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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bulk chemicals glass" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

In-situ ductile metal/bulk metallic glass matrix composites formed by chemical partitioning  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composite metal object comprises ductile crystalline metal particles in an amorphous metal matrix. An alloy is heated above its liquidus temperature. Upon cooling from the high temperature melt, the alloy chemically partitions, forming dendrites in the melt. Upon cooling the remaining liquid below the glass transition temperature it freezes to the amorphous state, producing a two-phase microstructure containing crystalline particles in an amorphous metal matrix. The ductile metal particles have a size in the range of from 0.1 to 15 micrometers and spacing in the range of from 0.1 to 20 micrometers. Preferably, the particle size is in the range of from 0.5 to 8 micrometers and spacing is in the range of from 1 to 10 micrometers. The volume proportion of particles is in the range of from 5 to 50% and preferably 15 to 35%. Differential cooling can produce oriented dendrites of ductile metal phase in an amorphous matrix. Examples are given in the Zr--Ti--Cu--Ni--Be alloy bulk glass forming system with added niobium.

Kim, Choong Paul (Northridge, CA); Hays, Charles C. (Pasadena, CA); Johnson, William L. (Pasadena, CA)

2007-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

2

Mechanical Properties of Bulk Metallic Glasses and Composites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have studied the mechanical properties of monolithic bulk metallic glasses and composite in the La based alloys. La???yAl??(Cu, Ni)y (y=24 to 32) alloy systems was used to cast the ...

Lee, M.L.

3

NUCLEAR WASTE GLASSES CONTINUOUS MELTING AND BULK VITRIFICAITON  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This contribution addresses various aspects of nuclear waste vitrification. Nuclear wastes have a variety of components and composition ranges. For each waste composition, the glass must be formulated to possess acceptable processing and product behavior defined in terms of physical and chemical properties that guarantee the glass can be easily made and resist environmental degradation. Glass formulation is facilitated by developing property-composition models, and the strategy of model development and application is reviewed. However, the large variability of waste compositions presents numerous additional challenges: insoluble solids and molten salts may segregate; foam may hinder heat transfer and slow down the process; molten salts may accumulate in container refractory walls; the glass on cooling may precipitate crystalline phases. These problems need targeted exploratory research. Examples of specific problems and their possible solutions are discussed.

KRUGER AA; HRMA PR

2008-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

4

Corrosion of, and cellular responses to MgZnCa bulk metallic glasses Xuenan Gu a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Corrosion of, and cellular responses to Mg­Zn­Ca bulk metallic glasses Xuenan Gu a , Yufeng Zheng a: Magnesium alloy Bulk metallic glass Mechanical property Corrosion Cytotoxicity a b s t r a c t Mg­Zn­Ca bulk, mechanical testing, corrosion and cytotoxicity tests. It was found that the Mg66Zn30Ca4 sample presents

Zheng, Yufeng

5

Stability of Bulk Metallic Glass Structure. Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fundamental origins of the stability of the (Pd-Ni){sub 80}P{sub 20} bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), a prototype for a whole class of BMG formers, were explored. While much of the properties of their BMGs have been characterized, their glass-stability have not been explained in terms of the atomic and electronic structure. The local structure around all three constituent atoms was obtained, in a complementary way, using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), to probe the nearest neighbor environment of the metals, and extended energy loss fine structure (EXELFS), to investigate the environment around P. The occupied electronic structure was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The (Pd-Ni){sub 80}P{sub 20} BMGs receive their stability from cumulative, and interrelated, effects of both atomic and electronic origin. The stability of the (Pd-Ni){sub 80}P{sub 20} BMGs can be explained in terms of the stability of Pd{sub 60}Ni{sub 20}P{sub 20} and Pd{sub 30}Ni{sub 50}P{sub 20}, glasses at the end of BMG formation. The atomic structure in these alloys is very similar to those of the binary phosphide crystals near x=0 and x=80, which are trigonal prisms of Pd or Ni atoms surrounding P atoms. Such structures are known to exist in dense, randomly-packed systems. The structure of the best glass former in this series, Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 40}P{sub 20} is further described by a weighted average of those of Pd{sub 30}Ni{sub 50}P{sub 20} and Pd{sub 60}Ni{sub 20}P{sub 20}. Bonding states present only in the ternary alloys were found and point to a further stabilization of the system through a negative heat of mixing between Pd and Ni atoms. The Nagel and Tauc criterion, correlating a decrease in the density of states at the Fermi level with an increase in the glass stability, was consistent with greater stability of the Pd{sub x}Ni{sub 80-x}P{sub 20} glasses with respect to the binary alloys of P. A valence electron concentration of 1.8 e/a, which ensures the superpositioning of the first peak in the structure factor with twice the Fermi momentum, was used to calculate the interatomic potential of these alloys. The importance of Pd to the stability of the alloys is evidenced by the fact that replacing Ni and Pd places the nearest neighbor distances at more attractive positions in this potential.

Jain, H.; Williams, D. B.

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Heat treatment of bulk gallium arsenide using a phosphosilicate glass cap  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

n-type bulk GaAs crystals, capped with chemically vapor-deposited phosphosilicate glass, were heat treated at temperatures in the range of 600 to 950 /sup 0/C. Measurements on Schottky diodes and solar cells fabricated on the heat-treated material, after removal of a damaged surface layer, show an increase in free-carrier concentration, in minority-carrier-diffusion length, and in solar-cell short-circuit current. The observed changes are attributed to a removal of lifetime-reducing acceptorlike impurities, defects, or their complexes.

Mathur, G.; Wheaton, M.L.; Borrego, J.M.; Ghandhi, S.K.

1985-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

7

High Temperature Deformation Behavior of in-situ Bulk Metallic Glass Matrix Composites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Macroscopic ductility is promoted in bulk metallic glasses by both composite reinforcements (at low temperatures) and by the activation of viscous flow mechanisms (at high temperatures). It is of fundamental interest to ...

Fu, X.L.

8

Corrosion performances in simulated body fluids and cytotoxicity evaluation of Fe-based bulk metallic glasses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Corrosion performances in simulated body fluids and cytotoxicity evaluation of Fe-based bulk December 2011 Available online 27 December 2011 Keywords: Bulk metallic glass Corrosion Biocompatibility Electrochemical characterization Biomedical applications The aim of this work is to investigate the corrosion

Zheng, Yufeng

9

Single pulse ultrafast laser imprinting of axial dot arrays in bulk glasses C. Mauclair,1,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Single pulse ultrafast laser imprinting of axial dot arrays in bulk glasses C. Mauclair,1, A sam- ples were irradiated with 160 fs pulses from an 800 nm Ti:Sapphire amplified ultrafast laser.mauclair@univ-st-etienne.fr Compiled December 20, 2010 Ultrafast laser processing of bulk transparent materials can significantly gain

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

10

Oxygen impurity and microalloying effect in a Zr-based bulk metallic glass alloy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen impurity and microalloying effect in a Zr-based bulk metallic glass alloy C.T. Liu*, M composition Zr­10 at.%Al­5% Ti­17.9% Cu­14.6% Ni (BAM-11) was used to study the effects of oxygen impurities and microalloying on the microstructure and mechanical properties. Oxygen impurity at a level of 3000 appm

Pennycook, Steve

11

Rapid Relaxation and Embrittlement of Zr-based Bulk Metallic Glasses by Electropulsing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mechanical relaxation and embrittlement of Zr52.5Cu17.9Ni14.6Al10Ti5 bulk metallic glasses were achieved rapidly by the direct current electropulsing treatment. The temperature profile was recorded by an infrared camera and it was found to be non-uniform in the treated specimen. Specifically, temperatures below the glass transition temperature, near and above the crystallization temperature could be ach- ieved, respectively, at different locations in the same treated specimen. Two sets of nanoindentation were conducted. While the first set investigated the mechanical properties of three individually elec- tropulsed specimens with different conditions, the second set indented a single treated specimen along its temperature gradient. Both sets of indentation revealed that by Joule heating to different tempera- tures, relaxation, embrittlement, and crystallization were significantly accelerated by electrical pulses. Results suggest that electropulsing provides an opportunity to simultaneously achieve plastic forming and mechanical property control of metallic glasses.

Yiu, P [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan; Chen, Y. C. [National Taiwan University of Science & Technology; Chu, J. P. [National Taiwan Ocean University; Chang, S Y [National Chung Hsing University; Bei, Hongbin [ORNL; Jang, J. S.C. [National Central University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan; Hsueh, C. H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Synthesis of bulk metallic glass foam by powder extrusion with a fugitive second phase  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bulk metallic glass foams with 12 mm in diameter and 30 mm in length having a density of 4.62 g/cm{sup 3} (approximately 58.3% of theoretical) were fabricated by extruding a powder mixture comprised of 60 vol % Ni{sub 59}Zr{sub 20}Ti{sub 16}Si{sub 2}Sn{sub 3} metallic glass blended with 40 vol % brass followed by dissolution of the fugitive brass in an aqueous HNO{sub 3} solution. The final structure consists of continuously connected, high aspect ratio metallic glass struts surrounded by {approx}40 vol % of homogeneously distributed ellipsoid-shaped pores having nominal diameters between 10 and 50 {mu}m.

Lee, Min Ha; Sordelet, Daniel J. [Materials and Engineering Physics Program, Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

2006-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

13

Correlation between corrosion performance and surface wettability in ZrTiCuNiBe bulk metallic glasses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Correlation between corrosion performance and surface wettability in ZrTiCuNiBe bulk metallic June 2010 The corrosion properties of two Zr-based bulk metallic glass, Zr41Ti14Cu12Ni10Be23 LM1 and Zr potential, LM1b showed superior corrosion resistance to LM1. Under identical sample preparation and testing

Zheng, Yufeng

14

Compliant alkali silicate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel cell applications: thermal cycle stability and chemical compatibility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An alkali silicate glass (SCN-1) is currently being evaluated as a candidate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel (SOFC) applications. The glass containing ~17 mole% alkalis (K2O and Na2O) remains vitreous and compliant during SOFC operation, unlike conventional SOFC sealing glasses, which experience substantial devitrification after the sealing process. The non-crystallizing compliant sealing glass has lower glass transition and softening temperatures since the microstructure remains glassy without significant crystallite formation, and hence can relieve or reduce residual stresses and also has the potential for crack healing. Sealing approaches based on compliant glass will also need to satisfy all the mechanical, thermal, chemical, physical, and electrical requirements for SOFC applications, not only in bulk properties but also at sealing interfaces. In this first of a series of papers we will report the thermal cycle stability of the glass when sealed between two SOFC components, i.e., a NiO/YSZ anode supported YSZ bilayer and a coated ferritic stainless steel interconnect material. High temperature leak rates were monitored versus thermal cycles between 700-850oC using back pressures ranging from 0.2 psi to 1.0 psi. Isothermal stability was also evaluated in a dual environment consisting of flowing dilute H2 fuel versus ambient air. In addition, chemical compatibility at the alumina and YSZ interfaces was examined with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results shed new light on the topic of SOFC glass seal development.

Chou, Y. S.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Williams, Riley T.; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Canfield, Nathan L.; Bonnett, Jeff F.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Shyam, Amit; Lara-Curzio, E.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Dynamics of Johari-Goldstein ? relaxation and its universal relation to ? relaxation in bulk metallic glasses by mechanical spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dynamics of the JohariGoldstein (JG) ? relaxation and the ? relaxation in bulk metallic glasses (MGs) has been investigated by using mechanical spectroscopy combined with the Coupling Model. The ? relaxations of MGs exhibit different behaviors such as peaks, humps, and excess wings due to the different fluctuations of the chemical interactions among the constituting atoms. A universal correlation between the ? relaxation and the ? relaxation is generally found by their activation energies and relaxation times as well as the non-exponentiality parameter of the ? relaxation, which can be predicted quantitatively from the Coupling Model. Based on the quasi-point defects theory, a correlation factor ? shows a broad peak along with the ? relaxation, suggesting that the concentration and the correlation degree of the string-like configurations involved in the ? relaxation vary with increasing temperature, which challenges the previous view that the system is in an iso-configuration state below T{sub g} and may shed new light on the nature of the JG ? relaxation in metallic glasses.

Wu, Xuebang, E-mail: xbwu@issp.ac.cn; Guo, Lijun; Liu, C. S. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1129, Hefei, Anhui (China)

2014-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

16

PID-free C-Si PV Module Using Novel Chemically-Tempered Glass...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

PID-free C-Si PV Module Using Novel Chemically-Tempered Glass PID-free C-Si PV Module Using Novel Chemically-Tempered Glass Presented at the PV Module Reliability Workshop,...

17

Roles of nanoclusters in shear banding and plastic deformation of bulk metallic glasses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the course of this research we published 33 papers in various physics/material journals. We select four representing papers in this report and their results are summarized as follows. I. To study shear banding process, it is pertinent to know the intrinsic shear strain rate within a propagating shear band. To this aim, we used nanoindentation technique to probe the mechanical response of a Au49Ag5.5Pd2.3Cu26.9Si16.3 bulk metallic glass in locality and found notable pop-in events associated with shear band emission. Using a free volume model and under the situation when temperature and stress/hardness are fixed result in an equation, which predicts that hardness serration caused by pop-in decreases exponentially with the strain rate. Our data are in good agreement with the prediction. The result also predicts that, when strain rate is higher than a critical strain rate of 1700 s^-1, there will be no hardness serration, thereby no pop-in. In other words, multiple shear bandings will take place and material will flow homogeneously. The critical strain rate of 1700 s^-1 can be treated as the intrinsic strain rate within a shear band. We subsequently carried out a simulation study and showed that, if the imposed strain rate was over , the shear band spacing would become so small that the entire sample would virtually behave like one major shear band. Using the datum strain rate =1700 s^-1 and based on a shear band nucleation model proposed by us, the size of a shear-band nucleus in Au-BMG was estimated to be 3 ???? 10^6 atoms, or a sphere of ~30 nm in diameter. II. Inspired by the peculiar result published in a Science article ?¢????Super Plastic Bulk Metallic Glasses at Room Temperature?¢???, we synthesized the Zr-based bulk metallic glass with a composition identical to that in the paper (Zr64.13Cu15.75Ni10.12Al10) and, subsequently, tested in compression at the same slow strain rate (~10^-4 s^-1). We found that the dominant deformation mode is always single shear. The stress-strain curve exhibited serrated pattern in the plastic region, which conventionally has been attributed to individual shear band propagation. The scanning electron micrographs taken from the deformed sample surface revealed regularly spaced striations. Analysis indicates that the observed stress-strain serrations are intimately related to the striations on the shear surface, suggesting the serrations were actually caused slip-and-stick shear along the principal shear plane. We further use video camera to conduct in situ compression experiments to unambiguously confirm the one-to-one temporal and spatial correspondence between the intermittent sliding and flow serration. This preferential shear band formation along the principal shear plane is, in fact, a natural consequence of Mode II crack, independent of strain softening or hardening, usually claimed in the literature. III. Flow serration in compression of metallic glasses is caused by the formation and propagation of localized shear bands. These shear bands propagate at an extremely high speed, so high that a load cell and load frame were unable to capture the details of the dynamic event. To subdue this problem, we conducted uniaxial compression on Zr64.13Cu15.75Ni10.12Al10 bulk metallic glass using a high-speed camera to capture the sample image and also high-sensitivity strain gauges attached to the test samples to directly measure the strain. The displacement-time curves obtained from the test and a magnified version of the displacement burst reveals clearly a three-step (acceleration, steady-state, and deceleration) process during shear band propagation. The fastest propagating speed occurring at the steady state is calculated as 8????10^2 ???µm/s. This speed is about 1,000 times faster than the crosshead speed. This explains the gradual disappearance of flow serration at higher strain rates previously reported during compression of

Nieh, T.G.

2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

18

Chemical treatment for silica-containing glass surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Dehydroxylated, silica-containing, glass surfaces are known to be at least partially terminated by strained siloxane rings. According to the invention, a surface of this kind is exposed to a selected silane compound or mixture of silane compounds under reaction-promoting conditions. The ensuing reaction results in opening of the strained siloxane rings, and termination of surface atoms by chemical species, such as organic or organosilicon species, having desirable properties. These species can be chosen to provide qualities such as hydrophobicity, or improved coupling to a polymeric coating. 11 figs.

Grabbe, A.; Michalske, T.A.; Smith, W.L.

1998-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

19

Chemical treatment for silica-containing glass surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Dehydroxylated, silica-containing, glass surfaces are known to be at least partially terminated by strained siloxane rings. According to the invention, a surface of this kind is exposed to a selected silane compound or mixture of silane compounds under reaction-promoting conditions. The ensuing reaction results in opening of the strained siloxane rings, and termination of surface atoms by chemical species, such as organic or organosilicon species, having desirable properties. These species can be chosen to provide qualities such as hydrophobicity, or improved coupling to a polymeric coating.

Grabbe, Alexis (Albuquerque, NM); Michalske, Terry Arthur (Bernalillo, NM); Smith, William Larry (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Chemical treatment for silica-containing glass surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Dehydroxylated, silica-containing, glass surfaces are known to be at least partially terminated by strained siloxane rings. According to the invention, a surface of this kind is exposed to a selected silane compound or mixture of silane compounds under reaction-promoting conditons. The ensuing reaction results in opening of the strained siloxane rings, and termination of surface atoms by chemical species, such as organic or organosilicon species, having desirable properties. These species can be chosen to provide qualities such as hydrophobicity, or improved coupling to a polymeric coating.

Grabbe, Alexis (Albuquerque, NM); Michalske, Terry Arthur (Cedar Crest, NM); Smith, William Larry (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bulk chemicals glass" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Chemical treatment for silica-containing glass surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Dehydroxylated, silica-containing, glass surfaces are known to be at least partially terminated by strained siloxane rings. According to the invention, a surface of this kind is exposed to a selected silane compound or mixture of silane compounds under reaction-promoting conditions. The ensuing reaction results in opening of the strained siloxane rings, and termination of surface atoms by chemical species, such as organic or organosilicon species, having desirable properties. These species can be chosen to provide qualities such as hydrophobicity, or improved coupling to a polymeric coating.

Grabbe, Alexis (Albuquerque, NM); Michalske, Terry Arthur (Cedar Crest, NM); Smith, William Larry (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Glasstech. Ber. Glass Sci. Technol. 75 C2 (2002) 298 Photoinduced Chemical Etching of Silicate and Borosilicate Glasses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Glasstech. Ber. Glass Sci. Technol. 75 C2 (2002) 298 Photoinduced Chemical Etching of Silicate. However, those data are in a contradiction with published data on radiation defect generation in silicate of the photoinduced etching in silicate glasses. 2. Experimental The following materials were used as samples

Glebov, Leon

23

Effect of high strain rates on peak stress in a Zr-based bulk metallic glass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mechanical behavior of Zr{sub 41.25}Ti{sub 13.75}Cu{sub 12.5}Ni{sub 10}Be{sub 22.5} (LM-1) has been extensively characterized under quasistatic loading conditions; however, its mechanical behavior under dynamic loading conditions is currently not well understood. A Split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) and a single-stage gas gun are employed to characterize the mechanical behavior of LM-1 in the strain-rate regime of 10{sup 2}-10{sup 5}/s. The SHPB experiments are conducted with a tapered insert design to mitigate the effects of stress concentrations and preferential failure at the specimen-insert interface. The higher strain-rate plate-impact compression-and-shear experiments are conducted by impacting a thick tungsten carbide (WC) flyer plate with a sandwich sample comprising a thin bulk metallic glass specimen between two thicker WC target plates. Specimens employed in the SHPB experiments failed in the gage-section at a peak stress of approximately 1.8 GPa. Specimens in the high strain-rate plate-impact experiments exhibited a flow stress in shear of approximately 0.9 GPa, regardless of the shear strain-rate. The flow stress under the plate-impact conditions was converted to an equivalent flow stress under uniaxial compression by assuming a von Mises-like material behavior and accounting for the plane strain conditions. The results of these experiments, when compared to the previous work conducted at quasistatic loading rates, indicate that the peak stress of LM-1 is essentially strain rate independent over the strain-rate range up to 10{sup 5}/s.

Sunny, George; Yuan Fuping; Prakash, Vikas [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7222 (United States); Lewandowski, John [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7222 (United States)

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Synthesis of nanocrystals in KNb(Ge,Si)O{sub 5} glasses and chemical etching of nanocrystallized glass fibers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The nanocrystallization behavior of 25K{sub 2}O-25Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-(50-x)GeO{sub 2}-xSiO{sub 2} glasses with x=0,25,and50 (i.e., KNb(Ge,Si)O{sub 5} glasses) and the chemical etching behavior of transparent nanocrystallized glass fibers have been examined. All glasses show nanocrystallization, and the degree of transparency of the glasses studied depends on the heat treatment temperature. Transparent nanocrystallized glasses can be obtained if the glasses are heat treated at the first crystallization peak temperature. Transparent nanocrystallized glass fibers with a diameter of about 100{mu}m in 25K{sub 2}O-25Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-50GeO{sub 2} are fabricated, and fibers with sharpened tips (e.g., the taper length is about 450{mu}m and the tip angle is about 12{sup o}) are obtained using a meniscus chemical etching method, in which etching solutions of 10wt%-HF/hexane and 10M-NaOH/hexane are used. Although the tip (aperture size) has not a nanoscaled size, the present study suggests that KNb(Ge,Si)O{sub 5} nanocrystallized glass fibers have a potential for new near-field optical fiber probes with high refractive indices of around n=1.8 and high dielectric constants of around {epsilon}=58 (1kHz, room temperature)

Enomoto, Itaru [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan); Benino, Yasuhiko [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan); Fujiwara, Takumi [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan); Komatsu, Takayuki [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)]. E-mail: komatsu@chem.nagaokaut.ac.jp

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

25

Effect of Heating Rate on Glass Foaming: Transition to Bulk Foam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Foaming of glass is an undesirable side effect of glass fining. According to a recent experimental study, the gas-phase volume in the melt heated at a constant rate dramatically increased with an increased rate of heating. This observation indicates that an increased rate of heating (a natural consequence of the increased processing rate experienced as a result of transition to oxy-fuel firing) may exert a substantial influence on glass foaming in advanced glass-melting furnaces. This paper attributes this effect to the change of mode of foam formation in response to an increased rate of heating.

Hrma, Pavel R.

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

26

Simulation of cooling and solidification of three-dimensional bulk borosilicate glass: effect of structural relaxations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Abstract The modeling of the viscoelastic stress evolution and specific volume relaxation of a bulky glass cast is presented in this article and is applied to the experimental cooling process of an inactive nuclear waste vitrification process. The concerned borosilicate glass is solidified and cooled down to ambient temperature in a stainless steel canister, and the thermomechanical response of the package is simulated. There exists a deviant compression of the liquid core due to the large glass package compared to standard tempered glass plates. The stress load development of the glass cast is finally studied for different thermal load scenarios, where the cooling process parameters or the final cooldown rates were changed, and we found a great influence of the studied cooldown rates on the maximum stress buildup at ambient temperature.

Barth, N.; George, D.; Ahzi, Said; Remond, Y.; Joulaee, N.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Bouyer, F.

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

27

Sedimentation stacking diagram of binary colloidal mixtures and bulk phases in the plane of chemical potentials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We give a full account of a recently proposed theory that explicitly relates the bulk phase diagram of a binary colloidal mixture to its phase stacking phenomenology under gravity [Soft Matter 9, 8636 (2013)]. As we demonstrate, the full set of possible phase stacking sequences in sedimentation-diffusion equilibrium originates from straight lines (sedimentation paths) in the chemical potential representation of the bulk phase diagram. From the analysis of various standard topologies of bulk phase diagrams, we conclude that the corresponding sedimentation stacking diagrams can be very rich, even more so when finite sample height is taken into account. We apply the theory to obtain the stacking diagram of a mixture of nonadsorbing polymers and colloids. We also present a catalog of generic phase diagrams in the plane of chemical potentials in order to facilitate the practical application of our concept, which also generalizes to multi component mixtures.

Daniel de las Heras; Matthias Schmidt

2014-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

28

Looking for footprint of bulk metallic glass in electronic and phonon heat capacities of Cu{sub 55}Hf{sub 45?x}Ti{sub x} alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the heat capacity investigation of Cu{sub 55}Hf{sub 45?x}Ti{sub x} metallic glasses. The most appropriate procedure to estimate low temperature electronic and phonon contributions has been determined. Both contributions exhibit monotonous Ti concentration dependence, demonstrating that there is no relation of either the electron density of states at the Fermi level or the Debye temperature to the increased glass forming ability in the Ti concentration range x?=?1530. The thermodynamic parameters (e.g., reduced glass temperature) remain better indicators in assessing the best composition for bulk metallic glass formation.

Remenyi, G. [Institut Nel, Universit Grenoble Alpes, F-38042 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Institut Nel, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Biljakovi?, K. [CNRS, Institut Nel, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Institute of Physics, Bijeni?ka c. 46, P.O. Box 304, HR-10001 Zagreb (Croatia); Stareini?, D.; Dominko, D., E-mail: ddominko@ifs.hr [Institute of Physics, Bijeni?ka c. 46, P.O. Box 304, HR-10001 Zagreb (Croatia); Risti?, R. [Department of Physics, Trg Lj. Gaja 6, HR-31000 Osijek (Croatia); Babi?, E. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Bijeni?ka c. 32, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Figueroa, I. A. [Institute for Materials Research-UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria Coyoacan, C.P. 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Davies, H. A. [Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

29

EMPTY CHEMICAL BOTTLES RECYCLING PROGRAM Empty Chemical Bottles Recycling includes all glass, plastic and metal bottles and containers that previously  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EMPTY CHEMICAL BOTTLES RECYCLING PROGRAM Empty Chemical Bottles Recycling includes all glass Disposal Guide. Do not place empty chemical bottles in commingled recycling bins on hallways, trash cans and with a 20 gallons capacity. It is made of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with 100% post-consumer recycled

Baker, Chris I.

30

Hybrid optics for the visible produced by bulk casting of sol-gel glass using diamond-turned molds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent combinations of diffractive and refractive functions in the same optical component allow designers additional opportunities to make systems more compact and enhance performance. This paper describes a research program for fabricating hybrid refractive/diffractive components from diamond-turned molds using the bulk casting of sol-gel silica glass. The authors use the complementary dispersive nature of refractive and diffractive optics to render two-color correction in a single hybrid optical element. Since diamond turning has matured as a deterministic manufacturing technology, techniques previously suitable only in the infrared are now being applied to components used at visible wavelengths. Thus, the marriage of diamond turning and sol-gel processes offers a cost-effective method for producing highly customized and specialized optical components in high quality silica glass. With the sol-gel casting method of replication, diamond-turned mold costs can be shared over many pieces. Diamond turning takes advantage of all of the available degrees of freedom in a single hybrid optical element: aspheric surface to eliminate spherical aberration, kinoform surface for control of primary chromatic aberration, and the flexibility to place the kinoform on non-planar surfaces for maximum design flexibility. The authors discuss the critical issues involved in designing the hybrid element, single point diamond-turning the mold, and fabrication in glass using the sol-gel process.

Bernacki, B.E.; Miller, A.C.; Maxey, L.C.; Cunningham, J.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Moreshead, W.V.; Nogues, J.L.R. [Geltech Inc., Alachua, FL (United States)

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Complexity of shear localization in a Zr-based bulk metallic glass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191, China The compressive behaviour of a Zr. A significant advance occurred when compositions and copper mold casting method allowing for bulk material the consequence of) macroscopic shear banding remains unclear. It is therefore important to carry out in situ

32

Complexity of shear localization in a Zr-based bulk metallic glass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191, China The compressive behaviour of a Zr. A significant advance occurred when compositions and copper mold casting method allowing for bulk material unclear. It is therefore important to carry out in situ observations of plastic deformation processes

33

Bulk chemicals from biomass Jacco van Haveren, Agrotechnology and Food Innovations B.V., Wageningen, The Netherlands  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

41 Review Bulk chemicals from biomass Jacco van Haveren, Agrotechnology and Food Innovations B production, and available biomass conversion technologies, biomass-based routes are expected to make and -caprolactam. Technologies involving direct isolation of aromatic building blocks from biomass

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

34

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SIMULATED HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASSES TO SUPPORT SULFATE SOLUBILITY MODELING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) is sponsoring an international, collaborative project to develop a fundamental model for sulfate solubility in nuclear waste glass. The solubility of sulfate has a significant impact on the achievable waste loading for nuclear waste forms both within the DOE complex and to some extent at U.K. sites. The development of enhanced borosilicate glass compositions with improved sulfate solubility will allow for higher waste loadings and accelerated cleanup missions. Much of the previous work on improving sulfate retention in waste glasses has been done on an empirical basis, making it difficult to apply the findings to future waste compositions despite the large number of glass systems studied. A more fundamental, rather than empirical, model of sulfate solubility in glass, under development at Sheffield Hallam University (SHU), could provide a solution to the issues of sulfate solubility. The model uses the normalized cation field strength index as a function of glass composition to predict sulfate capacity, and has shown early success for some glass systems. The objective of the current scope is to mature the sulfate solubility model to the point where it can be used to guide glass composition development for DOE waste vitrification efforts, allowing for enhanced waste loadings and waste throughput. A series of targeted glass compositions was selected to resolve data gaps in the current model. SHU fabricated these glasses and sent samples to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for chemical composition analysis. SHU will use the resulting data to enhance the sulfate solubility model and resolve any deficiencies. In this report, SRNL provides chemical analyses for simulated waste glasses fabricated SHU in support of sulfate solubility model development. A review of the measured compositions revealed that there are issues with the B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations missing their targeted values by a significant amount for several of the study glasses. SHU is reviewing the fabrication of these glasses and the chemicals used in batching them to identify the source of these issues. The measured sulfate concentrations were all below their targeted values. This is expected, as the targeted concentrations likely exceeded the solubility limit for sulfate in these glass compositions. Some volatilization of sulfate may also have occurred during fabrication of the glasses. Measurements of the other oxides in the study glasses were reasonably close to their targeted values

Fox, K.; Marra, J.

2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

35

EFFECTS OF ION IRRADIATION ON Zr52.5Cu17.9Ni14.6Al10Ti5 (BAM-11) BULK METALLIC GLASS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bulk metallic glasses are intriguing candidates for nuclear applications due to their inherent amorphous structure, but their radiation response is largely unknown due to the relatively recent nature of innovations in bulk metallic glass fabrication. Here, microstructural and mechanical property evaluations have been performed on a Zr52.5Cu17.9Ni14.6Al10Ti5 bulk metallic glass (BAM-11) irradiated with 3 MeV Ni+ ions to 0.1 and 1.0 dpa at room temperature and 200 C. Nanoindentation hardness and Young s modulus both decreased by 6 to 20% in samples irradiated at room temperature, with the sample irradiated to 1.0 dpa experiencing the greatest change in mechanical properties. However, no significant changes in properties were observed in the samples irradiated at 200 C, and transmission electron microscopy showed no visible evidence of radiation damage or crystallization following ion irradiation at any of the tested conditions. These results suggest that BAM-11 bulk metallic glass may be useful for certain applications in nuclear environments.

Perez-Bergquist, Alex G [ORNL] [ORNL; Bei, Hongbin [ORNL] [ORNL; Leonard, Keith J [ORNL] [ORNL; Zhang, Yanwen [ORNL] [ORNL; Zinkle, Steven J [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND PCT DATA FOR THE INITIAL SET OF HANFORD ENHANCED WASTE LOADING GLASSES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test results for 20 simulated high level waste glasses fabricated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of these analyses will be used as part of efforts to revise or extend the validation ranges of the current Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant glass property models to cover a broader span of waste compositions. The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component for each glass. Two components of the study glasses, fluorine and silver, were not measured since each of these species would have required the use of an additional preparation method and their measured values were likely to be near or below analytical detection limits. Some of the glasses were difficult to prepare for chemical analysis. A sodium peroxide fusion dissolution method was successful in completely dissolving the glasses. Components present in the glasses in minor concentrations can be difficult to measure using this dissolution method due to dilution requirements. The use of a lithium metaborate preparation method for the minor components (planned for use since it is typically successful in digesting Defense Waste Processing Facility HLW glasses) resulted in an unacceptable amount of undissolved solids remaining in the sample solutions. An acid dissolution method was used instead, which provided more thorough dissolution of the glasses, although a small amount of undissolved material remained for some of the study glasses. The undissolved material was analyzed to determine those components of the glasses that did not fully dissolve. These components (e.g., calcium and chromium) were present in sufficient quantities to be reported from the measurements resulting from the sodium peroxide fusion preparation method, which did not leave undissolved material. Overall, the analyses resulted in sums of oxides that ranged from about 98 to 101.5 wt % for the study glasses, indicating excellent recovery of all the components in the chemical composition analyses. Comparisons of the targeted and measured chemical compositions indicated that, in general, the measured values for the glasses met the targeted concentrations. Exceptions were Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO, and P{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The measured values for Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} were somewhat low when compared to the targeted values for all of the study glasses targeting Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations above 0.5 wt %. Many of the measured MgO and P{sub 2}O{sub 5} values were below the targeted values for those glasses that contained these components. Two of the study glasses exhibited differences from the targeted compositions that may indicate a batching error. Glasses EWG-HAI-Centroid-2 and EWG-OL-1672 had measured values for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} that were lower than the targeted values, and measured values for B{sub 2}O{sub 3} that were higher than the targeted values. Glass EWG-HAI-Centroid-2 also had a measured value for Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} that was lower than the targeted value. A review of the PCT data, including standards and blanks, revealed no issues with the performance of the tests. The PCT results were normalized to both the targeted and measured compositions of the study glasses. Comparisons of the normalized PCT results for both the quenched and Canister Centerline Cooled versions of the study glasses are made with the Environmental Assessment benchmark glass for reference.

Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

37

Chemically strengthened protection glasses for the applications of space solar cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of chemically strengthened processing and the ion beam irradiation on the mechanical characteristics of space solar cell protection glasses are investigated using dynamic mechanical analysis and micro hardness instrument; also the corresponding optical properties were analyzed by utilizing the UV/visible spectrophotometer. The results suggest that the flexural strength, fracture toughness and surface characteristics are enhanced via the chemical strengthening process. Importantly, such process has a trivial influence with ?0.2% degradation on the transparency of chemically strengthened glasses in the band range of 350 ? 1000 nm, while exhibits an excellent resistance on radiation damage by ion beams bombardment, demonstrating an outstanding durability in the space radiation environment.

Wang, H. F., E-mail: whf2008@dhu.edu.cn [College of Material Science and Engineering, Donghua University, 2999 North Renmin Road, Songjiang District, Shanghai 201620 (China); Xing, G. Z., E-mail: guozhong.xing@unsw.edu.au; Zhang, L.; Li, S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Wang, X. Y. [Department of Civil Engineering, Northeast Dianli University, Jilin 132012 (China)] [Department of Civil Engineering, Northeast Dianli University, Jilin 132012 (China); Zhang, L. L. [Zhuhai College of Jilin University, Zhuhai, Guangdong, 519041 (China)] [Zhuhai College of Jilin University, Zhuhai, Guangdong, 519041 (China)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

38

Development of mirrors made of chemically tempered glass foils for future X-ray telescopes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thin slumped glass foils are considered good candidates for the realization of future X-ray telescopes with large effective area and high spatial resolution. However, the hot slumping process affects the glass strength, and this can be an issue during the launch of the satellite because of the high kinematical and static loads occurring during that phase. In the present work we have investigated the possible use of Gorilla glass (produced by Corning), a chemical tempered glass that, thanks to its strength characteristics, would be ideal. The un-tempered glass foils were curved by means of an innovative hot slumping technique and subsequently chemically tempered. In this paper we show that the chemical tempering process applied to Gorilla glass foils does not affect the surface micro-roughness of the mirrors. On the other end, the stress introduced by the tempering process causes a reduction in the amplitude of the longitudinal profile errors with a lateral size close to the mirror length. The effect of the ov...

Salmaso, B; Brizzolari, B; Basso, S; Ghigo, M; Pareschi, G; Spiga, D; Proserpio, L; Suppiger, Y

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Studies of Shear Band Velocity Using Spatially and Temporally Resolved Measurements of Strain During Quasistatic Compression of Bulk Metallic Glass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have made measurements of the temporal and spatial features of the evolution of strain during the serrated flow of Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 40}P{sub 20} bulk metallic glass tested under quasistatic, room temperature, uniaxial compression. Strain and load data were acquired at rates of up to 400 kHz using strain gages affixed to all four sides of the specimen and a piezoelectric load cell located near the specimen. Calculation of the displacement rate requires an assumption about the nature of the shear displacement. If one assumes that the entire shear plane displaces simultaneously, the displacement rate is approximately 0.002 m/s. If instead one assumes that the displacement occurs as a localized propagating front, the velocity of the front is approximately 2.8 m/s. In either case, the velocity is orders of magnitude less than the shear wave speed ({approx}2000 m/s). The significance of these measurements for estimates of heating in shear bands is discussed.

Wright, W J; Samale, M; Hufnagel, T; LeBlanc, M; Florando, J

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

40

Changing Trends in the Bulk Chemicals and Pulp and Paper Industries (released in AEO2005)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Compared with the experience of the 1990s, rising energy prices in recent years have led to questions about expectations of growth in industrial output, particularly in energy-intensive industries. Given the higher price trends, a review of expected growth trends in selected industries was undertaken as part of the production of Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO). In addition, projections for the industrial value of shipments, which were based on the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system in AEO2004, are based on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) in AEO2005. The change in industrial classification leads to lower historical growth rates for many industrial sectors. The impacts of these two changes are highlighted in this section for two of the largest energy-consuming industries in the U.S. industrial sector-bulk chemicals and pulp and paper.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bulk chemicals glass" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Standard test methods for determining chemical durability of nuclear, hazardous, and mixed waste glasses and multiphase glass ceramics: The product consistency test (PCT)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1.1 These product consistency test methods A and B evaluate the chemical durability of homogeneous glasses, phase separated glasses, devitrified glasses, glass ceramics, and/or multiphase glass ceramic waste forms hereafter collectively referred to as glass waste forms by measuring the concentrations of the chemical species released to a test solution. 1.1.1 Test Method A is a seven-day chemical durability test performed at 90 2C in a leachant of ASTM-Type I water. The test method is static and conducted in stainless steel vessels. Test Method A can specifically be used to evaluate whether the chemical durability and elemental release characteristics of nuclear, hazardous, and mixed glass waste forms have been consistently controlled during production. This test method is applicable to radioactive and simulated glass waste forms as defined above. 1.1.2 Test Method B is a durability test that allows testing at various test durations, test temperatures, mesh size, mass of sample, leachant volume, a...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

A comparison of the physical and chemical properties of asbestos, mineral wool and fibrous glass insulation material  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A COMPARISON OF THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ASBESTOS, MINERAL WOOL AND FIBROUS GLASS INSULATION MATERIAL A Thesis by MICHAEL GALEN COWAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AMi University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1984 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene A COMPARISON OF THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ASBESTOS, MINERAL WOOL AND FIBROUS GLASS INSULATION MATERIAL A Thesis by MICHAEL GALEN COWAN Approved...

Cowan, Michael Galen

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

43

Using a surface-sensitive chemical probe and a bulk structure...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

probe and a bulk structure technique to monitor the ?- to ?-Al2O3 phase Abstract: In this work, we investigated the phase transformation of ? Al2O3 to...

44

Standard practices for dissolving glass containing radioactive and mixed waste for chemical and radiochemical analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1.1 These practices cover techniques suitable for dissolving glass samples that may contain nuclear wastes. These techniques used together or independently will produce solutions that can be analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), radiochemical methods and wet chemical techniques for major components, minor components and radionuclides. 1.2 One of the fusion practices and the microwave practice can be used in hot cells and shielded hoods after modification to meet local operational requirements. 1.3 The user of these practices must follow radiation protection guidelines in place for their specific laboratories. 1.4 Additional information relating to safety is included in the text. 1.5 The dissolution techniques described in these practices can be used for quality control of the feed materials and the product of plants vitrifying nuclear waste materials in glass. 1.6 These pr...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Chemical bath deposition of cadmium sulfide on graphene-coated flexible glass substrate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate a flexible structure of cadmium sulfide (CdS) on graphene-coated glass substrate, where CdS was deposited by the chemical bath deposition method on defective tri-layer graphene. The defects in graphene, confirmed by micro-Raman spectroscopy, were created by a ultra-violet treatment with varying exposure time from 10 to 60?min. The number of defect sites in the graphene as a seed layer was related to the quality of the CdS thin films determined from the results from X-ray diffraction, optical transmittance, scanning electron microscopy, and room temperature micro-photoluminescence. Our film-on-substrate structure of CdS-graphene-on-glass was maintained up to a tensile strain of 0.3%, where graphene with a high failure strain was employed as a transparent conductive layer.

Seo, Won-Oh; Jung, Younghun; Kim, Jihyun, E-mail: hyunhyun7@korea.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jiwan [Flexible Display Research Center, Korea Electronics Technology Institute, Yatap-dong, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-816 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Donghwan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

46

Vitrification and testing of a Hanford high-level waste sample. Part 1: Glass fabrication, and chemical and radiochemical analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford radioactive tank waste will be separated into low-activity waste and high-level waste that will both be vitrified into borosilicate glasses. To demonstrate the feasibility of vitrification and the durability of the high-level waste glass, a high-level waste sample from Tank AZ-101 was processed to glass in a hot cell and analyzed with respect to chemical composition, radionuclide content, waste loading, and the presence of crystalline phases and then tested for leachability. The glass was analyzed with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, ? energy spectrometry, ? spectrometry, and liquid scintillation counting. The WISE Uranium Project calculator was used to calculate the main sources of radioactivity to the year 3115. The observed crystallinity and the results of leachability testing of the glass will be reported in Part 2 of this paper.

Hrma, Pavel R.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Bates, Derrick J.; Bredt, Paul; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Smith, H D.

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

On-line coating of glass with tin oxide by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of tin oxide is a very important manufacturing technique used in the production of low-emissivity glass. It is also the primary method used to provide wear-resistant coatings on glass containers. The complexity of these systems, which involve chemical reactions in both the gas phase and on the deposition surface, as well as complex fluid dynamics, makes process optimization and design of new coating reactors a very difficult task. In 2001 the U.S. Dept. of Energy Industrial Technologies Program Glass Industry of the Future Team funded a project to address the need for more accurate data concerning the tin oxide APCVD process. This report presents a case study of on-line APCVD using organometallic precursors, which are the primary reactants used in industrial coating processes. Research staff at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA, and the PPG Industries Glass Technology Center in Pittsburgh, PA collaborated to produce this work. In this report, we describe a detailed investigation of the factors controlling the growth of tin oxide films. The report begins with a discussion of the basic elements of the deposition chemistry, including gas-phase thermochemistry of tin species and mechanisms of chemical reactions involved in the decomposition of tin precursors. These results provide the basis for experimental investigations in which tin oxide growth rates were measured as a function of all major process variables. The experiments focused on growth from monobutyltintrichloride (MBTC) since this is one of the two primary precursors used industrially. There are almost no reliable growth-rate data available for this precursor. Robust models describing the growth rate as a function of these variables are derived from modeling of these data. Finally, the results are used to conduct computational fluid dynamic simulations of both pilot- and full-scale coating reactors. As a result, general conclusions are reached concerning the factors affecting the growth rate in on-line APCVD reactors. In addition, a substantial body of data was generated that can be used to model many different industrial tin oxide coating processes. These data include the most extensive compilation of thermochemistry for gas-phase tin-containing species as well as kinetic expressions describing tin oxide growth rates over a wide range of temperatures, pressures, and reactant concentrations.

Allendorf, Mark D.; Sopko, J.F. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); Houf, William G.; Chae, Yong Kee; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Li, M. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); McCamy, J.W. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA)

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

The effect of chemical composition on the PCT durability of mixed waste glasses from wastewater treatment sludges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental program has been designed to examine the chemical durability of glass compositions derived from the vitrification of simulated wastewater treatment sludges. These sludges represent the majority of low-level mixed wastes currently in need of treatment by the US DOE. The major oxides in these model glasses included SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O, CaO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In addition, three minor oxides, BaO, NiO, and PbO, were added as hazardous metals. The major oxides were each varied at two levels resulting in 32 experimental glasses. The chemical durability was measured by the 7-Day Product Consistency Test (PCT). The normalized sodium release rates (NRR{sub Na}) of these glasses ranged from 0.01 to 4.99 g/m{sup 2}. The molar ratio of the glass-former to glass-modifier (F/M) was found to have the greatest effect on PCT durability. Glass-formers included SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, while Na{sub 2}O, CaO, BaO, NiO, and PbO were glass-modifiers. As this ratio increased from 0.75 to 2.0, NRR{sub Na} was found to decrease between one and two orders of magnitude. Another important effect on NRR{sub Na} was the Na{sub 2}O/CaO ratio. As this ratio increased from 0.5 to 2.0, NRR{sub Na} increased up to two orders of magnitude for the glasses with the low F/M ratio but almost no effect was observed for the glasses with the high F/M ratio. Increasing the iron oxide content from 2 to 18 mole% was found to decrease NRR{sub Na} one order of magnitude for the glasses with low F/M but iron had little effect on the glasses with the high F/M ratio. The durability also increased when 10 mole percent Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was included in low iron oxide glasses but no effect was observed with the high iron glasses. The addition of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} had little effect on durability. The effects of other composition parameters on durability are discussed as well.

Resce, J.L.; Ragsdale, R.G.; Overcamp, T.J. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Bickford, D.F.; Cicero, C.A. [Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (United States)

1995-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

49

Interfacial analysis of the ex-situ reinforced phase of a laser spot welded Zr-based bulk metallic glass composite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To study the interfacial reaction of the ex-situ reinforced phase (Ta) of a Zr-based ((Zr{sub 48}Cu{sub 36}Al{sub 8}Ag{sub 8})Si{sub 0.75} + Ta{sub 5}) bulk metallic glass composite after laser spot welding, the interfacial regions of the reinforced phases located at specific zones in the welds including the parent material, weld fusion zone and heat affected zone were investigated. Specimen preparation from the specific zones for transmission electron microscopy analysis was performed using the focused ion beam technique. The test results showed that the reinforced phases in the parent material, weld fusion zone and heat affected zone were all covered by an interfacial layer. From microstructure analysis, and referring to the phase diagram, it was clear that the thin layers are an intermetallic compound ZrCu phase. However, due to their different formation processes, those layers show the different morphologies or thicknesses. - Highlights: An ex-situ Zr-based BMG composite was laser spot welded. The interfacial regions of the RPs located at PM, WFZ and HAZ were investigated. The RPs in the PM, WFZ and HAZ were all covered by a ZrCu interfacial layer. Due to different formation processes, those layers show the different morphology.

Wang, Huei-Sen, E-mail: huei@isu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, 84001, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, 81148, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Hou-Guang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, 84001, Taiwan (China); Jang, Jason Shian-Ching [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Chung-Li 32001, Taiwan (China); Lin, Dong-Yih [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, 81148, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Gu, Jhen-Wang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, 84001, Taiwan (China)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

50

Refractory Glass Seals for SOFC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the critical challenges facing planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology is the need for reliable sealing technology. Seals must exhibit long-term stability and mechanical integrity in the high temperature SOFC environment during normal and transient operation. Several different approaches for sealing SOFC stacks are under development, including glass or glass-ceramic seals, metallic brazes, and compressive seals. Among glass seals, rigid glass-ceramics, self-healing glass, and composite glass approaches have been investigated under the SECA Core Technology Program. The U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed the refractory glass approach in light of the fact that higher sealing temperatures (e.g., 930-1000 degrees C) may enhance the ultimate in-service bulk strength and electrical conductivity of contact materials, as well as the bonding strength between contact materials and adjacent SOFC components, such as interconnect coatings and electrodes. This report summarizes the thermal, chemical, mechanical, and electrical properties of the refractory sealing glass.

Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Redox-Dependent Solubility of Technetium in Low Activity Waste Glass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solubility of technetium was measured in a Hanford low activity waste glass simulant. The simulant glass was melted, quenched and pulverized to make a stock of powdered glass. A series of glass samples were prepared using the powdered glass and varying amounts of solid potassium pertechnetate. Samples were melted at 1000C in sealed fused quartz ampoules. After cooling, the bulk glass and the salt phase above the glass (when present) were sampled for physical and chemical characterization. Technetium was found in the bulk glass up to 2000 ppm (using the glass as prepared) and 3000 ppm (using slightly reducing conditions). The chemical form of technetium obtained by x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy can be mainly assigned to isolated Tc(IV), with a minority of Tc(VII) in some glasses and TcO2 in two glasses. The concentration and speciation of technetium depends on glass redox and amount of technetium added. Solid crystals of pertechnetate salts were found in the salt cake layer that formed at the top of some glasses during the melt.

Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lukens, Wayne W.; Mccloy, John S.

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Silicon-on-glass pore network micromodels with oxygen-sensing fluorophore films for chemical imaging and defined spatial structure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pore network microfluidic models were fabricated by a silicon-on-glass technique that provides the precision advantage of dry etched silicon while creating a structure that is transparent across all microfluidic channels and pores, and can be imaged from either side. A silicon layer is bonded to an underlying borosilicate glass substrate and thinned to the desired height of the microfluidic channels and pores. The silicon is then patterned and through-etched by deep reactive ion etching (DRIE), with the underlying glass serving as an etch stop. After bonding on a transparent glass cover plate, one obtains a micromodel in oxygen impermeable materials with water wet surfaces where the microfluidic channels are transparent and structural elements such as the pillars creating the pore network are opaque. The micromodel can be imaged from either side. The advantageous features of this approach in a chemical imaging application are demonstrated by incorporating a Pt porphyrin fluorophore in a PDMS film serving as the oxygen sensing layer and a bonding surface, or in a polystyrene film coated with a PDMS layer for bonding. The sensing of a dissolved oxygen gradient was demonstrated using fluorescence lifetime imaging, and it is shown that different matrix polymers lead to optimal use in different ranges dissolved oxygen concentration. Imaging with the opaque pillars in between the observation direction and the continuous fluorophore film yields images that retain spatial information in the sensor image.

Grate, Jay W.; Kelly, Ryan T.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Anheier, Norman C.

2012-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

53

MAGNOX:BUTEX URANIUM BEARING GLASSES PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ANALYSIS DATA PACKAGE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sellafield Ltd (United Kingdom) has requested technical support from the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to characterize a series of uranium-bearing, mixed alkali borosilicate glasses [WFO (2010)]. The specific glasses to be characterized are based on different blends of Magnox (WRW17 simulant) and Butex (or HASTs 1 and 2) waste types as well as different incorporation rates (or waste loadings) of each blend. Specific Magnox:Butex blend ratios of interest include: 75:25, 60:40, and 50:50. Each of these waste blend ratios will be mixed with a base glass additive composition targeting waste loadings (WLs) of 25, 28, and 32% which will result in nine different glasses. The nine glasses are to be fabricated and physically characterized to provide Sellafield Ltd with the technical data to evaluate the impacts of various Magnox:Butex blend ratios and WLs on key glass properties of interest. It should be noted that the use of 'acceptable' in the Work for Other (WFO) was linked to the results of a durability test (more specifically the Soxhlet leach test). Other processing (e.g., viscosity ({eta}), liquidus temperature (T{sub L})) or product performance (e.g., Product Consistency Test (PCT) results - in addition to the Soxhlet leach test) property constraints were not identified. For example, a critical hold point in the classification of an 'acceptable glass' prior to processing high-level waste (HLW) through the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is an evaluation of specific processing and product performance properties against pre-defined constraints. This process is referred to as Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) acceptability in which predicted glass properties (based on compositional measurements) are compared to predefined constraints to determine whether the glass is acceptable [Brown and Postles (1995)]. As an example, although the nominal melter temperature at DWPF is 1150 C, there is a T{sub L} constraint (without uncertainties applied) of 1050 C. Any glass which has a T{sub L} predicted value > 1050 C would be classified as unacceptable and the SME product would not be transferred to the melter. As another example, consider durability (as defined by the PCT test) and its related constraints to determine acceptability. If the glass composition yields predicted normalized release values that exceed those associated with the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass (with uncertainties applied) then the glass is deemed unacceptable. The issue of acceptability plays a critical role in high level waste processing but without knowing the pre-defined constraints for the UK HLW system, assessments of acceptability of the glasses to be characterized in this study can not be made. The results of this study will be compared to DWPF constraints to provide a benchmark for determining acceptability. The objective of this task is to provide Sellafield Ltd. with the technical data to evaluate the impacts of various Magnox:Butex blend ratios and WLs on key glass properties of interest. The uranium bearing glasses span a compositional region of interest to Sellafield Ltd. and were physically characterized for key processing and product performance properties as defined in the WFO [WFO (2010)]. One of the specific technical issues (as defined in the WFO) is the potential impact of increasing aluminum concentrations on key properties (in particular viscosity).

Peeler, D.; Imrich, K.; Click, D.

2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

54

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Name of SOP Manual Hydrofluoric Acid (HF) Etching of Glass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

required Fume Hood, safety eye goggles, lab coat, two layers of nitrile gloves and HF Safety Kit Sequential containers. 5. HF is a glass etchant; only use plastic labware to contain HF. 6. Personal protective gear

Thompson, Michael

55

Glass transition of an epoxy resin induced by temperature, pressure and chemical conversion: a configurational entropy rationale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A comparative study is reported on the dynamics of a glass-forming epoxy resin when the glass transition is approached through different paths: cooling, compression, and polymerization. In particular, the influence of temperature, pressure and chemical conversion on the dynamics has been investigated by dielectric spectroscopy. Deep similarities are found in dynamic properties. A unified reading of our experimental results for the structural relaxation time is given in the framework of the Adam-Gibbs theory. The quantitative agreement with the experimental data is remarkable, joined with physical values of the fitting parameters. In particular, the fitting function of the isothermal tau(P) data gives a well reasonable prediction for the molar thermal expansion of the neat system, and the fitting function of the isobaric-isothermal tau(C) data under step- polymerization conforms to the prediction of diverging tau at complete conversion of the system.

Silvia Corezzi

2001-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

56

HGMS: Glasses and Nanocomposites for Hydrogen Storage.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary goal of this project is to fabricate and investigate different glass systems and glass-derived nanocrystalline composite materials. These glass-based, two-phased materials will contain nanocrystals that can attract hydrogen and be of potential interest as hydrogen storage media. The glass materials with intrinsic void spaces that are able to precipitate functional nanocrystals capable to attract hydrogen are of particular interest. Proposed previously, but never practically implemented, one of promising concepts for storing hydrogen are micro-containers built of glass and shaped into hollow microspheres. The project expanded this concept to the exploration of glass-derived nanocrystalline composites as potential hydrogen storage media. It is known that the most desirable materials for hydrogen storage do not interact chemically with hydrogen and possess a high surface area to host substantial amounts of hydrogen. Glasses are built of disordered networks with ample void spaces that make them permeable to hydrogen even at room temperature. Glass-derived nanocrystalline composites (two-phased materials), combination of glasses (networks with ample voids) and functional nanocrystals (capable to attract hydrogen), appear to be promising candidates for hydrogen storage media. Key advantages of glass materials include simplicity of preparation, flexibility of composition, chemical durability, non-toxicity and mechanical strength, as well as low production costs and environmental friendliness. This project encompasses a fundamental research into physics and chemistry of glasses and nanocrystalline composite materials, derived from glass. Studies are aimed to answer questions essential for considering glass-based materials and composites as potential hydrogen storage media. Of particular interest are two-phased materials that combine glasses with intrinsic voids spaces for physisorption of hydrogen and nanocrystals capable of chemisorption. This project does not directly address any hydrogen storage technical barriers or targets in terms of numbers. Specifically, hydrogen sorption and desorption tests or kinetics measurements were not part of the project scope. However, the insights gained from these studies could help to answer fundamental questions necessary for considering glass-based materials as hydrogen storage media and could be applied indirectly towards the DOE hydrogen storage technical targets such as system weight and volume, system cost and energy density. Such questions are: Can specific macro-crystals, proven to attract hydrogen when in a macroscopic form (bulk), be nucleated in glass matrices as nanocrystals to create two-phased materials? What are suitable compositions that enable to synthetize glass-based, two-phase materials with nanocrystals that can attract hydrogen via surface or bulk interactions? What are the limits of controlling the microstructure of these materials, especially limits for nanocrystals density and size? Finally, from a technological point of view, the fabrication of glass-derived nanocomposites that we explore is a very simple, fast and inexpensive process that does not require costly or specialized equipment which is an important factor for practical applications.

Lipinska, Kris [PI] [PI; Hemmers, Oliver

2013-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

57

Bulk Vitrification Castable Refractory Block Protection Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bulk vitrification (BV) was selected for a pilot-scale test and demonstration facility for supplemental treatment to accelerate the cleanup of low-activity waste (LAW) at the Hanford U.S. DOE Site. During engineering-scale (ES) tests, a small fraction of radioactive Tc (and Re, its nonradioactive surrogate) were transferred out of the LAW glass feed and molten LAW glass, and deposited on the surface and within the pores of the castable refractory block (CRB). Laboratory experiments were undertaken to understand the mechanisms of the transport Tc/Re into the CRB during vitrification and to evaluate various means of CRB protection against the deposition of leachable Tc/Re. The tests used Re as a chemical surrogate for Tc. The tests with the baseline CRB showed that the molten LAW penetrates into CRB pores before it converts to glass, leaving deposits of sulfates and chlorides when the nitrate components decompose. Na2O from the LAW reacts with the CRB to create a durable glass phase that may contain Tc/Re. Limited data from a single CRB sample taken from an ES experiment indicate that, while a fraction of Tc/Re is present in the CRB in a readily leachable form, most of the Tc/Re deposited in the refractory is retained in the form of a durable glass phase. In addition, the molten salts from the LAW, mainly sulfates, chlorides, and nitrates, begin to evaporate from BV feeds at temperatures below 800 C and condense on solid surfaces at temperatures below 530 C. Three approaches aimed at reducing or preventing the deposition of soluble Tc/Re within the CRB were proposed: metal lining, sealing the CRB surface with a glaze, and lining the CRB with ceramic tiles. Metal liners were deemed unsuitable because evaluations showed that they can cause unacceptable distortions of the electric field in the BV system. Sodium silicate and a low-alkali borosilicate glaze were selected for testing. The glazes slowed down molten salt condensate penetration, but did little to reduce the penetration of molten salt. Out of several refractory tile candidates, only greystone and fused-cast alumina-zirconia-silica (AZS) refractory remained intact and well bonded to the CRB after firing to 1000 C. The deformation of the refractory-tile composite was avoided by prefiring the greystone tile to 800 C. Condensed vapors did not penetrate the tiles, but Re salts condensed on their surface. Refractory corrosion tests indicated that a 0.25-inch-thick greystone tile would not corrode during a BV melt. Tiles can reduce both vapor penetration and molten salt penetration, but vapor deposition above the melt line will occur even on tiles. The Tc/Re transport scenario was outlined as follows. At temperatures below 700 C, molten ionic salt (MIS) that includes all the Tc/Re penetrates, by capillarity, from the feed into the CRB open porosity. At approximately 750 C, the MIS decomposes through the loss of NOx, leaving mainly sulfate and chloride salts. The Na2O formed in the decomposition of the nitrates reacts with insoluble grains in the feed and with the aluminosilicates in the CRB to form more viscous liquids that reduce further liquid penetration into the CRB. At 800 to 1000 C, a continuous glass phase traps the remains of the MIS in the form of inclusions in the bulk glass melt. At 1000 to 1200 C, the salt inclusions in the glass slowly dissolve but also rise to the surface. The Tc/Re salts also evaporate from the free surface of the glass melt that is rapidly renewed by convective currents. The vapors condense on cooler surfaces in the upper portion of the CRB, the box lid, and the off-gas system.

Hrma, Pavel R.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Beck, Andrew E.; Brouns, Thomas M.; Caldwell, Dustin D.; Elliott, Michael L.; Matyas, Josef; Minister, Kevin BC; Schweiger, Michael J.; Strachan, Denis M.; Tinsley, Bronnie P.; Hollenberg, Glenn W.

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Compositional threshold for Nuclear Waste Glass Durability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Within the composition space of glasses, a distinct threshold appears to exist that separates "good" glasses, i.e., those which are sufficiently durable, from "bad" glasses of a low durability. The objective of our research is to clarify the origin of this threshold by exploring the relationship between glass composition, glass structure and chemical durability around the threshold region.

Kruger, Albert A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Farooqi, Rahmatullah [Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology, (Korea, Republic of); Hrma, Pavel R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States), Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology, (Korea, Republic of)

2013-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

59

Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of High Silica SiO2-TiO2 Antireflective Thin Films for Glass Based Solar Panels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of SiO2-TiO2 thin films employing [[(tBuO)3Si]2O-Ti(OiPr)2], which can be prepared from commercially available materials, results in antireflective thin films on float glass under industrially relevant manufacturing conditions. It was found that while the deposition temperature had an effect on the SiO2:TiO2 ratio, the thickness was dependent on the time of deposition. This study shows that it is possible to use APCVD employing a single source precursor containing titanium and silicon to produce thin films on float glass with high SiO2:TiO2 ratios.

Klobukowski, Erik R [ORNL; Tenhaeff, Wyatt E [ORNL; McCamy, James [PPG; Harris, Caroline [PPG; Narula, Chaitanya Kumar [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Calcium based bulk metallic glass has desirable properties for the aerospace industry including high strength and elasticity in addition to low density. These properties are due to the amorphous  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

structure of the glass and low atomic weight constituents. Near the glass transition, extreme softening by lubricating with methanol and grinding with 800 and 4000 grit SiC paper. X-Ray diffraction spectra were SUMMARY · In the as-received condition, the Ca-Mg-Zn glass has a higher 3pt bend notch toughness than

Rollins, Andrew M.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bulk chemicals glass" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Chemical order in Ge{sub x}As{sub y}Se{sub 1-x-y} glasses probed by high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have measured high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectra of Ge{sub x}As{sub y}Se{sub 1-x-y} glasses with a mean coordination number (MCN) from 2.2 to 2.78. The valence band spectra showed that a number of SeSeSe trimers can be found in Se-rich samples, whilst multiband features induced by phase separation can be observed in extremely Se-poor samples. When the Ge, As, and Se 3d spectra were decomposed into several doublets, which correspond, respectively, to different chemical environments, the perfect AsSe{sub 3/2} pyramidal and GeSe{sub 4/2} tetrahedral structures in Se-rich samples gradually evolved into defect structures, including AsAs and GeGe homopolar bonds, with increasing Ge and As concentrations. Two transition-like features were found at MCN?=?2.5 and 2.642.72 that correspond first to the disappearance of Se-chains in the glass network and, subsequently, destruction of the perfect GeSe{sub 4/2} tetrahedral structures, respectively.

Xu, S. W. [Laser Physics Centre, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); College of Applied Sciences, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing100124 (China); Wang, R. P.; Luther-Davies, B. [Laser Physics Centre, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Kovalskiy, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, Tennessee 37043 (United States); Miller, A. C.; Jain, H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, 5 East Packer Avenue, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015-3195 (United States)

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

62

Graphene oxide sheets, the chemical exfoliation product of graphite powders and precursor for the bulk production of graphene based materials, are found to be  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;Graphene oxide sheets, the chemical exfoliation product of graphite powders and precursor), is the product of chemical oxidation and exfoliation of graphite powders that was first synthesized over a cen atomic layer of sp2-hybridized carbon atoms (Fig. 1a). In 2004, it was isolated by mechanical exfoliation

Huang, Jiaxing

63

DWPF GLASS BEADS AND GLASS FRIT TRANSPORT DEMONSTRATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

DWPF is considering replacing irregularly shaped glass frit with spherical glass beads in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process to decrease the yield stress of the melter feed (a non-Newtonian Bingham Plastic). Pilot-scale testing was conducted on spherical glass beads and glass frit to determine how well the glass beads would transfer when compared to the glass frit. Process Engineering Development designed and constructed the test apparatus to aid in the understanding and impacts that spherical glass beads may have on the existing DWPF Frit Transfer System. Testing was conducted to determine if the lines would plug with the glass beads and the glass frit slurry and what is required to unplug the lines. The flow loop consisted of vertical and horizontal runs of clear PVC piping, similar in geometry to the existing system. Two different batches of glass slurry were tested: a batch of 50 wt% spherical glass beads and a batch of 50 wt% glass frit in process water. No chemicals such as formic acid was used in slurry, only water and glass formers. The glass beads used for this testing were commercially available borosilicate glass of mesh size -100+200. The glass frit was Frit 418 obtained from DWPF and is nominally -45+200 mesh. The spherical glass beads did not have a negative impact on the frit transfer system. The transferring of the spherical glass beads was much easier than the glass frit. It was difficult to create a plug with glass bead slurry in the pilot transfer system. When a small plug occurred from setting overnight with the spherical glass beads, the plug was easy to displace using only the pump. In the case of creating a man made plug in a vertical line, by filling the line with spherical glass beads and allowing the slurry to settle for days, the plug was easy to remove by using flush water. The glass frit proved to be much more difficult to transfer when compared to the spherical glass beads. The glass frit impacted the transfer system to the point that the test apparatus had to be disassembled to dislodge the plugs created in the system.

Adamson, D; Bradley Pickenheim, B

2008-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

64

Rotary bulk solids divider  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for the disbursement of a bulk solid sample comprising, a gravity hopper having a top open end and a bottom discharge end, a feeder positioned beneath the gravity hopper so as to receive a bulk solid sample flowing from the bottom discharge end, and a conveyor receiving the bulk solid sample from the feeder and rotating on an axis that allows the bulk solid sample to disperse the sample to a collection station.

Maronde, Carl P. (McMurray, PA); Killmeyer, Jr., Richard P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Silicon-on-glass pore network micromodels with oxygen-sensing...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Silicon-on-glass pore network micromodels with oxygen-sensing fluorophore films for chemical imaging and defined spatial Silicon-on-glass pore network micromodels with...

66

Active waveguide fabrication in erbium-doped oxyfluoride silicate glass using femtosecond pulses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Active waveguide fabrication in erbium-doped oxyfluoride silicate glass using femtosecond pulses R September 2005 By directly writing waveguides inside bulk erbium-doped oxyfluoride silicate glass using-doped oxyfluoride silicate glass using femtosecond pulses.3 These glasses, also fabri- cated by us, have been shown

67

WTP Calculation Sheet: Determining the LAW Glass Former Constituents and Amounts for G2 and Acm Models. 24590-LAW-M4C-LFP-00002, Rev. B  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this calculation is to determine the LAW glass former recipe and additives with their respective amounts. The methodology and equations contained herein are to be used in the G2 and ACM models until better information is supplied by R&T efforts. This revision includes calculations that determines the mass and volume of the bulk chemicals/minerals needed per batch. Plus, it contains calculations (for the G2 model) to help prevent overflow in LAW Feed Preparation Vessel.

Gimpel, Rodney F.; Kruger, Albert A.

