneous plasma, namely, an isobaric configuration formed in the case of spark ignition of the target and an isochoric configuration formed in the case of fast ignition, are considered. The results of numerical simulations of the burning of the DT plasma of ICF targets in a wide range of impurity concentrations are presented. The simulations were performed using the TEPA one-dimensional code, in which the thermonuclear burning kinetics is calculated by the Monte Carlo method. It is shown that the strongest negative effect related to the presence of impurities is an increase in the energy of target ignition. It is substantiated that the most promising solid noncryogenic fuel is DT hydride of beryllium (BeDT). The requirements to the plasma parameters at which BeDT can be used as a fuel in noncryogenic ICF targets are determined. Variants of using noncryogenic targets with a solid thermonuclear fuel are proposed.

  1. The spherically symmetric droplet burning characteristics of Jet-A and biofuels derived from camelina and tallow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    The spherically symmetric droplet burning characteristics of Jet-A and biofuels derived from the biofuels due to its higher aromatic content. " Droplet burning rates of camelina and tallow HRJ fuel Available online 1 March 2013 Keywords: Alternative jet fuel Hydroprocessed biofuel Spherically symmetric

  2. LAMINAR BURNING VELOCITY OF GASOLINES WITH ADDITION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 LAMINAR BURNING VELOCITY OF GASOLINES WITH ADDITION OF ETHANOL P. Dirrenberger1 , P.A. Glaude*1 WITH ADDITION OF ETHANOL P. Dirrenberger1 , P.A. Glaude*1 , R. Bounaceur1 , H. Le Gall1 , A. Pires da Cruz2 , A. The influence of ethanol as an oxygenated additive has been investigated for these two fuels and has been found

  3. Latest in tire burning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betzig, H.M.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    On September 26, Cris Lombardi and I presented a paper at the ARIPPA. The economic and environmental advantages available to CFB operators through the firing of tire-derived fuel (TDF) are discussed. The bottom line savings to the operation can be significant. It is believed that a regional scrap tire processing facility, capable of making properly-sized fuel, can be supported in Pennsylvania. An effort to develop such an operation is described. The technology for shredding and sizing TDF is well-proven. The proper equipment has been identified and reliable sources of scrap tires have been located. What is needed is to establish a certain minimum annual TDF usage so that fuel user permit modification activity can begin. Data are presented on the production and use of TDF.

  4. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimble, R.E.

    1988-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream 1 and spent fuel stream 2. Spent fuel stream 1 is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream 1 and exhaust stream 2, and exhaust stream 1 is vented. Exhaust stream 2 is mixed with spent fuel stream 2 to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells. 1 fig.

  5. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimble, Ralph E. (Finleyville, PA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream I and spent fuel stream II. Spent fuel stream I is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream I and exhaust stream II, and exhaust stream I is vented. Exhaust stream II is mixed with spent fuel stream II to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells.

  6. Regimes Of Helium Burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. X. Timmes; J. C. Niemeyer

    2000-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The burning regimes encountered by laminar deflagrations and ZND detonations propagating through helium-rich compositions in the presence of buoyancy-driven turbulence are analyzed. Particular attention is given to models of X-ray bursts which start with a thermonuclear runaway on the surface of a neutron star, and the thin shell helium instability of intermediate-mass stars. In the X-ray burst case, turbulent deflagrations propagating in the lateral or radial directions encounter a transition from the distributed regime to the flamlet regime at a density of 10^8 g cm^{-3}. In the radial direction, the purely laminar deflagration width is larger than the pressure scale height for densities smaller than 10^6 g cm^{-3}. Self-sustained laminar deflagrations travelling in the radial direction cannot exist below this density. Similarily, the planar ZND detonation width becomes larger than the pressure scale height at 10^7 g cm^{-3}, suggesting that a steady-state, self-sustained detonations cannot come into existance in the radial direction. In the thin helium shell case, turbulent deflagrations travelling in the lateral or radial directions encounter the distributed regime at densities below 10^7 g cm^{-3}, and the flamelet regime at larger densities. In the radial direction, the purely laminar deflagration width is larger than the pressure scale height for densities smaller than 10^4 g cm^{-3}, indicating that steady-state laminar deflagrations cannot form below this density. The planar ZND detonation width becomes larger than the pressure scale height at 5 10^4 g cm^{-3}, suggesting that steady-state, self-sustained detonations cannot come into existance in the radial direction.

  7. Lab scientists Burns, Hay named new AAAS Fellows

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 - -/e),,s -Labgrants DecisionLab schoolBurns,

  8. Reduction of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions for lean Burn Engine Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGill, R.N.

    1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Lean-burn engines offer the potential for significant fuel economy improvements in cars and trucks, perhaps the next great breakthrough in automotive technology that will enable greater savings in imported petroleum. The development of lean-burn engines, however, has been an elusive goal among automakers because of the emissions challenges associated with lead-burn engine technology. Presently, cars operate with sophisticated emissions control systems that require the engine's air-fuel ratio to be carefully controlled around the stoichiometric point (chemically correct mixture). Catalysts in these systems are called "three-way" catalysts because they can reduce hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions simultaneously, but only because of the tight control of the air-fuel ratio. The purpose of this cooperative effort is to develop advanced catalyst systems, materials, and necessary engine control algorithms for reducing NOX emissions in oxygen-rich automotive exhaust (as with lean-burn engine technology) to meet current and near-future mandated Clean Air Act standards. These developments will represent a breakthrough in both emission control technology and automobile efficiency. The total project is a joint effort among five national laboratories, together with US CAR. The role of Lockheed-Martin Energy Systems in the total project is two fold: characterization of catalyst performance through laboratory evaluations from bench-scale flow reactor tests to engine laboratory tests of full-scale prototype catalysts, and microstructural characterization of catalyst material before and after test stand and/or engine testing.

  9. Examination of the Entry to Burn and Burn Control for the ITER 15 MA Baseline and Other Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kesse, Charles E. [PPPL; Kim, S-H. [ITER; Koechl, F. [EURATOM-OAW/ATI

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The entry to burn and flattop burn control in ITER will be a critical need from the first DT experiments. Simulations are used to address time-dependent behavior under a range of possible conditions that include injected power level, impurity content (W, Ar, Be), density evolution, H-mode regimes, controlled parameter (Wth, Pnet, Pfusion), and actuator (Paux, fueling, fAr), with a range of transport models. A number of physics issues at the L-H transition require better understanding to project to ITER, however, simulations indicate viable control with sufficient auxiliary power (up to 73 MW), while lower powers become marginal (as low as 43 MW).

  10. Hydrogen Burning on Magnetar Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Chang; P. Arras; L. Bildsten

    2004-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute the rate of diffusive nuclear burning for hydrogen on the surface of a "magnetar" (Soft Gamma-Ray Repeater or Anomalous X-Ray Pulsar). We find that hydrogen at the photosphere will be burned on an extremely rapid timescale of hours to years, depending on composition of the underlying material. Improving on our previous studies, we explore the effect of a maximally thick "inert" helium layer, previously thought to slow down the burning rate. Since hydrogen diffuses faster in helium than through heavier elements, we find this helium buffer actually increases the burning rate for magnetars. We compute simple analytic scalings of the burning rate with temperature and magnetic field for a range of core temperature. We conclude that magnetar photospheres are very unlikely to contain hydrogen. This motivates theoretical work on heavy element atmospheres that are needed to measure effective temperature from the observed thermal emission and constrains models of AXPs that rely on magnetar cooling through thick light element envelopes.

  11. Nuclear fuel cycles for mid-century development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parent, Etienne, 1977-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A comparative analysis of nuclear fuel cycles was carried out. Fuel cycles reviewed include: once-through fuel cycles in LWRs, PHWRs, HTGRs, and fast gas cooled breed and burn reactors; single-pass recycle schemes: plutonium ...

  12. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (with Record of Technical Change No.1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Active Unit 490 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training Area (FTA); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 Burn Area; 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard; and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant Burn Area. These CASs are located at the Tonopah Test Range near Areas 3 and 9. Historically, the FTA was used for training exercises where tires and wood were ignited with diesel fuel. Records indicate that water and carbon dioxide were the only extinguishing agents used during these training exercises. The Station 44 Burn Area was used for fire training exercises and consisted of two wooden structures. The two burn areas (ignition of tires, wood, and wooden structures with diesel fuel and water) were limited to the building footprints (10 ft by 10 ft each). The Sandia Service Yard was used for storage (i.e., wood, tires, metal, electronic and office equipment, construction debris, and drums of oil/grease) from approximately 1979 to 1993. The Gun Propellant Burn Area was used from the 1960s to 1980s to burn excess artillery gun propellant, solid-fuel rocket motors, black powder, and deteriorated explosives; additionally, the area was used for the disposal of experimental explosive items. Based on site history, the focus of the field investigation activities will be to: (1) determine the presence of contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) at each CAS, (2) determine if any COPCs exceed field-screening levels and/or preliminary action levels, and (3) determine the nature and extent of contamination with enough certainty to support selection of corrective action alternatives for each CAS. The scope of this CAIP is to resolve the question of whether or not potentially hazardous wastes were generated at three of the four CASs within CAU 490, and whether or not potentially hazardous and radioactive wastes were generated at the fourth CAS in CAU 490 (CAS 09-54-001-09L2). Suspected CAS-specific COPCs include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, explosives, and uranium and plutonium isotopes. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  13. Alcohol fuels program technical review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The last issue of the Alcohol Fuels Process R/D Newsletter contained a work breakdown structure (WBS) of the SERI Alcohol Fuels Program that stressed the subcontracted portion of the program and discussed the SERI biotechnology in-house program. This issue shows the WBS for the in-house programs and contains highlights for the remaining in-house tasks, that is, methanol production research, alcohol utilization research, and membrane research. The methanol production research activity consists of two elements: development of a pressurized oxygen gasifier and synthesis of catalytic materials to more efficiently convert synthesis gas to methanol and higher alcohols. A report is included (Finegold et al. 1981) that details the experimental apparatus and recent results obtained from the gasifier. The catalysis research is principally directed toward producing novel organometallic compounds for use as a homogeneous catalyst. The utilization research is directed toward the development of novel engine systems that use pure alcohol for fuel. Reforming methanol and ethanol catalytically to produce H/sub 2/ and CO gas for use as a fuel offers performance and efficiency advantages over burning alcohol directly as fuel in an engine. An application of this approach is also detailed at the end of this section. Another area of utilization is the use of fuel cells in transportation. In-house researchers investigating alternate electrolyte systems are exploring the direct and indirect use of alcohols in fuel cells. A workshop is being organized to explore potential applications of fuel cells in the transportation sector. The membrane research group is equipping to evaluate alcohol/water separation membranes and is also establishing cost estimation and energy utilization figures for use in alcohol plant design.

  14. Seasonal and latitudinal variability of troposphere ?14CO2: Post bomb contributions from fossil fuels, oceans, the stratosphere, and the terrestrial biosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Randerson, J. T; Enting, I. G; Schuur, E. A. G; Caldeira, K.; Fung, I. Y

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CO 2 Emissions From Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Cementof seasonal variation in fossil fuel CO 2 emissions, Tellus,contributions from fossil fuels, oceans, the stratosphere,

  15. A mixed integer programming approach to reduce fuel load ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramya Rachmawati

    2015-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Feb 12, 2015 ... A mixed integer programming approach to reduce fuel load accumulation for prescribed burn planning. Ramya Rachmawati(ramya.rachmawati...

  16. Final Report for SERDP Project RC-1649: Advanced Chemical Measurements of Smoke from DoD-prescribed Burns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Weise, David; Lincoln, E. N.; Sams, Robert L.; Cameron, Melanie; Veres, Patrick; Yokelson, Robert J.; Urbanski, Shawn; Profeta, Luisa T.; Williams, S.; Gilman, Jessica; Kuster, W. C.; Akagi, Sheryl; Stockwell, Chelsea E.; Mendoza, Albert; Wold, Cyle E.; Warneke, Carsten; de Gouw, Joost A.; Burling, Ian R.; Reardon, James; Schneider, Matthew D.; Griffith, David WT; Roberts, James M.

    2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Objectives: Project RC-1649, Advanced Chemical Measurement of Smoke from DoD-prescribed Burns was undertaken to use advanced instrumental techniques to study in detail the particulate and vapor-phase chemical composition of the smoke that results from prescribed fires used as a land management tool on DoD bases, particularly bases in the southeastern U.S. The statement of need (SON) called for (1) improving characterization of fuel consumption and (2) improving characterization of air emissions under both flaming and smoldering conditions with respect to volatile organic compounds, heavy metals, and reactive gases. The measurements and fuels were from several bases throughout the southeast (Camp Lejeune, Ft. Benning, and Ft. Jackson) and were carried out in collaboration and conjunction with projects 1647 (models) and 1648 (particulates, SW bases). Technical Approach: We used an approach that featured developing techniques for measuring biomass burning emission species in both the laboratory and field and developing infrared (IR) spectroscopy in particular. Using IR spectroscopy and other methods, we developed emission factors (EF, g of effluent per kg of fuel burned) for dozens of chemical species for several common southeastern fuel types. The major measurement campaigns were laboratory studies at the Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory (FSL) as well as field campaigns at Camp Lejeune, NC, Ft. Jackson, SC, and in conjunction with 1648 at Vandenberg AFB, and Ft. Huachuca. Comparisons and fusions of laboratory and field data were also carried out, using laboratory fuels from the same bases. Results: The project enabled new technologies and furthered basic science, mostly in the area of infrared spectroscopy, a broadband method well suited to biomass burn studies. Advances in hardware, software and supporting reference data realized a nearly 20x improvement in sensitivity and now provide quantitative IR spectra for potential detection of ~60 new species and actual field quantification of several new species such as nitrous acid, glycolaldehyde, ?-/?-pinene and D-limonene. The new reference data also permit calculation of the global warming potential (GWP) of the greenhouse gases by enabling 1) detection of their ambient concentrations, and 2) quantifying their ability to absorb IR radiation.

  17. Distribution of volatile organic compounds in soil vapor in the vicinity of a defense fuel supply point, Hanahan, South Carolina. Water resources investigations report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, J.F.; Aelion, C.M.; Vroblesky, D.A.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The report describes the results of a reconnaissance study to identify areas of potential contamination of the water table aquifer by volatile organic compounds (VOC`s) beneath a Defense Fuel Supply Point and adjacent properties near Hanahan, S.C. Six areas in and around the DFSP facility were investigated with soil-vapor techniques. The northern boundary area has been studied extensively and was, therefore, not included in the investigation.

  18. Assessment of PNGV fuels infrastructure. Phase 1 report: Additional capital needs and fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Stork, K.; Vyas, A.; Mintz, M.; Singh, M.; Johnson, L.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the methodologies and results of Argonne`s assessment of additional capital needs and the fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of using six different fuels in the vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) that the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles is currently investigating. The six fuels included in this study are reformulated gasoline, low-sulfur diesel, methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen. Reformulated gasoline, methanol, and ethanol are assumed to be burned in spark-ignition, direct-injection engines. Diesel and dimethyl ether are assumed to be burned in compression-ignition, direct-injection engines. Hydrogen and methanol are assumed to be used in fuel-cell vehicles. The authors have analyzed fuels infrastructure impacts under a 3X vehicle low market share scenario and a high market share scenario. The assessment shows that if 3X vehicles are mass-introduced, a considerable amount of capital investment will be needed to build new fuel production plants and to establish distribution infrastructure for methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen. Capital needs for production facilities will far exceed those for distribution infrastructure. Among the four fuels, hydrogen will bear the largest capital needs. The fuel efficiency gain by 3X vehicles translates directly into reductions in total energy demand, fossil energy demand, and CO{sub 2} emissions. The combination of fuel substitution and fuel efficiency results in substantial petroleum displacement and large reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, sulfur oxide, and particulate matter of size smaller than 10 microns.

  19. FROM YEARNING TO BURNING Marshall Rosenbluth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    experiment. It is there that we confront the unresolved issues of transport scaling, self-heating, burn

  20. TOWARDS BENCHMARK MEASUREMENTS FOR USED NUCLEAR FUEL ASSAY USING A LEAD SLOWING-DOWN SPECTROMETER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danon, Yaron

    for spent fuel testing. The characterization of spent fuel is particularly important for nuclear safeguards and for determining the fuel burn up level in view of reprocessing and recycling of used fuel. Several studies have

  1. Monitoring firefighter exposure to air toxins at prescribed burns of forest and range biomass. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinhardt, T.E.

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A variety of potent air toxins are in the smoke produced by burning forest and range biomass. Preliminary data on firefighter exposures to carbon monoxide and formaldehyde at four prescribed burns of Western United States natural fuels are presented. Formaldehyde may be correlated to carbon monoxide emissions. The firefighters' exposures to these compounds relative to workplace standards are discussed.

  2. FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Safety, Codes, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Many odorants can also contaminate fuel cells. Hydrogen burns very quickly. Under optimal combustionFUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Safety, Codes, and Standards Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, nuclear, natural gas, and coal with carbon sequestration. Fuel cells provide a highly efficient means

  3. Conceptual development of a continuous burning system for oil spill remediation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkataramaiah, Ramesh H.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    system for channelization of burning oil. TOW BOAT TOW BOAT TETHER TO MAINTAIN ~ V - V 0 N F I G U R A T I 0 N IGNITION SLED WITH FUEL TANK, RADIO CONTROL IGNITION SYSTEM AND BURNERS RADIO CONTROL BY VESSEL BURNING OIL IN FIRE CHANNEL BXI FEET... of Co 'ttee) Tom D. l s (Member) R. B. Igonz (Metnber) mes T, P. ao (Head of De tment) December 1992 111 ABSTRACT Conceptual Development of a Continuous Burning System for Oil Spill Remediation . (December 1992) Rsmesh H. Venkataramaiah, B. E...

  4. Burn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Vivian Kathleen

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    goes, why do we yearn to hold on? Color is its own language and my only fluency. Light filters through trees, each ruby leaf holy, illuminated. Hummingbirds hover between fading lantana blossoms. A heron flies in mist over the pond. Bees buzz... settles in the room. After slides and scholarly descriptions of sarcophagi, ash chests, bodies placed in shrines and under slabs, cremations, inhumations, and urns, thin whispers speak of bridge and canasta, how many tables there were, will be...

  5. Fuel effects in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angelos, John P. (John Phillip)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Homogenous-charge, compression-ignition (HCCI) combustion is a new method of burning fuel in internal combustion (IC) engines. In an HCCI engine, the fuel and air are premixed prior to combustion, like in a spark-ignition ...

  6. SUBCHAPTER D. OUTDOOR BURNING Sec. 352.081. REGULATION OF OUTDOOR BURNING. (a) In this

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SUBCHAPTER D. OUTDOOR BURNING Sec. 352.081. REGULATION OF OUTDOOR BURNING. (a) In this section: (A) firefighter training; (B) public utility, natural gas pipeline, or mining operations; or (C

  7. Burn site groundwater interim measures work plan.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witt, Jonathan L. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Hall, Kevin A. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Work Plan identifies and outlines interim measures to address nitrate contamination in groundwater at the Burn Site, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. The New Mexico Environment Department has required implementation of interim measures for nitrate-contaminated groundwater at the Burn Site. The purpose of interim measures is to prevent human or environmental exposure to nitrate-contaminated groundwater originating from the Burn Site. This Work Plan details a summary of current information about the Burn Site, interim measures activities for stabilization, and project management responsibilities to accomplish this purpose.

  8. Effects of anthropogenic activities on the molecular composition of urban organic aerosols: an ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kourtchev, I.; O'Connor, I. P.; Giorio, C.; Fuller, S.; Kristenen, K.; Maenhaut, W.; Wenger, J. C.; Sodeau, J. R.; Glasius, M.; Kalberer, M.

    2014-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    (secondary organic aerosol, SOA). Various sources contribute 56 to formation of PM and include anthropogenic sources such as use of diesel and petrol, 57 burning of fossil fuel and biomass. Biogenic sources include VOCs emitted by vegetation. 58 Urban... 279405). 417 418 References 419 Birch, M.E., Cary, R.A., 1996. Elemental carbon-based method for monitoring occupational 420 exposure to particulate diesel exhaust. Aerosol Science and Technology 25, 221241. 421 Cecinato, A., Di Palo, V., Pomata, D...

  9. Ion kinetic effects on the ignition and burn in ICF Ion kinetic effects on the ignition and burn of ICF targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and burn of the thermonuclear fuel in inertial confinement fusion pellets at the ion kinetic level to treat fusion products (suprathermal -particles) in a self-consistent manner with the thermal bulk enhancement of fusion products leads to a significant reduction of the fusion yield. I. MOTIVATION AND CONTEXT

  10. Dynamic stability, blowoff, and flame characteristics of oxy-fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shroll, Andrew Philip

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxy-fuel combustion is a promising technology to implement carbon capture and sequestration for energy conversion to electricity in power plants that burn fossil fuels. In oxy-fuel combustion, air separation is used to ...

  11. Emissions Benefits From Renewable Fuels and Other Alternatives for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hajbabaei, Maryam

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Effects of Methyl Ester Biodiesel Blends on NOx Emissions.Increase When Burning Biodiesel; A New (Old) Theory. FuelE. ; Natarajan, M. Effects of Biodiesel Fuels Upon Criteria

  12. Robotics Science & Technology for Burning Plasma Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robotics Science & Technology for Burning Plasma Experiments J. N. Herndon, T. W. Burgess, M. M, General Atomics, San Diego, California. #12;Robotics Challenges in Burning Plasma Experiments Control x x x x x x earthmoving equipment electric robots Conventional Machines DMHP Machines x x x x

  13. Hydrogen and Gaseous Fuel Safety and Toxicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee C. Cadwallader; J. Sephen Herring

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-traditional motor fuels are receiving increased attention and use. This paper examines the safety of three alternative gaseous fuels plus gasoline and the advantages and disadvantages of each. The gaseous fuels are hydrogen, methane (natural gas), and propane. Qualitatively, the overall risks of the four fuels should be close. Gasoline is the most toxic. For small leaks, hydrogen has the highest ignition probability and the gaseous fuels have the highest risk of a burning jet or cloud.

  14. Burning Plasma Support Research Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced MaterialsEnergy,Envelope SHAREManufacturingBuildingsH. Ohldag,

  15. Biomass Burning Observation Project Specifically,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced Materials Find Find More LikeAndreasHelp(SC)CRADA

  16. Pulverized coal fuel injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rini, Michael J. (Hebron, CT); Towle, David P. (Windsor, CT)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pulverized coal fuel injector contains an acceleration section to improve the uniformity of a coal-air mixture to be burned. An integral splitter is provided which divides the coal-air mixture into a number separate streams or jets, and a center body directs the streams at a controlled angle into the primary zone of a burner. The injector provides for flame shaping and the control of NO/NO.sub.2 formation.

  17. Lignite Fuel Enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Bullinger

    2006-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This 6th quarterly Technical Progress Report for the Lignite Fuel Enhancement Project summarizes activities from October 1st through December 31st of 2005. It also summarizes the subsequent purchasing activity and dryer/process construction. Hypothesis remains the same. We will be able to dry lignite an increment to benefit the performance of and reduce emissions from a coal burning electric power generating station.

  18. Visualizing Buoyant Burning Bubbles in Type Ia Supernovae at...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Burning in Supernovae Buoyant Burning Bubbles in Type Ia Supernovae bubble-s.jpeg Flame ignition in type Ia supernovae leads to isolated bubbles of burning buoyant fluid. As a...

  19. Bridging the experience gap: Burning tires in a utility boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denhof, D.

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For many communities, a solution to waste tire management problems may be no farther than the nearest coal-fired utility or industrial boiler. Sending waste tires to be used as a fuel in existing boilers is one way communities can prevent tires from creating problems in landfills, or from growing into nuisances and potentially dangerous stockpiles while waiting for recycling markets to develop. For utilities, using tire-derived fuel can help control fuel costs and conserve coal. When the State of Wisconsin sought alternatives to disposing of waste tires in its landfills, Wisconsin Power & Light came forward to meet the challenge. Now, the electric utility is shredding and burning more than 1 million tires a year at its coal-fired generating station in southern Wisconsin.

