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Sample records for bulk heterojunction bhj

  1. Small Molecule Solution-Processed Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Candea, George

    Small Molecule Solution-Processed Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells Arthur Aebersold Supervisors: J in solution processed BHJ solar cells, which are made from a PCBM Squaraine DyeCyanine Dye Absorber Molecules solar cell performance show a trend for better devices with an intemediate active layer thickness

  2. Effects of Magnetic Nanoparticles and External Magnetostatic Field on the Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Kai; Yi, Chao; Liu, Chang; Hu, Xiaowen; Chuang, Steven; Gong, Xiong

    2015-03-18

    The price of energy to separate tightly bound electron-hole pair (or charge-transfer state) and extract freely movable charges from low-mobility materials represents fundamental losses for many low-cost photovoltaic devices. In bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs), approximately 50% of the total efficiency lost among all energy loss pathways is due to the photogenerated charge carrier recombination within PSCs and low charge carrier mobility of disordered organic materials. To address these issues, we introduce magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and orientate these MNPS within BHJ composite by an external magnetostatic field. Over 50% enhanced efficiency was observed from BHJ PSCs incorporated withmore »MNPs and an external magnetostatic field alignment when compared to the control BHJ PSCs. The optimization of BHJ thin film morphology, suppression of charge carrier recombination, and enhancement in charge carrier collection result in a greatly increased short-circuit current density and fill factor, as a result, enhanced power conversion efficiency.« less

  3. Effects of Magnetic Nanoparticles and External Magnetostatic Field on the Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Kai; Yi, Chao; Liu, Chang; Hu, Xiaowen; Chuang, Steven; Gong, Xiong

    2015-03-18

    The price of energy to separate tightly bound electron-hole pair (or charge-transfer state) and extract freely movable charges from low-mobility materials represents fundamental losses for many low-cost photovoltaic devices. In bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs), approximately 50% of the total efficiency lost among all energy loss pathways is due to the photogenerated charge carrier recombination within PSCs and low charge carrier mobility of disordered organic materials. To address these issues, we introduce magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and orientate these MNPS within BHJ composite by an external magnetostatic field. Over 50% enhanced efficiency was observed from BHJ PSCs incorporated with MNPs and an external magnetostatic field alignment when compared to the control BHJ PSCs. The optimization of BHJ thin film morphology, suppression of charge carrier recombination, and enhancement in charge carrier collection result in a greatly increased short-circuit current density and fill factor, as a result, enhanced power conversion efficiency.

  4. The influence of molecular orientation on organic bulk heterojunction...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The influence of molecular orientation on organic bulk heterojunction solar cells The influence of molecular orientation on organic bulk heterojunction solar cells Print Monday, 28...

  5. Optimizing Morphology of Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells A dissertation submittedBulk Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells by Jing Gao Doctorheterojunction polymer solar cells is profoundly influenced

  6. Composition, structure, and performance of nanocrystal bulk heterojunction photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Kevin J. (Kevin Joon-Ming)

    2015-01-01

    We describe the fabrication and study of bulk heterojunction solar cells composed of PbS quantum dots and TiO2. In particular, we study the effects that bulk heterojunction composition and structure have on resulting device ...

  7. Organic hybrid planar-nanocrystalline bulk heterojunctions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Yang, Fan

    2013-04-09

    A photosensitive optoelectronic device having an improved hybrid planar bulk heterojunction includes a plurality of photoconductive materials disposed between the anode and the cathode. The photoconductive materials include a first continuous layer of donor material and a second continuous layer of acceptor material. A first network of donor material or materials extends from the first continuous layer toward the second continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of holes to the first continuous layer. A second network of acceptor material or materials extends from the second continuous layer toward the first continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of electrons to the second continuous layer. The first network and the second network are interlaced with each other. At least one other photoconductive material is interspersed between the interlaced networks. This other photoconductive material or materials has an absorption spectra different from the donor and acceptor materials.

  8. Organic hybrid planar-nanocrystalline bulk heterojunctions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R. (Ann Arbor, MI); Yang, Fan (Piscataway, NJ)

    2011-03-01

    A photosensitive optoelectronic device having an improved hybrid planar bulk heterojunction includes a plurality of photoconductive materials disposed between the anode and the cathode. The photoconductive materials include a first continuous layer of donor material and a second continuous layer of acceptor material. A first network of donor material or materials extends from the first continuous layer toward the second continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of holes to the first continuous layer. A second network of acceptor material or materials extends from the second continuous layer toward the first continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of electrons to the second continuous layer. The first network and the second network are interlaced with each other. At least one other photoconductive material is interspersed between the interlaced networks. This other photoconductive material or materials has an absorption spectra different from the donor and acceptor materials.

  9. Structural and Electrical Functionality of NiO Interfacial Films in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Irwin, M.D.; Servaites, J.D.; Buchholz, B.D.; Leever, B.J.; Liu, J.; Emery, J.D.; Zhang, M.; Song, J.H.; Durstock, M.F.; Freeman, Arthur J.; Bedzyk, M.J.; Hersam, Mark C.; Chang, R.P.H.; Ratner, Mark A.; Marks, Tobin J.

    2011-01-01

    The functionality of NiO interfacial layers in enhancing bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaic (OPV) cell performance is investigated by integrated characterization of the electrical properties, microstructure, electronic structure, and optical properties of thin NiO films grown on glass/ITO electrodes. These NiO layers are found to be advantageous in BHJ OPV applications due to favorable energy band levels, interface passivation, p-type character, crystallinity, smooth surfaces, and optical transparency. The NiO overlayers are fabricated via pulsed-laser deposition and found to have a work function of ?5.3 eV. They are investigated by both topographic and conductive atomic force microscopy and shown to passivate interfacial charge traps. The films also have an average optical transparency of >80% in the visible range, crucial for efficient OPV function, and have a near-stoichiometric Ni:O surface composition. By grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction, the NiO thin films are shown to grow preferentially in the (111) direction and to have the fcc NaCl crystal structure. Diodes of p?n structure and first-principles electronic structure calculations indicate that the NiO interlayer is preferentially conductive to holes, with a lower hole charge carrier effective mass versus that of electrons. Finally, the implications of these attributes in advancing efficiencies for state-of-the-art OPV systems—in particular, improving the open circuit voltage (V{sub OC})—are discussed.

  10. MORPHOLOGY DEPENDENT SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT IN BULK HETEROJUNCTION SOLAR CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alam, Muhammad A.

    MORPHOLOGY DEPENDENT SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT IN BULK HETEROJUNCTION SOLAR CELL Biswajit Ray, Pradeep, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA ABSTRACT Polymer based bulk heterostructure (BH) solar cell offers a relatively inexpensive option for the future solar cell technology, provided its efficiency increases beyond

  11. An analytical model for analyzing the current-voltage characteristics of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnab, Salman M.; Kabir, M. Z., E-mail: kabir@encs.concordia.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 Blvd. de Maisonneuve West, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1M8 (Canada)

    2014-01-21

    An analytical model for analyzing the current-voltage (J-V) characteristics of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells is developed by incorporating exponential photon absorption, dissociation efficiency of bound electron-hole pairs (EHPs), carrier trapping, and carrier drift and diffusion in the photon absorption layer. Modified Braun's model is used to compute the electric field-dependent dissociation efficiency of the bound EHPs. The charge carrier concentrations and hence the photocurrent are calculated by solving the carrier continuity equation for both holes and electrons in the organic layer. The overall load current is calculated considering the actual solar spectrum and voltage dependent forward dark current. The model is verified by published experimental results. The efficiency of the P3HT:PCBM based solar cells critically depends on the dissociation of bound EHPs. On the other hand, cells made of a blend of the conjugated polymer (PCDTBT) with the soluble fullerene derivative (PCBM) show nearly unity dissociation efficiency, and their cell efficiency strongly depends on the charge collection efficiency. The effects of carrier lifetimes on the performance of PCDTBT solar cells have also been studied. The model is also used to investigate the effect of titanium oxide (TiO{sub x}) layer (at the back contact) on the J-V characteristics of PCDTBT solar cells. The results of this paper indicate that improvement of charge carrier transport in PCDTBT:PCBM blend and dissociation of bound EHPs in P3HT:PCBM blend are extremely important to increase the power conversion efficiency of the respective BHJ solar cells.

  12. Solution processable organic polymers and small molecules for bulk-heterojunction solar cells: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, G. D. [Physics Department, Molecular Electronic and Optoelectronic Device Laboratory JNV University, Jodhpur (Raj.) 342005 (India)

    2011-10-20

    Solution processed bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs) have gained wide interest in past few years and are established as one of the leading next generation photovoltaic technologies for low cost power production. Power conversion efficiencies up to 6% and 6.5% have been reported in the literature for single layer and tandem solar cells, respectively using conjugated polymers. A recent record efficiency about 8.13% with active area of 1.13 cm{sup 2} has been reported. However Solution processable small molecules have been widely applied for photovoltaic (PV) devices in recent years because they show strong absorption properties, and they can be easily purified and deposited onto flexible substrates at low cost. Introducing different donor and acceptor groups to construct donor--acceptor (D--A) structure small molecules has proved to be an efficient way to improve the properties of organic solar cells (OSCs). The power conversion efficiency about 4.4 % has been reported for OSCs based on the small molecules. This review deals with the recent progress of solution processable D--A structure small molecules and discusses the key factors affecting the properties of OSCs based on D--A structure small molecules: sunlight absorption, charge transport and the energy level of the molecules.

  13. Thermal annealing study on P3HT: PCBM based bulk heterojunction organic solar cells using impedance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gollu, Sankara Rao; Sharma, Ramakant G, Srinivas Gupta, Dipti

    2014-10-15

    Recently, Thermal annealing is an important process for bulk heterojunction organic solar cells (BHJ OSCs) to improve the device efficiency and performance of the organic solar cells. Here in, we have examined the changes in the efficiency and morphology of P3HT: PCBM film according to the thermal annealing temperature to find the changes during the annealing process by measuring the optical absorption, atomic force microscope and X-ray diffraction. We also investigated the effect of different annealing process conditions (without, pre- and post-annealing) on the device performance of the inverted bulk heterojunction organic solar cells consist the structure of ITO/ ZnO / P3HT: PCBM / MoO{sub 3}/ Al by measuring AC impedance characteristics. Particularly, the power conversion efficiency (PCE), crystalline nature of the polymer, light absorption and the surface smoothness of P3HT: PCBM films are significantly improved after the annealing process. These results indicated the improvement in terms of PCE, interface smoothness between the P3HT: PCBM and MoO{sub 3} layers of the post annealed device originated from the decrease of series resistance between P3HT: PCBM layer and Al electrodes, which could be due to decrease in the effective life time of charge carriers.

  14. A compact physical model for morphology induced intrinsic degradation of organic bulk heterojunction solar cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alam, Muhammad A.

    heterojunction solar cell Biswajit Raya) and Muhammad A. Alamb) School of Electrical and Computer Engineering challenge for economic viability of any solar cell technology. Well known examples include light for an intrinsic degradation concern for bulk heterojunction type organic photovoltaic (BH-OPV) cells that involve

  15. "Plastic" Solar Cells: Self-Assembly of Bulk HeterojunctionNano...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    "Plastic" Solar Cells: Self-Assembly of Bulk Heterojunction Nano-Materials by Spontaneous Phase Separation October 20, 2009 at 3pm36-428 Alan Heeger Department of Chemistry,...

  16. Tuning of defects in ZnO nanorod arrays used in bulk heterojunction solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iza, Diana C; Muńoz-Rojas, David; Jia, Quanxi; Swartzentruber, Brian; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L

    2012-11-27

    Abstract With particular focus on bulk heterojunction solar cells incorporating ZnO nanorods, we study how different annealing environments (air or Zn environment) and temperatures impact on the photoluminescence response. Our work gives new insight...

  17. Annealing dependent performance of organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells: A theoretical perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alam, Muhammad A.

    Annealing dependent performance of organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells: A theoretical solar cell Process conditions a b s t r a c t Organic photovoltaic (OPV) technology promises duration) on the performance of organic solar cells. Our results explain experimentally observed annealing

  18. Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells utilizing a Benzothiadiazole-based Oligomer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    to find a viable option to alleviate global energy concerns. One proposed solution, the organic solar cell, has the potential to convert solar energy into usable power at a commercially-feasible price pointBulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells utilizing a Benzothiadiazole-based Oligomer What

  19. Device Physics and Recombination in Polymer:Fullerene Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawks, Steven

    2015-01-01

    and Outlook This thesis is composed of six chapters on the topic of recombination and device physics of polymer:fullerene BHJ solar

  20. Annealing effects on the photovoltaic performance of all-conjugated poly(3-alkylthiophene) diblock copolymer-based bulk heterojunction solar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhiqun

    Annealing effects on the photovoltaic performance of all-conjugated poly(3-alkylthiophene) diblock copolymer-based bulk heterojunction solar cells Ming He,ab Wei Han,ac Jing Ge,b Weijie Yu,a Yuliang Yang The effects of thermal and solvent vapor annealing on the photovoltaic performance of a new class of all

  1. Modeling and Optimization of Polymer based Bulk Heterojunction (BH) Solar cell * Biswajit Ray, Pradeep R. Nair, R. Edwin Garca1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alam, Muhammad A.

    of the morphology can double the efficiency of BH cells. 1. Introduction Polymer based organic solar cell remains/devices of organic cells to achievable efficiency. The cartoon of a BH solar cell in Fig. 1a illustrates four keyModeling and Optimization of Polymer based Bulk Heterojunction (BH) Solar cell * Biswajit Ray

  2. Nanostructured electrodes for organic bulk heterojunction solar cells: Model study using carbon nanotube dispersed polythiophene-fullerene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nanostructured electrodes for organic bulk heterojunction solar cells: Model study using carbon for organic pseudo-bilayer solar cells J. Appl. Phys. 112, 084511 (2012) Addition of regiorandom poly(3 (2012) Tunable open-circuit voltage in ternary organic solar cells Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 163302 (2012

  3. Characterization of the Polymer Energy Landscape in Polymer:Fullerene Bulk Heterojunctions with Pure and Mixed Phases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal, Saudi Arabia, 23955-6900 § DepartmentCharacterization of the Polymer Energy Landscape in Polymer:Fullerene Bulk HeterojunctionsGehee*, Materials Science and Engineering Department, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-4034, United

  4. Solvent polarity and nanoscale morphology in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells: A case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Ajith [Centre for Nano-Bio-Polymer Science and Technology, Department of Physics, St. Thomas College, Pala, Kerala 686574 (India); Research and Development Centre, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu 641046 (India); Elsa Tom, Anju; Ison, V. V., E-mail: isonvv@yahoo.in, E-mail: praveen@materials.iisc.ernet.in [Centre for Nano-Bio-Polymer Science and Technology, Department of Physics, St. Thomas College, Pala, Kerala 686574 (India); Rao, Arun D.; Varman, K. Arul; Ranjith, K.; Ramamurthy, Praveen C., E-mail: isonvv@yahoo.in, E-mail: praveen@materials.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore, Karnataka 560012 (India); Vinayakan, R. [Department of Chemistry, SVR NSS College Vazhoor, Kerala 686505 (India)

    2014-03-14

    Organic bulk heterojunction solar cells were fabricated under identical experimental conditions, except by varying the solvent polarity used for spin coating the active layer components and their performance was evaluated systematically. Results showed that presence of nitrobenzene-chlorobenzene composition governs the morphology of active layer formed, which is due to the tuning of solvent polarity as well as the resulting solubility of the P3HT:PCBM blend. Trace amount of nitrobenzene favoured the formation of better organised P3HT domains, as evident from conductive AFM, tapping mode AFM and surface, and cross-sectional SEM analysis. The higher interfacial surface area thus generated produced cells with high efficiency. But, an increase in the nitrobenzene composition leads to a decrease in cell performance, which is due to the formation of an active layer with larger size polymer domain networks with poor charge separation possibility.

  5. Device Physics and Recombination in Polymer:Fullerene Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawks, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Heeger, “Polymer Photovoltaic Cells - Enhanced Ef?cienciesC-60 heterojunction photovoltaic cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. ,ef?ciency polymer photovoltaic cells using solution-based

  6. Light-induced EPR study of charge transfer in poly(3-hexylthiophene)/fullerene bulk heterojunction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krinichnyi, V. I.; Yudanova, E. I.; Denisov, N. N. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, RAS, Semenov Avenue 1, Chernogolovka 142432 (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-28

    The first results of the light-induced EPR study of magnetic, relaxation, and dynamic parameters of charge carriers background photoinduced by optical photons (1.7-3.4 eV) in poly(3-hexylthiophene)/fullerene bulk heterojunctions are described. All magnetic resonance parameters for positively charged polaron and negatively charged fullerene ion-radical in radical pairs photoinduced in the composite were determined separately by the steady-state microwave saturation method. Paramagnetic susceptibility of charge carriers reflects their activation dynamics and exchange interaction. A decay of long-living radical pairs depends on the spatial distance between photoinduced charge carriers. The one-dimensional polaron diffusion along the polymer chain and fullerene rotation near the main molecular axis was shown to follow activation Elliot hopping model and to be governed by photon energy. The difference in activation energies of the charge carriers' dynamics and in their dependence on the exciting photon energy proves their noninteracting character in the polymer/fullerene composite. Main magnetic, relaxation and dynamics parameters of charge carriers are governed by the photon energy band due to inhomogeneity of distribution of polymer and fullerene domains in the composite.

  7. Polydimethylsiloxane as a Macromolecular Additive for Enhanced Performance of Molecular Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, Kenneth R.; Mei, Jianguo; Stalder, Romain; Shim, Jae Won; Cheun, Hyeunseok; Steffy, Fred; So, Franky; Kippelen, Bernard; Reynolds, John R.

    2011-03-15

    The effect of the macromolecular additive, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), on the performance of solution processed molecular bulk heterojunction solar cells is investigated, and the addition of PDMS is shown to improve device power conversion efficiency by ~70% and significantly reduce cell-to-cell variation, from a power conversion efficiency of 1.25 ± 0.37% with no PDMS to 2.16 ± 0.09% upon the addition of 0.1 mg/mL PDMS to the casting solution. The cells are based on a thiophene and isoindigo containing oligomer as the electron donor and [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) as the electron acceptor. PDMS is shown to have a strong influence on film morphology, with a significant decrease in film roughness and feature size observed. The morphology change leads to improved performance parameters, most notably an increase in the short circuit current density from 4.3 to 6.8 mA/cm2 upon addition of 0.1 mg/mL PDMS. The use of PDMS is of particular interest, as this additive appears frequently as a lubricant in plastic syringes commonly used in device fabrication; therefore, PDMS may unintentionally be incorporated into device active layers.

  8. Organic bulk heterojunction solar cells using poly,,2,5-bis,,3-tetradecyllthiophen-2-yl...thieno3,2,-bthiophene...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    . While the cost per watt of solar cell technology has steadily decreased in the past decade, an estimated the cost is to make solar cells with low-cost organic materials that can be processed from solutionOrganic bulk heterojunction solar cells using poly,,2,5-bis,,3-tetradecyllthiophen-2-yl...thieno3

  9. Perovskite Solar Cells with Near 100% Internal Quantum Efficiency Based on Large Single Crystalline Grains and Vertical Bulk Heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Bin; Dyck, Ondrej; Poplawsky, Jonathan D; Keum, Jong Kahk; Puretzky, Alexander A; Sanjib, Das; Ivanov, Ilia N; Rouleau, Christopher; Duscher, Gerd; Geohegan, David B; Xiao, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Grain boundaries (GBs) as defects in the crystal lattice detrimentally impact the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of polycrystalline solar cells, particularly in recently emerging hybrid perovskites where non-radiative recombination processes lead to significant carrier losses. Here, the beneficial effects of activated vertical GBs are demonstrated by first growing large, vertically-oriented methylammonium lead tri-iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) single-crystalline grains. We show that infiltration of p-type doped 2 -7,7 -tetrakis(N,Ndi-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9-spirobifluorene (Spiro-OMeTAD) into CH3NH3PbI3 films along the GBs creates space charge regions to suppress non-radiative recombination and enhance carrier collection efficiency. Solar cells with such activated GBs yielded average PCE of 16.3 0.9%, which are among the best solution-processed perovskite devices. As an important alternative to growing ideal CH3NH3PbI3 single crystal films, which is difficult to achieve for such fast-crystallizing perovskites, activating GBs paves a way to design a new type of bulk heterojunction hybrid perovskite photovoltaics toward theoretical maximum PCE.

  10. Perovskite solar cells with near 100% internal quantum efficiency based on large single crystalline grains and vertical bulk heterojunctions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yang, Bin; Dyck, Ondrej; Poplawsky, Jonathan; Keum, Jong; Puretzky, Alexander; Das, Sanjib; Ivanov, Ilia; Rouleau, Christopher; Duscher, Gerd; Geohegan, David; et al

    2015-07-09

    Grain boundaries (GBs) as defects in the crystal lattice detrimentally impact the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of polycrystalline solar cells, particularly in recently emerging hybrid perovskites where non-radiative recombination processes lead to significant carrier losses. Here, the beneficial effects of activated vertical GBs are demonstrated by first growing large, vertically-oriented methylammonium lead tri-iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) single-crystalline grains. We show that infiltration of p-type doped 2 -7,7 -tetrakis(N,Ndi-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9-spirobifluorene (Spiro-OMeTAD) into CH3NH3PbI3 films along the GBs creates space charge regions to suppress non-radiative recombination and enhance carrier collection efficiency. Solar cells with such activated GBs yielded average PCE of 16.3 ± 0.9%, whichmore »are among the best solution-processed perovskite devices. As an important alternative to growing ideal CH3NH3PbI3 single crystal films, which is difficult to achieve for such fast-crystallizing perovskites, activating GBs paves a way to design a new type of bulk heterojunction hybrid perovskite photovoltaics toward theoretical maximum PCE.« less

  11. Structural and optoelectronic properties of hybrid bulk-heterojunction materials based on conjugated small molecules and mesostructured TiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phan, Hung [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Jahnke, Justin P.; Chmelka, Bradley F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen, E-mail: quyen@chem.ucsb.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-06-09

    Improved hybrid bulk-heterojunction materials was fabricated by spin-casting a benchmark conjugated small molecule, namely, 3,6-bis(5-(benzofuran-2-yl)thiophen-2-yl)-2,5-bis(2-ethylhexyl) pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4(2H,5H)-dione (DPP(TBFu){sub 2}), into mesostructured TiO{sub 2}. Due to both a reduced molecular size and less hydrophobic nature of the conjugated molecules (relative to conjugated polymers), homogeneous and improved infiltration into the mesoporous TiO{sub 2} are achieved without the need for pre-treatment of the TiO{sub 2}. Remarkably, this small molecule can realize loadings of up to 25% of the total pore volume—2.5× the typical loadings achieved for conjugated polymers. The small molecule loading was determined using dynamic secondary ion mass spectroscopy and absorption spectroscopy. Further characterization such as charge transfer and nanoscale conducting atomic force microscopy helps to demonstrate the promise and viability of small molecule donors for hybrid optoelectronic devices.

  12. Efficient solution-processed infrared photovoltaic cells: Planarized all-inorganic bulk heterojunction devices via inter-quantum-dot bridging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    Efficient solution-processed infrared photovoltaic cells: Planarized all-inorganic bulk-processed photovoltaics. The authors demonstrate quantum size-effect tuning of device band gaps relevant to multijunction solar cells. © 2007 American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.2735674 Low-cost, large-area solar

  13. 364 wileyonlinelibrary.com www.MaterialsViews.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    to tailor BHJ morphology.[8,9] Despite these improvements, most optimized D-A polymer BHJ solar cells in the Mixed Regions of Polymer­Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells J. A. Bartelt, Z. M. Beiley, W. R-based bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells[1] consisting of electron-donating polymers and electron

  14. High open-circuit voltage small-molecule p-DTS(FBTTh 2 )2.ICBA bulk heterojunction solar cells – morphology, excited-state dynamics, and photovoltaic performance

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ko Kyaw, Aung Ko; Gehrig, Dominik; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Ye; Bazan, Guillermo C.; Laquai, Frédéric; Nguyen, Thuc -Quyen

    2014-11-27

    The photovoltaic performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells using the solution-processable small molecule donor 7,7'-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-silolo[3,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl)bis(6-fluoro-4-(5'-hexyl-[2,2'-bithiophene]-5-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole) (p-DTS(FBTTh2)2 in combination with indene-C60 bis-adduct (ICBA) as an acceptor is systematically optimized by altering the processing conditions. A high open-circuit voltage of 1 V, more than 0.2 V higher than that of a p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM blend, is achieved. However, the power conversion efficiency remains around 5% and thus is lower than ~8% previously reported for p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM. Transient absorption (TA) pump–probe spectroscopy over a wide spectral (Vis-NIR) and dynamic (fs to ?s) range in combination with multivariate curve resolution analysis of the TA data reveals thatmore »generation of free charges is more efficient in the blend with PC70BM as an acceptor. In contrast, blends with ICBA create more coulombically bound interfacial charge transfer (CT) states, which recombine on the sub-nanosecond timescale by geminate recombination. Furthermore, the ns to ?s charge carrier dynamics in p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:ICBA blends are only weakly intensity dependent implying a significant contribution of recombination from long-lived CT states and trapped charges, while those in p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM decay via an intensity-dependent recombination mechanism indicating that spatially separated (free) charge carriers are observed, which can be extracted as photocurrent from the device.« less

  15. Solution-Processable Low-Molecular Weight Extended Arylacetylenes: Versatile p-Type Semiconductors for Field-Effect Transistors and Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silvestri, F.; Marrocchi, A.; Seri, M.; Kim, C,; Marks, Tobin J.; Facchetti, Antonio; Taticchi, A.

    2010-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a series of five extended arylacetylenes, 9,10-bis-{[m,p-bis(hexyloxy)phenyl]ethynyl}-anthracene (A-P6t, 1), 9,10-bis-[(p-{[m,p-bis(hexyloxy) phenyl]ethynyl}phenyl)ethynyl]-anthracene (PA-P6t, 2), 4,7-bis-{[m,p-bis(hexyloxy)phenyl]ethynyl}-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (BTZ-P6t, 5), 4,7-bis(5-{[m,p-bis(hexyloxy)phenyl]ethynyl}thien-2-yl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (TBTZ-P6t, 6), and 7,7?-({[m,p-bis(hexyloxy)phenyl]ethynyl}-2,1,3-benzothiadiazol-4,4?-ethynyl)-2,5-thiophene (BTZT-P6t, 7), and two arylvinylenes, 9,10-bis-{(E)-[m,p-bis(hexyloxy)phenyl]vinyl}-anthracene (A-P6d, 3), 9,10-bis-[(E)-(p-{(E)-[m,p-bis(hexyloxy)phenyl]vinyl}phenyl)vinyl]-anthracene (PA-P6d, 4). Trends in optical absorption spectra and electrochemical redox processes are first described. Next, the thin-film microstructures and morphologies of films deposited from solution under various conditions are investigated, and organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and bulk heterojunction photovoltaic (OPV) cells fabricated. We find that substituting acetylenic for olefinic linkers on the molecular cores significantly enhances device performance. OFET measurements reveal that all seven of the semiconductors are FET-active and, depending on the backbone architecture, the arylacetylenes exhibit good p-type mobilities (? up to ?0.1 cm{sup 2} V{sup ?1} s{sup ?1}) when optimum film microstructural order is achieved. OPV cells using [6,6]-phenyl C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as the electron acceptor exhibit power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) up to 1.3% under a simulated AM 1.5 solar irradiation of 100 mW/cm{sup 2}. These results demonstrate that arylacetylenes are promising hole-transport materials for p-channel OFETs and promising donors for organic solar cells applications. A direct correlation between OFET arylacetylene hole mobility and OPV performance is identified and analyzed.

  16. Absence of Structural Impact of Noble Nanoparticles on P3HT: PCBM Blends for Plasmon Enhanced Bulk-Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells Probed by Synchrotron Grazing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samuele Lilliu; Mejd Alsari; Oier Bikondoa; J. Emyr Macdonald; Marcus S. Dahlem

    2014-10-18

    The incorporation of noble metal nanoparticles, displaying localized surface plasmon resonance, in the active area of donor-acceptor bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices is an industrially compatible light trapping strategy, able to guarantee better absorption of the incident photons and give an efficiency improvement between 12% and 38%. In the present work, we investigate the effect of Au and Ag nanoparticles blended with P3HT: PCBM on the P3HT crystallization dynamics by synchrotron grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. We conclude that the presence of (1) 80nm Au, (2) mix of 5nm, 50nm, 80nm Au, (3) 40nm Ag, and (4) 10nm, 40nm, 60nm Ag colloidal nanoparticles, at different concentrations below 0.3 wt% in P3HT: PCBM blends, does not affect the behaviour of the blends themselves.

  17. Factors influencing photocurrent generation in organic bulk heterojunc...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Factors influencing photocurrent generation in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells: interfacial energetics and blend microstructure April 29, 2009 at 3pm36-428 Jenny Nelson...

  18. High open-circuit voltage small-molecule p-DTS(FBTTh 2 )2:ICBA bulk heterojunction solar cells – morphology, excited-state dynamics, and photovoltaic performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ko Kyaw, Aung Ko; Gehrig, Dominik; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Ye; Bazan, Guillermo C.; Laquai, Frédéric; Nguyen, Thuc -Quyen

    2014-11-27

    The photovoltaic performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells using the solution-processable small molecule donor 7,7'-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-silolo[3,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl)bis(6-fluoro-4-(5'-hexyl-[2,2'-bithiophene]-5-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole) (p-DTS(FBTTh2)2 in combination with indene-C60 bis-adduct (ICBA) as an acceptor is systematically optimized by altering the processing conditions. A high open-circuit voltage of 1 V, more than 0.2 V higher than that of a p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM blend, is achieved. However, the power conversion efficiency remains around 5% and thus is lower than ~8% previously reported for p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM. Transient absorption (TA) pump–probe spectroscopy over a wide spectral (Vis-NIR) and dynamic (fs to ?s) range in combination with multivariate curve resolution analysis of the TA data reveals that generation of free charges is more efficient in the blend with PC70BM as an acceptor. In contrast, blends with ICBA create more coulombically bound interfacial charge transfer (CT) states, which recombine on the sub-nanosecond timescale by geminate recombination. Furthermore, the ns to ?s charge carrier dynamics in p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:ICBA blends are only weakly intensity dependent implying a significant contribution of recombination from long-lived CT states and trapped charges, while those in p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM decay via an intensity-dependent recombination mechanism indicating that spatially separated (free) charge carriers are observed, which can be extracted as photocurrent from the device.

  19. Heterojunction solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO)

    1994-01-01

    A high-efficiency single heterojunction solar cell wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga.sub.0.52 In.sub.0.48 P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. The conversion effiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the emitter layer.

  20. Heterojunction solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, J.M.

    1994-08-30

    A high-efficiency single heterojunction solar cell is described wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga[sub 0.52]In[sub 0.48]P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. The conversion efficiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the emitter layer. 1 fig.

  1. Rational design of hybrid organic solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lentz, Levi (Levi Carl)

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, we will present a novel design for a nano-structured organic-inorganic hybrid photovoltaic material that will address current challenges in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic-based solar cell materials. ...

  2. Improving the Performance of P3HT-Fullerene Solar Cells with Side-Chain-Functionalized Poly(thiophene) Additives: A New Paradigm for Polymer Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lobez, Jose M.

    The motivation of this study is to determine if small amounts of designer additives placed at the polymer–fullerene interface in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells can influence their performance. A series of AB-alternating ...

  3. Nanocrystalline Heterojunction Materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elder, Scott H. (Portland, OR); Su, Yali (Richland, WA); Gao, Yufei (Blue Bell, PA); Heald, Steve M. (Downers Grove, IL)

    2004-02-03

    Mesoporous nanocrystalline titanium dioxide heterojunction materials and methods of making the same are disclosed. In one disclosed embodiment, materials comprising a core of titanium dioxide and a shell of a molybdenum oxide exhibit a decrease in their photoadsorption energy as the size of the titanium dioxide core decreases.

  4. The influence of molecular orientation on organic bulk heterojunction solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired Solar FuelTechnologyTel: Name:Department ofTheTheforTheThecells The

  5. Mixed ternary heterojunction solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA); Stewart, John M. (Seattle, WA)

    1992-08-25

    A thin film heterojunction solar cell and a method of making it has a p-type layer of mixed ternary I-III-VI.sub.2 semiconductor material in contact with an n-type layer of mixed binary II-VI semiconductor material. The p-type semiconductor material includes a low resistivity copper-rich region adjacent the back metal contact of the cell and a composition gradient providing a minority carrier mirror that improves the photovoltaic performance of the cell. The p-type semiconductor material preferably is CuInGaSe.sub.2 or CuIn(SSe).sub.2.

  6. Transparent conductor-Si pillars heterojunction photodetector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, Ju-Hyung; Kim, Joondong; Park, Yun Chang

    2014-08-14

    We report a high-performing heterojunction photodetector by enhanced surface effects. Periodically, patterned Si substrates were used to enlarge the photo-reactive regions and yield proportionally improved photo-responses. An optically transparent indium-tin-oxide (ITO) was deposited on a Si substrate and spontaneously formed an ITO/Si heterojunction. Due to an electrical conductive ITO film, ITO/Si heterojunction device can be operated at zero-bias, which effectively suppresses the dark current, resulting in better performances than those by a positive or a negative bias operation. This zero-bias operating heterojunction device exhibits a short response time (? 22.5?ms) due to the physical reaction to the incident light. We revealed that the location of the space charge region (SCR) is crucial for a specific photon-wavelength response. The SCR space has the highest collection efficiency of the photo-generated carriers. The photo-response can be maximized when we design the photodetector by superposing the SCR space over a corresponding photon-absorption length. The surface enhanced Si pillar devices significantly improved the photo-responses ratios from that of a planar Si device. According to this design scheme, a high photo-response ratio of 5560% was achieved at a wavelength of 600?nm. This surfaced-enhanced heterojunction design scheme would be a promising approach for various photoelectric applications.

  7. Heterojunction solar cell with passivated emitter surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO); Kurtz, Sarah R. (Golden, CO)

    1994-01-01

    A high-efficiency heterojunction solar cell wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga.sub.0.52 In.sub.0.48 P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. A passivating window layer of defined composition is disposed over the emitter layer. The conversion efficiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the window layer.

  8. Heterojunction solar cell with passivated emitter surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, J.M.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1994-05-31

    A high-efficiency heterojunction solar cell is described wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga[sub 0.52]In[sub 0.48]P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. A passivating window layer of defined composition is disposed over the emitter layer. The conversion efficiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the window layer. 1 fig.

  9. Solution-Processed Organic Solar Cells with Power Conversion Efficiencies of 2.5% using Benzothiadiazole/Imide-Based Acceptors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    Solution-Processed Organic Solar Cells with Power Conversion Efficiencies of 2.5% using achieved 0.1% power-conversion efficiency. KEYWORDS: organic electronics, solar cells, photovoltaic devices significantly different behav- iors in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells using poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT

  10. Improving the long-term stability of PBDTTPD polymer solar cells through material purification aimed at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    Improving the long-term stability of PBDTTPD polymer solar cells through material purification M. J. Fr´echetbc and Michael D. McGehee*a While bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells fabricated to those observed in high Mn PBDTTPD solar cells can be induced in low Mn devices through intentional

  11. Efficient Organic Solar Cells with Helical Perylene Diimide Electron M. Tuan Trinh,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Efficient Organic Solar Cells with Helical Perylene Diimide Electron Acceptors Yu Zhong, M. Tuan, and recombination mechanisms in a highly efficient fullerene-free organic bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell. The majority of organic solar cells utilize fullerene and its derivatives (PC61BM, PC71BM, etc

  12. Rational Design of Zinc Phosphide Heterojunction Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winfree, Erik

    Rational Design of Zinc Phosphide Heterojunction Photovoltaics Thesis by Jeffrey Paul Bosco would meet me with the same energy and enthusiasm regarding the topic of zinc phosphide photovoltaics to the field of earth-abundant photovoltaics has been indispensable to my work. Greg also made a great mentor

  13. Variation in band offsets at ZnO/Sn:In2O3 (ITO) heterojunctions measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Droubay, Timothy C.

    2012-07-01

    Rational design and optimization of efficient photovoltaics requires fundamental knowledge of both the materials properties of the individual components and the conduction and valence band alignments at the materials interfaces. Efficient collection of electrons photogenerated in the absorber material requires a small or zero conduction band offset at both the absorber/n-type semiconductor and the n-type semiconductor/electrode interfaces. Negative conduction band offsets result in an energy barrier to electron injection, while large positive conduction band offsets (a “cliff” arrangement) result in too much energy lost during injection. However, it is difficult to predict heterojunction band offsets from bulk materials properties. Experimental band alignments of semiconductor heterojunctions rarely conform to the Anderson model,1 which assumes the band alignments are determined solely by differences in the electron affinity of the two semiconductors. Chemical bonds at the heterojunction interface give rise to an interfacial dipole which influences the interfacial band alignment. Thus, the complex interplay between electron affinity differences, Fermi level matching, interface-induced gap states, and band bending determine heterojunction band alignments.2-5 Band alignments can also be modified by doping, point defects, or control of non-stoichiometry at the interface; since these parameters can be affected by processing conditions, they offer a mechanism to modify the band alignments of a given heterojunction system.

  14. Indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Tom (Morris Plains, NJ); Ghosh, Amal K. (New Providence, NJ)

    1982-12-28

    A high photo-conversion efficiency indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cell is spray deposited from a solution containing indium trichloride. The solar cell exhibits an Air Mass One solar conversion efficiency in excess of about 10%.

  15. Amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunctions: The future of high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    ;5 Record efficiencies #12;6 Diffused-junction solar cells Diffused-junction solar cell Chemical passivation to ~650 mV #12;7 Silicon heterojunction solar cells a-Si:H provides excellent passivation of c-Si surface Heterojunction solar cell Chemical passivation Chemical passivation #12;8 Voc and silicon heterojunction solar

  16. Patterned Arrays of Lateral Heterojunctions within Monolayer 2D Semiconductors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Lin, Ming-Wei; Wang, Kai; Lupini, Andrew R; Lee, Jaekwang; Basile Carrasco, Leonardo A; Rouleau, Christopher M; Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Puretzky, Alexander A; Ivanov, Ilia N; et al

    2015-01-01

    The formation of semiconductor heterojunctions and their high density integration are foundations of modern electronics and optoelectronics. To enable two-dimensional (2D) crystalline semiconductors as building blocks in next generation electronics, developing methods to deterministically form lateral heterojunctions is crucial. Here we demonstrate a process strategy for the formation of lithographically-patterned lateral semiconducting heterojunctions within a single 2D crystal. E-beam lithography is used to pattern MoSe2 monolayer crystals with SiO2, and the exposed locations are selectively and totally converted to MoS2 using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of sulfur in order to form MoSe2/MoS2 heterojunctions in predefined patterns. The junctions and conversionmore »process are characterized by atomically resolved scanning transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy. This demonstration of lateral semiconductor heterojunction arrays within a single 2D crystal is an essential step for the lateral integration of 2D semiconductor building blocks with different electronic and optoelectronic properties for high-density, ultrathin circuitry.« less

  17. Patterned Arrays of Lateral Heterojunctions within Monolayer 2D Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Lin, Ming-Wei; Wang, Kai; Lupini, Andrew R; Lee, Jaekwang; Basile Carrasco, Leonardo A; Rouleau, Christopher M; Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Puretzky, Alexander A; Ivanov, Ilia N; Xiao, Kai; Yoon, Mina; Geohegan, David B

    2015-01-01

    The formation of semiconductor heterojunctions and their high density integration are foundations of modern electronics and optoelectronics. To enable two-dimensional (2D) crystalline semiconductors as building blocks in next generation electronics, developing methods to deterministically form lateral heterojunctions is crucial. Here we demonstrate a process strategy for the formation of lithographically-patterned lateral semiconducting heterojunctions within a single 2D crystal. E-beam lithography is used to pattern MoSe2 monolayer crystals with SiO2, and the exposed locations are selectively and totally converted to MoS2 using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of sulfur in order to form MoSe2/MoS2 heterojunctions in predefined patterns. The junctions and conversion process are characterized by atomically resolved scanning transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy. This demonstration of lateral semiconductor heterojunction arrays within a single 2D crystal is an essential step for the lateral integration of 2D semiconductor building blocks with different electronic and optoelectronic properties for high-density, ultrathin circuitry.

  18. Rotary bulk solids divider

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maronde, Carl P. (McMurray, PA); Killmeyer, Jr., Richard P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for the disbursement of a bulk solid sample comprising, a gravity hopper having a top open end and a bottom discharge end, a feeder positioned beneath the gravity hopper so as to receive a bulk solid sample flowing from the bottom discharge end, and a conveyor receiving the bulk solid sample from the feeder and rotating on an axis that allows the bulk solid sample to disperse the sample to a collection station.

  19. Sodium bromide electron-extraction layers for polymer bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhi; Qu, Bo, E-mail: bqu@pku.edu.cn; Xiao, Lixin; Chen, Zhijian [State Key Laboratory for Artificial Microstructures and Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China) [State Key Laboratory for Artificial Microstructures and Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); New Display Device and System Integration Collaborative Innovation Center of the West Coast of the Taiwan Strait, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Zhang, Lipei [State Key Laboratory for Artificial Microstructures and Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)] [State Key Laboratory for Artificial Microstructures and Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Gong, Qihuang [State Key Laboratory for Artificial Microstructures and Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China) [State Key Laboratory for Artificial Microstructures and Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-03-10

    Inexpensive and non-toxic sodium bromide (NaBr) was introduced into polymer solar cells (PSCs) as the cathode buffer layer (CBL) and the electron extraction characteristics of the NaBr CBL were investigated in detail. The PSCs based on NaBr CBL with different thicknesses (i.e., 0?nm, 0.5?nm, 1?nm, and 1.5?nm) were prepared and studied. The optimal thickness of NaBr was 1?nm according to the photovoltaic data of PSCs. The open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}), short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}), fill factor (FF), and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the PSC with 1?nm NaBr were evaluated to be 0.58?V, 7.36?mA/cm{sup 2}, 0.63, and 2.70%, respectively, which were comparable to those of the reference device with the commonly used LiF. The optimized photovoltaic performance of PSC with 1?nm NaBr was ascribed to the improved electron transport and extraction capability of 1?nm NaBr in PSCs. In addition, the NaBr CBL could prevent the diffusion of oxygen and water vapor into the active layer and prolong the lifetime of the devices to some extent. Therefore, NaBr layer could be considered as a promising non-toxic CBL for PSCs in future.