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

68

Analytical Plan for Roman Glasses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Roman glasses that have been in the sea or underground for about 1800 years can serve as the independent experiment that is needed for validation of codes and models that are used in performance assessment. Two sets of Roman-era glasses have been obtained for this purpose. One set comes from the sunken vessel the Iulia Felix; the second from recently excavated glasses from a Roman villa in Aquileia, Italy. The specimens contain glass artifacts and attached sediment or soil. In the case of the Iulia Felix glasses quite a lot of analytical work has been completed at the University of Padova, but from an archaeological perspective. The glasses from Aquileia have not been so carefully analyzed, but they are similar to other Roman glasses. Both glass and sediment or soil need to be analyzed and are the subject of this analytical plan. The glasses need to be analyzed with the goal of validating the model used to describe glass dissolution. The sediment and soil need to be analyzed to determine the profile of elements released from the glass. This latter need represents a significant analytical challenge because of the trace quantities that need to be analyzed. Both pieces of information will yield important information useful in the validation of the glass dissolution model and the chemical transport code(s) used to determine the migration of elements once released from the glass. In this plan, we outline the analytical techniques that should be useful in obtaining the needed information and suggest a useful starting point for this analytical effort.

Strachan, Denis M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Mueller, Karl T.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Heeren, Ronald M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Poisson's Ratio and the Densification of Glass under High Pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because of a relatively low atomic packing density, (C{sub g}) glasses experience significant densification under high hydrostatic pressure. Poisson's ratio ({nu}) is correlated to C{sub g} and typically varies from 0.15 for glasses with low C{sub g} such as amorphous silica to 0.38 for close-packed atomic networks such as in bulk metallic glasses. Pressure experiments were conducted up to 25 GPa at 293 K on silica, soda-lime-silica, chalcogenide, and bulk metallic glasses. We show from these high-pressure data that there is a direct correlation between {nu} and the maximum post-decompression density change.

Rouxel, T.; Ji, H. [Applied Mechanics Laboratory of the University of Rennes 1, LARMAUR, Universite de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes cedex (France); Hammouda, T. [Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans, CNRS-OPG , Universite Blaise Pascal, 5 rue Kessler, 63038 Clermont-Ferrand cedex (France); Moreac, A. [IPR, CNRS-Universite de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes cedex (France)

2008-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

70

Nanomechanical studies of metallic glasses at ambient and elevated temperatures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bulk metallic glasses, though attractive for use in structural applications for their high strength and elastic limit, display several unacceptable features upon deformation, including quasi-brittle failure along shear ...

Packard, Corinne E

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

E-Print Network 3.0 - al bulk crystals Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

are homogeneously dispersed in the residual glass of the bulk for Tc... consists of titanite (CaTiSiO5) and anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8) crystals that have nucleated heterogeneously......

72

Large area bulk superconductors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A bulk superconductor having a thickness of not less than about 100 microns is carried by a polycrystalline textured substrate having misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.; the bulk superconductor may have a thickness of not less than about 100 microns and a surface area of not less than about 50 cm.sup.2. The textured substrate may have a thickness not less than about 10 microns and misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.. Also disclosed is a process of manufacturing the bulk superconductor and the polycrystalline biaxially textured substrate material.

Miller, Dean J. (Darien, IL); Field, Michael B. (Jersey City, NJ)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Classification of oxide glasses: A polarizability approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A classification of binary oxide glasses has been proposed taking into account the values obtained on their refractive index-based oxide ion polarizability {alpha}{sub O2-}(n{sub 0}), optical basicity {lambda}(n{sub 0}), metallization criterion M(n{sub 0}), interaction parameter A(n{sub 0}), and ion's effective charges as well as O1s and metal binding energies determined by XPS. Four groups of oxide glasses have been established: glasses formed by two glass-forming acidic oxides; glasses formed by glass-forming acidic oxide and modifier's basic oxide; glasses formed by glass-forming acidic and conditional glass-forming basic oxide; glasses formed by two basic oxides. The role of electronic ion polarizability in chemical bonding of oxide glasses has been also estimated. Good agreement has been found with the previous results concerning classification of simple oxides. The results obtained probably provide good basis for prediction of type of bonding in oxide glasses on the basis of refractive index as well as for prediction of new nonlinear optical materials.

Dimitrov, Vesselin [Department of Silicate Technology, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 Kl. Ohridski Blvd., Sofia 1756 (Bulgaria); Komatsu, Takayuki [Department of Chemistry, The Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka-shi, Niigata-ken 940-2188 (Japan)]. E-mail: komatsu@chem.nagaokaut.ac.jp

2005-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

74

The corrosion behavior of DWPF glasses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors analyzed the corroded surfaces of reference glasses developed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to characterize their corrosion behavior. The corrosion mechanism of nuclear waste glasses must be known in order to provide source terms describing radionuclide release for performance assessment calculations. Different DWPF reference glasses were corroded under conditions that highlighted various aspects of the corrosion process and led to different extents of corrosion. The glasses corroded by similar mechanisms, and a phenomenological description of their corrosion behavior is presented here. The initial leaching of soluble glass components results in the formation of an amorphous gel layer on the glass surface. The gel layer is a transient phase that transforms into a layer of clay crystallites, which equilibrates with the solution as corrosion continues. The clay layer does not act as a barrier to either water penetration or glass dissolution, which continues beneath it, and may eventually separate from the glass. Solubility limits for glass components may be established by the eventual precipitation of secondary phases; thus, corrosion of the glass becomes controlled by the chemical equilibrium between the solution and the assemblage of secondary phases. In effect, the solution is an intermediate phase through which the glass transforms to an energetically more favorable assemblage of phases. Implications regarding the prediction of long-term glass corrosion behavior are discussed.

Ebert, W.L.; Bates, J.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

1Cellular Polymers, Vol. 26, No. 1, 2007 On the Bulk Modulus of Open Cell Foams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrostaticcompressionoffoamisofinterestinavarietyofcontextsincluding under-sea applications. Syntactic foam, for instance, consists of hollow glass1Cellular Polymers, Vol. 26, No. 1, 2007 On the Bulk Modulus of Open Cell Foams © Rapra Technology, 2007 On the Bulk Modulus of Open Cell Foams B. Moore, T. Jaglinski, D.S. Stone§ and R.S. Lakes

Lakes, Roderic

76

Bulk Hydrogen Strategic Directions for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bulk Hydrogen Storage Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop May 7-8, 2003 Crystal City, Virginia #12;Breakout Session - Bulk Hydrogen Storage Main Themes/Caveats Bulk Storage = Anything storage is an economic solution to address supply/demand imbalance #12;Breakout Session - Bulk Hydrogen

77

Structure and magnetic properties of vanadiumsodium silicate glasses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Structure and magnetic properties of vanadium­sodium silicate glasses A. Mekki a,*, G.D. Khattak Received 4 April 2002 Abstract Vanadium­sodium silicate glasses with the chemical composition [ðV2O5?x(Na2O) atoms in the silicate glasses. The fraction of NBO, determined from these spectra is found to increase

Mekki, Abdelkarim

78

Viscous Glass Sealants for SOFC Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two series of silicate glasses that contain gallium as the primary critical component have been identified and optimized for viscous sealing of solid oxide fuel cells operating from 650 to 850°C. Both series of glass sealants crystallize partially upon heat treatment and yield multiphase microstructures that allow viscous flow at temperatures as low as 650°C. A fully amorphous sealant was also developed by isolating, synthesizing and testing a silicate glass of the same composition as the remnant glassy phase in one of the two glass series. Of ~40 glasses tested for longer than 500 hours, a set of 5 glasses has been further tested for up to 1000h in air, wet hydrogen, and against both yttria-stabilized zirconia and aluminized stainless steel. In some cases the testing times reached 2000h. The reactivity testing has provided new insight into the effects of Y, Zr, and Al on bulk and surface crystallization in boro-gallio-silicate glasses, and demonstrated that at least 5 of the newly-developed glasses are viable viscous sealants.

Scott Misture

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

79

Reactive cluster model of metallic glasses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Though discovered more than a half century ago metallic glasses remain a scientific enigma. Unlike crystalline metals, characterized by short, medium, and long-range order, in metallic glasses short and medium-range order persist, though long-range order is absent. This fact has prompted research to develop structural descriptions of metallic glasses. Among these are cluster-based models that attribute amorphous structure to the existence of clusters that are incommensurate with crystalline periodicity. Not addressed, however, are the chemical factors stabilizing these clusters and promoting their interconnections. We have found that glass formers are characterized by a rich cluster chemistry that above the glass transformation temperature promotes exchange as well as static and vibronic sharing of atoms between clusters. The vibronic mechanism induces correlated motions between neighboring clusters and we hypothesize that the distance over which these motions are correlated mediates metallic glass stability and influences critical cooling rates.

Jones, Travis E. [Molecular Theory Group, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States) [Molecular Theory Group, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Miorelli, Jonathan; Eberhart, Mark E. [Molecular Theory Group, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)] [Molecular Theory Group, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

80

Bulk Power Transmission Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BULK POWER TRANSMISSION STUDY TOMMY JOH~ P. E. Manager of Resource Recovery Waste Management of North America, Inc. Houston, Texas Texans now have a choice. We can become more efficient and maintain our standard of living, or we can... continue business as usual and watch our standard of living erode from competition from other regions. In the past, except for improving reliability, there was no need for a strong transmission system. When Texas generation was primarily gas fueled...

John, T.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bulk chemicals glass" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of confined fluids in contact with the bulk  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of confined fluids in contact with the bulk Luzheng Zhang, Ramkumar Balasundaram,a) and Stevin H. Gehrke Department of Chemical Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 Shaoyi Jiangb) Department of Chemical Engineering, University

Zhang, Luzheng

82

CRYSTALLIZATION IN MULTICOMPONENT GLASSES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

KRUGER AA; HRMA PR

2009-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

83

Devitrification kinetics and phase selection mechanisms in Cu-Zr metallic glasses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metallic glasses have been a promising class of materials since their discovery in the 1960s. Indeed, remarkable chemical, mechanical and physical properties have attracted considerable attention, and several excellent reviews are available. Moreover, the special group of glass forming alloys known as the bulk metallic glasses (BMG) become amorphous solids even at relatively low cooling rates, allowing them to be cast in large cross sections, opening the scope of potential applications to include bulk forms and net shape structural applications. Recent studies have been reported for new bulk metallic glasses produced with lower cooling rates, from 0.1 to several hundred K/s. Some of the application products of BMGs include sporting goods, high performance springs and medical devices. Several rapid solidification techniques, including melt-spinning, atomization and surface melting have been developed to produce amorphous alloys. The aim of all these methods is to solidify the liquid phase rapidly enough to suppress the nucleation and growth of crystalline phases. Furthermore, the production of amorphous/crystalline composite (ACC) materials by partial crystallization of amorphous precursor has recently given rise to materials that provide better mechanical and magnetic properties than the monolithic amorphous or crystalline alloys. In addition, these advances illustrate the broad untapped potential of using the glassy state as an intermediate stage in the processing of new materials and nanostructures. These advances underlie the necessity of investigations on prediction and control of phase stability and microstructural dynamics during both solidification and devitrification processes. This research presented in this dissertation is mainly focused on Cu-Zr and Cu-Zr-Al alloy systems. The Cu-Zr binary system has high glass forming ability in a wide compositional range (35-70 at.% Cu). Thereby, Cu-Zr based alloys have attracted much attention according to fundamental research on the behaviors of glass forming alloys. Further motivation arising from the application of this system as a basis for many BMGs and ACC materials; the Cu-Zr system warrants this attention and offers great potential for the development of new materials. However, the prediction and control of microstructural evolution during devitrification remains challenging because of the complex devitrification behavior of the Cu-Zr binary alloy which is arising from the competition of metastable and stable phases and diversity of crystal structures. This dissertation details a systematic fundamental investigation into the mechanisms and kinetics of the various crystallization transformation processes involved in the overall devitrification response of Cu-Zr and Cu-Zr-Al glasses. Various isothermal and nonisothermal treatments are employed, and the structural response is characterized using bulk X-ray and thermal analysis methods as well as nanoscale microscopic analysis methods, revealing structural and chemical details down to the atomic-scale. By carefully combining techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), in-situ synchrotron high energy X-ray diffraction (HEXRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to quantify the characterization transformations, this research has uncovered numerous details concerning the atomistic mechanisms of crystallization and has provided much new understanding related to the dominant phases, the overall reaction sequences, and the rate-controlling mechanisms. As such this work represents a substantial step forward in understanding these transformations and provides a clear framework for further progress toward ultimate application of controlled devitrification processing for the production of new materials with remarkable properties.

Kalay, Ilkay

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

84

Method of forming crystalline silicon devices on glass  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is disclosed for fabricating single-crystal silicon microelectronic components on a silicon substrate and transferring same to a glass substrate. This is achieved by utilizing conventional silicon processing techniques for fabricating components of electronic circuits and devices on bulk silicon, wherein a bulk silicon surface is prepared with epitaxial layers prior to the conventional processing. The silicon substrate is bonded to a glass substrate and the bulk silicon is removed leaving the components intact on the glass substrate surface. Subsequent standard processing completes the device and circuit manufacturing. This invention is useful in applications requiring a transparent or insulating substrate, particularly for display manufacturing. Other applications include sensors, actuators, optoelectronics, radiation hard electronics, and high temperature electronics. 7 figures.

McCarthy, A.M.

1995-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

85

Method of forming crystalline silicon devices on glass  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for fabricating single-crystal silicon microelectronic components on a silicon substrate and transferring same to a glass substrate. This is achieved by utilizing conventional silicon processing techniques for fabricating components of electronic circuits and devices on bulk silicon, wherein a bulk silicon surface is prepared with epitaxial layers prior to the conventional processing. The silicon substrate is bonded to a glass substrate and the bulk silicon is removed leaving the components intact on the glass substrate surface. Subsequent standard processing completes the device and circuit manufacturing. This invention is useful in applications requiring a transparent or insulating substrate, particularly for display manufacturing. Other applications include sensors, actuators, optoelectronics, radiation hard electronics, and high temperature electronics.

McCarthy, Anthony M. (Menlo Park, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

E-Print Network 3.0 - approach chemical models Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Information Sciences 26 In its short history, chemical engineering has moved far beyond bulk chemical production. Through identification of funda- Summary: approaches. Chemical...

87

Creating bulk nanocrystalline metal.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials offer unique microstructure-dependent properties that are superior to coarse-grained materials. These materials have been shown to have very high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. However, most current methods of producing nanostructured materials in weapons-relevant materials create powdered metal that must be consolidated into bulk form to be useful. Conventional consolidation methods are not appropriate due to the need to maintain the nanocrystalline structure. This research investigated new ways of creating nanocrystalline material, new methods of consolidating nanocrystalline material, and an analysis of these different methods of creation and consolidation to evaluate their applicability to mesoscale weapons applications where part features are often under 100 {micro}m wide and the material's microstructure must be very small to give homogeneous properties across the feature.

Fredenburg, D. Anthony (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Saldana, Christopher J. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Gill, David D.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Roemer, Timothy John (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Yang, Pin

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

High expansion, lithium corrosion resistant sealing glasses  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Glass compositions containing CaO, Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, B.sub.2 O.sub.3, SrO and BaO in various combinations of mole % are provided. These compositions are capable of forming stable glass-to-metal seals with pin materials of 446 Stainless Steel and Alloy-52 rather than molybdenum, for use in harsh chemical environments, specifically in lithium batteries.

Brow, Richard K. (Albuquerque, NM); Watkins, Randall D. (Albuquerque, NM)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

High expansion, lithium corrosion resistant sealing glasses  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Glass compositions containing CaO, Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], B[sub 2]O[sub 3], SrO and BaO in various combinations of mole % are provided. These compositions are capable of forming stable glass-to-metal seals with pin materials of 446 Stainless Steel and Alloy-52 rather than molybdenum, for use in harsh chemical environments, specifically in lithium batteries.

Brow, R.K.; Watkins, R.D.

1991-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

90

Bismuth-doped Mg - Al silicate glasses and fibres  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper compares the optical properties of bulk bismuth-doped Mg - Al silicate glasses prepared in an iridium crucible to those of optical fibres prepared by the powder-in-tube method and having a core identical in composition to the glasses. The bulk glasses and fibres are shown to be similar in luminescence properties. The optical loss in the fibres in their IR luminescence band is about one order of magnitude lower than that in the crucible-melted glasses. The level of losses in the fibres and their luminescence properties suggest that such fibres can be made to lase near 1.15 {mu}m. (optical fibres, lasers and amplifiers. properties and applications)

Bufetov, Igor' A; Vel'miskin, V V; Galagan, B I; Denker, B I; Sverchkov, S E; Semjonov, S L; Firstov, Sergei V; Shulman, I L; Dianov, Evgenii M

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

91

Glass-silicon column  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A glass-silicon column that can operate in temperature variations between room temperature and about 450.degree. C. The glass-silicon column includes large area glass, such as a thin Corning 7740 boron-silicate glass bonded to a silicon wafer, with an electrode embedded in or mounted on glass of the column, and with a self alignment silicon post/glass hole structure. The glass/silicon components are bonded, for example be anodic bonding. In one embodiment, the column includes two outer layers of silicon each bonded to an inner layer of glass, with an electrode imbedded between the layers of glass, and with at least one self alignment hole and post arrangement. The electrode functions as a column heater, and one glass/silicon component is provided with a number of flow channels adjacent the bonded surfaces.

Yu, Conrad M.

2003-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

92

On the sub-band gap optical absorption in heat treated cadmium sulphide thin film deposited on glass by chemical bath deposition technique  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The sub-band gap optical absorption in chemical bath deposited cadmium sulphide thin films annealed at different temperatures has been critically analyzed with special reference to Urbach relation. It has been found that the absorption co-efficient of the material in the sub-band gap region is nearly constant up to a certain critical value of the photon energy. However, as the photon energy exceeds the critical value, the absorption coefficient increases exponentially indicating the dominance of Urbach rule. The absorption coefficients in the constant absorption region and the Urbach region have been found to be sensitive to annealing temperature. A critical examination of the temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient indicates two different kinds of optical transitions to be operative in the sub-band gap region. After a careful analyses of SEM images, energy dispersive x-ray spectra, and the dc current-voltage characteristics, we conclude that the absorption spectra in the sub-band gap domain is possibly associated with optical transition processes involving deep levels and the grain boundary states of the material.

Chattopadhyay, P.; Karim, B.; Guha Roy, S. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Calcutta, 92, A.P.C. Road, Kolkata 700009 (India)

2013-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

93

Glass produced by underground nuclear explosions. [Rainier  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detonation of an underground nuclear explosive produces a strong shock wave which propagates spherically outward, vaporizing the explosive and nearby rock and melting, the surrounding rock. The vaporized material expands adiabatically, forming a cavity. As the energy is dissipated during the cavity formation process, the explosive and rock debris condense and mix with the melted rock. The melt flows to the bottom of the cavity where it is quenched by fractured rock fragments falling from above as the cavity collapses. Measurements indicate that about 740 tonnes of rock and/or soil are melted for every kiloton (10/sup 12/ calories) of explosive energy, or about 25% of the explosive energy goes to melting rock. The resulting glass composition reflects the composition of the unaltered rock with explosive debris. The appearance ranges from white pumice to dense, dark lava. The bulk composition and color vary with the amount of explosive iron incorporated into the glass. The refractory explosion products are mixed with the solidified melt, although the degree of mixing is variable. Electron microprobe studies of glasses produced by Rainier in welded tuff have produced the following results: glasses are dehydrated relative to the host media, glasses are extremely heterogeneous on a 20 ..mu..m scale, a ubiquitous feature is the presence of dark marble-cake regions in the glass, which were locally enriched in iron and may be related to the debris, optically amorphous regions provide evidence of shock melting, only limited major element redistribution and homogenization occur within the cavity.

Schwartz, L.; Piwinskii, A.; Ryerson, F.; Tewes, H.; Beiriger, W.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

High-level waste borosilicate glass: A compendium of corrosion characteristics. Volume 3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this document is to summarize scientific information pertinent to evaluating the extent to which high-level waste borosilicate glass corrosion and the associated radionuclide release processes are understood for the range of environmental conditions to which waste glass may be exposed in service. Alteration processes occurring within the bulk of the glass (e.g., devitrification and radiation-induced changes) are discussed insofar as they affect glass corrosion. Volume III contains a bibliography of glass corrosion studies, including studies that are not cited in Volumes I and II.

Cunnane, J.C. [comp.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

The use of glass matrices for solidification of radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The physico-chemical aspects of the solidification of nuclear wastes have been studied at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences for a number of years. This method is viewed as the most reliable method of storage of nuclear wastes. Various glass systems have been studied, including phosphate, borosilicate glasses etc. The data obtained allow optimal glass compositions to be chosen for solidification of various nuclear wastes.

Gromov, V.V.; Minaev, A.A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

96

ITP Glass: Industrial Glass Bandwidth Analysis Final Report,...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Glass Industry; April, 2002 ITP Glass: Glass Industry Technology Roadmap; April 2002 ITP Glass: A Clear Vision for a Bright Future...

97

ITP Glass: Glass Industry of the Future: Energy and Environmental...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Glass Industry of the Future: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Glass Industry; April, 2002 ITP Glass: Glass Industry of the Future: Energy and Environmental Profile of...

98

Transport properties of lithium- lead-vanadium-telluride glass and glass ceramics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Glasses with the chemical composition 35Li{sub 2}O-(45-x)V{sub 2}O{sub 5?}20PbO-xTeO{sub 2} (where x = 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15 mol %) have prepared by conventional melt quenching method. The electrical conductivity of Li{sup +} ion conducting lead vanadium telluride glass samples has been carried out both as a function of temperature and frequency in the temperature range 503K-563K and over frequencies 40 Hz to 10 MHz. The electronic conduction has been observed in the present systems. When these samples annealed around 400C for 2hour become the glass ceramic, which also shows increase tendency of conductivity. SEM confines glass and glass ceramic nature of the prepared samples.

Sathish, M., E-mail: sathishphy79@gmail.com [Department of Physics, GOVT first grade College, Doddaballapur-561203 (India); Eraiah, B., E-mail: eraiah@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Bangalore University, Bangalore-560056, India (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

99

E-Print Network 3.0 - activity glass melts Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Volume 85, pages 397406, 2000 0003-004X00030439705.00 397 Summary: : PHENOMENOLOGY OF OXIDATION IN FE-BEARING ALUMINOSILICATE MELTS AND GLASSES Chemical diffusion in...

100

Properties of a Moscow Glass Gas Microstrip Chamber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on Moscow glass with bulk resistivity ae = 3 \\Delta 10 12\\Omega \\Delta cm is presented. The ageing of the detector in an argon dimethyl ether gas mixture is found to be independent of the rate of irradiation (LHC) [2]. However, when MSGCs are exposed for an extended period of time to a high radiation flux

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bulk chemicals glass" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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101

Optical Basicity and Nepheline Crystallization in High Alumina Glasses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to find compositions that increase waste loading of high-alumina wastes beyond what is currently acceptable while avoiding crystallization of nepheline (NaAlSiO4) on slow cooling. Nepheline crystallization has been shown to have a large impact on the chemical durability of high-level waste glasses. It was hypothesized that there would be some composition regions where high-alumina would not result in nepheline crystal production, compositions not currently allowed by the nepheline discriminator. Optical basicity (OB) and the nepheline discriminator (ND) are two ways of describing a given complex glass composition. This report presents the theoretical and experimental basis for these models. They are being studied together in a quadrant system as metrics to explore nepheline crystallization and chemical durability as a function of waste glass composition. These metrics were calculated for glasses with existing data and also for theoretical glasses to explore nepheline formation in Quadrant IV (passes OB metric but fails ND metric), where glasses are presumed to have good chemical durability. Several of these compositions were chosen, and glasses were made to fill poorly represented regions in Quadrant IV. To evaluate nepheline formation and chemical durability of these glasses, quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and the Product Consistency Test were conducted. A large amount of quantitative XRD data is collected here, both from new glasses and from glasses of previous studies that had not previously performed quantitative XRD on the phase assemblage. Appendix A critically discusses a large dataset to be considered for future quantitative studies on nepheline formation in glass. Appendix B provides a theoretical justification for choice of the oxide coefficients used to compute the OB criterion for nepheline formation.

Rodriguez, Carmen P.; McCloy, John S.; Schweiger, M. J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Winschell, Abigail E.

2011-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

102

TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF BULK VITRIFICATION PROCESS & PRODUCT FOR TANK WASTE TREATMENT AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is being constructed to immobilize both high-level waste (IUW) for disposal in a national repository and low-activity waste (LAW) for onsite, near-surface disposal. The schedule-controlling step for the WTP Project is vitrification of the large volume of LAW, current capacity of the WTP (as planned) would require 50 years to treat the Hanford tank waste, if the entire LAW volume were to be processed through the WTP. To reduce the time and cost for treatment of Hanford Tank Waste, and as required by the Tank Waste Remediation System Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision and the Hanford Federal Facility Consent Agreement (Tn-Party Agreement), DOE plans to supplement the LAW treatment capacity of the WTP. Since 2002, DOE, in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency and State of Washington Department of Ecology has been evaluating technologies that could provide safe and effective supplemental treatment of LAW. Current efforts at Hanford are intended to provide additional information to aid a joint agency decision on which technology will be used to supplement the WTP. A Research, Development and Demonstration permit has been issued by the State of Washington to build and (for a limited time) operate a Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) facility to provide information for the decision on a supplemental treatment technology for up to 50% of the LAW. In the Bulk Vitrification (BV) process, LAW, soil, and glass-forming chemicals are mixed, dried, and placed in a refractory-lined box, Electric current, supplied through two graphite electrodes in the box, melts the waste feed, producing a durable glass waste-form. Although recent modifications to the process have resulted in significant improvements, there are continuing technical concerns.

SCHAUS, P.S.

2006-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

103

Stress-corrosion fatiguecrack growth in a Zr-based bulk amorphous metal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stress-corrosion fatigue­crack growth in a Zr-based bulk amorphous metal V. Schroeder 1 , R metallic glass; Amorphous metal; Fatigue; Stress corrosion; Crack growth 1. Introduction In recent years­crack growth resistance [1­5], its corresponding properties in the presence of a corrosive environment have

Ritchie, Robert

104

Soranakom, C., Yekani-Fard, M., and Mobasher, B., "Modeling of Aging Response in Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete Flexural Specimens," 15th International Glass Fibre Reinforced  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Congress, GRC 2008, CD-Proceedings, Prague, April 20-23, 2008 1 Modeling of Aging Response in Glass Fiber caused by the chemical and physical processes. Glass fibers chemically degrade in the alkaline hydrated approach for GFRC is possible. The 1 Graduate Research Assistant Department of Civil and Environmental

Mobasher, Barzin

105

Silicon bulk micromachined hybrid dimensional artifact.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A mesoscale dimensional artifact based on silicon bulk micromachining fabrication has been developed and manufactured with the intention of evaluating the artifact both on a high precision coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and video-probe based measuring systems. This hybrid artifact has features that can be located by both a touch probe and a video probe system with a k=2 uncertainty of 0.4 {micro}m, more than twice as good as a glass reference artifact. We also present evidence that this uncertainty could be lowered to as little as 50 nm (k=2). While video-probe based systems are commonly used to inspect mesoscale mechanical components, a video-probe system's certified accuracy is generally much worse than its repeatability. To solve this problem, an artifact has been developed which can be calibrated using a commercially available high-accuracy tactile system and then be used to calibrate typical production vision-based measurement systems. This allows for error mapping to a higher degree of accuracy than is possible with a glass reference artifact. Details of the designed features and manufacturing process of the hybrid dimensional artifact are given and a comparison of the designed features to the measured features of the manufactured artifact is presented and discussed. Measurement results from vision and touch probe systems are compared and evaluated to determine the capability of the manufactured artifact to serve as a calibration tool for video-probe systems. An uncertainty analysis for calibration of the artifact using a CMM is presented.

Claudet, Andre A.; Tran, Hy D.; Bauer, Todd Marks; Shilling, Katherine Meghan; Oliver, Andrew David

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Engineering Glass Passivation Layers -Model Results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The immobilization of radioactive waste into glass waste forms is a baseline process of nuclear waste management not only in the United States, but worldwide. The rate of radionuclide release from these glasses is a critical measure of the quality of the waste form. Over long-term tests and using extrapolations of ancient analogues, it has been shown that well designed glasses exhibit a dissolution rate that quickly decreases to a slow residual rate for the lifetime of the glass. The mechanistic cause of this decreased corrosion rate is a subject of debate, with one of the major theories suggesting that the decrease is caused by the formation of corrosion products in such a manner as to present a diffusion barrier on the surface of the glass. Although there is much evidence of this type of mechanism, there has been no attempt to engineer the effect to maximize the passivating qualities of the corrosion products. This study represents the first attempt to engineer the creation of passivating phases on the surface of glasses. Our approach utilizes interactions between the dissolving glass and elements from the disposal environment to create impermeable capping layers. By drawing from other corrosion studies in areas where passivation layers have been successfully engineered to protect the bulk material, we present here a report on mineral phases that are likely have a morphological tendency to encrust the surface of the glass. Our modeling has focused on using the AFCI glass system in a carbonate, sulfate, and phosphate rich environment. We evaluate the minerals predicted to form to determine the likelihood of the formation of a protective layer on the surface of the glass. We have also modeled individual ions in solutions vs. pH and the addition of aluminum and silicon. These results allow us to understand the pH and ion concentration dependence of mineral formation. We have determined that iron minerals are likely to form a complete incrustation layer and we plan to look more closely at Vivianite [Fe3(PO4)2-8(H2O)] and Siderite [FeCO3] in the next stage of the project.

Skorski, Daniel C.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Strachan, Denis M.; Lepry, William C.

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

107

Thermoelectric Bulk Materials from the Explosive Consolidation...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Bulk Materials from the Explosive Consolidation of Nanopowders Thermoelectric Bulk Materials from the Explosive Consolidation of Nanopowders Describes technique of explosively...

108

Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste...

109

Removal Rate Model for Magnetorheological Finishing of Glass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Magnetorheological finishing (MRF) is a deterministic subaperture polishing process. The process uses a magntorheological (MR) fluid that consists of micrometer-sized, spherical, magnetic carbonyl iron (CI) particles, nonmagnetic polishing abrasives, water, and stabilizers. Material removal occurs when the CI and nonmagnetic polishing abrasives shear material off the surface being polished. We introduce a new MRF material removal rate model for glass. This model contains terms for the near surface mechanical properties of glass, drag force, polishing abrasive size and concentration, chemical durability of the glass, MR fluid pH, and the glass composition. We introduce quantitative chemical predictors for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, into an MRF removal rate model. We validate individual terms in our model separately and then combine all of the terms to show the whole MRF material removal model compared with experimental data. All of our experimental data were obtained using nanodiamond MR fluids and a set of six optical glasses.

DeGroote, J.E.; Marino, A.E.; WIlson, J.P.; Bishop, A.L.; Lambropoulos, J.C.; Jacobs, S.D.

2007-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

110

Controlled crystallization and properties of zirconium fluoride-based glass-ceramics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

51ZrF{sub 4}{center_dot}16BaF{sub 2}{center_dot}5LaF{sub 3}{center_dot}20LiF{center_dot}5PbF{sub 2} glasses were prepared with CdF{sub 2} additions of 0, 2, 5, and 7.5 mol%. The glasses with 2 and 5 mol% exhibited controllable nucleation upon heat treatment above the glass transformation temperature. The nucleation and crystallization of glasses with 5 mol% CdF{sub 2} were characterized using bulk heat treatments, differential scanning calorimetry, and scanning electron microscopy. The isothermal crystallization of nucleated glasses resulted in the formation of a glass-ceramic that was transparent in the infrared (>70% transmission) and more resistant to fracture than typical fluoride glasses.

Jewell, J.M.; Friebele, E.J.; Aggarwal, I.D. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States). Optical Sciences Div.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Indentation size effect and the plastic compressibility of glass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxide glasses exhibit significant densification under an applied isostatic pressure at the glass transition temperature. The glass compressibility is correlated with the chemical composition and atomic packing density, e.g., borate glasses with planar triangular BO{sub 3} units are more disposed for densification than silicate glasses with tetrahedral units. We here show that there is a direct relation between the plastic compressibility following hot isostatic compression and the extent of the indentation size effect (ISE), which is the decrease of hardness with indentation load exhibited by most materials. This could suggest that the ISE is correlated with indentation-induced shear bands, which should form in greater density when the glass network is more adaptable to volume changes through structural and topological rearrangements under an applied pressure.

Smedskjaer, Morten M., E-mail: mos@bio.aau.dk [Section of Chemistry, Aalborg University, 9000 Aalborg (Denmark)

2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

112

Expanded High-Level Waste Glass Property Data Development: Phase I  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two separate test matrices were developed as part if the EM-21 Glass Matrix Crucible Testing. The first matrix, developed using a single component-at-a-time design method and covering glasses of interest primarily to Hanford, is addressed in this data package. This data package includes methods and results from glass fabrication, chemical analysis of glass compositions, viscosity, electrical conductivity, liquidus temperature, canister centerline cooling, product consistency testing, and the toxicity characteristic leach procedure.

Schweiger, Michael J.; Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Arrigoni, Benjamin M.; Lang, Jesse B.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.; Raszewski, F. C.; Peeler, David K.; Edwards, Tommy B.; Best, D. R.; Reamer, Irene A.; Riley, W. T.; Simmons, P. T.; Workman, R. J.