  20. HERMES: A Model to Describe Deformation, Burning, Explosion, and Detonation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reaugh, J E

    2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    HERMES (High Explosive Response to MEchanical Stimulus) was developed to fill the need for a model to describe an explosive response of the type described as BVR (Burn to Violent Response) or HEVR (High Explosive Violent Response). Characteristically this response leaves a substantial amount of explosive unconsumed, the time to reaction is long, and the peak pressure developed is low. In contrast, detonations characteristically consume all explosive present, the time to reaction is short, and peak pressures are high. However, most of the previous models to describe explosive response were models for detonation. The earliest models to describe the response of explosives to mechanical stimulus in computer simulations were applied to intentional detonation (performance) of nearly ideal explosives. In this case, an ideal explosive is one with a vanishingly small reaction zone. A detonation is supersonic with respect to the undetonated explosive (reactant). The reactant cannot respond to the pressure of the detonation before the detonation front arrives, so the precise compressibility of the reactant does not matter. Further, the mesh sizes that were practical for the computer resources then available were large with respect to the reaction zone. As a result, methods then used to model detonations, known as {beta}-burn or program burn, were not intended to resolve the structure of the reaction zone. Instead, these methods spread the detonation front over a few finite-difference zones, in the same spirit that artificial viscosity is used to spread the shock front in inert materials over a few finite-difference zones. These methods are still widely used when the structure of the reaction zone and the build-up to detonation are unimportant. Later detonation models resolved the reaction zone. These models were applied both to performance, particularly as it is affected by the size of the charge, and to situations in which the stimulus was less than that needed for reliable performance, whether as a result of accident, hazard, or a fault in the detonation train. These models describe the build-up of detonation from a shock stimulus. They are generally consistent with the mesoscale picture of ignition at many small defects in the plane of the shock front and the growth of the resulting hot-spots, leading to detonation in heterogeneous explosives such as plastic-bonded explosives (PBX). The models included terms for ignition, and also for the growth of reaction as tracked by the local mass fraction of product gas, {lambda}. The growth of reaction in such models incorporates a form factor that describes the change of surface area per unit volume (specific surface area) as the reaction progresses. For unimolecular crystalline-based explosives, the form factor is consistent with the mesoscale picture of a galaxy of hot spots burning outward and eventually interacting with each other. For composite explosives and propellants, where the fuel and oxidizer are segregated, the diffusion flame at the fuel-oxidizer interface can be interpreted with a different form factor that corresponds to grains burning inward from their surfaces. The form factor influences the energy release rate, and the amount of energy released in the reaction zone. Since the 19th century, gun and cannon propellants have used perforated geometric shapes that produce an increasing surface area as the propellant burns. This helps maintain the pressure as burning continues while the projectile travels down the barrel, which thereby increases the volume of the hot gas. Interior ballistics calculations use a geometric form factor to describe the changing surface area precisely. As a result, with a suitably modified form factor, detonation models can represent burning and explosion in damaged and broken reactant. The disadvantage of such models in application to accidents is that the ignition term does not distinguish between a value of pressure that results from a shock, and the same pressure that results from a more gradual increase. This disagrees with experiments, where

  1. Reduction in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon humidificat...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon humidification: Roles of inorganically-induced hygroscopicity, Reduction in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon...

  2. Evaluation and Parameter Analysis of Burn up Calculations for the Assessment of Radioactive Waste - 13187

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fast, Ivan; Aksyutina, Yuliya; Tietze-Jaensch, Holger [Product Quality Control Office for Radioactive Waste (PKS) at the Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety Research, IEK-6, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)] [Product Quality Control Office for Radioactive Waste (PKS) at the Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety Research, IEK-6, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Burn up calculations facilitate a determination of the composition and nuclear inventory of spent nuclear fuel, if operational history is known. In case this information is not available, the total nuclear inventory can be determined by means of destructive or, even on industrial scale, nondestructive measurement methods. For non-destructive measurements however only a few easy-to-measure, so-called key nuclides, are determined due to their characteristic gamma lines or neutron emission. From these measured activities the fuel burn up and cooling time are derived to facilitate the numerical inventory determination of spent fuel elements. Most regulatory bodies require an independent assessment of nuclear waste properties and their documentation. Prominent part of this assessment is a consistency check of inventory declaration. The waste packages often contain wastes from different types of spent fuels of different history and information about the secondary reactor parameters may not be available. In this case the so-called characteristic fuel burn up and cooling time are determined. These values are obtained from a correlations involving key-nuclides with a certain bandwidth, thus with upper and lower limits. The bandwidth is strongly dependent on secondary reactor parameter such as initial enrichment, temperature and density of the fuel and moderator, hence the reactor type, fuel element geometry and plant operation history. The purpose of our investigation is to look into the scaling and correlation limitations, to define and verify the range of validity and to scrutinize the dependencies and propagation of uncertainties that affect the waste inventory declarations and their independent verification. This is accomplished by numerical assessment and simulation of waste production using well accepted codes SCALE 6.0 and 6.1 to simulate the cooling time and burn up of a spent fuel element. The simulations are benchmarked against spent fuel from the real reactor Obrigheim in Germany for which sufficiently precise experimental reference data are available. (authors)

  3. SIDA DemoEast programme in Estonia. Supply, delivery and installation of wood pellet burning equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by light fuel oil. The annual light oil consumption is approx. 50 tons and the maximum heat demand capacity and Kiltsi light oil fired boilers have been converted to wood pellets burning. The supplier oil fuelling) and 26NOVA (with the capacity 700 kW with light oil fuelling). The boilers are fuelled

  4. An Interactive Simulation Framework for Burning Objects Zeki Melek John Keyser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keyser, John

    simulator injects fuel into the fluid simulation. We also present a simple yet effective method for modeling is simulated as a single moving fluid. Solid objects inside the simulation domain can catch fire and start burning. Heat information is transferred from the fluid simulator to a solid simulator, while the solid

  5. ATMOSPHERIC CO2 --A GLOBAL LIMITING RESOURCE: HOW MUCH FOSSIL CARBON CAN WE BURN?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of emissions from fossil fuel combustion. An increase in atmospheric CO2 would enhance Earth's naturalATMOSPHERIC CO2 -- A GLOBAL LIMITING RESOURCE: HOW MUCH FOSSIL CARBON CAN WE BURN? S. E. Schwartz, NY www.bnl.gov ABSTRACT Carbon dioxide (CO2) is building up in the atmosphere, largely because

  6. Interactive simulation of fire, burn and decomposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melek, Zeki

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 35 Simulation control in action. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 36 Burning a log and a Siggraph logo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 37 Two sets of quadrilateral stacks are used for different camera angles. 97 38...

  7. Interactive simulation of fire, burn and decomposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melek, Zeki

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 35 Simulation control in action. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 36 Burning a log and a Siggraph logo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 37 Two sets of quadrilateral stacks are used for different camera angles. 97 38...

  8. Relationship of fuel size and spacing to combustion characteristics of laboratory fuel cribs. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, H.E.

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flaming combustion in cribs of large woody fuels, thickness 5cm or greater, is not sustained when fuel spacing ratio, fuel edge-to-edge separation distance to fuel thickness, is greater than 3:1. The flame length associated with the large-fuel burning rate was found to drop rapidly when the large-fuel spacing ratio increases beyond 2.23:1. This supports the critical spacing assigned in the large-fuel subroutine burnout of Albini's fire modeling program.

  9. Stabilized fuel with silica support structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poco, J.F.; Hrubesh, L.W.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a stabilized fuel which is supported by a silica support structure. The silica support structure provides a low density, high porosity vehicle for safely carrying hydrocarbon fuels. The silica support structure for hydrocarbon fuel does not produce toxic material residues on combustion which would pose environmentally sensitive disposal problems. The silica stabilized fuel composition is useful as a low temperature, continuous burning fire starter for wood or charcoal.

  10. ELMs and the Performance of Burning Plasma Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Institute of Tech., Pathumthani 12121, Thailand 3SAIC, San Diego, CA 92121, USA IEA Workshop on Burning Plasma Physics and Simulation 4-5 July 2005 #12;Predictive Modeling of Burning Plasmas IEA of burning plasma experiments using static and dynamic pedestal models IEA Workshop on Burning Plasma Physics

  11. Fusion burn dynamics in dense Z-pinches (DZP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Werley, K.A.; Hagenson, R.L. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA); Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (USA))

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fusion burn dynamics and energy yield of the dense Z-pinch (DZP) are examined using a profile-averaged, zero-dimensional time-dependent model. A range of conditions (fuel, line density, voltage, fusion-product heating, enthalpy endless, density and temperature profiles, current rise rate, electrode impurities) are examined. Magneto-hydrodynamic stability is assumed, and initial conditions are based on those ideally existing after the melting and ionization of a solid fiber of fusion fuel. Plasma-conditions required of neutron sources for materials testing ({dot S}{sub n} {ge} 10{sup 19} n/s) and for possible commercial power production are examined. 25 refs., 9 figs.

  12. Organizing Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding access toTest andOptimize carbon AboutOrganizing Committee

  13. annular fuel pellet: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Manufacturing Fuel Pellets from Biomass Introduction Geosciences Websites Summary: are not suitable for burning...

  14. advanced fuel pellet: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Manufacturing Fuel Pellets from Biomass Introduction Geosciences Websites Summary: are not suitable for burning...

  15. abb-2901 fuel pellet: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Manufacturing Fuel Pellets from Biomass Introduction Geosciences Websites Summary: are not suitable for burning...

  16. Natural Gas as a Boiler Fuel of Choice in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kmetz, W. J.

    Natural gas is abundant, clean burning, and cost competitive with other fuels. In addition to superior economic fundamentals, the expanded use of natural gas will be enhanced by political and industry leaders. Natural gas therefore will continue...

  17. Natural Gas as a Boiler Fuel of Choice in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kmetz, W. J.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural gas is abundant, clean burning, and cost competitive with other fuels. In addition to superior economic fundamentals, the expanded use of natural gas will be enhanced by political and industry leaders. Natural gas therefore will continue...

  18. Fuel cells and fuel cell catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masel, Richard I.; Rice, Cynthia A.; Waszczuk, Piotr; Wieckowski, Andrzej

    2006-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A direct organic fuel cell includes a formic acid fuel solution having between about 10% and about 95% formic acid. The formic acid is oxidized at an anode. The anode may include a Pt/Pd catalyst that promotes the direct oxidation of the formic acid via a direct reaction path that does not include formation of a CO intermediate.

  19. Effects of different fuels on a turbocharged, direct injection, spark ignition engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Negrete, Justin E

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The following pages describe the experimentation and analysis of two different fuels in GM's high compression ratio, turbocharged direct injection (TDI) engine. The focus is on a burn rate analysis for the fuels - gasoline ...

  20. Review of Transmutation Fuel Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jon Carmack (062056); Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu (103171)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technology demonstration element of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program is aimed at demonstrating the closure of the fuel cycle by destroying the transuranic (TRU) elements separated from spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Multiple recycle through fast reactors is used for burning the TRU initially separated from light-water reactor (LWR) spent nuclear fuel. For the initial technology demonstration, the preferred option to demonstrate the closed fuel cycle destruction of TRU materials is a sodium-cooled fast reactor (FR) used as burner reactor. The sodium-cooled fast reactor represents the most mature sodium reactor technology available today. This report provides a review of the current state of development of fuel systems relevant to the sodium-cooled fast reactor. This report also provides a review of research and development of TRU-metal alloy and TRU-oxide composition fuels. Experiments providing data supporting the understanding of minor actinide (MA)-bearing fuel systems are summarized and referenced.

  1. Carbonaceous aerosols from prescribed burning of a boreal forest ecosystem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazurek, M.A. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Cofer, W.R. III; Levine, J.S. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center)

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The identity and ambient mass concentrations of radiatively important carbonaceous aerosols were measured for a boreal forest prescribed burn conducted in northern Ontario, CAN in August 1989. Nonsize-segregated airborne particles were collected for smoldering-fire and full-fire conditions using a helicopter sampling platform. Total carbon (TC), organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were measured. Smoke plume mass concentrations of the OC and EC particles were greatest for full-fire conditions and had ranges of 1.560 to 2.160 mg/m{sup {minus}1} (OC) and 0.120 to 0.160 mg/m{sup {minus}3} (EC) with OC:EC ratios of 10 to 18, respectively. Smoldering fire conditions showed smoke plume OC and EC levels of 0.570--1.030 mg/m{sup {minus}3} (OC) and 0.006--0.050 mg/m{sup {minus}3} (EC) and much higher ratios of OC:EC (21 to 95). These aerosol data indicate the formation of EC particles is greatest during full-fire combustion of boreal forest material relative to smoldering combustion. However, EC particles comprise a minor fraction of the particulate carbon smoke aerosols for both full-fire and smoldering conditions; the major component of carbonaceous smoke aerosols emitted during the prescribed burn is OC. Overall, the OC and EC in-plume smoke aerosol data show nonuniform production of these particles during various stages of the prescribed burn, and major differences in the type of carbonaceous aerosol that is generated (OC versus EC).

  2. Dynamically balanced fuel nozzle and method of operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, George A. (Morgantown, WV); Janus, Michael C. (Baltimore, MD); Robey, Edward H. (Westover, WV)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method of operation designed to reduce undesirably high pressure oscillations in lean premix combustion systems burning hydrocarbon fuels are provided. Natural combustion and nozzle acoustics are employed to generate multiple fuel pockets which, when burned in the combustor, counteract the oscillations caused by variations in heat release in the combustor. A hybrid of active and passive control techniques, the apparatus and method eliminate combustion oscillations over a wide operating range, without the use of moving parts or electronics.

  3. Effects of actinide burning on waste disposal at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirschfelder, J. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Release rates of 15 radionuclides from waste packages expected to result from partitioning and transmutation of Light-Water Reactor (LWR) and Actinide-Burning Liquid-Metal Reactor (ALMR) spent fuel are calculated and compared to release rates from standard LWR spent fuel packages. The release rates are input to a model for radionuclide transport from the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain to the water table. Discharge rates at the water table are calculated and used in a model for transport to the accessible environment, defined to be five kilometers from the repository edge. Concentrations and dose rates at the accessible environment from spent fuel and wastes from reprocessing, with partitioning and transmutation, are calculated. Partitioning and transmutation of LWR and ALMR spent fuel reduces the inventories of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium in the high-level waste by factors of 40 to 500. However, because release rates of all of the actinides except curium are limited by solubility and are independent of package inventory, they are not reduced correspondingly. Only for curium is the repository release rate much lower for reprocessing wastes.

  4. Final assessment of MOX fuel performance experiment with Japanese PWR specification fuel in the HBWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujii, Hajime; Teshima, Hideyuki; Kanasugi, Katsumasa [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 1-1, Wadasaki-cho 1-chome, Hyogo-ku, Kobe 652-8585 (Japan); Kosaka, Yuji [Nuclear Development Corporation, 622-12 Funaishikawa, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1111 (Japan); Arakawa, Yasushi [The Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., 8 Yokota, 13 Goichi, Mihama-cho, Mikata-gun, Fukui, 919-1141 (Japan)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to obtain high burn-up MOX fuel irradiation performance data, SBR and MIMAS MOX fuel rods with Pu-fissile enrichment of about 6 wt% had been irradiated in the HBWR from 1995 to 2006. The peak burn-up of MOX pellet achieved 72 GWd/tM. In this test, fuel centerline temperature, rod internal pressure, stack length and cladding length were measured for MOX fuel and UO{sub 2} fuel as reference. MOX fuel temperature is confirmed to have no significant difference in comparison with UO{sub 2}, taking into account of adequate thermal conductivity degradation due to PuO{sub 2} addition and burn-up development. And the measured fuel temperature agrees well with FINE code calculation up to high burn-up region. Fission gas release of MOX is possibly greater than UO{sub 2} based on temperature and pressure assessment. No significant difference is confirmed between SBR and MIMAS MOX on FGR behavior. MOX fuel swelling rate agrees well with solid swelling rate in the literature. Cladding elongation data shows onset of PCMI in high power region. (authors)

  5. Biomass burning contribution to black carbon in the Western United States Mountain Ranges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and the atmosphere from biomass burning, Climatic Change, 2,Chemistry and Physics Biomass burning contribution to black2011 Y. H. Mao et al. : Biomass burning contribution to

  6. Do biomass burning aerosols intensify drought in equatorial Asia during El Nio?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tosca, M. G; Randerson, J. T; Zender, C. S; Flanner, M. G; Rasch, P. J

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fication of drought-induced biomass burning in Indonesiavariability in global biomass burning emissions from 1997 toChemistry and Physics Do biomass burning aerosols intensify

  7. Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions inventories for agricultural burning using satellite observations of active fires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Hsiao-Wen; Jin, Yufang; Giglio, Louis; Foley, Jonathan A; Randerson, James T

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2009). Regulation of agricultural waste burning occurs atuse and burning of agricultural waste in the developingStates, for example, agricultural waste burning is managed

  8. Organization Chart and Contacts | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    About the Fuel Cell Technologies Office Organization Chart and Contacts Organization Chart and Contacts Organization Chart and Contacts Contact Information U.S. Department of...

  9. Assessment of Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Spent Nuclear Fuel Assay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quiter, Brian

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the mass of 239 Pu in a 17x17 PWR fuel assembly with 45 GWd/center of 40 GWd/MTU burn-up PWR fuel assembly with coolingrate for the 11 y cooled PWR fuel was used as a source term

  10. Alternative Fuel Tool Kit How to Implement: Ethanol (E85)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 2.4.2014 Alternative Fuel Tool Kit How to Implement: Ethanol (E85) Contents Introduction is a renewable alternative transportation fuel blend of gasoline and ethanol. Ethanol (C2H5OH, a.k.a. ethyl matter. The E85 ethanol blend is a low carbon, clean-burning, high-octane fuel, and a versatile solvent

  11. Fossil fuels -- future fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

  12. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report, November 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  13. THE BURNING OF BIOMASS Economy, Environment, Health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NOT GUARANTEED PROFITS ARE NOT LOCAL #12;BAD FOR THE ENVIRONMENT Increased CO2 global warming, ocean #12;PT COGENERATION LLC A wood-burning cogeneration power plant - Generates electricity (for sale off FOR PAPER TURBINE/ GENERATOR 25 MW MORE ELECTRICITY (currently make about 13MW) HIGH PRESSURE STEAM ADDS 15

  14. ASSESSMENTOF BURNING-PLASMA PHENOMENA COMPACTIGNITION TOKAMAK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Report+ on ASSESSMENTOF BURNING-PLASMA PHENOMENA . in a COMPACTIGNITION TOKAMAK presented-coil tokamak configurations that would achieve ignition under presently accepted scaling laws. Studies the extent to which these compact tokamak ignition experiments can resolve the technical issue of under

  15. Global observations of desert dust and biomass burning aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    Global observations of desert dust and biomass burning aerosols Martin de Graaf KNMI #12; Outline Absorbing Aerosol Index - Theory Absorbing Aerosol Index - Reality Biomass burning and desert dust observations from GOME and SCIAMACHY Conclusions and Outlook #12; Absorbing Aerosol

  16. Clean-Burning Wood Stove Grant Program (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Maryland Energy Administration (MEA) now offers the Clean Burning Wood Stove Grant program as part of its Residential Clean Energy Grant Program. The Clean Burning Wood Stove Grant program...

  17. Alternate Fuels: Is Your Waste Stream a Fuel Source?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coerper, P.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Before the year 2000, more than one quarter of U.S. businesses will be firing Alternate Fuels in their boiler systems. And, the trend toward using Process Gases, Flammable Liquids, and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's), to supplement fossil fuels...

  18. Discussion of Alpha Particle Physics Issues for AT Burning Plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    machines Projections to burning plasma #12;Alpha self-heating in AT regimes v Production and control

  19. The F/A-18 external burning flight test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yungkurth, C.; Dawson, F.; Houck, S.; Corda, S.; Trefny, C. (Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, MD (United States) U.S. Navy, Naval Air Test Center, Patuxent River, MD (United States) NASA, Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA (United States) NASA, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States))

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A flight test program was undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining external burning (EB) data in a flight environment, and to address the question of facility interference in ground test external burning data. Results showed that external burning was effective at reducing transonic base drag in a flight environment having dynamically changing conditions. The flight test program demonstrated that external burning is not just a laboratory phenomenon but is a viable technology for aerospace vehicles. 12 refs.

  20. Range Vegetation Response to Burning Thicketized Live Oak Savannah.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scifres, C.J.; Kelly, D.M.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    July Doc. Fob. April July Fob. Figure 1. Green grass standing crop (kglha) at various dates after burning thicketized savannah on the Aransas National WiWife Refuge near AushveH, Texas. Askdbd means fran burned areas are significantly different... burning thicketized savannah on the a 200 - \\r . Aransas National Wildlife Refuge near Austwell, )v 53 Texas. Askriked means within a date of evalua- '-\\ i tion are significantly different from that of the 0 8 lmg- burned area at the 95-percent...

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    gas produced from biomass, where biomass is defined as any organic material other than oil, natural gas, and coal; liquid, gaseous or solid synthetic fuels produced from coal; or...

  2. Burned Area Emergency Response Report July 8, 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;Executive Summary Burned Area Report Cost Benefit Analysis Soil Burn Severity Map Treatment Map Values-at-Risk The Schultz Fire was started from an abandoned campfire. The fire became a wind-driven event, burning in major. If the pipeline becomes unusable the city would have to drill wells to make up for the loss, at an estimated cost

  3. Smoke emissions from prescribed burning of southern California Chaparral. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardy, C.C.; Conard, S.G.; Regelbrugge, J.C.; Teesdale, D.R.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a comprehensive study characterizing the smoke emissions from small scale prescribed burns in southern California chaparral. In situ measurements of smoke emissions were made from 12 fires. Three replicate tests were performed in each of four distinct fuel and treatment types. Emission factors for each treatment are presented and also are combined with data from previous tests for general application to fires in standing chaparral.

  4. Development of Pillared M(IV) Phosphate Phosphonate Inorganic Organic Hybrid Ion Exchange Materials for Applications in Separations found in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burns, Jonathan

    2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation focuses on key intergroup and intragroup separations found in the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle, specifically americium from lanthanides and americium from other actinides, most importantly americium from curium. Our goal...

  5. Fuel Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Cells Converting chemical energy of hydrogenated fuels into electricity Project Description Invented in 1839, fuels cells powered the Gemini and Apollo space missions, as well...

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office 2013 Merit Review: A University Consortium on Efficient and Clean High-Pressure, Lean Burn (HPLB) Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A presentation given by the University of Michigan at the 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about a university consortium to research efficient and clean high-pressure lean burn engines.

  7. Open air refuse burning video: Proton Dan the science man explores open air refuse burning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eastburn, M.D.; Sipple, J.L.; Deramo, A.R.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this video is to educate school children to the potential hazards of open air trash burning; to demonstrate alternative ways to dispose of trash; and to motivate students to take action to change the behavior of their parents with regard to trash burning. The burning of household trash, although illegal, is still a common practice in rural areas of Delaware. Enforcement has been difficult because the practice is often performed at night and is done across a wide rural area that is difficult to patrol on a continuing basis. The prohibition on trash burning (revised Regulation 13 of The Delaware Code of Regulations Governing The Control of Air Pollution) has been in effect since 1968, but the public has been slow to comply because trash burning has been practiced for many generations and because much of the public is unaware of the environmental impacts and/or the human health risks. This video may be valuable for other States to use as a public outreach tool regarding their problems with open air refuse burning. The focus of the video is a 7th grade science class is given various assignments relating to Earth Day and preservation of natural resources. Two children in particular are given the assignment to research and report on the hazards of open air trash burning and are asked to investigate alternative ways to dispose of refuse. Upon brainstorming how to find information on the topic, the kids decide to contact the host of a popular children's science show on broadcast television named Proton Dan the Science Man (a fictitious character and show based on Bill Nye the Science Guy). The host then invites the kids to the studio where he films his show and takes them through the topic. The TV host character takes the children to several external locations like a landfill, recycling centers, etc..

  8. Sources and Formation of OrganicSources and Formation of Organic Aerosols in our AtmosphereAerosols in our Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Einat, Aharonov

    Sources and Formation of OrganicSources and Formation of Organic Aerosols in our AtmosphereAerosols Department of Chemical Engineering University of Patras, Greece #12;Sources of Organic AerosolSources of Organic Aerosol Primary Secondary Anthropogenic Gasoline Diesel Biomass burning Meat Cooking Biogenic

  9. SRC burn test in 700-hp oil-designed boiler. Annex Volume C. Boiler emission report. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solvent-Refined Coal (SRC) test burn program was conducted at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) located in Bruceton, Pa. One of the objectives of the study was to determine the feasibility of burning SRC fuels in boilers set up for fuel oil firing and to characterize emissions. Testing was conducted on the 700-hp oil-fired boiler used for research projects. No. 6 fuel oil was used for baseline data comparison, and the following SRC fuels were tested: SRC Fuel (pulverized SRC), SRC Residual Oil, and SRC-Water Slurry. Uncontrolled particulate emission rates averaged 0.9243 lb/10/sup 6/ Btu for SRC Fuel, 0.1970 lb/10/sup 6/ Btu for SRC Residual Oil, and 0.9085 lb/10/sup 6/ Btu for SRC-Water Slurry. On a lb/10/sup 6/ Btu basis, emissions from SRC Residual Oil averaged 79 and 78%, respectively, lower than the SRC Fuel and SRC-Water Slurry. The lower SRC Residual Oil emissions were due, in part, to the lower ash content of the oil and more efficient combustion. The SRC Fuel had the highest emission rate, but only 2% higher than the SRC-Water Slurry. Each fuel type was tested under variable boiler operating parameters to determine its effect on boiler emissions. The program successfully demonstrated that the SRC fuels could be burned in fuel oil boilers modified to handle SRC fuels. This report details the particulate emission program and results from testing conducted at the boiler outlet located before the mobile precipitator take-off duct. The sampling method was EPA Method 17, which uses an in-stack filter.

  10. On the Stability of Thermonuclear Burning Fronts in Type Ia Supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. K. Roepke; W. Hillebrandt

    2004-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The propagation of cellularly stabilized thermonuclear flames is investigated by means of numerical simulations. In Type Ia supernova explosions the corresponding burning regime establishes at scales below the Gibson length. The cellular flame stabilization - which is a result of an interplay between the Landau-Darrieus instability and a nonlinear stabilization mechanism - is studied for the case of propagation into quiescent fuel as well as interaction with vortical fuel flows. Our simulations indicate that in thermonuclear supernova explosions stable cellular flames develop around the Gibson scale and that deflagration-to-detonation transition is unlikely to be triggered from flame evolution effects here.

  11. Interim Status Closure Plan Open Burning Treatment Unit Technical Area 16-399 Burn Tray

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This closure plan describes the activities necessary to close one of the interim status hazardous waste open burning treatment units at Technical Area (TA) 16 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Facility), hereinafter referred to as the 'TA-16-399 Burn Tray' or 'the unit'. The information provided in this closure plan addresses the closure requirements specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Part 265, Subparts G and P for the thermal treatment units operated at the Facility under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. Closure of the open burning treatment unit will be completed in accordance with Section 4.1 of this closure plan.