  20. Surface-passivated plasmonic nano-pyramids for bulk heterojunction solar cell photocurrent enhancement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirkeminde, Alec; Retsch, Markus; Wang, Qian; Xu, Guowei; Hui, Rongqing; Wu, Judy; Ren, Shenqiang

    2012-01-01

    We report that self-assembled gold (Au) nanopyramid arrays can greatly enhance the photocurrent of narrow bandgap organic solar cells using their plasmonic near-field effect. The plasmonic enhanced power conversion efficiency ...

  1. Device Physics and Recombination in Polymer:Fullerene Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawks, Steven

    2015-01-01

    of Composition and Thickness Matched SqP and BC Solar Cells.tail recombination in polymer:fullerene organic solar cellsSolar Cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  2. Device Physics and Recombination in Polymer:Fullerene Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawks, Steven

    2015-01-01

    of Composition and Thickness Matched SqP and BC Solar Cells.Solar Cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .tail recombination in polymer:fullerene organic solar cells

  3. Enhanced performance of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells upon graphene addition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robaeys, Pieter, E-mail: pieter.robaeys@uhasselt.be; Dierckx, Wouter; Dexters, Wim; Spoltore, Donato; Drijkoningen, Jeroen [Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Hasselt University (Belgium); Bonaccorso, Francesco [Cambridge Graphene Centre, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Graphene Labs, Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Bourgeois, Emilie; D'Haen, Jan; Haenen, Ken; Manca, Jean V.; Nesladek, Milos [Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Hasselt University (Belgium); IMOMEC, IMEC vzw (Belgium); Liesenborgs, Jori; Van Reeth, Frank [Expertise centre for Digital Media (EDM), Hasselt University (Belgium); Lombardo, Antonio; Ferrari, Andrea C. [Cambridge Graphene Centre, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-25

    Graphene has potential for applications in solar cells. We show that the short circuit current density of P3HT (Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):PCBM((6,6)-Phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester) solar cells is enhanced by 10% upon the addition of graphene, with a 15% increase in the photon to electric conversion efficiency. We discuss the performance enhancement by studying the crystallization of P3HT, as well as the electrical transport properties. We show that graphene improves the balance between electron and hole mobilities with respect to a standard P3HT:PCBM solar cell.

  4. Device Physics and Recombination in Polymer:Fullerene Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawks, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Solar Cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .tail recombination in polymer:fullerene organic solar cellsof Composition and Thickness Matched SqP and BC Solar Cells.

  5. Charge density dependent nongeminate recombination in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Rauh; C. Deibel; V. Dyakonov

    2012-03-27

    Apparent recombination orders exceeding the value of two expected for bimolecular recombination have been reported for organic solar cells in various publications. Two prominent explanations are bimolecular losses with a carrier concentration dependent prefactor due to a trapping limited mobility, and protection of trapped charge carriers from recombination by a donor--acceptor phase separation until reemission from these deep states. In order to clarify which mechanism is dominant we performed temperature and illumination dependent charge extraction measurements under open circuit as well as short circuit conditions at poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):[6,6]-phenyl-C$_{61}$butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PC$_{61}$BM) and PTB7:PC$_{71}$BM (Poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl

  6. Device Physics and Recombination in Polymer:Fullerene Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawks, Steven

    2015-01-01

    tail recombination in polymer:fullerene organic solar cellsin an Ef?cient Polymer:Fullerene Organic Solar CellOrganic Solar Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  7. Device Physics and Recombination in Polymer:Fullerene Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawks, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Extracting Power from a Solartail recombination in polymer:fullerene organic solar cellsof Composition and Thickness Matched SqP and BC Solar Cells.

  8. Interfacial Engineering for Highly Efficient-Conjugated Polymer-Based Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaic Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alex Jen; David Ginger; Christine Luscombe; Hong Ma

    2012-04-02

    The aim of our proposal is to apply interface engineering approach to improve charge extraction, guide active layer morphology, improve materials compatibility, and ultimately allow the fabrication of high efficiency tandem cells. Specifically, we aim at developing: i. Interfacial engineering using small molecule self-assembled monolayers ii. Nanostructure engineering in OPVs using polymer brushes iii. Development of efficient light harvesting and high mobility materials for OPVs iv. Physical characterization of the nanostructured systems using electrostatic force microscopy, and conducting atomic force microscopy v. All-solution processed organic-based tandem cells using interfacial engineering to optimize the recombination layer currents vi. Theoretical modeling of charge transport in the active semiconducting layer The material development effort is guided by advanced computer modeling and surface/ interface engineering tools to allow us to obtain better understanding of the effect of electrode modifications on OPV performance for the investigation of more elaborate device structures. The materials and devices developed within this program represent a major conceptual advancement using an integrated approach combining rational molecular design, material, interface, process, and device engineering to achieve solar cells with high efficiency, stability, and the potential to be used for large-area roll-to-roll printing. This may create significant impact in lowering manufacturing cost of polymer solar cells for promoting clean renewable energy use and preventing the side effects from using fossil fuels to impact environment.

  9. Device Physics and Recombination in Polymer:Fullerene Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawks, Steven

    2015-01-01

    during casting of the fullerene, blocking metal penetration.during PCBM casting resulting in P3HT blocking of the metal

  10. Electronic structure and transition energies in polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01

    Electronic Structure and Transition Energies in Polymer?the HOMO and LUMO energy levels and transition energies haveand charge-transfer transition energies. The interface band

  11. Solar Cells: Spin-Cast Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: A Dynamical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Cells: A Dynamical Investigation Print Wednesday, 03 April 2013 13:32 Spin-coating is extensively used in the lab-based manufacturing of organic solar cells, including...

  12. Device Physics and Recombination in Polymer:Fullerene Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawks, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Structure and Transition Energies in Polymer-Fullerene Bulkusing selective solvents,” Energy Environ. Sci. , 2014. [via spray-deposition,” Energy Environ. Sci. , vol. 7, pp. 1–

  13. Device Physics and Recombination in Polymer:Fullerene Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawks, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Introduction to Polymer:Fullerene OrganicBand tail recombination in polymer:fullerene organic solarSystem . . . . . . . . Device Physics of Polymer:Fullerene

  14. Solar Cells: Spin-Cast Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: A Dynamical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation ofAlbuquerque|Sensitive Species3performedValley | System

  15. The Development of Semiconducting Materials for Organic Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas, Jessica D.

    2013-01-01

    the heterojunction. Organic solar cells operate through thisprocess in excitonic, organic solar cells occurs within thepolymer for use in BHJ organic solar cells. We demonstrated

  16. Copper oxide/N-silicon heterojunction photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Tom (Morris Plains, NJ); Ghosh, Amal K. (New Providence, NJ)

    1982-01-01

    A photovoltaic device having characteristics of a high efficiency solar cell comprising a Cu.sub.x O/n-Si heterojunction. The Cu.sub.x O layer is formed by heating a deposited copper layer in an oxygen containing ambient.

  17. Vertical scaling in heterojunction bipolar transistors with nonequilibrium base transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levi, Anthony F. J.

    a departure from conventional scaling of current gain B with base thickness xs in abrupt junction n-p of fi on base thickness xs in abrupt junction n-p-n heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs electron transport. In a classical n-p-n homojunction (and graded-juno tion) bipolar transistor, electrons

  18. Depleted-Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    -processed single-junction cells and also multijunction architectures. Size-effect tuning also en- ables the useDepleted-Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells Andras G. Pattantyus-Abraham,, Illan J requires thick, high-purity solar cells with correspondingly long carrier transport lengths;3 organic

  19. Junction Transport in Epitaxial Film Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, D. L.; Li, J. V.; Teplin, C. W.; Stradins, P.; Branz, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    We report our progress toward low-temperature HWCVD epitaxial film silicon solar cells on inexpensive seed layers, with a focus on the junction transport physics exhibited by our devices. Heterojunctions of i/p hydrogenated amorphous Si (a-Si) on our n-type epitaxial crystal Si on n{sup ++} Si wafers show space-charge-region recombination, tunneling or diffusive transport depending on both epitaxial Si quality and the applied forward voltage.

  20. Junction Transport in Epitaxial Film Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, D. L.; Li, J. V.; Teplin, C. W.; Stradins, P.; Branz, H. M.

    2011-07-01

    We report our progress toward low-temperature HWCVD epitaxial film silicon solar cells on inexpensive seed layers, with a focus on the junction transport physics exhibited by our devices. Heterojunctions of i/p hydrogenated amorphous Si (a-Si) on our n-type epitaxial crystal Si on n++ Si wafers show space-charge-region recombination, tunneling or diffusive transport depending on both epitaxial Si quality and the applied forward voltage.

  1. Laterally inherently thin amorphous-crystalline silicon heterojunction photovoltaic cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chowdhury, Zahidur R. Kherani, Nazir P.

    2014-12-29

    This article reports on an amorphous-crystalline silicon heterojunction photovoltaic cell concept wherein the heterojunction regions are laterally narrow and distributed amidst a backdrop of well-passivated crystalline silicon surface. The localized amorphous-crystalline silicon heterojunctions consisting of the laterally thin emitter and back-surface field regions are precisely aligned under the metal grid-lines and bus-bars while the remaining crystalline silicon surface is passivated using the recently proposed facile grown native oxide–plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposited silicon nitride passivation scheme. The proposed cell concept mitigates parasitic optical absorption losses by relegating amorphous silicon to beneath the shadowed metallized regions and by using optically transparent passivation layer. A photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 13.6% is obtained for an untextured proof-of-concept cell illuminated under AM 1.5 global spectrum; the specific cell performance parameters are V{sub OC} of 666?mV, J{sub SC} of 29.5?mA-cm{sup ?2}, and fill-factor of 69.3%. Reduced parasitic absorption, predominantly in the shorter wavelength range, is confirmed with external quantum efficiency measurement.

  2. Method for forming indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Tom (Morris Plains, NJ); Ghosh, Amal K. (New Providence, NJ)

    1984-03-13

    A high photo-conversion efficiency indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cell is spray deposited from a solution containing indium trichloride. The solar cell exhibits an Air Mass One solar conversion efficiency in excess of about 10%.

  3. GaN/Cu[subscript 2]O Heterojunctions for Photovoltaic Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hering, K.P.

    Several growth methods were employed to investigate the photovoltaic behavior of GaN/Cu[subscript 2]O heterojunctions by depositing cuprous oxide thin films on top of gallium nitride templates. The templates consist of a ...

  4. Influence of oriented topological defects on the mechanical properties of carbon nanotube heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, We-Jay [National Center for High-Performance Computing; Chang, Jee-Gong [National Center for High-Performance Computing; Yang, An-Cheng [National Center for High-Performance Computing; Wang, Yeng-Tseng [National Center for High-Performance Computing; Su, Wan-Sheng [National Center for High-Performance Computing; Wang, Cai-Zhuang [Ames Laboratory; Ho, Kai-Ming [Ames Laboratory

    2013-10-10

    The mechanical properties of finite-length (5,0)/(8,0) single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) heterojunctions with manipulated topological defects are investigated using molecular dynamics simulation calculations. The results show that the mechanical properties and deformation behavior of SWCNT heterojunctions are mainly affected not only by the diameter of the thinner segment of the SWCNT heterojunction but also by the orientation of the heptagon-heptagon (7-7) pair in the junction region. Moreover, the orientation of the 7-7 pair strongly affects those properties in the compression loading than those in tensile loading. Finally, it is found that the location of buckling deformation in the heterojunctions is dependent on the orientation of the 7-7 pair in the compression.

  5. Charge-Transfer Induced Magnetic Field Effects of Nano-Carbon Heterojunctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Wei; Gong, Maogang; Shastry, Tejas; Hersam, Mark C.; Ren, Shenqiang

    2014-08-22

    modeling. By controlling SWCNT concentrations and interfacial interactions, nano-carbon heterojunctions exhibit tunability of charge-transfer density and room temperature magnetoconductance of 2.8% under 100?mT external magnetic field. External stimuli...

  6. Switching behaviors of graphene-boron nitride nanotube heterojunctions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Parashar, Vyom; Durand, Corentin P.; Hao, Boyi; Amorim, Rodrigo G.; Pandey, Ravindra; Tiwari, Bishnu; Zhang, Dongyan; Liu, Yang; Li, An -Ping; Yap, Yoke Khin

    2015-07-20

    High electron mobility of graphene has enabled their application in high-frequency analogue devices but their gapless nature has hindered their use in digital switches. In contrast, the structural analogous, h-BN sheets and BN nanotubes (BNNTs) are wide band gap insulators. Here we show that the growth of electrically insulating BNNTs on graphene can enable the use of graphene as effective digital switches. These graphene-BNNT heterojunctions were characterized at room temperature by four-probe scanning tunneling microscopy (4-probe STM) under real-time monitoring of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A switching ratio as high as 105 at a turn-on voltage as low as 0.5more »V were recorded. Simulation by density functional theory (DFT) suggests that mismatch of the density of states (DOS) is responsible for these novel switching behaviors.« less

  7. Influence of Substrate on Crystallization in Polythiophene/fullerene Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C He; D Germack; J Kline; D Delongchamp; D Fischer; C Snyder; M Toney; J Kushmerick; L Richter

    2011-12-31

    The nanoscale morphology of the active layer in organic, bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is crucial to device performance. Often a combination of casting conditions and post deposition thermal treatment is used to optimize the morphology. In general, the development of microscopic crystals is deleterious, as the exciton diffusion length is {approx}10 nm. We find that the microscopic crystallization behavior in polythiophene/fullerene blends is strongly influenced by the substrate on which the BHJ is cast. With a silicon oxide substrate, the crystal nucleation density is high and significant crystallization occurs at a temperature of 140 C. On more hydrophobic substrates, significantly higher temperatures are required for observable crystallization. This difference is attributed to the interfacial segregation of the PCBM, controlled by the substrate surface energy. The substrate dependence of crystallization has significant implications on the fullerene crystal growth mechanisms and practical implications for device studies.

  8. Influence of gold-silica nanoparticles on the performance of small-molecule bulk heterojunction solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    )-silica nanospheres and nanorods embedded in the active layer of small-mole- cule (SM) organic solar cell has been film organic solar cells include the cells with V-shaped (folded) geometry, incoupler at the front sur solar cells Xiaoyan Xu a , Aung Ko Ko Kyaw b , Bo Peng c , Qihua Xiong c , Hilmi Volkan Demir a,c,d , Ye

  9. p-Type semiconducting nickel oxide as an efficiency-enhancing anodal interfacial layer in bulk heterojunction solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Irwin, Michael D; Buchholz, Donald B; Marks, Tobin J; Chang, Robert P. H.

    2014-11-25

    The present invention, in one aspect, relates to a solar cell. In one embodiment, the solar cell includes an anode, a p-type semiconductor layer formed on the anode, and an active organic layer formed on the p-type semiconductor layer, where the active organic layer has an electron-donating organic material and an electron-accepting organic material.

  10. Commercialization of Bulk Thermoelectric Materials for Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commercialization of Bulk Thermoelectric Materials for Power Generation Commercialization of Bulk Thermoelectric Materials for Power Generation Critical aspects of technology...

  11. Controlled Growth of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Application to CNT-Si Heterojunction Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Controlled Growth of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Application to CNT-Si Heterojunction Solar assembly of SWNTs for SWNT-Si heterojunction solar cells will be discussed. We found the reversible mode predicted by molecular dynamics simulations. We proposed a water vapor treatment to build up SWNTs

  12. 19.2% Efficient InP Heterojunction Solar Cell with Electron-Selective TiO2 Contact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Javey, Ali

    19.2% Efficient InP Heterojunction Solar Cell with Electron-Selective TiO2 Contact Xingtian Yin for solar energy conversion.20 The most efficient InP solar cells use a homojunction configurationP to form a heterojunction solar cell with an efficiency of 17.4%.23,24 Here, by employing a TiO2 electron

  13. Controlled Growth of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Application to CNT-Si Heterojunction Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    assembly of SWNTs for SWNT-Si heterojunction solar cells will be discussed. We found the reversible to a self-assembled micro- honeycomb network for the application of solar cells [4]. The micro is very efficient to collect holes from the interface of Si. The heterojunction solar cell was fabricated

  14. A small-signal generator based on a multi-layer graphene/molybdenum disulfide heterojunction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Zhen; Tian, He; Feng, Tingting; Zhao, Lianfeng; Xie, Dan; Yang, Yi; Xiao, Lei; Wang, Jing; Ren, Tian-Ling E-mail: JunXu@tsinghua.edu.cn; Xu, Jun E-mail: JunXu@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2013-12-23

    In this work, we fabricate a heterojunction small-signal generator (HSSG) based on a graphene-molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) heterojunction. The HSSG is fundamentally different from any analog device developed previously. The HSSG is composed of two quasi-2D heterojunctions and has three terminals named injector (I), recombinator (R), and generator (G). MoS{sub 2} serves as I and G, and graphene works as R in the HSSG. The scale coefficient (??=?I{sub G}/I{sub R}) of the HSSG is 1.14?×?10{sup ?4} (V{sub IG,?IR}?=?0.2?V) to 1.95?×?10{sup ?4} (V{sub IG,?IR}?=?1?V). The current generated from G could be as low as pA scale, which reveals the good performance of the HSSG.

  15. Structural and Optical Investigations of GaN-Si Interface for a Heterojunction Solar Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Joshua J.; Jeffries, April M.; Bertoni, Mariana I.; Williamson, Todd L.; Bowden, Stuart G.; Honsberg, Christiana B.

    2014-06-08

    In recent years the development of heterojunction silicon based solar cells has gained much attention, lea largely by the efforts of Panasonic’s HIT cell. The success of the HIT cell prompts the scientific exploration of other thin film layers, besides the industrially accepted amorphous silicon. In this paper we report upon the use of gallium nitride, grown by MBE at “low temperatures” (~200°C), on silicon wafers as one possible candidate for making a heterojunction solar cell; the first approximation of band alignments between GaN and Si; and the material quality as determined by X-ray diffraction.

  16. Modelling of bulk superconductor magnetization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ainslie, M. D.; Fujishiro, H.

    2015-03-30

    the physical mechanisms of their magnetization, to assist in interpretation of experimental results, and to predict the performance of practical bulk superconductor-based devices, which is particularly important as many superconducting applications head towards...

  17. Controlled Growth of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for CNT-Si heterojunction solar cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    treatment to build up SWNTs to a self-assembled micro-honeycomb network for the application of solar cellsControlled Growth of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for CNT-Si heterojunction solar cell Shigeo two different SWNT assemblies for SWNT-Si heterojuction solar cells. We proposed a water vapor

  18. CNT-Si heterojunction solar cell with single-walled carbon nanotubes Shigeo Maruyama

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    solar cells. We proposed a water vapor treatment to build up SWNTs to a self-assembled microCNT-Si heterojunction solar cell with single-walled carbon nanotubes Shigeo Maruyama Department-honeycomb network for the application of solar cells [1]. The micro- honeycomb network consists of vertical

  19. CNT-SI HETEROJUNCTION SOLAR CELLS WITH STRUCTURE-CONTROLLED SINGLE-WALL CARBON NANOTUBE FILMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    solar cells. We proposed a water-vapor treatment to build up SWNTs to a self-assembled micro- honeycombCNT-SI HETEROJUNCTION SOLAR CELLS WITH STRUCTURE- CONTROLLED SINGLE-WALL CARBON NANOTUBE FILMS network for the application of solar cells [1]. The micro-honeycomb network consists of vertical

  20. EARTH ABUNDANT MATERIALS FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY HETEROJUNCTION THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ceder, Gerbrand

    materials for thin film solar cells such as CdTe and CIGS suffer from concerns over resource scarcity (eEARTH ABUNDANT MATERIALS FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY HETEROJUNCTION THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS Yun Seog Lee 1 conversion efficiencies should be increased. In terms of reducing module cost, thin film solar cells

  1. InGaAsN/GaAs heterojunction for multi-junction solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kurtz, Steven R. (Albuquerque, NM); Allerman, Andrew A. (Albuquerque, NM); Klem, John F. (Albuquerque, NM); Jones, Eric D. (Edgewood, NM)

    2001-01-01

    An InGaAsN/GaAs semiconductor p-n heterojunction is disclosed for use in forming a 0.95-1.2 eV bandgap photodetector with application for use in high-efficiency multi-junction solar cells. The InGaAsN/GaAs p-n heterojunction is formed by epitaxially growing on a gallium arsenide (GaAs) or germanium (Ge) substrate an n-type indium gallium arsenide nitride (InGaAsN) layer having a semiconductor alloy composition In.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x As.sub.1-y N.sub.y with 0heterojunction can be epitaxially grown by either molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) or metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The InGaAsN/GaAs p-n heterojunction provides a high open-circuit voltage of up to 0.62 volts and an internal quantum efficiency of >70%.

  2. Forward delay in scaled Alo.481n,.,,As/ln,,,Ga,4,As heterojunction bipolar transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levi, Anthony F. J.

    simulations of the intrinsic forward delay as a function of base thickness in abrupt junction n-p-n Ab,4s band diagram of an Ab.4sIno.52As/Ino.53Ga0.47AS n-p-n heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) under

  3. CNT-Si heterojunction solar cell with single-walled carbon nanotubes Shigeo Maruyama

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    CNT-Si heterojunction solar cell with single-walled carbon nanotubes Shigeo Maruyama Department solar cells. We proposed a water vapor treatment to build up SWNTs to a self-assembled micro-honeycomb network for the application of solar cells [1]. The micro- honeycomb network consists of vertical

  4. Depleted-heterojunction colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics employing low-cost electrical contacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    solution-processed single-junction cells and also multijunction architectures.1 Size-effect tuning also of depleted-heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells, we describe herein a strategy that replaces energy conver- sion. Recently, colloidal quantum dot CQD solar cells were reported that reached above 5

  5. Nanostructured SrTiO3/WO3 Heterojunction Thin Films for Efficient Photoelectrochemical Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ehrman, Sheryl H.

    Nanostructured SrTiO3/WO3 Heterojunction Thin Films for Efficient Photoelectrochemical Water transfer and separation of photogenerated charge carriers. Introduction #12;Why SrTiO3 and WO3 Tungsten Oxide (WO3) [Eg :- ~ 2.7 eV] Advantages: Basically n-type in nature due to presence of oxygen vacancies

  6. Recent Device Developments with Advanced Bulk Thermoelectric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with Advanced Bulk Thermoelectric Materials at RTI Reviews work in engineered thin-film nanoscale thermoelectric materials and nano-bulk materials with high ZT undertaken by...

  7. INVESTIGATION OF BULK POWER MIDWEST REGION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    INVESTIGATION OF BULK POWER MARKETS MIDWEST REGION November 1, 2000 The analyses and conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11 1. Bulk Power Prices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-24 D. Retail Access

  8. Thermoelectric Bulk Materials from the Explosive Consolidation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bulk Materials from the Explosive Consolidation of Nanopowders Thermoelectric Bulk Materials from the Explosive Consolidation of Nanopowders Describes technique of explosively...

  9. Low voltage tunneling magnetoresistance in CuCrO{sub 2}-based semiconductor heterojunctions at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, X. R.; Han, M. J.; Shan, C.; Hu, Z. G. Zhu, Z. Q.; Chu, J. H.; Wu, J. D.

    2014-12-14

    CuCrO{sub 2}-based heterojunction diodes with rectifying characteristics have been fabricated by combining p-type Mg-doped CuCrO{sub 2} and n-type Al-doped ZnO. It was found that the current for the heterojunction in low bias voltage region is dominated by the trap-assisted tunneling mechanism. Positive magnetoresistance (MR) effect for the heterojunction can be observed at room temperature due to the tunneling-induced antiparallel spin polarization near the heterostructure interface. The MR effect becomes enhanced with the magnetic field, and shows the maximum at a bias voltage around 0.5?V. The phenomena indicate that the CuCrO{sub 2}-based heterojunction is a promising candidate for low-power semiconductor spintronic devices.

  10. Silicon heterojunction solar cell with passivated hole selective MoO{sub x} contact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battaglia, Corsin; Yin, Xingtian; Zheng, Maxwell; Javey, Ali, E-mail: ajavey@eecs.berkeley.edu [Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Martín de Nicolás, Silvia; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe [Photovoltaics and Thin Film Electronics Laboratory, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland)

    2014-03-17

    We explore substoichiometric molybdenum trioxide (MoO{sub x}, x?heterojunction cell. Our results emphasize the strong potential for oxides as carrier selective heterojunction partners to inorganic semiconductors.

  11. Transparent electrodes in silicon heterojunction solar cells: Influence on contact passivation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomasi, Andrea; Sahli, Florent; Seif, Johannes Peter; Fanni, Lorenzo; de Nicolas Agut, Silvia Martin; Geissbuhler, Jonas; Paviet-Salomon, Bertrand; Nicolay, Sylvain; Barraud, Loris; Niesen, Bjoern; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2015-10-26

    Charge carrier collection in silicon heterojunction solar cells occurs via intrinsic/doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon layer stacks deposited on the crystalline silicon wafer surfaces. Usually, both the electron and hole collecting stacks are externally capped by an n-type transparent conductive oxide, which is primarily needed for carrier extraction. Earlier, it has been demonstrated that the mere presence of such oxides can affect the carrier recombination in the crystalline silicon absorber. Here, we present a detailed investigation of the impact of this phenomenon on both the electron and hole collecting sides, including its consequences for the operating voltages of silicon heterojunction solar cells. As a result, we define guiding principles for improved passivating contact design for high-efficiency silicon solar cells.

  12. Transparent electrodes in silicon heterojunction solar cells: Influence on contact passivation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tomasi, Andrea; Sahli, Florent; Seif, Johannes Peter; Fanni, Lorenzo; de Nicolas Agut, Silvia Martin; Geissbuhler, Jonas; Paviet-Salomon, Bertrand; Nicolay, Sylvain; Barraud, Loris; Niesen, Bjoern; et al

    2015-10-26

    Charge carrier collection in silicon heterojunction solar cells occurs via intrinsic/doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon layer stacks deposited on the crystalline silicon wafer surfaces. Usually, both the electron and hole collecting stacks are externally capped by an n-type transparent conductive oxide, which is primarily needed for carrier extraction. Earlier, it has been demonstrated that the mere presence of such oxides can affect the carrier recombination in the crystalline silicon absorber. Here, we present a detailed investigation of the impact of this phenomenon on both the electron and hole collecting sides, including its consequences for the operating voltages of silicon heterojunction solarmore »cells. As a result, we define guiding principles for improved passivating contact design for high-efficiency silicon solar cells.« less

  13. Fabrication of heterojunction solar cells by improved tin oxide deposition on insulating layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Tom (Morris Plains, NJ); Ghosh, Amal K. (New Providence, NJ)

    1980-01-01

    Highly efficient tin oxide-silicon heterojunction solar cells are prepared by heating a silicon substrate, having an insulating layer thereon, to provide a substrate temperature in the range of about 300.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C. and thereafter spraying the so-heated substrate with a solution of tin tetrachloride in a organic ester boiling below about 250.degree. C. Preferably the insulating layer is naturally grown silicon oxide layer.

  14. INVESTIGATION OF BULK POWER ERCOT (Texas)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    INVESTIGATION OF BULK POWER MARKETS ERCOT (Texas) November 1, 2000 The analyses and conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4 D. The New Wholesale Market and the Move Toward Retail Choice . . . . . . . . . . 4-6 3-8 A. The Bulk Power Transmission System

  15. Constructing Ordered Sensitized Heterojunctions: Bottom-Up Electrochemical Synthesis of p-Type Semiconductors in Oriented n-TiO2 Nanotube Arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Q.; Zhu, K.; Neale, N. R.; Frank. A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Fabrication of efficient semiconductor-sensitized bulk heterojunction solar cells requires the complete filling of the pore system of one semiconductor (host) material with nanoscale dimensions (<100 nm) with a different semiconductor (guest) material. Because of the small pore size and electrical conductivity of the host material, it is challenging to employ electrochemical approaches to fill the entire pore network. Typically, during the electrochemical deposition process, the guest material blocks the pores of the host, precluding complete pore filling. We describe a general synthetic strategy for spatially controlling the growth of p-type semiconductors in the nanopores of electrically conducting n-type materials. As an illustration of this strategy, we report on the facile electrochemical deposition of p-CuInSe{sub 2} in nanoporous anatase n-TiO{sub 2} oriented nanotube arrays and nanoparticle films. We show that by controlling the ambipolar diffusion length the p-type semiconductors can be deposited from the bottom-up, resulting in complete pore filling.

  16. Graphitic carbon nitride/Cu{sub 2}O heterojunctions: Preparation, characterization, and enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Yanlong; Chang, Binbin; Fu, Jie; Zhou, Baocheng; Liu, Jiyang; Xi, Fengna; Dong, Xiaoping, E-mail: xpdong@zstu.edu.cn

    2014-04-01

    As a metal-free semiconductor material, graphitic carbon nitride (C{sub 3}N{sub 4}), the high recombination rate of photogenerated charges and insufficient sunlight absorption limit its solar-based photocatalytic activity. Here, we reported the heterojunctions of C{sub 3}N{sub 4}–Cu{sub 2}O with a p–n junction structure, which was synthesized by a hydrothermal method. The HR-TEM result revealed an intimate interface between C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and Cu{sub 2}O in the heterojunction, and UV–vis diffuse reflection spectra showed their extended spectral response in the visible region compared with pure C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. These excellent structural and spectral properties, as well as p–n junction structures, endowed the C{sub 3}N{sub 4}–Cu{sub 2}O heterojunctions with enhanced photocatalytic activities. The possible photocatalytic mechanism that photogenerated holes as the mainly oxidant species in photocatalysis was proposed base on the trapping experiments. - Highlights: • A hydrothermal method was used to prepare C3N{sub 4}–Cu{sub 2}O heterojunction. • The resulting heterojunction possesses broader absorption in the visible region. • The material owns a high visible light activity and stability for dye degradation.

  17. Comparison of majority carrier charge transfer velocities at Si/polymer and Si/metal photovoltaic heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Michelle J.; Foley, Justin M. [Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1040 (United States); May, Robert A. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station A5300, Austin, Texas 78712-0165 (United States); Maldonado, Stephen [Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1040 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, 930 N University, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1055 (United States)

    2010-08-23

    Two sets of silicon (Si) heterojunctions with either Au or PEDOT:PSS contacts have been prepared to compare interfacial majority carrier charge transfer processes at Si/metal and Si/polymer heterojunctions. Current-voltage (J-V) responses at a range of temperatures, wavelength-dependent internal quantum yields, and steady-state J-V responses under illumination for these devices are reported. The cumulative data suggest that the velocity of majority carrier charge transfer, v{sub n}, is several orders of magnitude smaller at n-Si/PEDOT:PSS contacts than at n-Si/Au junctions, resulting in superior photoresponse characteristics for these inorganic/organic heterojunctions.

  18. Mechanisms of charge transport in anisotype n-TiO{sub 2}/p-CdTe heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brus, V. V.; Ilashchuk, M. I.; Kovalyuk, Z. D.; Maryanchuk, P. D.; Ulyanytsky, K. S.; Gritsyuk, B. N.

    2011-08-15

    Surface-barrier anisotype n-TiO{sub 2}/p-CdTe heterojunctions are fabricated by depositing thin titanium-dioxide films on a freshly cleaved surface of single-crystalline cadmium-telluride wafers by reactive magnetron sputtering. It is established that the electric current through the heterojunctions under investigation is formed by generation-recombination processes in the space-charge region via a deep energy level and tunneling through the potential barrier. The depth and nature of the impurity centers involved in the charge transport are determined.

  19. Indium tin oxide and indium phosphide heterojunction nanowire array solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshimura, Masatoshi Nakai, Eiji; Fukui, Takashi; Tomioka, Katsuhiro; PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency , Honcho Kawaguchi, 332–0012 Saitama

    2013-12-09

    Heterojunction solar cells were formed with a position-controlled InP nanowire array sputtered with indium tin oxide (ITO). The ITO not only acted as a transparent electrode but also as forming a photovoltaic junction. The devices exhibited an open-circuit voltage of 0.436?V, short-circuit current of 24.8?mA/cm{sup 2}, and fill factor of 0.682, giving a power conversion efficiency of 7.37% under AM1.5?G illumination. The internal quantum efficiency of the device was higher than that of the world-record InP cell in the short wavelength range.

  20. Li3PX4: Bulk and Surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holzwarth, Natalie

    show considerable promise for advancing battery technology · Improved safety characteristics · Allow properties are: · Stability · Inteface stability · Ionic Conductivity Tesla Model S #12;Li3PX4: Bulk

  1. Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    stage expected to show a 5% fuel efficiency improvement in vehicle platform under US06 drive cycle caylor.pdf More Documents & Publications Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk...

  2. Improved CNT-Si heterojunction solar cell with structured single-walled carbon nanotubes Shigeo Maruyama1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    -Si heterojuction solar cells. We proposed a water vapor treatment to build up SWNTs to a self-assembled microImproved CNT-Si heterojunction solar cell with structured single-walled carbon nanotubes Shigeo-honeycomb network for the application of solar cells [1]. The micro- honeycomb network consists of vertical

  3. Controlled CVD Growth of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Application to CNT-Si Heterojunction Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Solar Cells Shigeo Maruyama Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo 113 controlled assembly of SWNTs for SWNT-Si heterojunction solar cells will be discussed. We found' growth mode predicted by molecular dynamics simulations. We proposed a water vapor treatment to build up

  4. Molecular beam epitaxy of n-type ZnS: A wide band gap emitter for heterojunction PV devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    Molecular beam epitaxy of n-type ZnS: A wide band gap emitter for heterojunction PV devices Jeffrey and AZO transparent conductive oxides did not. Applications to novel PV devices incorporating low electron-ray diffraction, zinc compounds. I. INTRODUCTION The growing interest in scalable, thin-film photovoltaics (PV

  5. Premelting at Defects Within Bulk Colloidal Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collings, Peter

    Premelting at Defects Within Bulk Colloidal Crystals A. M. Alsayed,1 M. F. Islam,1 J. Zhang,1 P. J at grain boundaries and dislocations within bulk colloidal crystals using real- time video microscopy. The crystals are equilibrium close-packed, three- dimensional colloidal structures made from thermally

  6. Bulk equations of motion from CFT correlators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Kabat; Gilad Lifschytz

    2015-07-27

    To O(1/N) we derive, purely from CFT data, the bulk equations of motion for interacting scalar fields and for scalars coupled to gauge fields and gravity. We first uplift CFT operators to mimic local AdS fields by imposing bulk microcausality. This requires adding an infinite tower of smeared higher-dimension double-trace operators to the CFT definition of a bulk field, with coefficients that we explicitly compute. By summing the contribution of the higher-dimension operators we derive the equations of motion satisfied by these uplifted CFT operators and show that we precisely recover the expected bulk equations of motion. We exhibit the freedom in the CFT construction which corresponds to bulk field redefinitions.

  7. Bulk equations of motion from CFT correlators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kabat, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    To O(1/N) we derive, purely from CFT data, the bulk equations of motion for interacting scalar fields and for scalars coupled to gauge fields and gravity. We first uplift CFT operators to mimic local AdS fields by imposing bulk microcausality. This requires adding an infinite tower of smeared higher-dimension double-trace operators to the CFT definition of a bulk field, with coefficients that we explicitly compute. By summing the contribution of the higher-dimension operators we derive the equations of motion satisfied by these uplifted CFT operators and show that we precisely recover the expected bulk equations of motion. We exhibit the freedom in the CFT construction which corresponds to bulk field redefinitions.

  8. CuIn1-xGaxS2 thin film solar cells with ZnxCd1-xS as heterojunction partner Bhaskar Kumar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    CuIn1-xGaxS2 thin film solar cells with ZnxCd1-xS as heterojunction partner Bhaskar Kumar 1 , Parag 80523 ABSTRACT Copper indium gallium sulfide, CuIn1-xGaxS2 (CIGS2) solar cells prepared with chemical/heterojunction partner/ ZnO/Cr/Ag contact fingers solar cells of area ~0.44 cm 2 were fabricated at FSEC

  9. The Bulk Viscosity of a Pion Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Egang Lu; Guy D. Moore

    2011-01-31

    We compute the bulk viscosity of a gas of pions at temperatures below the QCD crossover temperature, for the physical value of pion mass, to lowest order in chiral perturbation theory. Bulk viscosity is controlled by number-changing processes which become exponentially slow at low temperatures when the pions become exponentially dilute, leading to an exponentially large bulk viscosity zeta ~ (F_0^8/m_\\pi^5) exp(2m_\\pi/T), where F_0 = 93 MeV is the pion decay constant.

  10. Role of structural fluctuations and environmental noise in the electron/hole separation kinetics at organic polymer bulk-heterojunction interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bittner, Eric R

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the electronic dynamics of model organic photovoltaic (OPV) system consisting of polyphenylene vinylene (PPV) oligomers and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM) blend using a mixed molecular mechanics/quantum mechanics (MM/QM) approach. Using a heuristic model that connects energy gap fluctuations to the average electronic couplings and decoherence times, we provide an estimate of the state-to-state internal conversion rates within the manifold of the lowest few electronic excitations. We find that the lowest few excited states of a model interface are rapidly mixed by C=C bond fluctuations such that the system can sample both intermolecular charge-transfer and charge-separated electronic configurations on a time scale of 20fs. Our simulations support an emerging picture of carrier generation in OPV systems in which interfacial electronic states can rapidly decay into charge-separated and current producing states via coupling to vibronic degrees of freedom.

  11. Thin film heterojunction photovoltaic cells and methods of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Basol, Bulent M. (Los Angeles, CA); Tseng, Eric S. (Los Angeles, CA); Rod, Robert L. (Los Angeles, CA)

    1983-06-14

    A method of fabricating a thin film heterojunction photovoltaic cell which comprises depositing a film of a near intrinsic or n-type semiconductor compound formed of at least one of the metal elements of Class II B of the Periodic Table of Elements and at least tellurium and then heating said film at a temperature between about 250.degree. C. and 500.degree. C. for a time sufficient to convert said film to a suitably low resistivity p-type semiconductor compound. Such film may be deposited initially on the surface of an n-type semiconductor substrate. Alternatively, there may be deposited on the converted film a layer of n-type semiconductor compound different from the film semiconductor compound. The resulting photovoltaic cell exhibits a substantially increased power output over similar cells not subjected to the method of the present invention.

  12. Atomic-Layer-Deposited Transparent Electrodes for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demaurex, Benedicte; Seif, Johannes P.; Smit, Sjoerd; Macco, Bart; Kessels, W. M.; Geissbuhler, Jonas; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2014-11-01

    We examine damage-free transparent-electrode deposition to fabricate high-efficiency amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells. Such solar cells usually feature sputtered transparent electrodes, the deposition of which may damage the layers underneath. Using atomic layer deposition, we insert thin protective films between the amorphous silicon layers and sputtered contacts and investigate their effect on device operation. We find that a 20-nm-thick protective layer suffices to preserve, unchanged, the amorphous silicon layers beneath. Insertion of such protective atomic-layer-deposited layers yields slightly higher internal voltages at low carrier injection levels. However, we identify the presence of a silicon oxide layer, formed during processing, between the amorphous silicon and the atomic-layer-deposited transparent electrode that acts as a barrier, impeding hole and electron collection.

  13. Bifacial Si Heterojunction-Perovskite Organic-Inorganic Tandem to Produce Highly Efficient Solar Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asadpour, Reza; Khan, M Ryyan; Alam, Muhammad A

    2015-01-01

    As single junction thin-film technologies, both Si heterojunction (HIT) and Perovskite based solar cells promise high efficiencies at low cost. One expects that a tandem cell design with these cells connected in series will improve the efficiency further. Using a self-consistent numerical modeling of optical and transport characteristics, however, we find that a traditional series connected tandem design suffers from low Jsc due to band-gap mismatch and current matching constraints. It requires careful thickness optimization of Perovskite to achieve any noticeable efficiency gain. Specifically, a traditional tandem cell with state-of-the-art HIT (24%) and Perovskite (20%) sub-cells provides only a modest tandem efficiency of ~25%. Instead, we demonstrate that a bifacial HIT/Perovskite tandem design decouples the optoelectronic constraints and provides an innovative path for extraordinary efficiencies. In the bifacial configuration, the same state-of the-art sub-cells achieve a normalized output of 33%, exceed...

  14. Atomic-Layer-Deposited Transparent Electrodes for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Demaurex, Benedicte; Seif, Johannes P.; Smit, Sjoerd; Macco, Bart; Kessels, W. M.; Geissbuhler, Jonas; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2014-11-01

    We examine damage-free transparent-electrode deposition to fabricate high-efficiency amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells. Such solar cells usually feature sputtered transparent electrodes, the deposition of which may damage the layers underneath. Using atomic layer deposition, we insert thin protective films between the amorphous silicon layers and sputtered contacts and investigate their effect on device operation. We find that a 20-nm-thick protective layer suffices to preserve, unchanged, the amorphous silicon layers beneath. Insertion of such protective atomic-layer-deposited layers yields slightly higher internal voltages at low carrier injection levels. However, we identify the presence of a silicon oxide layer, formed during processing,more »between the amorphous silicon and the atomic-layer-deposited transparent electrode that acts as a barrier, impeding hole and electron collection.« less

  15. Photocurrent enhancement of perovskite heterojunction by plasmonic nanoparticles and ferroelectric polarization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shieh, J. Chen, S. W.; Fang, C. Y.; Chen, C. H.