2011-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

113

Foaming of E-Glass II (Report for G Plus Project for PPG)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PNNL-15394 Foaming of E-Glass II (Report for G Plus Project for PPG) D.-S. Kim M. Portch J. Matyas Foaming of E-Glass II (Report for G Plus Project for PPG) D.-S. Kim M. Portch J. Matyas P. R. Hrma Pacific of glass batch chemical composition on E-glass foaming. The present study also included reruns of foam

Pilon, Laurent

114

Diamond turning of glass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new research initiative will be undertaken to investigate the critical cutting depth concepts for single point diamond turning of brittle, amorphous materials. Inorganic glasses and a brittle, thermoset polymer (organic glass) are the principal candidate materials. Interrupted cutting tests similar to those done in earlier research are Ge and Si crystals will be made to obtain critical depth values as a function of machining parameters. The results will provide systematic data with which to assess machining performance on glasses and amorphous materials

Blackley, W.S.; Scattergood, R.O.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

E-Print Network 3.0 - analysis chemical species Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sciences and Ecology 5 In its short history, chemical engineering has moved far beyond bulk chemical production. Through identification of funda- Summary: core curriculum. Now...

116

E-Print Network 3.0 - analysis structural chemical Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

; Biology and Medicine 26 In its short history, chemical engineering has moved far beyond bulk chemical production. Through identification of funda- Summary: In its short history,...

117

Rare Earth Phosphate Glass and Glass-Ceramic Proton Conductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

300-500C. Doping rare earth phosphate glasses with Ce, andRare Earth Phosphate Glass and Glass-Ceramic Protonconductivity of alkaline-earth doped rare earth phosphate

De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

SLUDGE BATCH 7B GLASS VARIABILITY STUDY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing to initiate processing Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b). In support of the upcoming processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frits 418 with a 6% Na{sub 2}O addition (26 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) and 702 with a 4% Na{sub 2}O addition (24 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) to process SB7b. This recommendation was based on assessments of the compositional projections for SB7b available at the time from the Savannah River Remediation (SRR). To support qualification of SB7b, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the applicability of the current durability models for SB7b. The durability models were assessed over the expected composition range of SB7b, including potential caustic additions, combined with Frits 702 and 418 over a 32-40% waste loading (WL) range. Thirty four glasses were selected based on Frits 418 and 702 coupled with the sludge projections with an additional 4-6% Na{sub 2}O to reflect the potential caustic addition. Six of these glasses, based on average nominal sludge compositions including the appropriate caustic addition, were developed for both Frit 418 and Frit 702 at 32, 36 and 40% WL to provide coverage in the center of the anticipated SB7b glass region. All glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). To comply with the DWPF Glass Product Control Program, a total of thirty four glasses were fabricated to assess the applicability of the current DWPF PCCS durability models. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses were acceptable with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass regardless of thermal history. The NL[B] values of the SB7b variability study glasses were less than 1.99 g/L as compared to 16.695 g/L for EA. A small number of the D-optimally selected 'outer layer' extreme vertices (EV) glasses were not predictable using the current Product Composition Control System (PCCS) models for durability, but were acceptable compared to the EA glass when tested. These glasses fell outside of the lower 95% confidence band, which demonstrates conservatism in the model. A few of the glasses fell outside of the upper 95% confidence band; however, these particular glasses have normalized release values that were much lower than the values of EA and should be of no practical concern. Per the requirements of the DWPF Glass Product Control Program, the PCCS durability models have been shown to be applicable to the SB7b sludge system with a range of Na{sub 2}O concentrations blended with Frits 418 or 702. PCT results from the glasses fabricated as part of the variability study were shown to be predictable by the current DWPF PCCS models and/or acceptable with respect to the EA benchmark glass regardless of thermal history or compositional view.

Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

2011-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

119

Glass Frit Clumping And Dusting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

DWPF mixes a slurry of glass frit (Frit 418) and dilute (1.5 wt%) formic acid solution with high level waste in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME). There would be advantages to introducing the frit in a non-slurry form to minimize water addition to the SME, however, adding completely dry frit has the potential to generate dust which could clog filters or condensers. Prior testing with another type of frit, Frit 320, and using a minimal amount of water reduced dust generation, however, the formation of hard clumps was observed. To examine options and behavior, a TTQAP [McCabe and Stone, 2013] was written to initiate tests that would address these concerns. Tests were conducted with four types of glass frit; Frit 320, DWPF Frit 418, Bekeson Frit 418 and Multi-Aspirator Frit 418. The last two frits are chemically identical to DWPF Frit 418 but smaller particles were removed by the respective vendors. Test results on Frit Clumping and Dusting are provided in this report. This report addresses the following seven questions. Short answers are provided below with more detailed answers to follow. 1. Will the addition of a small amount of water, 1.5 wt%, to dry DWPF Frit 418 greatly reduce the dust generation during handling at DWPF? a. Yes, a small scale test showed that adding a little water to the frit greatly reduced dust generation during handling. 2. Will the addition of small amounts of water to the frit cause clumping that will impair frit handling at DWPF? a. No, not with Frit 418. Although clumps were observed to form when 1.5 wt% water was mixed with DWPF Frit 418, then compressed and air-dried overnight, the clumps were easily crushed and did not form the hardened material noted when Frit 320 was tested. 3. What is the measured size distribution of dust generated when dry frit is handled? (This affects the feasibility and choice of processing equipment for removing the dust generating fraction of the frit before it is added to the SME.) a. The size distribution for the dust removed from fresh DWPF Frit 418 while it was being shaken in a small scale LabRAM test was measured. The median size on a volume basis was 7.6 ?m and 90% of the frit particles were between 1.6 and 28 ?m. The mass of dust collected using this test protocol was much less than 1% of the original frit. 4. Can the dust be removed in a small number of processing steps and without the larger frit particles continuing to spall additional dust sized particles? a. Test results using a LabRAM were inconclusive. The LaRAM performs less efficient particle size separation than the equipment used by Bekeson and Multi-Aspirator. 5. What particle size of frit is expected to create a dust problem? a. The original criterion for creating a dusting problem was those particle sizes that were readily suspended when being shaken. For that criterion calculations and Microtrac size analyses indicated that particles smaller than 37 ?m are likely dust generators. Subsequently a more sophisticated criterion for dust problem was considered, particle sizes that would become suspended in the air flow patterns inside the SME and possibly plug the condenser. That size may be larger than 37 ?m but has not yet been determined. 6. If particles smaller than 37 ?m are removed will bulk dust generation be eliminated? a. Video-taped tests were performed using three gallons each of three types of frit 418, DWPF frit, Bekeson frit and Multi-Aspirator frit. Frit was poured through air from a height of approximately eight feet into a container half filled with water. Pouring Bekeson frit or Multi-Aspirator frit generated markedly less visible dust, but there was still a significant amount, which still has the potential of causing a dust problem. 7. Can completely dry frit be poured into the SME without having dust plug the condenser at the top of the vessel? a. Because of the complexity of air currents inside the SME and the difficulty of defensible size scaling a more prototypical test will be required to answer this question. We recommend construction of a full scale

Steimke, J. L.

2013-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

120

Irradiation effects on borosilicate waste glasses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of alpha decay on five borosilicate glasses containing simulated nuclear high-level waste oxides were studied. Irradiations carried out at room temperature were achieved by incorporating 1 to 8 wt % /sup 244/Cm/sub 2/O/sub 3/ in the glasses. Density changes and stored-energy build-up saturated at doses less than 2 x 10/sup 21/ alpha decays/kg. Damage manifested by stored energy was completely annealed at 633/sup 0/K. Positive and negative density changes were observed which never exceeded 1%. Irradiation had very little effect on mechanical strength or on chemical durability as measured by aqueous leach rates. Also, no effects were observed on the microstructure for vitreous waste glasses, although radiation-induced microcracking could be achieved on specimens that had been devitrified prior to irradiation.

Roberts, F.P.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bulk chemicals glass" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Defense HLW Glass Degradation Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to document the development of a model for calculating the release rate for radionuclides and other key elements from high-level radioactive waste (HLW) glasses under exposure conditions relevant to the performance of the repository. Several glass compositions are planned for the repository, some of which have yet to be identified (i.e., glasses from Hanford and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory). The mechanism for glass dissolution is the same for these glasses and the glasses yet to be developed for the disposal of DOE wastes. All of these glasses will be of a quality consistent with the glasses used to develop this report.

D. Strachan

2004-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

122

STATUS & DIRECTION OF THE BULK VITRIFICATION PROGRAM FOR THE SUPPLEMENTAL TREATMENT OF LOW ACTIVITY TANK WASTE AT HANFORD  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) is managing a program at the Hanford site that will retrieve and treat more than 200 million liters (53 million gal.) of radioactive waste stored in underground storage tanks. The waste was generated over the past 50 years as part of the nation's defense programs. The project baseline calls for the waste to be retrieved from the tanks and partitioned to separate the highly radioactive constituents from the large volumes of chemical waste. These highly radioactive components will be vitrified into glass logs in the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), temporarily stored on the Hanford Site, and ultimately disposed of as high-level waste in the offsite national repository. The less radioactive chemical waste, referred to as low-activity waste (LAW), is also planned to be vitrified by the WTP, and then disposed of in approved onsite trenches. However, additional treatment capacity is required in order to complete the pretreatment and immobilization of the tank waste by 2028, which represents a Tri-Party Agreement milestone. To help ensure that the treatment milestones will be met, the Supplemental Treatment Program was undertaken. The program, managed by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., involves several sub-projects each intended to supplement part of the treatment of waste being designed into the WTP. This includes the testing, evaluation, design, and deployment of supplemental LAW treatment and immobilization technologies, retrieval and treatment of mixed TRU waste stored in the Hanford Tanks, and supplemental pre-treatment. Applying one or more supplemental treatment technologies to the LAW has several advantages, including providing additional processing capacity, reducing the planned loading on the WTP, and reducing the need for double-shell tank space for interim storage of LAW. In fiscal year 2003, three potential supplemental treatment technologies were evaluated including grout, steam reforming and bulk vitrification using AMEC's In-Container Vitrification{trademark} process. As an outcome of this work, the hulk vitrification process was recommended for further evaluation. In fiscal year 2004, a follow-on bulk vitrification project was initiated to design, procure, assemble and operate a full-scale bulk vitrification pilot-plant to treat low activity tank waste from Hanford tank 241-S-109 under a Research, Development and Demonstration permit. That project is referred to as the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (or DBVS). The DBVS project will provide a full-scale bulk vitrification demonstration facility that can be used to assess the effectiveness of the bulk vitrification process under actual operating conditions. The pilot-plant is scheduled to commence operations in late 2005. The Supplemental Treatment Program represents a major element of the ORP's strategy to complete the pretreatment and immobilization of tank wastes by 2028. This paper will provide an overview of the bulk vitrification process and the progress in establishing the pilot-plant.

RAYMOND, R.E.

2005-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

123

Vacuum fusion bonding of glass plates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved apparatus and method for vacuum fusion bonding of large, patterned glass plates. One or both glass plates are patterned with etched features such as microstructure capillaries and a vacuum pumpout moat, with one plate having at least one hole therethrough for communication with a vacuum pumpout fixture. High accuracy alignment of the plates is accomplished by a temporary clamping fixture until the start of the fusion bonding heat cycle. A complete, void-free fusion bond of seamless, full-strength quality is obtained through the plates; because the glass is heated well into its softening point and because of a large, distributed force that is developed that presses the two plates together from the difference in pressure between the furnace ambient (high pressure) and the channeling and microstructures in the plates (low pressure) due to the vacuum drawn. The apparatus and method may be used to fabricate microcapillary arrays for chemical electrophoresis; for example, any apparatus using a network of microfluidic channels embedded between plates of glass or similar moderate melting point substrates with a gradual softening point curve, or for assembly of glass-based substrates onto larger substrates, such as in flat panel display systems.

Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Vacuum fusion bonding of glass plates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved apparatus and method for vacuum fusion bonding of large, patterned glass plates. One or both glass plates are patterned with etched features such as microstructure capillaries and a vacuum pumpout moat, with one plate having at least one hole therethrough for communication with a vacuum pumpout fixture. High accuracy alignment of the plates is accomplished by a temporary clamping fixture until the start of the fusion bonding heat cycle. A complete, void-free fusion bond of seamless, full-strength quality is obtained through the plates; because the glass is heated well into its softening point and because of a large, distributed force that is developed that presses the two plates together from the difference in pressure between the furnace ambient (high pressure) and the channeling and microstructures in the plates (low pressure) due to the vacuum drawn. The apparatus and method may be used to fabricate microcapillary arrays for chemical electrophoresis; for example, any apparatus using a network of microfluidic channels embedded between plates of glass or similar moderate melting point substrates with a gradual softening point curve, or for assembly of glass-based substrates onto larger substrates, such as in flat panel display systems.

Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Study of optical properties of Erbium doped Tellurite glass-polymer composite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chalcogenide glasses have wide applications in optical device technology. But it has some disadvantages like thermal instability. Among them Tellurite glasses exhibits high thermal Stability. Doping of rare earth elements into the Tellurite glasses improve its optical properties. To improve its mechanical properties composites of this Tellurite glasses with polymer are prepared. Bulk samples of Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped TeO{sub 2}?WO{sub 3}?La{sub 2}O{sub 3} Tellurite glasses are prepared from high purity oxide mixtures, melting in an alumina crucible in air atmosphere. Composites of this Tellurite glasses with polymer are prepared by powder mixing method and the thin films of these composites are prepared using polymer press. Variations in band gap of these composites are studied from the UV/Vis/NIR absorption.

Sushama, D., E-mail: sushasukumar@gmail.com [Research Awardee, LAMP, Dept. of Physics, Nit, Calicut, India and Dept. of Physics, M.S.M. College, Kayamkulam, Kerala (India)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

126

Progress Report on the Laboratory Testing of the Bulk Vitrification Cast Refractory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State has been used extensively to produce nuclear materials for the U. S. strategic defense arsenal by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). A large inventory of radioactive and mixed waste has accumulated in 177 single- and double-shell tanks. Liquid waste recovered from the tanks will be pre-treated to separate the low-activity fraction from the high-level and transuranic wastes. Currently, the DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) is evaluating several options for immobilization of low-activity tank wastes for eventual disposal in a shallow subsurface facility at the Hanford Site. A significant portion of the waste will be converted into immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) glass with a conventional Joule-heated ceramic melter. In addition to ILAW glass, supplemental treatment technologies are under consideration by the DOE to treat a portion of the low activity waste. The reason for using this alternative treatment technology is to accelerate the overall cleanup mission at the Hanford site. The ORP selected Bulk Vitrification (BV) for further development and testing. Work in FY03 on engineered and large scale tests of the BV process suggested that approximately 0.3 to as much as 3 wt% of the waste stream 99Tc inventory would end up in a soluble form deposited in a vesicular layer located at the top of the BV melt and in the sand used as an insulator after vitrification. In the FY03 risk assessment (RA) (Mann et al., 2003), the soluble Tc salt in the BV waste packages creates a 99Tc concentration peak at early times in the groundwater extracted from a 100-meter down-gradient well. This peak differs from the presently predicted baseline WTP glass performance, which shows an asymptotic rise to a constant release rate. Because of the desire by regulatory agencies to achieve essentially equivalent performance to WTP glass with supplemental treatment technologies, the BV process was modified in FY04 in an attempt to minimize deposition of soluble 99Tc salts by including a castable refractory block (CRB) in place of a portion of the refractory sand layer and using a bottom-up melting technique to eliminate the vesicular glass layer at the top. However, the refractory block is still porous and there is the potential for leachable 99Tc to deposit in the pores of the CRB. The purpose of this progress report is to document the status of a laboratory testing program being conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for CH2M Hill Hanford Group in support of the LAW Supplemental Treatment Technologies Demonstration project. The objective of these tests was to provide an initial estimate of the leachable fraction of key contaminants of concern (Cs, Re [chemical analogue for 99Tc], and 99Tc) that could condense within the BV CRB. This information will be used to guide development of additional modifications to the BV process to further reduce the soluble 99Tc levels in the BV waste package.

Pierce, Eric M.; McGrail, B PETER.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Crum, J V.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.

2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

127

Marine dock optimization for a bulk chemicals manufacturing facility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

U.S. petrochemical manufacturers operate in a very challenging environment on account of the recent economic crisis, volatility in crude oil prices, rising capacity in the Middle East, etc. Recently, there has been a focus ...

Nath, Gaurav (Gaurav Sudhindra)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Ceramic-glass-metal seal by microwave heating  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing a ceramic-glass-metal seal by microwaving, mixes a slurry of glass sealing material and coupling agent and applies same to ceramic and metal workpieces. The slurry and workpieces are then insulated and microwaved at a power, time and frequency sufficient to cause a liquid-phase reaction in the slurry. The reaction of the glass sealing material forms a chemically different seal than that which would be formed by conventional heating because it is formed by diffusion rather than by wetting of the reactants.

Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

1983-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

129

Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

Kruger, Albert A. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Mooers, Cavin [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Bazemore, Gina [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Hight, Kenneth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Lai, Shan Tao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Buechele, Andrew [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Rielley, Elizabeth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Gan, Hao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Muller, Isabelle S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Cecil, Richard [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab

2013-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

130

Metallic glass composition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A metallic glass alloy that is either iron-based or nickel-based or based on a mixture of iron and nickel, containing lesser amounts of elements selected from the group boron, silicon carbon and phosphorous to which is added an amount of a ductility enhancing element selected from the group cerium, lanthanum, praseodymium and neodymium sufficient to increase ductility of the metallic glass upon annealing.

Kroeger, Donald M. (Knoxville, TN); Koch, Carl C. (Raleigh, NC)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Ultrashort laser pulse induced nanogratings in borosilicate glass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on nanogratings inscribed by repetitive femtosecond laser pulses into the bulk of borosilicate glass. The irradiation produces small nanopores (1020?nm thick) which start to self-organize in gratings as well as elongated sheets of up to 400?nm length. A quantitative description of the grating structure and its development are obtained by a combination of focused ion beam milling, scanning electron microscopy, and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The SAXS partial invariant of the thin sheets is found to correlate well with the measured optical retardance. Compared to fused silica nanogratings borosilicate glass shows a much smaller retardance due to re-annealing of pores. In addition, the nanograting period strongly deviates from the well-known ?/2n prediction. We could observe periods down to 60?nm (at an inscribing wavelength of 800?nm). This has not been observed yet in other glasses.

Zimmermann, Felix, E-mail: Felix.Zimmermann@uni-jena.de; Richter, Sren [Institute of Applied Physics, Abbe Center of Photonics, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitt Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Plech, Anton [Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Tnnermann, Andreas; Nolte, Stefan [Institute of Applied Physics, Abbe Center of Photonics, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitt Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Optics and Precision Engineering, Albert-Einstein-Strae 7, 07745 Jena (Germany)

2014-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

132

Glass matrix armor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An armor system which utilizes glass. A plurality of constraint cells are mounted on a surface of a substrate, which is metal armor plate or a similar tough material, such that the cells almost completely cover the surface of the substrate. Each constraint cell has a projectile-receiving wall parallel to the substrate surface and has sides which are perpendicular to and surround the perimeter of the receiving wall. The cells are mounted such that, in one embodiment, the substrate surface serves as a sixth side or closure for each cell. Each cell has inside of it a plate, termed the front plate, which is parallel to and in contact with substantially all of the inside surface of the receiving wall. The balance of each cell is completely filled with a projectile-abrading material consisting of glass and a ceramic material and, in certain embodiments, a polymeric material. The glass may be in monolithic form or particles of ceramic may be dispersed in a glass matrix. The ceramic material may be in monolithic form or may be in the form of particles dispersed in glass or dispersed in said polymer.

Calkins, Noel C. (Los Alamos, NM)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Nanofluidics, from bulk to interfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanofluidics has emerged recently in the footsteps of microfluidics, following the quest of scale reduction inherent to nanotechnologies. By definition, nanofluidics explores transport phenomena of fluids at the nanometer scales. Why is the nanometer scale specific ? What fluid properties are probed at nanometric scales ? In other words, why 'nanofluidics' deserves its own brand name ? In this critical review, we will explore the vast manifold of length scales emerging for the fluid behavior at the nanoscales, as well as the associated mechanisms and corresponding applications. We will in particular explore the interplay between bulk and interface phenomena. The limit of validity of the continuum approaches will be discussed, as well as the numerous surface induced effects occuring at these scales, from hydrodynamic slippage to the various electro-kinetic phenomena originating from the couplings between hydrodynamics and electrostatics. An enlightening analogy between ion transport in nanochannels and transport in doped semi-conductors will be discussed.

Lyderic Bocquet; Elisabeth Charlaix

2009-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

134

Recent advances in phosphate laser glasses for high power applications. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent advances in Nd-doped phosphate laser glasses for high-peak-power and high-average-power applications are reviewed. Compositional studies have progressed to the point that glasses can be tailored to have specific properties for specific applications. Non-radiative relaxation effects can be accurately modeled and empirical expressions have been developed to evaluate both intrinsic (structural) and extrinsic (contamination induced) relaxation effects. Losses due to surface scattering and bulk glass absorption have been carefully measured and can be accurately predicted. Improvements in processing have lead to high damage threshold (e.g. Pt inclusion free) and high thermal shock resistant glasses with improved edge claddings. High optical quality pieces up to 79 x 45 x 4 cm{sup 3} have been made and methods for continuous melting laser glass are under development.

Campbell, J.H.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Reduced fibre breakage in a glass-fibre reinforced thermoplastic through foaming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reduced fibre breakage in a glass-fibre reinforced thermoplastic through foaming G. Zhang, M The processing of a glass fibre-reinforced polypropylene in the presence of a chemical blowing agent was found,3], and the fibre orientation [4­6]; all factors determining the surface area available for transmission of stresses

Thompson, Michael

136

Deposition and characterization of metal sulfide dielectric coatings for hollow glass waveguides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by chemical bath deposition for solar energy related applications," Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 52 coatings for Ag/dielectric hollow glass waveguides," in Optical Fibers and Sensors for Medical Applications for hollow glass waveguides," in Optical Fibers and Sensors for Medical Applications III, Proc. SPIE 4957, 97

137

Inorganic Nanocrystal Bulk Heterojunctions - Energy Innovation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Inorganic Nanocrystal Bulk Heterojunctions Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This...

138

Commercialization of Bulk Thermoelectric Materials for Power...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

& Publications Commercialization of Bulk Thermoelectric Materials for Power Generation Hydrogen Embrittlement of Pipeline Steels: Causes and Remediation Distributed Bio-Oil...

139

Hyperon bulk viscosity in strong magnetic fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the bulk viscosity of neutron star matter including $\\Lambda$ hyperons in the presence of quantizing magnetic fields. Relaxation time and bulk viscosity due to both the non-leptonic weak process involving $\\Lambda$ hyperons and direct Urca processes are calculated here. In the presence of a strong magnetic field of $10^{17}$ G, the hyperon bulk viscosity coefficient is reduced whereas bulk viscosity coefficients due to direct Urca processes are enhanced compared with their field free cases when many Landau levels are populated by protons, electrons and muons.

Monika Sinha; Debades Bandyopadhyay

2009-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

140

Recent Device Developments with Advanced Bulk Thermoelectric...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

at RTI Reviews work in engineered thin-film nanoscale thermoelectric materials and nano-bulk materials with high ZT undertaken by RTI in collaboration with its research...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bulk chemicals glass" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

The Color Glass Condensate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We provide a broad overview of the theoretical status and phenomenological applications of the Color Glass Condensate effective field theory describing universal properties of saturated gluons in hadron wavefunctions that are extracted from deeply inelastic scattering and hadron-hadron collision experiments at high energies.

F. Gelis; E. Iancu; J. Jalilian-Marian; R. Venugopalan

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Cavity-Enhanced IR Absorption in Planar Chalcogenide Glass Microdisk Resonators: Experiment and Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Planar microdisk optical resonators fabricated from Ge[subscript 23]Sb[subscript 7]S[subscript 70] chalcogenide glass on a silicon substrate are applied for cavity-enhanced spectroscopic measurement of chemical molecular ...

Kimerling, Lionel C.

143

Production of glass or glass-ceramic to metal seals with the application of pressure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a process for preparing a glass or glass-ceramic to metal seal comprising contacting the glass with the metal and heat-treating the glass and metal under conditions whereby the glass to metal seal is effected and, optionally, the glass is converted to a glass-ceramic, an improvement comprises carrying out the heat-treating step using hot isostatic pressing.

Kelly, Michael D. (West Alexandria, OH); Kramer, Daniel P. (Dayton, OH)

1987-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

144

Production of glass or glass-ceramic to metal seals with the application of pressure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a process for preparing a glass or glass-ceramic to metal seal comprising contacting the glass with the metal and heat-treating the glass and metal under conditions whereby the glass to metal seal is effected and, optionally, the glass is converted to a glass-ceramic, an improvement comprises carrying out the heat-treating step using hot isostatic pressing.

Kelly, M.D.; Kramer, D.P.

1985-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

145

The Bulk Viscosity of a Pion Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We compute the bulk viscosity of a gas of pions at temperatures below the QCD crossover temperature, for the physical value of pion mass, to lowest order in chiral perturbation theory. Bulk viscosity is controlled by number-changing processes which become exponentially slow at low temperatures when the pions become exponentially dilute, leading to an exponentially large bulk viscosity zeta ~ (F_0^8/m_\\pi^5) exp(2m_\\pi/T), where F_0 = 93 MeV is the pion decay constant.

Egang Lu; Guy D. Moore

2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

146

Bulk viscosity of N=2* plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use gauge theory/string theory correspondence to study the bulk viscosity of strongly coupled, mass deformed SU(N_c) N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma, also known as N=2^* gauge theory. For a wide range of masses we confirm the bulk viscosity bound proposed in arXiv:0708.3459. For a certain choice of masses, the theory undergoes a phase transition with divergent specific heat c_V ~ |1-T_c/T|^(-1/2). We show that, although bulk viscosity rapidly grows as T -> T_c, it remains finite in the vicinity of the critical point.

Alex Buchel; Chris Pagnutti

2009-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

147

Mixed polyanion glass cathodes: Iron phosphate vanadate glasses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mixed polyanion (MP) glasses have been investigated for use as cathodes in lithium ion batteries. MP glass cathodes are similar in composition to theoretically promising crystalline polyanionic (CP) cathodes (e.g., lithium cobalt phosphate, lithium manganese silicate), but with proper polyanion substitution, they can be designed to overcome the key shortcomings of CP cathodes, such as poor electrical conductivity and irreversible phase changes. Iron phosphate/vanadate glasses were chosen as a first demonstration of the MP glass concept. Polyanion substitution with vanadate was shown to improve the intercalation capacity of an iron phosphate glass from almost zero to full theoretical capacity. In addition, the MP glass cathodes also exhibited an unexpected second high-capacity electrochemical reaction. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) of cathodes from cells having different states of charge suggested that this second electrochemical reaction is a glass-state conversion reaction. With a first demonstration established, MP glass materials utilizing an intercalation and/or glass-state conversion reaction are promising candidates for future high-energy cathode research.

Kercher, Andrew K [ORNL; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine [ORNL; Carroll, Kyler J [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Kiggans Jr, James O [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Micromachined chemical jet dispenser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A dispenser is disclosed for chemical fluid samples that need to be precisely ejected in size, location, and time. The dispenser is a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) device fabricated in a bonded silicon wafer and a substrate, such as glass or silicon, using integrated circuit-like fabrication technology which is amenable to mass production. The dispensing is actuated by ultrasonic transducers that efficiently produce a pressure wave in capillaries that contain the chemicals. The 10-200 {micro}m diameter capillaries can be arranged to focus in one spot or may be arranged in a larger dense linear array (ca. 200 capillaries). The dispenser is analogous to some ink jet print heads for computer printers but the fluid is not heated, thus not damaging certain samples. Major applications are in biological sample handling and in analytical chemical procedures such as environmental sample analysis, medical lab analysis, or molecular biology chemistry experiments. 4 figs.

Swierkowski, S.P.

1999-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

149

Micromachined chemical jet dispenser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A dispenser for chemical fluid samples that need to be precisely ejected in size, location, and time. The dispenser is a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) device fabricated in a bonded silicon wafer and a substrate, such as glass or silicon, using integrated circuit-like fabrication technology which is amenable to mass production. The dispensing is actuated by ultrasonic transducers that efficiently produce a pressure wave in capillaries that contain the chemicals. The 10-200 .mu.m diameter capillaries can be arranged to focus in one spot or may be arranged in a larger dense linear array (.about.200 capillaries). The dispenser is analogous to some ink jet print heads for computer printers but the fluid is not heated, thus not damaging certain samples. Major applications are in biological sample handling and in analytical chemical procedures such as environmental sample analysis, medical lab analysis, or molecular biology chemistry experiments.

Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA)

1999-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

150

INVESTIGATION OF WASTE GLASS POURING PROCESS OVER A KNIFE EDGE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vitrification is the process of capturing radioactive waste in glass. The Savannah River Site's (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is one of the facilities using the vitrification technology to treat and immobilize radioactive waste. The objective of the project is to investigate the pouring behavior of molten glass over a pour spout knife edge. Experiments are run using simulant glass containing the same chemical formulation as the radioactive sludge glass, but without radioactive contaminants. The purpose of these tests is to obtain actual glass data that, when combined with previous cold data from other fluids, will provide an overall understanding of the physics of liquids flowing over a pour spout and knife edge, A specific objective is to verify computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models with a range of liquid data with particular emphasis on glass so as to provide confidence in use of these CFD models for designing a new improved pour spout for the DWPF melter. The work to be performed at FIU-HCET includes assembling the melting and pouring system that mimics the DWPF melter and determining the key parameters that may influence wicking. Information from the FIU-HCET melter tests will lead to better operating guidelines for the DWPF melter so as to avoid wicking. During FY98, a bench-scale melter complete with pour spout and a knife edge was designed and assembled at FIU-HCET. Initially, the system was tested with glycerine. Subsequently, glass provided by SRS was used for experimentation. Flow visualization tests were performed with the melter in FY98 to investigate the pouring behavior of molten glass over a pour spout model simulating a DWPF pour spout of the original design. Simulant glass containing the same chemical formulation as sludge glass but without radioactive contaminants was used in the tests. All the tasks and milestones mentioned in the PTP for the project were accomplished. The project completed its second year, and this document reports the tasks and milestones that were accomplished during the 1998 fiscal year.

M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Alloy with metallic glass and quasi-crystalline properties  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An alloy is described that is capable of forming a metallic glass at moderate cooling rates and exhibits large plastic flow at ambient temperature. Preferably, the alloy has a composition of (Zr, Hf).sub.a Ta.sub.b Ti.sub.c Cu.sub.d Ni.sub.e Al.sub.f, where the composition ranges (in atomic percent) are 45.ltoreq.a.ltoreq.70, 3.ltoreq.b.ltoreq.7.5, 0.ltoreq.c.ltoreq.4, 3.ltoreq.b+c.ltoreq.10, 10.ltoreq.d.ltoreq.30, 0.ltoreq.e.ltoreq.20, 10.ltoreq.d+e.ltoreq.35, and 5.ltoreq.f.ltoreq.15. The alloy may be cast into a bulk solid with disordered atomic-scale structure, i.e., a metallic glass, by a variety of techniques including copper mold die casting and planar flow casting. The as-cast amorphous solid has good ductility while retaining all of the characteristic features of known metallic glasses, including a distinct glass transition, a supercooled liquid region, and an absence of long-range atomic order. The alloy may be used to form a composite structure including quasi-crystals embedded in an amorphous matrix. Such a composite quasi-crystalline structure has much higher mechanical strength than a crystalline structure.

Xing, Li-Qian; Hufnagel, Todd C.; Ramesh, Kaliat T.

2004-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

152

Thermodynamic Development of Corrosion Rate Modeling in Iron Phosphate Glasses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A two year research program investigated links between the thermodynamic properties of phosphate glasses and their corrosion rates in different solutions. Glasses in the Na{sub 2}O-CaO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Na{sub 2}O-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-PO{sub 5} systems were prepared and characterized. These glasses and then exposed in bulk and powder form to acid (0.1M HCl), basic (0.1M KOH) and neutral (deionized water) solutions at varying exposure times and temperatures. Analysis of the solution and the glass after exposure determined the rate and type of corrosion that occurred. Simultaneously, efforts were made to determine the thermodynamic properties of solid iron phosphate compounds. This included measurement of low ?temperature (5?300 K) heat capacities, measured at Brigham Young University; the attempted use of a Parr calorimeter to measure ambient ?temperature enthalpies of formation; and attempted measurement of ?temperature heat capacities. Only the first of the three tasks was successfully accomplished. In lieu of experimental measurement of enthalpies of formation, first-principles calculation of enthalpies of formation was performed at Missouri S&T; these results will be used in subsequent modeling efforts.

Schlesinger, Mark; Vienna, John; Bresee, Jim; Brow, Richard

2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

153

Glass rupture disk  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A frangible rupture disk and mounting apparatus for use in blocking fluid flow, generally in a fluid conducting conduit such as a well casing, a well tubing string or other conduits within subterranean boreholes. The disk can also be utilized in above-surface pipes or tanks where temporary and controllable fluid blockage is required. The frangible rupture disk is made from a pre-stressed glass with controllable rupture properties wherein the strength distribution has a standard deviation less than approximately 5% from the mean strength. The frangible rupture disk has controllable operating pressures and rupture pressures.