  12. Engineering and Physics Optimization of Breed and Burn Fast Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael J. Driscoll; Pavel Hejzlar; Peter Yarsky; Dan Wachs; Kevan Weaver; Ken Czerwinski; Michael Pope; Cliff Davis; Theron Marshall; James Parry

    2005-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is organized under four major tasks (each of which has two or more subtasks) with contributions among the three collaborating organizations (MIT, INEEL and ANL-West): Task A: Core Physics and Fuel Cycle; Task B: Core Thermal Hydraulics; Task C: Plant Design Task; and D: Fuel Design.

  13. FUELING OF ITER-SCALE FUSION PLASMAS M. J. Gouge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , it was a goal to produce a flexible fueling system that would require minimum change in the progression from Ridge, Tennessee 37831-8071, USA (423) 576-4467 ABSTRACT Fueling system functions for the International plasma radiative cooling, wall conditioning, and for plasma discharge termination on demand. The burn

  14. World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of mining and milling uranium ore, processing the uranium into a form suitable for generating electricity, burning'' the fuel in nuclear reactors, and managing the resulting spent nuclear fuel. This report presents projections of domestic and foreign requirements for natural uranium and enrichment services as well as projections of discharges of spent nuclear fuel. These fuel cycle requirements are based on the forecasts of future commercial nuclear power capacity and generation published in a recent Energy Information Administration (EIA) report. Also included in this report are projections of the amount of spent fuel discharged at the end of each fuel cycle for each nuclear generating unit in the United States. The International Nuclear Model is used for calculating the projected nuclear fuel cycle requirements. 14 figs., 38 tabs.

  15. Revisiting impacts of nuclear burning for reviving weak shocks in neutrino-driven supernovae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, Ko; Kotake, Kei [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Takiwaki, Tomoya [Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Nishimura, Nobuya [Astrophysics Group, iEPSAM, Keele University, Keele, ST5 5BG (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We revisit potential impacts of nuclear burning on the onset of the neutrino-driven explosions of core-collapse supernovae. By changing the neutrino luminosity and its decay time to obtain parametric explosions in one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D, respectively) models with or without a 13 isotope ? network, we study how the inclusion of nuclear burning could affect the postbounce dynamics for 4 progenitor models; 3 for 15.0 M {sub ?} stars and 1 for an 11.2 M {sub ?} star. We find that the energy supply due to the nuclear burning of infalling material behind the shock can energize the shock expansion, especially for models that produce only marginal explosions in the absence of nuclear burning. These models are energized by nuclear energy deposition when the shock front passes through the silicon-rich layer and/or later as it touches the oxygen-rich layer. Depending on the neutrino luminosity and its decay time, the diagnostic energy of the explosion increases up to a few times 10{sup 50} erg for models with nuclear burning compared to the corresponding models without. We point out that these features are most remarkable for the Limongi-Chieffi progenitor in both 1D and 2D because the progenitor model possesses a massive oxygen layer, with an inner-edge radius that is smallest among the employed progenitors, which means that the shock can touch the rich fuel on a shorter timescale after bounce. The energy difference is generally smaller (?0.1-0.2 10{sup 51} erg) in 2D than in 1D (at most ?0.6 10{sup 51} erg). This is because neutrino-driven convection and the shock instability in 2D models enhance the neutrino heating efficiency, which makes the contribution of nuclear burning relatively smaller compared to 1D models. Considering uncertainties in progenitor models, our results indicate that nuclear burning should remain one of the important ingredients to foster the onset of neutrino-driven explosions.

  16. Low contaminant formic acid fuel for direct liquid fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masel, Richard I. (Champaign, IL); Zhu, Yimin (Urbana, IL); Kahn, Zakia (Palatine, IL); Man, Malcolm (Vancouver, CA)

    2009-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A low contaminant formic acid fuel is especially suited toward use in a direct organic liquid fuel cell. A fuel of the invention provides high power output that is maintained for a substantial time and the fuel is substantially non-flammable. Specific contaminants and contaminant levels have been identified as being deleterious to the performance of a formic acid fuel in a fuel cell, and embodiments of the invention provide low contaminant fuels that have improved performance compared to known commercial bulk grade and commercial purified grade formic acid fuels. Preferred embodiment fuels (and fuel cells containing such fuels) including low levels of a combination of key contaminants, including acetic acid, methyl formate, and methanol.

  17. actinide burning experiment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE), a tokamak designed for burning plasma research. Engineering 178 Can Consumers Escape the Market? Emancipatory Illuminations from...

  18. apparent burning area: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics and Fusion Websites Summary: The Workshop will concentrate on burning plasma research in the areas of Plasma Transport and Confinement, MHD plasma research; ...

  19. adiabatic burning velocity: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sciences Websites Summary: burning velocities under conditions for which the net heat loss of the flame is zero. Very similar values, France 2 IFP Energies nouvelles, 1 et...

  20. Global estimation of burned area using MODIS active fire observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giglio, L.; van der Werf, G. R; Randerson, J. T; Collatz, G. J; Kasibhatla, P.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Justice, C. O. : The quantity of biomass burned in southernestimates of the quantity of biomass consumed through com-consume prodigious quantities of biomass yet leave a very

  1. Facing the transition. [Retrofitting vessels for burning coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Historically, environmental regulations prohibiting black smoke in port and marine disposal of ashes caused many coal-burning vessels in the Great Lakes shipping industry to convert to oil-burning systems. With a return to coal-burning plants on-board, these problems and others are being addressed. Improvements are being made in stack emission control. The need for monitoring devices is discussed. Mechanisms are described which will help control dust, heat, noise and ash. To reduce the need for excessive stockpiles of various grades of coal, equipment is being designed which will burn a range of coals available in many ports. (JMT)

  2. TEM Characterization of High Burn-up Microstructure of U-7Mo Alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jian Gan; Brandon Miller; Dennis Keiser; Adam Robinson; James Madden; Pavel Medvedev; Daniel Wachs

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As an essential part of global nuclear non-proliferation effort, the RERTR program is developing low enriched U-Mo fuels (< 20% U-235) for use in research and test reactors that currently employ highly enriched uranium fuels. One type of fuel being developed is a dispersion fuel plate comprised of U-7Mo particles dispersed in Al alloy matrix. Recent TEM characterizations of the ATR irradiated U-7Mo dispersion fuel plates include the samples with a local fission densities of 4.5, 5.2, 5.6 and 6.3 E+21 fissions/cm3 and irradiation temperatures of 101-136?C. The development of the irradiated microstructure of the U-7Mo fuel particles consists of fission gas bubble superlattice, large gas bubbles, solid fission product precipitates and their association to the large gas bubbles, grain subdivision to tens or hundreds of nanometer size, collapse of bubble superlattice, and amorphisation. This presentation will describe the observed microstructures specifically focusing on the U-7Mo fuel particles. The impact of the observed microstructure on the fuel performance and the comparison of the relevant features with that of the high burn-up UO2 fuels will be discussed.

  3. Fuel pin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Karnesky, Richard A. (Richland, WA); Leggett, Robert D. (Richland, WA); Baker, Ronald B. (Richland, WA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  4. Fuel pin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Leggett, R.D.; Baker, R.B.

    1987-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  5. Fuel moisture influences on fire-altered carbon in masticated fuels: An experimental study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ] Biomass burning is a significant contributor to atmospheric carbon emissions but may also provide mastication (mechanical forest thinning) and fire convert biomass to black carbon is essential moisture and its role in dictating both the quantity and quality of the carbon produced in masticated fuel

  6. The full fuel cycle of CO{sub 2} capture and disposal capture and disposal technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saroff, L.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this study was to develop a methodology for the evaluation of the energy usage and cost both private and societal (external cost)for full fuel cycles. It was envisioned that other organizations could employ the methodology with minor alterations for a consistent means of evaluating full fuel cycles. The methodology has been applied to three fossil fuel electric generation processes each producing 500 MWe (net). These are: a Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) power plant burning natural gas with direct CO{sub 2} capture and disposal; an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant burning coal with direct CO{sub 2} capture and disposal; and a Pulverized Fuel (PC) power plant burning coal with a managed forest indirectly sequestering CO{sub 2}. The primary aim is to provide decision makers with information from which to derive policy. Thus, the evaluation reports total energy used, private costs to build the facility, emissions and burdens, and the valuation (externalities) of the impacts of the burdens. The energy usage, private costs including capture and disposal, and emissions are reported in this paper. The valuations and analysis of the impact of the plant on the environment are reported in the companion paper. The loss in efficiency (LHV) considering the full fuel cycle as opposed to the thermal efficiency of the power plant is; 0.9, 2.4, and 4.6 for the NGCC, IGCC, and PC+controls, respectively. Electricity cost, c/kWh, including capital, operating and fuel, at a 10% discount rate. ranges from 5.6 to 7.08 for NGCC and 7.24 to 8.61 for IGCC. The range is dependent on the mode of disposal, primarily due to the long pipeline to reach a site for the pope disposal in the ocean. For the PC+ controls then is a considerable range from 7.66 to over 16 c/kWh dependent on the size and cost of the managed forest.

  7. advanced-feature fuel pellet: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Manufacturing Fuel Pellets from Biomass Introduction Geosciences Websites Summary: are not suitable for burning...

  8. Tropical biomass burning smoke plume size, shape, reflectance, and age based on 2001??2009 MISR imagery of Borneo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zender, C. S.; Krolewski, A. G.; Tosca, M. G.; Randerson, J. T.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    C. S. Zender et al. : Tropical biomass burning smoke plumeslaboratory measurements of biomass-burning emis- sions: 1.aerosol optical depth biomass burning events: a comparison

  9. Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Burning Plasma Diagnostic Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soukhanovskii, V A

    2008-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultraviolet and visible (UV-VIS, 200-750 nm) atomic spectroscopy of neutral and ion fuel species (H, D, T, Li) and impurities (e.g. He, Be, C, W) is a key element of plasma control and diagnosis on ITER and future magnetically confined burning plasma experiments (BPX). Spectroscopic diagnostic implementation and performance issues that arise in the BPX harsh nuclear environment in the UV-VIS range, e.g., degradation of first mirror reflectivity under charge-exchange atom bombardment (erosion) and impurity deposition, permanent and dynamic loss of window and optical fiber transmission under intense neutron and {gamma}-ray fluxes, are either absent or not as severe in the near-infrared (NIR, 750-2000 nm) range. An initial survey of NIR diagnostic applications has been undertaken on the National Spherical Torus Experiment. It is demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy can address machine protection and plasma control diagnostic tasks, as well as plasma performance evaluation and physics studies. Emission intensity estimates demonstrate that NIR measurements are possible in the BPX plasma operating parameter range. Complications in the NIR range due to parasitic background emissions are expected to occur at very high plasma densities, low impurity densities, and at high plasma facing component temperatures.

  10. Spectroscopic Monitoring of Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Streams: An Evaluation of Spent Fuel Solutions via Raman, Visible, and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Johnsen, Amanda M.; Orton, Christopher R.; Peterson, James M.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential of using optical spectroscopic techniques, such as Raman and Visible/Near Infrared (Vis/NIR), for on-line process control and special nuclear materials accountability applications at a spent nuclear fuel reprocessing facility was evaluated. Availability of on-line real-time techniques that directly measure process concentrations of nuclear materials will enhance performance and proliferation resistance of the solvent extraction processes. Further, on-line monitoring of radiochemical streams will also improve reprocessing plant operation and safety. This report reviews current state of development of the spectroscopic on-line monitoring techniques for such solutions. To further examine applicability of optical spectroscopy for monitoring reprocessing solutions, segments of a spent nuclear fuel, with approximate burn-up values of 70 MWd/kgM, were dissolved in concentrated nitric acid and adjusted to varying final concentrations of HNO3. The resulting spent fuel solutions were batch-contacted with tributyl phosphate/dodecane organic solvent. The feed and equilibrium aqueous and loaded organic solutions were subjected to optical measurements. The obtained spectra showed the presence of the quantifiable Raman bands due to NO3- and UO22+ and Vis/NIR bands due to multiple species of Pu(IV), Pu(VI), Np(V), the Np(V)-U(VI) cation-cation complex, and Nd(III) in fuel solutions, justifying spectroscopic techniques as a promising methodology for monitoring spent fuel processing solutions in real-time. Quantitative evaluation of the fuel solution was performed based on spectroscopic measurements and compared to ICP-MS analysis.

  11. THE SCIENCE FRONTIER OF MFE BURNING PLASMA PHYSICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    plasma and self-heating issues for magnetic fusion. #12;THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF BURNING PLASMA ISSUES PHENOMENA #12;MANY NEW AND EXCITING PHENOMENA TO STUDY IN A BP NEW ELEMENTS IN A BURNING PLASMAS: SELF-HEATED-ALFVNIC ALPHAS HIGHLY NON-LINEAR INTERACTION OF ALPHA SELF-HEATING WITH STRONGLY COUPLED ADVANCED TOKAMAK

  12. Study of composite cement containing burned oil shale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalang, Robert C.

    Study of composite cement containing burned oil shale Julien Ston Supervisors : Prof. Karen properties. SCMs can be by-products from various industries or of natural origin, such as shale. Oil shale correctly, give a material with some cementitious properties known as burned oil shale (BOS). This study

  13. Stellar Burning Falk Herwig, Alexander Heger, and Frank

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herwig, Falk

    ]. In these objects, a thermonuclear runaway of the helium shell on top of an electron-degenerate core (a young White implications for the production of neutron- rich elements. log Tlog Teffeff Figure 1-- A thermonuclear runaway stellar conditions. We will include a stellar equation of state as well as thermonuclear burning (TN burn

  14. ARM - Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearchSOLICITATIONIMODI FICATION OFMaterialsAnnualProject (BBOP) Related Links BBOP

  15. Category:Burns, OR | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:Power LPInformationCashton Greens Jump Lease. Add.png AddnewVT

  16. ARM-2007-GRL-Burn-20070323.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProducts (VAP) VAP UpdateRefresh Model DataStreamsTotalARM-00-001 Locale

  17. BLM Burns District Office | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomass Conversions Inc Jump to:AurigaPlantillasInformation

  18. IntelliBurn | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup | OpenHunan RunhuaInner MongoliaIntegrys EnergyIntellect Battery Co

  19. High Pressure Burn Rate Measurements on an Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glascoe, E A; Tan, N

    2010-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    High pressure deflagration rate measurements of a unique ammonium perchlorate (AP) based propellant are required to design the base burn motor for a Raytheon weapon system. The results of these deflagration rate measurements will be key in assessing safety and performance of the system. In particular, the system may experience transient pressures on the order of 100's of MPa (10's kPSI). Previous studies on similar AP based materials demonstrate that low pressure (e.g. P < 10 MPa or 1500 PSI) burn rates can be quite different than the elevated pressure deflagration rate measurements (see References and HPP results discussed herein), hence elevated pressure measurements are necessary in order understand the deflagration behavior under relevant conditions. Previous work on explosives have shown that at 100's of MPa some explosives will transition from a laminar burn mechanism to a convective burn mechanism in a process termed deconsolidative burning. The resulting burn rates that are orders-of-magnitude faster than the laminar burn rates. Materials that transition to the deconsolidative-convective burn mechanism at elevated pressures have been shown to be considerably more violent in confined heating experiments (i.e. cook-off scenarios). The mechanisms of propellant and explosive deflagration are extremely complex and include both chemical, and mechanical processes, hence predicting the behavior and rate of a novel material or formulation is difficult if not impossible. In this work, the AP/HTPB based material, TAL-1503 (B-2049), was burned in a constant volume apparatus in argon up to 300 MPa (ca. 44 kPSI). The burn rate and pressure were measured in-situ and used to calculate a pressure dependent burn rate. In general, the material appears to burn in a laminar fashion at these elevated pressures. The experiment was reproduced multiple times and the burn rate law using the best data is B = (0.6 {+-} 0.1) x P{sup (1.05{+-}0.02)} where B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is the pressure in units of MPa. Details of the experimental method, results and data analysis are discussed herein and briefly compared to other AP based materials that have been measured in this apparatus.

  20. Method and apparatus to measure the depth of skin burns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dickey, Fred M. (Albuquerque, NM); Holswade, Scott C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new device for measuring the depth of surface tissue burns based on the rate at which the skin temperature responds to a sudden differential temperature stimulus. This technique can be performed without physical contact with the burned tissue. In one implementation, time-dependent surface temperature data is taken from subsequent frames of a video signal from an infrared-sensitive video camera. When a thermal transient is created, e.g., by turning off a heat lamp directed at the skin surface, the following time-dependent surface temperature data can be used to determine the skin burn depth. Imaging and non-imaging versions of this device can be implemented, thereby enabling laboratory-quality skin burn depth imagers for hospitals as well as hand-held skin burn depth sensors the size of a small pocket flashlight for field use and triage.

  1. Methods to improve lubricity of fuels and lubricants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL)

    2009-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for providing lubricity in fuels and lubricants includes adding a boron compound to a fuel or lubricant to provide a boron-containing fuel or lubricant. The fuel or lubricant may contain a boron compound at a concentration between about 30 ppm and about 3,000 ppm and a sulfur concentration of less than about 500 ppm. A method of powering an engine to minimize wear, by burning a fuel containing boron compounds. The boron compounds include compound that provide boric acid and/or BO.sub.3 ions or monomers to the fuel or lubricant.

  2. Diesel fuel additive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, R.P.; Corpuz, M.Y.

    1987-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes an improved cold weather diesel fuel treatment of the type comprising the ingredients % by weight: wax crystal modifier 10 to 50%; sludge dispersant and stabilizer 1 to 10%; hydrocarbon solvent 15 to 40%; oil-soluble water solvent 15 to 40%. The ingredients comprise a low molecular weight organic compound containing from 1 to 3 structural units having formula: -CH/sub 2/CH/sub 2/O-. The improved cold weather diesel fuel treatment is capable of dispersing or dissolving water contained in diesel fuels.

  3. The Energy Institute Live Green, Burn Clean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dongwon

    Institute Topics CoveredTopics Covered Biodiesel Introduction to Biodiesel Some observations of biodiesel combustion in a Cummins ISB 5.9L MY2000 turbodiesel engine Sources of the "Biodiesel NOx" effect Fuel quality none of the fuel quality concerns associated with biodiesel Ethanol Efficiency and performance issues

  4. Wood Burning Combined Cycle Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Culley, J. W.; Bourgeois, H. S.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined cycle power plant utilizing wood waste products as a fuel has been designed. This plant will yield a 50% efficiency improvement compared to conventional wood-fueled steam power plants. The power plant features an externally-fired gas...

  5. Studies on Plutonium Burning in the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor Monju

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wehmann, Udo [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Center (Japan); Kinjo, Hidehito [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Center (Japan); Kageyama, Takeshi [Nuclear Energy System, Inc. (Japan)

    2002-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies have been performed on plutonium burning in the Japanese prototype fast breeder reactor Monju. The main aims of these studies were to illustrate the plutonium-burning capabilities of fast reactors and to investigate the consequences of the related core design measures on the main core characteristics of Monju. Burner cores with diluting pins, with diluting subassemblies (also called diluents), and with an internal slice of inert material have been investigated; these require an increased average plutonium enrichment and thus offer an enhanced plutonium-burning rate. On the other hand, the consequences of the elimination of the radial and/or axial blanket have been investigated.Among the burner concepts, the B{sub 4}C containing diluents have been found to be preferable because they cause the smallest maximum linear rating increase and offer the largest flexibility to adapt their reactivity via a modification of the B{sub 4}C content. They also do not require a new fuel subassembly concept.For the case of the blanket elimination, the replacement of the blankets by steel reflectors has been found to be the best solution. The main consequence of the elimination of both blankets is the increase of the maximum linear rating by up to 11%. Whether this increase may lead to problems will depend on the actual linear power level of the core.

  6. Stars as thermonuclear reactors: their fuels and ashes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Ray

    2004-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic nuclei are transformed into each other in the cosmos by nuclear reactions inside stars: -- the process of nucleosynthesis. The basic concepts of determining nuclear reaction rates inside stars and how they manage to burn their fuel so slowly most of the time are discussed. Thermonuclear reactions involving protons in the hydrostatic burning of hydrogen in stars are discussed first. This is followed by triple alpha reactions in the helium burning stage and the issues of survival of carbon and oxygen in red giant stars connected with nuclear structure of oxygen and neon. Advanced stages of nuclear burning in quiescent reactions involving carbon, neon, oxygen and silicon are discussed. The role of neutron induced reactions in nucleosynthesis beyond iron is discussed briefly, as also the experimental detection of neutrinos from SN 1987A which confirmed broadly the ideas concerning gravitational collapse leading to a supernova.

  7. Fuel Flexible, Low Emission Catalytic Combustor for Opportunity Fuel Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eteman, Shahrokh

    2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Limited fuel resources, increasing energy demand and stringent emission regulations are drivers to evaluate process off-gases or process waste streams as fuels for power generation. Often these process waste streams have low energy content and/or highly reactive components. Operability of low energy content fuels in gas turbines leads to issues such as unstable and incomplete combustion. On the other hand, fuels containing higher-order hydrocarbons lead to flashback and auto-ignition issues. Due to above reasons, these fuels cannot be used directly without modifications or efficiency penalties in gas turbine engines. To enable the use of these wide variety of fuels in gas turbine engines a rich catalytic lean burn (RCL) combustion system was developed and tested in a subscale high pressure (10 atm.) rig. The RCL injector provided stability and extended turndown to low Btu fuels due to catalytic pre-reaction. Previous work has shown promise with fuels such as blast furnace gas (BFG) with LHV of 85 Btu/ft3 successfully combusted. This program extends on this work by further modifying the combustor to achieve greater catalytic stability enhancement. Fuels containing low energy content such as weak natural gas with a Lower Heating Value (LHV) of 6.5 MJ/m3 (180 Btu/ft3 to natural gas fuels containing higher hydrocarbon (e.g ethane) with LHV of 37.6 MJ/m3 (1010 Btu/ft3) were demonstrated with improved combustion stability; an extended turndown (defined as the difference between catalytic and non-catalytic lean blow out) of greater than 250oF was achieved with CO and NOx emissions lower than 5 ppm corrected to 15% O2. In addition, for highly reactive fuels the catalytic region preferentially pre-reacted the higher order hydrocarbons with no events of flashback or auto-ignition allowing a stable and safe operation with low NOx and CO emissions.

  8. Transmutation Analysis of Enriched Uranium and Deep Burn High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael A. Pope

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High temperature reactors (HTRs) have been under consideration for production of electricity, process heat, and for destruction of transuranics for decades. As part of the transmutation analysis efforts within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) campaign, a need was identified for detailed discharge isotopics from HTRs for use in the VISION code. A conventional HTR using enriched uranium in UCO fuel was modeled having discharge burnup of 120 GWd/MTiHM. Also, a deep burn HTR (DB-HTR) was modeled burning transuranic (TRU)-only TRU-O2 fuel to a discharge burnup of 648 GWd/MTiHM. For each of these cases, unit cell depletion calculations were performed with SCALE/TRITON. Unit cells were used to perform this analysis using SCALE 6.1. Because of the long mean free paths (and migration lengths) of neutrons in HTRs, using a unit cell to represent a whole core can be non-trivial. The sizes of these cells were first set by using Serpent calculations to match a spectral index between unit cell and whole core domains. In the case of the DB-HTR, the unit cell which was arrived at in this way conserved the ratio of fuel to moderator found in a single block of fuel. In the conventional HTR case, a larger moderator-to-fuel ratio than that of a single block was needed to simulate the whole core spectrum. Discharge isotopics (for 500 nuclides) and one-group cross-sections (for 1022 nuclides) were delivered to the transmutation analysis team. This report provides documentation for these calculations. In addition to the discharge isotopics, one-group cross-sections were provided for the full list of 1022 nuclides tracked in the transmutation library.

  9. Oscillatory Flame Response in Acoustically Coupled Fuel Droplet Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sevilla Esparza, Cristhian Israel

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CombustionCombustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Coupled Droplet Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . Burning

  10. Biomass burning and urban air pollution over the Central Mexican Plateau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass burning pollution over Central Mexico Edited by: S.Biomass burning pollution over Central Mexico spheric ozonebenefits from air pollution control in Mexico City, Environ.

  11. Coal slurry pipeline based midwest fuel hub

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huettenhain, H. [Bechtel Technology & Consulting San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Low sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) coal is a sought after fuel to comply with the year 2000 emission regulation for utility boilers. PRB coal is presently not competitive East of the Mississippi mainly because of railroad switching requirements and boiler designs not compatible with the PRB fuel characteristics. The use of the Lakes for transportation is an exception. The Lakes shipping lanes however, are only open part of the year. It is proposed to construct a coal slurry pipeline from the center of Wyoming coalfields to a hub near Detroit with access to low cost waste energy from power generation stations. The coal slurry pipeline will transport up to 25 million tons per year of fine PRB coal which has been removed from the conventionally transported coal, namely coal transported by rail. The rail delivered coal will have less dust. The system fits the DOE Vision 21 concept to mine and utilize coal in highly efficient systems and with the least environmental impact. The PRB coal is of subbituminous rank and not directly compatible with the boilers in Michigan/Indiana/Ohio area, which are designed to burn bituminous coal. Upgrading of the PRB coal using the hydrothermal slurry upgrading process can transform the PRB coal into a higher Btu content fuel by removing a large portion of the inherent moisture. Such upgraded PRB coal has proven an excellent reactive fuel when burned conventionally as PC fuel, or even when burned in slurry form as Coal Water Fuel (CWF). The cost of the process can be recovered when the process is combined with a coal slurry pipeline transport system. The result is an upgraded competitive fuel or fuels, which can be used for co-firing or re-burning applications to reduce SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions of utility boilers. The fuels can be powdered for direct fuel injection into boilers or blast furnaces as well as CWF. Depending on the stability of the upgraded PRB coal, the pipeline product could also be dewatered and prepared for export. This paper describes the concept and preliminary cost information. It also reports on reactions of the industries, which could be involved in the complex system, namely, coal mining companies, railroads, pipeline operators, fuel suppliers, and utilities.