    2014-02-17

    Perovskite oxides—Pb{sub 0.86}La{sub 0.14}TiO{sub 3} (PLT), AgNbO{sub 3} (ANO), and SrTiO{sub 3} (STO)—were deposited consecutively on ITO/glass substrates to form layered composite photoelectrodes. These materials were chosen for their specific electronic band structures to form efficient photocatalytic heterojunctions and similar crystalline structures to minimize interface defects. Two additional methods were adopted to increase the photocurrent density of the composites: (1) plasmonic gold nanoparticles were introduced at the PLT/ITO interface to enhance light scattering and absorption while not becoming electron trapping centers and (2) the ferroelectric PLT layer was electrically poled toward the ANO layer to create a favorable band bending for electron transfer.

  16. CdS/PbSe heterojunction for high temperature mid-infrared photovoltaic detector applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weng, Binbin, E-mail: binbinweng@ou.edu, E-mail: shi@ou.edu; Qiu, Jijun; Zhao, Lihua; Chang, Caleb [The School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Shi, Zhisheng, E-mail: binbinweng@ou.edu, E-mail: shi@ou.edu [The School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Nanolight, Inc., Norman, Oklahoma 73069 (United States)

    2014-03-24

    n-CdS/p-PbSe heterojunction is investigated. A thin CdS film is deposited by chemical bath deposition on top of epitaxial PbSe film by molecular beam epitaxy on Silicon. Current-voltage measurements demonstrate very good junction characteristics with rectifying ratio of ?178 and ideality factor of 1.79 at 300?K. Detectors made with such structure exhibit mid-infrared spectral photoresponse at room temperature. The peak responsivity R{sub ?} and specific detectivity D{sup *} are 0.055?A/W and 5.482?×?10{sup 8}?cm·Hz{sup 1/2}/W at ??=?4.7??m under zero-bias photovoltaic mode. Temperature-dependent photoresponse measurements show abnormal intensity variation below ?200?K. Possible reasons for this phenomenon are also discussed.

  17. Summary - Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) for...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) for Low Activity Waste (LAW) at Hanford Why DOE-EM Did This Review The Department of Energy (DOE) is charged with the safe...

  18. Comparison of graded and abrupt junction In,,,Ga,,,As heterojunction Much progress has been made fabricating high speed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levi, Anthony F. J.

    results of numerically simulating charge transport in graded and abrupt junction n-p-n HBTs lattice diagram of an abrupt junction n-p-n Alo,4sIn,,2As/Ino,s3Ga".~~~ HBT un- der forward bias. (b) Results fabricating high speed n-p-n heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) lattice matched to InP. Very high speed

  19. THRESHOLD RADIOACTIVITY FOR BULK FOOD SAMPLES BY GAMMA SPECTROSCOPY...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    THRESHOLD RADIOACTIVITY FOR BULK FOOD SAMPLES BY GAMMA SPECTROSCOPY Citation Details In-Document Search Title: THRESHOLD RADIOACTIVITY FOR BULK FOOD SAMPLES BY GAMMA SPECTROSCOPY...

  20. Light-Emitting Diodes on Semipolar Bulk Gallium Nitride Substrate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light-Emitting Diodes on Semipolar Bulk Gallium Nitride Substrate Light-Emitting Diodes on Semipolar Bulk Gallium Nitride Substrate Presenter: Arpan Chakraborty, Soraa Inc. This...

  1. Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for...

  2. High Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material High Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material Presents high heat flux thermoelectric module design...

  3. MoS{sub 2}@ZnO nano-heterojunctions with enhanced photocatalysis and field emission properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Ying-Hua; Yu, Ke Li, Jin-Zhu; Fu, Hao; Zhu, Zi-Qiang

    2014-08-14

    The molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2})@ZnO nano-heterojunctions were successfully fabricated through a facile three-step synthetic process: prefabrication of the ZnO nanoparticles, the synthesis of MoS{sub 2} nanoflowers, and the fabrication of MoS{sub 2}@ZnO heterojunctions, in which ZnO nanoparticles were uniformly self-assembled on the MoS{sub 2} nanoflowers by utilizing polyethyleneimine as a binding agent. The photocatalytic activities of the composite samples were evaluated by monitoring the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB). Compared with pure MoS{sub 2} nanoflowers, the composites show higher adsorption capability in dark and better photocatalytic efficiency due to the increased specific surface area and improved electron-hole pair separation. After irradiation for 100?min, the remaining MB in solution is about 7.3%. Moreover, the MoS{sub 2}@ZnO heterojunctions possess enhanced field emission properties with lower turn-on field of 3.08?V ?m{sup ?1}and lower threshold field of 6.9?V ?m{sup ?1} relative to pure MoS{sub 2} with turn-on field of 3.65?V ?m{sup ?1} and threshold field of 9.03?V ?m{sup ?1}.

  4. Micro benchtop optics by bulk silicon micromachining

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Pocha, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); McConaghy, Charles F. (Livermore, CA); Deri, Robert J. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2000-01-01

    Micromachining of bulk silicon utilizing the parallel etching characteristics of bulk silicon and integrating the parallel etch planes of silicon with silicon wafer bonding and impurity doping, enables the fabrication of on-chip optics with in situ aligned etched grooves for optical fibers, micro-lenses, photodiodes, and laser diodes. Other optical components that can be microfabricated and integrated include semi-transparent beam splitters, micro-optical scanners, pinholes, optical gratings, micro-optical filters, etc. Micromachining of bulk silicon utilizing the parallel etching characteristics thereof can be utilized to develop miniaturization of bio-instrumentation such as wavelength monitoring by fluorescence spectrometers, and other miniaturized optical systems such as Fabry-Perot interferometry for filtering of wavelengths, tunable cavity lasers, micro-holography modules, and wavelength splitters for optical communication systems.

  5. Thermal relics in cosmology with bulk viscosity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Iorio; G. Lambiase

    2014-11-28

    In this paper we discuss some consequences of cosmological models in which the primordial cosmic matter is described by a relativistic imperfect fluid. The latter takes into account the dissipative effects (bulk viscosity) arising from different cooling rates of the fluid components in the expanding Universe. We discuss, in particular, the effects of the bulk viscosity on Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and on the thermal relic abundance of particles, looking at recent results of PAMELA experiment. The latter has determined an anomalous excess of positron events, that cannot be explained by the conventional cosmology and particle physics.

  6. Decision Models for Bulk Energy Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    Decision Models for Bulk Energy Transportation Networks James D. McCalley August 23, 2005 #12, and Electric Transportation Systems (1) What energy flow patterns would yield significantly improved energy (ISU - Randy Larabee) · City of Ames (Ames - Merlin Hove) · MidAmerican Energy (Des Moines - Alan O

  7. Decision Models for Bulk Energy Transportation Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    natural gas pipeline capacity from gulf to NE? Production: How would major investment in a specific/trading restrictions? What would be impacts on fuel and electricity markets? How do high natural gas prices drive1 Decision Models for Bulk Energy Transportation Networks Electrical Engineering Professor Jim Mc

  8. INVESTIGATION OF BULK POWER NORTHEAST REGION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    INVESTIGATION OF BULK POWER MARKETS NORTHEAST REGION November 1, 2000 The analyses and conclusions Activities and Retail Competition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-49 5. Prices, Market Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13 A. Overview of Product Markets, Market Design and Pricing Rules . . . . . . . 1-15 1. Energy

  9. Panchromatic polymer-polymer ternary solar cells enhanced by Forster resonance energy transfer and solvent vapor annealing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Goh, Tenghooi; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Huang, Jing -Shun; Bartolome, Benjamin; Vaisman, Michelle; Lee, Minjoo L.; Taylor, Andre D.

    2015-08-04

    Thanks to the bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) feature of polymer solar cells (PSC), additional light active components can be added with ease to form ternary solar cells. This strategy has achieved great success largely due to expanded spectral response range and improved power conversion efficiency (PCE) without incurring excessive processing costs. Here, we report ternary blend polymer–polymer solar cells comprised of PTB7, P3HT, and PC71BM with PCE as high as 8.2%. Analyses of femtosecond time resolved photoluminescence and transient absorption spectroscopy data confirm that P3HT is effective in transferring energy non-radiatively by inducing excitons and prolonging their overall lifetime in PTB7. Asmore »a result, solvent vapor annealing (SVA) treatment was employed to rectify the overly-coarse morphology, thus enhancing the fill factor, reducing interfacial recombination, and boosting the PCE to 8.7%.« less

  10. Development and characterization of PCDTBT:CdSe QDs hybrid solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixit, Shiv Kumar Bhatnagar, Chhavi Kumari, Anita Madhwal, Devinder Bhatnagar, P. K. Mathur, P. C.

    2014-10-15

    Solar cell consisting of low band gap polymer poly[N-900-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(40,70-di-2-thienyl-20,10, 30-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) as donor and cadmium selenide/zinc sulphide (CdSe/ZnS) core shell quantum dots (QDs) as an acceptor has been developed. The absorption measurements show that the absorption coefficient increases in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) structure covering broad absorption spectrum (200nm–700nm). Also, the photoluminescence (PL) of the PCDTBT:QDs film is found to decrease by an order of magnitude showing a significant transfer of electrons to the QDs. With this approach and under broadband white light with an irradiance of 8.19 mW/cm{sup 2}, we have been able to achieve a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.1 % with fill factor 0.42 for our typical solar cell.

  11. Nano-composite Structures for OPV Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richter, Henning

    2010-11-23

    Improved material for use in organic photovoltaics (OPV) devices, also called polymer-solar cells (PSC), has been developed. Increased ordering of the active layer of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) cells has been achieved by the use of inert silica spheres in conjunction with suitable fullerene derivatives. Silica spheres with average diameters between 10 and 15 nm, consistent with the exciton diffusion length in the active layer, have been added. The potential for significantly improved device performance due to a higher degree of photon absorption, enabled by increased light scattering, and a maximized interface between electron donor and acceptor, ensuring efficient exciton dissociation, has been demonstrated. A method allowing for the covalent attachment of fullerene derivatives to the silica sphere surface has been developed.

  12. Methods for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells from I-III-VI.sub. 2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, Reid A. (Bellevue, WA) [Bellevue, WA; Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA) [Seattle, WA

    1985-08-13

    An improved thin-film, large area solar cell, and methods for forming the same, having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n type heterojunction formed of: (i) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active material selected from the class of I-III-VI.sub.2 chalcopyrite ternary materials which is vacuum deposited in a thin "composition-graded" layer ranging from on the order ot about 2.5 microns to about 5.0 microns (.congruent.2.5 .mu.m to .congruent.5.0 .mu.m) and wherein the lower region of the photovoltaic active material preferably comprises a low resistivity region of p-type semiconductor material having a superimposed region of relatively high resistivity, transient n-type semiconductor material defining a transient p-n homojunction; and (ii), a second semiconductor layer comprising a low resistivity n-type semiconductor material; wherein interdiffusion (a) between the elemental constituents of the two discrete juxtaposed regions of the first semiconductor layer defining a transient p-n homojunction layer, and (b) between the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer and the second n-type semiconductor layer, causes the The Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. EG-77-C-01-4042, Subcontract No. XJ-9-8021-1 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  13. Methods for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells from I-III-VI[sub 2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, R.A.; Chen, W.S.

    1982-06-15

    An improved thin-film, large area solar cell, and methods for forming the same are disclosed, having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n type heterojunction formed of: (1) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active material selected from the class of I-III-VI[sub 2] chalcopyrite ternary materials which is vacuum deposited in a thin composition-graded'' layer ranging from on the order of about 2.5 microns to about 5.0 microns ([approx equal]2.5[mu]m to [approx equal]5.0[mu]m) and wherein the lower region of the photovoltaic active material preferably comprises a low resistivity region of p-type semiconductor material having a superimposed region of relatively high resistivity, transient n-type semiconductor material defining a transient p-n homojunction; and (2), a second semiconductor layer comprising a low resistivity n-type semiconductor material; wherein interdiffusion (a) between the elemental constituents of the two discrete juxtaposed regions of the first semiconductor layer defining a transient p-n homojunction layer, and (b) between the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer and the second n-type semiconductor layer, is allowed.

  14. Methods for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells from I-III-VI.sub. 2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, Reid A. (Bellevue, WA); Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA)

    1982-01-01

    An improved thin-film, large area solar cell, and methods for forming the same, having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n type heterojunction formed of: (i) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active material selected from the class of I-III-VI.sub.2 chalcopyrite ternary materials which is vacuum deposited in a thin "composition-graded" layer ranging from on the order of about 2.5 microns to about 5.0 microns (.congruent.2.5.mu.m to .congruent.5.0.mu.m) and wherein the lower region of the photovoltaic active material preferably comprises a low resistivity region of p-type semiconductor material having a superimposed region of relatively high resistivity, transient n-type semiconductor material defining a transient p-n homojunction; and (ii), a second semiconductor layer comprising a low resistivity n-type semiconductor material; wherein interdiffusion (a) between the elemental constituents of the two discrete juxtaposed regions of the first semiconductor layer defining a transient p-n homojunction layer, and (b) between the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer and the second n-type semiconductor layer, causes the transient n-type material in The Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. EG-77-C-01-4042, Subcontract No. XJ-9-8021-1 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  15. Methods for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells from I-III-VI{sub 2}

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, R.A.; Chen, W.S.

    1985-08-13

    An improved thin-film, large area solar cell, and methods for forming the same are disclosed, having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n type heterojunction formed of: (i) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active material selected from the class of I-III-VI{sub 2} chalcopyrite ternary materials which is vacuum deposited in a thin ``composition-graded`` layer ranging from on the order of about 2.5 microns to about 5.0 microns ({approx_equal}2.5 {mu}m to {approx_equal}5.0 {mu}m) and wherein the lower region of the photovoltaic active material preferably comprises a low resistivity region of p-type semiconductor material having a superimposed region of relatively high resistivity, transient n-type semiconductor material defining a transient p-n homojunction; and (ii) a second semiconductor layer comprising a low resistivity n-type semiconductor material; wherein interdiffusion occurs (a) between the elemental constituents of the two discrete juxtaposed regions of the first semiconductor layer defining a transient p-n homojunction layer, and (b) between the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer and the second n-type semiconductor layer. 16 figs.

  16. Hetero-junction photovoltaic device and method of fabricating the device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aytug, Tolga; Christen, David K; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Polat, Ozgur

    2014-02-10

    A hetero-junction device and fabrication method in which phase-separated n-type and p-type semiconductor pillars define vertically-oriented p-n junctions extending above a substrate. Semiconductor materials are selected for the p-type and n-type pillars that are thermodynamically stable and substantially insoluble in one another. An epitaxial deposition process is employed to form the pillars on a nucleation layer and the mutual insolubility drives phase separation of the materials. During the epitaxial deposition process, the orientation is such that the nucleation layer initiates propagation of vertical columns resulting in a substantially ordered, three-dimensional structure throughout the deposited material. An oxidation state of at least a portion of one of the p-type or the n-type semiconductor materials is altered relative to the other, such that the band-gap energy of the semiconductor materials differ with respect to stoichiometric compositions and the device preferentially absorbs particular selected bands of radiation.

  17. Asymmetric Electron Transport at Monolayer-Bilayer Heterojunctions of Epitaxial Graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, An-Ping [ORNL] [ORNL; Clark, Kendal W [ORNL] [ORNL; Zhang, Xiaoguang [ORNL] [ORNL; Gu, Gong [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); He, Guowei [Carnegie Mellon University (CMU)] [Carnegie Mellon University (CMU); Feenstra, Randall [Carnegie Mellon University (CMU)] [Carnegie Mellon University (CMU)

    2014-01-01

    The symmetry of the graphene honeycomb lattice is a key element determining many of graphene s unique electronic properties, such as the linear energy-momentum dispersion and the suppressed backscattering 1,2. However, line defects in large-scale epitaxial graphene films, such as grain boundaries, edges, surface steps, and changes in layer thickness, often break the sublatttice symmetry and can impact transport properties of graphene profoundly 3-6. Here we report asymmetric electron transport upon polarity reversal at individual monolayer-bilayer (ML-BL) boundaries in epitaxial graphene on SiC (0001), revealed by scanning tunneling potentiometry. A greater voltage drop is observed when the current flows from BL to ML graphene than in the reverse direction, and the difference remains nearly unchanged with increasing current. This is not a typical nonlinear conductance due to electron transmission through an asymmetric potential. Rather, it indicates the opening of a dynamic energy gap at the Fermi energy due to the Coulomb interaction between the injected nonequilibrium electron density and the pseudospin polarized Friedel oscillation charge density at the boundary. This intriguing heterojunction transport behavior opens a new avenue towards novel quantum functions such as quantum switching.

  18. Low-temperature high-mobility amorphous IZO for silicon heterojunction solar cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Morales-Masis, Monica; Martin De Nicolas, Silvia; Holovsky, Jakub; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2015-07-13

    Parasitic absorption in the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) front electrode is one of the limitations of silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells efficiency. To avoid such absorption while retaining high conductivity, TCOs with high electron mobility are preferred over those with high carrier density. Here, we demonstrate improved SHJ solar cell efficiencies by applying high-mobility amorphous indium zinc oxide (a-IZO) as the front TCO. We sputtered a-IZO at low substrate temperature and low power density and investigated the optical and electrical properties, as well as subband tail formation-quantified by the Urbach energy (EU)-as a function of the sputtering oxygen partial pressure.more »We obtain an EU as low as 128 meV for films with the highest Hall mobility of 60 cm2/Vs. When comparing the performance of a-IZO films with indium tin oxide (ITO) and hydrogenated indium oxide (IO:H), we find that IO:H (115 cm2/Vs) exhibits a similar EU of 130 meV, while ITO (25 cm2/Vs) presents a much larger EU of up to 270 meV. The high film quality, indicated by the low EU, the high mobility, and low free carrier absorption of the developed a-IZO electrodes, result in a significant current improvement, achieving conversion efficiencies over 21.5%, outperforming those with standard ITO.« less

  19. Bifacial Si Heterojunction-Perovskite Organic-Inorganic Tandem to Produce Highly Efficient Solar Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reza Asadpour; Raghu V. K. Chavali; M. Ryyan Khan; Muhammad A. Alam

    2015-05-15

    As single junction thin-film technologies, both Si heterojunction (HIT) and Perovskite based solar cells promise high efficiencies at low cost. One expects that a tandem cell design with these cells connected in series will improve the efficiency further. Using a self-consistent numerical modeling of optical and transport characteristics, however, we find that a traditional series connected tandem design suffers from low Jsc due to band-gap mismatch and current matching constraints. It requires careful thickness optimization of Perovskite to achieve any noticeable efficiency gain. Specifically, a traditional tandem cell with state-of-the-art HIT (24%) and Perovskite (20%) sub-cells provides only a modest tandem efficiency of ~25%. Instead, we demonstrate that a bifacial HIT/Perovskite tandem design decouples the optoelectronic constraints and provides an innovative path for extraordinary efficiencies. In the bifacial configuration, the same state-of the-art sub-cells achieve a normalized output of 33%, exceeding the bifacial HIT performance at practical albedo reflections. Unlike the traditional design, this bifacial design is relatively insensitive to Perovskite thickness variations, which may translate to simpler manufacture and higher yield.

  20. Measurement of the valence band-offset in a PbSe/ZnO heterojunction by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Lin; Qiu Jijun; Weng Binbin; Yuan Zijian; Shi Zhisheng [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Li Xiaomin; Gan Xiaoyan [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Sellers, Ian R. [Deparment of Physics, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States)

    2012-12-24

    A heterojunction of PbSe/ZnO has been grown by molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to directly measure the valence-band offset (VBO) of the heterojunction. The VBO, {Delta}E{sub V}, was determined as 2.51 {+-} 0.05 eV using the Pb 4p{sup 3/2} and Zn 2p{sup 3/2} core levels as a reference. The conduction-band offset, {Delta}E{sub C}, was, therefore, determined to be 0.59 {+-} 0.05 eV based on the above {Delta}E{sub V} value. This analysis indicates that the PbSe/ZnO heterojunction forms a type I (Straddling Gap) heterostructure.

  1. Integrated optical and electrical modeling of plasmon-enhanced thin film photovoltaics: A case-study on organic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rourke, D; Ahn, S; Nardes, AM; van de Lagemaat, J; Kopidakis, N; Park, W

    2014-09-21

    The nanoscale light control for absorption enhancement of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices inevitably produces strongly non-uniform optical fields. These non-uniformities due to the localized optical modes are a primary route toward absorption enhancement in OPV devices. Therefore, a rigorous modeling tool taking into account the spatial distribution of optical field and carrier generation is necessary. Presented here is a comprehensive numerical model to describe the coupled optical and electrical behavior of plasmon-enhanced polymer: fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. In this model, a position-dependent electron-hole pair generation rate that could become highly non-uniform due to photonic nanostructures is directly calculated from the optical simulations. By considering the absorption and plasmonic properties of nanophotonic gratings included in two different popular device architectures, and applying the Poisson, current continuity, and drift/diffusion equations, the model predicts quantum efficiency, short-circuit current density, and desired carrier mobility ratios for bulk heterojunction devices incorporating nanostructures for light management. In particular, the model predicts a significant degradation of device performance when the carrier species with lower mobility are generated far from the collecting electrode. Consequently, an inverted device architecture is preferred for materials with low hole mobility. This is especially true for devices that include plasmonic nanostructures. Additionally, due to the incorporation of a plasmonic nanostructure, we use simulations to theoretically predict absorption band broadening of a BHJ into energies below the band gap, resulting in a 4.8% increase in generated photocurrent. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  2. Highly efficient visible-light-induced photocatalytic activity of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}/BiVO{sub 4} heterojunction photocatalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaiwichian, Saranyoo [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai50200 (Thailand); Inceesungvorn, Burapat [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wetchakun, Khatcharin [Program of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ubon Ratchathani Rajabhat University, Ubon Ratchathani 34000 (Thailand); Phanichphant, Sukon [Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Kangwansupamonkon, Wiyong [National Nanotechnology Center, Thailand Science Park, Phahonyotin Road, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Phathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Wetchakun, Natda, E-mail: natda_we@yahoo.com [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai50200 (Thailand)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}/BiVO{sub 4} heterojunction photocatalysts were obtained using hydrothermal method. • Physicochemical properties played a significant role on photocatalytic efficiency. • Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}/BiVO{sub 4} heterogeneous structures were greatly enhanced for degradation of MB. • A tentative mechanism of charge transfer process in MB degradation was proposed. - Abstract: The Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}/BiVO{sub 4} heterojunction photocatalysts were synthesized by hydrothermal method. Physical properties of the heterojunction photocatalyst samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The XRD results indicated that BiVO{sub 4} retain monoclinic and tetragonal structures, while Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} presented as orthorhombic structure. The Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) adsorption–desorption of nitrogen gas for specific surface area determination at the temperature of liquid nitrogen was performed on all samples. UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV–vis DRS) were used to identify the absorption range and band gap energy of the heterojunction photocatalysts. The photocatalytic performance of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}/BiVO{sub 4} heterojunction photocatalysts was studied via the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. The results indicated that the heterojunction photocatalyst at 0.5:0.5 mole ratio of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}:BiVO{sub 4} shows the highest photocatalytic activity.

  3. Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olsson, Roy H. (Albuquerque, NM); El-Kady, Ihab F. (Albuquerque, NM); McCormick, Frederick (Albuquerque, NM); Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Fleming, legal representative, Carol (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-11-23

    A microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device comprises a periodic two-dimensional array of scatterers embedded within the matrix material membrane, wherein the scatterer material has a density and/or elastic constant that is different than the matrix material and wherein the periodicity of the array causes destructive interference of the acoustic wave within an acoustic bandgap. The membrane can be suspended above a substrate by an air or vacuum gap to provide acoustic isolation from the substrate. The device can be fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. Such microfabricated bulk wave phononic bandgap devices are useful for acoustic isolation in the ultrasonic, VHF, or UHF regime (i.e., frequencies of order 1 MHz to 10 GHz and higher, and lattice constants of order 100 .mu.m or less).

  4. Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady, Ihab F.; McCormick, Frederick; Fleming, James G.; Fleming, Carol

    2010-06-08

    A microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device comprises a periodic two-dimensional array of scatterers embedded within the matrix material membrane, wherein the scatterer material has a density and/or elastic constant that is different than the matrix material and wherein the periodicity of the array causes destructive interference of the acoustic wave within an acoustic bandgap. The membrane can be suspended above a substrate by an air or vacuum gap to provide acoustic isolation from the substrate. The device can be fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. Such microfabricated bulk wave phononic bandgap devices are useful for acoustic isolation in the ultrasonic, VHF, or UHF regime (i.e., frequencies of order 1 MHz to 10 GHz and higher, and lattice constants of order 100 .mu.m or less).

  5. Modeling direct interband tunneling. I. Bulk semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Andrew; Chui, Chi On

    2014-08-07

    Interband tunneling is frequently studied using the semiclassical Kane model, despite uncertainty about its validity. Revisiting the physical basis of this formula, we find that it neglects coupling to other bands and underestimates transverse tunneling. As a result, significant errors can arise at low and high fields for small and large gap materials, respectively. We derive a simple multiband tunneling model to correct these defects analytically without arbitrary parameters. Through extensive comparison with band structure and quantum transport calculations for bulk InGaAs, InAs, and InSb, we probe the accuracy of the Kane and multiband formulas and establish the superiority of the latter. We also show that the nonlocal average electric field should be used when applying either of these models to nonuniform potentials. Our findings are important for efficient analysis and simulation of bulk semiconductor devices involving tunneling.

  6. Structural and photovoltaic properties of a-Si (SNc)/c-Si heterojunction fabricated by EBPVD technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demiro?lu, D.; Kazmanli, K.; Urgen, M.; Tatar, B.

    2013-12-16

    In last two decades sculptured thin films are very attractive for researches. Some properties of these thin films, like high porosity correspondingly high large surface area, controlled morphology; bring into prominence on them. Sculptured thin films have wide application areas as electronics, optics, mechanics, magnetic and chemistry. Slanted nano-columnar (SnC) thin films are a type of sculptured thin films. In this investigation SnC thin films were growth on n-type crystalline Si(100) and p-type crystalline Si(111) via ultra-high vacuum electron beam evaporation technique. The structural and morphological properties of the amorphous silicon thin films were investigated by XRD, Raman and FE-SEM analysis. According to the XRD and Raman analysis the structure of thin film was amorphous and FE-SEM analysis indicated slanted nano-columns were formed smoothly. Slanted nano-columns a-Si/c-Si heterojunction were prepared as using a photovoltaic device. In this regard we were researched photovoltaic properties of these heterojunction with current-voltage characterization under dark and illumination conditions. Electrical parameters were determined from the current-voltage characteristic in the dark conditions zero-bias barrier height ?{sub B0}?=?0.83?1.00eV; diode ideality factor ??=?11.71?10.73; series resistance R{sub s}?=?260?31.1 k? and shunt resistance R{sub sh}?=?25.71?63.5 M? SnC a-Si/n-Si and SnC a-Si/p-Si heterojunctions shows a pretty good photovoltaic behavior about 10{sup 3}- 10{sup 4} times. The obtained photovoltaic parameters are such as short circuit current density J{sub sc} 83-40 mA/m{sup 2}, open circuit voltage V{sub oc} 900-831 mV.

  7. DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM (DBVS) EXTERNAL REVIEW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HONEYMAN, J.O.

    2007-02-08

    The Hanford mission to retrieve and immobilize 53 million gallons of radioactive waste from 177 underground storage tanks will be accomplished using a combination of processing by the waste treatment plant currently under construction, and a supplemental treatment that would process low-activity waste. Under consideration for this treatment is bulk vitrification, a versatile joule-heated melter technology which could be deployed in the tank farms. The Department proposes to demonstrate this technology under a Research, Development and Demonstration (RD and D) permit issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology using both non-radioactive simulant and blends of actual tank waste. From the demonstration program, data would be obtained on cost and technical performance to enable a decision on the potential use of bulk vitrification as the supplemental treatment technology for Hanford. An independent review by sixteen subject matter experts was conducted to assure that the technical basis of the demonstration facility design would be adequate to meet the objectives of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) program. This review explored all aspects of the program, including flowsheet chemistry, project risk, vitrification, equipment design and nuclear safety, and was carried out at a time when issues can be identified and corrected. This paper describes the mission need, review approach, technical recommendations and follow-on activities for the DBVS program.

  8. Hydrogen isotope separation utilizing bulk getters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knize, Randall J. (Los Angeles, CA); Cecchi, Joseph L. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1991-01-01

    Tritium and deuterium are separated from a gaseous mixture thereof, derived from a nuclear fusion reactor or some other source, by providing a casing with a bulk getter therein for absorbing the gaseous mixture to produce an initial loading of the getter, partially desorbing the getter to produce a desorbed mixture which is tritium-enriched, pumping the desorbed mixture into a separate container, the remaining gaseous loading in the getter being deuterium-enriched, desorbing the getter to a substantially greater extent to produce a deuterium-enriched gaseous mixture, and removing the deuterium-enriched mixture into another container. The bulk getter may comprise a zirconium-aluminum alloy, or a zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy. The partial desorption may reduce the loading by approximately fifty percent. The basic procedure may be extended to produce a multistage isotope separator, including at least one additional bulk getter into which the tritium-enriched mixture is absorbed. The second getter is then partially desorbed to produce a desorbed mixture which is further tritium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed from the container for the second getter, which is then desorbed to a substantially greater extent to produce a desorbed mixture which is deuterium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed so that the cycle can be continued and repeated. The method of isotope separation is also applicable to other hydrogen isotopes, in that the method can be employed for separating either deuterium or tritium from normal hydrogen.

  9. Hydrogen isotope separation utilizing bulk getters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knize, R.J.; Cecchi, J.L.

    1991-08-20

    Tritium and deuterium are separated from a gaseous mixture thereof, derived from a nuclear fusion reactor or some other source, by providing a casing with a bulk getter therein for absorbing the gaseous mixture to produce an initial loading of the getter, partially desorbing the getter to produce a desorbed mixture which is tritium-enriched, pumping the desorbed mixture into a separate container, the remaining gaseous loading in the getter being deuterium-enriched, desorbing the getter to a substantially greater extent to produce a deuterium-enriched gaseous mixture, and removing the deuterium-enriched mixture into another container. The bulk getter may comprise a zirconium-aluminum alloy, or a zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy. The partial desorption may reduce the loading by approximately fifty percent. The basic procedure may be extended to produce a multistage isotope separator, including at least one additional bulk getter into which the tritium-enriched mixture is absorbed. The second getter is then partially desorbed to produce a desorbed mixture which is further tritium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed from the container for the second getter, which is then desorbed to a substantially greater extent to produce a desorbed mixture which is deuterium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed so that the cycle can be continued and repeated. The method of isotope separation is also applicable to other hydrogen isotopes, in that the method can be employed for separating either deuterium or tritium from normal hydrogen. 4 figures.

  10. Hydrogen isotope separation utilizing bulk getters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knize, Randall J. (Los Angeles, CA); Cecchi, Joseph L. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1990-01-01

    Tritium and deuterium are separated from a gaseous mixture thereof, derived from a nuclear fusion reactor or some other source, by providing a casing with a bulk getter therein for absorbing the gaseous mixture to produce an initial loading of the getter, partially desorbing the getter to produce a desorbed mixture which is tritium-enriched, pumping the desorbed mixture into a separate container, the remaining gaseous loading in the getter being deuterium-enriched, desorbing the getter to a substantially greater extent to produce a deuterium-enriched gaseous mixture, and removing the deuterium-enriched mixture into another container. The bulk getter may comprise a zirconium-aluminum alloy, or a zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy. The partial desorption may reduce the loading by approximately fifty percent. The basic procedure may be extended to produce a multistage isotope separator, including at least one additional bulk getter into which the tritium-enriched mixture is absorbed. The second getter is then partially desorbed to produce a desorbed mixture which is further tritium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed from the container for the second getter, which is then desorbed to a substantially greater extent to produce a desorbed mixture which is deuterium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed so that the cycle can be continued and repeated. The method of isotope separation is also applicable to other hydrogen isotopes, in that the method can be employed for separating either deuterium or tritium from normal hydrogen.

  11. A modular molecular framework for utility in small-molecule solution-processed organic photovoltaic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welch, Gregory C; Perez, Louis A.; Hoven, Corey V.; Zhang, Yuan; Dang, Xuan-Dung; Sharenko, Alexander; Toney, Michael F.; Kramer, Edward J.; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen; Bazan, Guillermo C.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the design, synthesis and characterization of light harvesting small molecules for use in solution-processed small molecule bulk heterojunction (SM-BHJ) solar cell devices. These molecular materials are based upon an acceptor/donor/acceptor (A/D/A) core with donor endcapping units. Utilization of a dithieno(3,2-b;2',3'-d)silole (DTS) donor and pyridal[2,1,3]thiadiazole (PT) acceptor leads to strong charge transfer characteristics, resulting in broad optical absorption spectra extending well beyond 700 nm. SM-BHJ solar cell devices fabricated with the specific example 5,5'-bis{7-(4-(5-hexylthiophen-2-yl)thiophen-2-yl)-[1,2,5]thiadiazolo[3,4-c]pyridine}-3,3'-di-2-ethylhexylsilylene-2,2'-bithiophene (6) as the donor and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) as the acceptor component showed short circuit currents above -10 mA cm-2 and power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) over 3%. Thermal processing is a critical factor in obtaining favorable active layer morphologies and high PCE values. A combination of UV-visible spectroscopy, conductive and photo-conductive atomic force microscopies, dynamic secondary mass ion spectrometry (DSIMS), and grazing incident wide angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) experiments were carried out to characterize how thermal treatment influences the active layer structure and organization.

  12. Experimental determination of band offsets of NiO-based thin film heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawade, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Mutsumi, E-mail: mutsumi@rs.noda.tus.ac.jp [Faculty of Science and Technology/Research Institute for Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda 278-8510 (Japan); Chichibu, Shigefusa F. [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba, Sendai 980–8577 (Japan)

    2014-10-28

    The energy band diagrams of NiO-based solar cell structures that use various n-type oxide semiconductors such as ZnO, Mg{sub 0.3}Zn{sub 0.7}O, Zn{sub 0.5}Sn{sub 0.5}O, In{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Sn (ITO), SnO{sub 2}, and TiO{sub 2} were evaluated by photoelectron yield spectroscopy. The valence band discontinuities were estimated to be 1.6?eV for ZnO/NiO and Mg{sub 0.3}Zn{sub 0.7}O/NiO, 1.7?eV for Zn{sub 0.5}Sn{sub 0.5}O/NiO and ITO/NiO, and 1.8?eV for SnO{sub 2}/NiO and TiO{sub 2}/NiO heterojunctions. By using the valence band discontinuity values and corresponding energy bandgaps of the layers, energy band diagrams were developed. Judging from the band diagram, an appropriate solar cell consisting of p-type NiO and n-type ZnO layers was deposited on ITO, and a slight but noticeable photovoltaic effect was obtained with an open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of 0.96?V, short circuit current density (J{sub sc}) of 2.2??A/cm{sup 2}, and fill factor of 0.44.

  13. A new class of high ZT doped bulk nanothermoelectrics through...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    new class of high ZT doped bulk nanothermoelectrics through bottom-up synthesis A new class of high ZT doped bulk nanothermoelectrics through bottom-up synthesis Reports on...

  14. Bulk Energy Storage Webinar Rescheduled for February 9, 2012...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bulk Energy Storage Webinar Rescheduled for February 9, 2012 Bulk Energy Storage Webinar Rescheduled for February 9, 2012 February 1, 2012 - 12:48pm Addthis The U.S. Department of...

  15. Heterojunction metal-oxide-metal Au-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au single nanowire device for spintronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reddy, K. M. Punnoose, Alex; Hanna, Charles; Padture, Nitin P.

    2015-05-07

    In this report, we present the synthesis of heterojunction magnetite nanowires in alumina template and describe magnetic and electrical properties from a single nanowire device for spintronics applications. Heterojunction Au-Fe-Au nanowire arrays were electrodeposited in porous aluminum oxide templates, and an extensive and controlled heat treatment process converted Fe segment to nanocrystalline cubic magnetite phase with well-defined Au-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} interfaces as confirmed by the transmission electron microscopy. Magnetic measurements revealed Verwey transition shoulder around 120?K and a room temperature coercive field of 90?Oe. Current–voltage (I-V) characteristics of a single Au-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au nanowire have exhibited Ohmic behavior. Anomalous positive magnetoresistance of about 0.5% is observed on a single nanowire, which is attributed to the high spin polarization in nanowire device with pure Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase and nanocontact barrier. This work demonstrates the ability to preserve the pristine Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and well defined electrode contact metal (Au)–magnetite interface, which helps in attaining high spin polarized current.

  16. Photovoltaic devices based on high density boron-doped single-walled carbon nanotube/n-Si heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saini, Viney [Univ. of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR (United States) Dept. of Applied Science; Li, Zhongrui [Univ. of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR (United States) Dept. of Applied Science; Bourdo, Shawn [Univ. of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR (United States) Dept. of Applied Science; Univ. of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR (United States) Dept. of Chemistry; Kunets, Vasyl P. [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States) Dept. of Physics; Trigwell, Steven [NASA Kennedy Space Center, FL (United States); Couraud, Arthur [Univ. of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR (United States) Dept. of Applied Science; Ecole d'Ingenieurs du CESI-EIA, La Couronne (France); Rioux, Julien [Univ. of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR (United States) Dept. of Applied Science; Ecole d'Ingenieurs du CESI-EIA, La Couronne (France); Boyer, Cyril [Univ. of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR (United States) Dept. of Applied Science; Ecole d'Ingenieurs du CESI-EIA, La Couronne (France); Nteziyaremye, Valens [Univ. of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR (United States) Dept. of Applied Science; Dervishi, Enkeleda [Univ. of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR (United States) Dept. of Applied Science; Biris, Alexandru R. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Salamo, Gregory J. [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States) Dept. of Physics; Viswanathan, Tito [Univ. of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR (United States) Dept. of Chemistry; Biris, Alexandru S. [Univ. of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR (United States) Dept. of Applied Science

    2011-01-01

    A simple and easily processible photovoltaic device has been developed based on borondoped single-walled carbon nanotubes (B-SWNTs) and n-type silicon (n-Si) heterojunctions. The single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were substitutionally doped with boron atoms by thermal annealing, in the presence of B2O3. The samples used for these studies were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The fully functional solar cell devices were fabricated by airbrush deposition that generated uniform B-SWNT films on top of the n-Si substrates. The carbon nanotube films acted as exciton-generation sites, charge collection and transportation, while the heterojunctions formed between B-SWNTs and n-Si acted as charge dissociation centers. The current-voltage characteristics in the absence of light and under illumination, as well as optical transmittance spectrum are reported here. It should be noted that the device fabrication process can be made amenable to scalability by depositing direct and uniform films using airbrushing, inkjet printing, or spin-coating techniques.

  17. Photovoltaic devices based on high density boron-doped single-walled carbon nanotube/n-Si heterojunctions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Saini, Viney [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Li, Zhongrui [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Bourdo, Shawn [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Kunets, Vasyl P. [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States); Trigwell, Steven [ASRC Aerospace Corp., Kennedy Space Center, FL (United States); Couraud, Arthur [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States) and Ecole d'Ingenieurs de CESI-EIA, La Couronne (France); Rioux, Julien [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States) and Ecole d'Ingenieurs du CESI-EIA, La Couronne (France); Boyer, Cyril [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States) and Ecole d'Ingenieurs du CESI-EIA, La Couronne (France); Nteziyaremye, Valens [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Dervishi, Enkeleda [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Biris, Alexandru R. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Salamo, Gregory J. [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States); Viswanathan, Tito [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Biris, Alexandru S. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2011-01-13

    A simple and easily processible photovoltaic device has been developed based on borondoped single-walled carbon nanotubes (B-SWNTs) and n-type silicon (n-Si) heterojunctions. The single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were substitutionally doped with boron atoms by thermal annealing, in the presence of B2O3. The samples used for these studies were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The fully functional solar cell devices were fabricated by airbrush deposition that generated uniform B-SWNT films on top of the n-Si substrates. The carbon nanotube films acted as exciton-generation sites, charge collection and transportation, while the heterojunctions formed between B-SWNTs and n-Si acted as charge dissociation centers. The current-voltage characteristics in the absence of light and under illumination, as well as optical transmittance spectrum are reported here. It should be noted that the device fabrication process can be made amenable to scalability by depositing direct and uniform films using airbrushing, inkjet printing, or spin-coating techniques.

  18. Photovoltaic devices based on high density boron-doped single-walled carbon nanotube/n-Si heterojunctions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Saini, Viney; Li, Zhongrui; Bourdo, Shawn; Kunets, Vasyl P.; Trigwell, Steven; Couraud, Arthur; Ecole d'Ingenieurs du CESI-EIA, La Couronne; Rioux, Julien; Ecole d'Ingenieurs du CESI-EIA, La Couronne; Boyer, Cyril; et al

    2011-01-13

    A simple and easily processible photovoltaic device has been developed based on borondoped single-walled carbon nanotubes (B-SWNTs) and n-type silicon (n-Si) heterojunctions. The single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were substitutionally doped with boron atoms by thermal annealing, in the presence of B2O3. The samples used for these studies were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The fully functional solar cell devices were fabricated by airbrush deposition that generated uniform B-SWNT films on top of the n-Si substrates. The carbon nanotube films acted as exciton-generation sites, charge collection and transportation, whilemore »the heterojunctions formed between B-SWNTs and n-Si acted as charge dissociation centers. The current-voltage characteristics in the absence of light and under illumination, as well as optical transmittance spectrum are reported here. It should be noted that the device fabrication process can be made amenable to scalability by depositing direct and uniform films using airbrushing, inkjet printing, or spin-coating techniques.« less

  19. MG DOPING AND ALLOYING IN ZN3P2 HETEROJUNCTION SOLAR CELLS Gregory M. Kimball, Nathan S. Lewis, Harry A. Atwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimball, Gregory

    . In this manuscript, the electronic and material properties of Mg impurities in Zn3P2 are studied by the Hall effect phosphide (Zn3P2) is a promising and earth-abundant alternative to traditional materials (e.g. CdTe, CIGS, a have therefore been constructed from Schottky contacts, p-n semiconductor heterojunctions [4

  20. Improving the bulk data transfer experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guok, Chin; Guok, Chin; Lee, Jason R.; Berket, Karlo

    2008-05-07

    Scientific computations and collaborations increasingly rely on the network to provide high-speed data transfer, dissemination of results, access to instruments, support for computational steering, etc. The Energy Sciences Network is establishing a science data network to provide user driven bandwidth allocation. In a shared network environment, some reservations may not be granted due to the lack of available bandwidth on any single path. In many cases, the available bandwidth across multiple paths would be sufficient to grant the reservation. In this paper we investigate how to utilize the available bandwidth across multiple paths in the case of bulk data transfer.