Glass, S. Jill (Albuquerque, NM); Nicolaysen, Scott D. (Albuquerque, NM); Beauchamp, Edwin K. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Glass | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdf Flash2006-53.pdf0.pdfCostAnalysis GeothermalEnergy GeothermalGetGlass and

155

Polymorphism of the glass former ethanol confined in mesoporous silicon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray diffraction patterns of ethanol confined in parallel-aligned channels of approx. 10 nm diameter and 50 micrometer length in mesoporous silicon have been recorded as a function of filling fraction, temperature and for varying cooling and heating rates. A sorption isotherm, recorded in the liquid state, indicates a three monolayer thick, strongly adsorbed wall layer and a capillary condensed fraction of molecules in the pore center. Though the strongly adsorbed film remains in an amorphous state for the entire temperature range investigated, the capillary condensed molecules reproduce the polymorphism of bulk solid ethanol, that is the formation of either crystalline or glass-like states as a function of cooling rate. The critical rate necessary to achieve a vitrification in the mesopores is, however, at least two orders of magnitude smaller than in the bulk state. This finding can be traced both to pure geometrical constraints and quenched disorder effects, characteristic of confinement in mesoporous silicon.

Anke Henschel; Klaus Knorr; Patrick Huber

2010-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

156

Polymorphism of the glass former ethanol confined in mesoporous silicon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray diffraction patterns of ethanol confined in parallel-aligned channels of approx. 10 nm diameter and 50 micrometer length in mesoporous silicon have been recorded as a function of filling fraction, temperature and for varying cooling and heating rates. A sorption isotherm, recorded in the liquid state, indicates a three monolayer thick, strongly adsorbed wall layer and a capillary condensed fraction of molecules in the pore center. Though the strongly adsorbed film remains in an amorphous state for the entire temperature range investigated, the capillary condensed molecules reproduce the polymorphism of bulk solid ethanol, that is the formation of either crystalline or glass-like states as a function of cooling rate. The critical rate necessary to achieve a vitrification in the mesopores is, however, at least two orders of magnitude smaller than in the bulk state. This finding can be traced both to pure geometrical constraints and quenched disorder effects, characteristic of confinement in mesoporous sil...

Henschel, Anke; Huber, Patrick; 10.1080/09500831003766999

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

3D Jet Tomography of the Twisted Color Glass Condensate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Jet Tomography is proposed as a new test of Color Glass Condensate (CGC) initial conditions in non-central $A+A$ collisions. The $k_{T}$ factorized CGC formalism is used to calculate the rapidity twist in the reaction plane of both the bulk low $p_T 6$ GeV partons. Unlike conventional perturbative QCD, the initial high $p_{T}$ CGC gluons are shown to be twisted even further away from the beam axis than the the low $p_T$ bulk at high rapidities $|\\eta|>2$. Differential directed flow $v_{1}(p_{T}>6,|\\eta|>2)$ is proposed to test this novel high $p_T$ rapidity twist predicted by the CGC model.

A. Adil; M. Gyulassy; T. Hirano

2005-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

158

Thermoelectric Power (TEP) of Semiconducting Nickel-Phosphate Glasses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The TEP of binary NiO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} bulk glasses of different compositions was measured. A specially design sample holder was used to measure the thermal EMF in the temperature range 303 to 530 K. The temperature difference between upper and lower surfaces maintained between 5 and 10 K. The investigations provide information on the polaron formation and the disorder energy due to random fields. The TEP found to be dependent on the NiO content and the temperature independent of TEP. Heikes' formula for the TEP can give an adequate explanation for the experimental data.

Tawati, D. M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Garyounis University, Benghazi-Libya (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya); Adlan, M. J. Basha. [School of Health Science, University of Science Malaysia, 16150 Kelantan (Malaysia); Arof, A. K. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 KL-Malaysia (Malaysia)

2010-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

159

Methods of making metallic glass foil laminate composites  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the fabrication of a rapidly solidified foil laminate composite. An amorphous metallic glass foil is flux treated and coated with solder. Before solidification of the solder the foil is collected on a take-up spool which forms the composite into a solid annular configuration. The resulting composite exhibits high strength, resiliency and favorable magnetic and electrical properties associated with amorphous materials. The composite also exhibits bonding strength between the foil layers which significantly exceeds the bulk strength of the solder alone. 6 figs.

Vianco, P.T.; Fisher, R.W.; Hosking, F.M.; Zanner, F.J.

1996-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

160

Methods of making metallic glass foil laminate composites  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the fabrication of a rapidly solidified foil laminate composite. An amorphous metallic glass foil is flux treated and coated with solder. Before solidification of the solder the foil is collected on a take-up spool which forms the composite into a solid annular configuration. The resulting composite exhibits high strength, resiliency and favorable magnetic and electrical properties associated with amorphous materials. The composite also exhibits bonding strength between the foil layers which significantly exceeds the bulk strength of the solder alone.

Vianco, Paul T. (Albuquerque, NM); Fisher, Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM); Hosking, Floyd M. (Albuquerque, NM); Zanner, Frank J. (Sandia Park, NM)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bulk chemicals glass" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

POROUS WALL, HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hollow Glass Microspheres (HGM) is not a new technology. All one has to do is go to the internet and Google{trademark} HGM. Anyone can buy HGM and they have a wide variety of uses. HGM are usually between 1 to 100 microns in diameter, although their size can range from 100 nanometers to 5 millimeters in diameter. HGM are used as lightweight filler in composite materials such as syntactic foam and lightweight concrete. In 1968 a patent was issued to W. Beck of the 3M{trademark} Company for 'Glass Bubbles Prepared by Reheating Solid Glass Particles'. In 1983 P. Howell was issued a patent for 'Glass Bubbles of Increased Collapse Strength' and in 1988 H. Marshall was issued a patent for 'Glass Microbubbles'. Now Google{trademark}, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), the key words here are Porous Wall. Almost every article has its beginning with the research done at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The Savannah River Site (SRS) where SRNL is located has a long and successful history of working with hydrogen and its isotopes for national security, energy, waste management and environmental remediation applications. This includes more than 30 years of experience developing, processing, and implementing special ceramics, including glasses for a variety of Department of Energy (DOE) missions. In the case of glasses, SRS and SRNL have been involved in both the science and engineering of vitreous or glass based systems. As a part of this glass experience and expertise, SRNL has developed a number of niches in the glass arena, one of which is the development of porous glass systems for a variety of applications. These porous glass systems include sol gel glasses, which include both xerogels and aerogels, as well as phase separated glass compositions, that can be subsequently treated to produce another unique type of porosity within the glass forms. The porous glasses can increase the surface area compared to 'normal glasses of a 1 to 2 order of magnitude, which can result in unique properties in areas such as hydrogen storage, gas transport, gas separations and purifications, sensors, global warming applications, new drug delivery systems and so on. One of the most interesting porous glass products that SRNL has developed and patented is Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs) that are being studied for many different applications. The European Patent Office (EPO) just recently notified SRS that the continuation-in-part patent application for the PW-HGMs has been accepted. The original patent, which was granted by the EPO on June 2, 2010, was validated in France, Germany and the United Kingdom. The microspheres produced are generally in the range of 2 to 100 microns, with a 1 to 2 micron wall. What makes the SRNL microspheres unique from all others is that the team in Figure 1 has found a way to induce and control porosity through the thin walls on a scale of 100 to 3000 {angstrom}. This is what makes the SRNL HW-HGMs one-of-a-kind, and is responsible for many of their unique properties and potential for various applications, including those in tritium storage, gas separations, H-storage for vehicles, and even a variety of new medical applications in the areas of drug delivery and MRI contrast agents. SRNL Hollow Glass Microspheres, and subsequent, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres are fabricated using a flame former apparatus. Figure 2 is a schematic of the apparatus.

Sexton, W.

2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

162

Bulk Vitrification Performance Enhancement: Refractory Lining Protection Against Molten Salt Penetration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bulk vitrification (BV) is a process that heats a feed material that consists of glass-forming solids and dried low-activity waste (LAW) in a disposable refractory-lined metal box using electrical power supplied through carbon electrodes. The feed is heated to the point that the LAW decomposes and combines with the solids to generate a vitreous waste form. This study supports the BV design and operations by exploring various methods aimed at reducing the quantities of soluble Tc in the castable refractory block portion of the refractory lining, which limits the effectiveness of the final waste form.

Hrma, Pavel R.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Evans, Michael B.; Smith, Benjamin T.; Arrigoni, Benjamin M.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Matyas, Josef; Buchmiller, William C.; Gallegos, Autumn B.; Fluegel, Alexander

2007-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

163

High Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material High Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material Presents high heat flux thermoelectric module design...

164

The influence of molecular orientation on organic bulk heterojunction...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The influence of molecular orientation on organic bulk heterojunction solar cells The influence of molecular orientation on organic bulk heterojunction solar cells Print Monday, 28...

165

Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for...

166

Bulk Hydrogen Storage - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Bulk Hydrogen Storage - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Bulk Hydrogen Storage - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Targets, barriers and...

167

Aspects of the mechanics of metallic glasses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Metallic glasses are amorphous materials that possess unique mechanical properties, such as high tensile strengths and good fracture toughnesses. Also, since they are amorphous, metallic glasses exhibit a glass transition, ...

Henann, David Lee

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

ZnO light-emitting diode grown by plasma-assisted metal organic chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report a breakthrough in fabricating ZnO homojunction light-emitting diode by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Using NO plasma, we are able to grow p-type ZnO thin films on n-type bulk ZnO substrates. The as-grown films on glass substrates show hole concentration of 10{sup 16}-10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} and mobility of 1-10 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}. Room-temperature photoluminescence spectra reveal nitrogen-related emissions. A typical ZnO homojunction shows rectifying behavior with a turn-on voltage of about 2.3 V. Electroluminescence at room temperature has been demonstrated with band-to-band emission at I=40 mA and defect-related emissions in the blue-yellow spectrum range.

Xu, W.Z.; Ye, Z.Z.; Zeng, Y.J.; Zhu, L.P.; Zhao, B.H.; Jiang, L.; Lu, J.G.; He, H.P.; Zhang, S.B. [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

2006-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

169

Method of determining glass durability  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for determining one or more leachate concentrations of one or more components of a glass composition in an aqueous solution of the glass composition by identifying the components of the glass composition, including associated oxides, determining a preliminary glass dissolution estimator, .DELTA.G.sub.p, based upon the free energies of hydration for the component reactant species, determining an accelerated glass dissolution function, .DELTA.G.sub.a, based upon the free energy associated with weak acid dissociation, .DELTA.G.sub.a.sup.WA, and accelerated matrix dissolution at high pH, .DELTA.G.sub.a.sup.SB associated with solution strong base formation, and determining a final hydration free energy, .DELTA.G.sub.f. This final hydration free energy is then used to determine leachate concentrations for elements of interest using a regression analysis and the formula log.sub.10 (N C.sub.i (g/L))=a.sub.i +b.sub.i .DELTA.G.sub.f. The present invention also includes a method to determine whether a particular glass to be produced will be homogeneous or phase separated. The present invention is also directed to methods of monitoring and controlling processes for making glass using these determinations to modify the feedstock materials until a desired glass durability and homogeneity is obtained.

Jantzen, Carol Maryanne (Aiken, SC); Pickett, John Butler (Aiken, SC); Brown, Kevin George (Augusta, GA); Edwards, Thomas Barry (Aiken, SC)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Method of determining glass durability  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for determining one or more leachate concentrations of one or more components of a glass composition in an aqueous solution of the glass composition by identifying the components of the glass composition, including associated oxides, determining a preliminary glass dissolution estimator, {Delta}G{sub p}, based upon the free energies of hydration for the component reactant species, determining an accelerated glass dissolution function, {Delta}G{sub a}, based upon the free energy associated with weak acid dissociation, {Delta}G{sub a}{sup WA}, and accelerated matrix dissolution at high pH, {Delta}G{sub a}{sup SB} associated with solution strong base formation, and determining a final hydration free energy, {Delta}G{sub f}. This final hydration free energy is then used to determine leachate concentrations for elements of interest using a regression analysis and the formula log{sub 10}(N C{sub i}(g/L))=a{sub i} + b{sub i}{Delta}G{sub f}. The present invention also includes a method to determine whether a particular glass to be produced will be homogeneous or phase separated. The present invention is also directed to methods of monitoring and controlling processes for making glass using these determinations to modify the feedstock materials until a desired glass durability and homogeneity is obtained. 4 figs.

Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.; Brown, K.G.; Edwards, T.B.

1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

171

Laboratory Waste Disposal HAZARDOUS GLASS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of in normal trash containers. Pasteur pipettes Other pipettes and tips (glass or plastic) Slides and cover bodies (without needles) Container: Sturdy and leakproof with Hazardous Glass label. Either: Plastic resistant, leakproof plastic carboy with green sharps label. Do not fill these containers completely. Leave

Sheridan, Jennifer

172

Production of a High-Level Waste Glass from Hanford Waste Samples  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The HLW glass was produced from a HLW sludge slurry (Envelope D Waste), eluate waste streams containing high levels of Cs-137 and Tc-99, solids containing both Sr-90 and transuranics (TRU), and glass-forming chemicals. The eluates and Sr-90/TRU solids were obtained from ion-exchange and precipitation pretreatments, respectively, of other Hanford supernate samples (Envelopes A, B and C Waste). The glass was vitrified by mixing the different waste streams with glass-forming chemicals in platinum/gold crucibles and heating the mixture to 1150 degree C. Resulting glass analyses indicated that the HLW glass waste form composition was close to the target composition. The targeted waste loading of Envelope D sludge solids in the HLW glass was 30.7 wt percent, exclusive of Na and Si oxides. Condensate samples from the off-gas condenser and off-gas dry-ice trap indicated that very little of the radionuclides were volatilized during vitrification. Microstructure analysis of the HLW glass using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDAX) showed what appeared to be iron spinel in the HLW glass. Further X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the presence of nickel spinel trevorite (NiFe2O4). These crystals did not degrade the leaching characteristics of the glass. The HLW glass waste form passed leach tests that included a standard 90 degree C Product Consistency Test (PCT) and a modified version of the United States Environmental Protection Agency Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP).

Crawford, C.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Farrara, D.M.; Ha, B.C.; Bibler, N.E.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Preliminary Simulation of the Corrosion Rate of Archaeological Glass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, we make use of a micro-continuum modeling approach (the Kinetic-Microscopic-Continuum Model or K{micro}C model) to capture the spatial distribution and identity of reaction products developing over time as a result of the archaeological glass corrosion, while also matching the time scales of alteration where possible. Since the glass blocks sat on the Mediterranean seafloor for 1800 years, the physical and chemical boundary conditions are largely constant. We focus on a fracture within the glass block identified by Verney-Carron et al. (2008) and simulate it as a 1D system, with a fixed concentration (Dirichlet) boundary corresponding to the interior of the fracture.

Steefel, Carl

2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

174

High-level waste borosilicate glass: A compendium of corrosion characteristics. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this document is to summarize scientific information pertinent to evaluating the extent to which high-level waste borosilicate glass corrosion and the associated radionuclide release processes are understood for the range of environmental conditions to which waste glass may be exposed in service. Alteration processes occurring within the bulk of the glass (e.g., devitrification and radiation-induced changes) are discussed insofar as they affect glass corrosion.This document is organized into three volumes. Volumes I and II represent a tiered set of information intended for somewhat different audiences. Volume I is intended to provide an overview of waste glass corrosion, and Volume 11 is intended to provide additional experimental details on experimental factors that influence waste glass corrosion. Volume III contains a bibliography of glass corrosion studies, including studies that are not cited in Volumes I and II. Volume I is intended for managers, decision makers, and modelers, the combined set of Volumes I, II, and III is intended for scientists and engineers working in the field of high-level waste.

Cunnane, J.C. [comp.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Optical Properties of Zn(O,S) Thin Films Deposited by RF Sputtering, Atomic Layer Deposition, and Chemical Bath Deposition: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Zn(O,S) thin films 27 - 100 nm thick were deposited on glass or Cu(InxGa1-x)Se2/Molybdenum/glass with RF sputtering, atomic layer deposition, and chemical bath deposition.

Li, J.; Glynn, S.; Christensen, S.; Mann, J.; To, B.; Ramanathan, K.; Noufi, R.; Furtak, T. E.; Levi, D.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Glass science tutorial: Lecture No. 7, Waste glass technology for Hanford  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents the details of the waste glass tutorial session that was held to promote knowledge of waste glass technology and how this can be used at the Hanford Reservation. Topics discussed include: glass properties; statistical approach to glass development; processing properties of nuclear waste glass; glass composition and the effects of composition on durability; model comparisons of free energy of hydration; LLW glass structure; glass crystallization; amorphous phase separation; corrosion of refractories and electrodes in waste glass melters; and glass formulation for maximum waste loading.

Kruger, A.A.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Bioactive Glass Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

glass, adding ions to impart specific properties, enables them to manage the degradation rate of the glass, creating attractive and compliant scaffold materials. A variety...

178

Monte Carlo Simulations of the Corrosion of Aluminoborosilicate Glasses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aluminum is one of the most common components included in nuclear waste glasses. Therefore, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were carried out to investigate the influence of aluminum on the rate and mechanism of dissolution of sodium borosilicate glasses in static conditions. The glasses studied were in the compositional range (70-2x)% SiO2 x% Al2O3 15% B2O3 (15+x)% Na2O, where 0 ? x ? 15%. The simulation results show that increasing amounts of aluminum in the pristine glasses slow down the initial rate of dissolution as determined from the rate of boron release. However, the extent of corrosion - as measured by the total amount of boron release - initially increases with addition of Al2O3, up to 5 Al2O3 mol%, but subsequently decreases with further Al2O3 addition. The MC simulations reveal that this behavior is due to the interplay between two opposing mechanisms: (1) aluminum slows down the kinetics of hydrolysis/condensation reactions that drive the reorganization of the glass surface and eventual formation of a blocking layer; and (2) aluminum strengthens the glass thereby increasing the lifetime of the upper part of its surface and allowing for more rapid formation of a blocking layer. Additional MC simulations were performed whereby a process representing the formation of a secondary aluminosilicate phase was included. Secondary phase formation draws dissolved glass components out of the aqueous solution, thereby diminishing the rate of condensation and delaying the formation of a blocking layer. As a result, the extent of corrosion is found to increase continuously with increasing Al2O3 content, as observed experimentally. For Al2O3 < 10 mol%, the MC simulations also indicate that, because the secondary phase solubility eventually controls the aluminum content in the part of the altered layer in contact with the bulk aqueous solution, the dissolved aluminum and silicon concentrations at steady state are not dependent on the Al2O3 content of the pristine aluminoborosilicate glass.

Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Pierce, Eric M.

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

179

Monte Carlo Simulations of the Corrosion of Aluminoborosilicate Glasses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aluminum is one of the most common components included in nuclear waste glasses. Therefore, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were carried out to investigate the influence of aluminum on the rate and mechanism of dissolution of sodium borosilicate glasses in static conditions. The glasses studied were in the compositional range (70 2x)% SiO2x% Al2O3 15% B2O3 (15 + x)% Na2O, where 0 x 15%. The simulation results show that increasing amounts of aluminum in the pristine glasses slow down the initial rate of dissolution as determined from the rate of boron release. However, the extent of corrosion as measured by the total amount of boron release initially increases with addition of Al2O3, up to 5 mol% Al2O3, but subsequently decreases with further Al2O3 addition. The MC simulations reveal that this behavior is due to the interplay between two opposing mechanisms: (1) aluminum slows down the kinetics of hydrolysis/condensation reactions that drive the reorganization of the glass surface and eventual formation of a blocking layer; and (2) aluminum strengthens the glass thereby increasing the lifetime of the upper part of its surface and allowing for more rapid formation of a blocking layer. Additional MC simulations were performed whereby a process representing the formation of a secondary aluminosilicate phase was included. Secondary phase formation draws dissolved glass components out of the aqueous solution, thereby diminishing the rate of condensation and delaying the formation of a blocking layer. As a result, the extent of corrosion is found to increase continuously with increasing Al2O3 content, as observed experimentally. For Al2O3 < 10 mol%, the MC simulations also indicate that, because the secondary phase solubility eventually controls the aluminum content in the part of the altered layer in contact with the bulk aqueous solution, the dissolved aluminum and silicon concentrations at steady state are not dependent on the Al2O3 content of the pristine aluminoborosilicate glass.

Kerisit, Sebastien [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Ryan, Joseph V [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Pierce, Eric M [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Micro benchtop optics by bulk silicon micromachining  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Micromachining of bulk silicon utilizing the parallel etching characteristics of bulk silicon and integrating the parallel etch planes of silicon with silicon wafer bonding and impurity doping, enables the fabrication of on-chip optics with in situ aligned etched grooves for optical fibers, micro-lenses, photodiodes, and laser diodes. Other optical components that can be microfabricated and integrated include semi-transparent beam splitters, micro-optical scanners, pinholes, optical gratings, micro-optical filters, etc. Micromachining of bulk silicon utilizing the parallel etching characteristics thereof can be utilized to develop miniaturization of bio-instrumentation such as wavelength monitoring by fluorescence spectrometers, and other miniaturized optical systems such as Fabry-Perot interferometry for filtering of wavelengths, tunable cavity lasers, micro-holography modules, and wavelength splitters for optical communication systems.

Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Pocha, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); McConaghy, Charles F. (Livermore, CA); Deri, Robert J. (Pleasanton, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bulk chemicals glass" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Vacuum fusion bonded glass plates having microstructures thereon  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved apparatus and method for vacuum fusion bonding of large, patterned glass plates. One or both glass plates are patterned with etched features such as microstructure capillaries and a vacuum pumpout moat, with one plate having at least one hole therethrough for communication with a vacuum pumpout fixture. High accuracy alignment of the plates is accomplished by a temporary clamping fixture until the start of the fusion bonding heat cycle. A complete, void-free fusion bond of seamless, full-strength quality is obtained through the plates; because the glass is heated well into its softening point and because of a large, distributed force that is developed that presses the two plates together from the difference in pressure between the furnace ambient (high pressure) and the channeling and microstructures in the plates (low pressure) due to the vacuum drawn. The apparatus and method may be used to fabricate microcapillary arrays for chemical electrophoresis; for example, any apparatus using a network of microfluidic channels embedded between plates of glass or similar moderate melting point substrates with a gradual softening point curve, or for assembly of glass-based substrates onto larger substrates, such as in flat panel display systems.

Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Sintering behavior of lanthanide-containing glass-ceramic sealants for solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article reports on the influence of different lanthanides (La, Nd, Gd and Yb) on sintering behavior of alkaline-earth aluminosilicate glass-ceramics sealants for their application in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). All the glasses have been prepared by melt-quench technique. The in situ follow up of sintering behavior of glass powders has been done by high temperature - environmental scanning electron microscope (HT-ESEM) and hot-stage microscope (HSM) while the crystalline phase evolution and assemblage has been analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the glass compositions exhibit a glass-in-glass phase separation followed by two stage sintering resulting in well sintered glass powder compacts after heat treatment at 850 C for 1 h. Diopside (CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}) based phases constituted the major crystalline part in glass-ceramics followed by some minor phases. The increase in lanthanide content in glasses suppressed their tendency towards devitrification, thus, resulting in glass-ceramics with high amount of residual glassy phase (50-96 wt.%) which is expected to facilitate their self-healing behavior during SOFC operation. The electrical conductivity of the investigated glass-ceramics varied between (1.19 and 7.33) x 10{sup -7} S cm{sup -1} (750-800 C), and depended on the ionic field strength of lanthanide cations. Further experimentation with respect to the long term thermal and chemical stability of residual glassy phase under SOFC operation conditions along with high temperature viscosity measurements will be required in order to elucidate the potential of these glass-ceramics as self-healing sealants.

Goel, Ashutosh; Reddy, Allu Amarnath; Pascual, Maria J.; Gremillard, Laurent; Malchere, Annie; Ferreira, Jose M.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Fracture mechanics of cellular glass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cellular glasses are prime candidate materials for the structural substrate of mirrored glass for solar concentrator reflecting panels. These materials are brittle, however, and susceptible to mechanical failure from slow crack growth caused by a stress corrosion mechanism. The results are detailed of one part of a program established to develop improved cellular glasses and to characterize the behavior of these and commercially available materials. Commercial and developmental cellular glasses were tested and analyzed using standard testing techniques and models developed from linear fracture mechanics. Two models describing the fracture behavior of these materials are developed. Slow crack growth behavior in cellular glass was found to be more complex than that encountered in dense glasses or ceramics. The crack velocity was found to be strongly dependent upon water vapor transport to the tip of the moving crack. The existence of a static fatigue limit was not conclusively established, however, it is speculated that slow crack growth behavior in Region I may be slower, by orders of magnitude, than that found in dense glasses.

Zwissler, J.G.; Adams, M.A.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Global Intermodal Tank Container Management for the Chemical Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global Intermodal Tank Container Management for the Chemical Industry Alan L. Erera, Juan C on asset management problems faced by tank container operators, and formulates an operational tank modes: pipeline, bulk tankers, parcel tankers, tank containers, or drums. Pipeline and bulk tankers

Erera, Alan

185

Decision Models for Bulk Energy Transportation Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-mouth generation at Powder River Basin How much impact would 25% wind penetration have on price ? 2 What is modeled spatial & temporal energy flows nodal prices (fuel & elec) SO2, allowance price1 Decision Models for Bulk Energy Transportation Networks Electrical Engineering Professor Jim Mc

Tesfatsion, Leigh

186

INVESTIGATION OF BULK POWER ERCOT (Texas)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4 D. The New Wholesale Market and the Move Toward Retail Choice . . . . . . . . . . 4-6 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13 1. The Short-Term Energy Market . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4INVESTIGATION OF BULK POWER MARKETS ERCOT (Texas) November 1, 2000 The analyses and conclusions

Laughlin, Robert B.

187

Surface and bulk studies of leached and unleached fly ash using XPS, SEM, EDS and FTIR techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effective chemical utilization of fly ash in environmental applications requires a detailed knowledge of the surface and bulk changes induced by leaching in acid solutions. The surface and bulk characteristics of fly ash from the combustion of Texas lignite have been examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The effects of leaching with acid solutions commonly used in environmental studies have been documented using these techniques. The results of these studies reveal that the fly ash particles are relatively resistance to either chemical or physical changes due to attack by acidic leaching solutions.

Yousuf, M.; Mollah, A.; Hess, T.R.; Cocke, D.L. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Gill Chair of Chemistry

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Corrosion of Partially Crystallized Glasses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using existing data on corrosion of partially crystallized, simulated, high-level waste glasses, coefficients were introduced to evaluate the cumulative influence of secondary effects, such as residual stresses or concentration gradients on product consistency test response. As compared to predictions based solely on residual glass composition effects, the results showed that cristobalite, eucryptite, and nepheline had a higher-than-predicted impact on glass corrosion, while the effects of baddeleyite, hematite, calcium-zirconium silicate, and zircon were close to those predicted. The effects of acmite and lithium silicate were opposite to those expected based on their compositions. The analysis revealed important limitations of the databases currently available. Better understanding of corrosion phenomena will require quantitative composition data, microscopic characterization of pristine and corroded surfaces, and long-term tests with glass coupons or monoliths.

Hrma, Pavel R.; Riley, Brian J.; Vienna, John D.

2002-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

189

INTERNATIONAL STUDIES OF ENHANCED WASTE LOADING AND IMPROVED MELT RATE FOR HIGH ALUMINA CONCENTRATION NUCLEAR WASTE GLASSES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this study was to determine the impacts of glass compositions with high aluminum concentrations on melter performance, crystallization and chemical durability for Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford waste streams. Glass compositions for Hanford targeted both high aluminum concentrations in waste sludge and a high waste loading in the glass. Compositions for SRS targeted Sludge Batch 5, the next sludge batch to be processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), which also has a relatively high aluminum concentration. Three frits were selected for combination with the SRS waste to evaluate their impact on melt rate. The glasses were melted in two small-scale test melters at the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute. The results showed varying degrees of spinel formation in each of the glasses. Some improvements in melt rate were made by tailoring the frit composition for the SRS feeds. All of the Hanford and SRS compositions had acceptable chemical durability.

Fox, K; David Peeler, D; James Marra, J

2008-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

190

COMBINED RETENTION OF MOLYBDENUM AND SULFUR IN SIMULATED HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of elevated sulfate and molybdenum concentrations in nuclear waste glasses. A matrix of 24 glasses was developed and the glasses were tested for acceptability based on visual observations, canister centerline-cooled heat treatments, and chemical composition analysis. Results from the chemical analysis of the rinse water from each sample were used to confirm the presence of SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and MoO{sub 3} on the surface of glasses as well as other components which might form water soluble compounds with the excess sulfur and molybdenum. A simple, linear model was developed to show acceptable concentrations of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and MoO{sub 3} in an example waste glass composition. This model was constructed for scoping studies only and is not ready for implementation in support of actual waste vitrification. Several other factors must be considered in determining the limits of sulfate and molybdenum concentrations in the waste vitrification process, including but not limited to, impacts on refractory and melter component corrosion, effects on the melter off-gas system, and impacts on the chemical durability and crystallization of the glass product.

Fox, K.

2009-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

191

Glass Membrane For Controlled Diffusion Of Gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A glass structure for controlled permeability of gases includes a glass vessel. The glass vessel has walls and a hollow center for receiving a gas. The glass vessel contains a metal oxide dopant formed with at least one metal selected from the group consisting of transition metals and rare earth metals for controlling diffusion of the gas through the walls of the glass vessel. The vessel releases the gas through its walls upon exposure to a radiation source.

Shelby, James E. (Alfred Station, NY); Kenyon, Brian E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

192

BNFL Report Glass Formers Characterization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this task was to obtain powder property data on candidate glass former materials, sufficient to guide conceptual design and estimate the cost of glass former handling facilities as requested under Part B1 of BNFL Technical and Development Support. Twenty-nine glass forming materials were selected and obtained from vendors for the characterization of their physical properties, durability in caustic solution, and powder flow characteristics. A glass former was selected based on the characterization for each of the ten oxide classes required for Envelope A, B, and C mixtures. Three blends (A, B, and C) were prepared based on formulations provided by Vitreous State Laboratory and evaluated with the same methods employed for the glass formers. The properties obtained are presented in a series of attached Tables. It was determined that five of the ten glass formers, (kyanite, iron oxide, titania, zircon, and zinc oxide) have the potential to cause some level of solids f low problems. In addition, all of the blends may require consideration for their handling. A number of engineering considerations and recommendations were prepared based on the experimental findings, experience, and other process considerations. Recommendations for future testing are included. In conjunction with future work, it is recommended that a professional consultant be engaged to guide and assist with testing and design input.

Schumacher, R.F.

2000-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

193

BNFL Report Glass Formers Characterization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this task was to obtain powder property data on candidate glass former materials, sufficient to guide conceptual design and estimate the cost of glass former handling facilities as requested under Part B1 of BNFL Technical and Development Support. Twenty-nine glass forming materials were selected and obtained from vendors for the characterization of their physical properties, durability in caustic solution, and powder flow characteristics. A glass former was selected based on the characterization for each of the ten oxide classes required for Envelope A, B, and C mixtures. Three blends (A, B, and C) were prepared based on formulations provided by Vitreous State Laboratory and evaluated with the same methods employed for the glass formers. The properties obtained are presented in a series of attached Tables. It was determined that five of the ten glass formers, (kyanite, iron oxide, titania, zircon, and zinc oxide) have the potential to cause some level of solids f low problems. The problems might include arching or ratholing in the silo/hopper. In addition, all of the blends may require consideration for their handling.

Schumacher, R.F.

2000-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

194

Field-assisted patterned dissolution of silver nanoparticles in phosphate glass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Phosphate glass samples doped with silver ions through a Na{sup +}-Ag{sup +} ion-exchange process were treated in a hydrogen atmosphere at temperatures near 430?C for durations ranging from 4 to 5 h. Such treatment causes metallic silver precipitation at the surface as well as nanoclustering of silver atoms under the surface under conditions very similar to those used for silicate glasses. The presence of silver clusters resulted in a characteristic coloring of the glass and was verified by the observation of a plasmon resonance peak near 410420?nm in the absorption spectra. Applying a DC voltage between 1.4 and 2?kV at temperatures between 120 and 130?C led to dissolution of the clusters in the area under the positive electrode, thereby bleaching the glass color. The use of a patterned doped-silicon electrode further led to the formation of a 300?nm thick surface relief on the glass surface and of a volume complex permittivity grating extending at least 4??m under the surface. Such volume complex refractive index gratings may find applications in passive or active (laser) photonic devices in rare-earth doped phosphate glasses, where conventional bulk grating formation techniques have limited applicability.

Andreyuk, A., E-mail: alexmag25@gmail.com; Albert, J. [Department of Electronics, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada)

2014-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

195

Structural origin of the nonlinear optical properties of lead niobium germanate film glasses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The structural origin of the nonlinear optical susceptibility (/{chi}{sup (3)}/) of lead-niobium-germanate film glasses with large Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} contents has been investigated. /{chi}{sup (3)}/ shows a strong enhancement with the Nb content in the films with /{chi}{sup (3)}/ values close to 2 x 10{sup -11} esu at 800 nm for a Nb content as high as 0.71. Boling-Glass-Owyoung and Lines' semiempirical models predict accurately the values of /{chi}{sup (3)}/ for transparent bulk glasses but not for film glasses. This discrepancy is related to the remarkable structural differences between them. Raman spectroscopy suggests the formation of a three-dimensional (3D) structure of [NbO{sub 6}] octahedra in the case of film glasses having large Nb contents, while X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that a significant fraction of these units contain Nb{sup 4+} ions. The combination of a 3D structure of [NbO{sub 6}] with the presence of Nb{sup 4+} polarons and their migration through electron intervalence transfer is proposed as the origin of the observed enhancement of /{chi}{sup (3)}/ in the film glasses.