  12. Ignition of deuterium-tritium fuel targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Musinski, D.L.; Mruzek, M.T.

    1991-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method of igniting a deuterium-tritium ICF fuel target to obtain fuel burn in which the fuel target initially includes a hollow spherical shell having a frozen layer of DT material at substantially uniform thickness and cryogenic temperature around the interior surface of the shell. The target is permitted to free-fall through a target chamber having walls heated by successive target ignitions, so that the target is uniformly heated during free-fall to at least partially melt the frozen fuel layer and form a liquid single-phase layer or a mixed liquid/solid bi-phase layer of substantially uniform thickness around the interior shell surface. The falling target is then illuminated from exteriorly of the chamber while the fuel layer is at substantially uniformly single or bi-phase so as to ignite the fuel layer and release energy therefrom. 5 figures.

  13. Ignition of deuterium-trtium fuel targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Musinski, Donald L. (Saline, MI); Mruzek, Michael T. (Britton, MI)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of igniting a deuterium-tritium ICF fuel target to obtain fuel burn in which the fuel target initially includes a hollow spherical shell having a frozen layer of DT material at substantially uniform thickness and cryogenic temperature around the interior surface of the shell. The target is permitted to free-fall through a target chamber having walls heated by successive target ignitions, so that the target is uniformly heated during free-fall to at least partially melt the frozen fuel layer and form a liquid single-phase layer or a mixed liquid/solid bi-phase layer of substantially uniform thickness around the interior shell surface. The falling target is then illuminated from exteriorly of the chamber while the fuel layer is at substantially uniformly single or bi-phase so as to ignite the fuel layer and release energy therefrom.

  14. Selective NOx Recirculation for Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel N. Clark

    2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) generated by internal combustion (IC) engines are implicated in adverse environmental and health effects. Even though lean-burn natural gas engines have traditionally emitted lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions compared to their diesel counterparts, natural gas engines are being further challenged to reduce NOx emissions to 0.1 g/bhp-hr. The Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) approach for NOx reduction involves cooling the engine exhaust gas and then adsorbing the NOx from the exhaust stream, followed by the periodic desorption of NOx. By sending the desorbed NOx back into the intake and through the engine, a percentage of the NOx can be decomposed during the combustion process. SNR technology has the support of the Department of Energy (DOE), under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) program to reduce NOx emissions to under 0.1 g/bhp-hr from stationary natural gas engines by 2010. The NO decomposition phenomenon was studied using two Cummins L10G natural gas fueled spark-ignited (SI) engines in three experimental campaigns. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio ({lambda}), injected NO quantity, added exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) percentage, and engine operating points affected NOx decomposition rates within the engine. Chemical kinetic model predictions using the software package CHEMKIN were performed to relate the experimental data with established rate and equilibrium models. The model was used to predict NO decomposition during lean-burn, stoichiometric burn, and slightly rich-burn cases with added EGR. NOx decomposition rates were estimated from the model to be from 35 to 42% for the lean-burn cases and from 50 to 70% for the rich-burn cases. The modeling results provided an insight as to how to maximize NOx decomposition rates for the experimental engine. Results from this experiment along with chemical kinetic modeling solutions prompted the investigation of rich-burn operating conditions, with added EGR to prevent preignition. It was observed that the relative air/fuel ratio, injected NO quantity, added EGR fraction, and engine operating points affected the NO decomposition rates. While operating under these modified conditions, the highest NO decomposition rate of 92% was observed. In-cylinder pressure data gathered during the experiments showed minimum deviation from peak pressure as a result of NO injections into the engine. A NOx adsorption system, from Sorbent Technologies, Inc., was integrated with the Cummins engine, comprised a NOx adsorbent chamber, heat exchanger, demister, and a hot air blower. Data were gathered to show the possibility of NOx adsorption from the engine exhaust, and desorption of NOx from the sorbent material. In order to quantify the NOx adsorption/desorption characteristics of the sorbent material, a benchtop adsorption system was constructed. The temperature of this apparatus was controlled while data were gathered on the characteristics of the sorbent material for development of a system model. A simplified linear driving force model was developed to predict NOx adsorption into the sorbent material as cooled exhaust passed over fresh sorbent material. A mass heat transfer analysis was conducted to analyze the possibility of using hot exhaust gas for the desorption process. It was found in the adsorption studies, and through literature review, that NO adsorption was poor when the carrier gas was nitrogen, but that NO in the presence of oxygen was adsorbed at levels exceeding 1% by mass of the sorbent. From the three experimental campaigns, chemical kinetic modeling analysis, and the scaled benchtop NOx adsorption system, an overall SNR system model was developed. An economic analysis was completed, and showed that the system was impractical in cost for small engines, but that economies of scale favored the technology.

  15. Synthetic Fuel

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Idaho National Laboratory - Steve Herring, Jim O'Brien, Carl Stoots

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhouse gass Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhous

  16. Fuel Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department is investing in groundbreaking research that will make cars weigh less, drive further and consume less fuel.

  17. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Advanced Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PItz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O

    2009-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of detailed chemical kinetic models for advanced petroleum-based and nonpetroleum based fuels is a difficult challenge because of the hundreds to thousands of different components in these fuels and because some of these fuels contain components that have not been considered in the past. It is important to develop detailed chemical kinetic models for these fuels since the models can be put into engine simulation codes used for optimizing engine design for maximum efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions. For example, these chemistry-enabled engine codes can be used to optimize combustion chamber shape and fuel injection timing. They also allow insight into how the composition of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels affect engine performance characteristics. Additionally, chemical kinetic models can be used separately to interpret important in-cylinder experimental data and gain insight into advanced engine combustion processes such as HCCI and lean burn engines. The objectives are: (1) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for components of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels. These fuels models include components from vegetable-oil-derived biodiesel, oil-sand derived fuel, alcohol fuels and other advanced bio-based and alternative fuels. (2) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for mixtures of non-petroleum and petroleum-based components to represent real fuels and lead to efficient reduced combustion models needed for engine modeling codes. (3) Characterize the role of fuel composition on efficiency and pollutant emissions from practical automotive engines.

  18. Alternative Fuel for Portland Cement Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anton K. Schindler; Steve R. Duke; Thomas E. Burch; Edward W. Davis; Ralph H. Zee; David I. Bransby; Carla Hopkins; Rutherford L. Thompson; Jingran Duan; Vignesh Venkatasubramanian; Stephen Giles.

    2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The production of cement involves a combination of numerous raw materials, strictly monitored system processes, and temperatures on the order of 1500 °C. Immense quantities of fuel are required for the production of cement. Traditionally, energy from fossil fuels was solely relied upon for the production of cement. The overarching project objective is to evaluate the use of alternative fuels to lessen the dependence on non-renewable resources to produce portland cement. The key objective of using alternative fuels is to continue to produce high-quality cement while decreasing the use of non-renewable fuels and minimizing the impact on the environment. Burn characteristics and thermodynamic parameters were evaluated with a laboratory burn simulator under conditions that mimic those in the preheater where the fuels are brought into a cement plant. A drop-tube furnace and visualization method were developed that show potential for evaluating time- and space-resolved temperature distributions for fuel solid particles and liquid droplets undergoing combustion in various combustion atmospheres. Downdraft gasification has been explored as a means to extract chemical energy from poultry litter while limiting the throughput of potentially deleterious components with regards to use in firing a cement kiln. Results have shown that the clinkering is temperature independent, at least within the controllable temperature range. Limestone also had only a slight effect on the fusion when used to coat the pellets. However, limestone addition did display some promise in regards to chlorine capture, as ash analyses showed chlorine concentrations of more than four times greater in the limestone infused ash as compared to raw poultry litter. A reliable and convenient sampling procedure was developed to estimate the combustion quality of broiler litter that is the best compromise between convenience and reliability by means of statistical analysis. Multi-day trial burns were conducted at a full-scale cement plant with alternative fuels to examine their compatibility with the cement production process. Construction and demolition waste, woodchips, and soybean seeds were used as alternative fuels at a full-scale cement production facility. These fuels were co-fired with coal and waste plastics. The alternative fuels used in this trial accounted for 5 to 16 % of the total energy consumed during these burns. The overall performance of the portland cement produced during the various trial burns performed for practical purposes very similar to the cement produced during the control burn. The cement plant was successful in implementing alternative fuels to produce a consistent, high-quality product that increased cement performance while reducing the environmental footprint of the plant. The utilization of construction and demolition waste, woodchips and soybean seeds proved to be viable replacements for traditional fuels. The future use of these fuels depends on local availability, associated costs, and compatibility with a facility??s production process.

  19. INHIBITION EFFECTS ON EXTINCTION OF POLYMER BURNING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitz, W.J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) in N /0 2 mixtures . Thesein comparison to Cl being added to the fuel side of PVC .Impurities in this commercial PVC and PE may have had an

  20. Oil/gas separator for installation at burning wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alonso, Carol T. (Orinda, CA); Bender, Donald A. (Dublin, CA); Bowman, Barry R. (Livermore, CA); Burnham, Alan K. (Livermore, CA); Chesnut, Dwayne A. (Pleasanton, CA); Comfort, III, William J. (Livermore, CA); Guymon, Lloyd G. (Livermore, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Pedersen, Knud B. (Livermore, CA); Sefcik, Joseph A. (Tracy, CA); Smith, Joseph A. (Livermore, CA); Strauch, Mark S. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An oil/gas separator is disclosed that can be utilized to return the burning wells in Kuwait to production. Advantageously, a crane is used to install the separator at a safe distance from the well. The gas from the well is burned off at the site, and the oil is immediately pumped into Kuwait's oil gathering system. Diverters inside the separator prevent the oil jet coming out of the well from reaching the top vents where the gas is burned. The oil falls back down, and is pumped from an annular oil catcher at the bottom of the separator, or from the concrete cellar surrounding the well.

  1. Oil/gas separator for installation at burning wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alonso, C.T.; Bender, D.A.; Bowman, B.R.; Burnham, A.K.; Chesnut, D.A.; Comfort, W.J. III; Guymon, L.G.; Henning, C.D.; Pedersen, K.B.; Sefcik, J.A.; Smith, J.A.; Strauch, M.S.

    1993-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An oil/gas separator is disclosed that can be utilized to return the burning wells in Kuwait to production. Advantageously, a crane is used to install the separator at a safe distance from the well. The gas from the well is burned off at the site, and the oil is immediately pumped into Kuwait's oil gathering system. Diverters inside the separator prevent the oil jet coming out of the well from reaching the top vents where the gas is burned. The oil falls back down, and is pumped from an annular oil catcher at the bottom of the separator, or from the concrete cellar surrounding the well.

  2. Transportation Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesisAppliances »Contact-InformationFuels DOE would

  3. Fuel Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.Newof Energy ForrestalPrinceton PlasmaEnergyFuel Cell

  4. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prospects for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells, Organization forquiet and powerful. .Hydrogen and fuel cells also offer thevehicles (PHEVs), hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) are

  5. Identification of Dominant Mechanisms for Capacity Fade of Lithium-Ion Batteries Nancy A. Burns*, Ruthvik Basavaraj**, Venkatasailanathan Ramadesigan***, Folarin Latinwo**, Ravi N. Methekar***,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    Identification of Dominant Mechanisms for Capacity Fade of Lithium-Ion Batteries Nancy A. Burns- + 6C LixC6 Lithium-ion battery, chemistry and reactions Electric motor Engine Fuel tank Electric candidate for high-power/high-energy secondary batteries and commercial batteries of up to 75 Ah have been

  6. Advanced Fuel Reformer Development: Putting the 'Fuel' in Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Reformer Development: Putting the 'Fuel' in Fuel Cells Advanced Fuel Reformer Development: Putting the 'Fuel' in Fuel Cells Presented at the DOE-DOD Shipboard APU Workshop on...

  7. Energy 101: Algae-to-Fuel

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    One of the fuel sources of the future is algae, small aquatic organisms that convert sunlight into energy and store it in the form of oil. S

  8. A feasibility study of reactor-based deep-burn concepts.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, T. K.; Taiwo, T. A.; Hill, R. N.; Yang, W. S.

    2005-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A systematic assessment of the General Atomics (GA) proposed Deep-Burn concept based on the Modular Helium-Cooled Reactor design (DB-MHR) has been performed. Preliminary benchmarking of deterministic physics codes was done by comparing code results to those from MONTEBURNS (MCNP-ORIGEN) calculations. Detailed fuel cycle analyses were performed in order to provide an independent evaluation of the physics and transmutation performance of the one-pass and two-pass concepts. Key performance parameters such as transuranic consumption, reactor performance, and spent fuel characteristics were analyzed. This effort has been undertaken in close collaborations with the General Atomics design team and Brookhaven National Laboratory evaluation team. The study was performed primarily for a 600 MWt reference DB-MHR design having a power density of 4.7 MW/m{sup 3}. Based on parametric and sensitivity study, it was determined that the maximum burnup (TRU consumption) can be obtained using optimum values of 200 {micro}m and 20% for the fuel kernel diameter and fuel packing fraction, respectively. These values were retained for most of the one-pass and two-pass design calculations; variation to the packing fraction was necessary for the second stage of the two-pass concept. Using a four-batch fuel management scheme for the one-pass DB-MHR core, it was possible to obtain a TRU consumption of 58% and a cycle length of 286 EFPD. By increasing the core power to 800 MWt and the power density to 6.2 MW/m{sup 3}, it was possible to increase the TRU consumption to 60%, although the cycle length decreased by {approx}64 days. The higher TRU consumption (burnup) is due to the reduction of the in-core decay of fissile Pu-241 to Am-241 relative to fission, arising from the higher power density (specific power), which made the fuel more reactivity over time. It was also found that the TRU consumption can be improved by utilizing axial fuel shuffling or by operating with lower material temperatures (colder core). Results also showed that the transmutation performance of the one-pass deep-burn concept is sensitive to the initial TRU vector, primarily because longer cooling time reduces the fissile content (Pu-241 specifically.) With a cooling time of 5 years, the TRU consumption increases to 67%, while conversely, with 20-year cooling the TRU consumption is about 58%. For the two-pass DB-MHR (TRU recycling option), a fuel packing fraction of about 30% is required in the second pass (the recycled TRU). It was found that using a heterogeneous core (homogeneous fuel element) concept, the TRU consumption is dependent on the cooling interval before the 2nd pass, again due to Pu-241 decay during the time lag between the first pass fuel discharge and the second pass fuel charge. With a cooling interval of 7 years (5 and 2 years before and after reprocessing) a TRU consumption of 55% is obtained. With an assumed ''no cooling'' interval, the TRU consumption is 63%. By using a cylindrical core to reduce neutron leakage, TRU consumption of the case with 7-year cooling interval increases to 58%. For a two-pass concept using a heterogeneous fuel element (and homogeneous core) with first and second pass volume ratio of 2:1, the TRU consumption is 62.4%. Finally, the repository loading benefits arising from the deep-burn and Inert Matrix Fuel (IMF) concepts were estimated and compared, for the same initial TRU vector. The DB-MHR concept resulted in slightly higher TRU consumption and repository loading benefit compared to the IMF concept (58.1% versus 55.1% for TRU consumption and 2.0 versus 1.6 for estimated repository loading benefit).

  9. Isothermal model of ICF burn with finite alpha range treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galloway, Conner Daniel (Conner Daniel Cross)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple model for simulating deuterium tritium burn in inertial confinement fusion capsules is developed. The model, called the Isothermal Rarefaction Model, is zero dimensional (represented as ordinary differential ...

  10. Fundamental Studies of Irradiation-Induced Defect Formation and Fission Product Dynamics in Oxide Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Stubbins

    2012-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research program is to address major nuclear fuels performance issues for the design and use of oxide-type fuels in the current and advanced nuclear reactor applications. Fuel performance is a major issue for extending fuel burn-up which has the added advantage of reducing the used fuel waste stream. It will also be a significant issue with respect to developing advanced fuel cycle processes where it may be possible to incorporate minor actinides in various fuel forms so that they can be 'burned' rather than join the used fuel waste stream. The potential to fission or transmute minor actinides and certain long-lived fission product isotopes would transform the high level waste storage strategy by removing the need to consider fuel storage on the millennium time scale.

  11. Simulation of a Burning Plasma C. Kessel, PPPL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , December 11-13, 2000 #12;FIRE Burning Plasma Discharge Simulation with TSC ELMy H-mode, N2.0, Q=6 Bt=10 T, R=2.0 m, Ip=6.5 MA #12;Burning Plasma Experiment Simultaneously Needs L-H mode transition Non Alpha heating remains peaked in plasma core Divertor can pump with large heat flux and ELMs #12;FIRE

  12. Coal fueled diesel system for stationary power applications-technology development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of coal as a fuel for diesel engines dates back to the early days of the development of the engine. Dr. Diesel envisioned his concept as a multi-fuel engine, with coal a prime candidate due to the fact that it was Germany`s primary domestic energy resource. It is interesting that the focus on coal burning diesel engines appears to peak about every twenty years as shortages of other energy resources increase the economic attractiveness of using coal. This periodic interest in coal started in Germany with the work of Diesel in the timeframe 1898-1906. Pawlikowski carried on the work from 1916 to 1928. Two German companies commercialized the technology prior to and during World War II. The next flurry of activity occurred in the United States in the period from 1957-69, with work done at Southwest Research Institute, Virginia Polytechnical University, and Howard University. The current period of activity started in 1978 with work sponsored by the Conservation and Renewable Energy Branch of the US Department of Energy. This work was done at Southwest Research Institute and by ThermoElectron at Sulzer Engine in Switzerland. In 1982, the Fossil Energy Branch of the US Department of Energy, through the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) initiated a concentrated effort to develop coal burning diesel and gas turbine engines. The diesel engine work in the METC sponsored program was performed at Arthur D. Little (Cooper-Bessemer as subcontractor), Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (now NIPER), Caterpillar, Detroit Diesel Corporation, General Motor Corporation (Electromotive Division), General Electric, Southwest Research Institute, and various universities and other research and development organizations. This DOE-METC coal engine RD & D initiative which spanned the 1982-1993 timeframe is the topic of this review document. The combustion of a coal-water fuel slurry in a diesel engine is described. The engine modifications necessary are discussed.

  13. Biodiesel Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    publication 442-880 There are broad and increasing interests across the nation in using domestic, renewable bioenergy. Virginia farmers and transportation fleets use considerable amounts of diesel fuel in their operations. Biodiesel is an excellent alternative fuel for the diesel engines. Biodiesel can be produced from crops commonly grown in Virginia, such as soybean and canola, and has almost the same performance as petrodiesel. The purpose of this publication is to introduce the basics of biodiesel fuel and address some myths and answer some questions about biodiesel fuel before farmers and fleet owners use this type of fuel. ASTM standard for biodiesel (ASTM D6751) Biodiesel fuel, hereafter referred to as simply biodiesel,

  14. Top-down estimate of a large source of atmospheric carbon monoxide associated with fuel combustion in Asia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmer, Paul

    categories used to represent biomass-burning sources in North America/Europe, Asia, Africa, Latin America-fuel and- biofuel combustion sources in North America, Europe, Asia (including Indonesia and the Middle

  15. Fuel Efficiency Benefits and Implementation Consideration for Cruise Altitude and Speed Optimization in the National Airspace System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jensen, Luke

    2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examines the potential fuel burn benefits of altitude and speed optimization in the cruise phase of flight for domestic airlines in the United States. Airlines can achieve cost reductions and reduce environmental ...

  16. Superheater Corrosion Produced By Biomass Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, William (Sandy) [SharpConsultant] [SharpConsultant; Singbeil, Douglas [FPInnovations] [FPInnovations; Keiser, James R [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    About 90% of the world's bioenergy is produced by burning renewable biomass fuels. Low-cost biomass fuels such as agricultural wastes typically contain more alkali metals and chlorine than conventional fuels. Although the efficiency of a boiler's steam cycle can be increased by raising its maximum steam temperature, alkali metals and chlorine released in biofuel boilers cause accelerated corrosion and fouling at high superheater steam temperatures. Most alloys that resist high temperature corrosion protect themselves with a surface layer of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. However, this Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be fluxed away by reactions that form alkali chromates or volatilized as chromic acid. This paper reviews recent research on superheater corrosion mechanisms and superheater alloy performance in biomass boilers firing black liquor, biomass fuels, blends of biomass with fossil fuels and municipal waste.

  17. Lignite Fuel Enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Bullinger; Nenad Sarunac

    2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Pulverized coal power plants which fire lignites and other low-rank high-moisture coals generally operate with reduced efficiencies and increased stack emissions due to the impacts of high fuel moisture on stack heat loss and pulverizer and fan power. A process that uses plant waste heat sources to evaporate a portion of the fuel moisture from the lignite feedstock in a moving bed fluidized bed dryer (FBD) was developed in the U.S. by a team led by Great River Energy (GRE). The demonstration was conducted with Department of Energy (DOE) funding under DOE Award Number DE-FC26-04NT41763. The objectives of GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project were to demonstrate reduction in lignite moisture content by using heat rejected from the power plant, apply technology at full scale at Coal Creek Station (CCS), and commercialize it. The Coal Creek Project has involved several stages, beginning with lignite drying tests in a laboratory-scale FBD at the Energy Research Center (ERC) and development of theoretical models for predicting dryer performance. Using results from these early stage research efforts, GRE built a 2 ton/hour pilot-scale dryer, and a 75 ton/hour prototype drying system at Coal Creek Station. Operated over a range of drying conditions, the results from the pilot-scale and prototype-scale dryers confirmed the performance of the basic dryer design concept and provided the knowledge base needed to scale the process up to commercial size. Phase 2 of the GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project included design, construction and integration of a full-scale commercial coal drying system (four FBDs per unit) with Coal Creek Units 1 and 2 heat sources and coal handling system. Two series of controlled tests were conducted at Coal Creek Unit 1 with wet and dried lignite to determine effect of dried lignite on unit performance and emissions. Wet lignite was fired during the first, wet baseline, test series conducted in September 2009. The second test series was performed in March/April 2010 after commercial coal drying system was commissioned. Preliminary tests with dried coal were performed in March/April 2010. During the test Unit 2 was in outage and, therefore, test unit (Unit 1) was carrying entire station load and, also, supplying all auxiliary steam extractions. This resulted in higher station service, lower gross power output, and higher turbine cycle heat rate. Although, some of these effects could be corrected out, this would introduce uncertainty in calculated unit performance and effect of dried lignite on unit performance. Baseline tests with dried coal are planned for second half of 2010 when both units at Coal Creek will be in service to establish baseline performance with dried coal and determine effect of coal drying on unit performance. Application of GRE's coal drying technology will significantly enhance the value of lignite as a fuel in electrical power generation power plants. Although existing lignite power plants are designed to burn wet lignite, the reduction in moisture content will increase efficiency, reduce pollution and CO{sub 2} emissions, and improve plant economics. Furthermore, the efficiency of ultra supercritical units burning high-moisture coals will be improved significantly by using dried coal as a fuel. To date, Great River Energy has had 63 confidentiality agreements signed by vendors and suppliers of equipment and 15 utilities. GRE has had agreements signed from companies in Canada, Australia, China, India, Indonesia, and Europe.

  18. Fuel Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the major national security imperatives of this century. Get Expertise Rod Borup MPA-11, Fuel Cell Program Manager Email Andrew Dattelbaum MPA-11 Group Leader Email Melissa Fox...

  19. Fuel Quality & Metering Current Status and Future Needs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for hydrogen fuels for use in internal combustion engines and fuel cells in motor vehicles until a standards standards for hydrogen fuels for use in internal combustion engines and fuel cells in motor vehicles development organization for hydrogen fuel for use in internal combustion engines and fuel cells in motor

  20. 2008 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general business strategy and market focus, as well as, financial information for select publicly-traded companies.

  1. Diesel fuel burner for diesel emissions control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webb, Cynthia C.; Mathis, Jeffrey A.

    2006-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A burner for use in the emissions system of a lean burn internal combustion engine. The burner has a special burner head that enhances atomization of the burner fuel. Its combustion chamber is designed to be submersed in the engine exhaust line so that engine exhaust flows over the outer surface of the combustion chamber, thereby providing efficient heat transfer.

  2. Burning Plasma Experiment Requirements Presented to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -heating(self-organization?) Test techniques to control and optimize alpha-dominated plasmas. Sustain alpha-dominated plasmas ? Test Control and Optimization Techniques >0.5 0.4 to 0.6 10 >3 1 Sustain Alpha Dominated Plasmas >0, possible guided slower speed pellets) First wall materials Be tiles, no carbon First wall cooling

  3. Fuel injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lambeth, Malcolm David Dick (Bromley, GB)

    2001-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel injector comprises first and second housing parts, the first housing part being located within a bore or recess formed in the second housing part, the housing parts defining therebetween an inlet chamber, a delivery chamber axially spaced from the inlet chamber, and a filtration flow path interconnecting the inlet and delivery chambers to remove particulate contaminants from the flow of fuel therebetween.

  4. Fuel rail

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haigh, M.; Herbert, J.D.; O'Leary, J.J.