  1. RAPID/Bulk Transmission | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource HistoryPotentialRuralUtilityScalePVGeneration JumpPublic UtilityQuintasNEPA Timelines <Bulk Transmission

  2. RAPID/BulkTransmission | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource HistoryPotentialRuralUtilityScalePVGeneration JumpPublic UtilityQuintasNEPA Timelines <Bulk

  3. Hybrid Solar Cells with Prescribed Nanoscale Morphologies Based on Hyperbranched Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan; Fromer, Neil A.; Chen, Chih-Ping; Kanaras, Antonios G.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2006-01-01

    bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells. Mrs Bulletin 30, 37-A. J. Polymer Photovoltaic Cells - Enhanced Efficiencies ViaC[sub 60] heterojunction photovoltaic cell. Applied Physics

  4. Using Self-Assembly to Control Nanoscale Morphology in Semiconducting Polymers for Application in Organic Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferreira, Amy Susan

    2015-01-01

    Fullerene Organic Photovoltaic Cells. Nat Commun 2013, 4. (Bulk- Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cells. Appl. Phys. Lett.C60 Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cell. Appl. Phys. Lett.

  5. The Bulk Channel in Thermal Gauge Theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harvey B. Meyer

    2010-02-17

    We investigate the thermal correlator of the trace of the energy-momentum tensor in the SU(3) Yang-Mills theory. Our goal is to constrain the spectral function in that channel, whose low-frequency part determines the bulk viscosity. We focus on the thermal modification of the spectral function, $\\rho(\\omega,T)-\\rho(\\omega,0)$. Using the operator-product expansion we give the high-frequency behavior of this difference in terms of thermodynamic potentials. We take into account the presence of an exact delta function located at the origin, which had been missed in previous analyses. We then combine the bulk sum rule and a Monte-Carlo evaluation of the Euclidean correlator to determine the intervals of frequency where the spectral density is enhanced or depleted by thermal effects. We find evidence that the thermal spectral density is non-zero for frequencies below the scalar glueball mass $m$ and is significantly depleted for $m\\lesssim\\omega\\lesssim 3m$.

  6. Hetero-junctions of Boron Nitride and Carbon Nanotubes: Synthesis and Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yap, Yoke Khin

    2013-03-14

    Hetero-junctions of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are expected to have appealing new properties that are not available from pure BNNTs and CNTs. Theoretical studies indicate that BNNT/CNT junctions could be multifunctional and applicable as memory, spintronic, electronic, and photonics devices with tunable band structures. This will lead to energy and material efficient multifunctional devices that will be beneficial to the society. However, experimental realization of BNNT/CNT junctions was hindered by the absent of a common growth technique for BNNTs and CNTs. In fact, the synthesis of BNNTs was very challenging and may involve high temperatures (up to 3000 degree Celsius by laser ablation) and explosive chemicals. During the award period, we have successfully developed a simple chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique to grow BNNTs at 1100-1200 degree Celsius without using dangerous chemicals. A series of common catalyst have then been identified for the synthesis of BNNTs and CNTs. Both of these breakthroughs have led to our preliminary success in growing two types of BNNT/CNT junctions and two additional new nanostructures: 1) branching BNNT/CNT junctions and 2) co-axial BNNT/CNT junctions, 3) quantum dots functionalized BNNTs (QDs-BNNTs), 4) BNNT/graphene junctions. We have started to understand their structural, compositional, and electronic properties. Latest results indicate that the branching BNNT/CNT junctions and QDs-BNNTs are functional as room-temperature tunneling devices. We have submitted the application of a renewal grant to continue the study of these new energy efficient materials. Finally, this project has also strengthened our collaborations with multiple Department of Energy�s Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs), including the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINTs) at Sandia National Laboratories and Los Alamos National Laboratory. Results obtained during the current funding period have led to the publication of twelve peer reviewed articles, three review papers, two book and one encyclopedia chapters, and thirty eight conference/seminar presentation. One US provisional patent and one international patent have also been filed.

  7. Bulk chemical and Hfâ??W isotopic consequences of incomplete accretion during planet formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dwyer, Christina A; Nimmo, Francis; Chambers, John E

    2015-01-01

    Bulk chemical and Hf–W isotopic consequences of incompletestyle affects the bulk chemical and isotopic outcomes ofto investigate the bulk chemical and isotopic consequences

  8. Phonons and defects in semiconductors and nanostructures: Phonon trapping, phonon scattering, and heat flow at heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Estreicher, S. K., E-mail: Stefan.Estreicher@ttu.edu; Gibbons, T. M.; Kang, By.; Bebek, M. B. [Physics Department, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409-1051 (United States)

    2014-01-07

    Defects in semiconductors introduce vibrational modes that are distinct from bulk modes because they are spatially localized in the vicinity of the defect. Light impurities produce high-frequency modes often visible by Fourier-transform infrared absorption or Raman spectroscopy. Their vibrational lifetimes vary by orders of magnitude and sometimes exhibit unexpectedly large isotope effects. Heavy impurities introduce low-frequency modes sometimes visible as phonon replicas in photoluminescence bands. But other defects such as surfaces or interfaces exhibit spatially localized modes (SLMs) as well. All of them can trap phonons, which ultimately decay into lower-frequency bulk phonons. When heat flows through a material containing defects, phonon trapping at localized modes followed by their decay into bulk phonons is usually described in terms of phonon scattering: defects are assumed to be static scattering centers and the properties of the defect-related SLMs modes are ignored. These dynamic properties of defects are important. In this paper, we quantify the concepts of vibrational localization and phonon trapping, distinguish between normal and anomalous decay of localized excitations, discuss the meaning of phonon scattering in real space at the atomic level, and illustrate the importance of phonon trapping in the case of heat flow at Si/Ge and Si/C interfaces.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF THE BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2008-09-14

    A new radioactive shipping packaging for transporting bulk quantities of tritium, the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP), has been designed for the Department of Energy (DOE) as a replacement for a package designed in the early 1970s. This paper summarizes significant design features and describes how the design satisfies the regulatory safety requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations and the International Atomic Energy Agency. The BTSP design incorporates many improvements over its predecessor by implementing improved testing, handling, and maintenance capabilities, while improving manufacturability and incorporating new engineered materials. This paper also discusses the results from testing of the BTSP to 10 CFR 71 Normal Conditions of Transport and Hypothetical Accident Condition events. The programmatic need of the Department of Energy (DOE) to ship bulk quantities of tritium has been satisfied since the late 1970s by the UC-609 shipping package. The current Certificate of Conformance for the UC-609, USA/9932/B(U) (DOE), will expire in late 2011. Since the UC-609 was not designed to meet current regulatory requirements, it will not be recertified and thereby necessitates a replacement Type B shipping package for continued DOE tritium shipments in the future. A replacement tritium packaging called the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP) is currently being designed and tested by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The BTSP consists of two primary assemblies, an outer Drum Assembly and an inner Containment Vessel Assembly (CV), both designed to mitigate damage and to protect the tritium contents from leaking during the regulatory Hypothetical Accident Condition (HAC) events and during Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT). During transport, the CV rests on a silicone pad within the Drum Liner and is covered with a thermal insulating disk within the insulated Drum Assembly. The BTSP packaging weighs approximately 500 lbs without contents and is 50-1/2 inches high by 24-1/2 inches in outside diameter. With contents the gross weight of the BTSP is 650 lbs. The BTSP is designed for the safe shipment of 150 grams of tritium in a solid or gaseous state. To comply with the federal regulations that govern Type B shipping packages, the BTSP is designed so that it will not lose tritium at a rate greater than the limits stated in 10CFR 71.51 of 10{sup -6} A2 per hour for the 'Normal Conditions of Transport' (NCT) and an A2 in 1 week under 'Hypothetical Accident Conditions' (HAC). Additionally, since the BTSP design incorporates a valve as part of the tritium containment boundary, secondary containment features are incorporated in the CV Lid to protect against gas leakage past the valve as required by 10CFR71.43(e). This secondary containment boundary is designed to provide the same level of containment as the primary containment boundary when subjected to the HAC and NCT criteria.

  10. DEPLOYMENT OF THE BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanton, P.

    2013-10-10

    A new Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP) was designed by the Savannah River National Laboratory to be a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The BTSP was certified by the National Nuclear Safety Administration in 2011 for shipments of up to 150 grams of Tritium. Thirty packages were procured and are being delivered to various DOE sites for operational use. This paper summarizes the design features of the BTSP, as well as associated engineered material improvements. Fabrication challenges encountered during production are discussed as well as fielding requirements. Current approved tritium content forms (gas and tritium hydrides), are reviewed, as well as, a new content, tritium contaminated water on molecular sieves. Issues associated with gas generation will also be discussed.

  11. Physics of gate leakage current in N-polar InAlN/GaN heterojunction field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goswami, Arunesh; Trew, Robert J.; Bilbro, Griff L.

    2014-10-28

    A physics based model of the gate leakage current in N-polar InAlN/GaN heterojunction field effect transistors is demonstrated. The model is based on the space charge limited current flow dominated by the effects of deep traps in the InAlN surface layer. The model predicts accurately the gate-leakage measurement data of the N-polar InAlN/GaN device with InAlN cap layer. In the pinch-off state, the gate leakage current conduction through the surface of the device in the drain access region dominates the current flow through the two dimensional electron gas channel. One deep trap level and two levels of shallow traps are extracted by fitting the model results with measurement data.

  12. Spin-dependent transport across Co/LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swartz, Adrian G.; Harashima, Satoshi; Xie, Yanwu; Kim, Bongju; Hwang, Harold Y.; Lu, Di; Bell, Christopher; Hikita, Yasuyuki

    2014-07-21

    The conducting interface formed between LaAlO{sub 3} and SrTiO{sub 3} exhibits high electron mobility, tunable carrier densities, and is theoretically predicted to have long spin lifetimes. Thus, the LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} heterostructure is a promising system for the transportation of spin information. We have investigated spin-dependent transport across Co/LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} heterostructures using an all electrical three terminal geometry and observed Lorentzian magnetoresistance typically associated with Hanle spin dephasing. However, such a picture fails to explain all the experimentally observed behavior. Further, experiments with spin-unpolarized Au/LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} heterojunctions support an alternative scenario involving current modulation by spin-dependent transport through defect states in the LaAlO{sub 3} barrier.

  13. Macroscopic and direct light propulsion of bulk graphene material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Tengfei; Wu, Yingpeng; Xiao, Peishuang; Yi, Ningbo; Lu, Yanhong; Ma, Yanfeng; Huang, Yi; Zhao, Kai; Yan, Xiao-Qing; Liu, Zhi-Bo; Tian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Yongsheng

    2015-01-01

    It has been a great challenge to achieve the direct light manipulation of matter on a bulk scale. In this work, the direct light propulsion of matter was observed on a macroscopic scale for the first time using a bulk graphene based material. The unique structure and properties of graphene and the morphology of the bulk graphene material make it capable of not only absorbing light at various wavelengths but also emitting energetic electrons efficiently enough to drive the bulk material following Newtonian mechanics. Thus, the unique photonic and electronic properties of individual graphene sheets are manifested in the response of the bulk state. These results offer an exciting opportunity to bring about bulk scale light manipulation with the potential to realize long-sought proposals in areas such as the solar sail and space transportation driven directly by sunlight.

  14. Hyperon bulk viscosity in the presence of antikaon condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Debarati Chatterjee; Debades Bandyopadhyay

    2009-10-31

    We investigate the hyperon bulk viscosity due to the non-leptonic process $n + p \\rightleftharpoons p + \\Lambda $ in $K^-$ condensed matter and its effect on the r-mode instability in neutron stars. We find that the hyperon bulk viscosity coefficient in the presence of antikaon condensate is suppressed compared with the case without the condensate. The suppressed hyperon bulk viscosity in the superconducting phase is still an efficient mechanism to damp the r-mode instability in neutron stars.

  15. RAPID/BulkTransmission/General Construction | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsourceBulkTransmission/Environment/Nevada < RAPID‎ | BulkTransmission‎ |RAPID/BulkTransmission/General

  16. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Idaho | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsourceBulkTransmission/Environment/Nevada < RAPID‎ | BulkTransmission‎RAPID/BulkTransmission/Idaho <

  17. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Land Access | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsourceBulkTransmission/Environment/Nevada < RAPID‎ | BulkTransmission‎RAPID/BulkTransmission/Idaho

  18. New nano structure approaches for bulk thermoelectric materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jeonghoon

    2010-01-01

    in bulk thermoelectric materials", M. Mater. Res. Soc.Thermoelectricity", Materials Reserach Society Symposium,Johnson, D. C. , Eds. Materials Research Society: Boston,

  19. Synovial fluid homeostasis : bulk flow, lubricant transport, and biophysical restoration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarty, William Joseph

    2012-01-01

    of synovial fluid lubricants hyaluronan and proteoglycan 4HOMEOSTASIS: BULK FLOW, LUBRICANT TRANSPORT, AND BIOPHYSICALmodel of synovial fluid lubricant composition in normal and

  20. Discovery of New Alloys by Bulk Combinatorial Synthesis | The...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Discovery of New Alloys by Bulk Combinatorial Synthesis The Critical Materials Institute (CMI) is developing new capabilities in the search for new materials or substitutions in...

  1. Regulatory Roadmap Workshop for Federal Bulk Transmission Regulations...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Regulatory Roadmapping Pgower's picture Submitted by Pgower(50) Contributor 7 August, 2014 - 14:19 One-day workshop to review regulatory roadmaps for bulk transmission. Date:...

  2. Economic manufacturing of bulk metallic glass compositions by microalloying

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Chain T.

    2003-05-13

    A method of making a bulk metallic glass composition includes the steps of:a. providing a starting material suitable for making a bulk metallic glass composition, for example, BAM-11; b. adding at least one impurity-mitigating dopant, for example, Pb, Si, B, Sn, P, to the starting material to form a doped starting material; and c. converting the doped starting material to a bulk metallic glass composition so that the impurity-mitigating dopant reacts with impurities in the starting material to neutralize deleterious effects of the impurities on the formation of the bulk metallic glass composition.

  3. Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes from First Principles and Classical Reactive Molecular Dynamics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lithium...

  4. Bulk viscosity of QCD matter near the critical temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Kharzeev; K. Tuchin

    2007-05-29

    Kubo's formula relates bulk viscosity to the retarded Green's function of the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. Using low energy theorems of QCD for the latter we derive the formula which relates the bulk viscosity to the energy density and pressure of hot matter. We then employ the available lattice QCD data to extract the bulk viscosity as a function of temperature. We find that close to the deconfinement temperature bulk viscosity becomes large, with viscosity-to-entropy ratio zeta/s about 1.

  5. Thermodynamic properties of bulk and confined water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mallamace, Francesco; Corsaro, Carmelo; Mallamace, Domenico; Vasi, Sebastiano; Vasi, Cirino; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2014-11-14

    The thermodynamic response functions of water display anomalous behaviors. We study these anomalous behaviors in bulk and confined water. We use nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to examine the configurational specific heat and the transport parameters in both the thermal stable and the metastable supercooled phases. The data we obtain suggest that there is a behavior common to both phases: that the dynamics of water exhibit two singular temperatures belonging to the supercooled and the stable phase, respectively. One is the dynamic fragile-to-strong crossover temperature (T{sub L} ? 225 K). The second, T{sup *} ? 315 ± 5 K, is a special locus of the isothermal compressibility K{sub T}(T, P) and the thermal expansion coefficient ?{sub P}(T, P) in the P–T plane. In the case of water confined inside a protein, we observe that these two temperatures mark, respectively, the onset of protein flexibility from its low temperature glass state (T{sub L}) and the onset of the unfolding process (T{sup *})

  6. Excitonic exchange splitting in bulk semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, H.; Wang, L.; Zunger, A.

    1999-02-01

    We present an approach to calculate the excitonic fine-structure splittings due to electron-hole short-range exchange interactions using the local-density approximation pseudopotential method, and apply it to bulk semiconductors CdSe, InP, GaAs, and InAs. Comparing with previous theoretical results, the current calculated splittings agree well with experiments. Furthermore, we provide an approximate relationship between the short-range exchange splitting and the exciton Bohr radius, which can be used to estimate the exchange splitting for other materials. The current calculation indicates that a commonly used formula for exchange splitting in quantum dot is not valid. Finally, we find a very large pressure dependence of the exchange splitting: a factor of 4.5 increase as the lattice constant changes by 3.5{percent}. This increase is mainly due to the decrease of the Bohr radius via the change of electron effective mass. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. Determination of Bulk Dimensional Variation in Castings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. James F. Cuttino Dr. Edward P. Morse

    2005-04-14

    The purpose of this work is to improve the efficiency of green sand foundries so that they may continue to compete as the most cost-effective method of fabrication while meeting tightening constraints on near-net shape manufacturing. In order to achieve this objective, the study is divided into two major components. The first component concentrated on identifying which processes control surface finish on the castings and which provide potential reductions in variations. The second component identified metrological methods that effectively discern between the geometry of bulk material versus surface finish in order to more accurately determine the quality of a part. The research resulted in the determination of an empirical relationship relating pouring parameters to dimensional variation, with an R2 value of greater than 0.79. A significant difference in variations obtained from vertical vs. horizontal molding machines was also noticed. When analyzed separately, however, the resulting empirical relationships for horizontal and vertical machines had reduced R2 values, probably due to the reduced data sets. Significant parameters when considering vertical and horizontal molding machines together included surface roughness, pattern type, iron type, pouring rate, copper content, amount of Western Bentonite, and permeability.

  8. Improving Bulk Microphysics Parameterizations in Simulations of Aerosol Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yuan; Fan, Jiwen; Zhang, Renyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Franklin, Charmaine N.

    2013-06-05

    To improve the microphysical parameterizations for simulations of the aerosol indirect effect (AIE) in regional and global climate models, a double-moment bulk microphysical scheme presently implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is modified and the results are compared against atmospheric observations and simulations produced by a spectral bin microphysical scheme (SBM). Rather than using prescribed aerosols as in the original bulk scheme (Bulk-OR), a prognostic doublemoment aerosol representation is introduced to predict both the aerosol number concentration and mass mixing ratio (Bulk-2M). The impacts of the parameterizations of diffusional growth and autoconversion and the selection of the embryonic raindrop radius on the performance of the bulk microphysical scheme are also evaluated. Sensitivity modeling experiments are performed for two distinct cloud regimes, maritime warm stratocumulus clouds (SC) over southeast Pacific Ocean from the VOCALS project and continental deep convective clouds (DCC) in the southeast of China from the Department of Energy/ARM Mobile Facility (DOE/AMF) - China field campaign. The results from Bulk-2M exhibit a much better agreement in the cloud number concentration and effective droplet radius in both the SC and DCC cases with those from SBM and field measurements than those from Bulk-OR. In the SC case particularly, Bulk-2M reproduces the observed drizzle precipitation, which is largely inhibited in Bulk-OR. Bulk-2M predicts enhanced precipitation and invigorated convection with increased aerosol loading in the DCC case, consistent with the SBM simulation, while Bulk-OR predicts the opposite behaviors. Sensitivity experiments using four different types of autoconversion schemes reveal that the autoconversion parameterization is crucial in determining the raindrop number, mass concentration, and drizzle formation for warm 2 stratocumulus clouds. An embryonic raindrop size of 40 ?m is determined as a more realistic setting in the autoconversion parameterization. The saturation adjustment employed in calculating condensation/evaporation in the bulk scheme is identified as the main factor responsible for the large discrepancies in predicting cloud water in the SC case, suggesting that an explicit calculation of diffusion growth with predicted supersaturation is necessary for further improvements of the bulk microphysics scheme. Lastly, a larger rain evaporation rate below cloud is found in the bulk scheme in comparison to the SBM simulation, which could contribute to a lower surface precipitation in the bulk scheme.

  9. T-duality trivializes bulk-boundary correspondence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varghese Mathai; Guo Chuan Thiang

    2015-07-26

    Recently we introduced T-duality in the study of topological insulators. In this paper, we study the bulk-boundary correspondence for three phenomena in condensed matter physics, namely, the quantum Hall effect, the Chern insulator, and time reversal invariant topological insulators. In all of these cases, we show that T-duality trivializes the bulk-boundary correspondence.

  10. Bulk Acoustic Resonator Based on Piezoelectric ZnO Belts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Bulk Acoustic Resonator Based on Piezoelectric ZnO Belts Brent A. Buchine, William L. Hughes, F, a bulk acoustic resonator based on ZnO belts is demonstrated. This device shows a great deal of promise-like geometry, making them ideal candidates as SMR, FBAR, and beam resonators.13 However, handling belts can

  11. New results on water in bulk, nanoconfined, and biological environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    contract as temperature decreases, liquid bulk water begins to expand when its temperature drops below 4°C remains at 4°C while colder layers of 0°C water "float" on top (cf.. Fig. 1 of Ref. [2]). The mysterious properties of liquid bulk water become more pronounced in the supercooled region below 0°C [3-5]. For example

  12. The Economic Case for Bulk Energy Storage in Transmission Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of using energy storage, optimized for multiple objectives, including cost, congestion, and emissions: Optimal Generation Expansion Planning with Integration of Variable Re- newables and Bulk Energy Storage Systems Pumped-hydroelectric energy storage has proven to be valuable as bulk energy storage for energy

  13. Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching of Bulk Titanium for MEMS Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacDonald, Noel C.

    Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching of Bulk Titanium for MEMS Applications E. R. Parker,a, * B. J for the bulk micromachining of microelectromechanical MEMS devices. Titanium- based MEMS have the potential for the microfabrication of titanium-based MEMS devices. © 2005 The Electrochemical Society. DOI: 10.1149/1.2006647 All

  14. Short communication Fractal in fracture of bulk metallic glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Jianbo

    Short communication Fractal in fracture of bulk metallic glass M.Q. Jiang a,b , J.X. Meng a , J. Bulk metallic glass B. Dynamic fracture C. Nanoscale periodic corrugation C. Fractal a b s t r a c t We investigate the nanoscale periodic corrugation (NPC) structures on the dynamic fracture surface of a typical

  15. Bulk Vitrification Castable Refractory Block Protection Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Beck, Andrew E.; Brouns, Thomas M.; Caldwell, Dustin D.; Elliott, Michael L.; Matyas, Josef; Minister, Kevin BC; Schweiger, Michael J.; Strachan, Denis M.; Tinsley, Bronnie P.; Hollenberg, Glenn W.

    2005-05-01

    Bulk vitrification (BV) was selected for a pilot-scale test and demonstration facility for supplemental treatment to accelerate the cleanup of low-activity waste (LAW) at the Hanford U.S. DOE Site. During engineering-scale (ES) tests, a small fraction of radioactive Tc (and Re, its nonradioactive surrogate) were transferred out of the LAW glass feed and molten LAW glass, and deposited on the surface and within the pores of the castable refractory block (CRB). Laboratory experiments were undertaken to understand the mechanisms of the transport Tc/Re into the CRB during vitrification and to evaluate various means of CRB protection against the deposition of leachable Tc/Re. The tests used Re as a chemical surrogate for Tc. The tests with the baseline CRB showed that the molten LAW penetrates into CRB pores before it converts to glass, leaving deposits of sulfates and chlorides when the nitrate components decompose. Na2O from the LAW reacts with the CRB to create a durable glass phase that may contain Tc/Re. Limited data from a single CRB sample taken from an ES experiment indicate that, while a fraction of Tc/Re is present in the CRB in a readily leachable form, most of the Tc/Re deposited in the refractory is retained in the form of a durable glass phase. In addition, the molten salts from the LAW, mainly sulfates, chlorides, and nitrates, begin to evaporate from BV feeds at temperatures below 800 C and condense on solid surfaces at temperatures below 530 C. Three approaches aimed at reducing or preventing the deposition of soluble Tc/Re within the CRB were proposed: metal lining, sealing the CRB surface with a glaze, and lining the CRB with ceramic tiles. Metal liners were deemed unsuitable because evaluations showed that they can cause unacceptable distortions of the electric field in the BV system. Sodium silicate and a low-alkali borosilicate glaze were selected for testing. The glazes slowed down molten salt condensate penetration, but did little to reduce the penetration of molten salt. Out of several refractory tile candidates, only greystone and fused-cast alumina-zirconia-silica (AZS) refractory remained intact and well bonded to the CRB after firing to 1000 C. The deformation of the refractory-tile composite was avoided by prefiring the greystone tile to 800 C. Condensed vapors did not penetrate the tiles, but Re salts condensed on their surface. Refractory corrosion tests indicated that a 0.25-inch-thick greystone tile would not corrode during a BV melt. Tiles can reduce both vapor penetration and molten salt penetration, but vapor deposition above the melt line will occur even on tiles. The Tc/Re transport scenario was outlined as follows. At temperatures below 700 C, molten ionic salt (MIS) that includes all the Tc/Re penetrates, by capillarity, from the feed into the CRB open porosity. At approximately 750 C, the MIS decomposes through the loss of NOx, leaving mainly sulfate and chloride salts. The Na2O formed in the decomposition of the nitrates reacts with insoluble grains in the feed and with the aluminosilicates in the CRB to form more viscous liquids that reduce further liquid penetration into the CRB. At 800 to 1000 C, a continuous glass phase traps the remains of the MIS in the form of inclusions in the bulk glass melt. At 1000 to 1200 C, the salt inclusions in the glass slowly dissolve but also rise to the surface. The Tc/Re salts also evaporate from the free surface of the glass melt that is rapidly renewed by convective currents. The vapors condense on cooler surfaces in the upper portion of the CRB, the box lid, and the off-gas system.

  16. Silicon bulk micromachined hybrid dimensional artifact.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claudet, Andre A.; Tran, Hy D.; Bauer, Todd Marks; Shilling, Katherine Meghan; Oliver, Andrew David

    2010-03-01

    A mesoscale dimensional artifact based on silicon bulk micromachining fabrication has been developed and manufactured with the intention of evaluating the artifact both on a high precision coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and video-probe based measuring systems. This hybrid artifact has features that can be located by both a touch probe and a video probe system with a k=2 uncertainty of 0.4 {micro}m, more than twice as good as a glass reference artifact. We also present evidence that this uncertainty could be lowered to as little as 50 nm (k=2). While video-probe based systems are commonly used to inspect mesoscale mechanical components, a video-probe system's certified accuracy is generally much worse than its repeatability. To solve this problem, an artifact has been developed which can be calibrated using a commercially available high-accuracy tactile system and then be used to calibrate typical production vision-based measurement systems. This allows for error mapping to a higher degree of accuracy than is possible with a glass reference artifact. Details of the designed features and manufacturing process of the hybrid dimensional artifact are given and a comparison of the designed features to the measured features of the manufactured artifact is presented and discussed. Measurement results from vision and touch probe systems are compared and evaluated to determine the capability of the manufactured artifact to serve as a calibration tool for video-probe systems. An uncertainty analysis for calibration of the artifact using a CMM is presented.

  17. Temperature dependence of bulk viscosity in water using acoustic spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. J. Holmes; N. G. Parker; M. J. W. Povey

    2010-02-16

    Despite its fundamental role in the dynamics of compressible fluids, bulk viscosity has received little experimental attention and there remains a paucity of measured data. Acoustic spectroscopy provides a robust and accurate approach to measuring this parameter. Working from the Navier-Stokes model of a compressible fluid one can show that the bulk viscosity makes a significant and measurable contribution to the frequency-squared acoustic attenuation. Here we employ this methodology to determine the bulk viscosity of Millipore water over a temperature range of 7 to 50 degrees Celsius. The measured attenuation spectra are consistent with the theoretical predictions, while the bulk viscosity of water is found to be approximately three times larger than its shear counterpart, reinforcing its significance in acoustic propagation. Moreover, our results demonstrate that this technique can be readily and generally applied to fluids to accurately determine their temperature dependent bulk viscosities.

  18. Carbon nanotubes grown on bulk materials and methods for fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menchhofer, Paul A.; Montgomery, Frederick C.; Baker, Frederick S.

    2011-11-08

    Disclosed are structures formed as bulk support media having carbon nanotubes formed therewith. The bulk support media may comprise fibers or particles and the fibers or particles may be formed from such materials as quartz, carbon, or activated carbon. Metal catalyst species are formed adjacent the surfaces of the bulk support material, and carbon nanotubes are grown adjacent the surfaces of the metal catalyst species. Methods employ metal salt solutions that may comprise iron salts such as iron chloride, aluminum salts such as aluminum chloride, or nickel salts such as nickel chloride. Carbon nanotubes may be separated from the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species by using concentrated acids to oxidize the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species.

  19. Brane-Bulk energy exchange and agegraphic dark energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad Sheykhi

    2010-02-06

    We consider the agegraphic models of dark energy in a braneworld scenario with brane-bulk energy exchange. We assume that the adiabatic equation for the dark matter is satisfied while it is violated for the agegraphic dark energy due to the energy exchange between the brane and the bulk. Our study shows that with the brane-bulk interaction, the equation of state parameter of agegraphic dark energy on the brane, $w_D$, can have a transition from normal state where $w_D >-1 $ to the phantom regime where $w_D energy always satisfies $w^{\\mathrm{eff}}_D\\geq-1$.

  20. A bulk-flow model of angled injection Lomakin bearings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soulas, Thomas Antoine Theo

    2001-01-01

    A bulk-flow model for determination of the leakage and dynamic force characteristics of angled injection Lomakin bearings is presented. Zeroth- and first-order equations describe the equilibrium flow for a centered bearing and the perturbed flow...

  1. Supply chain management in the dry bulk shipping industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholson, Bryan E. (Bryan Edward)

    2006-01-01

    This paper is intended to show the importance of supply chain management in the dry-bulk shipping industry. A hypothetical company, the Texas Grain and Bakery Corporation, was created. The values and calculations used are ...

  2. Structural and economic analysis of capesize bulk carriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hadjiyiannis, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Structural failures of bulk carriers continue to account for the loss of many lives every year. Capes are particularly vulnerable to cracking because of their large length, their trade in high density cargos, and the high ...

  3. New nano structure approaches for bulk thermoelectric materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jeonghoon

    2010-01-01

    developments in bulk thermoelectric materials", M. Mater.and M. D. Drsselhaus, "Thermoelectric figure of merit of aO'Quinn, " Thin-film thermoelectric devices with high room-

  4. Costs, Savings and Financing Bulk Tanks on Texas Dairy Farms. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Donald S.; Stelly, Randall; Parker, Cecil A.

    1958-01-01

    ,s - / cwdh\\@ Costs, Savi~gs;.itd Financing Bulk Tanks on Texas Dairy Farms . ?. I I 1 i I I ! ,:ravings in hauling - 10 cents I \\ \\ 1 \\ savings in hauling - 15 cents -----------____--- 'savings in hauling - 20 cents Annual production..., 1,000 pounds Estimated number of years required for savings from a bulk tank to equal additional costs at different levels of production and savings in hauling costs. TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMEN'T STATION R. D. LEWIS. DIRECTOR. COLLEGE STATION...

  5. Enhancement of bulk photovoltaic effect in topological insulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Liang Z

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the shift current bulk photovoltaic response of materials close to a band inversion topological phase transition. We find that the bulk photocurrent reverses direction across the band inversion transition, and that its magnitude is enhanced in the vicinity of the phase transition. These results are demonstrated with first principles DFT calculations of BiTeI and CsPbI$_3$ under hydrostatic pressure, and explained with an analytical model, suggesting that this phenomenon remains robust across disparate material systems.

  6. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Environment/Nevada | Open Energy Information

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  7. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Environment/New Mexico | Open Energy Information

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  8. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Environment/Oregon | Open Energy Information

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  9. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Environment/Texas | Open Energy Information

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  10. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Environment/Utah | Open Energy Information

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  11. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Environment/Washington | Open Energy Information

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  12. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Environment/Wyoming | Open Energy Information

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  13. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Exploration | Open Energy Information

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  14. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Federal | Open Energy Information

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  15. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Hawaii | Open Energy Information

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  16. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Montana | Open Energy Information

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  17. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Nevada | Open Energy Information

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  18. RAPID/BulkTransmission/New Mexico | Open Energy Information

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  19. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Oregon | Open Energy Information

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  20. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Site Considerations | Open Energy Information

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  1. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Texas | Open Energy Information

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  2. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Transmission Siting & Interconnection | Open Energy

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  3. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Utah | Open Energy Information

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  4. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Washington | Open Energy Information

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  5. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Water Quality | Open Energy Information

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  6. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Water Use | Open Energy Information

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  7. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Wyoming | Open Energy Information

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  8. Waste Form Qualification Compliance Strategy for Bulk Vitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagaasen, Larry M.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Brouns, Thomas M.

    2005-01-03

    The Bulk Vitrification System is being pursued to assist in immobilizing the low-activity tank waste from the 53 million gallons of radioactive waste in the 177 underground storage tanks on the Hanford Site. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the bulk vitrification process, a research and development facility known as the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) is being built to demonstrate the technology. Specific performance requirements for the final packaged bulk vitrification waste form have been identified. In addition to the specific product-performance requirements, performance targets/goals have been identified that are necessary to qualify the waste form but do not lend themselves to specifications that are easily verified through short-term testing. Collectively, these form the product requirements for the DBVS. This waste-form qualification (WFQ) strategy document outlines the general strategies for achieving and demonstrating compliance with the BVS product requirements. The specific objectives of the WFQ activities are discussed, the bulk vitrification process and product control strategy is outlined, and the test strategy to meet the WFQ objectives is described. The DBVS product performance targets/goals and strategies to address those targets/goals are described. The DBVS product-performance requirements are compared to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant immobilized low-activity waste product specifications. The strategies for demonstrating compliance with the bulk vitrification product requirements are presented.

  9. Finsler geometric perspective on the bulk flow in the universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhe Chang; Ming-Hua Li; Sai Wang

    2013-05-09

    Astronomical observations showed that there may exist a bulk flow with peculiar velocities in the universe, which contradicts with the (\\Lambda)CDM model. The bulk flow reveals that the observational universe is anisotropic at large scales. In fact, a more reliable observation on the anisotropy of spacetime comes from the CMB power spectra. The WMAP and Planck satellites both show that there is a hemispherical power asymmetry at large-angular scales. In this paper, we propose a "wind" scenario to the bulk flow (or the anisotropy of spacetime). Under the influence of the "wind", the spacetime metric could become a Finsler structure. By resolving the null geodesic equation, we obtain the modified luminosity distance, which has a dipolar form at the leading order. Thus, the "wind" describes well the bulk flow. In addition, we perform a least-(\\chi^2) fit to the data of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the Union2.1 compilation. The peculiar velocity of the bulk flow has an upper limit (v_{bulk}\\lesssim 4000 \\rm{km/s}), which is compatible with all the existing observational values.

  10. Dark goo: Bulk viscosity as an alternative to dark energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jean-Sebastien Gagnon; Julien Lesgourgues

    2011-09-16

    We present a simple (microscopic) model in which bulk viscosity plays a role in explaining the present acceleration of the universe. The effect of bulk viscosity on the Friedmann equations is to turn the pressure into an "effective" pressure containing the bulk viscosity. For a sufficiently large bulk viscosity, the effective pressure becomes negative and could mimic a dark energy equation of state. Our microscopic model includes self-interacting spin-zero particles (for which the bulk viscosity is known) that are added to the usual energy content of the universe. We study both background equations and linear perturbations in this model. We show that a dark energy behavior is obtained for reasonable values of the two parameters of the model (i.e. the mass and coupling of the spin-zero particles) and that linear perturbations are well-behaved. There is no apparent fine tuning involved. We also discuss the conditions under which hydrodynamics holds, in particular that the spin-zero particles must be in local equilibrium today for viscous effects to be important.

  11. Dark goo: Bulk viscosity as an alternative to dark energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gagnon, Jean-Sebastien

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple (microscopic) model in which bulk viscosity plays a role in explaining the present acceleration of the universe. The effect of bulk viscosity on the Friedmann equations is to turn the pressure into an "effective" pressure containing the bulk viscosity. For a sufficiently large bulk viscosity, the effective pressure becomes negative and could mimic a dark energy equation of state. Our microscopic model includes self-interacting spin-zero particles (for which the bulk viscosity is known) that are added to the usual energy content of the universe. We study both background equations and linear perturbations in this model. We show that a dark energy behavior is obtained for reasonable values of the two parameters of the model (i.e. the mass and coupling of the spin-zero particles) and that linear perturbations are well-behaved. There is no apparent fine tuning involved. We also discuss the conditions under which hydrodynamics holds, in particular that the spin-zero particles must be in local eq...

  12. Bulk emission of scalars by a rotating black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Casals; S. R. Dolan; P. Kanti; E. Winstanley

    2008-07-17

    We study in detail the scalar-field Hawking radiation emitted into the bulk by a higher-dimensional, rotating black hole. We numerically compute the angular eigenvalues, and solve the radial equation of motion in order to find transmission factors. The latter are found to be enhanced by the angular momentum of the black hole, and to exhibit the well-known effect of superradiance. The corresponding power spectra for scalar fields show an enhancement with the number of dimensions, as in the non-rotating case. We compute the total mass loss rate of the black hole for a variety of black-hole angular momenta and bulk dimensions, and find that, in all cases, the bulk emission remains significantly smaller than the brane emission. The angular-momentum loss rate is also computed and found to have a smaller value in the bulk than on the brane. We present accurate bulk-to-brane emission ratios for a range of scenarios.

  13. When Function Follows Form: Effects of Donor Copolymer Side Chains on Film Morphology and BHJ Solar Cell Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szarko, Jodi M.; Guo, J. C.; Liang, Y. Y.; Lee, B.; Rolczynski, Brian S.; Strzalka, J.; Xu, T.; Loser, Stephen; Marks, Tobin J.; Yu, Luping P.; Chen, Lin X.

    2010-01-01

    Detailed structural organization in organic films are investigated using grazing incidence X-ray scattering (GIXS) methods. The key structural features are revealed and the influence of specific side chain positions and shapes are characterized. A correlation between the fill factor (FF) of the corresponding device and the tightness of the polymer chain stacking inspires a new set of structural parameters for design of materials to optimize device efficiency.

  14. Palladium diffusion into bulk copper via the (100) surface.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bussmann, Ezra; Pohl, Karsten; Sun, Jiebing; Kellogg, Gary Lee

    2009-01-01

    Using low-energy electron microscopy, we measure the diffusion of Pd into bulk Cu at the Cu(100) surface. Interdiffusion is tracked by measuring the dissolution of the Cu(100)-c(2 x 2)-Pd surface alloy during annealing (T > 240 C). The activation barrier for Pd diffusion from the surface alloy into the bulk is determined to be (1.8 {+-} 0.6) eV. During annealing, we observe the growth of a new layer of Cu near step edges. Under this new Cu layer, dilute Pd remaining near the surface develops a layered structure similar to the Cu{sub 3}Pd L 1{sub 2} bulk alloy phase.

  15. No evidence for bulk velocity from type Ia supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huterer, Dragan; Schmidt, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    We revisit the effect of peculiar velocities on low-redshift type Ia supernovae. Velocities introduce an additional guaranteed source of correlations between supernova magnitudes that should be considered in all analyses of nearby supernova samples but has largely been neglected in the past. Applying a likelihood analysis to the latest compilation of nearby supernovae, we find no evidence for the presence of these correlations, although, given the significant noise, the data is also consistent with the correlations predicted for the standard LCDM model. We then consider the dipolar component of the velocity correlations - the frequently studied "bulk velocity" - and explicitly demonstrate that including the velocity correlations in the data covariance matrix is crucial for drawing correct and unambiguous conclusions about the bulk flow. In particular, current supernova data is consistent with no excess bulk flow on top of what is expected in LCDM and effectively captured by the covariance. We further clarify ...

  16. Properties of Bulk Sintered Silver As a Function of Porosity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A; Vuono, Daniel J; Wang, Hsin; Ferber, Mattison K; Liang, Zhenxian

    2012-06-01

    This report summarizes a study where various properties of bulk-sintered silver were investigated over a range of porosity. This work was conducted within the National Transportation Research Center's Power Device Packaging project that is part of the DOE Vehicle Technologies Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program. Sintered silver, as an interconnect material in power electronics, inherently has porosity in its produced structure because of the way it is made. Therefore, interest existed in this study to examine if that porosity affected electrical properties, thermal properties, and mechanical properties because any dependencies could affect the intended function (e.g., thermal transfer, mechanical stress relief, etc.) or reliability of that interconnect layer and alter how its performance is modeled. Disks of bulk-sintered silver were fabricated using different starting silver pastes and different sintering conditions to promote different amounts of porosity. Test coupons were harvested out of the disks to measure electrical resistivity and electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, and yield stress. The authors fully recognize that the microstructure of processed bulk silver coupons may indeed not be identical to the microstructure produced in thin (20-50 microns) layers of sintered silver. However, measuring these same properties with such a thin actual structure is very difficult, requires very specialized specimen preparation and unique testing instrumentation, is expensive, and has experimental shortfalls of its own, so the authors concluded that the herein measured responses using processed bulk sintered silver coupons would be sufficient to determine acceptable values of those properties. Almost all the investigated properties of bulk sintered silver changed with porosity content within a range of 3-38% porosity. Electrical resistivity, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, and yield stress all depended on the porosity content in bulk-sintered silver. The only investigated property that was independent of porosity in that range was coefficient of thermal expansion.

  17. Stress Tensor and Bulk Viscosity in Relativistic Nuclear Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rainer J. Fries; Berndt Müller; Andreas Schäfer

    2008-08-30

    We discuss the influence of different initial conditions for the stress tensor and the effect of bulk viscosity on the expansion and cooling of the fireball created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. In particular, we explore the evolution of longitudinal and transverse components of the pressure and the extent of dissipative entropy production in the one-dimensional, boost-invariant hydrodynamic model. We find that a bulk viscosity consistent with recent estimates from lattice QCD further slows the equilibration of the system, however it does not significantly increase the entropy produced.