Munoz-Martin, D.; Ruiz de La Cruz, A.; Fernandez-Navarro, J. M.; Solis, J.; Gonzalo, J. [Laser Processing Group, Instituto de Optica (CSIC), Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Domingo, C. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia (CSIC), Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

196

Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device comprises a periodic two-dimensional array of scatterers embedded within the matrix material membrane, wherein the scatterer material has a density and/or elastic constant that is different than the matrix material and wherein the periodicity of the array causes destructive interference of the acoustic wave within an acoustic bandgap. The membrane can be suspended above a substrate by an air or vacuum gap to provide acoustic isolation from the substrate. The device can be fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. Such microfabricated bulk wave phononic bandgap devices are useful for acoustic isolation in the ultrasonic, VHF, or UHF regime (i.e., frequencies of order 1 MHz to 10 GHz and higher, and lattice constants of order 100 .mu.m or less).

Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady, Ihab F.; McCormick, Frederick; Fleming, James G.; Fleming leg, Carol

2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

197

Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device comprises a periodic two-dimensional array of scatterers embedded within the matrix material membrane, wherein the scatterer material has a density and/or elastic constant that is different than the matrix material and wherein the periodicity of the array causes destructive interference of the acoustic wave within an acoustic bandgap. The membrane can be suspended above a substrate by an air or vacuum gap to provide acoustic isolation from the substrate. The device can be fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. Such microfabricated bulk wave phononic bandgap devices are useful for acoustic isolation in the ultrasonic, VHF, or UHF regime (i.e., frequencies of order 1 MHz to 10 GHz and higher, and lattice constants of order 100 .mu.m or less).

Olsson, Roy H. (Albuquerque, NM); El-Kady, Ihab F. (Albuquerque, NM); McCormick, Frederick (Albuquerque, NM); Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Fleming, legal representative, Carol (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

198

One-photon band gap engineering of borate glass doped with ZnO for photonics applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lithium tungsten borate glass of the composition (0.56-x)B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-0.4Li{sub 2}O-xZnO-0.04WO{sub 3} (0 {<=}x{<=} 0.1 mol. %) is prepared for photonics applications. The glass is doped with ZnO to tune the glass absorption characteristics in a wide spectrum range (200-2500 nm). Chemical bond approach, including chemical structure, electronegativity, bond ionicity, nearest-neighbor coordination, and other chemical bonding aspect, is used to analyze and to explain the obtained glass properties such as: transmittance, absorption, electronic structure parameters (bandgap, Fermi level, and Urbach exciton-phonon coupling), Wannier free excitons excitation (applying Elliott's model), and two-photon absorption coefficient as a result of replacement of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} by ZnO.

Abdel-Baki, Manal [Glass Department, National Research Centre, Dokki 12311 Giza (Egypt); Abdel-Wahab, Fathy A.; El-Diasty, Fouad [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbasia, 11566 Cairo (Egypt)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

A Bulk Parameterization of Giant CCN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

), growth by condensation, and growth by coalescence (Beard and Ochs 1993). The long time scale required for conden- sational growth of droplets large enough for collection efficiencies to become significant has been a subject of ongoing investigation.... Bulk microphysical parameterizations traditionally partition the total liquid water into two categories, cloud and rainwater, based on a threshold radius of 2025 #2;m. The most important effect of GCCN is through their impact on precipitation...

Mechem, David B.; Kogan, Yefim L.

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Hydrogen isotope separation utilizing bulk getters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Tritium and deuterium are separated from a gaseous mixture thereof, derived from a nuclear fusion reactor or some other source, by providing a casing with a bulk getter therein for absorbing the gaseous mixture to produce an initial loading of the getter, partially desorbing the getter to produce a desorbed mixture which is tritium-enriched, pumping the desorbed mixture into a separate container, the remaining gaseous loading in the getter being deuterium-enriched, desorbing the getter to a substantially greater extent to produce a deuterium-enriched gaseous mixture, and removing the deuterium-enriched mixture into another container. The bulk getter may comprise a zirconium-aluminum alloy, or a zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy. The partial desorption may reduce the loading by approximately fifty percent. The basic procedure may be extended to produce a multistage isotope separator, including at least one additional bulk getter into which the tritium-enriched mixture is absorbed. The second getter is then partially desorbed to produce a desorbed mixture which is further tritium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed from the container for the second getter, which is then desorbed to a substantially greater extent to produce a desorbed mixture which is deuterium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed so that the cycle can be continued and repeated. The method of isotope separation is also applicable to other hydrogen isotopes, in that the method can be employed for separating either deuterium or tritium from normal hydrogen.

Knize, Randall J. (Los Angeles, CA); Cecchi, Joseph L. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bulk chemicals glass" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Hydrogen isotope separation utilizing bulk getters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Tritium and deuterium are separated from a gaseous mixture thereof, derived from a nuclear fusion reactor or some other source, by providing a casing with a bulk getter therein for absorbing the gaseous mixture to produce an initial loading of the getter, partially desorbing the getter to produce a desorbed mixture which is tritium-enriched, pumping the desorbed mixture into a separate container, the remaining gaseous loading in the getter being deuterium-enriched, desorbing the getter to a substantially greater extent to produce a deuterium-enriched gaseous mixture, and removing the deuterium-enriched mixture into another container. The bulk getter may comprise a zirconium-aluminum alloy, or a zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy. The partial desorption may reduce the loading by approximately fifty percent. The basic procedure may be extended to produce a multistage isotope separator, including at least one additional bulk getter into which the tritium-enriched mixture is absorbed. The second getter is then partially desorbed to produce a desorbed mixture which is further tritium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed from the container for the second getter, which is then desorbed to a substantially greater extent to produce a desorbed mixture which is deuterium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed so that the cycle can be continued and repeated. The method of isotope separation is also applicable to other hydrogen isotopes, in that the method can be employed for separating either deuterium or tritium from normal hydrogen.

Knize, Randall J. (Los Angeles, CA); Cecchi, Joseph L. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Hydrogen isotope separation utilizing bulk getters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Tritium and deuterium are separated from a gaseous mixture thereof, derived from a nuclear fusion reactor or some other source, by providing a casing with a bulk getter therein for absorbing the gaseous mixture to produce an initial loading of the getter, partially desorbing the getter to produce a desorbed mixture which is tritium-enriched, pumping the desorbed mixture into a separate container, the remaining gaseous loading in the getter being deuterium-enriched, desorbing the getter to a substantially greater extent to produce a deuterium-enriched gaseous mixture, and removing the deuterium-enriched mixture into another container. The bulk getter may comprise a zirconium-aluminum alloy, or a zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy. The partial desorption may reduce the loading by approximately fifty percent. The basic procedure may be extended to produce a multistage isotope separator, including at least one additional bulk getter into which the tritium-enriched mixture is absorbed. The second getter is then partially desorbed to produce a desorbed mixture which is further tritium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed from the container for the second getter, which is then desorbed to a substantially greater extent to produce a desorbed mixture which is deuterium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed so that the cycle can be continued and repeated. The method of isotope separation is also applicable to other hydrogen isotopes, in that the method can be employed for separating either deuterium or tritium from normal hydrogen. 4 figures.

Knize, R.J.; Cecchi, J.L.

1991-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

203

Development of Crystal-Tolerant High-Level Waste Glasses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Twenty five glasses were formulated. They were batched from HLW AZ-101 simulant or raw chemicals and melted and tested with a series of tests to elucidate the effect of spinel-forming components (Ni, Fe, Cr, Mn, and Zn), Al, and noble metals (Rh2O3 and RuO2) on the accumulation rate of spinel crystals in the glass discharge riser of the high-level waste (HLW) melter. In addition, the processing properties of glasses, such as the viscosity and TL, were measured as a function of temperature and composition. Furthermore, the settling of spinel crystals in transparent low-viscosity fluids was studied at room temperature to access the shape factor and hindered settling coefficient of spinel crystals in the Stokes equation. The experimental results suggest that Ni is the most troublesome component of all the studied spinel-forming components producing settling layers of up to 10.5 mm in just 20 days in Ni-rich glasses if noble metals or a higher concentration of Fe was not introduced in the glass. The layer of this thickness can potentially plug the bottom of the riser, preventing glass from being discharged from the melter. The noble metals, Fe, and Al were the components that significantly slowed down or stopped the accumulation of spinel at the bottom. Particles of Rh2O3 and RuO2, hematite and nepheline, acted as nucleation sites significantly increasing the number of crystals and therefore decreasing the average crystal size. The settling rate of ?10-?m crystal size around the settling velocity of crystals was too low to produce thick layers. The experimental data for the thickness of settled layers in the glasses prepared from AZ-101 simulant were used to build a linear empirical model that can predict crystal accumulation in the riser of the melter as a function of concentration of spinel-forming components in glass. The developed model predicts the thicknesses of accumulated layers quite well, R2 = 0.985, and can be become an efficient tool for the formulation of the crystal-tolerant HLW glasses for higher waste loading. A physical modeling effort revealed that the Stokes and Richardson-Zaki equations can be used to adequately predict the accumulation rate of spinel crystals of different sizes and concentrations in the glass discharge riser of HLW melters. The determined shape factor for the glass beads was only 0.73% lower than the theoretical shape factor for a perfect sphere. The shape factor for the spinel crystals matched the theoretically predicted value to within 10% and was smaller than that of the beads, given the larger drag force caused by the larger surface area-to-volume ratio of the octahedral crystals. In the hindered settling experiments, both the glass bead and spinel suspensions were found to follow the predictions of the Richardson-Zaki equation with the exponent n = 3.6 and 2.9 for glass beads and spinel crystals, respectively.

Matyas, Josef; Vienna, John D.; Schaible, Micah J.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Arrigoni, Alyssa L.; Tate, Rachel M.

2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

204

Macroscopic Properties of Restacked, Redox-Liquid Exfoliated Graphite and Graphite Mimics Produced in Bulk Quantities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The excellent properties exhibited by monolayer graphene have spurred the development of exfoliation techniques using bulk graphite to produce large quantities of pristine monolayer sheets. Development of simple chemistry to exfoliate and intercalate graphite and graphite mimics in large quantities is required for numerous applications. To determine the macroscopic behavior of restacked, exfoliated bulk materials, a systematic approach is presented using a simple, redox-liquid sonication process along to obtain large quantities of 2D and 3D hexagonally layered graphite, molybdenum disulfi de, and boron nitride, which are subsequently characterized to observe chemical and structural changes. For MoS 2 sonicated with the antioxidant sodium bisulfi te, results from Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electron microscopy indicate the presence of distorted phases from different polymorphs, and apparent nanotube structures in the bulk, restacked powder. Furthermore, using thermograviemtric analysis, the antioxidant enhances the resistance to oxidative degradation of MoS 2 , upon thermal treatment up to 900 C. The addition of the ionic antioxidant decreased dispersion stability in non-polar solvent, suggesting decreased compatibility with non-polar systems. Using simple chemical methods, the ability to generate tailored multidimensional layered materials with unique macroscopic properties is critical for numerous applications, including electrical devices, reinforced polymer composites, lithium ion capacitors, and chemical sensing.

Srivastava, Vikram K [ORNL; Quinlan, Ronald [ORNL; Agapov, Alexander L [ORNL; Dunlap, John R [ORNL; Nelson, Kimberly M [ORNL; Duranty, Edward R [ORNL; Sokolov, Alexei P [ORNL; Bhat, Gajanan [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

HLW Glass Studies: Development of Crystal-Tolerant HLW Glasses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In our study, a series of lab-scale crucible tests were performed on designed glasses of different compositions to further investigate and simulate the effect of Cr, Ni, Fe, Al, Li, and RuO2 on the accumulation rate of spinel crystals in the glass discharge riser of the HLW melter. The experimental data were used to expand the compositional region covered by an empirical model developed previously (Maty et al. 2010b), improving its predictive performance. We also investigated the mechanism for agglomeration of particles and impact of agglomerates on accumulation rate. In addition, the TL was measured as a function of temperature and composition.

Matyas, Josef; Huckleberry, Adam R.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Lang, Jesse B.; Owen, Antionette T.; Kruger, Albert A.

2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

206

Glass and Glass Products (2010 MECS) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun with Big Sky LearningGet Assistance GetGiant ProteaseGlass and Glass Products

207

Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

More Documents & Publications Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Vehicle Technologies Office...

208

IMPACTS OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE STREAMS ON DWPF GLASS FORMULATION: KT08, KT09, AND KT10-SERIES GLASS COMPOSITIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is the fourth in a series of studies of the impacts of the addition of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) and Monosodium Titanate (MST) from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass waste form and the applicability of the DWPF process control models. MST from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) is also considered in the study. The KT08-series of glasses was designed to evaluate any impacts of the inclusion of uranium and thorium in glasses containing the SCIX components. The KT09-series of glasses was designed to study the effect of increasing Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and K{sub 2}O concentrations on the propensity for crystallization of titanium containing phases in high TiO{sub 2} concentration glasses. Earlier work on the KT05-series glasses recommended that the impact of these two components be studied further. Increased Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations have been shown to improve the properties and performance of high waste loading glasses, and K{sub 2}O has been reported to improve the retention of TiO{sub 2} in silicate glasses. The KT10-series of compositions was designed to evaluate any impacts of the SCIX components at concentrations 50% higher than currently projected.a The glasses were fabricated in the laboratory and characterized to identify crystallization, to verify chemical compositions, to measure viscosity, and to measure durability. Liquidus temperature measurements for the KT10-series glasses are underway and will be reported separately. All but one of the KT08-series glasses were found to be amorphous by X-ray diffraction (XRD). One of the slowly cooled glasses contained a small amount of trevorite, which had no practical impact on the durability of the glass and is typically found in DWPF-type glasses. The measured Product Consistency Test (PCT) responses for the KT08-series glasses are well predicted by the DWPF models. The viscosities of the KT08-series glasses were generally well predicted by the DWPF model. No unexpected issues were encountered when uranium and thorium were added to the glasses with SCIX components. Increased Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations were not successful in preventing the formation of iron titanate crystals in the KT09-series glasses. Increased K{sub 2}O concentrations were successful in hindering the formation of iron titanates in some of the glasses after the canister centerline cooled (CCC) heat treatment. However, this result did not apply to all of the CCC versions of the glasses, indicating a compositional dependence of this effect. In addition, high concentrations of K{sub 2}O have been shown to hinder the ability of the DWPF durability and viscosity models to predict the performance of these glasses. The usefulness of increased K{sub 2}O concentrations in preventing the formation of iron titanates may therefore be limited. Further characterization was not performed for the KT09-series glasses since the type of crystallization formed was the characteristic of interest for these compositions. All of the KT10-series glasses were XRD amorphous, regardless of heat treatment. Chemical composition measurements showed that the glasses met the targeted concentrations for each oxide. In general, the measured PCT responses of the KT10-series glasses were well predicted by the DWPF models. The measured, normalized release values for silicon for some of the glasses fell above the 95% confidence interval for the predicted values; however, the PCT responses for these glasses remain considerably lower than that of the benchmark Environmental Assessment (EA) glass. The viscosities of the KT10-series glasses were generally well predicted by the DWPF model. The next step in this study will be to compile all of the data developed and further compare the measured properties and performance with those predicted by the current DWPF Product Composition Control System (PCCS) models. Recommendations will then be made as to which models, if any, may need to be modified in order to accommodate the material from SCIX into DWPF

Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

209

The Economic Case for Bulk Energy Storage in Transmission Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Economic Case for Bulk Energy Storage in Transmission Systems with High Percentages to Engineer the Future Electric Energy System #12;#12;The Economic Case for Bulk Energy Storage Economic Case for Bulk Energy Storage in Transmission Sys- tems with High Percentages of Renewable

210

Towards bulk based preconditioning for quantum dotcomputations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article describes how to accelerate the convergence of Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) type eigensolvers for the computation of several states around the band gap of colloidal quantum dots. Our new approach uses the Hamiltonian from the bulk materials constituent for the quantum dot to design an efficient preconditioner for the folded spectrum PCG method. The technique described shows promising results when applied to CdSe quantum dot model problems. We show a decrease in the number of iteration steps by at least a factor of 4 compared to the previously used diagonal preconditioner.

Dongarra, Jack; Langou, Julien; Tomov, Stanimire; Channing,Andrew; Marques, Osni; Vomel, Christof; Wang, Lin-Wang

2006-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

211

Role of bulk energy in nuclear multifragmentation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because of thermal expansion and residual interactions, hot nuclear fragments produced in multifragmentation reactions may have nucleon density lower than the equilibrium density of cold nuclei. In terms of a liquid-drop model this effect can be taken into account by reducing the bulk energy of fragments. We study the influence of this change on fragment yields and isotope distributions within the framework of the statistical multifragmentation model. Similarities and differences with previously discussed modifications of symmetry and surface energies of nuclei are analyzed.

Buyukcizmeci, N.; Ogul, R. [Department of Physics, University of Selcuk, 42079 Konya (Turkey); Botvina, A. S. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, RU-117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, J. W. Goethe University, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Mishustin, I. N. [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, J. W. Goethe University, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Kurchatov Institute, Russian Research Center, RU-123182 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

212

Active neutron multiplicity counting of bulk uranium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes a new nondestructive assay technique being developed to assay bulk uranium containing kilogram quantities of {sup 235}U. The new technique uses neutron multiplicity analysis of data collected with a coincidence counter outfitted with AmLi neutron sources. We have calculated the expected neutron multiplicity count rate and assay precision for this technique and will report on its expected performance as a function of detector design characteristics, {sup 235 }U sample mass, AmLi source strength, and source-to-sample coupling. 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Ensslin, N.; Krick, M.S.; Langner, D.G.; Miller, M.C.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

JOINT SEMINAR Chemical and Biological Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the failure of oil capture from the dome placed on top of the flowing well. In one very large natural gas. The energy industry uses large quantities of aromatic solvents to change bulk phase properties to avoidJOINT SEMINAR Chemical and Biological Engineering and Wanger Institute for Sustainable Energy

Saniie, Jafar

214

Effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

oxy-fired furnaces. E-glass foams were generated in a fused-81.05.K 1. Introduction Glass foams generated in glass-that the stability of E-glass foam decreased with increasing

Kim, D. S.; Dutton, Bryan C.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Pilon, Laurent

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Structure glass technology : systems and applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Glass cannot compete with steel in terms of strength or durability, but it is the only structural material that offers the highly sought after qualities of translucency and transparency. The use of glass has evolved from ...

Leitch, Katherine K. (Katherine Kristen)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

The Huge, Blue, Jesus Glass Statue  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Later, I found a huge, blue, glass statue of Jesus stuffedOF CALIFORNIA RIVERSIDE The Huge, Blue, Jesus Glass Statue Aeyes as RED And wrote down BLUE for your hair. I had to fix

Robbins, Joanna

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Transition threshold in Ge{sub x}Sb{sub 10}Se{sub 90?x} glasses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ge{sub x}Sb{sub 10}Se{sub 90?x} glasses with Ge content from 7.5 to 32.5?at.?% have been prepared by melt-quench technique, and the physical parameters including glass transition temperature (T{sub g}), density (?), compactness (C), shear elastic moduli (C{sub s}), compression elastic moduli (C{sub c}), refractive index (n), and optical bandgap (E{sub g}) have been investigated. While all these physical parameters show threshold behavior in the glass with a chemically stoichiometric composition. Raman spectra analysis also indicates that, with increasing Ge content, Se-chains or rings gradually disappear until all Se-atoms are consumed in the glass with a chemically stoichiometric composition. With further increasing Ge content, homopolar Ge-Ge and Sb-Sb bonds are formed and the chemical order in the glasses is violated. The threshold behavior of the physical properties in the Ge{sub x}Sb{sub 10}Se{sub 90?x} glasses can be traced to demixing of networks above the chemically stoichiometric composition.

Wei, Wen-Hou [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Centre for Ultrahigh Bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), Laser Physics Centre, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Fang, Liang, E-mail: lfang@cqu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Shen, Xiang [Laboratory of Infrared Material and Devices, Advanced Technology Research Institute, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China); Wang, Rong-Ping [Centre for Ultrahigh Bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), Laser Physics Centre, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

218

Analyses of high-level radioactive glasses and sludges at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reliable analyses of high level radioactive glass and sludge are necessary for successful operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This facility will convert the radioactive waste sludges at SRS into durable borosilicate glasses for final disposal in a geologic repository. Analyses that are crucial to DWPF operation and repository acceptance of the glass are measurement of the radioactive and nonradioactive composition of the waste sludges and final glasses and measurement of the Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio in a vitrified sample of melter feed. These measurements are based on the remote dissolutions of the glass and sludge followed by appropriate chemical analyses. Glasses are dissolved by a peroxide fusion method and a method using HF, HNO{sub 3}, H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}, and HCl acids where the solutions are heated in a microwave oven. The resulting solutions are analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) for nonradioactive elements and appropriate counting techniques for radioactive elements. Results for two radioactive glasses containing actual radioactive waste are also presented. Sludges are dissolved by the Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} fusion method and an aqua regia method. 8 refs., 4 tabs.

Coleman, C.J.; Bibler, N.E.; Dewberry, R.A.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Flexible cadmium telluride thin films grown on electron-beam-irradiated graphene/thin glass substrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate the close-spaced sublimation growth of polycrystalline cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films on a flexible graphene electrode/thin glass substrate structure. Prior to the growth of CdTe films, chemical-vapor-deposited graphene was transferred onto a flexible glass substrate and subjected to electron-beam irradiation at an energy of 0.2?MeV in order to intentionally introduce the defects into it in a controlled manner. Micro-Raman spectroscopy and sheet resistance measurements were employed to monitor the damage and disorder in the electron-beam irradiated graphene layers. The morphology and optical properties of the CdTe thin films deposited on a graphene/flexible glass substrate were systematically characterized. The integration of the defective graphene layers with a flexible glass substrate can be a useful platform to grow various thin-film structures for flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices.

Seo, Won-Oh; Kim, Jihyun, E-mail: hyunhyun7@korea.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Yong Hwan; Kim, Byungnam; Lee, Byung Cheol [Radiation Integrated System Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Donghwan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

220

STRUCTURAL INTERACTIONS OF HYDROGEN WITH BULK AMORPHOUS MICROSTRUCTURES IN METALLIC SYSTEMS UNDERSTANDING THE ROLE OF PARTIAL CRYSTALLINITY ON PERMEATION AND EMBRITTLEMENT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of metallic glasses in bulk form has led to a resurgence of interest into the utilization of these materials for a variety of applications. A potentially exciting application for these bulk metallic glass (BMG) materials is their use as composite membranes to replace high cost Pd/Pd-alloy membranes for enhanced gas separation processes. One of the major drawbacks to the industrial use of Pd/Pd-alloy membranes is that during cycling above and below a critical temperature an irreversible change takes place in the palladium lattice structure which can result in significant damage to the membrane. Furthermore, the cost associated with Pd-based membranes is a potential detractor for their continued use and BMG alloys offer a potentially attractive alternative. Several BMG alloys have been shown to possess high permeation rates, comparable to those measured for pure Pd metal. In addition, high strength and toughness when either in-situ or ex-situ second phase dispersoids are present. Both of these properties, high permeation and high strength/toughness, potentially make these materials attractive for gas separation membranes that could resist hydrogen 'embrittlement'. However, a fundamental understanding of the relationship between partially crystalline 'structure'/devitrification and permeation/embrittlement in these BMG materials is required in order to determine the operating window for separation membranes and provide additional input to the material synthesis community for improved alloy design. This project aims to fill the knowledge gap regarding the impact of crystallization on the permeation properties of metallic glass materials. The objectives of this study are to (i) determine the crystallization behavior in different gas environments of Fe and Zr based commercially available bulk metallic glass and (ii) quantify the effects of partial crystallinity on the hydrogen permeation properties of these metallic glass membranes.

Brinkman, Kyle; Fox, Elise; Korinko, Paul; Adams, Thad

2010-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bulk chemicals glass" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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221

Glass-ceramic material and method of making  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a glass-ceramic material and method of making useful for joining at least two solid ceramic parts. The seal is a blend of M.sub.A O--M.sub.B O.sub.y --SiO.sub.2 that substantially matches a coefficient of thermal expansion of the solid electrolyte. According to the present invention, a series of glass ceramics in the M.sub.A O--M.sub.B O.sub.y --SiO.sub.2 system can be used to join or seal both tubular and planar ceramic solid oxide fuel cells, oxygen electrolyzers, and membrane reactors for the production of syngas, commodity chemicals and other products.

Meinhardt, Kerry D [Richland, WA; Vienna, John D [West Richland, WA; Armstrong, Timothy R [Pasco, WA; Pederson, Larry R [Kennewick, WA

2002-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

222

Tetraethyl orthosilicate-based glass composition and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A tetraethyl orthosilicate-based, sol-gel glass composition with additives selected for various applications is described. The composition is made by mixing ethanol, water, and tetraethyl orthosilicate, adjusting the pH into the acid range, and aging the mixture at room temperature. The additives, such as an optical indicator, filler, or catalyst, are then added to the mixture to form the composition which can be applied to a substrate before curing. If the additive is an indicator, the light-absorbing characteristics of which vary upon contact with a particular analyte, the indicator can be applied to a lens, optical fiber, reagent strip, or flow cell for use in chemical analysis. Alternatively, an additive such as alumina particles is blended into the mixture to form a filler composition for patching cracks in metal, glass, or ceramic piping. 12 figs.

Wicks, G.G.; Livingston, R.R.; Baylor, L.C.; Whitaker, M.J.; O`Rourke, P.E.

1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

223

Tetraethyl orthosilicate-based glass composition and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A tetraethyl orthosilicate-based, sol-gel glass composition with additives selected for various applications. The composition is made by mixing ethanol, water, and tetraethyl orthosilicate, adjusting the pH into the acid range, and aging the mixture at room temperature. The additives, such as an optical indicator, filler, or catalyst, are then added to the mixture to form the composition which can be applied to a substrate before curing. If the additive is an indicator, the light-absorbing characteristics of which vary upon contact with a particular analyte, the indicator can be applied to a lens, optical fiber, reagant strip, or flow cell for use in chemical analysis. Alternatively, an additive such as alumina particles is blended into the mixture to form a filler composition for patching cracks in metal, glass, or ceramic piping.

Wicks, George G. (Aiken, SC); Livingston, Ronald R. (Aiken, SC); Baylor, Lewis C. (North Augusta, SC); Whitaker, Michael J. (North Augusta, SC); O'Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Heating-induced glass-glass and glass-liquid transformations in computer simulations of water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water exists in at least two families of glassy states, broadly categorized as the low-density (LDA) and high-density amorphous ice (HDA). Remarkably, LDA and HDA can be reversibly interconverted via appropriate thermodynamic paths, such as isothermal compression and isobaric heating, exhibiting first-order-like phase transitions. We perform out-of-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of glassy water using the ST2 model to study the evolution of LDA and HDA upon isobaric heating. Depending on pressure, glass-to-glass, glass-to-crystal, glass-to-vapor, as well as glass-to-liquid transformations are found. Specifically, heating LDA results in the following transformations, with increasing heating pressures: (i) LDA-to-vapor (sublimation), (ii) LDA-to-liquid (glass transition), (iii) LDA-to-HDA-to-liquid, (iv) LDA-to-HDA-to-liquid-to-crystal, and (v) LDA-to-HDA-to-crystal. Similarly, heating HDA results in the following transformations, with decreasing heating pressures: (a) HDA-to-crystal, (b) HDA-to-liquid-to-crystal, (c) HDA-to-liquid (glass transition), (d) HDA-to-LDA-to-liquid, and (e) HDA-to-LDA-to-vapor. A more complex sequence may be possible using lower heating rates. For each of these transformations, we determine the corresponding transformation temperature as function of pressure, and provide a P-T phase diagram for glassy water based on isobaric heating. Our results for isobaric heating dovetail with the LDA-HDA transformations reported for ST2 glassy water based on isothermal compression/decompression processes [Chiu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 184504 (2013)]. The resulting phase diagram is consistent with the liquid-liquid phase transition hypothesis. At the same time, the glass phase diagram is sensitive to sample preparation, such as heating or compression rates. Interestingly, at least for the rates explored, our results suggest that the LDA-to-liquid (HDA-to-liquid) and LDA-to-HDA (HDA-to-LDA) transformation lines on heating are related, both being associated with the limit of kinetic stability of LDA (HDA)

Chiu, Janet; Giovambattista, Nicolas [Department of Physics, Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, Brooklyn, New York 11210 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, Brooklyn, New York 11210 (United States); Starr, Francis W. [Department of Physics, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut 06459 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut 06459 (United States)

2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

225

DURABLE GLASS FOR THOUSANDS OF YEARS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The durability of natural glasses on geological time scales and ancient glasses for thousands of years is well documented. The necessity to predict the durability of high level nuclear waste (HLW) glasses on extended time scales has led to various thermodynamic and kinetic approaches. Advances in the measurement of medium range order (MRO) in glasses has led to the understanding that the molecular structure of a glass, and thus the glass composition, controls the glass durability by establishing the distribution of ion exchange sites, hydrolysis sites, and the access of water to those sites. During the early stages of glass dissolution, a 'gel' layer resembling a membrane forms through which ions exchange between the glass and the leachant. The hydrated gel layer exhibits acid/base properties which are manifested as the pH dependence of the thickness and nature of the gel layer. The gel layer ages into clay or zeolite minerals by Ostwald ripening. Zeolite mineral assemblages (higher pH and Al{sup 3+} rich glasses) may cause the dissolution rate to increase which is undesirable for long-term performance of glass in the environment. Thermodynamic and structural approaches to the prediction of glass durability are compared versus Ostwald ripening.

Jantzen, C.

2009-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

226

Identifying the Bose glass phase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Introducing disorder into the Bose-Hubbard model at integer fillings leads to a Bose glass phase, along with the Mott insulator and superfluid phases. We suggest a new order parameter: the determinant of the one body density matrix, which is nonzero only within the Mott-insulator phase. Alongside the superfluid fraction, it is then possible to distinguish the three phases. The Bose glass phase is the only phase which has vanishing determinant and superfluid fraction. The vanishing of the determinant in the Bose glass phase occurs due to the partial fragmentation of the condensate into localized fragments, each with zero superfluid response, which implies the presence of unoccupied sites and hence the presence of lines of zeros in the one body density matrix. In the superfluid phase, the determinant vanish for another reason - due to the macroscopic occupation of a single particle state. Finally, we suggest the enhancement of the three body decay rate in the Bose glass phase, as an experimental indicator for the presence of localized fragments.

R. Pugatch; N. Bar-gill; N. Katz; E. Rowen; N. Davidson

2006-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

227

Materials Science and Engineering A 391 (2005) 159174 Fracture of organosilicate glass thin films: environmental effects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on reactive species in the environment: water vapor for fracture in ambient environments and hydroxyl ions is observed and the effect of chemical species on crack velocity. The similarity between subcritical fracture reserved. Keywords: Subcritical fracture; pH; Relative humidity; Organosilicate glass; Delamination 1

228

Organic hybrid planar-nanocrystalline bulk heterojunctions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A photosensitive optoelectronic device having an improved hybrid planar bulk heterojunction includes a plurality of photoconductive materials disposed between the anode and the cathode. The photoconductive materials include a first continuous layer of donor material and a second continuous layer of acceptor material. A first network of donor material or materials extends from the first continuous layer toward the second continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of holes to the first continuous layer. A second network of acceptor material or materials extends from the second continuous layer toward the first continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of electrons to the second continuous layer. The first network and the second network are interlaced with each other. At least one other photoconductive material is interspersed between the interlaced networks. This other photoconductive material or materials has an absorption spectra different from the donor and acceptor materials.

Forrest, Stephen R. (Ann Arbor, MI); Yang, Fan (Piscataway, NJ)

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Organic hybrid planar-nanocrystalline bulk heterojunctions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A photosensitive optoelectronic device having an improved hybrid planar bulk heterojunction includes a plurality of photoconductive materials disposed between the anode and the cathode. The photoconductive materials include a first continuous layer of donor material and a second continuous layer of acceptor material. A first network of donor material or materials extends from the first continuous layer toward the second continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of holes to the first continuous layer. A second network of acceptor material or materials extends from the second continuous layer toward the first continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of electrons to the second continuous layer. The first network and the second network are interlaced with each other. At least one other photoconductive material is interspersed between the interlaced networks. This other photoconductive material or materials has an absorption spectra different from the donor and acceptor materials.

Forrest, Stephen R.; Yang, Fan

2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

230

DEVELOPMENT OF THE BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new radioactive shipping packaging for transporting bulk quantities of tritium, the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP), has been designed for the Department of Energy (DOE) as a replacement for a package designed in the early 1970s. This paper summarizes significant design features and describes how the design satisfies the regulatory safety requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations and the International Atomic Energy Agency. The BTSP design incorporates many improvements over its predecessor by implementing improved testing, handling, and maintenance capabilities, while improving manufacturability and incorporating new engineered materials. This paper also discusses the results from testing of the BTSP to 10 CFR 71 Normal Conditions of Transport and Hypothetical Accident Condition events. The programmatic need of the Department of Energy (DOE) to ship bulk quantities of tritium has been satisfied since the late 1970s by the UC-609 shipping package. The current Certificate of Conformance for the UC-609, USA/9932/B(U) (DOE), will expire in late 2011. Since the UC-609 was not designed to meet current regulatory requirements, it will not be recertified and thereby necessitates a replacement Type B shipping package for continued DOE tritium shipments in the future. A replacement tritium packaging called the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP) is currently being designed and tested by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The BTSP consists of two primary assemblies, an outer Drum Assembly and an inner Containment Vessel Assembly (CV), both designed to mitigate damage and to protect the tritium contents from leaking during the regulatory Hypothetical Accident Condition (HAC) events and during Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT). During transport, the CV rests on a silicone pad within the Drum Liner and is covered with a thermal insulating disk within the insulated Drum Assembly. The BTSP packaging weighs approximately 500 lbs without contents and is 50-1/2 inches high by 24-1/2 inches in outside diameter. With contents the gross weight of the BTSP is 650 lbs. The BTSP is designed for the safe shipment of 150 grams of tritium in a solid or gaseous state. To comply with the federal regulations that govern Type B shipping packages, the BTSP is designed so that it will not lose tritium at a rate greater than the limits stated in 10CFR 71.51 of 10{sup -6} A2 per hour for the 'Normal Conditions of Transport' (NCT) and an A2 in 1 week under 'Hypothetical Accident Conditions' (HAC). Additionally, since the BTSP design incorporates a valve as part of the tritium containment boundary, secondary containment features are incorporated in the CV Lid to protect against gas leakage past the valve as required by 10CFR71.43(e). This secondary containment boundary is designed to provide the same level of containment as the primary containment boundary when subjected to the HAC and NCT criteria.

Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

2008-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

231

DEPLOYMENT OF THE BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP) was designed by the Savannah River National Laboratory to be a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The BTSP was certified by the National Nuclear Safety Administration in 2011 for shipments of up to 150 grams of Tritium. Thirty packages were procured and are being delivered to various DOE sites for operational use. This paper summarizes the design features of the BTSP, as well as associated engineered material improvements. Fabrication challenges encountered during production are discussed as well as fielding requirements. Current approved tritium content forms (gas and tritium hydrides), are reviewed, as well as, a new content, tritium contaminated water on molecular sieves. Issues associated with gas generation will also be discussed.

Blanton, P.

2013-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

232

Rotary adsorbers for continuous bulk separations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A rotary adsorber for continuous bulk separations is disclosed. The rotary adsorber includes an adsorption zone in fluid communication with an influent adsorption fluid stream, and a desorption zone in fluid communication with a desorption fluid stream. The fluid streams may be gas streams or liquid streams. The rotary adsorber includes one or more adsorption blocks including adsorbent structure(s). The adsorbent structure adsorbs the target species that is to be separated from the influent fluid stream. The apparatus includes a rotary wheel for moving each adsorption block through the adsorption zone and the desorption zone. A desorption circuit passes an electrical current through the adsorbent structure in the desorption zone to desorb the species from the adsorbent structure. The adsorbent structure may include porous activated carbon fibers aligned with their longitudinal axis essentially parallel to the flow direction of the desorption fluid stream. The adsorbent structure may be an inherently electrically-conductive honeycomb structure.

Baker, Frederick S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2011-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

233

Pressurized heat treatment of glass ceramic  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of producing a glass-ceramic having a specified thermal expansion value is disclosed. The method includes the step of pressurizing the parent glass material to a predetermined pressure during heat treatment so that the glass-ceramic produced has a specified thermal expansion value. Preferably, the glass-ceramic material is isostatically pressed. A method for forming a strong glass-ceramic to metal seal is also disclosed in which the glass-ceramic is fabricated to have a thermal expansion value equal to that of the metal. The determination of the thermal expansion value of a parent glass material placed in a high-temperature environment is also used to determine the pressure in the environment.

Kramer, D.P.

1984-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

234

Durability of Silicate Glasses: An Historical Approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a short review of current theories of glass weathering, including glass dissolution, and hydrolysis of nuclear waste glasses, and leaching of historical glasses from an XAFS perspective. The results of various laboratory leaching experiments at different timescales (30 days to 12 years) are compared with results for historical glasses that were weathered by atmospheric gases and soil waters over 500 to 3000 years. Good agreement is found between laboratory experiments and slowly leached historical glasses, with a strong enrichment of metals at the water/gel interface. Depending on the nature of the transition elements originally dissolved in the melt, increasing elemental distributions are expected to increase with time for a given glass durability context.

Farges, Francois; /Museum Natl. Hist. Natur. /Stanford U., Geo. Environ. Sci.; Etcheverry, Marie-Pierre; /Marne la Vallee U.; Haddi, Amine; /Marne la Valle U.; Trocellier,; /Saclay; Curti, Enzo; /PSI, Villigen; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.; /SLAC, SSRL

2007-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

235

Compliant alkali silicate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel cell applications: Combined stability in isothermal ageing and thermal cycling with YSZ coated ferritic stainless steels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An alkali-containing silicate glass (SCN-1) is currently being evaluated as a candidate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. The glass contains about 17 mole% alkalis (K+Na) and has low glass transition and softening temperatures. It remains vitreous and compliant around 750-800oC after sealing without substantial crystallization, as contrary to conventional glass-ceramic sealants, which experience rapid crystallization after the sealing process. The glassy nature and low characteristic temperatures can reduce residual stresses and result in the potential for crack healing. In a previous study, the glass was found to have good thermal cycle stability and was chemically compatible with YSZ coating during short term testing. In the current study, the compliant glass was further evaluated in a more realistic way in that the sealed glass couples were first isothermally aged for 1000h followed by thermal cycling. High temperature leakage was measured. The chemical compatibility was also investigated with powder mixtures at 700 and 800oC to enhance potential interfacial reaction. In addition, interfacial microstructure was examined with scanning electron microscopy and evaluated with regard to the leakage and chemical compatibility results.

Chou, Y. S.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Lid heater for glass melter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A glass melter having a lid electrode for heating the glass melt radiantly. The electrode comprises a series of INCONEL 690 tubes running above the melt across the melter interior and through the melter walls and having nickel cores inside the tubes beginning where the tubes leave the melter interior and nickel connectors to connect the tubes electrically in series. An applied voltage causes the tubes to generate heat of electrical resistance for melting frit injected onto the melt. The cores limit heat generated as the current passes through the walls of the melter. Nickel bus connection to the electrical power supply minimizes heat transfer away from the melter that would occur if standard copper or water-cooled copper connections were used between the supply and the INCONEL 690 heating tubes.

Phillips, Terrance D. (617 Chestnut Ct., Aiken, SC 29803)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Lid heater for glass melter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A glass melter having a lid electrode for heating the glass melt radiantly. The electrode comprises a series of INCONEL 690 tubes running above the melt across the melter interior and through the melter walls and having nickel cores inside the tubes beginning where the tubes leave the melter interior and nickel connectors to connect the tubes electrically in series. An applied voltage causes the tubes to generate heat of electrical resistance for melting frit injected onto the melt. The cores limit heat generated as the current passes through the walls of the melter. Nickel bus connection to the electrical power supply minimizes heat transfer away from the melter that would occur if standard copper or water-cooled copper connections were used between the supply and the INCONEL 690 heating tubes. 3 figures.

Phillips, T.D.

1993-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

238

Melter Glass Removal and Dismantlement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been using vitrification processes to convert high-level radioactive waste forms into a stable glass for disposal in waste repositories. Vitrification facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) are converting liquid high-level waste (HLW) by combining it with a glass-forming media to form a borosilicate glass, which will ensure safe long-term storage. Large, slurry fed melters, which are used for this process, were anticipated to have a finite life (on the order of two to three years) at which time they would have to be replaced using remote methods because of the high radiation fields. In actuality the melters useable life spans have, to date, exceeded original life-span estimates. Initial plans called for the removal of failed melters by placing the melter assembly into a container and storing the assembly in a concrete vault on the vitrification plant site pending size-reduction, segregation, containerization, and shipment to appropriate storage facilities. Separate facilities for the processing of the failed melters currently do not exist. Options for handling these melters include (1) locating a facility to conduct the size-reduction, characterization, and containerization as originally planned; (2) long-term storing or disposing of the complete melter assembly; and (3) attempting to refurbish the melter and to reuse the melter assembly. The focus of this report is to look at methods and issues pertinent to size-reduction and/or melter refurbishment in particular, removing the glass as a part of a refurbishment or to reduce contamination levels (thus allowing for disposal of a greater proportion of the melter as low level waste).

Richardson, BS

2000-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

239

Strategies for High Thermoelectric zT in Bulk Materials  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Zintl principle in chemistry, complex electronic band structures, and incorporation of nanometer sized particles were used to explore, optimize and improve bulk thermoelectric materials

240

New nano structure approaches for bulk thermoelectric materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in bulk thermoelectric materials", M. Mater. Res. Soc.Thermoelectricity", Materials Reserach Society Symposium,Johnson, D. C. , Eds. Materials Research Society: Boston,

Kim, Jeonghoon

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bulk chemicals glass" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Regulatory Roadmap Workshop for Federal Bulk Transmission Regulations...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Regulatory Roadmapping Pgower's picture Submitted by Pgower(45) Member 7 August, 2014 - 13:19 One-day workshop to review regulatory roadmaps for bulk transmission. Date:...

242

Bulk Hydrogen Storage - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Breakout Session - Bulk Hydrogen Storage RD&D Needs Top 6 Categories: Advanced Concepts Advanced Materials Codes & Standards Studies & Analyses Tools & Techniques Demonstration &...

243

Optimization Online - Real-Time Dispatchability of Bulk Power ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mar 16, 2015 ... Real-Time Dispatchability of Bulk Power Systems with Volatile Renewable Generations. Wei Wei (wei-wei04 ***at*** mails.tsinghua.edu.cn)

Wei Wei

2015-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

244

Quantitative analysis of phosphosilicate glass films on silicon wafers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We determined the phosphorus and silicon content of 6000 to 10,000A phosphosilicate glass films deposited on 5 cm diameter <100> silicon wafers. The thin film was removed from the wafer by etching with dilute hydrofluoric acid, and the P and Si content of the solution was determined by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP). The glass films had 86 to 530 ..mu..g P and 920 to 1700 ..mu..g Si. Assuming these two elements were in the film as P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and SiO/sub 2/, the calculated weight percent of phosphorus in the film ranged from 2.2 to 12 wt % with an estimated uncertainty of 2.73 to 10.1 relative percent. These analyses will be used to determine the composition of standards which were prepared simultaneously with these samples. Results will aid in control of one step in a microcircuit fabrication process involving chemical vapor deposition of phosphosilicate glass on silicon wafers by determination of the P content per unit area for control samples using a Kevex x-ray fluorescence spectrometer.

Weissman, S.H.; Hallett, S.G.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

THERMAL ANALYSIS OF WASTE GLASS MELTER FEEDS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Melter feeds for high-level nuclear waste (HLW) typically contain a large number of constituents that evolve gas on heating, Multiple gas-evolving reactions are both successive and simultaneous, and include the release of chemically bonded water, reactions of nitrates with organics, and reactions of molten salts with solid silica. Consequently, when a sample of a HLW feed is subjected to thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the rate of change of the sample mass reveals multiple overlapping peaks. In this study, a melter feed, formulated for a simulated high-alumina HLW to be vitrified in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, currently under construction at the Hanford Site in Washington State, USA, was subjected to TGA. In addition, a modified melter feed was prepared as an all-nitrate version of the baseline feed to test the effect of sucrose addition on the gas-evolving reactions. Activation energies for major reactions were determined using the Kissinger method. The ultimate aim of TGA studies is to obtain a kinetic model of the gas-evolving reactions for use in mathematical modeling of the cold cap as an element of the overall model of the waste-glass melter. In this study, we focused on computing the kinetic parameters of individual reactions without identifying their actual chemistry, The rough provisional model presented is based on the first-order kinetics.

KRUGER AA; HRMA PR; POKORNY R; PIERCE DA

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

246

Raman Analysis of Perrhenate and Pertechnetate in Alkali Salts and Borosilicate Glasses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sodium borosilicate glasses containing various concentrations of rhenium or technetium were fabricated, and their vibrational spectra studied using a Raman microscope. Spectra were interpreted with reference to new high resolution measurements of alkali pertechnetates and perrhenates NaReO4, KReO4, NaTcO4, and KTcO4. At low concentrations of ReO4- or TcO4-, glass spectra show weak peaks superimposed on a dominant spectrum of glass characteristic of silicate and borate network vibrations. At high concentrations, sharp peaks characteristic of crystal field splitting and C4h symmetry dominate the spectra of glasses, indicating alkali nearby tetrahedral Re or Tc. Often peaks indicative of both the K and Na pertechnetates/ perrhenates are evident in the Raman spectrum, with the latter being favored at high additions of the source chemical, since Na is more prevalent in the glass and ion exchange takes place. These results have significance to immobilization of nuclear waste containing radioactive 99Tc in glass for ultimate disposal.

Gassman, Paul L.; McCloy, John S.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Schweiger, Michael J.

2014-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

247

Summary Report: Glass-Ceramic Waste Forms for Combined Fission Products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Glass-ceramic waste form development began in FY 2010 examining two combined waste stream options: (1) alkaline earth (CS) + lanthanide (Ln), and (2) + transition metal (TM) fission-product waste streams generated by the uranium extraction (UREX+) separations process. Glass-ceramics were successfully developed for both options however; Option 2 was selected over Option 1, at the conclusion of 2010, because Option 2 immobilized all three waste streams with only a minimal decrease in waste loading. During the first year, a series of three glass (Option 2) were fabricated that varied waste loading-WL (42, 45, and 50 mass%) at fixed molar ratios of CaO/MoO{sub 3} and B{sub 2}O{sub 3}/alkali both at 1.75. These glass-ceramics were slow cooled and characterized in terms of phase assemblage and preliminary irradiation stability. This fiscal year, further characterization was performed on the FY 2010 Option 2 glass-ceramics in terms of: static leach testing, phase analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and irradiation stability (electron and ion). Also, a new series of glass-ceramics were developed for Option 2 that varied the additives: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0-6 mass%), molar ratio of CaO/MoO{sub 3} and B{sub 2}O{sub 3}/alkali (1.75 to 2.25) and waste loading (50, 55, and 60 mass%). Lastly, phase pure powellite and oxyapatite were synthesized for irradiation studies. Results of this fiscal year studies showed compositional flexibility, chemical stability, and radiation stability in the current glass-ceramic system. First, the phase assemblages and microstructure of all of the FY 2010 and 2011 glass-ceramics are very similar once subjected to the slow cool heat treatment. The phases identified in these glass-ceramics were oxyapatite, powellite, cerianite, and ln-borosilicate. This shows that variations in waste loading or additives can be accommodated without drastically changing the phase assemblage of the waste form, thus making the processing and performance characteristics of the waste form more predictable/flexible. However, in the future, the glass phase still needs to be accurately characterized to determine the effects of waste loading and additives on the glass structure. Initial investigations show a borosilicate glass phase rich in silica. Second, the normalized concentrations of elements leached from the waste form during static leach testing were all below 0.6 g/L after 28d at 90 C, by the Product Consistency Test (PCT), method B. These normalized concentrations are on par with durable waste glasses such as the Low-Activity Reference Material (LRM) glass. The release rates for the crystalline phases (oxyapatite and powellite) appear to be lower (more durable) than the glass phase based on the relatively low release rates of Mo, Ca, and Ln found in the crystalline phases compared to Na and B that are mainly observed in the glass phase. However, further static leach testing on individual crystalline phases is needed to confirm this statement. Third, Ion irradiation and In situ TEM observations suggest that these crystalline phases (such as oxyapatite, ln-borosilicate, and powellite) in silicate based glass ceramic waste forms exhibit stability to 1000 years at anticipated doses (2 x 10{sup 10}-2 x 10{sup 11} Gy). This is adequate for the short lived isotopes in the waste, which lead to a maximum cumulative dose of {approx}7 x 10{sup 9} Gy, reached after {approx}100 yrs, beyond which the dose contributions are negligible. The cumulate dose calculations are based on a glass-ceramic at WL = 50 mass%, where the fuel has a burn-up of 51GWd/MTIHM, immobilized after 5 yr decay from reactor discharge.

Crum, Jarrod V.; Riley, Brian J.; Turo, Laura A.; Tang, Ming; Kossoy, Anna

2011-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

248

SUMMARY OF FY11 SULFATE RETENTION STUDIES FOR DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY GLASS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the results of studies related to the incorporation of sulfate in high level waste (HLW) borosilicate glass produced at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). A group of simulated HLW glasses produced for earlier sulfate retention studies was selected for full chemical composition measurements to determine whether there is any clear link between composition and sulfate retention over the compositional region evaluated. In addition, the viscosity of several glasses was measured to support future efforts in modeling sulfate solubility as a function of predicted viscosity. The intent of these studies was to develop a better understanding of sulfate retention in borosilicate HLW glass to allow for higher loadings of sulfate containing waste. Based on the results of these and other studies, the ability to improve sulfate solubility in DWPF borosilicate glasses lies in reducing the connectivity of the glass network structure. This can be achieved, as an example, by increasing the concentration of alkali species in the glass. However, this must be balanced with other effects of reduced network connectivity, such as reduced viscosity, potentially lower chemical durability, and in the case of higher sodium and aluminum concentrations, the propensity for nepheline crystallization. Future DWPF processing is likely to target higher waste loadings and higher sludge sodium concentrations, meaning that alkali concentrations in the glass will already be relatively high. It is therefore unlikely that there will be the ability to target significantly higher total alkali concentrations in the glass solely to support increased sulfate solubility without the increased alkali concentration causing failure of other Product Composition Control System (PCCS) constraints, such as low viscosity and durability. No individual components were found to provide a significant improvement in sulfate retention (i.e., an increase of the magnitude necessary to have a dramatic impact on blending, washing, or waste loading strategies for DWPF) for the glasses studied here. In general, the concentrations of those species that significantly improve sulfate solubility in a borosilicate glass must be added in relatively large concentrations (e.g., 13 to 38 wt % or more of the frit) in order to have a substantial impact. For DWPF, these concentrations would constitute too large of a portion of the frit to be practical. Therefore, it is unlikely that specific additives may be introduced into the DWPF glass via the frit to significantly improve sulfate solubility. The results presented here continue to show that sulfate solubility or retention is a function of individual glass compositions, rather than a property of a broad glass composition region. It would therefore be inappropriate to set a single sulfate concentration limit for a range of DWPF glass compositions. Sulfate concentration limits should continue to be identified and implemented for each sludge batch. The current PCCS limit is 0.4 wt % SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in glass, although frit development efforts have led to an increased limit of 0.6 wt % for recent sludge batches. Slightly higher limits (perhaps 0.7-0.8 wt %) may be possible for future sludge batches. An opportunity for allowing a higher sulfate concentration limit at DWPF may lay lie in improving the laboratory experiments used to set this limit. That is, there are several differences between the crucible-scale testing currently used to define a limit for DWPF operation and the actual conditions within the DWPF melter. In particular, no allowance is currently made for sulfur partitioning (volatility versus retention) during melter processing as the sulfate limit is set for a specific sludge batch. A better understanding of the partitioning of sulfur in a bubbled melter operating with a cold cap as well as the impacts of sulfur on the off-gas system may allow a higher sulfate concentration limit to be established for the melter feed. This approach would have to be taken carefully to ensure that a

Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

249

Material Profile Influences in Bulk-Heterojunctions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

he morphology in mixed bulk-heterojunction films are compared using three different quantitative measurement techniques. We compare the vertical composition changes using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy with electron tomography and neutron and x-ray reflectometry. The three measurement techniques yield qualita-tively comparable vertical concentration measurements. The presence of a metal cathode during thermal annealing is observed to alter the fullerene concentration throughout the thickness of the film for all measurements. However, the abso-lute vertical concentration of fullerene is quantitatively different for the three measurements. The origin of the quantitative measurement differences is discussed. The authors thank Luna Innovations, Inc. for donating the endohedral fullerenes used in this study and Plextronics for the P3HT. They are gratefully thank the National Science Foundation Energy for Sustainability Program, Award No. 0933435. This work benefited from the use of the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center funded by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Los Alamos National Laboratory under DOE Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396. This research was also supported in part by Laboratory Directed Research & Development program at PNNL. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-76RL01830.

Roehling, John D.; Rochester, Christopher W.; Ro, Hyun W.; Wang, Peng; Majewski, Jaroslaw; Batenburg, Kees J.; Arslan, Ilke; Delongchamp, Dean M.; Moule, Adam J.

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Improving Bulk Microphysics Parameterizations in Simulations of Aerosol Effects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To improve the microphysical parameterizations for simulations of the aerosol indirect effect (AIE) in regional and global climate models, a double-moment bulk microphysical scheme presently implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is modified and the results are compared against atmospheric observations and simulations produced by a spectral bin microphysical scheme (SBM). Rather than using prescribed aerosols as in the original bulk scheme (Bulk-OR), a prognostic doublemoment aerosol representation is introduced to predict both the aerosol number concentration and mass mixing ratio (Bulk-2M). The impacts of the parameterizations of diffusional growth and autoconversion and the selection of the embryonic raindrop radius on the performance of the bulk microphysical scheme are also evaluated. Sensitivity modeling experiments are performed for two distinct cloud regimes, maritime warm stratocumulus clouds (SC) over southeast Pacific Ocean from the VOCALS project and continental deep convective clouds (DCC) in the southeast of China from the Department of Energy/ARM Mobile Facility (DOE/AMF) - China field campaign. The results from Bulk-2M exhibit a much better agreement in the cloud number concentration and effective droplet radius in both the SC and DCC cases with those from SBM and field measurements than those from Bulk-OR. In the SC case particularly, Bulk-2M reproduces the observed drizzle precipitation, which is largely inhibited in Bulk-OR. Bulk-2M predicts enhanced precipitation and invigorated convection with increased aerosol loading in the DCC case, consistent with the SBM simulation, while Bulk-OR predicts the opposite behaviors. Sensitivity experiments using four different types of autoconversion schemes reveal that the autoconversion parameterization is crucial in determining the raindrop number, mass concentration, and drizzle formation for warm 2 stratocumulus clouds. An embryonic raindrop size of 40 ?m is determined as a more realistic setting in the autoconversion parameterization. The saturation adjustment employed in calculating condensation/evaporation in the bulk scheme is identified as the main factor responsible for the large discrepancies in predicting cloud water in the SC case, suggesting that an explicit calculation of diffusion growth with predicted supersaturation is necessary for further improvements of the bulk microphysics scheme. Lastly, a larger rain evaporation rate below cloud is found in the bulk scheme in comparison to the SBM simulation, which could contribute to a lower surface precipitation in the bulk scheme.

Wang, Yuan; Fan, Jiwen; Zhang, Renyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Franklin, Charmaine N.

2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

251

Current status of the GLASS code  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper summarizes the current status of the Generalized Lattice Analysis SubSystem (GLASS) computer code and its supporting cross section libraries. GLASS was developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the early 1970's. The GLASS code has been instrumental in supporting safe Heavy Water Reactor (HWR) operations and predicting material production at SRS for more than 20 years. The Department of Energy Office of New Production Reactors (ONPR) program has chosen to use the GLASS code for the design of the HWR option of the New Production Reactor (NPR). A substantial body of validation calculations have been performed and additional validation calculations will be performed to qualify the new GLASS multigroup cross section libraries derived from the ENDF/B-5 and 6 nuclear data files. Several improvements to the code are in progress. Many other improvements are planned to bring GLASS up to modern physics and compute technology.

Hootman, H.E. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Honeck, H.C. (Computer Application Technology, Inc., Aiken, SC (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Current status of the GLASS code  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper summarizes the current status of the Generalized Lattice Analysis SubSystem (GLASS) computer code and its supporting cross section libraries. GLASS was developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the early 1970`s. The GLASS code has been instrumental in supporting safe Heavy Water Reactor (HWR) operations and predicting material production at SRS for more than 20 years. The Department of Energy Office of New Production Reactors (ONPR) program has chosen to use the GLASS code for the design of the HWR option of the New Production Reactor (NPR). A substantial body of validation calculations have been performed and additional validation calculations will be performed to qualify the new GLASS multigroup cross section libraries derived from the ENDF/B-5 and 6 nuclear data files. Several improvements to the code are in progress. Many other improvements are planned to bring GLASS up to modern physics and compute technology.

Hootman, H.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Honeck, H.C. [Computer Application Technology, Inc., Aiken, SC (United States)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

253

Glass Property Data and Models for Estimating High-Level Waste Glass Volume  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes recent efforts to develop glass property models that can be used to help estimate the volume of high-level waste (HLW) glass that will result from vitrification of Hanford tank waste. The compositions of acceptable and processable HLW glasses need to be optimized to minimize the waste-form volume and, hence, to save cost. A database of properties and associated compositions for simulated waste glasses was collected for developing property-composition models. This database, although not comprehensive, represents a large fraction of data on waste-glass compositions and properties that were available at the time of this report. Glass property-composition models were fit to subsets of the database for several key glass properties. These models apply to a significantly broader composition space than those previously publised. These models should be considered for interim use in calculating properties of Hanford waste glasses.

Vienna, John D.; Fluegel, Alexander; Kim, Dong-Sang; Hrma, Pavel R.

2009-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

254

Process for preparing improved silvered glass mirrors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Glass mirrors having improved weathering properties are prepared by an improvement in the process for making the mirrors. The glass surface after it has been cleaned but before it is silvered, is contacted with a solution of lanthanide rare earths in addition to a sensitization solution of tin or palladium. The addition of the rare earths produces a mirror which has increased resistance to delamination of the silver from the glass surface in the presence of water.

Buckwalter, C.Q. Jr.

1980-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

255

EFFECT OF GLASS-BATCH MAKEUP ON THE MELTING PROCESS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The response of a glass batch to heating is determined by the batch makeup and in turn determines the rate of melting. Batches formulated for a high-alumina nuclear waste to be vitrified in an all-electric melter were heated at a constant temperature-increase rate to determine changes in melting behavior in response to the selection of batch chemicals and silica grain-size as well as the addition of heat-generating reactants. The type of batch materials and the size of silica grains determine how much, if any, primary foam occurs during melting. Small quartz grains, 5 {micro}m in size, caused extensive foaming because their major portion dissolved at temperatures <800 C, contributing to the formation of viscous glass forming melt that trapped evolving batch gases. Primary foam did not occur in batches with larger quartz grains, {+-}75 {micro}m in size, because their major portion dissolved at temperatures >800 C when batch gases no longer evolved. The exothermal reaction of nitrates with sucrose was ignited at a temperature as low as 160 C and caused a temporary jump in temperature of several hundred degrees. Secondary foam, the source of which is oxygen from redox reactions, occurred in all batches of a limited composition variation involving five oxides, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, Li{sub 2}O, MgO, and Na{sub 2}O. The foam volume at the maximum volume-increase rate was a weak function of temperature and melt basicity. Neither the batch makeup nor the change in glass composition had a significant impact on the dissolution of silica grains. The impacts of primary foam generation on glass homogeneity and the rate of melting in large-scale continuous furnaces have yet to be established via mathematical modeling and melter experiments.

KRUGER AA; HRMA P

2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

256

SUMMARY OF 2010 DOE EM INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM STUDIES OF WASTE GLASS MELT RATE ENHANCEMENT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A collaborative study has been established under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management International Program between the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI) in St. Petersburg, Russia, to investigate potential improvements in melt rate via chemical additions to the glass frit. Researchers at KRI suggested a methodology for selecting frit additives based on empirical coefficients for optimization of glass melting available in the Russian literature. Using these coefficients, KRI identified B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CuO, and MnO as frit additives that were likely to improve melt rate without having adverse effects on crystallization of the glass or its chemical durability. The results of the melt rate testing in the SMK melter showed that the slurry feed rate (used as a gauge of melt rate) could be significantly increased when MnO or CuO were added to Frit 550 with the SMR-2 sludge. The feed rates increased by about 27% when MnO was added to the frit and by about 26% when CuO was added to the frit, as compared to earlier results for Frit 550 alone. The impact of adding additional B{sub 2}O{sub 3} to the frit was minor when added with CuO. The additional B{sub 2}O{sub 3} showed a more significant, 39% improvement in melt rate when added with MnO. The additional B{sub 2}O{sub 3} also reduced the viscosity of the glasses during pouring. Samples of the glasses from the melt rate testing characterized at SRNL showed that there were no significant impacts on crystallization of the glasses. All of the glasses had very good chemical durability. Chemical composition measurements showed that the frit additives were present in concentrations below the targeted values in some of the glasses. Therefore, it is possible that higher concentrations of these additives may further improve melt rate, although the impacts of higher concentrations of these components on crystallization and durability would need to be determined. Overall, the results show an excellent potential for these additives to significantly improve waste throughput for DOE vitrification facilities. A complete report from KRI is included as an appendix to this document.

Fox, K.; Marra, J.

2011-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

257

Structure and formation mechanism of six-fold coordinated silicon in phosphosilicate glasses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The local structure of sixfold oxygen coordinated silicon ({sup [6]}Si) in sodium phosphosilicate glasses has been investigated using MAS NMR spectroscopy and ab initio quantum-chemical techniques. It has been demonstrated that {sup [6]}Si is interconnected by six PO{sub 4} tetrahedral units by sharing only their corners, forming a nearly regular [SiO{sub 6/2}]{sup 2-} octahedral site. Alkali cations behave as charge compensators of the doubly charged {sup [6]}Si species and hence play an indispensable role in stabilizing the peculiar octahedral coordination in the glasses.

Miyabe, D.; Yoko, T. [Amorphous Materials Laboratory, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Takahashi, M.; Tokuda, Y. [Amorphous Materials Laboratory, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Uchino, T. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kobe University, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Denaturing Urea PAGE -Large Gel Preparation of Glass Plates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for short glass plate. Wear gloves. 3. Place long glass plate on 2 foam rectangles. Set up spacers and short32 Denaturing Urea PAGE - Large Gel Preparation of Glass Plates 1. Clean glass plates and comb pipette, add 5 drops of dichlorodimethylsilane (Aldrich D6,082-6) to 5 mls of acetone in diposable glass

Aris, John P.

259

Role of Cavitation in Bulk Ultrasound Ablation: A Histologic Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Role of Cavitation in Bulk Ultrasound Ablation: A Histologic Study Chandra Priya Karunakaran, Mark of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio Abstract. The role of cavitation in bulk ultrasound ablation has been evaluated-ablate probe at 31 W/cm2 for 20 minutes under normal and elevated ambient pressures. A 1 MHz passive cavitation

Mast, T. Douglas

260

Compliant Glass Seals for SOFC Stacks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes results from experimental and modeling studies performed by participants in the Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Core Technology Program, which indicate that compliant glass-based seals offer a number of potential advantages over conventional seals based on de-vitrifying glasses, including reduced stresses during stack operation and thermal cycling, and the ability to heal micro-damage induced during thermal cycling. The properties and composition of glasses developed and/or investigated in these studies are reported, along with results from long-term (up to 5,800h) evaluations of seals based on a compliant glass containing ceramic particles or ceramic fibers.

Chou, Y. S.; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Xu, Wei; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Koeppel, Brian J.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Lara-Curzio, Edgar

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bulk chemicals glass" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Asymmetric crystallization during cooling and heating in model glass-forming systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the crystallization process in binary Lennard-Jones systems during heating and cooling to investigate atomic-scale crystallization kinetics in glass-forming materials. For the cooling protocol, we prepared equilibrated liquids above the liquidus temperature $T_l$ and cooled each sample to zero temperature at rate $R_c$. For the heating protocol, we first cooled equilibrated liquids to zero temperature at rate $R_p$ and then heated the samples to temperature $T > T_l$ at rate $R_h$. We measured the critical heating and cooling rates $R_h^*$ and $R_c^*$, below which the systems begin to form a substantial fraction of crystalline clusters during the heating and cooling protocols. We show that $R_h^* > R_c^*$, and that the asymmetry ratio $R_h^*/R_c^*$ includes an intrinsic contribution that increases with the glass-forming ability (GFA) of the system and a preparation-rate dependent contribution that increases strongly as $R_p \\rightarrow R_c^*$ from above. We also show that the predictions from classical nucleation theory (CNT) can qualitatively describe the dependence of the asymmetry ratio on the GFA and preparation rate $R_p$ from the MD simulations and results for the asymmetry ratio measured in Zr- and Au-based bulk metallic glasses (BMG). This work emphasizes the need for and benefits of an improved understanding of crystallization processes in BMGs and other glass-forming systems.

Minglei Wang; Kai Zhang; Zhusong Li; Yanhui Liu; Jan Schroers; Mark D. Shattuck; Corey S. O'Hern

2015-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

262

Theory of Chemical Kinetics and Charge Transfer based on Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Advances in the fields of catalysis and electrochemical energy conversion often involve nanoparticles, which can have kinetics surprisingly different from the bulk material. Classical theories of chemical kinetics assume ...

Bazant, Martin Z.