    1988-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a fuel rail for a V-configuration automotive type internal combustion engine having a throttle body superimposed over an intake manifold. The throttle body has an air plenum above an induction channel aligned with a throttle bore passage in the manifold for flow or air to the engine cylinders. The rail includes a spacer body mounted sealingly between the throttle body and the manifold of the engine and having air induction passages therethrough to connect the throttle body channels and the manifold, the spacer body having at least on longitudinal bore defining a fuel passage extending through the spacer body, and a fuel injector receiving cups projecting from and communicating with the fuel passage. The spacer body consists of a number of separated spacer members, and rail member means through which the fuel passage runs joining the spacer members together.

  5. 1990 fuel cell seminar: Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume contains author prepared short resumes of the presentations at the 1990 Fuel Cell Seminar held November 25-28, 1990 in Phoenix, Arizona. Contained herein are 134 short descriptions organized into topic areas entitled An Environmental Overview, Transportation Applications, Technology Advancements for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells, Technology Advancements for Solid Fuel Cells, Component Technologies and Systems Analysis, Stationary Power Applications, Marine and Space Applications, Technology Advancements for Acid Type Fuel Cells, and Technology Advancement for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

  6. Treatment of Fuel Process Wastewater Using Fuel Cells - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2,EHSS A-Z Site Map OrganizationFAQ »

  7. Comparing fuel reduction treatments for reducing wildfire size and intensity in a boreal forest landscape of northeastern China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Hong S.

    Comparing fuel reduction treatments for reducing wildfire size and intensity in a boreal forest, Columbia, MO 65211, USA H I G H L I G H T S Focusing on fuel load may ignore effects of other spatial controls on fire. We used burn probability to combine effects of fuel load and other spatial controls

  8. Alternate Fuel Vehicle Recommendations -New and Used Vehicles The University of Central Florida is now required to meet federal regulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Alternate Fuel Vehicle Recommendations - New and Used Vehicles The University of Central Florida is now required to meet federal regulations concerning alternate fuel vehicle purchases is known as a flex fuel vehicle, or a vehicle that is capable of burning ethanol or regular unleaded

  9. Simultaneous measurement of the surface temperature and the release of atomic sodium from a burning black liquor droplet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saw, Woei L.; Nathan, Graham J. [Centre for Energy Technology, The University of Adelaide, SA 5006 (Australia); School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide (Australia); Ashman, Peter J.; Alwahabi, Zeyad T. [Centre for Energy Technology, The University of Adelaide, SA 5006 (Australia); School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide (Australia); Hupa, Mikko [Process Chemistry Centre, Aabo Akademi, Biskopsgatan 8 FI-20500 Aabo (Finland)

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Simultaneous measurement of the concentration of released atomic sodium, swelling, surface and internal temperature of a burning black liquor droplet under a fuel lean and rich condition has been demonstrated. Two-dimensional two-colour optical pyrometry was employed to determine the distribution of surface temperature and swelling of a burning black liquor droplet while planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) was used to assess the temporal release of atomic sodium. The key findings of these studies are: (i) the concentration of atomic sodium released during the drying and devolatilisation stages was found to be correlated with the external surface area; and (ii) the insignificant presence of atomic sodium during the char consumption stage shows that sodium release is suppressed by the lower temperature and by the high CO{sub 2} content in and around the particle. (author)

  10. Two-dimensional simulations of thermonuclear burn in ignition-scale inertial confinement fusion targets under compressed axial magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, L. J.; Logan, B. G.; Zimmerman, G. B.; Werner, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report for the first time on full 2-D radiation-hydrodynamic implosion simulations that explore the impact of highly compressed imposed magnetic fields on the ignition and burn of perturbed spherical implosions of ignition-scale cryogenic capsules. Using perturbations that highly convolute the cold fuel boundary of the hotspot and prevent ignition without applied fields, we impose initial axial seed fields of 20100 T (potentially attainable using present experimental methods) that compress to greater than 4 10{sup 4} T (400 MG) under implosion, thereby relaxing hotspot areal densities and pressures required for ignition and propagating burn by ?50%. The compressed field is high enough to suppress transverse electron heat conduction, and to allow alphas to couple energy into the hotspot even when highly deformed by large low-mode amplitudes. This might permit the recovery of ignition, or at least significant alpha particle heating, in submarginal capsules that would otherwise fail because of adverse hydrodynamic instabilities.

  11. Environmental Life Cycle Implications of Fuel Oxygenate Production from California Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadam, K. L. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Camobreco, V. J.; Glazebrook, B. E. (Ecobalance Inc.); Forrest, L. H.; Jacobson, W. A. (TSS Consultants); Simeroth, D. C. (California Air Resources Board); Blackburn, W. J. (California Energy Commission); Nehoda, K. C. (California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection)

    1999-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Historically, more than 90% of the excess agricultural residue produced in California (approximately 10 million dry metric tons per year) has been disposed through open-field burning. Concerns about air quality have prompted federal, state, and local air quality agencies to tighten regulations related to this burning and to look at disposal alternatives. One use of this biomass is as an oxygenated fuel. This report focuses on quantifying and comparing the comprehensive environmental flows over the life cycles of two disposal scenarios: (1) burning the biomass, plus producing and using MTBE; and (2) converting and using ETBE.

  12. Organization | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you wantJoin us for #SpaceWeekOMB Policies2.0 OpenOrganization

  13. All Lab Organizations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMForms About BecomeTechnologies | Blandine JeromeOrganizations All

  14. Metallic fuels: The EBR-II legacy and recent advances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas L. Porter; Steven L. Hayes; J. Rory Kennedy

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) metallic fuel was qualified for high burnup to approximately 10 atomic per cent. Subsequently, the electrometallurgical treatment of this fuel was demonstrated. Advanced metallic fuels are now investigated for increased performance, including ultra-high burnup and actinide burning. Advances include additives to mitigate the fuel/cladding chemical interaction and uranium alloys that combine Mo, Ti and Zr to improve alloy performance. The impacts of the advanceson fabrication, waste streams, electrorefining, etc.are found to be minimal and beneficial. Owing to extensive research literature and computational methods, only a modest effort is required to complete their development.

  15. Syncrude coke burned in bubbling fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Syncrude Canada Ltd.'s byproduct coke is high in sulfur (7%) and vanadium (0.2%), and moderate in ash (5.9%). It contains a high proportion of unreactive forms of carbon and is low in volatiles, 6.6%. It is unsuitable for combustion by established technologies, and at present the entire production of over 2000 tons per day is being stockpiled. Experiments with atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) are described. The AFBC provides abatement of SO/sub 2/ emissions by means of limestone sorbent fed to the combustor together with the fuel. The pilot plant, combustion efficiency, and sulfur capture are discussed. 3 figures.

  16. Fuel Flexible Turbine System (FFTS) Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this fuel flexible turbine system (FFTS) program, the Parker gasification system was further optimized, fuel composition of biomass gasification process was characterized and the feasibility of running Capstone MicroTurbine(TM) systems with gasification syngas fuels was evaluated. With high hydrogen content, the gaseous fuel from a gasification process of various feed stocks such as switchgrass and corn stover has high reactivity and high flashback propensity when running in the current lean premixed injectors. The research concluded that the existing C65 microturbine combustion system, which is designed for natural gas, is not able to burn the high hydrogen content syngas due to insufficient resistance to flashback (undesired flame propagation to upstream within the fuel injector). A comprehensive literature review was conducted on high-hydrogen fuel combustion and its main issues. For Capstone?s lean premixed injector, the main mechanisms of flashback were identified to be boundary layer flashback and bulk flow flashback. Since the existing microturbine combustion system is not able to operate on high-hydrogen syngas fuels, new hardware needed to be developed. The new hardware developed and tested included (1) a series of injectors with a reduced propensity for boundary layer flashback and (2) two new combustion liner designs (Combustion Liner Design A and B) that lead to desired primary zone air flow split to meet the overall bulk velocity requirement to mitigate the risk of core flashback inside the injectors. The new injector designs were evaluated in both test apparatus and C65/C200 engines. While some of the new injector designs did not provide satisfactory performance in burning target syngas fuels, particularly in improving resistance to flashback. The combustion system configuration of FFTS-4 injector and Combustion Liner Design A was found promising to enable the C65 microturbine system to run on high hydrogen biomass syngas. The FFTS-4 injector was tested in a C65 engine operating on 100% hydrogen and with the redesigned combustion liner - Combustion Liner Design A - installed. The results were promising for the FFTS program as the system was able to burn 100% hydrogen fuel without flashback while maintaining good combustion performance. While initial results have been demonstrated the feasibility of this program, further research is needed to determine whether these results will be repeated with FFTS-4 injectors installed in all injector ports and over a wide range of operating conditions and fuel variations.

  17. Direct fired reciprocating engine and bottoming high temperature fuel cell hybrid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Geisbrecht, Rodney A. (New Alexandria, PA); Holcombe, Norman T. (McMurray, PA)

    2006-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A system of a fuel cell bottoming an internal combustion engine. The engine exhaust gas may be combined in varying degrees with air and fed as input to a fuel cell. Reformer and oxidizers may be combined with heat exchangers to accommodate rich and lean burn conditions in the engine in peaking and base load conditions without producing high concentrations of harmful emissions.

  18. Waste Plastics as Fuel The concept of PlastofuelTM is the use of waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    Waste Plastics as Fuel The concept of PlastofuelTM is the use of waste agricultural plastic as a fuel source. The PlastofuelTM process creates a dense plastic nugget of compressed shredded plastic that can be burned cleanly in a high temperature combustion process. The shredded plastic is composed

  19. Combustion characteristics of fuel droplets with addition of nano and micron-sized aluminum particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiao, Li

    Combustion characteristics of fuel droplets with addition of nano and micron-sized aluminum Aluminum nanoparticles Microexplosion Particle aggregation a b s t r a c t The burning characteristics of fuel droplets containing nano and micron-sized aluminum particles were investigated. Particle size

  20. Oxidation of volatiles in residential wood burning equipment. Final technical report, September 1980-February 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malte, P.C.; Thornton, M.M.; Kamber, P.D.

    1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this project are to measure, through the use of laboratory combustors, those conditions which promote complete combustion of wood volatiles in residential wood burning equipment. The conditions of interest are combustion temperature, residence time, stoichiometry, and air mixing. The project objectives are met through two laboratory approaches: (1) model compound studies: in order to measure the overall rates of oxidative pyrolysis of biomass volatiles, and to determine the types of intermediate organic species which are likely to form as part of this process, model compounds have been reacted in a specialized jet-stirred reactor, which has been developed as part of this research. (2) high-intensity wood combustion: in order to study the clean combustion of wood, that is, to investigate the conceptual design features required for clean burning, and to ascertain the levels and types of pollutant and condensible species which are most difficult to oxidize, a high-intensity, research wood combustor has been developed and examined for the different phases of the wood burning cycle. Although the objectives of the project have been met, it has not been possible, because of support limitations, to thoroughly explore several interesting aspects which have arisen because of this research. For example, a third laboratory system in which wood pyrolysis gas is injected directly into the a well characterized reactor, so that the kinetics and mechanisms of the gas-phase reaction of the actual biomass volatiles can be studied, could not be thoroughly developed. Refinements in the high-intensity wood combustor, which would bring its design features closer to practicality for the industry, could not be considered. 32 references, 37 figures, 10 tables.

  1. Carbonaceous aerosols from prescribed burning of a boreal forest ecosystem. Revision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazurek, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Cofer, W.R. III; Levine, J.S. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The identity and ambient mass concentrations of radiatively important carbonaceous aerosols were measured for a boreal forest prescribed burn conducted in northern Ontario, CAN in August 1989. Nonsize-segregated airborne particles were collected for smoldering-fire and full-fire conditions using a helicopter sampling platform. Total carbon (TC), organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were measured. Smoke plume mass concentrations of the OC and EC particles were greatest for full-fire conditions and had ranges of 1.560 to 2.160 mg/m{sup {minus}1} (OC) and 0.120 to 0.160 mg/m{sup {minus}3} (EC) with OC:EC ratios of 10 to 18, respectively. Smoldering fire conditions showed smoke plume OC and EC levels of 0.570--1.030 mg/m{sup {minus}3} (OC) and 0.006--0.050 mg/m{sup {minus}3} (EC) and much higher ratios of OC:EC (21 to 95). These aerosol data indicate the formation of EC particles is greatest during full-fire combustion of boreal forest material relative to smoldering combustion. However, EC particles comprise a minor fraction of the particulate carbon smoke aerosols for both full-fire and smoldering conditions; the major component of carbonaceous smoke aerosols emitted during the prescribed burn is OC. Overall, the OC and EC in-plume smoke aerosol data show nonuniform production of these particles during various stages of the prescribed burn, and major differences in the type of carbonaceous aerosol that is generated (OC versus EC).

  2. Combustion of waste fuels in a fluidized-bed boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zylkowski, J.; Ehrlich, S.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on a project whose objectives are to determine the impact of the waste fuels on Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion (AFBC) operating procedures, boiler performance, and emissions and to assess the potential for fuel-specific operating problems. The low-grade waste fuels investigated are hogged railroad ties, shredded rubber tires, peat, refuse-derived fuel, and one or more agricultiral wastes. The Northern States Power (NSP) Company converted their French Island Unit No. 2 stoker-fired boiler to a fluidized-bed combustor designed to burn wood waste. NSP and EPRI are investigating cofiring other waste fuels with wood waste. Topics considered include fluidized-bed boiler conversion, fuel resources, economic justification, environmental considerations, the wood-handling system, an auxiliary fuel system, the air quality control system, ash handling and disposal, and the alternate fuels test program.

  3. Experiments related to the resuspension of aerosols during hydrogen burns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, L.S.; Guay, K.P.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have performed seven ''add-on'' experiments in two large combustion facilities to investigate the capability of hydrogen burns to remove simulated structural and fission product aerosols previously deposited on small metal discs that have surfaces prototypical of those found in nuclear reactor containments. Our results suggest that hydrogen combustion provides an especially effective mechanism for removal (and, presumably, resuspension) of sedimented aerosols produced in a hypothetical nuclear reactor core-degradation or core-melting accident. The presence of condensing steam does not seem to assure adhesion of sedimented aerosols during hydrogen burns. Differences are exhibited between different surfaces as well as between types of aerosol. In-depth studies will be required to assess the impact exposure of sedimented aerosols to hydrogen burns might have on the radiological source term.

  4. Microbial fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nealson, Kenneth H; Pirbazari, Massoud; Hsu, Lewis

    2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A microbial fuel cell includes an anode compartment with an anode and an anode biocatalyst and a cathode compartment with a cathode and a cathode biocatalyst, with a membrane positioned between the anode compartment and the cathode compartment, and an electrical pathway between the anode and the cathode. The anode biocatalyst is capable of catalyzing oxidation of an organic substance, and the cathode biocatalyst is capable of catalyzing reduction of an inorganic substance. The reduced organic substance can form a precipitate, thereby removing the inorganic substance from solution. In some cases, the anode biocatalyst is capable of catalyzing oxidation of an inorganic substance, and the cathode biocatalyst is capable of catalyzing reduction of an organic or inorganic substance.

  5. A neural network approach to burn-in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clifford, Nancy Lynn

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A NEURAL NETWORK APPROACH TO BURN-IN A Thesis by NANCY LYNN CLIFFORD Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1995 Major... Subject: Industrial Enginccring A NEURAL NETWORK APPROACH TO BURN-IN A Thesis NANCY LYNN CLIFFORD Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by...

  6. Response of selected vertebrate populations to burning of Gulf cordgrass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tewes, Michael Edward

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sites were established at Rob 8 Bessie Welder Wildlife Refuge and Aransas National Wildlife Refuge to monitor responses of various wildlife populations to the prescribed burning of gulf cordgrass (~S~art'L~a ~st~e) ~ Research design utilized a... site was established at the Rob and Bessie Welder Wildlife Refuge (80 km north of Corpus Christi) and a 2nd at the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) (120 km northeast of Corpus Christi) ~ Also, I attended a prescribed burn at San Bernard NWR...

  7. Completion of the INEEL's WERF Incinerator Trial Burn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. K. Branter; D. A. Conley; D. R. Moser; S. J. Corrigan

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the successes and challenges associated with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitting of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's (INEEL) Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) hazardous and mixed waste incinerator. Topics to be discussed include facility modifications and problems, trial burn results and lessons learned in each of these areas. In addition, a number of challenges remain including completion and final issue of the RCRA Permit and implementation of all the permit requirements. Results from the trial burn demonstrated that the operating conditions and procedures will result in emissions that are satisfactorily protective of human health, the environment, and are in compliance with Federal and State regulations.

  8. Completion of the INEEL's WERF Incinerator Trial Burn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Branter, Curtis Keith; Conley, Dennis Allen; Corrigan, Shannon James; Moser, David Roy

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the successes and challenges associated with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitting of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's (INEEL) Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) hazardous and mixed waste incinerator. Topics to be discussed include facility modifications and problems, trial burn results and lessons learned in each of these areas. In addition, a number of challenges remain including completion and final issue of RCRA Permit and implementation of all the permit requirements. Results from the trial burn demonstrated that the operating conditions and procedures will result in emissions that are satisfactorily protective of human health, the environment, and are in compliance with Federal and State regulations.

  9. ARM - Measurement - Organic Carbon Concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowband upwelling irradiance ARMgovMeasurementsOrganic Carbon

  10. BWR Fuel Assembly BWR Fuel Assembly PWR Fuel Assembly

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    BWR Fuel Assembly BWR Fuel Assembly PWR Fuel Assembly PWR Fuel Assembly The PWR 17x17 assembly is approximately 160 inches long (13.3 feet), 8 inches across, and weighs 1,500 lbs....

  11. NSF/DOE Thermoelectric Partnership: Inorganic-Organic Hybrid...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thermoelectrics NSFDOE Thermoelectric Partnership: Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thermoelectrics 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle...

  12. Hybrid Rocket Burning Rate Enhancement by Nano-Scale Additives in HTPB Fuel Grains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, James C

    2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Low regression rates in hybrid rockets limit their use and capability, but additive aluminum nano-particles represent a possible solution to this problem. In this thesis, aluminum nano-particles were characterized and added to hybrid motor grains...

  13. Carbonaceous aerosols contributed by traffic and solid fuel burning at a polluted rural site in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    ) was used, employing version 4.2 of the PMF2 executable (Paatero, 1997). 1. Data pretreatment in the Northwestern England - Supplementary material The purpose of this document is to describe the data processing signals. These were most evident in some data products having nonzero values during routine filter tests

  14. Hybrid Rocket Burning Rate Enhancement by Nano-Scale Additives in HTPB Fuel Grains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, James C

    2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Low regression rates in hybrid rockets limit their use and capability, but additive aluminum nano-particles represent a possible solution to this problem. In this thesis, aluminum nano-particles were characterized and added to hybrid motor grains...

  15. Assessment of an Industrial Wet Oxidation System for Burning Waste and Low-Grade Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bettinger, J.; Koppel, P.; Margulies, A.

    an assessment of wet oxidation technologies, followed by bench-scale and pilot unit testing and by eventual demonstration of the pilot unit at an industrial host site. This paper discusses the assessment conducted under the first phase of this effort, which...

  16. Soot from the burning of fossil fuels and solid biofuels contributes far more to global

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    biofuels, such as wood, manure, dung, and other solid biomass used for home heating and cooking in many, mostly in the developing world where biofuels are used for home heating and cooking. Jacobson's study locations. He also focused in detail on the effects of soot on heating clouds, snow and ice. enlarge 9

  17. Evaluation of soy based heavy fuel oil emulsifiers for energy efficiency and environmental improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, P.K.; Szuhaj, B.F. [Central Soya Company, Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States); Diego, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    It is known that the emulsification of water into heavy fuel oil (No. 6) can result in improved atomization of the fuel in a combustion chamber, which results in several benefits. In this study, two soybean lecithin based emulsifiers were evaluated. The emulsifiers were added to the No. 6 fuel at 0.5% and 1 % levels and emulsions of 10% and 15% water were prepared and burned in a pilot scale combustion chamber. The results showed a significant decrease in NO{sub x} emissions, and a reduction in carbon particulates, as well as a decrease in the excess oxygen requirement when the emulsions were burned when compared to fuel oil alone and a fuel oil/water mixture without the emulsifier. It was concluded that the use of a soybean lecithin based emulsifier may be used to increase the burning efficiency of heavy fuel oils, reduce emissions and particulates, and reduce down time for cleaning. This can be very important in utility plants which burn large volumes of heavy fuel oil and are located near urban areas.

  18. Fossil Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fossil Fuels A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Abu-Khamsin, Sidqi - Department of Petroleum Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals...

  19. Analysis of Tracer Dispersion During a Prescribed Forest Burn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    . Additionally, a sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer dispersion test was conducted by releasing SF6 from a line source within the burn and measuring SF6 concentrations at the supertower. Supertower Instrumentation (TGAPS) connected to a CO2 closed path Licor LI-6262 and a SF6 detector (7 inlet locations) Cambell CSAT

  20. More than words : a biography of Daniel Francis Burns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burns, Matthew R. (Matthew Robert)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Daniel Francis Burns was born in Ireland in 1888 and immigrated to the United States in 1912. He married Mary O'Neill in 1923 and had a family of seven children. He worked as a police officer in the Boston Police Department ...

  1. Transient Burned Gas Rate Control on VVA equipped Diesel Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of cylinder filling phenomenon is determined. It expresses, under the form of a discrete event dynamics are picked up downstream the turbine and the after-treatment system. The fresh air and burned gases mix. Recently, a new way to generate EGR has emerged. On top of these technological solutions, additional

  2. Potential Materials Science Benefits from a Burning Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potential Materials Science Benefits from a Burning Plasma Science Experiment S.J. Zinkle Oak Ridge;Introduction · The main materials science advances from a BPSX would occur during the R&D phase prior to construction ­e.g., CIT/BPX, ITER · Materials science opportunities during operation of a BPSX would likely

  3. BURNING BURIED SUNSHINE: HUMAN CONSUMPTION OF ANCIENT SOLAR ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dukes, Jeffrey

    BURNING BURIED SUNSHINE: HUMAN CONSUMPTION OF ANCIENT SOLAR ENERGY JEFFREY S. DUKES Department of as a vast store of solar energy from which society meets >80% of its current energy needs. Here, using of ancient solar energy decline, humans are likely to use an increasing share of modern solar resources. I

  4. Atmospheric dispersion index for prescribed burning. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavdas, L.G.

    1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical index that estimates the atmosphere's capacity to disperse smoke from prescribed burning is described. The physical assumptions and mathematical development of the index are given in detail. A preliminary interpretation of dispersion index values is offered. A FORTRAN subroutine package for computing the index is included.

  5. Sodium and sulfur release and recapture during black liquor burning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederick, W.J.; Iisa, K.; Wag, K.; Reis, V.V.; Boonsongsup, L.; Forssen, M.; Hupa, M.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to provide data on sulfur and sodium volatilization during black liquor burning, and on SO2 capture by solid sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. This data was interpreted and modeled into rate equations suitable for use in computational models for recovery boilers.

  6. Recovery Boiler Modeling: An Improved Char Burning Model Including Sulfate Reduction and Carbon Removal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grace, T. M.; Wag, K. J.; Horton, R. R.; Frederick, W. J.

    gasification, reactions between oxygen and combustibles in the boundary layer, and integration of sulfate reduction and sulfide reoxidation into the char burning process. Simulations using the model show that for typical recovery boiler conditions, char burning...

  7. Developing shrub fire behaviour models in an oceanic climate: Burning in the British Uplands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davies, Gwilym Matthew; Legg, Colin; Smith, Adam; MacDonald, Angus

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prescribed burning of moorland vegetation in the UK is used to provide habitat for red grouse, a game bird, and to improve grazing for sheep and deer. The peak time of fire risk corresponds to the normal legal burning ...

  8. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Particulate and Gas phase Emissions from Biomass Burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hosseini, Seyedehsan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory, J.J. R. , and Veres, P. : Biomass burning in Siberia andOpen burning of agricultural biomass: Physical and chemical

  9. SINGULAR LEVI-FLAT REAL ANALYTIC HYPERSURFACES By DANIEL BURNS and XIANGHONG GONG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Xianghong

    SINGULAR LEVI-FLAT REAL ANALYTIC HYPERSURFACES By DANIEL BURNS and XIANGHONG GONG Abstract. We #12;24 DANIEL BURNS AND XIANGHONG GONG Let M be a real analytic hypersurface defined by r = 0

  10. Sexual reproduction of European aspen (Populus tremula L.) at prescribed burned site: the effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helsinki, University of

    -1 Sexual reproduction of European aspen (Populus tremula L.) at prescribed burned site September 2005 Key words: Boreal forest, European aspen, Prescribed burning, Seed ecology, Seedbed conditions, Seedling emergence and survival Abstract. Aspen (Populus tremula) is capable of reproducing both

  11. Feasibility Study of MOX Fuel Online Burnup Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis, M.L.; Usman, S. [University of Missouri-Rolla, 222 Fulton Hall, 1870 Miner Circle, Rolla, MO 65409-0170 (United States)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research is an extension of well established Non-Destructive Analysis of UO fuel using gamma spectroscopy of Cs-137 and other related isotopes. Given the performance similarities between UO fuel and MOX fuel, investigations are underway to develop similar correlation for MOX. MOX fuel burnup and decay simulations are being performed using ORIGEN-ARP (Oak Ridge Isotope Generation and Depletion Code - Automatic Rapid Processing). Simulation results are being analyzed and will be used to determine performance specifications of a detection system for field applications. Analysis of isotopic activity from irradiated fuel will be used to develop correlations to determine burn-up and Plutonium content of MOX fuel. These results will be particularly useful in view of the recent interest in MOX fuel. (authors)

  12. ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Fueling Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasmussen, D.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States); Baylor, L.R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States); Combs, S.K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States); Fredd, E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (United States); Goulding, R.H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States); Hosea, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (United States); Swain, D.W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States)

    2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The ITER burning plasma and advanced operating regimes require robust and reliable heating and current drive and fueling systems. The ITER design documents describe the requirements and reference designs for the ion cyclotron and pellet fueling systems. Development and testing programs are required to optimize, validate and qualify these systems for installation on ITER.The ITER ion cyclotron system offers significant technology challenges. The antenna must operate in a nuclear environment and withstand heat loads and disruption forces beyond present-day designs. It must operate for long pulse lengths and be highly reliable, delivering power to a plasma load with properties that will change throughout the discharge. The ITER ion cyclotron system consists of one eight-strap antenna, eight rf sources (20 MW, 35-65 MHz), associated high-voltage DC power supplies, transmission lines and matching and decoupling components.The ITER fueling system consists of a gas injection system and multiple pellet injectors for edge fueling and deep core fueling. Pellet injection will be the primary ITER fuel delivery system. The fueling requirements will require significant extensions in pellet injector pulse length ({approx}3000 s), throughput (400 torr-L/s,) and reliability. The proposed design is based on a centrifuge accelerator fed by a continuous screw extruder. Inner wall pellet injection with the use of curved guide tubes will be utilized for deep fueling.