  18. Synthesis of novel MoS{sub 2}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} heterojunction photocatalysts with enhanced hydrogen evolution activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Yuming; Ge, Lei; Wang, Kaiyue; Chai, Yuesheng

    2014-01-15

    Novel MoS{sub 2}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} heterojunction photocatalysts were synthesized via a simple impregnation and heating methods. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra. The photocatalytic activities of MoS{sub 2}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} samples were evaluated based on the hydrogen evolution experiments under visible light irradiation (? > 400 nm). The UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra revealed that the MoS{sub 2}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} photocatalysts had strong absorption in the visible light region. The photocatalytic results indicated that the highest H{sub 2} evolution rate of 23.10 ?mol·h{sup ?1} was achieved on the 0.5 wt.% MoS{sub 2}–g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} sample, which was enhanced by 11.3 times compared to pure g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. This study may provide an approach to the development of novel heterojunction photocatalysts for hydrogen production under visible light irradiation. - Highlights: • MoS{sub 2}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} photocatalyst is obtained by simple impregnation and heating methods. • and determined by XRD, TEM, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra. • the photocatalysts had strong absorption in the visible light region. • the highest H2 evolution rate was achieved on the 0.5wt% samples.

  19. Apparatus for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells employing materials selected from the class of I-III-VI.sub.2 chalcopyrite compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, Reid A. (Bellevue, WA); Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA)

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus for forming thin-film, large area solar cells having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n-type heterojunction formed of: (i) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active material selected from the class of I-III-VI.sub.2 chalcopyrite ternary materials which is vacuum deposited in a thin "composition-graded" layer ranging from on the order of about 2.5 microns to about 5.0 microns (.congruent.2.5 .mu.m to .congruent.5.0 .mu.m) and wherein the lower region of the photovoltaic active material preferably comprises a low resistivity region of p-type semiconductor material having a superimposed region of relatively high resistivity, transient n-type semiconductor material defining a transient p-n homojunction; and (ii), a second semiconductor layer comprising a low resistivity n-type semiconductor material wherein interdiffusion (a) between the elemental constituents of the two discrete juxtaposed regions of the first semiconductor layer defining a transient p-n homojunction layer, and (b) between the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer and the second n-type semiconductor layer, causes the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer to evolve into p-type material, thereby defining a thin layer heterojunction device characterized by the absence of voids, vacancies and nodules which tend to reduce the energy conversion efficiency of the system.

  20. Computing hypersurfaces which minimize surface energy plus bulk energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, John M.

    [Page 17] Computing hypersurfaces which minimize surface energy plus bulk energy John M. Sullivan this idea to construct an algorithm to find the minimum-energy surface on any boundary, where the surface energy density can depend on position or normal vector. Here we extend this algorithm to allow not only

  1. A phase space analysis for nonlinear bulk viscous cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giovanni Acquaviva; Aroonkumar Beesham

    2015-05-08

    We consider a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime filled with both viscous radiation and nonviscous dust. The former has a bulk viscosity which is proportional to an arbitrary power of the energy density, i.e. $\\zeta \\propto \\rho_v^{\

  2. TECHNICAL POLLUTION PREVENTION GUIDE FOR DRY BULK TERMINALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;TECHNICAL POLLUTION PREVENTION GUIDE FOR DRY BULK TERMINALS IN THE LOWER FRASER BASIN DOE FRAP 1996-19 Prepared for: Enviromnent Canada Environmental Protection Fraser Pollution Abatement North's report was fůnded by Environment Canada under the Fraser River Action Plan through its Fraser Pollution

  3. INTERNAL ELECTROSTATIC TRANSDUCTION FOR BULK-MODE MEMS RESONATORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Afshari, Ehsan

    This paper demonstrates a new approach to electrostatic drive and detection of bulk acoustic resonators coupled into the fundamental bending mode. The approach was deemed inefficient because air-gap capacitive by filling the air-gaps with a low Young's modulus, high- dielectric material. A more practical approach

  4. Synthesis of bulk superhard semiconducting B-C material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solozhenko, Vladimir L.; Dubrovinskaia, Natalia A.; Dubrovinsky, Leonid S.

    2004-08-30

    A bulk composite superhard material was synthesized from graphitelike BC{sub 3} at 20 GPa and 2300 K using a multianvil press. The material consists of intergrown boron carbide B{sub 4}C and B-doped diamond with 1.8 at.%B. The material exhibits semiconducting behavior and extreme hardness comparable with that of single-crystal diamond.

  5. Stress tensor and bulk viscosity in relativistic nuclear collisions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fries, Rainer J.; Mueller, Berndt; Schaefer, Andreas.

    2008-01-01

    REVIEW C 78, 034913 (2008) Stress tensor and bulk viscosity in relativistic nuclear collisions Rainer J. Fries,1,2,3 Berndt Mu?ller,3,4 and Andreas Scha?fer3,5 1Cyclotron Institute and Department of Physics, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas...

  6. Permanent magnet with MgB{sub 2} bulk superconductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, Akiyasu, E-mail: yamamoto@appchem.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); JST-PRESTO, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Ishihara, Atsushi; Tomita, Masaru [Railway Technical Research Institute, 2-8-38 Hikari, Kokubunji, Tokyo 185-8540 (Japan); Kishio, Kohji [The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2014-07-21

    Superconductors with persistent zero-resistance currents serve as permanent magnets for high-field applications requiring a strong and stable magnetic field, such as magnetic resonance imaging. The recent global helium shortage has quickened research into high-temperature superconductors (HTSs)—materials that can be used without conventional liquid-helium cooling to 4.2?K. Herein, we demonstrate that 40-K-class metallic HTS magnesium diboride (MgB{sub 2}) makes an excellent permanent bulk magnet, maintaining 3?T at 20?K for 1 week with an extremely high stability (<0.1 ppm/h). The magnetic field trapped in this magnet is uniformly distributed, as for single-crystalline neodymium-iron-boron. Magnetic hysteresis loop of the MgB{sub 2} permanent bulk magnet was determined. Because MgB{sub 2} is a simple-binary-line compound that does not contain rare-earth metals, polycrystalline bulk material can be industrially fabricated at low cost and with high yield to serve as strong magnets that are compatible with conventional compact cryocoolers, making MgB{sub 2} bulks promising for the next generation of Tesla-class permanent-magnet applications.

  7. Stresses resulting from compression of bulk cotton lint fibers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chimbombi, Ezekiel Maswe

    1998-01-01

    materials to determine if bale tie breakage would occur. Young's modulus of bulk lint cotton was found to be 9 MPa and the Poisson's ratio was 0. 1, while 12 MPa was recorded for the shear modulus. The FEA analysis showed that round steel ties, at six ties...

  8. Belt conveyors for bulk materials. 6th ed.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The 16 chapters are entitled: Belt conveyor general applications economics; Design considerations; Characteristics and conveyability of bulk materials; Capacities, belt widths and speeds; Belt conveyor idlers; Belt tension and power engineering; Belt selection; Pulleys and shafts; Curves; Steep angle conveying; Belt cleaners and accessories; Transfer points; Conveyor motor drives and controls; Operation, maintenance and safety; Belt takeups; and Emerging technologies. 6 apps.

  9. A COMPREHENSIVE TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-09-29

    In May 2006, CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. chartered an Expert Review Panel (ERP) to review the current status of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS). It is the consensus of the ERP that bulk vitrification is a technology that requires further development and evaluation to determine its potential for meeting the Hanford waste stabilization mission. No fatal flaws (issues that would jeopardize the overall DBVS mission that cannot be mitigated) were found, given the current state of the project. However, a number of technical issues were found that could significantly affect the project's ability to meet its overall mission as stated in the project ''Justification of Mission Need'' document, if not satisfactorily resolved. The ERP recognizes that the project has changed from an accelerated schedule demonstration project to a formally chartered project that must be in full compliance with DOE 413.3 requirements. The perspective of the ERP presented herein, is measured against the formally chartered project as stated in the approved Justification of Mission Need document. A justification of Mission Need document was approved in July 2006 which defined the objectives for the DBVS Project. In this document, DOE concluded that bulk vitrification is a viable technology that requires additional development to determine its potential applicability to treatment of a portion of the Hanford low activity waste. The DBVS mission need statement now includes the following primary objectives: (1) process approximately 190,000 gallons of Tank S-109 waste into fifty 100 metric ton boxes of vitrified product; (2) store and dispose of these boxes at Hanford's Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF); (3) evaluate the waste form characteristics; (4) gather pilot plant operability data, and (5) develop the overall life cycle system performance of bulk vitrification and produce a comparison of the bulk vitrification process to building a second LAW Immobilization facility or other supplemental treatment alternatives as provided in M-62-08.

  10. Observing bulk diamond spin coherence in high-purity nanodiamonds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helena S. Knowles; Dhiren M. Kara; Mete Atature

    2013-10-03

    Nitrogen-vacancy centres (NVs) in diamond are attractive for research straddling quantum information science and nanoscale magnetometry and thermometry. While ultrapure bulk diamond NVs sustain the longest spin coherence times among optically accessible spins, nanodiamond NVs display persistently poor spin coherence. Here we introduce high-purity nanodiamonds accommodating record-long NV coherence times, >60 us, observed via universal dynamical decoupling. We show that the main contribution to decoherence comes from nearby nitrogen impurities rather than surface states. We protect the NV spin free precession, essential to DC magnetometry, by driving solely these impurities into the motional narrowing regime. This extends the NV free induction decay time from 440 ns, longer than that in type Ib bulk diamond, to 1.27 us, which is comparable to that in type IIa (impurity-free) diamond. These properties allow the simultaneous exploitation of both high sensitivity and nanometre resolution in diamond-based emergent quantum technologies.

  11. Zinc-bromine batteries for bulk energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellows, R.J.; Einstein, H.; Elspass, C.; Grimes, P.; Katner, E.; Malachesky, P.; Newby, K.

    1983-08-01

    The development of a utility bulk energy market has been severely limited by the lack of better energy storage batteries. Lead acid batteries presently dominate the market. However, lead acid batteries suffer various limitations in the area of cost, maintenance, etc. Design projections for zinc-bromine batteries are attractive for bulk energy storage (BES) and electric vehicle (EV) applications in terms of low manufacturing costs and good performance characteristics. Zinc-bromine battery projections compare favorably with both current lead acid batteries and other advanced battery candidates. In recent years, Exxon's zinc-bromine battery program has shown rapid progress in terms of solving system problems and demonstrating both rapid scale-up of the system and competitively low cost manufacturing techniques.

  12. Accelerating cosmological expansion from shear and bulk viscosity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefan Floerchinger; Nikolaos Tetradis; Urs Achim Wiedemann

    2015-03-10

    The dissipation of energy from local velocity perturbations in the cosmological fluid affects the time evolution of spatially averaged fluid dynamic fields and the cosmological solution of Einstein's field equations. We show how this backreaction effect depends on shear and bulk viscosity and other material properties of the dark sector, as well as the spectrum of perturbations. If sufficiently large, this effect could account for the acceleration of the cosmological expansion.

  13. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Arizona | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource HistoryPotentialRuralUtilityScalePVGeneration JumpPublic UtilityQuintasNEPARAPID/BulkTransmission/Arizona

  14. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Colorado | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource HistoryPotentialRuralUtilityScalePVGeneration JumpPublicBulkTransmission/Colorado < RAPID‎ |

  15. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Environment | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource HistoryPotentialRuralUtilityScalePVGeneration JumpPublicBulkTransmission/Colorado < RAPID‎

  16. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Environment/Alaska | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource HistoryPotentialRuralUtilityScalePVGeneration JumpPublicBulkTransmission/Colorado <

  17. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Environment/Arizona | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource HistoryPotentialRuralUtilityScalePVGeneration JumpPublicBulkTransmission/Colorado

  18. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Environment/Colorado | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource HistoryPotentialRuralUtilityScalePVGenerationBulkTransmission/Environment/Colorado < RAPID‎ |

  19. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Environment/Federal | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource HistoryPotentialRuralUtilityScalePVGenerationBulkTransmission/Environment/Colorado < RAPID‎

  20. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Environment/Hawaii | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource HistoryPotentialRuralUtilityScalePVGenerationBulkTransmission/Environment/Colorado <

  1. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Environment/Idaho | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource HistoryPotentialRuralUtilityScalePVGenerationBulkTransmission/Environment/Colorado

  2. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Land Use | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsourceBulkTransmission/Environment/Nevada < RAPID‎ |

  3. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsourceBulkTransmission/Environment/Nevada < RAPID‎

  4. Bulk Hauling Equipment for CHG | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels| Department of EnergyEmergingEnergyBulk Hauling Equipment

  5. EFFECTIVE POROSITY IMPLIES EFFECTIVE BULK DENSITY IN SORBING SOLUTE TRANSPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flach, G.

    2012-02-27

    The concept of an effective porosity is widely used in solute transport modeling to account for the presence of a fraction of the medium that effectively does not influence solute migration, apart from taking up space. This non-participating volume or ineffective porosity plays the same role as the gas phase in single-phase liquid unsaturated transport: it increases pore velocity, which is useful towards reproducing observed solute travel times. The prevalent use of the effective porosity concept is reflected by its prominent inclusion in popular texts, e.g., de Marsily (1986), Fetter (1988, 1993) and Zheng and Bennett (2002). The purpose of this commentary is to point out that proper application of the concept for sorbing solutes requires more than simply reducing porosity while leaving other material properties unchanged. More specifically, effective porosity implies the corresponding need for an effective bulk density in a conventional single-porosity model. The reason is that the designated non-participating volume is composed of both solid and fluid phases, both of which must be neglected for consistency. Said another way, if solute does not enter the ineffective porosity then it also cannot contact the adjoining solid. Conceptually neglecting the fluid portion of the non-participating volume leads to a lower (effective) porosity. Likewise, discarding the solid portion of the non-participating volume inherently leads to a lower or effective bulk density. In the author's experience, practitioners virtually never adjust bulk density when adopting the effective porosity approach.

  6. Bulk Viscosity and Cavitation in Boost-Invariant Hydrodynamic Expansion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishna Rajagopal; Nilesh Tripuraneni

    2010-02-16

    We solve second order relativistic hydrodynamics equations for a boost-invariant 1+1-dimensional expanding fluid with an equation of state taken from lattice calculations of the thermodynamics of strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma. We investigate the dependence of the energy density as a function of proper time on the values of the shear viscosity, the bulk viscosity, and second order coefficients, confirming that large changes in the values of the latter have negligible effects. Varying the shear viscosity between zero and a few times s/(4 pi), with s the entropy density, has significant effects, as expected based on other studies. Introducing a nonzero bulk viscosity also has significant effects. In fact, if the bulk viscosity peaks near the crossover temperature Tc to the degree indicated by recent lattice calculations in QCD without quarks, it can make the fluid cavitate -- falling apart into droplets. It is interesting to see a hydrodynamic calculation predicting its own breakdown, via cavitation, at the temperatures where hadronization is thought to occur in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions.

  7. Bulk Viscosity and Cavitation in Boost-Invariant Hydrodynamic Expansion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Krishna

    2009-01-01

    We solve second order relativistic hydrodynamics equations for a boost-invariant 1+1-dimensional expanding fluid with an equation of state taken from lattice calculations of the thermodynamics of strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma. We investigate the dependence of the energy density as a function of proper time on the values of the shear viscosity, the bulk viscosity, and second order coefficients, confirming that large changes in the values of the latter have negligible effects. Varying the shear viscosity between zero and a few times s/(4 pi), with s the entropy density, has significant effects, as expected based on other studies. Introducing a nonzero bulk viscosity also has significant effects. In fact, if the bulk viscosity peaks near the crossover temperature Tc to the degree indicated by recent lattice calculations in QCD without quarks, it can make the fluid cavitate -- falling apart into droplets. It is interesting to see a hydrodynamic calculation predicting its own breakdown, via cavitation, at th...

  8. Standard practice for bulk sampling of liquid uranium hexafluoride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers methods for withdrawing representative samples of liquid uranium hexafluoride (UF6) from bulk quantities of the material. Such samples are used for determining compliance with the applicable commercial specification, for example Specification C787 and Specification C996. 1.2 It is assumed that the bulk liquid UF6 being sampled comprises a single quality and quantity of material. This practice does not address any special additional arrangements that might be required for taking proportional or composite samples, or when the sampled bulk material is being added to UF6 residues already in a container (“heels recycle”). 1.3 The number of samples to be taken, their nominal sample weight, and their disposition shall be agreed upon between the parties. 1.4 The scope of this practice does not include provisions for preventing criticality incidents. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of th...

  9. Dynamics of dendritic polymers in the bulk and under confinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chrissopoulou, K.; Fotiadou, S.; Androulaki, K.; Anastasiadis, S. H.; Tanis, I.; Karatasos, K.; Prevosto, D.; Labardi, M.; Frick, B.

    2014-05-15

    The structure and dynamics of a hyperbranched polyesteramide (Hybrane® S 1200) polymer and its nanocomposites with natural montmorillonite (Na{sup +}-MMT) are investigated by XRD, DSC, QENS, DS and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation. In bulk, the energy-resolved elastically scattered intensity from the polymer exhibits two relaxation steps, one attributed to sub-T{sub g} motions and one observed at temperatures above the glass transition, T{sub g}. The QENS spectra measured over the complete temperature range are consistent with the elastic measurements and can be correlated to the results emerging from the detailed description afforded by the atomistic simulations, which predict the existence of three relaxation processes. Moreover, dielectric spectroscopy shows the sub- T{sub g} beta process as well as the segmental relaxation. For the nanocomposites, XRD reveals an intercalated structure for all hybrids with distinct interlayer distances due to polymer chains residing within the galleries of the Na{sup +}-MMT. The polymer chains confined within the galleries show similarities in the behavior with that of the polymer in the bulk for temperatures below the bulk polymer T{sub g}, whereas they exhibit frozen dynamics under confinement at temperatures higher than that.

  10. Analysis and forecast of the capesize bulk carriers shipping market using Artificial Neural Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voudris, Athanasios V

    2006-01-01

    Investing in the bulk carrier market constitutes a rather risky investment due to the volatility of the bulk carrier freight rates. In this study it is attempted to uncover the benefits of using Artificial Neural Networks ...

  11. High-Energy, Low-Frequency Risk to the North American Bulk Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Energy, Low-Frequency Risk to the North American Bulk Power System (June 2010) High-Energy, Low-Frequency Risk to the North American Bulk Power System (June 2010) A...

  12. Notes 10. A thermohydrodynamic bulk-flow model for fluid film bearings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    San Andres, Luis

    2009-01-01

    The complete set of bulk-flow equations for the analysis of turbulent flow fluid film bearings. Importance of thermal effects in process fluid applications. A CFD method for solution of the bulk-flow equations....

  13. In vitro Corrosion and Haemocompatibility of Bulk Nanocrystalline 304 Stainless Steel by Severe Rolling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yufeng

    In vitro Corrosion and Haemocompatibility of Bulk Nanocrystalline 304 Stainless Steel by Severe; haemocompatibility. Abstract. Bulk nanocrystalline 304 stainless steel (nanocrystalline 304ss) discs had been successfully prepared by the commercial microcrystalline 304 stainless steel (microcrystalline 304ss) plate

  14. Risk-based Maintenance Allocation and Scheduling for Bulk Electric Power Transmission System Equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    risk of wide-area bulk transmission system failures. The work makes use of two previously developed1 Risk-based Maintenance Allocation and Scheduling for Bulk Electric Power Transmission System for bulk transmission equipment that is based on the cumulative long-term risk caused by each piece

  15. Strontium Titanate DC Electric Field Switchable and Tunable Bulk Acoustic Wave Solidly Mounted Resonator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    York, Robert A.

    Strontium Titanate DC Electric Field Switchable and Tunable Bulk Acoustic Wave Solidly Mounted.3 0/0. Index Terms - Acoustic resonators, bulk acoustic wave devices, delay filters, ferroelectric,4] that can be exploited to realize voltage-switchable bulk-acoustic wave (BAW) devices for RF applications [5

  16. dc electric field tunable bulk acoustic wave solidly mounted resonator using SrTiO3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    York, Robert A.

    dc electric field tunable bulk acoustic wave solidly mounted resonator using SrTiO3 G. N. SaddikTiO3 solidly mounted bulk acoustic wave resonator has been designed, fabricated, and tested of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.2759464 Thin film bulk acoustic wave resonators FBARs have been in use by research

  17. Automatic Bulk Weighing Systems EPO ABWS (Rev. 08/14) DRAFT Page 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Description of Test Methods The Automatic Bulk Weighing Systems (ABWS) code of NIST Handbook 44 requires/14) DRAFT Page 2 Proper selection of the best method to use for testing is dependent upon the amount of test bulk material entirely or a combination of bulk material and trim weights.1 Thus, the determination

  18. Automatic Bulk Weighing Systems EPO ABWS (Rev. 08/14) DRAFT Page 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Automatic Bulk Weighing Systems EPO ABWS (Rev. 08/14) DRAFT Page 1 EPO No. 16 Appendix B amount of scale error (high level steps 2 and 3) #12;Automatic Bulk Weighing Systems EPO ABWS (Rev. 08 step 1: Error = - 3 #12;Automatic Bulk Weighing Systems EPO ABWS (Rev. 08/14) DRAFT Page 3 Evaluating

  19. Automatic Bulk Weighing Systems EPO ABWS (Rev. 08/14) DRAFT Page 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Automatic Bulk Weighing Systems EPO ABWS (Rev. 08/14) DRAFT Page 1 EPO No. 16 Appendix B of the scale; then remove the error weights. #12;Automatic Bulk Weighing Systems EPO ABWS (Rev. 08/14) DRAFT consecutive digital increments not permitted to be greater than 0.3 d Lower Increment #12;Automatic Bulk

  20. Bulk elastic fingering instability in Hele-Shaw cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baudouin Saintyves; Olivier Dauchot; Elisabeth Bouchaud

    2013-08-17

    We demonstrate experimentally the existence of a purely elastic fingering instability which arises when air penetrates into an elastomer confined in a Hele-Shaw cell. Fingers appear sequentially and propagate within the bulk of the material as soon as a critical strain, independent of the elastic modulus, is exceeded. Their width depends non-linearly on the distance between the confining glass plates. A key element in the driving force of the instability is the adhesion of layers of gels to the plates, which results in a considerable expense of elastic energy during the growth of the air bubble.

  1. Radiative cooling of bulk silicon by incoherent light pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malyutenko, V. K. Bogatyrenko, V. V.; Malyutenko, O. Yu.

    2013-12-23

    In contrast to radiative cooling by light up conversion caused exclusively by a low-entropy laser pump and employing thermally assisted fluorescence/luminescence as a power out, we demonstrate light down conversion cooling by incoherent pumps, 0.47–0.94??m light emitting diodes, and employing thermal emission (TE) as a power out. We demonstrate ?3.5?K bulk cooling of Si at 450?K because overall energy of multiple below bandgap TE photons exceeds the energy of a single above bandgap pump photon. We show that using large entropy TE as power out helps avoid careful tuning of an incoherent pump wavelength and cool indirect-bandgap semiconductors.

  2. Multifunctional bulk plasma source based on discharge with electron injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klimov, A. S.; Medovnik, A. V.; Tyunkov, A. V.; Savkin, K. P.; Shandrikov, M. V.; Vizir, A. V.

    2013-01-15

    A bulk plasma source, based on a high-current dc glow discharge with electron injection, is described. Electron injection and some special design features of the plasma arc emitter provide a plasma source with very long periods between maintenance down-times and a long overall lifetime. The source uses a sectioned sputter-electrode array with six individual sputter targets, each of which can be independently biased. This discharge assembly configuration provides multifunctional operation, including plasma generation from different gases (argon, nitrogen, oxygen, acetylene) and deposition of composite metal nitride and oxide coatings.

  3. Non-Brownian molecular self-diffusion in bulk water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janez Stepišnik; Aleš Mohori?; Igor Serša

    2010-10-06

    The paper presents the velocity autocorrelation spectrum of bulk water measured by a new technique of NMR modulated gradient spin echo method. This technique is unprecedented for the spectrum measurement in the frequency interval between a few Hz to about 100 kHz with respect to directness and clarity of results and shows that a simple model of Brownian self-diffusion is not applicable to describe the diffusion dynamics of water molecules. The observed temperature dependant spectra of water show the existence of a slow chain-like dynamics in water, which we explain by coupling of diffusing molecule to broken bonds in the hydrogen bond network.

  4. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Air Quality | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource HistoryPotentialRuralUtilityScalePVGeneration JumpPublic UtilityQuintasNEPA TimelinesBulkTransmission/Air

  5. Comments on universal properties of entanglement entropy and bulk reconstruction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haehl, Felix M

    2015-01-01

    Entanglement entropy of holographic CFTs is expected to play a crucial role in the reconstruction of semiclassical bulk gravity. We consider the entanglement entropy of spherical regions of vacuum, which is known to contain universal contributions. After perturbing the CFT with a relevant scalar operator, also the first order change of this quantity gives a universal term which only depends on a discrete set of basic CFT parameters. We show that in gravity this statement corresponds to the uniqueness of the ghost-free graviton propagator on an AdS background geometry. While the gravitational dynamics in this context contains little information about the structure of the bulk theory, there is a discrete set of dimensionless parameters of the theory which determines the entanglement entropy. We argue that for every (not necessarily holographic) CFT, any reasonable gravity model can be used to compute this particular entanglement entropy. We elucidate how this statement is consistent with AdS/CFT and also give v...

  6. Powder metallurgy processing and deformation characteristics of bulk multimodal nickel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farbaniec, L.; Dirras, G.; Krawczynska, A.; Mompiou, F.; Couque, H.; Naimi, F.; Bernard, F.; Tingaud, D.

    2014-08-15

    Spark plasma sintering was used to process bulk nickel samples from a blend of three powder types. The resulting multimodal microstructure was made of coarse (average size ? 135 ?m) spherical microcrystalline entities (the core) surrounded by a fine-grained matrix (average grain size ? 1.5 ?m) or a thick rim (the shell) distinguishable from the matrix. Tensile tests revealed yield strength of ? 470 MPa that was accompanied by limited ductility (? 2.8% plastic strain). Microstructure observation after testing showed debonding at interfaces between the matrix and the coarse entities, but in many instances, shallow dimples within the rim were observed indicating local ductile events in the shell. Dislocation emission and annihilation at grain boundaries and twinning at crack tip were the main deformation mechanisms taking place within the fine-grained matrix as revealed by in-situ transmission electron microscopy. Estimation of the stress from loop's curvature and dislocation pile-up indicates that dislocation emission from grain boundaries and grain boundary overcoming largely contributes to the flow stress. - Highlights: • Bulk multi-modal Ni was processed by SPS from a powder blend. • Ultrafine-grained matrix or rim observed around spherical microcrystalline entities • Yield strength (470 MPa) and ductility (2.8% plastic strain) were measured. • Debonding was found at the matrix/microcrystalline entity interfaces. • In-situ TEM showed twinning, dislocation emission and annihilation at grain boundaries.

  7. Corrosion of Metal Inclusions In Bulk Vitrification Waste Packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacon, Diana H.; Pierce, Eric M.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Strachan, Denis M.; Josephson, Gary B.

    2006-07-31

    The primary purpose of the work reported here is to analyze the potential effect of the release of technetium (Tc) from metal inclusions in bulk vitrification waste packages once they are placed in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). As part of the strategy for immobilizing waste from the underground tanks at Hanford, selected wastes will be immobilized using bulk vitrification. During analyses of the glass produced in engineering-scale tests, metal inclusions were found in the glass product. This report contains the results from experiments designed to quantify the corrosion rates of metal inclusions found in the glass product from AMEC Test ES-32B and simulations designed to compare the rate of Tc release from the metal inclusions to the release of Tc from glass produced with the bulk vitrification process. In the simulations, the Tc in the metal inclusions was assumed to be released congruently during metal corrosion as soluble TcO4-. The experimental results and modeling calculations show that the metal corrosion rate will, under all conceivable conditions at the IDF, be dominated by the presence of the passivating layer and corrosion products on the metal particles. As a result, the release of Tc from the metal particles at the surfaces of fractures in the glass releases at a rate similar to the Tc present as a soluble salt. The release of the remaining Tc in the metal is controlled by the dissolution of the glass matrix. To summarize, the release of 99Tc from the BV glass within precipitated Fe is directly proportional to the diameter of the Fe particles and to the amount of precipitated Fe. However, the main contribution to the Tc release from the iron particles is over the same time period as the release of the soluble Tc salt. For the base case used in this study (0.48 mass% of 0.5 mm diameter metal particles homogeneously distributed in the BV glass), the release of 99Tc from the metal is approximately the same as the release from 0.3 mass% soluble Tc salt in the castable refractory block and it is released over the same time period as the salt. Therefore, to limit the impact of precipitated Fe on the release of 99Tc, both the amount of precipitated Fe in the BV glass and the diameter of these particles should be minimized.

  8. Theory of anomalous optical properties of bulk Rashba conductor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shibata, Junya; Kohno, Hiroshi; Tatara, Gen

    2015-01-01

    The Rashba interaction induced when inversion symmetry is broken in solids is a key interaction connecting spin and charge for realizing novel magnetoelectric cross-correlation effects. Here, we theoretically explore the optical properties of a bulk Rashba conductor by calculating the transport coefficients at finite frequencies. It is demonstrated that the combination of direct and inverse Edelstein effects leads to a softening of the plasma frequency for the electric field perpendicular to the Rashba field, resulting in a hyperbolic electromagnetic metamaterial. In the presence of magnetization, a significant enhancement of anisotropic propagation (directional dichroism) is predicted because of interband transition edge singularity.Based on an effective Hamiltonian analysis, the dichroism is demonstrated to be driven by toroidal and quadratic moments of the magnetic Rashba system. The effective theory of the cross-correlation effects has the same mathematical structure as that of insulating multiferroics.

  9. Interaction of graphene quantum dots with bulk semiconductor surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohapatra, P. K.; Singh, B. P.; Kushavah, Dushyant; Mohapatra, J.

    2015-05-15

    Highly luminescent graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are synthesized through thermolysis of glucose. The average lateral size of the synthesized GQDs is found to be ?5 nm. The occurrence of D and G band at 1345 and 1580 cm{sup ?1} in Raman spectrum confirms the presence of graphene layers. GQDs are mostly consisting of 3 to 4 graphene layers as confirmed from the AFM measurements. Photoluminescence (PL) measurement shows a distinct broadening of the spectrum when GQDs are on the semiconducting bulk surface compared to GQDs in water. The time resolved PL measurement shows a significant shortening in PL lifetime due to the substrate interaction on GQDs compared to the GQDs in solution phase.

  10. Irradiation Induced Dimensional Changes in Bulk Graphite; The theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. V. Panyukov; A. V. Subbotin; M. V. Arjakov

    2012-10-14

    Basing on experimental data on irradiation-induced deformation of graphite we introduced a concept of diffuse domain structure developed in reactor graphite produced by extrusion. Such domains are considered as random continuous deviations of local graphite texture from the global one. We elucidate the origin of domain structure and estimate the size and the degree of orientational ordering of its domains. Using this concept we explain the well known radiation-induced size effect observed in reactor graphite. We also propose a method for converting the experimental data on shape-change of finite-size samples to bulk graphite. This method gives a more accurate evaluation of corresponding data used in estimations of reactor graphite components lifetime under irradiation.

  11. Cavitation from bulk viscosity in neutron stars and quark stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jes Madsen

    2009-09-30

    The bulk viscosity in quark matter is sufficiently high to reduce the effective pressure below the corresponding vapor pressure during density perturbations in neutron stars and strange stars. This leads to mechanical instability where the quark matter breaks apart into fragments comparable to cavitation scenarios discussed for ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Similar phenomena may take place in kaon-condensed stellar cores. Possible applications to compact star phenomenology include a new mechanism for damping oscillations and instabilities, triggering of phase transitions, changes in gravitational wave signatures of binary star inspiral, and astrophysical formation of strangelets. At a more fundamental level it points to the possible inadequacy of a hydrodynamical treatment of these processes in compact stars.

  12. Cavitation from bulk viscosity in neutron stars and strange stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madsen, Jes

    2009-01-01

    The bulk viscosity in quark matter is sufficiently high to reduce the effective pressure below the corresponding vapor pressure during density perturbations in neutron stars and strange stars. This leads to mechanical instability where the quark matter breaks apart into fragments comparable to cavitation scenarios discussed for ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Similar phenomena may take place in kaon-condensed stellar cores. Possible applications to compact star phenomenology include a new mechanism for damping oscillations and instabilities, triggering of phase transitions, changes in gravitational wave signatures of binary star inspiral, and astrophysical formation of strangelets. At a more fundamental level it points to the possible inadequacy of a hydrodynamical treatment of these processes in compact stars.

  13. Fusion of conformal interfaces and bulk induced boundary RG flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anatoly Konechny

    2015-09-25

    We consider the basic radius changing conformal interface for a free compact boson. After investigating different theoretical aspects of this object we focus on the fusion of this interface with conformal boundary conditions. At fractions of the self-dual radius there exist exceptional D-branes. It was argued in [1] that changing the radius in the bulk induces a boundary RG flow. Following [2] we conjecture that fusing the basic radius changing interface (that changes the radius from a fraction of the self-dual radius) with the exceptional boundary conditions gives the boundary condition which is the end point of the RG flow considered in [1]. By studying the fusion singularities we recover RG logarithms and see, in particular instances, how they get resummed into power singularities. We discuss what quantities need to be calculated to gain full non-perturbative control over the fusion.

  14. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, J.

    2010-06-02

    The Bulk Tritium Shipping Package was designed by Savannah River National Laboratory. This package will be used to transport tritium. As part of the requirements for certification, the package must be shown to meet the scenarios of the Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) defined in Code of Federal Regulations Title 10 Part 71 (10CFR71). The conditions include a sequential 30-foot drop event, 30-foot dynamic crush event, and a 40-inch puncture event. Finite Element analyses were performed to support and expand upon prototype testing. Cases similar to the tests were evaluated. Additional temperatures and orientations were also examined to determine their impact on the results. The peak stress on the package was shown to be acceptable. In addition, the strain on the outer drum as well as the inner containment boundary was shown to be acceptable. In conjunction with the prototype tests, the package was shown to meet its confinement requirements.

  15. Methods of synthesizing hydroxyapatite powders and bulk materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luo, Ping (2843A Forest Ave., Berkeley, CA 94705)

    1999-01-12

    Methods are provided for producing non-porous controlled morphology hydroxyapatite granules of less than 8 .mu.m by a spray-drying process. Solid or hollow spheres or doughnuts can be formed by controlling the volume fraction and viscosity of the slurry as well as the spray-drying conditions. Methods of providing for homogenous cellular structure hydroxyapatite granules are also provided. Pores or channels or varying size and number can be formed by varying the temperature at which a hydroxyapatite slurry formed in basic, saturated ammonium hydroxide is spray-dried. Methods of providing non-porous controlled morphology hydroxyapatite granules in ammonium hydroxide are also provided. The hydroxyapatite granules and bulk materials formed by these methods are also provided.

  16. Methods of synthesizing hydroxyapatite powders and bulk materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luo, P.

    1999-01-12

    Methods are provided for producing non-porous controlled morphology hydroxyapatite granules of less than 8 {micro}m by a spray-drying process. Solid or hollow spheres or doughnuts can be formed by controlling the volume fraction and viscosity of the slurry as well as the spray-drying conditions. Methods of providing for homogeneous cellular structure hydroxyapatite granules are also provided. Pores or channels or varying size and number can be formed by varying the temperature at which a hydroxyapatite slurry formed in basic, saturated ammonium hydroxide is spray-dried. Methods of providing non-porous controlled morphology hydroxyapatite granules in ammonium hydroxide are also provided. The hydroxyapatite granules and bulk materials formed by these methods are also provided. 26 figs.

  17. Fusion of conformal interfaces and bulk induced boundary RG flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konechny, Anatoly

    2015-01-01

    We consider the basic radius changing conformal interface for a free compact boson. After investigating different theoretical aspects of this object we focus on the fusion of this interface with conformal boundary conditions. At fractions of the self-dual radius there exist exceptional D-branes. It was argued in [1] that changing the radius in the bulk induces a boundary RG flow. Following [2] we conjecture that fusing the basic radius changing interface (that changes the radius from a fraction of the self-dual radius) with the exceptional boundary conditions gives the boundary condition which is the end point of the RG flow considered in [1]. By studying the fusion singularities we recover RG logarithms and see, in particular instances, how they get resummed into power singularities. We discuss what quantities need to be calculated to gain full non-perturbative control over the fusion.

  18. Universality of Non-Ohmic Shunt Leakage in Thin-Film Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dongaonkar, S.; Servaites, J. D.; Ford, G. M.; Loser, Stephen; Moore, J.; Gelfand, R. M.; Mohseni, H. W.; Agrawal, R.; Ratner, Mark A.; Marks, Tobin J.; Lundstrom, M. S.; Alam, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    We compare the dark current-voltage (IV) characteristics of three different thin-film solar cell types: hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) p-i-n cells, organic bulk heterojunction (BHJ) cells, and Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) cells. All three device types exhibit a significant shunt leakage current at low forward bias (V

  19. Band alignment of epitaxial ZnS/Zn3P2 heterojunctions Jeffrey P. Bosco, Steven B. Demers, Gregory M. Kimball, Nathan S. Lewis, and Harry A. Atwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimball, Gregory

    , 123704 (2012) Digging up bulk band dispersion buried under a passivation layer Appl. Phys. Lett. 101-carrier diffusion length as well as passive grain boundaries.3,4 These properties, in addition to the abundance

  20. An easy-to-fabricate low-temperature TiO{sub 2} electron collection layer for high efficiency planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conings, B.; Baeten, L.; Jacobs, T.; Dera, R.; D’Haen, J.; Manca, J.; Boyen, H.-G.

    2014-08-01

    Organometal trihalide perovskite solar cells arguably represent the most auspicious new photovoltaic technology so far, as they possess an astonishing combination of properties. The impressive and brisk advances achieved so far bring forth highly efficient and solution processable solar cells, holding great promise to grow into a mature technology that is ready to be embedded on a large scale. However, the vast majority of state-of-the-art perovskite solar cells contains a dense TiO{sub 2} electron collection layer that requires a high temperature treatment (>450?°C), which obstructs the road towards roll-to-roll processing on flexible foils that can withstand no more than ?150?°C. Furthermore, this high temperature treatment leads to an overall increased energy payback time and cumulative energy demand for this emerging photovoltaic technology. Here we present the implementation of an alternative TiO{sub 2} layer formed from an easily prepared nanoparticle dispersion, with annealing needs well within reach of roll-to-roll processing, making this technology also appealing from the energy payback aspect. Chemical and morphological analysis allows to understand and optimize the processing conditions of the TiO{sub 2} layer, finally resulting in a maximum obtained efficiency of 13.6% for a planar heterojunction solar cell within an ITO/TiO{sub 2}/CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3-x}Cl{sub x}poly(3-hexylthiophene)/Ag architecture.

  1. Unpaired Majorana modes in Josephson-Junction Arrays with gapless bulk excitations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pino, M.; Tsvelik, A.; Ioffe, L. B.

    2015-11-06

    In this study, the search for Majorana bound states in solid-state physics has been limited to materials that display a gap in their bulk spectrum. We show that such unpaired states appear in certain quasi-one-dimensional Josephson-junction arrays with gapless bulk excitations. The bulk modes mediate a coupling between Majorana bound states via the Ruderman-Kittel-Yosida-Kasuya mechanism. As a consequence, the lowest energy doublet acquires a finite energy difference. For a realistic set of parameters this energy splitting remains much smaller than the energy of the bulk eigenstates even for short chains of length L~10.

  2. The Role of Surface Chemistry and Bulk Properties on the Cycling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    es084shaohorn2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications The Role of Surface Chemistry and Bulk Properties on the Cycling and Rate Capability of Lithium Positive Electrode...

  3. Tuned critical avalanche scaling in bulk metallic glasses

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Antonaglia, James; Xie, Xie; Schwarz, Gregory; Wraith, Matthew; Qiao, Junwei; Zhang, Yong; Liaw, Peter K.; Uhl, Jonathan T.; Dahmen, Karin A.

    2014-03-17

    In this study, ingots of the bulk metallic glass (BMG), Zr64.13Cu15.75Ni10.12Al10 in atomic percent (at. %), are compressed at slow strain rates. The deformation behavior is characterized by discrete, jerky stress-drop bursts (serrations). Here we present a quantitative theory for the serration behavior of BMGs, which is a critical issue for the understanding of the deformation characteristics of BMGs. The mean-field interaction model predicts the scaling behavior of the distribution, D(S), of avalanche sizes, S, in the experiments. D(S) follows a power law multiplied by an exponentially-decaying scaling function. The size of the largest observed avalanche depends on experimental tuning-parameters,more »such as either imposed strain rate or stress. Similar to crystalline materials, the plasticity of BMGs reflects tuned criticality showing remarkable quantitative agreement with the slip statistics of slowly-compressed nanocrystals. The results imply that material-evaluation methods based on slip statistics apply to both crystalline and BMG materials.« less

  4. International Round-Robin Testing of Bulk Thermoelectrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Porter, Wallace D [ORNL; Bottner, Harold [Fraunhofer-Institute, Freiburg, Germany; Konig, Jan [Fraunhofer-Institute, Freiburg, Germany; Chen, Lidong [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Bai, Shengqiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Tritt, Terry M. [Clemson University; Mayolett, Alex [Corning, Inc; Smith, Charlene [Corning, Inc; Harris, Fred [ZT-Plus; Sharp, Jeff [Marlow Industries, Inc; Lo, Jason [CANMET - Materials Technology Laboratory, Natural Resources of Canada; Keinke, Holger [University of Waterloo, Canada; Kiss, Laszlo I. [University of Quebec at Chicoutimi

    2011-11-01

    Two international round-robin studies were conducted on transport properties measurements of bulk thermoelectric materials. The study discovered current measurement problems. In order to get ZT of a material four separate transport measurements must be taken. The round-robin study showed that among the four properties Seebeck coefficient is the one can be measured consistently. Electrical resistivity has +4-9% scatter. Thermal diffusivity has similar +5-10% scatter. The reliability of the above three properties can be improved by standardizing test procedures and enforcing system calibrations. The worst problem was found in specific heat measurements using DSC. The probability of making measurement error is great due to the fact three separate runs must be taken to determine Cp and the baseline shift is always an issue for commercial DSC. It is suggest the Dulong Petit limit be always used as a guide line for Cp. Procedures have been developed to eliminate operator and system errors. The IEA-AMT annex is developing standard procedures for transport properties testing.