  13. The Complete Burning of Weapons Grade Plutonium and Highly Enriched Uranium with (Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy) LIFE Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J C; Diaz de la Rubia, T; Moses, E

    2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) project, a laser-based Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiment designed to achieve thermonuclear fusion ignition and burn in the laboratory, is under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and will be completed in April of 2009. Experiments designed to accomplish the NIF's goal will commence in late FY2010 utilizing laser energies of 1 to 1.3 MJ. Fusion yields of the order of 10 to 20 MJ are expected soon thereafter. Laser initiated fusion-fission (LIFE) engines have now been designed to produce nuclear power from natural or depleted uranium without isotopic enrichment, and from spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors without chemical separation into weapons-attractive actinide streams. A point-source of high-energy neutrons produced by laser-generated, thermonuclear fusion within a target is used to achieve ultra-deep burn-up of the fertile or fissile fuel in a sub-critical fission blanket. Fertile fuels including depleted uranium (DU), natural uranium (NatU), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and thorium (Th) can be used. Fissile fuels such as low-enrichment uranium (LEU), excess weapons plutonium (WG-Pu), and excess highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be used as well. Based upon preliminary analyses, it is believed that LIFE could help meet worldwide electricity needs in a safe and sustainable manner, while drastically shrinking the nation's and world's stockpile of spent nuclear fuel and excess weapons materials. LIFE takes advantage of the significant advances in laser-based inertial confinement fusion that are taking place at the NIF at LLNL where it is expected that thermonuclear ignition will be achieved in the 2010-2011 timeframe. Starting from as little as 300 to 500 MW of fusion power, a single LIFE engine will be able to generate 2000 to 3000 MWt in steady state for periods of years to decades, depending on the nuclear fuel and engine configuration. Because the fission blanket in a fusion-fission hybrid system is subcritical, a LIFE engine can burn any fertile or fissile nuclear material, including unenriched natural or depleted U and SNF, and can extract a very high percentage of the energy content of its fuel resulting in greatly enhanced energy generation per metric ton of nuclear fuel, as well as nuclear waste forms with vastly reduced concentrations of long-lived actinides. LIFE engines could thus provide the ability to generate vast amounts of electricity while greatly reducing the actinide content of any existing or future nuclear waste and extending the availability of low cost nuclear fuels for several thousand years. LIFE also provides an attractive pathway for burning excess weapons Pu to over 99% FIMA (fission of initial metal atoms) without the need for fabricating or reprocessing mixed oxide fuels (MOX). Because of all of these advantages, LIFE engines offer a pathway toward sustainable and safe nuclear power that significantly mitigates nuclear proliferation concerns and minimizes nuclear waste. An important aspect of a LIFE engine is the fact that there is no need to extract the fission fuel from the fission blanket before it is burned to the desired final level. Except for fuel inspection and maintenance process times, the nuclear fuel is always within the core of the reactor and no weapons-attractive materials are available outside at any point in time. However, an important consideration when discussing proliferation concerns associated with any nuclear fuel cycle is the ease with which reactor fuel can be converted to weapons usable materials, not just when it is extracted as waste, but at any point in the fuel cycle. Although the nuclear fuel remains in the core of the engine until ultra deep actinide burn up is achieved, soon after start up of the engine, once the system breeds up to full power, several tons of fissile material is present in the fission blanket. However, this fissile material is widely dispersed in millions of fuel pebbles, which can be tagged as individual accountable items, and thus made difficult to diver

  14. Major Conclusions of the MFE Study 1. Why a burning plasma Navratil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of scientific maturity that we are ready to undertake the essential step of burning plasma research. · Present

  15. Biomass burning and urban air pollution over the Central Mexican Plateau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    example, coal burning and petrochemical industries are alsofuel-oil fired) and petrochemical complex in Tula, north of

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels Tax Alternative Fuel License Renewable Fuel Sales Volume Goals Sustainable Biofuels Production Practices Biodiesel Definition Biodiesel Labeling Requirement Propane...

  17. High-value use of weapons-plutonium by burning in molten salt accelerator-driven subcritical systems or reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, C.D.; Venneri, F.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of thermal-spectrum molten-salt reactors and accelerator-driven subcritical systems to the destruction of weapons-return plutonium is considered from the perspective of deriving the maximum societal benefit. The enhancement of electric power production from burning the fertile fuel {sup 232}Th with the plutonium is evaluated. Also the enhancement of destruction of the accumulated waste from commercial nuclear reactors is considered using the neutron-rich weapons plutonium. Most cases examined include the concurrent transmutation of the long-lived actinide and fission product waste ({sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, {sup 135}Cs, {sup 126}Sn and {sup 79}Se).

  18. Historic American Engineering Record, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan Stacy; Julie Braun

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Just as automobiles need fuel to operate, so do nuclear reactors. When fossil fuels such as gasoline are burned to power an automobile, they are consumed immediately and nearly completely in the process. When the fuel is gone, energy production stops. Nuclear reactors are incapable of achieving this near complete burn-up because as the fuel (uranium) that powers them is burned through the process of nuclear fission, a variety of other elements are also created and become intimately associated with the uranium. Because they absorb neutrons, which energize the fission process, these accumulating fission products eventually poison the fuel by stopping the production of energy from it. The fission products may also damage the structural integrity of the fuel elements. Even though the uranium fuel is still present, sometimes in significant quantities, it is unburnable and will not power a reactor unless it is separated from the neutron-absorbing fission products by a method called fuel reprocessing. Construction of the Fuel Reprocessing Complex at the Chem Plant started in 1950 with the Bechtel Corporation serving as construction contractor and American Cyanamid Company as operating contractor. Although the Foster Wheeler Corporation assumed responsibility for the detailed working design of the overall plant, scientists at Oak Ridge designed all of the equipment that would be employed in the uranium separations process. After three years of construction activity and extensive testing, the plant was ready to handle its first load of irradiated fuel.

  19. Fuel cell-fuel cell hybrid system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Geisbrecht, Rodney A.; Williams, Mark C.

    2003-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for converting chemical energy to electricity is provided, the device comprising a high temperature fuel cell with the ability for partially oxidizing and completely reforming fuel, and a low temperature fuel cell juxtaposed to said high temperature fuel cell so as to utilize remaining reformed fuel from the high temperature fuel cell. Also provided is a method for producing electricity comprising directing fuel to a first fuel cell, completely oxidizing a first portion of the fuel and partially oxidizing a second portion of the fuel, directing the second fuel portion to a second fuel cell, allowing the first fuel cell to utilize the first portion of the fuel to produce electricity; and allowing the second fuel cell to utilize the second portion of the fuel to produce electricity.

  20. Fuel Cells and Renewable Gaseous Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 3-C: Renewable Gaseous FuelsFuel Cells and Renewable Gaseous FuelsSarah Studer, ORISE FellowFuel Cell Technologies Office, U.S. Department of Energy

  1. Biomass burning emission inventory with daily resolution: Application to aircraft observations of Asian outflow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmer, Paul

    Biomass burning emission inventory with daily resolution: Application to aircraft observations for biomass burning using AVHRR satellite observations of fire activity corrected for data gaps and scan angle biomass burning in SE Asia was a major contributor to the outflow of Asian pollution observed in TRACE

  2. Evolution of biomass burning aerosol properties from an agricultural fire in southern Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Highwood, Ellie

    Evolution of biomass burning aerosol properties from an agricultural fire in southern Africa Steven Met Office C-130 within a distinct biomass burning plume during the Southern AFricAn Regional science, and P. R. Buseck, Evolution of biomass burning aerosol properties from an agricultural fire in southern

  3. Experimental investigation of burning velocities of ultra-wet methane-air-steam mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    , steam, burning velocity, chemiluminescence, OH Introduction In ultra-wet gas turbines, the heatExperimental investigation of burning velocities of ultra-wet methane-air-steam mixtures Eric Abstract Global burning velocities of methane-air-steam mixtures are measured on prismatic laminar Bunsen

  4. Spatial and temporal scale issues in determining biomass burning regimes in Bolivia and Peru

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spatial and temporal scale issues in determining biomass burning regimes in Bolivia and Peru A. V and Bolivia to analyse the spatial distribution of burning and its intra- and inter-annual variability Santa Cruz, Bolivia and in north-west Peru). Particular attention was paid to biomass burning in high

  5. Assessment for advanced fuel cycle options in CANDU

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morreale, A.C.; Luxat, J.C. [McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W. Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4L7 (Canada); Friedlander, Y. [AMEC-NSS Ltd., 700 University Ave. 4th Floor, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1X6 (Canada)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The possible options for advanced fuel cycles in CANDU reactors including actinide burning options and thorium cycles were explored and are feasible options to increase the efficiency of uranium utilization and help close the fuel cycle. The actinide burning TRUMOX approach uses a mixed oxide fuel of reprocessed transuranic actinides from PWR spent fuel blended with natural uranium in the CANDU-900 reactor. This system reduced actinide content by 35% and decreased natural uranium consumption by 24% over a PWR once through cycle. The thorium cycles evaluated used two CANDU-900 units, a generator and a burner unit along with a driver fuel feedstock. The driver fuels included plutonium reprocessed from PWR, from CANDU and low enriched uranium (LEU). All three cycles were effective options and reduced natural uranium consumption over a PWR once through cycle. The LEU driven system saw the largest reduction with a 94% savings while the plutonium driven cycles achieved 75% savings for PWR and 87% for CANDU. The high neutron economy, online fuelling and flexible compact fuel make the CANDU system an ideal reactor platform for many advanced fuel cycles.

  6. Method to improve lubricity of low-sulfur diesel and gasoline fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, Ali

    2004-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for providing lubricity in fuels and lubricants includes adding a boron compound to a fuel or lubricant to provide a boron-containing fuel or lubricant. The fuel or lubricant may contain a boron compound at a concentration between about 30 ppm and about 3,000 ppm and a sulfur concentration of less than about 500 ppm. A method of powering an engine to minimize wear, by burning a fuel containing boron compounds. The boron compounds include compound that provide boric acid and/or BO.sub.3 ions or monomers to the fuel or lubricant.

  7. Micro Fuel Cells Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Micro Fuel Cells TM Direct Methanol Fuel Cells for Portable Power A Fuel Cell System Developer-17, 2002 Phoenix, Arizona #12;Micro Fuel Cells Direct Methanol Fuel Cells for Portable Power Outline (1 Energy Content (Wh) Volume(cm^3) Li-Ion Battery DMFC #12;Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology

  8. Surrogate Spent Nuclear Fuel Vibration Integrity Investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Wang, Hong [ORNL; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transportation packages for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) must meet safety requirements under normal and accident conditions as specified by federal regulations. During transportation, SNF experiences unique conditions and challenges to cladding integrity due to the vibrational and impact loading encountered during road or rail shipment. ORNL has been developing testing capabilities that can be used to improve our understanding of the impacts of vibration loading on SNF integrity, especially for high burn-up SNF in normal transportation operation conditions. This information can be used to meet nuclear industry and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission needs in the area of safety of SNF storage and transportation operations.

  9. PLUTONIUM METALLIC FUELS FOR FAST REACTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STAN, MARIUS [Los Alamos National Laboratory; HECKER, SIEGFRIED S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Early interest in metallic plutonium fuels for fast reactors led to much research on plutonium alloy systems including binary solid solutions with the addition of aluminum, gallium, or zirconium and low-melting eutectic alloys with iron and nickel or cobalt. There was also interest in ternaries of these elements with plutonium and cerium. The solid solution and eutectic alloys have most unusual properties, including negative thermal expansion in some solid-solution alloys and the highest viscosity known for liquid metals in the Pu-Fe system. Although metallic fuels have many potential advantages over ceramic fuels, the early attempts were unsuccessful because these fuels suffered from high swelling rates during burn up and high smearing densities. The liquid metal fuels experienced excessive corrosion. Subsequent work on higher-melting U-PuZr metallic fuels was much more promising. In light of the recent rebirth of interest in fast reactors, we review some of the key properties of the early fuels and discuss the challenges presented by the ternary alloys.

  10. Combustion of Shock-Dispersed Fuels in a Chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuwald, P; Reichenbach, H; Kuhl, A L

    2003-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In previous studies we have investigated after-burning effects of a fuel-rich explosive (TNT). In that case the detonation only releases about 30 % of the available energy, but generates a hot cloud of fuel that can burn in the ambient air, thus evoking an additional energy release that is distributed in space and time. The current series of small-scale experiments can be looked upon as a natural generalization of this mechanism: a booster charge disperses a (non-explosive) fuel, provides mixing with air and - by means of the hot detonation products - energy to ignite the fuel. The current version of our miniature Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) charges consists of a spherical booster charge of 0.5 g PETN, embedded in a paper cylinder of approximately 2.2 cm3, which is filled with powdered fuel compositions. The main compositions studied up to now contain aluminum powder, hydrocarbon powders like polyethylene or sucrose and/or carbon particles. These charges were studied in three different chambers of 4-1, 6.6-1 and 40.5-1 volume. In general, the booster charge was sufficient to initiate burning of the fuel. This modifies the pressure signatures measured with a number of wall gages and increases the quasi-static overpressure level obtained in the chambers. On the one hand the time-scale and the yield of the pressure rise depend on the fuel and its characteristics. On the other hand they also depend on the flow dynamics in the chamber, which is dominated by shock reverberations, and thus on the chamber geometry and volume. The paper gives a survey of the experimental results and discusses the possible influences of some basic parameters.

  11. The Business Case for Fuel Cells: Why Top Companies are Purchasing Fuel Cells Today

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by numerous organizations around the world. This report profiles several companies leasing fuel cell vehicles, but there are hundreds of fuel cell vehicles from all the major automakers on the road around the world, and numerous-To-Energy recovery system Top right: IKEA`s GM/Opel Hydrogen3 fuel cell vehicle deployed in Germany Bottom right

  12. Apparatus and method for combusting low quality fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brushwood, John Samuel; Pillsbury, Paul; Foote, John; Heilos, Andreas

    2003-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas turbine (12) capable of combusting a low quality gaseous fuel having a ratio of flammability limits less than 2, or a heat value below 100 BTU/SCF. A high quality fuel is burned simultaneously with the low quality fuel to eliminate instability in the combustion flame. A sensor (46) is used to monitor at least one parameter of the flame indicative of instability. A controller (50) having the sensor signal (48) as input is programmed to control the relative flow rates of the low quality and high quality fuels. When instability is detected, the flow rate of high quality fuel is automatically increased in relation to the flow rate of low quality fuel to restore stability.

  13. Alternative Fuel Implementation Toolkit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ? Alternative Fuels, the Smart Choice: Alternative fuels biodiesel, electricity, ethanol (E85), natural gas

  14. Gulf Cordgrass Production, Utilization, and Nutritional Value Following Burning.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oefinger, R.D.; Scifres, F.J.

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    compared to the same criteria on the unburned areas. Soils on each site were characterized relative to selected chemical and physical characteristics . The study areas were evaluated, based on the selected variables, approximately at monthly intervals... and species of Acacia) on the uplands to the west. Soil Characteristics Physical and Chemical Components The loamy sand sites, burned in fall 1974 were characterized by a near neutral soil surface, becoming more basic to 30 centimeters deep (Table 1...

  15. Data Summary Report D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, E.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to verify that all analytical data collected at the D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits at the Savannah River Site for use in developing risk assessment and potential remediation procedures have been validated at the appropriate level. Any discrepancies or reasons why the data should be rejected for this purpose will be addressed. This report documents the data validation procedures used by Environmental Monitoring Section, Exploration Resources, and RUST Environment {ampersand} Infrastructure for Assigning qualifiers.

  16. Early cavity growth during forward burn. [Hoe Creek III problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shannon, M.J.; Thorsness, C.B.; Hill, R.W.

    1980-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    During the early portion of the forward burn phase of the Hoe Creek III field experiment, the cavity progagated rapidly down the deviated borehole and to the top of the coal seam. As a first step to understanding this phenomena we have conducted small scale coal block experiments. Drying as well as combustion tests were performed. This paper describes the test hardware and the experimental results.

  17. PULSATIONS IN HYDROGEN BURNING LOW-MASS HELIUM WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinfadt, Justin D. R. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Bildsten, Lars [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Kohn Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Arras, Phil, E-mail: jdrs@physics.ucsb.ed, E-mail: bildsten@kitp.ucsb.ed, E-mail: arras@virginia.ed [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Helium core white dwarfs (WDs) with mass M {approx}< 0.20 M {sub sun} undergo several Gyr of stable hydrogen burning as they evolve. We show that in a certain range of WD and hydrogen envelope masses, these WDs may exhibit g-mode pulsations similar to their passively cooling, more massive carbon/oxygen core counterparts, the ZZ Cetis. Our models with stably burning hydrogen envelopes on helium cores yield g-mode periods and period spacings longer than the canonical ZZ Cetis by nearly a factor of 2. We show that core composition and structure can be probed using seismology since the g-mode eigenfunctions predominantly reside in the helium core. Though we have not carried out a fully nonadiabatic stability analysis, the scaling of the thermal time in the convective zone with surface gravity highlights several low-mass helium WDs that should be observed in search of pulsations: NLTT 11748, SDSS J0822+2753, and the companion to PSR J1012+5307. Seismological studies of these He core WDs may prove especially fruitful, as their luminosity is related (via stable hydrogen burning) to the hydrogen envelope mass, which eliminates one model parameter.

  18. Models of neutron star atmospheres enriched with nuclear burning ashes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nttil, Joonas; Kajava, Jari J E; Poutanen, Juri

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-mass X-ray binaries hosting neutron stars (NS) exhibit thermonuclear (type-I) X-ray bursts, which are powered by unstable nuclear burning of helium and/or hydrogen into heavier elements deep in the NS "ocean". In some cases the burning ashes may rise from the burning depths up to the NS photosphere by convection, leading to the appearance of the metal absorption edges in the spectra, which then force the emergent X-ray burst spectra to shift toward lower energies. These effects may have a substantial impact on the color correction factor $f_c$ and the dilution factor $w$, the parameters of the diluted blackbody model $F_E \\approx w B_E(f_c T_{eff})$ that is commonly used to describe the emergent spectra from NSs. The aim of this paper is to quantify how much the metal enrichment can change these factors. We have developed a new NS atmosphere modeling code, which has a few important improvements compared to our previous code required by inclusion of the metals. The opacities and the internal partition func...

  19. Nuclear fusion in dense matter: Reaction rate and carbon burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. R. Gasques; A. V. Afanasjev; E. F. Aguilera; M. Beard; L. C. Chamon; P. Ring; M. Wiescher; D. G. Yakovlev

    2005-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we analyze the nuclear fusion rate between equal nuclei for all five different nuclear burning regimes in dense matter (two thermonuclear regimes, two pycnonuclear ones, and the intermediate regime). The rate is determined by Coulomb barrier penetration in dense environments and by the astrophysical S-factor at low energies. We evaluate previous studies of the Coulomb barrier problem and propose a simple phenomenological formula for the reaction rate which covers all cases. The parameters of this formula can be varied, taking into account current theoretical uncertainties in the reaction rate. The results are illustrated for the example of the ^{12}C+^{12}C fusion reaction. This reaction is very important for the understanding of nuclear burning in evolved stars, in exploding white dwarfs producing type Ia supernovae, and in accreting neutron stars. The S-factor at stellar energies depends on a reliable fit and extrapolation of the experimental data. We calculate the energy dependence of the S-factor using a recently developed parameter-free model for the nuclear interaction, taking into account the effects of the Pauli nonlocality. For illustration, we analyze the efficiency of carbon burning in a wide range of densities and temperatures of stellar matter with the emphasis on carbon ignition at densities rho > 10^9 g/cc.

  20. High frequency electromagnetic burn monitoring for underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deadrick, F.J.; Hill, R.W.; Laine, E.F.

    1981-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the use of high frequency electromagnetic waves to monitor an in-situ coal gasification burn process, and presents some recent results obtained with the method. Both the technique, called HFEM (high frequency electromagnetic) probing, the HFEM hardware used are described, and some of the data obtained from the LLNL Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal gasification experiment conducted near Gillette, Wyoming are presented. HFEM was found to be very useful for monitoring the burn activity found in underground coal gasification. The technique, being a remote sensing method which does not require direct physical contact, does not suffer from burnout problems as found with thermocouples, and can continue to function even as the burn progresses on through the region of interest. While HFEM does not replace more conventional instrumentation such as thermocouples, the method does serve to provide data which is unobtainable by other means, and in so doing it complements the other data to help form a picture of what cannot be seen underground.

  1. Engineering and Physics Optimization of Breed and Burn Fast Reactor Systems; NUCLEAR ENERGY RESEARCH INITIATIVE (NERI) QUARTERLY PROGRESS REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ERROR, [value too long for type character varying(50); Hejzlar, Pavel; Yarsky, Peter; Driscoll, Mike; Wachs, Dan; Weaver, Kevan; Czerwinski, Ken; Pope, Mike; Parry, James; Marshall, Theron D.; Davis, Cliff B.; Crawford, Dustin; Hartmann, Thomas; Saha, Pradip

    2005-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is organized under four major tasks (each of which has two or more subtasks) with contributions among the three collaborating organizations (MIT, INEEL and ANL-West): Task A: Core Physics and Fuel Cycle; Task B: Core Thermal Hydraulics; Task C: Plant Design; Task D: Fuel Design The lead PI, Michael J. Driscoll, has consolidated and summarized the technical progress submissions provided by the contributing investigators from all sites, under the above principal task headings.

  2. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating on Alternative and Renewable Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xiaoxing; Quan, Wenying; Xiao, Jing; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Fujii, Mamoru; Sun, Funxia; Shalaby, Cigdem; Li, Yan; Xie, Chao; Ma, Xiaoliang; Johnson, David; Lee, Jeong; Fedkin, Mark; LaBarbera, Mark; Das, Debanjan; Thompson, David; Lvov, Serguei; Song, Chunshan

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This DOE project at the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) initially involved Siemens Energy, Inc. to (1) develop new fuel processing approaches for using selected alternative and renewable fuels anaerobic digester gas (ADG) and commercial diesel fuel (with 15 ppm sulfur) in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power generation systems; and (2) conduct integrated fuel processor SOFC system tests to evaluate the performance of the fuel processors and overall systems. Siemens Energy Inc. was to provide SOFC system to Penn State for testing. The Siemens work was carried out at Siemens Energy Inc. in Pittsburgh, PA. The unexpected restructuring in Siemens organization, however, led to the elimination of the Siemens Stationary Fuel Cell Division within the company. Unfortunately, this led to the Siemens subcontract with Penn State ending on September 23rd, 2010. SOFC system was never delivered to Penn State. With the assistance of NETL project manager, the Penn State team has since developed a collaborative research with Delphi as the new subcontractor and this work involved the testing of a stack of planar solid oxide fuel cells from Delphi.

  3. Fuel Effects on Emissions Control Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Document: ft007_sluder_2013_o.pdfTechnology Area: Fuels and LubricantsPresenter: Scott SluderPresenting Organization: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)Presentation date: Thursday, May 16,...

  4. Palladium-based electrocatalysts and fuel cells employing such electrocatalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masel; Richard I. (Champaign, IL), Zhu; Yimin (Urbana, IL), Larsen; Robert T. (Champaign, IL)

    2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A direct organic fuel cell includes a fluid fuel comprising formic acid, an anode having an electrocatalyst comprising palladium nanoparticles, a fluid oxidant, a cathode electrically connected to the anode, and an electrolyte interposed between the anode and the cathode.

  5. D. Moreau IEA W60 Burning Plasma Physics and Simulation, Tarragona, July 2005 INTEGRATED REAL-TIME CONTROL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Moreau IEA W60 Burning Plasma Physics and Simulation, Tarragona, July 2005 INTEGRATED REAL. Sartori, and many other JET-EFDA Contributors D. Moreau #12;D. Moreau IEA W60 Burning Plasma Physics AT burning plasma integrated control #12;D. Moreau IEA W60 Burning Plasma Physics and Simulation, Tarragona

  6. Measurements of ultrafine particles from a gas-turbine burning biofuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allouis, C.; Beretta, F.; Minutolo, P.; Pagliara, R. [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione, CNR, Piazzale V. Tecchio, 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Sirignano, M.; Sgro, L.A.; D'Anna, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale V. Tecchio, 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of ultrafine particles have been performed at the exhaust of a low emission microturbine for power generation. This device has been fuelled with liquid fuels, including a commercial diesel oil, a mixture of the diesel oil with a biodiesel and kerosene, and tested under different loads. Primarily attention has been focused on the measurements of the size distribution functions of the particles emitted from the system by using particle differential mobility analysis. A bimodal size distribution function of the particle emitted has been found in all the examined conditions. Burning diesel oil, the first mode of the size distribution function of the combustion-formed particles is centered at around 2-3 nm, whereas the second mode is centered at about 20-30 nm. The increase of the turbine load and the addition of 50% of biodiesel has not caused changes in the shape of size distribution of the particles. A slightly decrease of the amount of particle formed has been found. By using kerosene the amount of emitted particles increases of more than one order of magnitude. Also the shape of the size distribution function changes with the first mode shifted towards larger particles of the order of 8-10 nm but with a lower emission of larger 20-30 nm particles. Overall, in this conditions, the mass concentration of particles is increased respect to the diesel oil operation. Particle sizes measured with the diesel oil have been compared with the results on a diesel engine operated in the same power conditions and with the same fuel. Measurements have showed that the mean sizes of the formed particles do not change in the two combustion systems. However, diesel engine emits a number concentration of particles more than two orders of magnitude higher in the same conditions of power and with the same fuel. By running the engine in more premixed-like conditions, the size distribution function of the particles approaches that measured by burning kerosene in the microturbine indicating that the distribution function of the sizes of the emitted particles can be strongly affected by combustion conditions. (author)

  7. Peculiarities of highly burned-up NPP SNF reprocessing and new approach to simulation of solvent extraction processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedorov, Y.S.; Zilberman, B.Y.; Goletskiy, N.D.; Puzikov, E.A.; Ryabkov, D.V.; Rodionov, S.A.; Beznosyuk, V.I.; Petrov, Y.Y.; Saprykin, V.F.; Murzin, A.A.; Bibichev, B.A.; Aloy, A.S.; Kudinov, A.S.; Blazheva, I.V. [RPA 'V.G.Khlopin Radium Institute', 28, 2 Murinsky av., St-Petersburg, 194 021 (Russian Federation); Kurenkov, N.V. [Institute of Industrial Nuclear Technology NRNU MEPHI, 31, Kashirskoye shosse, Moscow, 115409 (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Substantiation, general description and performance characteristics of a reprocessing flowsheet for WWER-1000 spent fuel with burn-up >60 GW*day/t U is given. Pu and U losses were <0.1%, separation factor > 10{sup 4}; their decontamination factor from ?-emitting fission products was 4*10{sup 4} and 3*10{sup 7}, respectively. Zr, Tc, Np removal was >98% at U and Pu losses <0.05%. A new approach to simulation of extraction equilibrium has been developed. It is based on a set of simultaneous chemical reactions characterized by apparent concentration constants. A software package was created for simulation of spent fuel component distribution in multistage countercurrent extraction processes in the presence of salting out agents. (authors)

  8. Preliminary safety analysis of Pb-Bi cooled 800 MWt modified CANDLE burn-up scheme based fast reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su'ud, Zaki, E-mail: szaki@fi.itba.c.id [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Bandung Institute of Technology (Ganesha 10 Bandung, Indonesia) (Indonesia); Sekimoto, H., E-mail: hsekimot@gmail.com [Research Lab. For Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Pb-Bi Cooled fast reactors with modified CANDLE burn-up scheme with 10 regions and 10 years cycle length has been investigated from neutronic aspects. In this study the safety aspect of such reactors have been investigated and discussed. Several condition of unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) and unprotected rod run-out transient over power (UTOP) have been simulated and the results show that the reactors excellent safety performance. At 80 seconds after unprotected loss of flow condition, the core flow rate drop to about 25% of its initial flow and slowly move toward its natural circulation level. The maximum fuel temperature can be managed below 1000C and the maximum cladding temperature can be managed below 700C. The dominant reactivity feedback is radial core expansion and Doppler effect, followed by coolant density effect and fuel axial expansion effect.

  9. Experimental validation of the DARWIN2.3 package for fuel cycle applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    San-Felice, L.; Eschbach, R.; Bourdot, P. [DEN, DER, CEA-Cadarache, F-13108 ST Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Tsilanizara, A.; Huynh, T. D. [DEN, DM2S, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Ourly, H. [EDF, R and D, 1 av. General de Gaulle, F-92131 Clamart Cedex (France); Thro, J. F. [AREVA, Tour AREVA, F-92084 Paris la Defense (France)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The DARWIN package, developed by the CEA and its French partners (AREVA and EDF) provides the required parameters for fuel cycle applications: fuel inventory, decay heat, activity, neutron, {gamma}, {alpha}, {beta} sources and spectrum, radiotoxicity. This paper presents the DARWIN2.3 experimental validation for fuel inventory and decay heat calculations on Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). In order to validate this code system for spent fuel inventory a large program has been undertaken, based on spent fuel chemical assays. This paper deals with the experimental validation of DARWIN2.3 for the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Uranium Oxide (UOX) and Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel inventory calculation, focused on the isotopes involved in Burn-Up Credit (BUC) applications and decay heat computations. The calculation - experiment (C/E-1) discrepancies are calculated with the latest European evaluation file JEFF-3.1.1 associated with the SHEM energy mesh. An overview of the tendencies is obtained on a complete range of burn-up from 10 to 85 GWd/t (10 to 60 GWcVt for MOX fuel). The experimental validation of the DARWIN2.3 package for decay heat calculation is performed using calorimetric measurements carried out at the Swedish Interim Spent Fuel Storage Facility for Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) assemblies, covering a large burn-up (20 to 50 GWd/t) and cooling time range (10 to 30 years). (authors)

  10. WIP Organization Chart | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: SinceDevelopment | Department ofPartnerships Toolkit VoluntaryHURRICANE * FLASHAWIP Organization

  11. NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis 2005 Baseline Model AgencyCompany Organization: National Energy Technology...

  12. California Fuel Cell Partnership: Alternative Fuels Research...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    by Chris White of the California Fuel Cell Partnership provides information about alternative fuels research. cafcpinitiativescall.pdf More Documents & Publications The...

  13. Brown Carbon Absorption Linked to Organic Mass Tracers in 1 Biomass Burning Particles 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    and acetonitrile is assessed. Acetonitrile is 15 a relatively long-lived gas-phase BB these VOCs are strongly correlated with acetonitrile for the two BB plumes sample, Relationship of Benzene, Propene and 1,3-Butadiene with Acetonitrile. 2 3 4

  14. Dynamic light absorption of biomass burning or-ganic aerosol photochemically aged under natural

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    sample, 5µL of bornyl acetate solution (2.4mg/mL in acetonitrile), an internal stan- dard, was addedL acetonitrile for one hour. The extracted solution was concen- trated to 1 mL using a dry air streamL of acetonitrile. The extracted solution was concentrated to 1 mL using a rotary evaporator, transferred to a GC

  15. Shock-Dispersed-Fuel Charges: Combustion in Chambers and Tunnels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuwald, P; Reichenbach, H; Kuhl, A L

    2003-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In previous studies we have investigated after-burning effects of a fuel-rich explosive (TNT). In that case the detonation only releases about 30% of the available energy, but generates a hot cloud of fuel that can burn in the ambient air, thus evoking an additional energy release that is distributed in space and time. The current series of small-scale experiments can be looked upon as a natural generalization of this mechanism: a booster charge disperses a (non-explosive) fuel, provides mixing with air and, by means of the hot detonation products, the energy to ignite the fuel. The current version of our miniature Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) charges consists of a spherical booster charge of 0.5 g PETN, embedded in a paper cylinder of approximately 2.2 cm, which is filled with powdered fuel compositions. The main compositions studied up to now contain aluminum flakes, hydrocarbon powders like polyethylene or hexosen (sucrose) and/or carbon particles. These charges were studied in four different chambers: two cylindrical vessels of 6.6-1 and 40.5-1 volume with a height-to-diameter ratio of approximately 1, a rectangular chamber of 41 (10.5 x 10.5 x 38.6 cm) and a 299.6 cm long tunnel model with a cross section of 8 x 8 cm (volume 19.21) closed at both ends.

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Hydrogen Production and Retail Requirements All hydrogen fuel produced and sold in Michigan must meet state fuel quality requirements. Any retailer offering hydrogen fuel for sale...

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    fuel. Eligible alternative fuels include electricity, propane, natural gas, or hydrogen fuel. Medium-duty hybrid electric vehicles also qualify. Eligible medium-duty AFVs...

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel and Advanced Vehicle Acquisition Requirements Renewable Fuel Standard Biofuels Feedstock Requirements Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirement Low-Speed...

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    interest in the qualified property. Renewable fuel is defined as a fuel produced from biomass that is used to replace or reduce conventional fuel use. (Reference Florida Statutes...

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    alternative fuels; promotes the development and use of alternative fuel vehicles and technology that will enhance the use of alternative and renewable transportation fuels;...

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels Promotion and Information The Center for Alternative Fuels (Center) promotes alternative fuels as viable energy sources in the state. The Center must assess the...

  2. Fuel Processing Valri Lightner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catalysts for Autothermal Reforming Water-Gas-Shift Membrane Reactor Hydrogen Enhancement #12;Fuel Applications Fuel Cell Distributed Power Package Unit: Fuel Processing Based on Autothermal Cyclic Reforming

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Labeling Requirement Alternative fuel retailers must label retail dispensing units with the price, name, and main components of the alternative fuel or alternative...

  4. Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    would in turn lower PHEV fuel costs and make them morestretches from fossil-fuel- powered conventional vehiclesbraking, as do Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions Making Plug-

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives The Alternative Fuel Transportation Program (Program) will provide loans for up to 80% of the cost to convert fleet vehicles...

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Low Carbon Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirement Washington state agencies must consider purchasing low carbon fuel vehicles or converting conventional vehicles...

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Resale and Generation Regulations A corporation or individual that resells alternative fuel supplied by a public utility for use in an alternative fuel vehicle...

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements State agencies must purchase flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) capable of operating on E85 fuel unless the desired vehicle model...

  9. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research Institute 1990 Fuel Cell Status," Proceedings ofMiller, "Introduction: Fuel-Cell-Powered Vehicle DevelopmentPrograms," presented at Fuel Cells for Transportation,

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Labeling Requirement Biodiesel fuel retailers may not advertise or offer for sale fuel labeled as pure biodiesel unless the fuel contains no other type of petroleum product, is...

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Renewable Fuel Labeling Requirement Biodiesel, biobutanol, and ethanol blend dispensers must be affixed with decals identifying the type of fuel blend. If fuel blends containing...

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Biodiesel and Green Diesel Fuel Use Requirement Commonwealth agencies and institutions must procure only diesel fuel containing at least 2% biodiesel (B2) or green diesel fuel for...

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    fuel vehicles (AFVs) capable of operating on natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas (propane), or bi-fuel vehicles capable of operating on conventional fuel or natural gas,...

  14. Fuel cell membranes and crossover prevention

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masel, Richard I. (Champaign, IL); York, Cynthia A. (Newington, CT); Waszczuk, Piotr (White Bear Lake, MN); Wieckowski, Andrzej (Champaign, IL)

    2009-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A membrane electrode assembly for use with a direct organic fuel cell containing a formic acid fuel includes a solid polymer electrolyte having first and second surfaces, an anode on the first surface and a cathode on the second surface and electrically linked to the anode. The solid polymer electrolyte has a thickness t:.gtoreq..times..times..times..times. ##EQU00001## where C.sub.f is the formic acid fuel concentration over the anode, D.sub.f is the effective diffusivity of the fuel in the solid polymer electrolyte, K.sub.f is the equilibrium constant for partition coefficient for the fuel into the solid polymer electrolyte membrane, I is Faraday's constant n.sub.f is the number of electrons released when 1 molecule of the fuel is oxidized, and j.sub.f.sup.c is an empirically determined crossover rate of fuel above which the fuel cell does not operate.

  15. Piloted rich-catalytic lean-burn hybrid combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Newburry, Donald Maurice (Orlando, FL)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalytic combustor assembly which includes, an air source, a fuel delivery means, a catalytic reactor assembly, a mixing chamber, and a means for igniting a fuel/air mixture. The catalytic reactor assembly is in fluid communication with the air source and fuel delivery means and has a fuel/air plenum which is coated with a catalytic material. The fuel/air plenum has cooling air conduits passing therethrough which have an upstream end. The upstream end of the cooling conduits is in fluid communication with the air source but not the fuel delivery means.

  16. Yttrium and rare earth stabilized fast reactor metal fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guon, Jerold (Woodland Hills, CA); Grantham, LeRoy F. (Calabasas, CA); Specht, Eugene R. (Simi Valley, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To increase the operating temperature of a reactor, the melting point and mechanical properties of the fuel must be increased. For an actinide-rich fuel, yttrium, lanthanum and/or rare earth elements can be added, as stabilizers, to uranium and plutonium and/or a mixture of other actinides to raise the melting point of the fuel and improve its mechanical properties. Since only about 1% of the actinide fuel may be yttrium, lanthanum, or a rare earth element, the neutron penalty is low, the reactor core size can be reduced, the fuel can be burned efficiently, reprocessing requirements are reduced, and the nuclear waste disposal volumes reduced. A further advantage occurs when yttrium, lanthanum, and/or other rare earth elements are exposed to radiation in a reactor, they produce only short half life radioisotopes, which reduce nuclear waste disposal problems through much shorter assured-isolation requirements.

  17. A review of nuclear fuel cycle options for developing nations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, R.K.; Scopatz, A.M.; Ernesti, M. [The University of Texas at Austin, Pickle Research Campus, Building 159, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of several nuclear reactor and fuel cycle options for developing nations was performed. All reactor choices were considered under a GNEP framework. Two advanced alternative reactor types, a nuclear battery-type reactor and a fuel reprocessing fast reactor were examined and compared with a conventional Generation III+ LWR reactor. The burn of nuclear fuel was simulated using ORIGEN 2.2 for each reactor type and the resulting information was used to compare the options in terms of waste produced, waste quality and repository impact. The ORIGEN data was also used to evaluate the economics of the fuel cycles using unit costs, discount rates and present value functions with the material balances. The comparison of the fuel cycles and reactors developed in this work provides a basis for the evaluation of subsidy programs and cost-benefit comparisons for various reactor parameters such as repository impact and proliferation risk versus economic considerations. (authors)

  18. Ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as an aviation fuel: Eleventh international symposium on alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maben, G.D.; Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the preliminary flight testing of an aircraft using neat burning ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as a fuel. No additional changes were made to the fuel delivery systems which had previously been modified to provide the higher fuel flow rates required to operate the engine on neat ethanol. Air-fuel ratios were manually adjusted with the mixture control. This system allows the pilot to adjust the mixture to compensate for changes in air density caused by altitude, pressure and temperature. The engine was instrumented to measure exhaust gas temperatures (EGT), cylinder head temperatures (CHT), and fuel flows, while the standard aircraft instruments were used to collect aircraft performance data. Baseline engine data for ETBE and Avgas are compared. Preliminary data indicates the technical and economic feasibility of using ETBE as an aviation fuel for the piston engine fleet. Furthermore, the energy density of ETBE qualifies it as a candidate for a turbine engine fuel of which 16.2 billion gallons are used in the US each year.

  19. Impact of prescribed burning on Gulf Coast tick populations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldham, Thomas Walter

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Advisory Committee; Or. C. J. Scffres Th GlfC*stt1k (~Abl 0 tt K h) i pst f g animals along the Gul f Coast and as far inland as Oklahoma and Kansas. Prescribed burns during winter, fall or spring on four plant communities at the Rob and Bessie Welder... encouragement and expertise with the ticks; J. W. Stuth and D. N. Ueckert for their patience during this study and to each for their comments on this thesis. I thank the Rob and Bessie Welder Wildlife Foundation for their generous financial support...

  20. On the burning of his library, and On medical travel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartholin, Thomas

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lections of an old man, and what he has to say of physicians, hospitals, sugar-refining, viticulture, his own investigations of Aetna, somnolent Salerno and pious therapy are all of interest and some historical value. His advice to his sons and nephew... to Theodoras from bk. 11, ep. 94. Flames carried off the Pierian Penates of the poet Bar tholin. Does this please the Muses and you Phoebus? Thanks to the favor of the god, this great crime did not burn both domicile and dominus. A sacrifice was made of my...

  1. Height Replacement of Selected Woody Plants Following Burning or Shredding.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, W.T.; Kitchen, L.M.; Scifres, C.J.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    periods. %e e ' riment was designed as a rm=trd cmnplete+bloCL deskgn with t a o repticatbms. T h g S i g h empioped 9 h e - 'hie -wewin bo:*iriny of the l&a ' dfded o P - the plots (Scifps 1ss81. i?w ~rmeYIt l~p-m~tr lLed ltjeIt'trcwMs, 3.T by...- tions accounted for 87 pecmt of the variation in height change of blackbrush acacia. Burning did -@t affect height increase based on comparison with unburned blackbrush acacia. Blackbrush acacia height replacement was slower than that of honey mes...

  2. Pressurized water reactor in-core nuclear fuel management by tabu search

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Natasha J.; Parks, Geoffrey T.

    2014-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy July 29, 2014 search for loading patterns (LPs) that maximized the energy production over a cycle, sub-15 ject to constraints on power peaking and fuel burn-up. Kim et al. (1987) developed a16 two-stage procedure for maximizing cycle length...

  3. Fireside Corrosion in Oxy-fuel Combustion of Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak; G. H. Meier; B. Lutz; K. Jung; N. Mu; N. M. Yanar; F. S. Pettit; J. Zhu; A. Wise; D. Laughlin; S. Sridhar

    2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxy-fuel combustion is burning a fuel in oxygen rather than air. The low nitrogen flue gas that results is relatively easy to capture CO{sub 2} from for reuse or sequestration. Corrosion issues associated with the environment change (replacement of much of the N{sub 2} with CO{sub 2} and higher sulfur levels) from air- to oxy-firing were examined. Alloys studied included model Fe-Cr alloys and commercial ferritic steels, austenitic steels, and nickel base superalloys. The corrosion behavior is described in terms of corrosion rates, scale morphologies, and scale/ash interactions for the different environmental conditions.

  4. Next-generation Ultra-Lean Burn Powertrain

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  5. Performance of Transuranic-Loaded Fully Ceramic Micro-Encapsulated Fuel in LWRs Final Report, Including Void Reactivity Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael A. Pope; R. Sonat Sen; Brian Boer; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Gilles Youinou

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The current focus of the Deep Burn Project is on once-through burning of transuranics (TRU) in light-water reactors (LWRs). The fuel form is called Fully-Ceramic Micro-encapsulated (FCM) fuel, a concept that borrows the tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particle design from high-temperature reactor technology. In the Deep Burn LWR (DB-LWR) concept, these fuel particles are pressed into compacts using SiC matrix material and loaded into fuel pins for use in conventional LWRs. The TRU loading comes from the spent fuel of a conventional LWR after 5 years of cooling. Unit cell and assembly calculations have been performed using the DRAGON-4 code to assess the physics attributes of TRU-only FCM fuel in an LWR lattice. Depletion calculations assuming an infinite lattice condition were performed with calculations of various reactivity coefficients performed at each step. Unit cells and assemblies containing typical UO2 and mixed oxide (MOX) fuel were analyzed in the same way to provide a baseline against which to compare the TRU-only FCM fuel. Then, assembly calculations were performed evaluating the performance of heterogeneous arrangements of TRU-only FCM fuel pins along with UO2 pins.

  6. The wrong kind of general: the resignation of union brigadier general William W. Burns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, David Earl

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    . 8 Brian K. Burton, Extraordinary Circumstances: The Seven Days Battles (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001), 223. 9 William Wallace Burns Papers, Cushing Memorial Library, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas (hereafter Burns... in his massive history of the California regiment, but he cannot provide any clues as to why the general sank into obscurity instead of going on to greater things.7 Other historians who mention Burns at all, such as Brian K. Burton in Extraordinary...

  7. Combustion characteristics of alternative gaseous fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, O.; Veloo, Peter S.; Liu, N.; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fundamental flame properties of mixtures of air with hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and C{sub 1}C{sub 4} saturated hydrocarbons were studied both experimentally and numerically. The fuel mixtures were chosen in order to simulate alternative gaseous fuels and to gain insight into potential kinetic couplings during the oxidation of fuel mixtures. The studies included the use of the counterflow configuration for the determination of laminar flame speeds, as well as extinction and ignition limits of premixed flames. The experiments were modeled using the USC Mech II kinetic model. It was determined that when hydrocarbons are added to hydrogen flames as additives, flame ignition, propagation, and extinction are affected in a counterintuitive manner. More specifically, it was found that by substituting methane by propane or n-butane in hydrogen flames, the reactivity of the mixture is reduced both under pre-ignition and vigorous burning conditions. This behavior stems from the fact that propane and n-butane produce higher amounts of methyl radicals that can readily recombine with atomic hydrogen and reduce thus the rate of the H + O{sub 2} ? O + OH branching reaction. The kinetic model predicts closely the experimental data for flame propagation and extinction for various fuel mixtures and pressures, and for various amounts of carbon dioxide in the fuel blend. On the other hand, it underpredicts, in general, the ignition temperatures.

  8. Once through molten carbonate fuel cell system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wertheim, R.J.

    1990-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a fuel cell system. It comprises: a plurality of fuel cells connected electrically through a load, each cell comprising a cathode electrode, an anode electrode, an electrolyte disposed therebetween, a cathode chamber, and an anode chamber; an autothermal reformer for partial oxidation and steam reforming reactions; means for introducing fuel wherein the fuel enters the system through the autothermal reformer; means for delivering the gases from the autothermal reformer to the anode chamber; means for delivering the gases from a heat recovery means to a burner; means for introducing pre-heated air, the air being a source of oxygen and nitrogen for the system, to the burner wherein excess fuel is burned; means for delivering the resulting gases to the cathode chamber; means for delivering the effluent gases from the cathode chamber to the autothermal reformer; and means for exhausting excess gases from the system. The water produced in the anode chamber and the excess oxygen in the cathode chamber are utilized in the autothermal reformer for the partial oxidation and steam reformation reactions.

  9. DIESEL FUEL TANK FOUNDATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Gomez

    1995-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this analysis is to design structural foundations for the Diesel Fuel Tank and Fuel Pumps.

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageStationGreenhouseHybridDiesel FuelAlternative Fuel and

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageStationGreenhouseHybridDiesel FuelAlternative Fuel

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageStationGreenhouseHybridDiesel FuelAlternative FuelProvision

  13. Freese-casting as a Novel Manufacturing Process for Fast Reactor Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wegst, Ulrike G.K.; Allen, Todd; Sridharan, Kumar

    2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced burner reactors are designed to reduce the amount of long-lived radioactive isotopes that need to be disposed of as waste. The input feedstock for creating advanced fuel forms comes from either recycle of used light water reactor fuel or recycle of fuel from a fast burner reactor. Fuel for burner reqctors requires novel fuel types based on new materials and designs that can acieve higher performance requirements (higher burn up, higher power, and greator margins to fuel melting) then yet achieved. One promising strategy to improved fuel performance is the manufacture of metal or ceramic scaffolds which are designed to allow for a welldefined placement of the fuel into the host, and this in a manner that permits greater control than that possible in the production of typical CERMET fuels.

  14. Department of Energy Idaho - Organization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract Management FermiDavid Turner David3 |AProgramLinks >Organization

  15. Organization | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding access toTest andOptimize carbon About »Organization NETL:

  16. Corrosion Evaluation of RERTR Uranium Molybdenum Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A K Wertsching

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) mandate to replace the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel for low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, research into the development of LEU fuel for research reactors has been active since the late 1970s. Originally referred to as the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) program the new effort named Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) is nearing the goal of replacing the standard aluminum clad dispersion highly enriched uranium aluminide fuel with a new LEU fuel. The five domestic high performance research reactors undergoing this conversion are High Flux Isotope reactor (HFIR), Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Reactor, Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor II (MITR-II). The design of these reactors requires a higher neutron flux than other international research reactors, which to this point has posed unique challenges in the design and development of the new mandated LEU fuel. The new design utilizes a monolithic fuel configuration in order to obtain sufficient 235U within the LEU stoichoimetry to maintain the fission reaction within the domestic test reactors. The change from uranium aluminide dispersion fuel type to uranium molybdenum (UMo) monolithic configuration requires examination of possible corrosion issues associated with the new fuel meat. A focused analysis of the UMo fuel under potential corrosion conditions, within the ATR and under aqueous storage indicates a slow and predictable corrosion rate. Additional corrosion testing is recommended for the highest burn-up fuels to confirm observed corrosion rate trends. This corrosion analysis will focus only on the UMo fuel and will address corrosion of ancillary components such as cladding only in terms of how it affects the fuel. The calculations and corrosion scenarios are weighted with a conservative bias to provide additional confidence with the results. The actual corrosion rates of UMo fuel is very likely to be lower than assumed within this report which can be confirmed with additional testing.

  17. Plasma Proteome Response to Severe Burn Injury Revealed by 18O...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    worldwide. Here, we present the first quantitative proteomics investigation of the blood plasma proteome response to severe burn injury by comparing the plasma protein...

  18. Biomass burning and urban air pollution over the Central Mexican Plateau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    al. : Biomass burning pollution over Central Mexico Editedburning and urban air pollution over the Central MexicanJ. : The characterisation of pollution aerosol in a changing

  19. EFFECT OF FUEL IMPURITIES ON FUEL CELL PERFORMANCE AND DURABILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colon-Mercado, H.