  5. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of bulk dysprosium chromite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDannald, A.; Institute of Material Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 ; Kuna, L.; Jain, M.; Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269

    2013-09-21

    In this work, a polycrystalline bulk DyCrO{sub 3} sample was prepared by a solution route and the structural and magnetic properties were investigated. The phase purity and ionic valence state of the DyCrO{sub 3} sample were determined by x-ray diffraction/Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The AC and DC magnetization measurements revealed the onset of antiferromagnetic order at 146 K with an effective moment of 8.88 ?{sub B}. Isothermal magnetization measurements of this material are presented for the first time, showing a peak in the coercive field at 80 K that is explained by the competition between the paramagnetic Dy{sup 3+} and Cr{sup 3+} sublattices. DyCrO{sub 3} was found to display a large magnetocaloric effect (8.4 J/kg K) and relative cooling power (217 J/kg) at 4 T applied field, which renders DyCrO{sub 3} useful for magnetic refrigeration between 5 K and 30 K.

  6. Proton transfer from the bulk to the bound ubiquinone QB of the reaction center in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen

    Proton transfer from the bulk to the bound ubiquinone QB of the reaction center in chromatophores, 1999) The mechanism of proton transfer from the bulk into the mem- brane protein interior was studied is accompanied by proton trapping. We used kinetic spec- troscopy to measure (i) the electron transfer to QB (at

  7. Cluster formation and bulk phase behavior of colloidal dispersions Tao Jiang and Jianzhong Wu*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jianzhong

    micro/mesoscopic phases may appear in bulk colloidal systems 1­4 or protein solutions 5­8 where diameter. The short-ranged attraction typically arises from chemical association such as hydrogen bonding of bulk col- loids is now well advanced 8­15 , much lagged behind are theoretical predictions of the micro

  8. Measuring Bulk Properties of Sound-Absorbing Materials using the Two-Source Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seybert, Andrew F.

    03NVC-200 Measuring Bulk Properties of Sound-Absorbing Materials using the Two-Source Method Z. Tao thickness absorbing material or (2) layered material and (3) using bulk properties for a multi-absorbing materials and are sufficient for many applications. These properties can be measured using the two

  9. Sub-100 ps bulk-recombination-limited InP:Fe photoconductive detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammond, R.B.; Paulter, N.G.; Iverson, A.E.; Smith, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Both surface and bulk excited semi-insulating InP optoelectronic switches were studied. It was found that transient recombination in these devices is the same for both types of excitation. It is concluded that the recombination is a bulk controlled process.

  10. The Economic Implications of Adding Wind Capacity to a Bulk Power Transmission Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Economic Implications of Adding Wind Capacity to a Bulk Power Transmission Network by Tim Mount. * Corresponding author, tdm2@cornell.edu. #12;2 The Economic Implications of Adding Wind Capacity to a Bulk Power limitations of solving large AC Optimal Power Flows (OPF) for real networks, system operators typically use

  11. A BULK BLOWING SNOW MODEL STEPHEN J. DRY and M. K. YAU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dery, Stephen

    A BULK BLOWING SNOW MODEL STEPHEN J. DÉRY and M. K. YAU Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic model that de- picts a column of sublimating, blowing snow. This bulk model predicts the mixing ratio of suspended snow by solving an equation that considers the diffusion, settling and sublimation of blowing snow

  12. Surface chemistry of bulk nanocrystalline pure iron and electrochemistry study in gas-flow physiological saline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yufeng

    Surface chemistry of bulk nanocrystalline pure iron and electrochemistry study in gas greatly than that of MC-Fe. A further comparative study of corrosion and electrochemistry per- formance of bulk nanocrystalline pure iron and electrochemistry study in gas-flow physiological saline. J Biomed

  13. HIGH-ORDER COMPOSITE BULK ACOUSTIC RESONATORS Gavin K. Ho, Reza Abdolvand, and Farrokh Ayazi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayazi, Farrokh

    . The term "bulk" is used to signify energy storage in the bulk of the structure, instead of the definition on an underlying silicon layer. The impedance of these devices reduces as mode number increases. This is attributed of capacitively- transduced, silicon micromechanical resonators with high Q have been demonstrated [1,2]. Typical

  14. Liquid Polyamorphism: Some Unsolved Puzzles of Water in Bulk, Nanoconfined, and Biological Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    , liquid bulk water begins to ex- pand when its temperature drops below 4°C. Indeed, a simple kitchen layers of 0°C water "float" on top (cf, Fig. 1 of Ref [2]). The mysterious properties of liquidLiquid Polyamorphism: Some Unsolved Puzzles of Water in Bulk, Nanoconfined, and Biological

  15. Liquid Polyamorphism: Some Unsolved Puzzles of Water in Bulk, Nanoconfined, and Biological Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franzese, Giancarlo

    decreases, liquid bulk water begins to ex- pand when its temperature drops below 4C. Indeed, a simple while colder layers of 0C water "float" on top (cf., Fig. 1 of Ref. [2]). The mysterious propertiesLiquid Polyamorphism: Some Unsolved Puzzles of Water in Bulk, Nanoconfined, and Biological

  16. Bulk superconductivity in Type II superconductors near the second critical field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Fournais; B. Helffer

    2008-02-14

    We consider superconductors of Type II near the transition from the 'bulk superconducting' to the 'surface superconducting' state. We prove a new $L^{\\infty}$ estimate on the order parameter in the bulk, i.e. away from the boundary. This solves an open problem posed by Aftalion and Serfaty.

  17. Excitonic enhancement of nonradiative energy transfer to bulk silicon with the hybridization of cascaded quantum dots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    Excitonic enhancement of nonradiative energy transfer to bulk silicon with the hybridization energy transfer to bulk silicon with the hybridization of cascaded quantum dots Aydan Yeltik,1 Burak sensitization of silicon through nonradiative energy transfer (NRET) of the excitons in an energy

  18. Bulk, surface and corner free energy series for the chromatic polynomial on the square and triangular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Bulk, surface and corner free energy series for the chromatic polynomial on the square, surface and corner free energies of the chromatic polynomial. This extends the existing series expression for the bulk free energy (to order q-40 ), and we are able to conjecture exact product formulae

  19. HIGH-ASPECT-RATIO INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA ETCHING OF BULK TITANIUM FOR MEMS APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacDonald, Noel C.

    HIGH-ASPECT-RATIO INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA ETCHING OF BULK TITANIUM FOR MEMS APPLICATIONS E. R system for the bulk micromachining of MEMS devices. Titanium-based MEMS have the potential to be used for the microfabrication of titanium- based MEMS devices. INTRODUCTION Traditionally, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS

  20. Numerical modelling and comparison of MgB_2 bulks fabricated by HIP and infiltration growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zou, J.; Ainslie, M. D.; Fujishiro, H.; Bhagurkar, A. G.; Naito, T.; Hari Babu, N.; Fagnard, J.-F.; Vanderbemden, P.; Yamamoto, A.

    2015-05-26

    MgB_2 in bulk form shows great promise as trapped field magnets (TFMs) as an alternative to bulk (RE)BCO materials to replace permanent magnets in applications such as rotating machines, magnetic bearings and magnetic separation, and the relative...

  1. Size-dependent fracture toughness of bulk metallic glasses Bernd Gludovatz a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    metallic glasses; Fracture toughness; Sample size; Strain softening; Bending ductility 1. Introduction BulkSize-dependent fracture toughness of bulk metallic glasses Bernd Gludovatz a , Steven E. Naleway b form 22 January 2014; accepted 26 January 2014 Abstract The fracture toughness is a critical material

  2. Ab-initio Kinetic Monte Carlo Model of Ionic Conduction in Bulk Yttria-stabilized Zirconia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Wei

    Ab-initio Kinetic Monte Carlo Model of Ionic Conduction in Bulk Yttria-stabilized Zirconia Eunseok in bulk single crystal Yttria-stabilized Zirconia. An interacting energy barrier model is developed dynamics to simulate the vacancy diffusion in Yttria-stabilized Zirconia (YSZ). They concluded

  3. POLYMER PROGRAM SEMINAR "Structure at the surface and in the bulk in biomaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    POLYMER PROGRAM SEMINAR "Structure at the surface and in the bulk in biomaterials: Studies for investigating the surface and the bulk structure in biomaterials will be presented. Formation of thin polymer films on aqueous surfaces, and the adsorption of proteins onto polymer surfaces in the aqueous media

  4. The impact of gas bulk rotation on the Ly? line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garavito-Camargo, Juan N.; Forero-Romero, Jaime E.; Dijkstra, Mark E-mail: je.forero@uniandes.edu.co

    2014-11-10

    We present results of radiative transfer calculations to measure the impact of gas bulk rotation on the morphology of the Ly? emission line in distant galaxies. We model a galaxy as a sphere with an homogeneous mixture of dust and hydrogen at a constant temperature. These spheres undergo solid-body rotation with maximum velocities in the range 0-300 km s{sup –1} and neutral hydrogen optical depths in the range ?{sub H} = 10{sup 5}-10{sup 7}. We consider two types of source distributions in the sphere: central and homogeneous. Our main result is that rotation introduces a dependence of the line morphology with viewing angle and rotational velocity. Observations with a line of sight parallel to the rotation axis yield line morphologies similar to the static case. For lines of sight perpendicular to the rotation axis, both the intensity at the line center and the line width increase with rotational velocity. Along the same line of sight, the line becomes single peaked at rotational velocities close to half the line width in the static case. Notably, we find that rotation does not induce any spatial anisotropy in the integrated line flux, the escape fraction or the average number of scatterings. This is because Lyman scattering through a rotating solid-body proceeds identically to the static case. The only difference is the Doppler shift from the different regions in the sphere that move with respect to the observer. This allows us to derive an analytic approximation for the viewing-angle dependence of the emerging spectrum, as a function of rotational velocity.

  5. Bulk Nanostructured FCC Steels With Enhanced Radiation Tolerance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xinghang; Hartwig, K. Ted; Allen, Todd; Yang, Yong

    2012-10-27

    The objective of this project is to increase radiation tolerance in austenitic steels through optimization of grain size and grain boundary (GB) characteristics. The focus will be on nanocrystalline austenitic Fe-Cr-Ni alloys with an fcc crystal structure. The long-term goal is to design and develop bulk nanostructured austenitic steels with enhanced void swelling resistance and substantial ductility, and to enhance their creep resistance at elevated temperatures via GB engineering. The combination of grain refinement and grain boundary engineering approaches allows us to tailor the material strength, ductility, and resistance to swelling by 1) changing the sink strength for point defects, 2) by increasing the nucleation barriers for bubble formation at GBs, and 3) by changing the precipitate distributions at boundaries. Compared to ferritic/martensitic steels, austenitic stainless steels (SS) possess good creep and fatigue resistance at elevated temperatures, and better toughness at low temperature. However, a major disadvantage of austenitic SS is that they are vulnerable to significant void swelling in nuclear reactors, especially at the temperatures and doses anticipated in the Advanced Burner Reactor. The lack of resistance to void swelling in austenitic alloys led to the switch to ferritic/martensitic steels as the preferred material for the fast reactor cladding application. Recently a type of austenitic stainless steel, HT-UPS, was developed at ORNL, and is expected to show enhanced void swelling resistance through the trapping of point defects at nanometersized carbides. Reducing the grain size and increasing the fraction of low energy grain boundaries should reduce the available radiation-produced point defects (due to the increased sink area of the grain boundaries), should make bubble nucleation at the boundaries less likely (by reducing the fraction of high-energy boundaries), and improve the strength and ductility under radiation by producing a higher density of nanometer sized carbides on the boundaries. This project will focus on void swelling but advances in processing of austenitic steels are likely to also improve the radiation response of the mechanical properties.

  6. Bulk and surface controlled diffusion of fission gas atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andersson, Anders D.

    2012-08-09

    Fission gas retention and release impact nuclear fuel performance by, e.g., causing fuel swelling leading to mechanical interaction with the clad, increasing the plenum pressure and reducing the gap thermal conductivity. All of these processes are important to understand in order to optimize operating conditions of nuclear reactors and to simulate accident scenarios. Most fission gases have low solubility in the fuel matrix, which is especially pronounced for large fission gas atoms such as Xe and Kr, and as a result there is a significant driving force for segregation of gas atoms to extended defects such as grain boundaries or dislocations and subsequently for nucleation of gas bubbles at these sinks. Several empirical or semi-empirical models have been developed for fission gas release in nuclear fuels, e.g. [1-6]. One of the most commonly used models in fuel performance codes was published by Massih and Forsberg [3,4,6]. This model is similar to the early Booth model [1] in that it applies an equivalent sphere to separate bulk UO{sub 2} from grain boundaries represented by the sphere circumference. Compared to the Booth model, it also captures trapping at grain boundaries, fission gas resolution and it describes release from the boundary by applying timedependent boundary conditions to the circumference. In this work we focus on the step where fission gas atoms diffuse from the grain interior to the grain boundaries. The original Massih-Forsberg model describes this process by applying an effective diffusivity divided into three temperature regimes. In this report we present results from density functional theory calculations (DFT) that are relevant for the high (D{sub 3}) and intermediate (D{sub 2}) temperature diffusivities of fission gases. The results are validated by making a quantitative comparison to Turnbull's [8-10] and Matzke's data [12]. For the intrinsic or high temperature regime we report activation energies for both Xe and Kr diffusion in UO{sub 2{+-}x}, which compare favorably to available experiments. This is an extension of previous work [13]. In particular, it applies improved chemistry models for the UO{sub 2{+-}x} nonstoichiometry and its impact on the fission gas activation energies. The derivation of these models follows the approach that used in our recent study of uranium vacancy diffusion in UO{sub 2} [14]. Also, based on the calculated DFT data we analyze vacancy enhanced diffusion mechanisms in the intermediate temperature regime. In addition to vacancy enhanced diffusion we investigate species transport on the (111) UO{sub 2} surface. This is motivated by the formation of small voids partially filled with fission gas atoms (bubbles) in UO{sub 2} under irradiation, for which surface diffusion could be the rate-limiting transport step. Diffusion of such bubbles constitutes an alternative mechanism for mass transport in these materials.

  7. Power Handling of the Bulk Tungsten Divertor Row at JET: First Measurements and Comparison to the GTM Thermal Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Power Handling of the Bulk Tungsten Divertor Row at JET: First Measurements and Comparison to the GTM Thermal Model

  8. Electron-beam-induced deposition of 3-nm-half-pitch patterns on bulk Si

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Oven, J. C.

    This paper demonstrates electron-beam-induced deposition of few-nm-width dense features on bulk samples by using a scanning electron-beam lithography system. To optimize the resultant features, three steps were taken: (1) ...

  9. Contributions to the theory of soundpropagation in ducts with bulk-reacting lining

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rienstra, Sjoerd W.

    Contributions to the theory of soundpropagation in ducts with bulk-reacting lining S.W. Rienstra interfaceduct/liner modalamplitudeductfield outer radius duct with liner modalamplitudelinerfield wavenumber duct radial wavenumber liner axial wavenumber smallparameter ratioradialpressuregradientsat

  10. Role of phase instabilities in the early response of bulk fused...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Role of phase instabilities in the early response of bulk fused silica during laser-induced breakdown Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Role of phase instabilities in the...

  11. The Use of Small Scale Fire Test Data for the Hazard Assessment of Bulk Materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foley, Marianne

    1995-01-01

    An experimental study of fire testing of solid materials has been carried out to investigate whether or not these tests yield useful data for the burning of materials stored in bulk, for example in warehouses. Tests were ...

  12. Search for gas bulk motions in eight nearby clusters of galaxies with Suzaku

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ota, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    To search for bulk motions of the intracluster medium, we analyzed the X-ray spectra taken with the Suzaku satellite and measured the Doppler shift of Fe-K line emission from eight nearby clusters of galaxies with various X-ray morphologies. In the cores of the Centaurus and Perseus clusters, the gas bulk velocity does not exceed the sound velocity, which confirms the results of previous research. For the Cen45 subcluster, we found that the radial velocity relative to the Centaurus core, gas and galaxy distributions along the line of sight due to the subcluster merger. In A2199, A2142, A3667, and A133, no significant bulk motion was detected, indicating an upper limit on the radial velocity of 3000-4000 km s^-1. A sign of large bulk velocity in excess of the instrumental calibration uncertainty was found near the center of cool-core cluster A2029 and in the subcluster o...

  13. Bulk power risk analysis : ranking infrastructure elements according to their risk significance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koonce, Anthony M

    2006-01-01

    Disruptions in the bulk power grid can result in very diverse consequences that include economic, social, physical, and psychological impacts. In addition, power outages do not affect all end-users of the system in the ...

  14. Towards a detailed understanding of the NEXAFS spectra of bulk polyethylene copolymers and related alkanes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Towards a detailed understanding of the NEXAFS spectra of bulk polyethylene copolymers and related interpretation has not yet emerged. Initially, the low energy peak of polyethylene (PE) and long- chain alkanes

  15. Bulk glass formation in the Pd{endash}Ni{endash}P system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Y.; Schwarz, R.B.; Archuleta, J.I. [Center for Materials Science, MS K-765, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Center for Materials Science, MS K-765, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Bulk amorphous Pd{endash}Ni{endash}P rods with diameters ranging from 10 to 25 mm were prepared by a fluxing technique over a wide composition range. For most bulk glassy alloys studied, the difference between the glass transition temperature and the crystallization temperature, {ital T}{sub {ital x}}{minus}{ital T}{sub {ital g}}, is larger than 90 K. Of all the alloy compositions examined, Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 40}P{sub 20} has the highest glass formability, and 300-g bulk amorphous cylinders, 25 mm in diameter and 50 mm in length, were easily and repeatedly formed. This size, however, is not an upper limit. The elastic properties of these bulk amorphous alloys were determined by a resonant ultrasound spectroscopy technique.

  16. Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission (PUC) is offering rebates of 30% of the installed cost of qualifying new residential bulk-fed, wood-pellet central heating boilers or furnaces. The...

  17. Bulk Duals for Generic Static, Scale-Invariant Holographic CFT States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew Hickling

    2015-04-14

    Near horizon geometries have been widely studied, and have found many applications. Certain static, near horizon geometries are now understood to be bulk duals to CFTs with static scale-invariant sources under the AdS/CFT correspondence. However, static near-horizon geometries aren't just scale-invariant, they have extra `enhanced' symmetry. This means that they can only be the bulk duals for a special class of static, scale-invariant sources that share this enhanced symmetry. The purpose of this paper is to consider bulk duals for more generic static, scale-invariant sources, without this extra symmetry. These solutions are quite different to near-horizon geometries. In place of the extremal horizon they have a null singularity. We find specific examples of such bulk geometries numerically for the cases of pure gravity, and for an abelian gauge field.

  18. Using first principles Destiny Functional Theory methods to model the Seebeck coefficient of bulk silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehra, Saahil

    2008-01-01

    Thermoelectrics are gaining significant amounts of attention considering their relevance today in the areas of sustainable energy generation and energy efficiency. In this thesis, the thermoelectric properties of bulk ...

  19. Influence of Time-Varying External Magnetic Fields on Trapped Fields in Bulk Superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zou, Jin; Ainslie, Mark D.; Hu, Di; Cardwell, David A.

    2014-12-12

    than 2 T. Therefore, bulk HTS samples are ideal candidates to develop more compact and efficient devices, such as actuators, magnetic levitation systems, flywheel energy storage systems and electric machines. In electric machines, in particular...

  20. Complexity of shear localization in a Zr-based bulk metallic glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . A significant advance occurred when compositions and copper mold casting method allowing for bulk material of large defects such as dislocations. Yet, plasticity is still possible because of local structural

  1. The Role of Surface Chemistry and Bulk Properties on the Cycling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    D.C. es084shaohorn2010p.pdf More Documents & Publications The Role of Surface Chemistry and Bulk Properties on the Cycling and Rate Capability of Lithium Positive Electrode...

  2. Dye-doped polymer nanoparticles for flexible, bulk luminescent solar concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenberg, Ron, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    Bulk luminescent solar concentrators (LSC) cannot make use of Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) due to necessarily low dye concentrations. In this thesis, we attempt to present a poly-vinylalcohol (PVA) waveguide ...

  3. Evaluation of bulk and packaged distribution strategies in a specialty chemical company

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernández López, José Joaquín, 1974-

    2003-01-01

    A logistics cost model is developed for a chemical distribution system from a single plant using bulk and packaged transportation strategies. The purpose of this research is to provide a tool that helps understand the cost ...

  4. 2100 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES, VOL. 59, NO. 8, AUGUST 2012 A Distributed Bulk-Oxide Trap Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodwell, Mark J. W.

    a distributed circuit model for bulk-oxide traps based on tunneling between the semiconductor surface and trap explained by the distributed bulk-oxide trap model. Index Terms--Bulk-oxide trap, III­V, MOS, tunneling. I-oxide traps or border traps, do have long time constants as they interact with the conduction band electrons

  5. Emergent Universe in Brane World Scenario with Schwarzschild-de Sitter Bulk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asit Banerjee; Tanwi Bandyopadhyay; Subenoy Chakraborty

    2007-11-27

    A model of an emergent universe is obtained in brane world. Here the bulk energy is in the form of cosmological constant, while the brane consists of a fluid satisfying an equation of state of the form $p_{b}={1/3} \\rho_{b}$, which is effectively a radiation equation of state at high energies. It is shown that with the positive bulk cosmological constant, one of our models represents an emergent universe.

  6. Surface magnetism of Gd(0001): Evidence of ferromagnetic coupling to bulk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulhollan, G.A.; Garrison, K.; Erskine, J.L. )

    1992-11-30

    Previous polarized electron experiments and recent {ital ab} {ital initio} calculations suggest that the surface layer magnetic moments of Gd(0001) are antiferromagnetically coupled to the bulk magnetic moments. Spin-polarized photoemission data are presented which show that the spin polarization of the magnetic surface state and the surface 4{ital f} states of Gd(0001) are coupled ferromagnetically to the bulk magnetic moment.

  7. Bulk and track etch properties of CR-39 SSNTD etched in NaOH/ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    Bulk and track etch properties of CR-39 SSNTD etched in NaOH/ethanol K.F. Chan, F.M.F. Ng, D. described the use of NaOH/ethanol as an etchant for the CR-39 detector, and have determined the corre and track etch properties of CR- 39 in NaOH/ethanol were derived from direct measurements. The bulk etch

  8. Vibration-Induced Conductivity Fluctuation Measurement for Soil Bulk Density Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Sz. Kishne; Cristine L. S. Morgan; Hung-Chih Chang; Laszlo B. Kish

    2007-05-03

    Soil bulk density affects water storage, water and nutrient movement, and plant root activity in the soil profile. Its measurement is difficult in field conditions. Vibration-induced conductivity fluctuation was investigated to quantify soil bulk density with possible field applications in the future. The AC electrical conductivity of soil was measured using a pair of blade-like electrodes while exposing the soil to periodic vibration. The blades were positioned longitudinally and transversally to the direction of the induced vibration to enable the calculation of a normalized index. The normalized index was expected to provide data independent from the vibration strength and to reduce the effect of soil salinity and water content. The experiment was conducted on natural and salinized fine sand at two moisture conditions and four bulk densities. The blade-shaped electrodes improved electrode-soil contact compared to cylindrical electrodes, and thereby, reduced measurement noise. Simulations on a simplified resistor lattice indicate that the transversal effect increases as soil bulk density decreases. Measurement of dry sand showed a negative correlation between the normalized conductivity fluctuation and soil bulk density for both longitudinal and transversal settings. The decrease in the transversal signal was smaller than expected. The wet natural and salinized soils performed very similarly as hypothesized, but their normalized VICOF response was not significant to bulk density changes.

  9. Theory of Current Transients in Planar Semiconductor Devices: Insights and Applications to Organic Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawks, SA; Finck, BY; Schwartz, BJ

    2015-01-01

    Dyakonov, Organic solar cell efficiencies under the aspectfor low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells, J. Phys. Chem.dependent efficiencies of organic bulk heterojunction solar

  10. Absorption-Enhanced Organic Photovoltaic By Incorporating Metallic Nano Pyramid Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qasem, Hussamaldeen S.

    2014-01-01

    Stable, Efficient Polymer Solar Cells with Nanoscale Controlin Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells—Towards 10 ?% Energy-Efficient Inverted Polymer Solar Cells," Advanced Materials,

  11. Comparing matched polymer:Fullerene solar cells made by solution-sequential processing and traditional blend casting: Nanoscale structure and device performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01

    Processed “Bilayer” Organic Solar Cells. Adv. Mater. 2011,Polymer: Fullerene Solar Cells Using the External Quantumin Organic Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells. J. Phys. Chem. C

  12. Self-Assembly of Semiconducting Polymers and Fullerenes for Photovoltaic Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huber, Rachel Colleen

    2014-01-01

    in Low-Bandgap Polymer Solar Cells by Processing with AlkaneProcessed “Bilayer” Organic Solar Cells. Adv. Mater. 2011,Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells. Appl. Phys. Lett.

  13. Hybrid Solar Cells with Prescribed Nanoscale Morphologies Based on Hyperbranched Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan; Fromer, Neil A.; Chen, Chih-Ping; Kanaras, Antonios G.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2006-01-01

    polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells. Journal of PhysicalS. & Meissner, D. Hybrid solar cells based on nanoparticlesmodelling of organic solar cells: The dependence of internal

  14. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Role of Additive in Diketopyrrolopyrrole-based Small Molecular Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells Wang, Hongyu ; Liu, Feng ; Bu, Laju ; Gao, Jun ; Wang, Cheng ; Wei, Wei ;...

  15. The Role of Additive in Diketopyrrolopyrrole-based Small Molecular...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Role of Additive in Diketopyrrolopyrrole-based Small Molecular Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Role of Additive in...

  16. The Design of Organic Polymers and Small Molecules to Improve the Efficiency of Excitonic Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armstrong, Paul Barber

    2010-01-01

    bulk heterojunction organic solar cells, blends of a p-typebottleneck, bilayer organic solar cells are normallycells, including organic solar cells and dye-sensitized

  17. Study of surface enhanced resonant Raman spectroscopy of chromophores on unaggregated plasmonically active nanoparticles / Surface-enhanced Raman study of the interaction of the PEDOT:PSS and P3HT/PCBM components of organic polymer solar cells with plasmonically active nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stavytska-Barba, Marina Valeriyivna

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid Plasmonic Organic Solar Cells with Ag Nanoparticles.a Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cell. Opt. Express 2010,Light Collection in Organic Solar Cells. Appl. Phys. Lett.

  18. Oligo and Poly-thiophene/Zno Hybrid Nanowire Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Briseno, Alejandro L.

    2010-01-01

    less than organic bulk heterojunction solar cells. Knowledgean organic/inorganic hybrid single nanowire solar cell. End-of individual organic/inorganic hybrid nanowire solar cells.

  19. Bulk viscous Zel'dovich fluid model and it's asymptotic behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K., Rajagopalan Nair

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we have considered a flat FLRW universe with bulk viscous Zel'dovich as the cosmic component. Being considered the bulk viscosity as per the Eckart formalism, we have analyzed the evolution of the Hubble parameter and constrained the model with the Type Ia Supernovae data thus extracting the constant bulk viscous parameter and present Hubble parameter. Further we have analyzed the scale factor, equation of state and deceleration parameter. The model predicts the late time acceleration and is also compatible with the age of the universe as given by the oldest globular clusters. We have also studied the phase-space behavior of the model and found that a universe dominated by bulk viscous Zel'dovich fluid is stable. But on the inclusion of radiation component in addition to the Zel'dovich fluid, makes the model unstable. Hence, even though the bulk viscous Zel'dovich fluid dominated universe is a feasible one, the model as such failed to predict a prior radiation dominated phase.

  20. Evaluation of bulk paint worker exposure to solvents at household hazardous waste collection events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cameron, M.

    1995-09-01

    In fiscal year 93/94, over 250 governmental agencies were involved in the collection of household hazardous wastes in the State of California. During that time, over 3,237,000 lbs. of oil based paint were collected in 9,640 drums. Most of this was in lab pack drums, which can only hold up to 20 one gallon cans. Cost for disposal of such drums is approximately $1000. In contrast, during the same year, 1,228,000 lbs. of flammable liquid were collected in 2,098 drums in bulk form. Incineration of bulked flammable liquids is approximately $135 per drum. Clearly, it is most cost effective to bulk flammable liquids at household hazardous waste events. Currently, this is the procedure used at most Temporary Household Hazardous Waste Collection Facilities (THHWCFs). THHWCFs are regulated by the Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) under the new Permit-by Rule Regulations. These regulations specify certain requirements regarding traffic flow, emergency response notifications and prevention of exposure to the public. The regulations require that THHWCF operators bulk wastes only when the public is not present. [22 CCR, section 67450.4 (e) (2) (A)].Santa Clara County Environmental Health Department sponsors local THHWCF`s and does it`s own bulking. In order to save time and money, a variance from the regulation was requested and an employee monitoring program was initiated to determine actual exposure to workers. Results are presented.

  1. High external quantum efficiency and fill-factor InGaN/GaN heterojunction solar cells grown by NH3-based molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lang, J. R.; Neufeld, C. J.; Hurni, C. A.; Cruz, S. C.; Matioli, E.; Mishra, U. K.; Speck, J. S.

    2011-04-01

    High external quantum efficiency (EQE) p-i-n heterojunction solar cellsgrown by NH3 -based molecular beam epitaxy are presented. EQE values including optical losses are greater than 50% with fill-factors over 72% when illuminated with a 1 sun AM0 spectrum. Optical absorptionmeasurements in conjunction with EQE measurements indicate an internal quantum efficiency greater than 90% for the InGaN absorbing layer. By adjusting the thickness of the top p-type GaN window contact layer, it is shown that the short-wavelength (<365 nm) quantum efficiency is limited by the minority carrier diffusion length in highly Mg-doped p-GaN.

  2. Bulk Flows and End of the Dark Ages with the SKA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maio, Umberto; Koopmans, Leon V E

    2015-01-01

    The early Universe is a precious probe of the birth of primordial objects, first star formation events and consequent production of photons and heavy elements. Higher-order corrections to the cosmological linear perturbation theory predicts the formation of coherent supersonic gaseous streaming motions at decoupling time. These bulk flows impact the gas cooling process and determine a cascade effect on the whole baryon evolution. By analytical estimates and N-body hydrodynamical chemistry numerical simulations including atomic and molecular evolution, gas cooling, star formation, feedback effects and metal spreading for individual species from different stellar populations according to the proper yields and lifetimes, we discuss the role of these primordial bulk flows at the end of the dark ages and their detectable impacts during the first Gyr in view of the upcoming SKA mission. Early bulk flows can inhibit molecular gas cooling capabilities, suppressing star formation, metal spreading and the abundance of ...

  3. Thermal conductivity of bulk and nanowire Mg?SixSn1–x alloys from first principles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Wu; Lindsay, L.; Broido, D. A.; Stewart, Derek A.; Mingo, Natalio

    2012-11-29

    The lattice thermal conductivity (?) of the thermoelectric materials, Mg?Si, Mg?Sn, and their alloys, are calculated for bulk and nanowires, without adjustable parameters. We find good agreement with bulk experimental results. For large nanowire diameters, size effects are stronger for the alloy than for the pure compounds. For example, in 200 nm diameter nanowires ? is lower than its bulk value by 30%, 20%, and 20% for Mg?Si?.?Sn?.?, Mg?Si, and Mg?Sn, respectively. For nanowires less than 20 nm thick, the relative decrease surpasses 50%, and it becomes larger in the pure compounds than in the alloy. At room temperature, ?more »of Mg?SixSn1–x is less sensitive to nanostructuring size effects than SixGe1–x, but more sensitive than PbTexSe1–x. This suggests that further improvement of Mg?SixSn1–x as a nontoxic thermoelectric may be possible.« less

  4. Shubnikov-de Haas Oscillations in the Bulk Rashba Semiconductor BiTeI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, C.; Bahramy, M.S.; Murakawa, H.; Checkelsky, J.G.; Arita, R.; Kaneko, Y.; Onose, Y.; Nagaosa, N.; Tokura, Y.; Hwang, H.Y.

    2012-07-11

    Bulk magnetoresistance quantum oscillations are observed in high quality single crystal samples of BiTeI. This compound shows an extremely large internal spin-orbit coupling, associated with the polarity of the alternating Bi, Te, and I layers perpendicular to the c-axis. The corresponding areas of the inner and outer Fermi surfaces around the A-point show good agreement with theoretical calculations, demonstrating that the intrinsic bulk Rashba-type splitting is nearly 360 meV, comparable to the largest spin-orbit coupling generated in heterostructures and at surfaces.

  5. Bulk single crystal ternary substrates for a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Charache, Greg W. (Clifton Park, NY); Baldasaro, Paul F. (Clifton Park, NY); Nichols, Greg J. (Burnt Hills, NY)

    1998-01-01

    A thermophotovoltaic energy conversion device and a method for making the device. The device includes a substrate formed from a bulk single crystal material having a bandgap (E.sub.g) of 0.4 eVbulk single crystal material and lattice-matched ternary or quaternary III-V semiconductor active layers.

  6. THE EFFECT OF SUBBANDGAP ILLUMINATION ON THE BULK RESISTIVITY OF CDZNTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, J.; Washington, A.; Duff, M.; Burger, A.; Groza, M.; Buliga, V.

    2013-08-13

    The variation in bulk resistivity during infrared (IR) illumination above 950 nm of state-of-the-art CdZnTe (CZT) crystals grown using the traveling heating method or the modified Bridgman method is documented. The change in steady-state current with and without illumination is also evaluated. The influence of secondary phases (SP) on current?voltage (I?V) characteristics is discussed using IR transmission microscopy to determine the defect concentration within the crystal bulk. SP present within the CZT are connected to the existence of deep, IR-excitable traps within the bandgap.

  7. Understanding Bulk Power Reliability: The Importance of Good Data and A Critical Review of Existing Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, Emily; Eto, Joseph H.; LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi

    2011-10-19

    Bulk power system reliability is of critical importance to the electricity sector. Complete and accurate information on events affecting the bulk power system is essential for assessing trends and efforts to maintain or improve reliability. Yet, current sources of this information were not designed with these uses in mind. They were designed, instead, to support real-time emergency notification to industry and government first-responders. This paper reviews information currently collected by both industry and government sources for this purpose and assesses factors that might affect their usefulness in supporting the academic literature that has relied upon them to draw conclusions about the reliability of the US electric power system.

  8. A reliable method for recycling (RE)-Ba-Cu-O (RE: Sm, Gd, Y) bulk superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Yunhua; Namburi, Devendra Kumar; Wang, Miao; Durrell, John; Dennis, Anthony; Cardwell, David

    2015-06-10

    for recycling any failed (RE)BCO sample by replenishing the liquid phase lost during the primary growth process without first reprocessing the failed samples into powders. To date, we have successfully recycled 58 bulk (RE)-Ba-Cu-O (RE: Sm, Gd, Y) samples... failed, (RE)BCO-Ag bulk samples using an infiltration growth strategy without the need to first reprocess the failed samples into powder form. We believe that the technique relies on the provision of replacement liquid phase to the failed YBCO samples...

  9. Bulk viscosity : a study from Polyakov-Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinkar Saha; Sudipa Upadhaya

    2015-05-01

    We present an extensive study of the bulk viscosity, $\\zeta$ using the framework of Kubo formalism within 2+1 flavored Polyakov-Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. Alongwith, we have discussed the kinetic approaches in order to estimate the bulk viscous effects in the strongly interacting systems analogous to the situation in various high energy heavy-ion collisions. Our work strengthens the motivation for the proper incorporation of $\\zeta$ into the analysis of such systems. We also provide justification for such incorporation becoming more significant when density is substantially high.

  10. Method of aeration disinfecting and drying grain in bulk and pretreating seeds and a transverse blow silo grain dryer therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Danchenko, Vitaliy G. (Dnipropetrovsk, UA); Noyes, Ronald T. (Stillwater, OK); Potapovych, Larysa P. (Dnipropetrovsk, UA)

    2012-02-28

    Aeration drying and disinfecting grain crops in bulk and pretreating seeds includes passing through a bulk of grain crops and seeds disinfecting and drying agents including an ozone and air mixture and surrounding air, subdividing the disinfecting and drying agents into a plurality of streams spaced from one another in a vertical direction, and passing the streams at different heights through levels located at corresponding heights of the bulk of grain crops and seeds transversely in a substantially horizontal direction.

  11. A quantum dot heterojunction photodetector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arango, Alexi Cosmos, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents a new device architecture for photodetectors utilizing colloidally grown quantum dots as the principle photo-active component. We implement a thin film of cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dot sensitizers, ...

  12. T-duality trivializes bulk-boundary correspondence: some higher dimensional cases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varghese Mathai; Guo Chuan Thiang

    2015-11-14

    Recently we introduced T-duality in the study of topological insulators, and used it to show that T-duality trivialises the bulk-boundary correspondence in 2 dimensions. In this paper, we partially generalise these results to higher dimensions and briefly discuss the 4D quantum Hall effect.

  13. T-duality trivializes bulk-boundary correspondence: the parametrised case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keith Hannabuss; Varghese Mathai; Guo Chuan Thiang

    2015-11-01

    We state a general conjecture that T-duality trivialises a model for the bulk-boundary correspondence in the parametrised context. We give evidence that it is valid by proving it in a special interesting case, which is relevant both to String Theory and to the study of topological insulators with defects in Condensed Matter Physics.

  14. Modelling Bulk Density According to Structure Development: Toward an Indicator of Microstructure Development in Ferralsols.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Modelling Bulk Density According to Structure Development: Toward an Indicator of Microstructure the microaggregates with a small contribution of large pores resulting from root development and macrofaunal activity.25 g cm-3 among the 108 samples studied. Visual assessment of BESI showed that soil material

  15. Nanostructured materials for lithium-ion batteries: Surface conductivity vs. bulk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryan, Dominic

    Nanostructured materials for lithium-ion batteries: Surface conductivity vs. bulk ion cathode materials for high capacity lithium-ion batteries. Owing to their inherently low electronic in these materials is also to unravel the factors governing ion and electron transport within the lattice. Lithium de

  16. Choosing Internet Paths with High Bulk Transfer Capacity Jacob A. Strauss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    precisely, they would like to know the bulk transfer capacity (BTC) of a given path. This thesis compares the ability of several BTC estimation methods to predict which of a pair of Internet paths will have the higher measured BTC. Methods tested include TCP loss rate models, an available bandwidth measuring tool

  17. Matrix penetration in the bulk:In uence of humidity: Morphological analysis of wood welding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Psaltis, Demetri

    Matrix penetration in the bulk:In uence of humidity: Morphological analysis of wood welding.pichelin@b .ch Context: Wood can be welded using linear vibration welding tech- niques similar to the ones in plastic and metal industry[1] . Wood welding allows bonding strength similar to glued joints. However, due

  18. metry and conventional radiocarbon dating of bulk peat samples from the lowest visually apparent peat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gillespie, Rosemary

    #12;metry and conventional radiocarbon dating of bulk peat samples from the lowest visually apparent peat horizon in each core. Substantially older radiocarbon ages from organic-rich gytjja (mineral, with updates by the Russian Ministry of Natural Resources in the 1990s. These reports contain detailed maps

  19. A GIS-based Hydraulic Bulking Factor Map for New Mexico Gallegos, J.B.1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cal, Mark P.

    1 A GIS-based Hydraulic Bulking Factor Map for New Mexico Gallegos, J.B.1 ; Richardson, C New Mexico. Attributes related to drainage and sediment load were characterized using an ArcGIS an ArcGIS® software-based approach. An in-depth terrain analysis based on a Digital Elevation Model (DEM

  20. PSM-throttling: Minimizing Energy Consumption for Bulk Data Communications in WLANs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Songqing

    PSM-throttling: Minimizing Energy Consumption for Bulk Data Communications in WLANs Enhua Tan1, Lei saving mode (PSM) and its enhancements can reduce power consumption by putting the wireless network/downloading servers. We propose an application-independent protocol, called PSM-throttling. With a quick detection

  1. Bulk Nuclear Polarization Enhanced at Room Temperature by Optical Pumping Ran Fischer,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frydman, Lucio

    Bulk Nuclear Polarization Enhanced at Room Temperature by Optical Pumping Ran Fischer,1 Christian O, California 94720-7300, USA 4 Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, California detection. A nuclear polarization of $0:5%-- equivalent to the 13 C polarization achievable by thermal

  2. Osmotic properties of polyethyleneglycols: quantitative features of brush and bulk scaling laws

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Per Lyngs Hansen; Joel A. Cohen; Rudi Podgornik; V. Adrian Parsegian

    2002-08-01

    From glycosylated cell surfaces to sterically stabilized liposomes, polymers attached to membranes attract biological and therapeutic interest. Can the scaling laws of polymer "brushes" describe the physical properties of these coats? We delineate conditions where the Alexander - de Gennes theory of polymer brushes successfully describes the intermembrane distance vs. applied osmotic stress data of Kenworthy et al. for PEG-grafted multilamellar liposomes [Biophys. J. (1995) 68:1921]. We establish that the polymer density and size in the brush must be high enough that, in a bulk solution of equivalent density, the polymer osmotic pressure is independent of polymer molecular weight (the des Cloizeaux semi-dilute regime of bulk polymer solutions). The condition that attached polymers behave as semi-dilute bulk solutions offers a rigorous criterion for brush scaling-law behavior. There is a deep connection between the behaviors of polymer solutions in bulk and polymers grafted to a surface at a density such that neighbors pack to form a uniform brush. In this regime, two-parameter unconstrained fits of the Alexander - de Gennes brush scaling laws yield effective monomer lengths of 3.3 to 3.5 AA, which agree with structural predictions. The fitted distances between grafting sites are larger than expected from the nominal content of PEG-lipids; the chains apparently saturate the surface. Osmotic stress measurements can be used to estimate the actual densities of membrane-grafted polymers.

  3. On Bulk Loading TPR-Tree Bin Lin and Jianwen Su

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Jianwen

    a histogram-based bottom up algorithm (HBU) along with a modified top-down greedy split algo- rithm (TGS show that HBU outperforms both TPR and TGS for all kinds of non-uniform datasets, is relatively stable and compare it with the original TPR- tree bulk loading algorithm and a modified top-down greedy split (TGS

  4. Bulk CMOS Device Optimization for High-Speed and Ultra-Low Power Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nyathi, Jabulani

    Bulk CMOS Device Optimization for High-Speed and Ultra-Low Power Operations Brent Bero and Jabulani- Interest in subthreshold design has increased due to the emergence of systems that require ultra-low power creating a clear divide between designing for high speed and ultra-low power. It might be beneficial

  5. Poster Abstract: Reliable and Energy-Efficient Bulk-Data Dissemination in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poster Abstract: Reliable and Energy-Efficient Bulk-Data Dissemination in Wireless Sensor Networks of the most common applications of wireless sensor networks. Such networks are an extremely useful tool- suming and costly. Network reprogramming protocols allow to distribute code updates over the wireless

  6. Hydrogen-related defects in bulk ZnO Matthew D. McCluskey,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCluskey, Matthew

    Hydrogen-related defects in bulk ZnO Matthew D. McCluskey,1 Slade J. Jokela,1 and Marianne C. Tarun. This paper reviews recent work on hydrogen donors and nitrogen-hydrogen complexes in ZnO. INTRODUCTION Zinc be understood. One such defect is hydrogen, a common impurity in ZnO. We have studied hydrogen donors using

  7. Self-assembly of 21-arm star-like diblock copolymer in bulk and under cylindrical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhiqun

    Self-assembly of 21-arm star-like diblock copolymer in bulk and under cylindrical confinement Yuci Xu,ab Weihua Li,*c Feng Qiuc and Zhiqun Lin*b Phase behaviors of a 21-arm star-like diblock copolymer the period of lamellae Dmultiarms formed from multi- arm star-like block copolymers with the number of arms f

  8. Electronegativity calculation of bulk modulus and band gap of ternary ZnO-based alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Keyan; Kang, Congying [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Xue, Dongfeng, E-mail: dongfeng@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2012-10-15

    In this work, the bulk moduli and band gaps of M{sub x}Zn{sub 1?x}O (M = Be, Mg, Ca, Cd) alloys in the whole composition range were quantitatively calculated by using the electronegativity-related models for bulk modulus and band gap, respectively. We found that the change trends of bulk modulus and band gap with an increase of M concentration x are same for Be{sub x}Zn{sub 1?x}O and Cd{sub x}Zn{sub 1?x}O, while the change trends are reverse for Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1?x}O and Ca{sub x}Zn{sub 1?x}O. It was revealed that the bulk modulus is related to the valence electron density of atoms whereas the band gap is strongly influenced by the detailed chemical bonding behaviors of constituent atoms. The current work provides us a useful guide to compositionally design advanced alloy materials with both good mechanical and optoelectronic properties.

  9. Ion bulk heating in magnetic reconnection exhausts at Earth's magnetopause: Dependence on the inflow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shay, Michael

    heating is ~8 on average. 1. Introduction Magnetic reconnection converts stored magnetic energy as the magnetic shear angle (guide field). In a statistical study of ion heating in solar wind reconnectionIon bulk heating in magnetic reconnection exhausts at Earth's magnetopause: Dependence

  10. Bulk and Surface Molecular Orientation Distribution in Injection-molded Liquid Crystalline Polymers: Experiment and Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, J.; Burghardt, W; Bubeck, R; Burgard, S; Fischer, D

    2010-01-01

    Bulk and surface distributions of molecular orientation in injection-molded plaques of thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers (TLCPs) have been studied using a combination of techniques, coordinated with process simulations using the Larson-Doi 'polydomain' model. Wide-angle X-ray scattering was used to map out the bulk orientation distribution. Fourier Transform Infrared Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) were utilized to probe the molecular orientation states to within about {approx}5 {micro}m and {approx}2 nm, respectively, of the sample surface. These noninvasive, surface-sensitive techniques yield reasonable self-consistency, providing complementary validation of the robustness of these methods. An analogy between Larson-Doi and fiber orientation models has allowed the first simulations of TLCP injection molding. The simulations capture many fine details in the bulk orientation distribution across the sample plaque. Direct simulation of surface orientation at the level probed by FTIR-ATR and NEXAFS was not possible due to the limited spatial resolution of the simulations. However, simulation results extracted from the shear-dominant skin region are found to provide a qualitatively accurate indicator of surface orientation. Finally, simulations capture the relation between bulk and surface orientation states across the different regions of the sample plaque.

  11. BULK VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ARD KE

    2011-04-11

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper is intended to provide the reader with general understanding of Bulk Vitrification and how it might be applied to immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste.

  12. Attrition resistant bulk iron catalysts and processes for preparing and using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jothimurugesan, Kandaswamy (Ponca City, OK); Goodwin, Jr., James G. (Clemson, SC); Gangwal, Santosh K. (Cary, NC)

    2007-08-21

    An attrition resistant precipitated bulk iron catalyst is prepared from iron oxide precursor and a binder by spray drying. The catalysts are preferably used in carbon monoxide hydrogenation processes such as Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. These catalysts are suitable for use in fluidized-bed reactors, transport reactors and, especially, slurry bubble column reactors.

  13. The Economic Value of Improving the Reliability of Supply on a Bulk Power Transmission Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Economic Value of Improving the Reliability of Supply on a Bulk Power Transmission Network Economics and Management and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Cornell University Abstract, there is no established way of measuring the economic value of reliability, and as a result, regulators have adopted

  14. Ductile Bulk Metallic Glass Jan Schroers1,2,* and William L. Johnson1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, Gary L.

    and is the origin of the observed large global ductility and very high fracture toughness, approximately 80 MPa m˙1Ductile Bulk Metallic Glass Jan Schroers1,2,* and William L. Johnson1 1 Keck Laboratory has exhibited such a combination of high strength, extensive ductility, and high elastic limit

  15. Observation of second-phase particles in bulk zirconium alloys using synchrotron radiation q

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motta, Arthur T.

    Observation of second-phase particles in bulk zirconium alloys using synchrotron radiation q Abstract To further advance the mechanistic understanding of microstructural evolution in zirconium alloys the growth kinetics of second-phase particles in zirconium alloys. The high energy Żux, energy resolution

  16. Jets, Bulk Matter, and their Interaction in Heavy Ion Collisions at Several TeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Werner, K; Bleicher, M; Pierog, T; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S

    2012-01-01

    We discuss a theoretical scheme which accounts for bulk matter, jets, and the interaction between the two. The aim is a complete description of particle production at all transverse momentum ($p_{t}$) scales. In this picture, the hard initial scatterings result in mainly longitudinal flux tubes, with transversely moving pieces carrying the $p_{t}$ of the partons from hard scatterings. These flux tubes constitute eventually both bulk matter (which thermalizes and flows) and jets. We introduce a criterion based on parton energy loss to decide whether a given string segment contributes to the bulk or leaves the matter to end up as a jet of hadrons. Essentially low $p_{t}$ segments from inside the volume will constitute the bulk, high $p_{t}$ segments (or segments very close to the surface) contribute to the jets. The latter ones appear after the usual flux tube breaking via q-qbar production (Schwinger mechanism). Interesting is the transition region: Intermediate $p_{t}$ segments produced inside the matter clos...

  17. Nonionic polyoxazoline surfactants based on renewable source: Synthesis, surface and bulk properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Nonionic polyoxazoline surfactants based on renewable source: Synthesis, surface and bulk pour l'Energie), Université Montpellier II ­ Bat 15 ­ cc015, Place Eugčne Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier (MOx). Lipid-macroinitiator (COTs) was obtained from commercial castor oil (CO), widely renewable

  18. A New Bulk Shallow-Cumulus Model and Implications for Penetrative Entrainment Feedback on Updraft Buoyancy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bretherton, Chris

    A New Bulk Shallow-Cumulus Model and Implications for Penetrative Entrainment Feedback on Updraft than prognosing, the cumulus-layer gradients and introducing a penetrative entrainment closure assumptions about lateral cumulus entrainment and detrainment and a simplified sub-cloud-layer entrainment

  19. Elastic and Viscoelastic Properties of Non-bulk Polymer Interphases in Nanotube-reinforced Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Frank

    Elastic and Viscoelastic Properties of Non-bulk Polymer Interphases in Nanotube-reinforced Polymers polymer composite materials with outstanding mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. A hurdle to nanoscale interactions between the embedded NTs and adjacent polymer chains. This interphase region

  20. WHAT GOVERNS THE BULK VELOCITY OF THE JET COMPONENTS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chai Bo; Cao Xinwu; Gu Minfeng E-mail: cxw@shao.ac.cn

    2012-11-10

    We use a sample of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with measured black hole masses to explore the jet formation mechanisms in these sources. Based on Koenigl's inhomogeneous jet model, the jet parameters, such as the bulk motion Lorentz factor, magnetic field strength, and electron density in the jet, can be estimated with the very long baseline interferometry and X-ray data.. We find a significant correlation between black hole mass and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components for this sample, while no significant correlation is present between the bulk Lorentz factor and the Eddington ratio. The massive black holes will be spun up through accretion, as the black holes acquire mass and angular momentum simultaneously through accretion. Recent investigation indeed suggested that most supermassive black holes in elliptical galaxies have on average higher spins than the black holes in spiral galaxies, where random, small accretion episodes (e.g., tidally disrupted stars, accretion of molecular clouds) might have played a more important role. If this is true, then the correlation between black hole mass and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components found in this work implies that the motion velocity of the jet components is probably governed by the black hole spin. No correlation is found between the magnetic field strength at 10R {sub S} (R {sub S} = 2GM/c {sup 2} is the Schwarzschild radius) in the jets and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components for this sample. This is consistent with the black hole spin scenario, i.e., the faster moving jets are magnetically accelerated by the magnetic fields threading the horizon of more rapidly rotating black holes. The results imply that the Blandford-Znajek mechanism may dominate over the Blandford-Payne mechanism for the jet acceleration, at least in these radio-loud AGNs.

  1. Jets, Bulk Matter, and their Interaction in Heavy Ion Collisions at Several TeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Werner; Iu. Karpenko; M. Bleicher; T. Pierog; S. Porteboeuf-Houssais

    2012-06-23

    We discuss a theoretical scheme that accounts for bulk matter, jets, and the interaction between the two. The aim is a complete description of particle production at all transverse momentum ($p_{t}$) scales. In this picture, the hard initial scatterings result in mainly longitudinal flux tubes, with transversely moving pieces carrying the $p_{t}$ of the partons from hard scatterings. These flux tubes constitute eventually both bulk matter (which thermalizes and flows) and jets. We introduce a criterion based on parton energy loss to decide whether a given string segment contributes to the bulk or leaves the matter to end up as a jet of hadrons. Essentially low $p_{t}$ segments from inside the volume will constitute the bulk, high $p_{t}$ segments (or segments very close to the surface) contribute to the jets. The latter ones appear after the usual flux tube breaking via q-qbar production (Schwinger mechanism). Interesting is the transition region: Intermediate $p_{t}$ segments produced inside the matter close to the surface but having enough energy to escape, are supposed to pick up q-qbar pairs from the thermal matter rather than creating them via the Schwinger mechanism. This represents a communication between jets and the flowing bulk matter (fluid-jet interaction). Also very important is the interaction between jet hadrons and the soft hadrons from the fluid freeze-out. We employ the new picture to investigate Pb-Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV. We discuss the centrality and $p_{t}$ dependence of particle production and long range dihadron correlations at small and large $p_{t}$.

  2. Water in a Crowd In many situations, form biology to geology, water occurs not as the pure bulk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Water in a Crowd In many situations, form biology to geology, water occurs not as the pure bulk species, and interacting with large organic molecules. In such situations, water does not behave in the same manner as it does in the pure bulk liquid. Water dynamics are fundamental to many processes

  3. Improving the air coupling of bulk piezoelectric transducers with wedges of power-law profiles: A numerical study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    applications. A bulk piezoelectric transducer performs well when its impedance is of the same orderImproving the air coupling of bulk piezoelectric transducers with wedges of power-law profiles 2014 Available online 4 March 2014 Keywords: Piezoelectric transducers Air-coupled ultrasound Acoustic

  4. Effect of Y-211 particle size on the growth of single grain Y–Ba–Cu–O bulk superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thoma, Max; Shi, Yunhua; Dennis, Tony; Durrell, John; Cardwell, David

    2014-12-01

    , bulk HTS have consi- derable potential for use in a wide variety of applications, including magnetic bearings, flywheel energy storage systems and rotating ele- ctrical machines [2]. Practical Y–Ba–Cu–O (YBCO) bulk superconductors consist of a YBa2Cu3O...

  5. CALCULATION OF DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM MELTER INLEAKAGE AND OFF-GAS GENERATION RATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MAY TH

    2008-04-16

    The River Protection Project (RPP) mission is to safely store, retrieve, treat, immobilize, and dispose of the Hanford Site tank waste. The Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) is a research and development project whose objective is to demonstrate the suitability of Bulk Vitrification treatment technology waste form for disposing of low-activity waste from the Tank Farms. The objective of this calculation is to determine the DBVS melter inleakage and off-gas generation rate based on full scale testing data from 38D. This calculation estimates the DBVS melter in leakage and gas generation rate based on test data. Inleakage is estimated before the melt was initiated, at one point during the melt, and at the end of the melt. Maximum gas generation rate is also estimated.

  6. Noncentrosymmetric salt inclusion oxides: Role of salt lattices and counter ions in bulk polarity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, J. Palmer; Hwu, Shiou-Jyh

    2012-11-15

    The synthesis and structural features of a newly emerged class of salt-inclusion solids (SISs) are reviewed. The descriptive chemistry with respect to the role of ionic salt and its correlation with bulk noncentrosymmetricity and polarity of the covalent oxide lattice in question is discussed by means of structure analysis. These unprecedented discoveries have opened doors to novel materials synthesis via the utilities of salt-inclusion chemistry (SIC) that are otherwise known as the molten-salt approach. The result of these investigations prove that the bulk acentricity, or cancellation of which, can be accounted for from the perspective of ionic and/or salt lattices. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis and structure of newly emerged salt-inclusion solids are reviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salt lattice and its symmetry correlation with polar framework are discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Preservation of acentricity is accounted for from the perspective of ionic and salt lattices.

  7. Intense femtosecond photoexcitation of bulk and monolayer MoS{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paradisanos, I.; Fotakis, C.; Kymakis, E.; Kioseoglou, G.; Stratakis, E.

    2014-07-28

    The effect of femtosecond laser irradiation on bulk and single-layer MoS{sub 2} on silicon oxide is studied. Optical, field emission scanning electron microscopy and Raman microscopy were used to quantify the damage. The intensity of A{sub 1g} and E{sub 2g}{sup 1} vibrational modes was recorded as a function of the number of irradiation pulses. The observed behavior was attributed to laser-induced bond breaking and subsequent atoms removal due to electronic excitations. The single-pulse optical damage threshold was determined for the monolayer and bulk under 800?nm and 1030?nm pulsed laser irradiation, and the role of two-photon versus one photon absorption effects is discussed.

  8. Of Bulk and Boundaries: Generalized Transfer Matrices for Tight-Binding Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vatsal Dwivedi; Victor Chua

    2015-10-14

    We construct a generalized transfer matrix corresponding to noninteracting tight-binding lattice models, which can subsequently be used to compute the bulk bands as well as the edge states. Crucially, our formalism works even in cases where the hopping matrix is non-invertible. Following Hatsugai [PRL 71, 3697 (1993)], we explicitly construct the energy Riemann surfaces associated with the band structure for a specific class of systems which includes systems like Chern insulator, Dirac semimetal and graphene. The edge states can then be interpreted as non-contractible loops, with the winding number equal to the bulk Chern number. For these systems, the transfer matrix is symplectic, and hence we also describe the windings associated with the edge states on $Sp(2, \\mathbb{R})$ and interpret the corresponding winding number as a Maslov index.

  9. Microyielding of core-shell crystal dendrites in a bulk-metallic-glass matrix composite

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, E. -Wen; Qiao, Junwei; Winiarski, Bartlomiej; Lee, Wen -Jay; Scheel, Mario; Chuang, Chih -Pin; Liaw, Peter K.; Lo, Yu -Chieh; Zhang, Yong; Di Michiel, Marco

    2014-03-18

    In-situ synchrotron x-ray experiments have been used to follow the evolution of the diffraction peaks for crystalline dendrites embedded in a bulk metallic glass matrix subjected to a compressive loading-unloading cycle. We observe irreversible diffraction-peak splitting even though the load does not go beyond half of the bulk yield strength. The chemical analysis coupled with the transmission electron microscopy mapping suggests that the observed peak splitting originates from the chemical heterogeneity between the core (major peak) and the stiffer shell (minor peak) of the dendrites. A molecular dynamics model has been developed to compare the hkl-dependent microyielding of the bulkmore »metallic-glass matrix composite. As a result, the complementary diffraction measurements and the simulation results suggest that the interfaces between the amorphous matrix and the (211) crystalline planes relax under prolonged load that causes a delay in the reload curve which ultimately catches up with the original path.« less

  10. Surface and bulk modified high capacity layered oxide cathodes with low irreversible capacity loss

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manthiram, Arumugam (Austin, TX); Wu, Yan (Austin, TX)

    2010-03-16

    The present invention includes compositions, surface and bulk modifications, and methods of making of (1-x)Li[Li.sub.1/3Mn.sub.2/3]O.sub.2.xLi[Mn.sub.0.5-yNi.sub.0.5-yCo.sub.2- y]O.sub.2 cathode materials having an O3 crystal structure with a x value between 0 and 1 and y value between 0 and 0.5, reducing the irreversible capacity loss in the first cycle by surface modification with oxides and bulk modification with cationic and anionic substitutions, and increasing the reversible capacity to close to the theoretical value of insertion/extraction of one lithium per transition metal ion (250-300 mAh/g).

  11. Of Bulk and Boundaries: Generalized Transfer Matrices for Tight-Binding Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vatsal Dwivedi; Victor Chua

    2015-10-26

    We construct a generalized transfer matrix corresponding to noninteracting tight-binding lattice models, which can subsequently be used to compute the bulk bands as well as the edge states. Crucially, our formalism works even in cases where the hopping matrix is non-invertible. Following Hatsugai [PRL 71, 3697 (1993)], we explicitly construct the energy Riemann surfaces associated with the band structure for a specific class of systems which includes systems like Chern insulator, Dirac semimetal and graphene. The edge states can then be interpreted as non-contractible loops, with the winding number equal to the bulk Chern number. For these systems, the transfer matrix is symplectic, and hence we also describe the windings associated with the edge states on $Sp(2, \\mathbb{R})$ and interpret the corresponding winding number as a Maslov index.

  12. Effect of Viscosity on the Microformability of Bulk Amorphous Alloy in Supercooled Liquid Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng Ming; Zhang Shihong; Wang Ruixue

    2010-06-15

    Previously published results have shown that viscosity greatly influences on the deformation behavior of the bulk amorphous alloy in supercooled liquid region during microforming process. And viscosity is proved to be a component of the evaluation index which indicating microformability. Based on the fluid flow theory and assumptions, bulk amorphous alloy can be regarded as the viscous materials with a certain viscosity. It is helpful to understand how the viscosity plays an important role in viscous materials with various viscosities by numerical simulation on the process. Analysis is carried out by linear state equation in FEM with other three materials, water, lubricant oil and polymer melt, whose viscosities are different obviously. The depths of the materials flow into the U-shaped groove during the microimprinting process are compared in this paper. The result shows that the deformation is quite different when surface tension effect is not considered in the case. With the lowest viscosity, water can reach the bottom of micro groove in a very short time. Lubricant oil and polymer melt slower than it. Moreover bulk amorphous alloys in supercooled liquid state just flow into the groove slightly. Among the alloys of different systems including Pd-, Mg- and Zr-based alloy, Pd-based alloy ranks largest in the depth. Mg-based alloy is the second. And Zr-based alloy is the third. Further more the rank order of the viscosities of the alloys is Pd-, Mg- and Zr-based. It agrees well with the results of calculation. Therefore viscosity plays an important role in the microforming of the bulk amorphous alloy in the supercooled liquid state.

  13. An investigation of bulk nanocrystalline copper fabricated via severe plastic deformation and nanoparticle consolidation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haouaoui, Mohammed

    2007-04-25

    ], conventional area reduction extrusion [22-23], sintering of nanopowders produced either by evaporation-condensation techniques or mechanical alloying [24-28], crystallization from amorphous phases [29], and electrodeposition [2,30-32] are among the main... processing methods available to obtain bulk NC materials. 3 Because NC materials fabricated by the previous methods involving consolidation or electrodeposition are produced in very small quantities, most of the mechanical characterization studies on NC...

  14. Jet-induced modifications of the characteristic of the bulk nuclear matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcinkowski, P; Kiko?a, D; Sikorski, J; Porter-Sobieraj, J; Gawryszewski, P; Zygmunt, B

    2015-01-01

    We present our studies on jet-induced modifications of the characteristic of the bulk nuclear matter. To describe such a matter, we use efficient relativistic hydrodynamic simulations in (3+1) dimensions employing the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) in the parallel programming framework. We use Cartesian coordinates in the calculations to ensure a high spatial resolution that is constant throughout the evolution of the system. We show our results on how jets modify the hydrodynamics fields and discuss the implications.

  15. Evaluation of Exothermic Reactions from Bulk-Vitrification Melter Feeds Containing Cellulose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheele, Randall D.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Bos, Stanley J.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Berry, Pam

    2007-06-25

    PNNL has demonstrated that cellulose effectively reduces the amount of molten ionic salt during Bulk Vitrification of simulated Hanford Low Level Waste (LLW). To address concerns about the potential reactivity of cellulose-LLW, PNNL used thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, and accelerating rate calorimetry to determine in these preliminary studies that these mixtures will support a self-sustaining reaction if heated to 110°C at adiabatic conditions. Additional testing is recommended.

  16. Increase of bulk optical damage threshold fluences of KDP crystals by laser irradiation and heat treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swain, J.E.; Stokowski, S.E.; Milam, D.; Kennedy, G.C.; Rainer, F.

    1982-07-07

    The bulk optical damage threshold fluence of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals is increased by irradiating the crystals with laser pulses of duration 1 to 20 nanoseconds of increasing fluence, below the optical damage threshold fluence for untreated crystals, or by baking the crystals for times of the order of 24 hours at temperatures of 110 to 165/sup 0/C, or by a combination of laser irradiation and baking.

  17. Impact of Improved Solar Forecasts on Bulk Power System Operations in ISO-NE (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brancucci Martinez-Anido, C.; Florita, A.; Hodge, B.M.

    2014-11-01

    The diurnal nature of solar power is made uncertain by variable cloud cover and the influence of atmospheric conditions on irradiance scattering processes. Its forecasting has become increasingly important to the unit commitment and dispatch process for efficient scheduling of generators in power system operations. This presentation is an overview of a study that examines the value of improved solar forecasts on Bulk Power System Operations.

  18. Probing bulk viscous matter-dominated models with Gamma-ray bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Montiel; N. Bretón

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we extend the range of consistency of a constant bulk viscosity model to redshifts up to $z\\sim 8.1$. In this model the dark sector of the cosmic substratum is a viscous fluid with pressure $p= -\\zeta \\theta$, where $\\theta$ is the fluid-expansion scalar and $\\zeta$ is the coefficient of bulk viscosity. Using the sample of 59 high-redshift GRBs reported by Wei (2010), we calibrate GRBs at low redshifts with the Union 2 sample of SNe Ia, avoiding then the circularity problem. Testing the constant bulk viscosity model with GRBs we found the best fit for the viscosity parameter $\\tilde{\\zeta}$ in the range $0<\\tilde{\\zeta}<3$, being so consistent with previous probes; we also determined the deceleration parameter $q_0$ and the redshift of transition to accelerated expansion. Besides we present an updated analysis of the model with CMB5-year data and CMB7-year data, as well as with the baryon acoustic peak BAO. From the statistics with CMB it turns out that the model does not describe in a feasible way the far far epoch of recombination of the universe, but is in very good concordance for epochs as far as $z\\sim 8.1$ till present.

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING USING LOCATION SPECIFIC AIR MONITORING IN BULK HANDLING FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sexton, L.; Hanks, D.; Degange, J.; Brant, H.; Hall, G.; Cable-Dunlap, P.; Anderson, B.

    2011-06-07

    Since the introduction of safeguards strengthening measures approved by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Board of Governors (1992-1997), international nuclear safeguards inspectors have been able to utilize environmental sampling (ES) (e.g. deposited particulates, air, water, vegetation, sediments, soil and biota) in their safeguarding approaches at bulk uranium/plutonium handling facilities. Enhancements of environmental sampling techniques used by the IAEA in drawing conclusions concerning the absence of undeclared nuclear materials or activities will soon be able to take advantage of a recent step change improvement in the gathering and analysis of air samples at these facilities. Location specific air monitoring feasibility tests have been performed with excellent results in determining attribute and isotopic composition of chemical elements present in an actual test-bed sample. Isotopic analysis of collected particles from an Aerosol Contaminant Extractor (ACE) collection, was performed with the standard bulk sampling protocol used throughout the IAEA network of analytical laboratories (NWAL). The results yielded bulk isotopic values expected for the operations. Advanced designs of air monitoring instruments such as the ACE may be used in gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEP) to detect the production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) or enrichments not declared by a State. Researchers at Savannah River National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing the next generation of ES equipment for air grab and constant samples that could become an important addition to the international nuclear safeguards inspector's toolkit. Location specific air monitoring to be used to establish a baseline environmental signature of a particular facility employed for comparison of consistencies in declared operations will be described in this paper. Implementation of air monitoring will be contrasted against the use of smear ES when used during unannounced inspections, design information verification, limited frequency unannounced access, and complementary access visits at bulk handling facilities. Analysis of technical features required for tamper indication and resistance will demonstrate the viability of successful application of the system in taking ES within a bulk handling location. Further exploration of putting this technology into practice is planned to include mapping uranium enrichment facilities for the identification of optimal for installation of air monitoring devices.

  20. Ultraviolet laser-induced poling inhibition produces bulk domains in MgO-doped lithium niobate crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boes, Andreas, E-mail: s3363819@student.rmit.edu.au; Steigerwald, Hendrik; Sivan, Vijay; Mitchell, Arnan [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia); ARC Center for Ultra-high Bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia); Yudistira, Didit [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia); Wade, Scott [Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Mailis, Sakellaris [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Soergel, Elisabeth [Institute of Physics, University of Bonn, Wegelerstr. 8, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2014-09-01

    We report the realization of high-resolution bulk domains achieved using a shallow, structured, domain inverted surface template obtained by UV laser-induced poling inhibition in MgO-doped lithium niobate. The quality of the obtained bulk domains is compared to those of the template and their application for second harmonic generation is demonstrated. The present method enables domain structures with a period length as small as 3??m to be achieved. Furthermore, we propose a potential physical mechanism that leads to the transformation of the surface template into bulk domains.

  1. Fabrication of ZnO photonic crystals by nanosphere lithography using inductively coupled-plasma reactive ion etching with CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}/Ar plasma on the ZnO/GaN heterojunction light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Shr-Jia; Chang, Chun-Ming; Kao, Jiann-Shiun; Chen, Fu-Rong; Tsai, Chuen-Horng [Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013 Taiwan (China); Instrument Technology Research Center, National Applied Research Laboratories, Hsinchu, 300 Taiwan (China); Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013 Taiwan (China)

    2010-07-15

    This article reports fabrication of n-ZnO photonic crystal/p-GaN light emitting diode (LED) by nanosphere lithography to further booster the light efficiency. In this article, the fabrication of ZnO photonic crystals is carried out by nanosphere lithography using inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching with CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}/Ar plasma on the n-ZnO/p-GaN heterojunction LEDs. The CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}/Ar mixed gas gives high etching rate of n-ZnO film, which yields a better surface morphology and results less plasma-induced damages of the n-ZnO film. Optimal ZnO lattice parameters of 200 nm and air fill factor from 0.35 to 0.65 were obtained from fitting the spectrum of n-ZnO/p-GaN LED using a MATLAB code. In this article, we will show our recent result that a ZnO photonic crystal cylinder has been fabricated using polystyrene nanosphere mask with lattice parameter of 200 nm and radius of hole around 70 nm. Surface morphology of ZnO photonic crystal was examined by scanning electron microscope.

  2. The last GlacialeInterglacial transition in Patagonia, Argentina: the stable isotope record of bulk sedimentary organic matter from Laguna

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The last GlacialeInterglacial transition in Patagonia, Argentina: the stable isotope record of bulk cores recovered from the Patagonian lake Laguna Potrok Aike (Argentina) in the framework of the ICDP

  3. Power-law rheology in the bulk and at the interface: quasi-properties and fractional constitutive equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaishankar, Aditya

    Consumer products, such as foods, contain numerous polymeric and particulate additives that play critical roles in maintaining their stability, quality and function. The resulting materials exhibit complex bulk and interfacial ...

  4. Bulk and mechanical properties of the Paintbrush tuff recovered from boreholes UE25 NRG-4 and -5: Data report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, P.J.; Noel, J.S.; Martin, R.J. [New England Research, Inc., White River Junction, VT (United States); Price, R.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Experimental results are presented for bulk and mechanical properties measurements on specimens of the Paintbrush tuff recovered from boreholes UE25 NRG-4 and -5, at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Measurements have been performed on three thermal/mechanical units, PTn, TSwl, and TSw2. On each specimen the following bulk properties have been reported: dry bulk density, saturated bulk density, average grain density, and porosity. Unconfined compression to failure, confined compression to failure, and indirect tensile strength tests were performed on selected specimens recovered from the boreholes. In addition, compressional and shear wave velocities were measured on specimens designated for unconfined compression and confined compression experiments. Measurements were conducted at room temperature on nominally water-saturated specimens. The nominal rate for the fracture experiments was 10{sup -5}s{sup -1}.

  5. Precision in-plane hand assembly of bulk microfabricated components for high-voltage MEMS arrays applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akinwande, Akintunde Ibitayo

    This paper reports the design and experimental validation of an in-plane assembly method for centimeter-scale bulk-microfabricated components. The method uses mesoscaled deep-reactive-ion-etching (DRIE)-patterned cantilevers ...

  6. A mechanistic model for understanding pH effect on phosphorus availability in rhizosphere and bulk soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DEVAU, Nicolas; Le Cadre, Edith; Hinsinger, Philippe; Gérard, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    soil with low P availability. Biol. Fertil. Soils. , 44:143-to the use of the P availability obtained for bulk soilcan indeed alter P availability in the rhizosphere (e.g.

  7. Prevalence and spatial distribution of antibodies to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium O antigens in bulk milk from Texas dairy herds. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graham, Sherry Lynn

    2004-09-30

    The purpose of this study was to describe the herd antibody status to Salmonella Typhimurium as estimated from co-mingled milk samples and to describe the resulting geographical patterns found in Texas dairy herds. Bulk ...

  8. Bulk chemicals from biomass Jacco van Haveren, Agrotechnology and Food Innovations B.V., Wageningen, The Netherlands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    41 Review Bulk chemicals from biomass Jacco van Haveren, Agrotechnology and Food Innovations B production, and available biomass conversion technologies, biomass-based routes are expected to make and -caprolactam. Technologies involving direct isolation of aromatic building blocks from biomass

  9. A method to predict the soil susceptibility to compaction of surface layers as a function of water content and bulk density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of water content and bulk density K. Saffih-Hdadi1 , P. Défossez2 , G. Richard3 , Y-J. Cui4 , A-M. Tang4 physical properties. Because the soil compaction depends on its water content, bulk density and texture between soil mechanical properties and easily measurable soil properties as well as water content and bulk

  10. Materials Analysis of CED Nb Films Being Coated on Bulk Nb Single Cell SRF Cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Xin; Reece, Charles; Palczewski, Ari; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Krishnan, Mahadevan; James, Colt; Irfan, Irfan

    2013-09-01

    This study is an on-going research on depositing a Nb film on the internal wall of bulk Nb single cell SRF cavities, via a cathodic arc Nb plasma ions source, an coaxial energetic condensation (CED) facility at AASC company. The motivation is to firstly create a homoepitaxy-like Nb/Nb film in a scale of a ~1.5GHz RF single cell cavity. Next, through SRF measurement and materials analysis, it might reveal the baseline properties of the CED-type homoepitaxy Nb films. Literally, a top-surface layer of Nb films which sustains SRF function, always grows up in homo-epitaxy mode, on top of a Nb nucleation layer. Homo-epitaxy growth of Nb must be the final stage (a crystal thickening process) of any coatings of Nb film on alternative cavity structure materials. Such knowledge of Nb-Nb homo-epitaxy is useful to create future realistic SRF cavity film coatings, such as hetero-epitaxy Nb/Cu Films, or template-layer-mitigated Nb films. One large-grain, and three fine grain bulk Nb cavities were coated. They went through cryogenic RF measurement. Preliminary results show that the Q0 of a Nb film could be as same as the pre-coated bulk Nb surface (which received a chemically-buffered polishing plus a light electro-polishing); but quality factor of two tested cavities dropped quickly. We are investigating if the severe Q-slope is caused by hydrogen incorporation before deposition, or is determined by some structural defects during Nb film growth.

  11. Radiation detector using a bulk high T[sub c] superconductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Artuso, J.F.; Franks, L.A.; Hull, K.L.; Symko, O.G.

    1993-12-07

    A radiation detector is provided, wherein a bulk high T[sub c] superconducting sample is placed in a magnetic field and maintained at a superconducting temperature. Photons of incident radiation will cause localized heating in superconducting loops of the sample destroying trapped flux and redistributing the fluxons, and reducing the critical current of the loops. Subsequent cooling of the sample in the magnetic field will cause trapped flux redistributed Abrikosov fluxons and trapped Josephson fluxons. The destruction and trapping of the fluxons causes changes in the magnetization of the sample inducing currents in opposite directions in a pickup coil which is coupled by an input coil to an rf SQUID. 4 figures.

  12. Bulk Vitrification Performance Enhancement: Refractory Lining Protection Against Molten Salt Penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Evans, Michael B.; Smith, Benjamin T.; Arrigoni, Benjamin M.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Matyas, Josef; Buchmiller, William C.; Gallegos, Autumn B.; Fluegel, Alexander

    2007-08-06

    Bulk vitrification (BV) is a process that heats a feed material that consists of glass-forming solids and dried low-activity waste (LAW) in a disposable refractory-lined metal box using electrical power supplied through carbon electrodes. The feed is heated to the point that the LAW decomposes and combines with the solids to generate a vitreous waste form. This study supports the BV design and operations by exploring various methods aimed at reducing the quantities of soluble Tc in the castable refractory block portion of the refractory lining, which limits the effectiveness of the final waste form.

  13. Fabrication of triangular nanobeam waveguide networks in bulk diamond using single-crystal silicon hard masks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bayn, I.; Mouradian, S.; Li, L.; Goldstein, J. A.; Schröder, T.; Zheng, J.; Chen, E. H.; Gaathon, O.; Englund, Dirk; Lu, M.; Stein, A.; Ruggiero, C. A.; Salzman, J.; Kalish, R.

    2014-11-24

    A scalable approach for integrated photonic networks in single-crystal diamond using triangular etching of bulk samples is presented. We describe designs of high quality factor (Q?=?2.51?×?10{sup 6}) photonic crystal cavities with low mode volume (V{sub m}?=?1.062?×?(?/n){sup 3}), which are connected via waveguides supported by suspension structures with predicted transmission loss of only 0.05?dB. We demonstrate the fabrication of these structures using transferred single-crystal silicon hard masks and angular dry etching, yielding photonic crystal cavities in the visible spectrum with measured quality factors in excess of Q?=?3?×?10{sup 3}.

  14. Jump Chaotic Behaviour of Ultra Low Loss Bulk Acoustic Wave Cavities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxim Goryachev; Warrick G. Farr; Serge Galliou; Michael E. Tobar

    2014-06-16

    We demonstrate a previously unobserved nonlinear phenomenon in an ultra-low loss quartz Bulk Acoustic Wave cavity ($Q>3\\times10^9$), which only occurs below 20 milli-Kelvin in temperature and under relatively weak pumping. The phenomenon reveals the emergence of several stable equilibria (at least two foci and two nodes) and jumps between these quasi states at random times. The degree of this randomness as well as separations between levels can be controlled by the frequency of the incident carrier signal. It is demonstrated that the nature of the effect lays beyond the standard Duffing model.

  15. Jump chaotic behaviour of ultra low loss bulk acoustic wave cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goryachev, Maxim, E-mail: maxim.goryachev@uwa.edu.au; Farr, Warrick G.; Tobar, Michael E. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley WA 6009 (Australia); Galliou, Serge [Department of Time and Frequency, FEMTO-ST Institute, ENSMM, 26 Chemin de l'Épitaphe 25000 Besançon (France)

    2014-08-11

    We demonstrate a previously unobserved nonlinear phenomenon in an ultra-low loss quartz bulk acoustic wave cavity (Q>3>10{sup 9}), which only occurs below 20 mK in temperature and under relatively weak pumping. The phenomenon reveals the emergence of several stable equilibria (at least two foci and two nodes) and jumps between these quasi states at random times. The degree of this randomness as well as separations between levels can be controlled by the frequency of the incident carrier signal. It is demonstrated that the nature of the effect lies beyond the standard Duffing model.

  16. Application of Rietveld Method to the Structural Characteristics of some Bulk and Nanocrystalline Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Sudhish [Department of Physics, M L Sukhadia University, Udaipur 313 002 (India); Dolia, S. N.; Singhal, R. K. [Department of Physics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302004 (India)

    2011-10-20

    In recent years, the full pattern structure refinement using Rietveld Method, with the advent of increased performance of powder diffractometers has allowed enormous progress in the analysis of powder diffraction data. In the full pattern structure refinement, with the possibility of varying peak shape parameters and site occupancies along with the structural and instrumental parameters, provides information not only on the crystal and magnetic structure, but also gives precise knowledge of the particle size and micro-structural strain. In this report Rietveld profile refinement of some bulk and nano crystalline materials has been presented.

  17. Bulk Thermodynamics of SU(N) Lattice Gauge Theories at Large-N

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barak Bringoltz

    2005-11-04

    We present a study of bulk thermodynamical quantities in the deconfined phase of pure lattice SU(N) gauge theories. We find that the deficit in pressure and entropy with respect to their free-gas values, for N=4,8, is remarkably close to that of SU(3). Th is suggests that understanding the strongly interacting nature of the deconfined phase, which is crucial for RHIC physics, can be done at large N. There, different analytical approaches simplify or become soluble, and one can check their predictions and point to their important ingredients.

  18. The use of bulk states to accelerate the band edge statecalculation of a semiconductor quantum dot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vomel, Christof; Tomov, Stanimire Z.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Marques,Osni A.; Dongarra, Jack J.

    2006-05-10

    We present a new technique to accelerate the convergence of the folded spectrum method in empirical pseudopotential band edge state calculations for colloidal quantum dots. We use bulk band states of the materials constituent of the quantum dot to construct initial vectors and a preconditioner. We apply these to accelerate the convergence of the folded spectrum method for the interior states at the top of the valence and the bottom of the conduction band. For large CdSe quantum dots, the number of iteration steps until convergence decreases by about a factor of 4 compared to previous calculations.

  19. Analysis of Soluble Re Concentrations in Refractory from Bulk Vitrification Full-Scale Test 38B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooley, Scott K.; Pierce, Eric M.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2006-06-30

    The capacity of the waste treatment plant (WTP) being built at the Hanford Site is not sufficient to process all of the tank waste accumulated from more than 40 years of nuclear materials production. Bulk vitrification can accelerate tank waste treatment by providing some supplemental low-activity waste (LAW) treatment capacity. Bulk vitrification combines LAW and glass-forming chemicals in a large metal container and melts the contents using electrical resistance heating. A castable refractory block (CRB) is used along with sand to insulate the container from the heat generated while melting the contents into a glass waste form. This report describes engineering-scale (ES) and full-scale (FS) tests that have been conducted. Several ES tests showed that a small fraction of soluble Tc moves in the CRB and results in a groundwater peak different than WTP glass. The total soluble Tc-99 fraction in the FS CRB is expected to be different than that determined in the ES tests, but until FS test results are available, the best-estimate soluble Tc-99 fraction from the ES tests has been used as a conservative estimate. The first FS test results are from cold simulant tests that have been spiked with Re. An estimated scale-up factor extrapolates the Tc-99 data collected at the ES to the FS bulk vitrification waste package. Test FS-38A tested the refractory design and did not have a Re spike. Samples were taken and analyzed to help determine Re CRB background concentrations using a Re-spiked, six-tank composite simulant mixed with soil and glass formers to produce the waste feed. Although this feed is not physically the same as the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System feed , the chemical make-up is the same. Extensive sampling of the CRB was planned, but difficulties with the test prevented completion of a full box. An abbreviated plan is described that looks at duplicate samples taken from refractory archive sections, a lower wall sample, and two base samples to gain early information about Re and projected Tc-99 levels in the FS box.

  20. EIA Open Data - Bulk - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table272/SPipelineNatural Gas5,0,6, 20012,6,6,6,Bulk

  1. ANALYSES AND COMPARISON OF BULK AND COIL SURFACE SAMPLES FROM THE DWPF SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hay, M.; Nash, C.; Stone, M.

    2012-02-17

    Sludge samples from the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) heating coil frame and coil surface were characterized to identify differences that might help identify heat transfer fouling materials. The SME steam coils have seen increased fouling leading to lower boil-up rates. Samples of the sludge were taken from the coil frame somewhat distant from the coil (bulk tank material) and from the coil surface (coil surface sample). The results of the analysis indicate the composition of the two SME samples are very similar with the exception that the coil surface sample shows {approx}5-10X higher mercury concentration than the bulk tank sample. Elemental analyses and x-ray diffraction results did not indicate notable differences between the two samples. The ICP-MS and Cs-137 data indicate no significant differences in the radionuclide composition of the two SME samples. Semi-volatile organic analysis revealed numerous organic molecules, these likely result from antifoaming additives. The compositions of the two SME samples also match well with the analyzed composition of the SME batch with the exception of significantly higher silicon, lithium, and boron content in the batch sample indicating the coil samples are deficient in frit relative to the SME batch composition.