    2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device that produces electricity during the combination of hydrogen and oxygen to produce water. Proton exchange membranes fuel cells are favored for portable applications as well as stationary ones due to their high power density, low operating temperature, and low corrosion of components. In real life operation, the use of pure fuel and oxidant gases results in an impractical system. A more realistic and cost efficient approach is the use of air as an oxidant gas and hydrogen from hydrogen carriers (i.e., ammonia, hydrocarbons, hydrides). However, trace impurities arising from different hydrogen sources and production increases the degradation of the fuel cell. These impurities include carbon monoxide, ammonia, sulfur, hydrocarbons, and halogen compounds. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has set maximum limits for trace impurities in the hydrogen stream; however fuel cell data is needed to validate the assumption that at those levels the impurities will cause no degradation. This report summarizes the effect of selected contaminants tested at SRNL at ISO levels. Runs at ISO proposed concentration levels show that model hydrocarbon compound such as tetrahydrofuran can cause serious degradation. However, the degradation is only temporary as when the impurity is removed from the hydrogen stream the performance completely recovers. Other molecules at the ISO concentration levels such as ammonia don't show effects on the fuel cell performance. On the other hand carbon monoxide and perchloroethylene shows major degradation and the system can only be recovered by following recovery procedures.

  20. User's guide for the REBUS-3 fuel cycle analysis capability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toppel, B.J.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REBUS-3 is a system of programs designed for the fuel-cycle analysis of fast reactors. This new capability is an extension and refinement of the REBUS-3 code system and complies with the standard code practices and interface dataset specifications of the Committee on Computer Code Coordination (CCCC). The new code is hence divorced from the earlier ARC System. In addition, the coding has been designed to enhance code exportability. Major new capabilities not available in the REBUS-2 code system include a search on burn cycle time to achieve a specified value for the multiplication constant at the end of the burn step; a general non-repetitive fuel-management capability including temporary out-of-core fuel storage, loading of fresh fuel, and subsequent retrieval and reloading of fuel; significantly expanded user input checking; expanded output edits; provision of prestored burnup chains to simplify user input; option of fixed-or free-field BCD input formats; and, choice of finite difference, nodal or spatial flux-synthesis neutronics in one-, two-, or three-dimensions.

  1. Stripping ethanol from ethanol-blended fuels for use in NO.sub.x SCR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kass, Michael Delos (Oak Ridge, TN); Graves, Ronald Lee (Knoxville, TN); Storey, John Morse Elliot (Oak Ridge, TN); Lewis, Sr., Samuel Arthur (Andersonville, TN); Sluder, Charles Scott (Knoxville, TN); Thomas, John Foster (Powell, TN)

    2007-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method to use diesel fuel alchohol micro emulsions (E-diesel) to provide a source of reductant to lower NO.sub.x emissions using selective catalytic reduction. Ethanol is stripped from the micro emulsion and entered into the exhaust gasses upstream of the reducing catalyst. The method allows diesel (and other lean-burn) engines to meet new, lower emission standards without having to carry separate fuel and reductant tanks.

  2. Advanced Fuel Reformer Development: Putting the 'Fuel' in Fuel Cells |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 AAccelerated agingDepartmentDevelopment and1 |AdvancedDepartment of

  3. Fuel Cell Technologies Overview: 2011 Fuel Cell Seminar | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fuel Cell Technologies Overview: 2011 Fuel Cell Seminar Fuel Cell Technologies Overview: 2011 Fuel Cell Seminar Presentation by Sunita Satyapal at the Fuel Cell Seminar on November...

  4. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Program: Fuel Cells Fact...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Program: Fuel Cells Fact Sheet Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Program: Fuel Cells Fact Sheet Fact sheet produced by the Fuel Cell...

  5. Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities Presentation covers stationary fuel cells...

  6. Engineering and Physics Optimization of Breed and Burn Fast Reactor Systems: Annual and Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevan D. Weaver; Theron Marshall; James Parry

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) contribution to the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) project number 2002-005 was divided into reactor physics, and thermal-hydraulics and plant design. The research targeted credible physics and thermal-hydraulics models for a gas-cooled fast reactor, analyzing various fuel and in-core fuel cycle options to achieve a true breed and burn core, and performing a design basis Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) analysis on that design. For the physics analysis, a 1/8 core model was created using different enrichments and simulated equilibrium fuel loadings. The model was used to locate the hot spot of the reactor, and the peak to average energy deposition at that location. The model was also used to create contour plots of the flux and energy deposition over the volume of the reactor. The eigenvalue over time was evaluated using three different fuel configurations with the same core geometry. The breeding capabilities of this configuration were excellent for a 7% U-235 model and good in both a plutonium model and a 14% U-235 model. Changing the fuel composition from the Pu fuel which provided about 78% U-238 for breeding to the 14% U-235 fuel with about 86% U-238 slowed the rate of decrease in the eigenvalue a noticeable amount. Switching to the 7% U-235 fuel with about 93% U-238 showed an increase in the eigenvalue over time. For the thermal-hydraulic analysis, the reactor design used was the one forwarded by the MIT team. This reactor design uses helium coolant, a Brayton cycle, and has a thermal power of 600 MW. The core design parameters were supplied by MIT; however, the other key reactor components that were necessary for a plausible simulation of a LOCA were not defined. The thermal-hydraulic and plant design research concentrated on determining reasonable values for those undefined components. The LOCA simulation was intended to provide insights on the influence of the Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS), the containment building, and a Decay Heat Removal System (DHRS) on the natural circulation heat transfer of the core's decay heat. A baseline case for natural circulation had to be established in order to truly understand the impact of the added safety systems. This baseline case did not include a DHRS, although the current MIT design does have a DHRS that features the highly efficient Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers (PCHEs). The initial LOCA analysis revealed that the RCCS was insufficient to maintain the reactor core below the fuel matrix decomposition temperature. A guard containment was added to the model in order to maintain a prescribed backpressure during the LOCA to enhance the natural circulation. The backpressure approach did provide satisfactory natural convection during the LOCA. The necessary backpressure was 1.8 MPa, which was not especially different from the values reported by other gas fast reactor researchers. However, as the model evolved to be more physically representative of a nuclear reactor, i.e., it included radial peaking factors, inlet plenum orificing, and the degradation of SiC thermal properties as a result of irradiation, the LOCA-induced fuel temperatures were not consistently below the decomposition limit.

  7. Alcohol-fueled vehicles: An alternative fuels vehicle, emissions, and refueling infrastructure technology assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCoy, G.A.; Kerstetter, J.; Lyons, J.K. [and others

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interest in alternative motor vehicle fuels has grown tremendously over the last few years. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the California Clean Air Act are primarily responsible for this resurgence and have spurred both the motor fuels and vehicle manufacturing industries into action. For the first time, all three U.S. auto manufacturers are offering alternative fuel vehicles to the motoring public. At the same time, a small but growing alternative fuels refueling infrastructure is beginning to develop across the country. Although the recent growth in alternative motor fuels use is impressive, their market niche is still being defined. Environmental regulations, a key driver behind alternative fuel use, is forcing both car makers and the petroleum industry to clean up their products. As a result, alternative fuels no longer have a lock on the clean air market and will have to compete with conventional vehicles in meeting stringent future vehicle emission standards. The development of cleaner burning gasoline powered vehicles has signaled a shift in the marketing of alternative fuels. While they will continue to play a major part in the clean vehicle market, alternative fuels are increasingly recognized as a means to reduce oil imports. This new role is clearly defined in the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The Act identifies alternative fuels as a key strategy for reducing imports of foreign oil and mandates their use for federal and state fleets, while reserving the right to require private and municipal fleet use as well.

  8. Integration Strategy for DB-MHR TRISO Fuel production in conjunction with MOX Fuel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MCGUIRE, DAVID

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the nuclear power options for the future involves the evolution of gas cooled reactors to support the likely high temperature operations needed for commercial scale hydrogen production. One such proposed option is to use a Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor fueled with uranium based TRISO (coated particle) fuel. It has also been suggested that such a MHR could be operated in a ''Deep Burn'' manner fueled with TRISO fuel produced from recycle spent nuclear fuel. This concept known as a DBMHR must withstand significant development and fuel fabrication cost to be economically viable. The purpose of this report is to consider and propose a strategy where synergy with a parallel MOX fuel to LWR program provides economic or other advantage for either or both programs. A strategy involving three phases has been envisioned with potential for economic benefit relative to a stand-alone TRISO/DBMHR program. Such a strategy and related timing will ultimately be driven by economics, but is offered here for consideration of value to the total AFCI program. Phase I Near-term. Conventional spent fuel aqueous processing, MOX fuel fabrication, and use of present and future LWR/ALWR's with objective of a ''Continuous Recycle'' mode of fuel cycle management. Phase II Intermediate. Augmentation of LWR/ALWR industry with MHR deployment as justified by hydrogen economy and/or electrical demand. Phase III Long-term. Introduction of DBMHR's to offer alternative method for transuranic destruction and associated repository benefits, in addition to Phase II benefits. The basic philosophy of this strategy appears sound. However, the details of the technology plans and economic evaluations should receive additional detail and evaluation in the next fiscal year as funding can support.

  9. California Fuel Cell Partnership: Alternative Fuels Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof Energy Change Request |82:91:4Applications | DepartmentFuel Cell

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWP RelatedCellulaseFuels andConversionsAssumptionsBenefits toFueling

  11. Advanced Safeguards Approaches for New TRU Fuel Fabrication Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durst, Philip C.; Ehinger, Michael H.; Boyer, Brian; Therios, Ike; Bean, Robert; Dougan, A.; Tolk, K.

    2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This second report in a series of three reviews possible safeguards approaches for the new transuranic (TRU) fuel fabrication processes to be deployed at AFCF specifically, the ceramic TRU (MOX) fuel fabrication line and the metallic (pyroprocessing) line. The most common TRU fuel has been fuel composed of mixed plutonium and uranium dioxide, referred to as MOX. However, under the Advanced Fuel Cycle projects custom-made fuels with higher contents of neptunium, americium, and curium may also be produced to evaluate if these minor actinides can be effectively burned and transmuted through irradiation in the ABR. A third and final report in this series will evaluate and review the advanced safeguards approach options for the ABR. In reviewing and developing the advanced safeguards approach for the new TRU fuel fabrication processes envisioned for AFCF, the existing international (IAEA) safeguards approach at the Plutonium Fuel Production Facility (PFPF) and the conceptual approach planned for the new J-MOX facility in Japan have been considered as a starting point of reference. The pyro-metallurgical reprocessing and fuel fabrication process at EBR-II near Idaho Falls also provided insight for safeguarding the additional metallic pyroprocessing fuel fabrication line planned for AFCF.

  12. Organization Chart

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding access toTest andOptimize carbon About » Leadership, Governance »

  13. Science Organizations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > TheNuclearHomeland Science Stockpile2015HighlightsScience

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onConversionsAlternativeE85 Fueling

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageStationGreenhouse GasCaliforniaNew England MEDIAZeroFuel

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageStationGreenhouseHybrid andAlternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV)

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageStationGreenhouseHybrid andAlternative Fuel Vehicle

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageStationGreenhouseHybrid andAlternative Fuel VehicleTax

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageStationGreenhouseHybrid andAlternative Fuel

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageStationGreenhouseHybrid andAlternative FuelClean Vehicle

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageStationGreenhouseHybrid andAlternative FuelClean

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageStationGreenhouseHybrid andAlternative FuelCleanAlternative

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageStationGreenhouseHybrid andAlternativeLowAlternative Fuel

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageStationGreenhouseHybridDiesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption The

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageStationGreenhouseHybridDiesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageStationGreenhouseHybridDiesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemptionand

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageStationGreenhouseHybridDiesel Fuel Blend Tax

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageStationGreenhouseHybridDiesel Fuel Blend TaxHeavy-Duty

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageStationGreenhouseHybridDiesel Fuel Blend

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageStationGreenhouseHybridDiesel Fuel BlendNeighborhood

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageStationGreenhouseHybridDiesel Fuel BlendNeighborhoodNatural

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageStationGreenhouseHybridDiesel Fuel

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageStationGreenhouseHybridDiesel FuelAlternative

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageStationGreenhouseHybridDiesel FuelAlternativeFleet Vehicle

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageStationGreenhouseHybridDiesel FuelAlternativeFleet

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageStationGreenhouseHybridDieselEmissionsLADWP TheFuel

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageStationGreenhouseHybridDieselEmissionsLADWP TheFuelBiofuels

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeIdle Reduction Weight Exemption A vehicleIdleAlternative Fuel

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeIdle Reduction Weight Exemption AFuel-EfficientFuel-Efficient

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeIdle Reduction Weight Exemption AFuel-EfficientFuel-Efficientand

  1. Combustor oscillation attenuation via the control of fuel-supply line dynamics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, George A. (Morgantown, WV); Gemmen, Randall S. (Morgantown, WV)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combustion oscillation control in combustion systems using hydrocarbon fuels is provided by acoustically tuning a fuel-delivery line to a desired phase of the combustion oscillations for providing a pulse of a fuel-rich region at the oscillating flame front at each time when the oscillation produced pressure in the combustion chamber is in a low pressure phase. The additional heat release produced by burning such fuel-rich regions during low combustion chamber pressure effectively attenuates the combustion oscillations to a selected value.

  2. Combustor oscillation attenuation via the control of fuel-supply line dynamics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, G.A.; Gemmen, R.S.

    1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Combustion oscillation control in combustion systems using hydrocarbon fuels is provided by acoustically tuning a fuel-delivery line to a desired phase of the combustion oscillations for providing a pulse of a fuel-rich region at the oscillating flame front at each time when the oscillation produced pressure in the combustion chamber is in a low pressure phase. The additional heat release produced by burning such fuel-rich regions during low combustion chamber pressure effectively attenuates the combustion oscillations to a selected value. 9 figs.

  3. Multi-criteria comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel emission-standards, and fuel carbon tax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuelcomparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel121, 2011. C. Fischer. Renewable Portfolio Standards: When

  4. Propagation of nuclear data uncertainties for ELECTRA burn-up calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ostrand, H; Duan, J; Gustavsson, C; Koning, A; Pomp, S; Rochman, D; Osterlund, M

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The European Lead-Cooled Training Reactor (ELECTRA) has been proposed as a training reactor for fast systems within the Swedish nuclear program. It is a low-power fast reactor cooled by pure liquid lead. In this work, we propagate the uncertainties in Pu-239 transport data to uncertainties in the fuel inventory of ELECTRA during the reactor life using the Total Monte Carlo approach (TMC). Within the TENDL project the nuclear models input parameters were randomized within their uncertainties and 740 Pu-239 nuclear data libraries were generated. These libraries are used as inputs to reactor codes, in our case SERPENT, to perform uncertainty analysis of nuclear reactor inventory during burn-up. The uncertainty in the inventory determines uncertainties in: the long-term radio-toxicity, the decay heat, the evolution of reactivity parameters, gas pressure and volatile fission product content. In this work, a methodology called fast TMC is utilized, which reduces the overall calculation time. The uncertainty in the ...

  5. Propagation of nuclear data uncertainties for ELECTRA burn-up calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Sjstrand; E. Alhassan; J. Duan; C. Gustavsson; A. Koning; S. Pomp; D. Rochman; M. sterlund

    2013-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The European Lead-Cooled Training Reactor (ELECTRA) has been proposed as a training reactor for fast systems within the Swedish nuclear program. It is a low-power fast reactor cooled by pure liquid lead. In this work, we propagate the uncertainties in Pu-239 transport data to uncertainties in the fuel inventory of ELECTRA during the reactor life using the Total Monte Carlo approach (TMC). Within the TENDL project the nuclear models input parameters were randomized within their uncertainties and 740 Pu-239 nuclear data libraries were generated. These libraries are used as inputs to reactor codes, in our case SERPENT, to perform uncertainty analysis of nuclear reactor inventory during burn-up. The uncertainty in the inventory determines uncertainties in: the long-term radio-toxicity, the decay heat, the evolution of reactivity parameters, gas pressure and volatile fission product content. In this work, a methodology called fast TMC is utilized, which reduces the overall calculation time. The uncertainty in the long-term radiotoxicity, decay heat, gas pressure and volatile fission products were found to be insignificant. However, the uncertainty of some minor actinides were observed to be rather large and therefore their impact on multiple recycling should be investigated further. It was also found that, criticality benchmarks can be used to reduce inventory uncertainties due to nuclear data. Further studies are needed to include fission yield uncertainties, more isotopes, and a larger set of benchmarks.

  6. Results of the PDF{trademark} test burn at Clifty Creek Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, S.A.; Knottnerus, B.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Process Derived Fuel (PDF{sup TM}) from the ENCOAL process is different from other coals used to generate steam for the power industry. Although PDF{sup TM} is currently produced from Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal, the coal structure changes during processing. Compared to the parent coal, PDF{sup TM} contains much less moisture and slightly lower volatile matter resulting in a higher heating value and higher ash per million Btu. These coal properties can potentially benefit utility boiler performance. Combining the high combustion reactivity typical of PRB coals with significantly reduced moisture should produce higher flame zone temperatures and shorter flames. As a result, some boilers may experience increased steam production, better burnout, or lower excess air. The objective of the work contracted to Quinapoxet Engineering was to quantify the impacts of burning PDF{sup TM} on boiler performance at Clifty Creek Unit 3. A unique optical temperature monitor called SpectraTemp was used to measure changes in furnace exit gas temperature (FEGT) with time and boiler operating parameters for both PDF{sup TM} blends as well as a baseline coal blend consisting of 60% PRB coal, 20% Ohio coal, and 20% low-volatile eastern bituminous coal from Virginia. FEGT was then related to net plant heat rate, NO{sub x} emissions, and electrostatic precipitator performance.

  7. Carbon Detonation and Shock-Triggered Helium Burning in Neutron Star Superbursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinberg, Nevin N

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The strong degeneracy of the 12C ignition layer on an accreting neutron star results in a hydrodynamic thermonuclear runaway, in which the nuclear heating time becomes shorter than the local dynamical time. We model the resulting combustion wave during these superbursts as an upward propagating detonation. We solve the reactive fluid flow and show that the detonation propagates through the deepest layers of fuel and drives a shock wave that steepens as it travels upward into lower density material. The shock is sufficiently strong upon reaching the freshly accreted H/He layer that it triggers unstable 4He burning if the superburst occurs during the latter half of the regular Type I bursting cycle; this is likely the origin of the bright Type I precursor bursts observed at the onset of superbursts. The cooling of the outermost shock-heated layers produces a bright, ~0.1s, flash that precedes the Type I burst by a few seconds; this may be the origin of the spike seen at the burst onset in 4U 1820-30 and 4U 1636...

  8. Carbon Detonation and Shock-Triggered Helium Burning in Neutron Star Superbursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nevin N. Weinberg; Lars Bildsten

    2007-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The strong degeneracy of the 12C ignition layer on an accreting neutron star results in a hydrodynamic thermonuclear runaway, in which the nuclear heating time becomes shorter than the local dynamical time. We model the resulting combustion wave during these superbursts as an upward propagating detonation. We solve the reactive fluid flow and show that the detonation propagates through the deepest layers of fuel and drives a shock wave that steepens as it travels upward into lower density material. The shock is sufficiently strong upon reaching the freshly accreted H/He layer that it triggers unstable 4He burning if the superburst occurs during the latter half of the regular Type I bursting cycle; this is likely the origin of the bright Type I precursor bursts observed at the onset of superbursts. The cooling of the outermost shock-heated layers produces a bright, ~0.1s, flash that precedes the Type I burst by a few seconds; this may be the origin of the spike seen at the burst onset in 4U 1820-30 and 4U 1636-54, the only two bursts observed with RXTE at high time resolution. The dominant products of the 12C detonation are 28Si, 32S, and 36Ar. Gupta et al. showed that a crust composed of such intermediate mass elements has a larger heat flux than one composed of iron-peak elements and helps bring the superburst ignition depth into better agreement with values inferred from observations.

  9. Constraints on explosive silicon burning in core-collapse supernovae from measured Ni/Fe ratios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jerkstrand, A; Magkotsios, G; Sim, S A; Fransson, C; Spyromilio, J; Heger, A; Mller, B; Sollerman, J; Smartt, S J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of explosive nucleosynthesis yields in core-collapse supernovae provide tests for explosion models. We investigate constraints on explosive conditions derivable from measured amounts of nickel and iron after radioactive decays using nucleosynthesis networks with parameterized thermodynamic trajectories. The Ni/Fe ratio is for most regimes dominated by the production ratio of 58Ni/(54Fe + 56Ni), which tends to grow with higher neutron excess and with higher entropy. For SN 2012ec, a supernova that produced a Ni/Fe ratio of $3.4\\pm1.2$ times solar, we find that burning of a fuel with neutron excess $\\eta \\approx 6\\times 10^{-3}$ is required. Unless the progenitor metallicity is over 5 times solar, the only layer in the progenitor with such a neutron excess is the silicon shell. Supernovae producing large amounts of stable nickel thus suggest that this deep-lying layer can be, at least partially, ejected in the explosion. We find that common spherically symmetric models of $M_{\\rm ZAMS} \\lesssim 13$...

  10. Assessment of Startup Fuel Options for the GNEP Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jon Carmack (062056); Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu (103171); David Alberstein

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Global Nuclear Energy Program (GNEP) includes a program element for the development and construction of an advanced sodium cooled fast reactor to demonstrate the burning (transmutation) of significant quantities of minor actinides obtained from a separations process and fabricated into a transuranic bearing fuel assembly. To demonstrate and qualify transuranic (TRU) fuel in a fast reactor, an Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) prototype is needed. The ABR would necessarily be started up using conventional metal alloy or oxide (U or U, Pu) fuel. Startup fuel is needed for the ABR for the first 2 to 4 core loads of fuel in the ABR. Following start up, a series of advanced TRU bearing fuel assemblies will be irradiated in qualification lead test assemblies in the ABR. There are multiple options for this startup fuel. This report provides a description of the possible startup fuel options as well as possible fabrication alternatives available to the program in the current domestic and international facilities and infrastructure.

  11. Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuel Cladding System Development Trade-Off Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristine Barrett; Shannon Bragg-Sitton

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Light Water Reactor (LWR) Nuclear Fuel Development Research and Development (R&D) Pathway encompasses strategic research focused on improving reactor core economics and safety margins through the development of an advanced fuel cladding system. To achieve significant operating improvements while remaining within safety boundaries, significant steps beyond incremental improvements in the current generation of nuclear fuel are required. Fundamental improvements are required in the areas of nuclear fuel composition, cladding integrity, and the fuel/cladding interaction to allow power uprates and increased fuel burn-up allowance while potentially improving safety margin through the adoption of an accident tolerant fuel system that would offer improved coping time under accident scenarios. With a development time of about 20 25 years, advanced fuel designs must be started today and proven in current reactors if future reactor designs are to be able to use them with confidence.

  12. Fermilab | About | Organization | Fermilab Organization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental Assessments (EA)Budget » FYU.S. DOEFigureTip of the WeekAbout

  13. The Caw Burn SUDS: performance of a settlement pond/wetland SUDS retrofit Kate Heal1*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heal, Kate

    ) to remediate pollution of the Caw Burn by runoff from the Houston Industrial Estate, Livingston, Scotland-study of a retrofit SUDS constructed in 1996 to remediate pollution in the Caw Burn originating in runoff from runoff from the Houston Industrial Estate, where construction commenced in the 1960s, and two residential

  14. Butterfly species richness and community composition in forests affected by ENSO-induced burning and habitat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mooers, Arne

    shown to be sensitive to global climate change (Dennis 1993); non-migrat@hotmail.com. Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B.C. Canada V5A 1S6. 1 To whom surrounded by the burned forest this indicates that the habitat (burned or unburned) overrides geographical

  15. Issues in "Burning Plasma Science" S. J. Zweben, D. S. Darrow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    development issues => big issue: local burn control in an AT Our conclusions Alternate path #12;Burning, not fusion energy development (i.e. reactor-relevance) General issues: What are the interesting plasma a viable fusion reactor (or, should it be)? #12;What are Fusion Energy Development Issues Which Could

  16. On the Galois cohomology of ideal class groups David Burns and Soogil Seo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bushnell, Colin J.

    1 On the Galois cohomology of ideal class groups David Burns and Soogil Seo Abstract. We use ??etale # . For each such M we also #12; 2 David Burns and Soogil Seo write M [0] for the complex C · which has C 0 = M

  17. SJTU Plasma Physics Seminar, April 10.th 2009 1 Physics of Burning Plasmas in Toroidal Magnetic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zonca, Fulvio

    plasma without appreciable degradation due to collective modes. The identification of burning plasma materials. Such analyses can be performed, at least in part, in present day experiments and provide nice examples of mutual positive feedbacks between theory, simulation and experiment. In a burning plasma

  18. Global observations and spectral characteristics of desert dust and biomass burning aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    Global observations and spectral characteristics of desert dust and biomass burning aerosols M. de (UV) absorbing aerosols, mainly desert dust and biomass burning aerosols. The AAI is not an aerosol quantity, but a radiation difference in the UV. Its main advantages are its insensitivity to scattering

  19. Outcrop-scale physical properties of Burns Formation at Meridiani Planum, Mars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Outcrop-scale physical properties of Burns Formation at Meridiani Planum, Mars Amanda L. Nahm1 October 2007. [1] A rock mass rating (RMR) analysis was performed on an outcrop of Burns Formation conditions (RMR = 52). For present-day dry conditions, the rock mass has an in situ modulus of deformation (E

  20. Prediction of burn-on and mould penetration in steel casting using simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Prediction of burn-on and mould penetration in steel casting using simulation B. E. Brooks1 , C the mould surface and entrain onto the surface of the mould. A method has been developed to predict likely, burn-on and penetration defects can be predicted. The method is validated through comparison