  2. Brane gravity, massless bulk scalar, and self-tuning of the cosmological constant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jihn E.; Kyae, Bumseok; Shafi, Qaisar

    2004-09-15

    We show that a self-tuning mechanism of the cosmological constant could work in 5D noncompact space-time with a Z{sub 2} symmetry in the presence of a massless scalar field. The standard model matter fields live only on the 4D brane. The change of vacuum energy on the brane (brane cosmological constant) by, for instance, electroweak and QCD phase transitions, just gives rise to dynamical shifts of the profiles of the background metric and the scalar field in the extra dimension, keeping 4D space-time flat without any fine-tuning. To avoid naked singularities in the bulk, the brane cosmological constant should be negative. We introduce an additional brane-localized 4D Einstein-Hilbert term so as to provide the observed 4D gravity with the noncompact extra dimension. With a general form of the brane-localized gravity term allowed by the symmetries, the low energy Einstein gravity is successfully reproduced on the brane at long distances. We show this phenomenon explicitly for the case of vanishing bulk cosmological constant.

  3. Bulk crystal growth of antimonide based III-V compounds for thermophotovoltaics applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, P.S.; Ostrogorsky, A.G.; Gutmann, R.J.

    1998-10-01

    In this paper, the bulk growth of crack-free GaInSb and single phase GaInAsSb alloys are presented. A new class of III-V quasi-binary [A{sub III}B{sub V}]{sub 12{minus}x}[C{sub III}D{sub V}]{sub x} semiconductor alloys has been synthesized and bulk crystals grown from the melt for the first time. The present investigation is focused on the quasi-binary alloy (GaSb){sub 1{minus}x}(InAs){sub x} (0 < x < 0.05) due to its importance for thermophotovoltaic applications. The structural properties of this melt-grown quasi-binary alloy are found to be significantly different from the conventional quaternary compound Ga{sub 1{minus}x}In{sub x}As{sub y}Sb{sub 1{minus}y} with composition x = y. Synthesis and growth procedures are discussed. For the growth of ternary alloys, it was demonstrated that forced convection or mixing in the melt during directional solidification of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}Sb (0 < x < 0.1) significantly reduces cracks in the crystals.

  4. Achieving large linear elasticity and high strength in bulk nanocompsite via synergistic effect

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hao, Shijie; Cui, Lishan; Guo, Fangmin; Liu, Yinong; Shi, Xiaobin; Jiang, Daqiang; Brown, Dennis E.; Ren, Yang

    2015-03-09

    Elastic strain in bulk metallic materials is usually limited to only a fraction of 1%. Developing bulk metallic materials showing large linear elasticity and high strength has proven to be difficult. Here, based on the synergistic effect between nanowires and orientated martensite NiTi shape memory alloy, we developed an in-situ Nb nanowires -orientated martensitic NiTi matrix composite showing an ultra-large linear elastic strain of 4% and an ultrahigh yield strength of 1.8 GPa. This material also has a high mechanical energy storage efficiency of 96% and a high energy storage density of 36 J/cmł that is almost one order ofmore »larger than that of spring steel. It is demonstrated that the synergistic effect allows the exceptional mechanical properties of nanowires to be harvested at macro scale and the mechanical properties of matrix to be greatly improved, resulting in these superior properties. This study provides new avenues for developing advanced composites with superior properties by using effective synergistic effect between components.« less

  5. Achieving large linear elasticity and high strength in bulk nanocompsite via synergistic effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hao, Shijie; Cui, Lishan; Guo, Fangmin; Liu, Yinong; Shi, Xiaobin; Jiang, Daqiang; Brown, Dennis E.; Ren, Yang

    2015-03-09

    Elastic strain in bulk metallic materials is usually limited to only a fraction of 1%. Developing bulk metallic materials showing large linear elasticity and high strength has proven to be difficult. Here, based on the synergistic effect between nanowires and orientated martensite NiTi shape memory alloy, we developed an in-situ Nb nanowires -orientated martensitic NiTi matrix composite showing an ultra-large linear elastic strain of 4% and an ultrahigh yield strength of 1.8 GPa. This material also has a high mechanical energy storage efficiency of 96% and a high energy storage density of 36 J/cmł that is almost one order of larger than that of spring steel. It is demonstrated that the synergistic effect allows the exceptional mechanical properties of nanowires to be harvested at macro scale and the mechanical properties of matrix to be greatly improved, resulting in these superior properties. This study provides new avenues for developing advanced composites with superior properties by using effective synergistic effect between components.

  6. Nonlinear optical properties of bulk cuprous oxide using single beam Z-scan at 790?nm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serna, J.; Rueda, E.; García, H.

    2014-11-10

    The two-photon absorption (TPA) coefficient ? and the nonlinear index of refraction n{sub 2} for bulk cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) direct gap semiconductor single crystal have been measured by using a balance-detection Z-scan single beam technique, with an excellent signal to noise ratio. Both coefficients were measured at 790?nm using a 65 fs laser pulse at a repetition rate of 90.9?MHz, generated by a Ti:Sapphire laser oscillator. The experimental values for ? were explained by using a model that includes allowed-allowed, forbidden-allowed, and forbidden-forbidden transitions. It was found that the forbidden-forbidden transition is the dominant mechanism, which is consistent with the band structure of Cu{sub 2}O. The low value for ? found in bulk, as compared with respect to thin film, is explained in terms of the structural change in thin films that result in opposite parities of the conduction and valence band. The n{sub 2} is also theoretically calculated by using the TPA dispersion curve and the Kramers-Kronig relations for nonlinear optics.

  7. Two Photon Absorption And Refraction in Bulk of the Semiconducting Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumari, Vinay [Department of Physics, BMIET Sonepat, Haryana (India); Department of Physics, DCRUST Murthal, Haryana (India); Kumar, Vinod [Department of Physics, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar (India); Malik, B. P. [Department of Physics, DCRUST Murthal, Haryana (India); Mohan, Devendra [Department of Applied Physics, GJUS and T, Hisar, Haryana (India); Gaur, Arun [Department of Physics, Hindu PG College (Sonepat), Haryana (India)

    2011-10-20

    Fast electronic detection systems have opened up a number of new fields like nonlinear optics, optical communication, coherent optics, optical bistability, two/four wave mixing. The interest in this field has been stimulated by the importance of multiphoton processes in many fundamental aspects of physics. It has proved to be an invaluable tool for determining the optical and electronic properties of the solids because of the fact that one gets the information about the bulk of the material rather than the surface one. In this paper we report, the measurement of the nonlinear absorption and refraction from the band gap to half-band gap region of bulk of semiconductors in the direct and indirect band gap crystals with nanosecond laser. The measured theoretical calculated values of two-photon absorption coefficients ({beta}) and nonlinear refraction n{sub 2}({omega}) of direct band gap crystal match the earlier reported theoretical predictions. By making use of these theoretical calculated values, we have estimated {beta} and n{sub 2}({omega}) in the case of indirect band gap crystals. Low value of absorption coefficient in case of indirect band gap crystals have been attributed to phonon assisted transition while reduction in nonlinear refraction is due to the rise in saturation taking place in the absorption.

  8. Bulk photons in Asymmetrically Warped Space-times and Non-trivial Vacuum Refractive Index

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Farakos; N. E. Mavromatos; P. Pasipoularides

    2009-01-20

    We consider asymmetrically warped brane models, or equivalently brane models where the background metric is characterized by different time and space warp factors. The main feature of these models is that 4D Lorentz symmetry is violated for fields which propagate in the bulk, such as gravitons. In this paper we examine the case of bulk photons in asymmetrically warped brane models. Although our results are general, we examine here two specific but characteristic solutions: 1) AdS-Schwarzschild 5D Black Hole solution and 2) AdS-Reissner Nordstrom 5D Black Hole solution. We show that the standard Lorentz invariant dispersion relation for 4D photons is corrected by nonlinear terms which lead to an Energy-dependent speed of light. Specifically, we obtain a sub-luminous Energy-dependent refractive index of the form n_{eff}(\\omega)=1+c_{G} \\omega^2, where \\omega is the energy of the photon, and the factor c_G is always positive and depends on the free parameters of the model. Finally, comparing the results with recent data from the MAGIC Telescope, claiming a delayed arrival of photons from the Active Galactic Nucleus of Mk501, we impose concrete restrictions to the two sets of models examined in this work. We shall also discuss briefly other possible astrophysical constraints on our models.

  9. Local and bulk 13C hyperpolarization in NV-centered diamonds at variable fields and orientations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalo A. Alvarez; Christian O. Bretschneider; Ran Fischer; Paz London; Hisao Kanda; Shinobu Onoda; Junichi Isoya; David Gershoni; Lucio Frydman

    2014-12-30

    Polarizing nuclear spins is of fundamental importance in biology, chemistry and physics. Methods for hyperpolarizing 13C nuclei from free electrons in bulk, usually demand operation at cryogenic temperatures. Room-temperature approaches targeting diamonds with nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers could alleviate this need, but hitherto proposed strategies lack generality as they demand stringent conditions on the strength and/or alignment of the magnetic field. We report here an approach for achieving efficient electron->13C spin alignment transfers, compatible with a broad range of magnetic field strengths and field orientations with respect to the diamond crystal. This versatility results from combining coherent microwave- and incoherent laser-induced transitions between selected energy states of the coupled electron-nuclear spin manifold. 13C-detected Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiments demonstrate that this hyperpolarization can be transferred via first-shell or via distant 13Cs, throughout the nuclear bulk ensemble. This method opens new perspectives for applications of diamond NV centers in NMR, and in quantum information processing.

  10. Preparation of extrusions of bulk mixed oxide compounds with high macroporosity and mechanical strength

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria (Winchester, MA); Jothimurugesan, Kandaswami (Baton Rouge, LA)

    1990-01-01

    A simple and effective method for producing bulk single and mixed oxide absorbents and catalysts is disclosed. The method yields bulk single oxide and mixed oxide absorbent and catalyst materials which combine a high macroporosity with relatively high surface area and good mechanical strength. The materials are prepared in a pellet form using as starting compounds, calcined powders of the desired composition and physical properties these powders are crushed to broad particle size distribution, and, optionally may be combined with an inorganic clay binder. The necessary amount of water is added to form a paste which is extruded, dried and heat treated to yield and desired extrudate strength. The physical properties of the extruded materials (density, macroporosity and surface area) are substantially the same as the constituent powder is the temperature of the heat treatment of the extrudates is approximately the same as the calcination temperature of the powder. If the former is substantially higher than the latter, the surface area decreases, but the macroporosity of the extrusions remains essentially constant.

  11. Stress-corrosion fatigue-crack growth in a Zr-based bulk amorphousmetal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, V.; Ritchie, R.O.

    2005-09-21

    Electrochemical and mechanical experiments were conducted to analyze the environmentally-influenced cracking behavior of a bulk amorphous metal, Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5. This study was motivated by a scientific interest in mechanisms of fatigue-crack propagation in an amorphous metal, and by a practical interest in the use of this amorphous metal in applications that take advantage of its unique properties, including high specific strength, large elastic strains and low damping. The objective of the work was to determine the rate and mechanisms of subcritical crack growth in this metallic glass in an aggressive environment. Specifically, fatigue-crack propagation behavior was investigated at a range of stress intensities in air and aqueous salt solutions by examining the effects of loading cycle, stress-intensity range, solution concentration, anion identity, solution de-aeration, and bulk electrochemical potential. Results indicate that crack growth in aqueous solution in this alloy is driven by a stress-assisted anodic reaction at the crack tip. Rate-determining steps for such behavior are reasoned to be electrochemical, stress-dependent reaction at near-threshold levels, and mass transport at higher (steady-state) growth rates.

  12. Development of a Bulk-Format System to Harvest, Handle, Store, and Deliver High-Tonnage Low-Moisture Switchgrass Feedstock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Womac, Alvin; Groothuis, Mitch; Westover, Tyler; Phanphanich, Manunya; Webb, Erin; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Turhollow, Anthony

    2013-09-24

    This project evaluates and compares comprehensive feedstock logistics systems (FLS), where a FLS is defined to comprehensively span from biomass material standing in a field to conveyance of a uniform, industrial-milled product into the throat of a biomass conversion facility (BCF). Elements of the bulk-format FLS evaluated in this project include: field-standing switchgrass dry chopped into bulk format on the farm, hauled (either loose or bulk compacted) to storage, stored with confining overburden in a protective facility, reclaimed and conveyed to bulk-format discharge, bulk compacted into an ejector trailer, and conveyed as bulk flow into the BCF. In this FLS evaluation, bulk storage bins served as a controlled and sensored proxy for large commercial stacks protected from moisture with a membrane cover.

  13. High Efficiency m-plane LEDs on Low Defect Density Bulk GaN Substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David, Aurelien

    2012-10-15

    Solid-state lighting is a key technology for reduction of energy consumption in the US and worldwide. In principle, by replacing standard incandescent bulbs and other light sources with sources based on light-emitting diodes (LEDs), ultimate energy efficiency can be achieved. The efficiency of LEDs has improved tremendously over the past two decades, however further progress is required for solid- state lighting to reach its full potential. The ability of an LED at converting electricity to light is quantified by its internal quantum efficiency (IQE). The material of choice for visible LEDs is Gallium Nitride (GaN), which is at the basis of blue-emitting LEDs. A key factor limiting the performance of GaN LEDs is the so-called efficiency droop, whereby the IQE of the LED decreases significantly at high current density. Despite decades of research, efficiency droop remains a major issue. Since high-current operation is necessary for practical lighting applications, reducing droop is a major challenge for the scientific community and the LED industry. Our approach to solving the droop issue is the use of newly available low-defect-density bulk GaN non-polar substrates. In contrast to the standard foreign substrates (sapphire, silicon carbide, silicon) used in the industry, we have employed native bulk GaN substrates with very low defect density, thus ensuring exquisite material quality and high IQE. Whereas all commercial LEDs are grown along the c-plane crystal direction of GaN, we have used m-plane non-polar substrates; these drastically modify the physical properties of the LED and enable a reduction of droop. With this approach, we have demonstrated very high IQE performance and low droop. Our results focused on violet and blue LEDs. For these, we have demonstrated very high peak IQEs and current droops of 6% and 10% respectively (up to a high current density of 200A.cm-2). All these results were obtained under electrical operation. These high IQE and low droop values are in line with the program’s milestones. They demonstrate that bulk non-polar GaN substrates represent a disruptive technology for LED performance. Application of this technology to real-world products is feasible, provided that the cost of GaN substrates is compatible with the market’s requirement.

  14. Experimental observation of signature changes in bulk soil electrical conductivity in response to engineered surface CO2 leakage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou X.; Wielopolski L.; Lakkaraju, V. R.; Apple, M.; Dobeck, L. M.; Gullickson, K.; Shaw, J. A.; Cunningham, A. B.; Spangler, L. H.

    2012-03-01

    Experimental observations of signature changes of bulk soil electrical conductivity (EC) due to CO{sub 2} leakage were carried out at a field site at Bozeman, Montana, to investigate the change of soil geophysical properties in response to possible leakage of geologically sequestered CO{sub 2}. The dynamic evolution of bulk soil EC was measured during an engineered surface leakage of CO{sub 2} through in situ continuous monitoring of bulk soil EC, soil moisture, soil temperature, rainfall rate, and soil CO{sub 2} concentration to investigate the response of soil bulk EC signature to CO{sub 2} leakage. Observations show that: (1) high soil CO{sub 2} concentration due to CO{sub 2} leakage enhances the dependence of bulk soil EC on soil moisture. The bulk soil EC is a linear multivariate function of soil moisture and soil temperature, the coefficient for soil moisture increased from 2.111 dS for the non-leaking phase to 4.589 dS for the CO{sub 2} leaking phase; and the coefficient for temperature increased from 0.003 dS/C for the non-leaking phase to 0.008 dS/C for the CO{sub 2} leaking phase. The dependence of bulk soil EC on soil temperature is generally weak, but leaked CO{sub 2} enhances the dependence, (2) after the CO{sub 2} release, the relationship between soil bulk EC and soil CO{sub 2} concentration observes three distinct CO{sub 2} decay modes. Rainfall events result in sudden changes of soil moisture and are believed to be the driving forcing for these decay modes, and (3) within each mode, increasing soil CO{sub 2} concentration results in higher bulk soil EC. Comparing the first 2 decay modes, it is found that the dependence of soil EC on soil CO{sub 2} concentration is weaker for the first decay mode than the second decay mode.

  15. Method of casting articles of a bulk-solidifying amorphous alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, X.; Johnson, W.L.; Peker, A.

    1998-08-25

    A casting charge of a bulk-solidifying amorphous alloy is cast into a mold from a temperature greater than its crystallized melting temperature, and permitted to solidify to form an article. The oxygen content of the casting charge is limited to an operable level, as excessively high oxygen contents produce premature crystallization during the casting operation. During melting, the casting charge is preferably heated to a temperature above a threshold temperature to eliminate heterogeneous crystallization nucleation sites within the casting charge. The casting charge may be cast from above the threshold temperature, or it may be cooled to the casting temperature of more than the crystallized melting point but not more than the threshold temperature, optionally held at this temperature for a period of time, and thereafter cast. 8 figs.

  16. Extremely Low-Loss Acoustic Phonons in a Quartz Bulk Acoustic Wave Resonator at Millikelvin Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxim Goryachev; Daniel L. Creedon; Eugene N. Ivanov; Serge Galliou; Roger Bourquin; Michael E. Tobar

    2012-04-02

    Low-loss, high frequency acoustic resonators cooled to millikelvin temperatures are a topic of great interest for application to hybrid quantum systems. When cooled to 20 mK, we show that resonant acoustic phonon modes in a Bulk Acoustic Wave (BAW) quartz resonator demonstrate exceptionally low loss (with $Q$-factors of order billions) at frequencies of 15.6 and 65.4 MHz, with a maximum $f.Q$ product of 7.8$\\times10^{16}$ Hz. Given this result, we show that the $Q$-factor in such devices near the quantum ground state can be four orders of magnitude better than previously attained. Such resonators possess the low losses crucial for electromagnetic cooling to the phonon ground state, and the possibility of long coherence and interaction times of a few seconds, allowing multiple quantum gate operations.

  17. Method of casting articles of a bulk-solidifying amorphous alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Xianghong (Laguna Niguel, CA); Johnson, William L. (Pasadena, CA); Peker, Atakan (Aliso Viejo, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A casting charge of a bulk-solidifying amorphous alloy is cast into a mold from a temperature greater than its crystallized melting temperature, and permitted to solidify to form an article. The oxygen content of the casting charge is limited to an operable level, as excessively high oxygen contents produce premature crystallization during the casting operation. During melting, the casting charge is preferably heated to a temperature above a threshold temperature to eliminate heterogeneous crystallization nucleation sites within the casting charge. The casting charge may be cast from above the threshold temperature, or it may be cooled to the casting temperature of more than the crystallized melting point but not more than the threshold temperature, optionally held at this temperature for a period of time, and thereafter cast.

  18. Excitonic enhancement of nonradiative energy transfer to bulk silicon with the hybridization of cascaded quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeltik, Aydan; Guzelturk, Burak; Akhavan, Shahab; Ludwig Hernandez-Martinez, Pedro; Volkan Demir, Hilmi

    2013-12-23

    We report enhanced sensitization of silicon through nonradiative energy transfer (NRET) of the excitons in an energy-gradient structure composed of a cascaded bilayer of green- and red-emitting CdTe quantum dots (QDs) on bulk silicon. Here NRET dynamics were systematically investigated comparatively for the cascaded energy-gradient and mono-dispersed QD structures at room temperature. We show experimentally that NRET from the QD layer into silicon is enhanced by 40% in the case of an energy-gradient cascaded structure as compared to the mono-dispersed structures, which is in agreement with the theoretical analysis based on the excited state population-depopulation dynamics of the QDs.

  19. H-point exciton transitions in bulk MoS{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saigal, Nihit; Ghosh, Sandip

    2015-05-04

    Reflectance and photoreflectance spectrum of bulk MoS{sub 2} around its direct bandgap energy have been measured at 12?K. Apart from spectral features due to the A and B ground state exciton transitions at the K-point of the Brillouin zone, one observes additional features at nearby energies. Through lineshape analysis the character of two prominent additional features are shown to be quite different from that of A and B. By comparing with reported electronic band structure calculations, these two additional features are identified as ground state exciton transitions at the H-point of the Brillouin zone involving two spin-orbit split valance bands. The excitonic energy gap at the H-point is 1.965?eV with a valance bands splitting of 185?meV. While at the K-point, the corresponding values are 1.920?eV and 205?meV, respectively.

  20. Change of variables as a method to study general ?-models: Bulk universality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shcherbina, M.

    2014-04-15

    We consider ? matrix models with real analytic potentials. Assuming that the corresponding equilibrium density ? has a one-interval support (without loss of generality ? = [?2, 2]), we study the transformation of the correlation functions after the change of variables ?{sub i} ? ?(?{sub i}) with ?(?) chosen from the equation ?{sup ?}(?)?(?(?)) = ?{sub sc}(?), where ?{sub sc}(?) is the standard semicircle density. This gives us the “deformed” ?-model which has an additional “interaction” term. Standard transformation with the Gaussian integral allows us to show that the “deformed” ?-model may be reduced to the standard Gaussian ?-model with a small perturbation n{sup ?1}h(?). This reduces most of the problems of local and global regimes for ?-models to the corresponding problems for the Gaussian ?-model with a small perturbation. In the present paper, we prove the bulk universality of local eigenvalue statistics for both one-cut and multi-cut cases.

  1. Derivative-free optimization of rate parameters of capsid assembly models from bulk in vitro data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Lu; Schwartz, Russell

    2015-01-01

    The assembly of virus capsids from free coat proteins proceeds by a complicated cascade of association and dissociation steps, the great majority of which cannot be directly experimentally observed. This has made capsid assembly a rich field for computational models to attempt to fill the gaps in what is experimentally observable. Nonetheless, accurate simulation predictions depend on accurate models and there are substantial obstacles to model inference for such systems. Here, we describe progress in learning parameters for capsid assembly systems, particularly kinetic rate constants of coat-coat interactions, by computationally fitting simulations to experimental data. We previously developed an approach to learn rate parameters of coat-coat interactions by minimizing the deviation between real and simulated light scattering data monitoring bulk capsid assembly in vitro. This is a difficult data-fitting problem, however, because of the high computational cost of simulating assembly trajectories, the stochas...

  2. Changing Trends in the Bulk Chemicals and Pulp and Paper Industries (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    Compared with the experience of the 1990s, rising energy prices in recent years have led to questions about expectations of growth in industrial output, particularly in energy-intensive industries. Given the higher price trends, a review of expected growth trends in selected industries was undertaken as part of the production of Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO). In addition, projections for the industrial value of shipments, which were based on the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system in AEO2004, are based on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) in AEO2005. The change in industrial classification leads to lower historical growth rates for many industrial sectors. The impacts of these two changes are highlighted in this section for two of the largest energy-consuming industries in the U.S. industrial sector-bulk chemicals and pulp and paper.

  3. Combustion of Bulk 84% Fe/16% KCIO{sub 4} heat powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nissen, M.; Guidotti, R.A.; Berry, B.

    1996-05-01

    Fe/KClO{sub 4} pyrotechnic mixtures are used in thermal batteries to provide the heat necessary to bring the battery stack to operating temperatures of 550 to 600 C. This heat source is normally used as discs pressed from bulk powder. To evaluate the consequences associated with unexpected ignition of large amounts of heat powder, combustion of 84% Fe/16% KClO{sub 4} heat powders was conducted for various scenarios under controlled conditions and the response documented. Increasing amounts of heat powder--up to 8 lbs--were ignited in both unconfined and confined (sealed) containers in a remote area. The containers were thermocoupled and the resulting burning filmed with a standard video camera, high-speed (1,000 frames/s) film and video cameras, and an infrared video camera. A 20- minute video of the burning under the various conditions is presented.

  4. Testing ASTRO-H Measurements of Bulk and Turbulent Gas Motions in Galaxy Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ota, Naomi; Lau, Erwin T

    2015-01-01

    Gas motions in galaxy clusters play important roles in determining the properties of the intracluster medium (ICM) and constraining cosmological parameters using X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect observations of galaxy clusters. The upcoming ASTRO-H mission, equipped with high-resolution X-ray spectrometer, will make the first direct measurements of gas motions in galaxy clusters through measurements of Doppler shifting and broadening of emission lines. However, the physical interpretation of the data will be challenging due to the complex thermal and velocity structures of the ICM. In this work, we investigate how well we can measure bulk and turbulent gas motions in the ICM with ASTRO-H, by analyzing mock ASTRO-H simulations of galaxy clusters extracted from cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. We assess how photon counts, spectral fitting methods, multiphase ICM structure, deprojections, and region selection affect the measurements of gas motions. We show that while ASTRO-H is capable of recovering the...

  5. Numerical design of SiC bulk crystal growth for electronic applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wejrzanowski, T.; Grybczuk, M.; Kurzydlowski, K. J.; Tymicki, E.

    2014-10-06

    Presented study concerns numerical simulation of Physical Vapor Transport (PVT) growth of bulk Silicon Carbide (SiC) crystals. Silicon Carbide is a wide band gap semiconductor, with numerous applications due to its unique properties. Wider application of SiC is limited by high price and insufficient quality of the product. Those problems can be overcame by optimizing SiC production methods. Experimental optimization of SiC production is expensive because it is time consuming and requires large amounts of energy. Numerical modeling allows to learn more about conditions inside the reactor and helps to optimize the process at much lower cost. In this study several simulations of processes with different reactor geometries were presented along with discussion of reactor geometry influence on obtained monocrystal shape and size.

  6. Rapid Relaxation and Embrittlement of Zr-based Bulk Metallic Glasses by Electropulsing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yiu, P [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan; Chen, Y. C. [National Taiwan University of Science & Technology; Chu, J. P. [National Taiwan Ocean University; Chang, S Y [National Chung Hsing University; Bei, Hongbin [ORNL; Jang, J. S.C. [National Central University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan; Hsueh, C. H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical relaxation and embrittlement of Zr52.5Cu17.9Ni14.6Al10Ti5 bulk metallic glasses were achieved rapidly by the direct current electropulsing treatment. The temperature profile was recorded by an infrared camera and it was found to be non-uniform in the treated specimen. Specifically, temperatures below the glass transition temperature, near and above the crystallization temperature could be ach- ieved, respectively, at different locations in the same treated specimen. Two sets of nanoindentation were conducted. While the first set investigated the mechanical properties of three individually elec- tropulsed specimens with different conditions, the second set indented a single treated specimen along its temperature gradient. Both sets of indentation revealed that by Joule heating to different tempera- tures, relaxation, embrittlement, and crystallization were significantly accelerated by electrical pulses. Results suggest that electropulsing provides an opportunity to simultaneously achieve plastic forming and mechanical property control of metallic glasses.

  7. Evidence of Bulk Acceleration of the GRB X-ray Flare Emission Region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uhm, Z Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), the most luminous explosions in the universe, invoke relativistic jets beaming towards Earth with the highest velocities for bulk motion in the universe. Some of them are followed by softer, less energetic, X-ray flares, which also move with relativistic velocities towards Earth. Observations and theoretical modeling suggest that X-ray flares share a similar physical mechanism as GRB prompt emission itself. Here we show a clear observational evidence that the X-ray flare emission region is undergoing rapid acceleration as the photons are emitted. The observed X-ray flare light curves and photon index evolution can be interpreted within a simple toy model invoking synchrotron radiation in an accelerating emission region far from the GRB central engine. Such an acceleration process demands an additional energy dissipation source other than kinetic energy, which points towards a significant Poynting-flux in the emission region.

  8. Low beryllium content Zr-based bulk metallic glass composite with plasticity and work hardenability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Q., E-mail: qiangzheng616@hotmail.com, E-mail: dujuan@nimte.ac.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Ningbo University of Technology, Ningbo, 315016, China and Ningbo Branch of China Academy of Ordnance Science, Ningbo, 315103 (China); Du, J., E-mail: qiangzheng616@hotmail.com, E-mail: dujuan@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering (NIMTE), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, NIMTE, CAS, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2014-01-28

    A modified Zr-based bulk metallic glass matrix composite Zr{sub 47.67}Cu{sub 40}Ti{sub 3.66}Ni{sub 2.66}Be{sub 6} has been produced by increasing the contents of elements of Zr and Cu with higher Poisson ratio and reducing the contents of Ti, Ni, and Be elements with lower Poisson ratio based on famous metallic glass former Vitreloy 1. A compressive yielding strength of 1804?MPa, fracture strength of 1938?MPa and 3.5% plastic strain was obtained for obtained metallic glass composite. Also, work-hardening behavior was observed during compressive experiment which was ascribed to the interaction of the in situ precipitated CuZr phase and shear bands.

  9. Tensile GaAs(111) quantum dashes with tunable luminescence below the bulk bandgap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yerino, Christopher D., E-mail: christopher.yerino@yale.edu; Jung, Daehwan; Lee, Minjoo Larry [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Simmonds, Paul J.; Liang, Baolai [California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Dorogan, Vitaliy G.; Ware, Morgan E.; Mazur, Yuriy I.; Salamo, Gregory J. [Institute for Nanoscience and Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States); Huffaker, Diana L. [California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2014-08-18

    Strain-based band engineering in quantum dots and dashes has been predominantly limited to compressively strained systems. However, tensile strain strongly reduces the bandgaps of nanostructures, enabling nanostructures to emit light at lower energies than they could under compressive strain. We demonstrate the self-assembled growth of dislocation-free GaAs quantum dashes on an InP(111)B substrate, using a 3.8% tensile lattice-mismatch. Due to the high tensile strain, the GaAs quantum dashes luminesce at 110–240?meV below the bandgap of bulk GaAs. The emission energy is readily tuned by adjusting the size of the quantum dashes via deposition thickness. Tensile self-assembly creates new opportunities for engineering the band alignment, band structure, and optical properties of epitaxial nanostructures.

  10. THE IMPACT OF PARTIAL CRYSTALLIZATION ON THE PERMEATION PROPERTIES BULK AMORPHOUS GLASS HYDROGEN SEPARATION MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, K; Paul Korinko, P; Thad Adams, T; Elise Fox, E; Arthur Jurgensen, A

    2008-11-25

    It is recognized that hydrogen separation membranes are a key component of the emerging hydrogen economy. A potentially exciting material for membrane separations are bulk metallic glass materials due to their low cost, high elastic toughness and resistance to hydrogen 'embrittlement' as compared to crystalline Pd-based membrane systems. However, at elevated temperatures and extended operation times structural changes including partial crystallinity may appear in these amorphous metallic systems. A systematic evaluation of the impact of partial crystallinity/devitrification on the diffusion and solubility behavior in multi-component Metallic Glass materials would provide great insight into the potential of these materials for hydrogen applications. This study will report on the development of time and temperature crystallization mapping and their use for interpretation of 'in-situ' hydrogen permeation at elevated temperatures.

  11. Electronic excitations of bulk LiCl from many-body perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Yun-Feng; Wang, Neng-Ping, E-mail: wangnengping@nbu.edu.cn [Science Faculty, Ningbo University, Fenghua Road 818, 315211 Ningbo (China)] [Science Faculty, Ningbo University, Fenghua Road 818, 315211 Ningbo (China); Rohlfing, Michael [Institut für Festkörpertheorie, Universität Münster, 48149 Münster (Germany)] [Institut für Festkörpertheorie, Universität Münster, 48149 Münster (Germany)

    2013-12-07

    We present the quasiparticle band structure and the optical excitation spectrum of bulk LiCl, using many-body perturbation theory. Density-functional theory is used to calculate the ground-state geometry of the system. The quasiparticle band structure is calculated within the GW approximation. Taking the electron-hole interaction into consideration, electron-hole pair states and optical excitations are obtained by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the electron-hole two-particle Green function. The calculated band gap is 9.5 eV, which is in good agreement with the experimental result of 9.4 eV. And the calculated optical absorption spectrum, which contains an exciton peak at 8.8 eV and a resonant-exciton peak at 9.8 eV, is also in good agreement with experimental data.

  12. Short time proton dynamics in bulk ice and in porous anode solid oxide fuel cell materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basoli, Francesco; Senesi, Roberto; Kolesnikov, Alexander I; Licoccia, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen reduction and incorporation into solid electrolytes and the reverse reaction of oxygen evolution play a cru-cial role in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) applications. However a detailed un derstanding of the kinetics of the cor-responding reactions, i.e. on reaction mechanisms, rate limiting steps, reaction paths, electrocatalytic role of materials, is still missing. These include a thorough characterization of the binding potentials experienced by protons in the lattice. We report results of Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS) measurements of the vibrational state of the protons in Ni- YSZ highly porous composites (75% to 90% ), a ceramic-metal material showing a high electrical conductivity and ther mal stability, which is known to be most effectively used as anodes for solid ox ide fuel cells. The results are compared with INS and Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering (DINS) experiments on the proton binding states in bulk ice.

  13. Further development and testing of a second-order bulk boundary layer model. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krasner, R.D.

    1993-05-03

    A one-layer bulk boundary layer model is developed. The model predicts the mixed layer values of the potential temperature, mixing ratio, and u- and v-momentum. The model also predicts the depth of the boundary layer and the vertically integrated turbulence kinetic energy (TKE). The TKE is determined using a second-order closure that relates the rate of dissipation to the TKE. The fractional area covered by rising motion sigma and the entrainment rate (E) are diagnostically determined. The model is used to study the clear convective boundary layer (CBL) using data from the Wangara, Australia boundary layer experiment. The Wangara data is also used as an observation base to validate model results. A further study is accomplished by simulating the planetary boundary layer (PBL) over an ocean surface. This study is designed to find the steady-state solutions of the prognostic variable.

  14. Effects of polymer additives in the bulk of turbulent thermal convection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Yi-Chao; Funfschilling, Denis; Li, Xiao-Ming; Ni, Rui; Xia, Ke-Qing

    2015-01-01

    We present experimental evidence that a minute amount of polymer additives can significantly enhance heat transport in the bulk region of turbulent thermal convection. The effects of polymer additives are found to be the \\textit{suppression} of turbulent background fluctuations that give rise to incoherent heat fluxes that make no net contribution to heat transport, and at the same time to \\textit{increase} the coherency of temperature and velocity fields. The suppression of small-scale turbulent fluctuations leads to more coherent thermal plumes that result in the heat transport enhancement. The fact that polymer additives can increase the coherency of thermal plumes is supported by the measurements of a number of local quantities, such as the extracted plume amplitude and width, the velocity autocorrelation functions and the velocity-temperature cross-correlation coefficient. The results from local measurements also suggest the existence of a threshold value for the polymer concentration, only above which c...

  15. Bulk viscosity in a hyperonic star and r-mode instability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, T. K.; Mishra, H.; Sreekanth, V.

    2010-08-15

    We consider a rotating neutron star with the presence of hyperons in its core. We use an equation of state in an effective chiral model within the relativistic mean-field approximation. We calculate the hyperonic bulk viscosity coefficient caused by nonleptonic weak interactions. By estimating the damping time scales of the dissipative processes, we investigate its role in the suppression of gravitationally driven instabilities in the r mode. We observe that r-mode instability remains very significant for hyperon core temperatures of around 10{sup 8} K, which results in a comparatively larger instability window. We find that such instability can reduce the angular velocity of the rapidly rotating star considerably up to {approx}0.04{Omega}{sub K}, with {Omega}{sub K} as the Keplerian angular velocity.

  16. Microstructure and mechanical properties of bulk highly faulted fcc/hcp nanostructured cobalt microstructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barry, Aliou Hamady [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, LSPM CNRS UPR 3407, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Laboratoire Chimie des Matériaux, Département de Chimie, Faculté des Sciences et Technique, Université de Nouakchott (Mauritania, Islamic Republic of); Dirras, Guy, E-mail: dirras@unv-paris13.fr [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, LSPM CNRS UPR 3407, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Schoenstein, Frederic; Tétard, Florent; Jouini, Noureddine [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, LSPM CNRS UPR 3407, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2014-05-01

    Nanostructured cobalt powders with an average particle size of 50 nm were synthesized using a polyol method and subsequently consolidated by spark plasma sintering (SPS). SPS experiments performed at 650 °C with sintering times ranging from 5 to 45 min under a pressure of 100 MPa, yielded to dense bulk nanostructured cobalt (relative density greater than 97%). X-ray diffraction patterns of the as-prepared powders showed only a face centered cubic (fcc) crystalline phase, whereas the consolidated samples exhibited a mixture of both fcc and hexagonal close packed (hcp) phases. Transmission electron microscopy observations revealed a lamellar substructure with a high density of nanotwins and stacking faults in every grain of the sintered samples. Room temperature compression tests, carried out at a strain rate of 10{sup ?3} s{sup ?1}, yielded to highest strain to fracture values of up to 5% for sample of holding time of 15 min, which exhibited a yield strength of 1440 MPa, an ultimate strength as high as 1740 MPa and a Young's modulus of 205 GPa. The modulus of elasticity obtained from the nanoindentation tests, ranges from 181 to 218 GPa. The lowest modulus value of 181 GPa was obtained for the sample with the highest sintering time (45 min), which could be related to mass density loss as a consequence of trapped gases releasing. - Highlights: • Co nanopowder (50 nm) was prepared by reduction in polyol medium. • SPS was used to process bulk nanostructured Co specimens. • Microstructures were made of intricate fcc/hcp, along with nanotwins and SFs. • High strengths and moderate compressive ductility were obtained. • Deformation mechanisms related to complex interplay of different length scales.

  17. Thermodynamic Relationships for Bulk Crystalline and Liquid Phases in the Phase-Field Crystal Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victor W. L. Chan; Nirand Pisutha-Arnond; Katsuyo Thornton

    2015-02-06

    We present thermodynamic relationships between the free energy of the phase-field crystal (PFC) model and thermodynamic state variables for bulk phases under hydrostatic pressure. This relationship is derived based on the thermodynamic formalism for crystalline solids of Larch\\'e and Cahn [Larch\\'e and Cahn, Acta Metallurgica, Vol. 21, 1051 (1973)]. We apply the relationship to examine the thermodynamic processes associated with varying the input parameters of the PFC model: temperature, lattice spacing, and the average value of the PFC order parameter, $\\bar{n}$. The equilibrium conditions between bulk crystalline solid and liquid phases are imposed on the thermodynamic relationships for the PFC model to obtain a procedure for determining solid-liquid phase coexistence. The resulting procedure is found to be in agreement with the method commonly used in the PFC community, justifying the use of the common-tangent construction to determine solid-liquid phase coexistence in the PFC model. Finally, we apply the procedure to an eighth-order-fit (EOF) PFC model that has been parameterized to body-centered-cubic ($bcc$) Fe [Jaatinen et al., Physical Review E 80, 031602 (2009)] to demonstrate the procedure as well as to develop physical intuition about the PFC input parameters. We demonstrate that the EOF-PFC model parameterization does not predict stable $bcc$ structures with positive vacancy densities. This result suggests an alternative parameterization of the PFC model, which requires the primary peak position of the two-body direct correlation function to shift as a function of $\\bar{n}$.

  18. Effect of bulk electric field reversal on the bounce resonance heating in dual-frequency capacitively coupled electronegative plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Yongxin; Zhang Quanzhi; Liu Jia; Song Yuanhong; Wang Younian [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Bogaerts, Annemie [Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, BE-2610 Wilrijk-Antwerp (Belgium)

    2012-09-10

    The electron bounce resonance heating (BRH) in dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasmas operated in oxygen and argon has been studied by different experimental methods. In comparison with the electropositive argon discharge, the BRH in an electronegative discharge occurs at larger electrode gaps. Kinetic particle simulations reveal that in the oxygen discharge, the bulk electric field becomes quite strong and is out of phase with the sheath field. Therefore, it retards the resonant electrons when traversing the bulk, resulting in a suppressed BRH. This effect becomes more pronounced at lower high-frequency power, when the discharge mode changes from electropositive to electronegative.

  19. Direct measurement of the kinetics of volume and enthalpy relaxation of an Au-based bulk metallic glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bünz, J.; Wilde, G. [Institute of Materials Physics, University of Münster, 48149 Münster (Germany)] [Institute of Materials Physics, University of Münster, 48149 Münster (Germany)

    2013-12-14

    Structural relaxation of glasses below their glass transition is a well-studied phenomenon that still poses several open issues. With the advent of bulk metallic glasses with exceptionally low glass transition temperatures, new options are available that are based on the experimental assessment of the time dependence of several different thermodynamic quantities by direct measurements with high accuracy. In this contribution the first direct measurement of the isothermal relaxation of the volume and the enthalpy of an Au-based bulk metallic glassformer are reported and discussed with respect of the characteristics describing the underlying processes.

  20. Kaluza-Klein masses of bulk fields with general boundary conditions in AdS{sub 5} space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Sanghyeon; Park, Seong Chan; Song, Jeonghyeon

    2005-05-15

    Recently bulk Randall-Sundrum theories with the gauge group SU(2){sub L}xSU(2){sub R}xU(1){sub B-L} have drawn a lot of interest as an alternative to the electroweak symmetry breaking mechanism. These models are in better agreement with electroweak precision data since custodial isospin symmetry on the IR-brane is protected by the extended bulk gauge symmetry. We comprehensively study, in the S{sup 1}/Z{sub 2}xZ{sub 2}{sup '} orbifold, the bulk gauge and fermion fields with the general boundary conditions as well as the bulk and localized mass terms. Master equations to determine the Kaluza-Klein (KK) mass spectra are derived without any approximation, which is an important basic step for various phenomenologies at high energy colliders. The correspondence between orbifold boundary conditions and localized mass terms is demonstrated not only in the gauge sector but also in the fermion sector. As the localized mass increases, the first KK fermion mass is shown to decrease while the first KK gauge boson mass is shown to increase. The degree of gauge coupling universality violation is computed to be small in most parameter space, and its correlation with the mass difference between the top quark and light quark KK mode is also studied.