263

INTERNATIONAL STUDY OF ALUMINUM IMPACTS ON CRYSTALLIZATION IN U.S. HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this task was to develop glass formulations for (Department of Energy) DOE waste streams with high aluminum concentrations to avoid nepheline formation while maintaining or meeting waste loading and/or waste throughput expectations as well as satisfying critical process and product performance related constraints. Liquidus temperatures and crystallization behavior were carefully characterized to support model development for higher waste loading glasses. The experimental work, characterization, and data interpretation necessary to meet these objectives were performed among three partnering laboratories: the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Projected glass compositional regions that bound anticipated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Hanford high level waste (HLW) glass regions of interest were developed and used to generate glass compositions of interest for meeting the objectives of this study. A thorough statistical analysis was employed to allow for a wide range of waste glass compositions to be examined while minimizing the number of glasses that had to be fabricated and characterized in the laboratory. The glass compositions were divided into two sets, with 45 in the test matrix investigated by the U.S. laboratories and 30 in the test matrix investigated by KRI. Fabrication and characterization of the US and KRI-series glasses were generally handled separately. This report focuses mainly on the US-series glasses. Glasses were fabricated and characterized by SRNL and PNNL. Crystalline phases were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) in the quenched and canister centerline cooled (CCC) glasses and were generally iron oxides and spinels, which are not expected to impact durability of the glass. Nepheline was detected in five of the glasses after the CCC heat treatment. Chemical composition measurements for each of the glasses were conducted following an analytical plan. A review of the individual oxides for each glass revealed that there were no errors in batching significant enough to impact the outcome of the study. A comparison of the measured compositions of the replicates indicated an acceptable degree of repeatability as the percent differences for most of the oxides were less than 5% and percent differences for all of the oxides were less than 10 wt%. Chemical durability was measured using the Product Consistency Test (PCT). All but two of the study glasses had normalized leachate for boron (NL [B]) values that were well below that of the Environmental Assessment (EA) reference glass. The two highest NL [B] values were for the CCC versions of glasses US-18 and US-27 (10.498 g/L and 15.962 g/L, respectively). Nepheline crystallization was identified by qualitative XRD in five of the US-series glasses. Each of these five glasses (US-18, US-26, US-27, US-37 and US-43) showed a significant increase in NL [B] values after the CCC heat treatment. This reduction in durability can be attributed to the formation of nepheline during the slow cooling cycle and the removal of glass formers from the residual glass network. The liquidus temperature (T{sub L}) of each glass in the study was determined by both optical microscopy and XRD methods. The correlation coefficient of the measured XRD TL data versus the measured optical TL data was very good (R{sup 2} = 0.9469). Aside from a few outliers, the two datasets aligned very well across the entire temperature range (829 C to 1312 C for optical data and 813 C to 1310 C for XRD crystal fraction data). The data also correlated well with the predictions of a PNNL T{sub L} model. The correlation between the measured and calculated data had a higher degree of merit for the XRD crystal fraction data than for the optical data (higher R{sup 2} value of 0.9089 versus 0.8970 for the optical data). The SEM-EDS analysis of select samples revealed the presence of undissolved RuO{sub 2} in all glasses due to the low solubility of RuO{sub 2} in borosilicate glass. These

Fox, K; David Peeler, D; Tommy Edwards, T; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I; Phyllis Workman, P; James Marra, J

2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

264

Carbon nanotubes grown on bulk materials and methods for fabrication  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed are structures formed as bulk support media having carbon nanotubes formed therewith. The bulk support media may comprise fibers or particles and the fibers or particles may be formed from such materials as quartz, carbon, or activated carbon. Metal catalyst species are formed adjacent the surfaces of the bulk support material, and carbon nanotubes are grown adjacent the surfaces of the metal catalyst species. Methods employ metal salt solutions that may comprise iron salts such as iron chloride, aluminum salts such as aluminum chloride, or nickel salts such as nickel chloride. Carbon nanotubes may be separated from the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species by using concentrated acids to oxidize the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species.

Menchhofer, Paul A. (Clinton, TN); Montgomery, Frederick C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Baker, Frederick S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2011-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

265

Introduction and Motivation Structural Model for Laminated Glass Beams Conclusions and Outlook of Laminated Glass Structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Components of Crystalline Solar Modules back sheet or glass encapsulant electrical conductor crystalline solar cells encapsulant front glass Reference: Schulze, S.-H.; Pander, M.; Naumenko, K.; Altenbach, H and Motivation Components of Thin Film Solar Modules back sheet or glass encapsulant electrical conductor thin

266

Micro-nano scale ripples on metallic glass induced by laser pulse  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Zr{sub 47.7}Cu{sub 31}Ni{sub 9}Al{sub 12.3} bulk metallic glass was irradiated directly by KrF excimer laser pulses with wavelength 248 nm and duration 10 ns. Scanning electronic microscope photographs indicated that many ripples in micro-nano scale would be generated on the edge of the irradiated area under the action of the higher intensity laser pulse. Detailed observation demonstrated that the ripples exhibited fluidity and became closer and closer out from interior. Theoretical analysis revealed the formation mechanism of the ripples, including melting, subsequent propagation of capillary waves and final solidification.

Liu, W. D.; Ye, L. M. [LTCS and Department of Mechanics and Aerospace Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Liu, K. X. [LTCS and Department of Mechanics and Aerospace Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

267

Poiseuille flow of soft glasses in narrow channels: From quiescence to steady state  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using numerical simulations, the onset of Poiseuille flow in a confined soft glass is investigated. Starting from the quiescent state, steady flow sets in at a time scale which increases with a decrease in applied forcing. At this onset time scale, a rapid transition occurs via the simultaneous fluidization of regions having different local stresses. In the absence of steady flow at long times, creep is observed even in regions where the local stress is larger than the bulk yielding threshold. Finally, we show that the time scale to attain steady flow depends strongly on the history of the initial state.

Pinaki Chaudhuri; Jrgen Horbach

2014-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

268

Running heading: Bulk density of a clayey subsoil Increase in the bulk density of a Grey Clay subsoil by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Running heading: Bulk density of a clayey subsoil Increase in the bulk density of a Grey Clay of the prisms were coated by material similar in composition to the topsoil and separated from as the profile dries over summer leading to widening of cracks between prismatic peds, (2) infilling of cracks

Boyer, Edmond

269

Glass Concrete Thin Sheets Reinforced with Prestressed Aramid Fabrics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Glass Concrete Thin Sheets Reinforced with Prestressed Aramid Fabrics Gregor Vilkner Submitted Glass Concrete Thin Sheets Reinforced with Prestressed Aramid Fabrics Gregor Vilkner Thin sheet concrete presented in this work explored the possibilities of prestressing thin sheet glass concrete products

Meyer, Christian

270

SRNL POROUS WALL GLASS MICROSPHERES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed a new medium for storage of hydrogen and other gases. This involves fabrication of thin, Porous Walled, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), with diameters generally in the range of 1 to several hundred microns. What is unique about the glass microballons is that porosity has been induced and controlled within the thin, one micron thick walls, on the scale of 10 to several thousand Angstroms. This porosity results in interesting properties including the ability to use these channels to fill the microballons with special absorbents and other materials, thus providing a contained environment even for reactive species. Gases can now enter the microspheres and be retained on the absorbents, resulting in solid-state and contained storage of even reactive species. Also, the porosity can be altered and controlled in various ways, and even used to filter mixed gas streams within a system. SRNL is involved in about a half dozen different programs involving these PW-HGMs and an overview of some of these activities and results emerging are presented.

Wicks, G; Leung Heung, L; Ray Schumacher, R

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

271

Modeling the glass forming ability of metals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rare Earth Elements..without the use of rare earth elements in Bulk Metallicwithout the Use of Rare Earth Elements details the design

Cheney, Justin Lee

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Chemical Science  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation SitesStandingtheirCheck In &Chemical LabelChemical

273

Functionalized apertures for the detection of chemical and biological materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed are nanometer to micron scale functionalized apertures constructed on a substrate made of glass, carbon, semiconductors or polymeric materials that allow for the real time detection of biological materials or chemical moieties. Many apertures can exist on one substrate allowing for the simultaneous detection of numerous chemical and biological molecules. One embodiment features a macrocyclic ring attached to cross-linkers, wherein the macrocyclic ring has a biological or chemical probe extending through the aperture. Another embodiment achieves functionalization by attaching chemical or biological anchors directly to the walls of the apertures via cross-linkers.

Letant, Sonia E. (Livermore, CA); van Buuren, Anthony W. (Livermore, CA); Terminello, Louis J. (Danville, CA); Thelen, Michael P. (Danville, CA); Hope-Weeks, Louisa J. (Brentwood, CA); Hart, Bradley R. (Brentwood, CA)

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

274

Sealing glasses for titanium and titanium alloys  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Glass compositions containing CaO, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, B/sub 2/O/sub 3/, SrO and BaO of various combinations of mole % are provided. These compositions are capable of forming stable glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys, for use in components such as seals for battery headers.

Brow, R.K.; Watkins, R.D.

1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

275

Sealing glasses for titanium and titanium alloys  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Glass compositions containing CaO, Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, B.sub.2 O.sub.3, SrO and BaO of various combinations of mole % are provided. These compositions are capable of forming stable glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys, for use in components such as seals for battery headers.

Brow, Richard K. (Albuquerque, NM); Watkins, Randall D. (Albuquerque, NM)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Monitoring and analyzing waste glass compositions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device and method are described for determining the viscosity of a fluid, preferably molten glass. The apparatus and method use the velocity of rising bubbles, preferably helium bubbles, within the molten glass to determine the viscosity of the molten glass. The bubbles are released from a tube positioned below the surface of the molten glass so that the bubbles pass successively between two sets of electrodes, one above the other, that are continuously monitoring the conductivity of the molten glass. The measured conductivity will change as a bubble passes between the electrodes enabling an accurate determination of when a bubble has passed between the electrodes. The velocity of rising bubbles can be determined from the time interval between a change in conductivity of the first electrode pair and the second, upper electrode pair. The velocity of the rise of the bubbles in the glass melt is used in conjunction with other physical characteristics, obtained by known methods, to determine the viscosity of the glass melt fluid and, hence, glass quality. 2 figures.

Schumacher, R.F.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Radiation Induced Nanocrystal Formation in Metallic Glasses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The irradiation of metallic glasses to induce nanocrystallization was studied in two metallic glass compositions, Cu50Zr45Ti5 and Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5. Atomic mobility was described using a model based on localized excess free volume due to displace...

Carter, Jesse

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

278

Eyeglass lens made of glass (radiopaque)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fig. 9-1 Eyeglass lens made of glass (radiopaque) and frame made of metal (radiopaque). #12;Fig. 9-2 Eyeglass lens made of glass (radiopaque) and frame made of plastic (radiolucent). #12;Fig. 9-3 Metal frame of eyeglasses (radiopaque). The eyeglass lens is made of plastic (radiolucent). #12;Fig. 9-4 Cotton roll

279

H+ diffusion and electrochemical stability of Li1+x+yAlxTi2-xSiyP3-yO12 glass in aqueous Li/air battery electrolytes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is well known that LATP (Li1+x+y AlxTi2?x SiyP3?yO12) glass is a good lithium ion conductor. However, the interaction between LATP glass and H+ ions (including its diffusion and surface adsorption) needs to be well understood before the long-term application of LATP glass in an aqueous electrolyte based Li-air batteries where H+ always present. In this work, we investigate the H+ ion diffusion properties in LATP glass and their surface interactions using both experimental and modeling approaches. Our analysis indicates that the apparent H+ related current observed in the initial cyclic voltammetry scan should be attributed to the adsorption of H+ ions on the LATP glass rather than the bulk diffusion of H+ ions in the glass. Furthermore, the density functional theory calculations indicate that the H+ ion diffusion energy barrier (3.21 eV) is much higher than that of Li+ ion (0.79 eV) and Na+ ion (0.79 eV) in NASICON type LiTi2(PO4)3 material. As a result, the H+ ion conductivity in LATP glass is negligible at room temperature. However, significant surface corrosion was found after the LATP glass was soaked in strong alkaline electrolyte for extended time. Therefore, appropriate electrolytes have to be developed to prevent the corrosion of LATP glass before its practical application for Li-air batteries using aqueous electrolyte.

Ding, Fei; Xu, Wu; Shao, Yuyan; Chen, Xilin; Wang, Zhiguo; Gao, Fei; Liu, Xingjiang; Zhang, Jiguang

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

280

Glass heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A glass heat pipe is adapted for use as a solar energy absorber in an evacuated tube solar collector and for transferring the absorbed solar energy to a working fluid medium or heat sink for storage or practical use. A capillary wick is formed of granular glass particles fused together by heat on the inside surface of the heat pipe with a water glass binder solution to enhance capillary drive distribution of the thermal transfer fluid in the heat pipe throughout the entire inside surface of the evaporator portion of the heat pipe. Selective coatings are used on the heat pipe surface to maximize solar absorption and minimize energy radiation, and the glass wick can alternatively be fabricated with granular particles of black glass or obsidian.

McConnell, Robert D. (Lakewood, CO); Vansant, James H. (Tracy, CA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bulk chemicals glass" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Gaseous Sulfate Solubility in Glass: Experimental Method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sulfate solubility in glass is a key parameter in many commercial glasses and nuclear waste glasses. This report summarizes key publications specific to sulfate solubility experimental methods and the underlying physical chemistry calculations. The published methods and experimental data are used to verify the calculations in this report and are expanded to a range of current technical interest. The calculations and experimental methods described in this report will guide several experiments on sulfate solubility and saturation for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Enhanced Waste Glass Models effort. There are several tables of sulfate gas equilibrium values at high temperature to guide experimental gas mixing and to achieve desired SO3 levels. This report also describes the necessary equipment and best practices to perform sulfate saturation experiments for molten glasses. Results and findings will be published when experimental work is finished and this report is validated from the data obtained.

Bliss, Mary

2013-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

282

Heat capacity at the glass transition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A fundamental problem of glass transition is to explain the jump of heat capacity at the glass transition temperature $T_g$ without asserting the existence of a distinct solid glass phase. This problem is also common to other disordered systems, including spin glasses. We propose that if $T_g$ is defined as the temperature at which the liquid stops relaxing at the experimental time scale, the jump of heat capacity at $T_g$ follows as a necessary consequence due to the change of system's elastic, vibrational and thermal properties. In this picture, we discuss time-dependent effects of glass transition, and identify three distinct regimes of relaxation. Our approach explains widely observed logarithmic increase of $T_g$ with the quench rate and the correlation of heat capacity jump with liquid fragility.

Kostya Trachenko; Vadim Brazhkin

2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

283

A consortium approach to glass furnace modeling.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using computational fluid dynamics to model a glass furnace is a difficult task for any one glass company, laboratory, or university to accomplish. The task of building a computational model of the furnace requires knowledge and experience in modeling two dissimilar regimes (the combustion space and the liquid glass bath), along with the skill necessary to couple these two regimes. Also, a detailed set of experimental data is needed in order to evaluate the output of the code to ensure that the code is providing proper results. Since all these diverse skills are not present in any one research institution, a consortium was formed between Argonne National Laboratory, Purdue University, Mississippi State University, and five glass companies in order to marshal these skills into one three-year program. The objective of this program is to develop a fully coupled, validated simulation of a glass melting furnace that may be used by industry to optimize the performance of existing furnaces.

Chang, S.-L.; Golchert, B.; Petrick, M.

1999-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

284

Titanium sealing glasses and seals formed therefrom  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Alkaline-earth lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions containing CaO, La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in various combinations of mole-% are provided. These sealing-glass compositions are useful for forming hermetic glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys that have a high aqueous durability for component or device applications requiring exposure to moisture, water or body fluids. Particular applications of the titanium sealing-glass compositions include forming glass-to-metal seals for lithium batteries and implanted biomedical devices (e.g. batteries, pacemakers, defibrillators, pumps). 2 figs.

Brow, R.K.; McCollister, H.L.; Phifer, C.C.; Day, D.E.

1997-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

285

Titanium sealing glasses and seals formed therefrom  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Alkaline-earth lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions containing CaO, La.sub.2 O.sub.3, B.sub.2 O.sub.3, TiO.sub.2 and Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 in various combinations of mole-% are provided. These sealing-glass compositions are useful for forming hermetic glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys that have a high aqueous durability for component or device applications requiring exposure to moisture, water or body fluids. Particular applications of the titanium sealing-glass compositions include forming glass-to-metal seals for lithium batteries and implanted biomedical devices (e.g. batteries, pacemakers, defibrillators, pumps).

Brow, Richard K. (Albuquerque, NM); McCollister, Howard L. (Albuquerque, NM); Phifer, Carol C. (Albuquerque, NM); Day, Delbert E. (Rolla, MO)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Bioactive glass coatings for orthopedic metallic implants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to develop bioactive glass coatings for metallic orthopedic implants. A new family of glasses in the SiO2-Na2O-K2O-CaO-MgO-P2O5 system has been synthesized and characterized. The glass properties (thermal expansion, softening and transformation temperatures, density and hardness) are in line with the predictions of established empirical models. The optimized firing conditions to fabricate coatings on Ti-based and Co-Cr alloys have been determined and related to the glass properties and the interfacial reactions. Excellent adhesion to alloys has been achieved through the formation of 100-200 nm thick interfacial layers (Ti5Si3 on Ti-based alloys and CrOx on Co-Cr). Finally, glass coatings, approximately 100 mu m thick, have been fabricated onto commercial Ti alloy-based dental implants.

Lopez-Esteban, Sonia; Saiz, Eduardo; Fujino, Sigheru; Oku, Takeo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Tomsia, Antoni P.

2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

287

Process for Converting Waste Glass Fiber into Value Added Products, Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nature of the Event: Technology demonstration. The project successfully met all of its technical objectives. Albacem has signed an exclusive licensing agreement with Vitro Minerals Inc., a specialty minerals company, to commercialize the Albacem technology (website: www.vitrominerals.com). Location: The basic research for the project was conducted in Peoria, Illinois, and Atlanta, Georgia, with third-party laboratory verification carried out in Ontario, Canada. Pilot-scale trials (multi-ton) were conducted at a facility in South Carolina. Full-scale manufacturing facilities have been designed and are scheduled for construction by Vitro Minerals during 2006 at a location in the Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina tri-state area. The Technology: This technology consists of a process to eliminate solid wastes generated at glass fiber manufacturing facilities by converting them to value-added materials (VCAS Pozzolans) suitable for use in cement and concrete applications. This technology will help divert up to 250,000 tpy of discarded glass fiber manufacturing wastes into beneficial use applications in the concrete construction industry. This technology can also be used for processing glass fiber waste materials reclaimed from monofills at manufacturing facilities. The addition of take-back materials and reclamation from landfills can help supply over 500,000 tpy of glass fiber waste for processing into value added products. In the Albacem process, waste glass fiber is ground to a fine powder that effectively functions as a reactive pozzolanic admixture for use in portland cement-based building materials and products, such as concrete, mortars, terrazzo, tile, and grouts. Because the waste fiber from the glass manufacturing industry is vitreous, clean, and low in iron and alkalis, the resulting pozzolan is white in color and highly consistent in chemical composition. This white pozzolan, termed VCAS Pozzolan (for Vitreous Calcium-Alumino-Silicate). is especially suited for white concrete applications where it imparts desirable benefits such as increased long-term strength and improved long-term durability of concrete products. Two U.S. patents entitled have been issued to Albacem covering the technology. Third-party validation testing has confirmed that the pozzolanic product is an excellent, high performance material that conforms to a ASTM standards and improves the strength and durability of concrete. Currently, there are no known significant competing technologies to process glass fiber manufacturing by-products and convert them into value-added products. Most glass fiber-forming and fabrication wastes continue to be disposed in landfills at significant costs and with associated negative environmental impact. It is estimated that in a typical glass fiber manufacturing facility, 10-20% by weight of the processed glass material is sent for disposal to a landfill. Today, supplementary cementing materials or mineral admixtures are key to achieving strong and durable concrete. Recovered materials such as coal fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag and silica fume are widely accepted and used in concrete all over the world, especially in the construction of high performance structures such as massive dams, bridges, subway tunnels, etc. These mineral admixtures are not suitable for white concrete and light-colored architectural concrete applications. Converting waste glass fibers into a high performance white pozzolan would allow white concrete producers to gain from the same durability benefits currently realized by gray concrete producers. Description of the Benefit: Albacems technology will enable the glass fiber industry to eliminate nearly 100% of its glass fiber production waste streams by converting them into viable value-added products. With this technology, the glass industry can prevent the landfilling of about 250,000 tons of waste glass fiber annually. Glass manufacturers will realize improved production efficiency by reducing process costs through the elimination of solid was

Hemmings, Raymond T.

2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

288

andesitic glass comparison: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

applications. - Int. J. Solids & Struct. 49 and Motivation Components of Thin Film Solar Modules back sheet or glass encapsulant electrical conductor thin 59 Glass Forming...

289

ajakirja stained glass: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

applications. - Int. J. Solids & Struct. 49 and Motivation Components of Thin Film Solar Modules back sheet or glass encapsulant electrical conductor thin 122 Glass Forming...

290

Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric materials Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric materials Discusses strategies to...

291

Neutrino mass, bulk majoron and neutrinoless double beta decay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new economical model for neutrino masses is proposed in the context of brane bulk scenarios for particle physics, where global B-L symmetry of the standard model is broken spontaneously by a gauge singlet Higgs field in the bulk. This leads to a bulk majoron whose KK excitations may make it visible if neutrinoless double beta decay if the string scale is close to a TeV. It also leads to neutron-anti-neutron oscillation process with transition times which can be in the range accessible to proposed experiments.

R. N. Mohapatra; A. Perez-Lorenzana; C. A. de S. Pires

2000-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

292

Brane-Bulk energy exchange and agegraphic dark energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the agegraphic models of dark energy in a braneworld scenario with brane-bulk energy exchange. We assume that the adiabatic equation for the dark matter is satisfied while it is violated for the agegraphic dark energy due to the energy exchange between the brane and the bulk. Our study shows that with the brane-bulk interaction, the equation of state parameter of agegraphic dark energy on the brane, $w_D$, can have a transition from normal state where $w_D >-1 $ to the phantom regime where $w_D energy always satisfies $w^{\\mathrm{eff}}_D\\geq-1$.

Ahmad Sheykhi

2010-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

293

Chemical Occurrences  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Classification of Chemical Occurrence Reports into the following four classes: Occurrences characterized by serious energy release, injury or exposure requiring medical treatment, or severe environmental damage, Occurrences characterized by minor injury or exposure, or reportable environmental release, Occurrences that were near misses including notable safety violations and Minor occurrences.

294

Chemical Evolution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this series of lectures we first describe the basic ingredients of galactic chemical evolution and discuss both analytical and numerical models. Then we compare model results for the Milky Way, Dwarf Irregulars, Quasars and the Intra-Cluster- Medium with abundances derived from emission lines. These comparisons allow us to put strong constraints on the stellar nucleosynthesis and the mechanisms of galaxy formation.

Francesca Matteucci

2007-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

295

SUPPORTING CHEMICALS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Program 1 was conceived as a voluntary initiative aimed at developing and making publicly available screening-level health and environmental effects information on chemicals manufactured in or imported into the United States in quantities greater than one million pounds per year. In the Challenge Program, producers and importers of HPV chemicals voluntarily sponsored chemicals; sponsorship entailed the identification and initial assessment of the adequacy of existing toxicity data/information, conducting new testing if adequate data did not exist, and making both new and existing data and information available to the public. Each complete data submission contains data on 18 internationally agreed to SIDS (Screening Information Data Set 1,2) endpoints that are screening-level indicators of potential hazards (toxicity) for humans or the environment. The Environmental Protection Agencys Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT) is evaluating the data submitted in the HPV Challenge Program on approximately 1400 sponsored chemicals by developing hazard characterizations (HCs). These HCs consist of an evaluation of the quality and completeness of the data set provided in the Challenge Program submissions. They are not intended to be definitive statements regarding the possibility of unreasonable risk of

See Section

296

Crystallization In High Level Waste (HLW) Glass Melters: Operational Experience From The Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

processing strategy for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The basis of this alternative approach is an empirical model predicting the crystal accumulation in the WTP glass discharge riser and melter bottom as a function of glass composition, time, and temperature. When coupled with an associated operating limit (e.g., the maximum tolerable thickness of an accumulated layer of crystals), this model could then be integrated into the process control algorithms to formulate crystal tolerant high level waste (HLW) glasses targeting higher waste loadings while still meeting process related limits and melter lifetime expectancies. This report provides a review of the scaled melter testing that was completed in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. Testing with scaled melters provided the data to define the DWPF operating limits to avoid bulk (volume) crystallization in the un-agitated DWPF melter and provided the data to distinguish between spinels generated by K-3 refractory corrosion versus spinels that precipitated from the HLW glass melt pool. This report includes a review of the crystallization observed with the scaled melters and the full scale DWPF melters (DWPF Melter 1 and DWPF Melter 2). Examples of actual DWPF melter attainment with Melter 2 are given. The intent is to provide an overview of lessons learned, including some example data, that can be used to advance the development and implementation of an empirical model and operating limit for crystal accumulation for WTP. Operation of the first and second (current) DWPF melters has demonstrated that the strategy of using a liquidus temperature predictive model combined with a 100 C offset from the normal melter operating temperature of 1150 C (i.e., the predicted liquidus temperature (TL) of the glass must be 1050 C or less) has been successful in preventing any detrimental accumulation of spinel in the DWPF melt pool, and spinel has not been observed in any of the pour stream glass samples. Spinel was observed at the bottom of DWPF Melter 1 as a result of K-3 refractory corrosion. Issues have occurred with accumulation of spinel in the pour spout during periods of operation at higher waste loadings. Given that both DWPF melters were or have been in operation for greater than 8 years, the service life of the melters has far exceeded design expectations. It is possible that the DWPF liquidus temperature approach is conservative, in that it may be possible to successfully operate the melter with a small degree of allowable crystallization in the glass. This could be a viable approach to increasing waste loading in the glass assuming that the crystals are suspended in the melt and swept out through the riser and pour spout. Additional study is needed, and development work for WTP might be leveraged to support a different operating limit for the DWPF. Several recommendations are made regarding considerations that need to be included as part of the WTP crystal tolerant strategy based on the DWPF development work and operational data reviewed here. These include: Identify and consider the impacts of potential heat sinks in the WTP melter and glass pouring system; Consider the contributions of refractory corrosion products, which may serve to nucleate additional crystals leading to further accumulation; Consider volatilization of components from the melt (e.g., boron, alkali, halides, etc.) and determine their impacts on glass crystallization behavior; Evaluate the impacts of glass REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) conditions and the distribution of temperature within the WTP melt pool and melter pour chamber on crystal accumulation rate; Consider the impact of precipitated crystals on glass viscosity; Consider the impact of an accumulated crystalline layer on thermal convection currents and bubbler effectiveness within the melt pool; Evaluate the impact of spinel accumulation on Joule heating of the WTP melt pool; and Include noble metals in glass melt experiments because of their potential to act as nucleation site

Fox, K. M.

2014-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

297

Chemical heat pump  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. The heat pump part of the system heats or cools a house or other structure through a combination of evaporation and absorption or, conversely, condensation and desorption, in a pair of containers. A set of automatic controls change the system for operation during winter and summer months and for daytime and nighttime operation to satisfactorily heat and cool a house during an entire year. The absorber chamber is subjected to solar heating during regeneration cycles and is covered by one or more layers of glass or other transparent material. Daytime home air used for heating the home is passed at appropriate flow rates between the absorber container and the first transparent cover layer in heat transfer relationship in a manner that greatly reduce eddies and resultant heat loss from the absorbant surface to ambient atmosphere.

Greiner, Leonard (2750-C Segerstrom Ave., Santa Ana, CA 92704)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Glass for sealing lithium cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Glass compositions resistant to corrosion by lithium cell electrolyte and having an expansion coefficient of 45 to 85 x 10/sup -70/C/sup -1/ have been made with SiO/sub 2/, 25 to 55% by weight; B/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 5 to 12%; Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 12 to 35%; CaO, 5 to 15%; MgO, 5 to 15%; SrO, 0 to 10%; and La/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 0 to 5%. Preferred compositions within that range contain 3 to 8% SrO and 0.5 to 2.5% La/sub 2/O/sub 3/.

Leedecke, C.J.

1981-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

299

Rhenium Solubility in Borosilicate Nuclear Waste Glass: Implications for the Processing and Immobilization of Technetium-99  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The immobilization of 99Tc in a suitable host matrix has proved to be an arduous task for the researchers in nuclear waste community around the world. At the Hanford site in Washington State, the total amount of 99Tc in low-activity waste (LAW) is ~1300 kg and the current strategy is to immobilize the 99Tc in borosilicate glass with vitrification. In this context, the present article reports on the solubility/retention of rhenium, a nonradioactive surrogate for 99Tc, in a LAW borosilicate glass. Due to the radioactive nature of technetium, rhenium was chosen as a simulant because of the similarity between their ionic radii and other chemical aspects. The glasses containing Re (0 10,000 ppm by mass) were synthesized in vacuum-sealed quartz ampoules in order to minimize the loss of Re by volatilization during melting at 1000 C. The rhenium was found to predominantly exist as Re (VII) in all the glasses as observed by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES). The solubility of Re in borosilicate glasses was determined to be ~3000 ppm (by mass) with inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). At higher rhenium concentrations, some additional material was retained in the glasses in the form of crystalline inclusions that were detected by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and laser ablation-ICP mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The implications of these results on the immobilization of 99Tc from radioactive wastes in borosilicate glasses have been discussed.

McCloy, John S.; Riley, Brian J.; Goel, Ashutosh; Liezers, Martin; Schweiger, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lukens, Wayne W.; Kruger, Albert A.

2012-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

300

Smirnov-SSDLTR2005 Chirped bulk Bragg gratings in PTR glass for ultrashort pulse stretching and compression  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

laser applications boosted the development of optical components capable of withholding high power along with beam transformation. Especially, it related to high power femtosecond pulses where high peak power Arbor, MI 48109-2122 Tel.: (734)615-7166, Fax: (734)763-4876, e-mail: almantas@eecs.umich.edu High power

Glebov, Leon

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bulk chemicals glass" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Structural and economic analysis of capesize bulk carriers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Structural failures of bulk carriers continue to account for the loss of many lives every year. Capes are particularly vulnerable to cracking because of their large length, their trade in high density cargos, and the high ...

Hadjiyiannis, Nicholas

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Stresses resulting from compression of bulk cotton lint fibers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The modulus of elasticity, Poisson's ratio and shear modulus of bulk cotton lint fibers were determined. The cotton lint was compressed in an MTS machine to a predetermined density, and the resilient forces induced by the cotton lint after being...

Chimbombi, Ezekiel Maswe

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

A bulk-flow model of angled injection Lomakin bearings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A bulk-flow model for determination of the leakage and dynamic force characteristics of angled injection Lomakin bearings is presented. Zeroth- and first-order equations describe the equilibrium flow for a centered bearing and the perturbed flow...

Soulas, Thomas Antoine Theo

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Incomplete Exciton Harvesting from Fullerenes in Bulk Heterojunction Solar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Incomplete Exciton Harvesting from Fullerenes in Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells George F. Burkhard generation (absorp- tion), exciton harvesting (the process of excitons migrating to the donor materials decay radiatively, so exciton harvesting is usually evaluated by observing photolumines- cence

McGehee, Michael

305

Solid oxide fuel cell having a glass composite seal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel cell stack having a plurality of cassettes and a glass composite seal disposed between the sealing surfaces of adjacent cassettes, thereby joining the cassettes and providing a hermetic seal therebetween. The glass composite seal includes an alkaline earth aluminosilicate (AEAS) glass disposed about a viscous glass such that the AEAS glass retains the viscous glass in a predetermined position between the first and second sealing surfaces. The AEAS glass provides geometric stability to the glass composite seal to maintain the proper distance between the adjacent cassettes while the viscous glass provides for a compliant and self-healing seal. The glass composite seal may include fibers, powders, and/or beads of zirconium oxide, aluminum oxide, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), or mixtures thereof, to enhance the desirable properties of the glass composite seal.

De Rose, Anthony J.; Mukerjee, Subhasish; Haltiner, Jr., Karl Jacob

2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

306

Evaluation of defense-waste glass produced by full-scale vitrification equipment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three full-scale vitrification processes at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory produced over 67,000 kg of simulated nuclear-waste glass from March 1979 to August 1980. Samples were analyzed to monitor process operation and evaluate the resulting glass product. These processes are: Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter (SC/ICM); Spray Calciner/Calcine-Fed Ceramic Melter (SC/CFCM); and Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter (LFCM). Waste components in the process feed varied less than +- 10%. The SC/ICM and SC/CFCM which use separate waste and frit feed systems showed larger glass compositional variation than the LFCM, which processed only premixed feed during this period. The SC/ICM and SC/CFCM product contained significant amounts of acmite crystals, while the LFCM product was largely amorphous. In addition, the lower portion of all SC/ICM-filled canisters contained a zone rich in waste components. A product chemical durability as determined by pH4 and soxhlet leach tests varied considerably. Aside from increased durability under pH4 conditions with decreasing waste content, glass composition, microstructure and melting process did not correlate with glass durability. For all samples analyzed, the weight loss under pH4 conditions ranged from 17.7 to 85.2 wt %. Soxhlet conditions produced weight losses from 1.78 to 3.56 wt %.

Lukacs, J.M.; Petkus, L.L.; Mellinger, G.B.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Compositional ordering and stability in nanostructured, bulk thermoelectric alloys.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermoelectric materials have many applications in the conversion of thermal energy to electrical power and in solid-state cooling. One route to improving thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency in bulk material is to embed nanoscale inclusions. This report summarize key results from a recently completed LDRD project exploring the science underpinning the formation and stability of nanostructures in bulk thermoelectric and the quantitative relationships between such structures and thermoelectric properties.

Hekmaty, Michelle A.; Faleev, S.; Medlin, Douglas L.; Leonard, F.; Lensch-Falk, J.; Sharma, Peter Anand; Sugar, J. D.

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Costs, Savings and Financing Bulk Tanks on Texas Dairy Farms.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

\\ BULLETIN 904 MAY 1958 .t(. :a ,s - / cwdh\\@ Costs, Savi~gs;.itd Financing Bulk Tanks on Texas Dairy Farms . ?. I I 1 i I I ! ,:ravings in hauling - 10 cents I \\ \\ 1 \\ savings in hauling - 15 cents -----------____--- 'savings... in hauling - 20 cents Annual production, 1,000 pounds Estimated number of years required for savings from a bulk tank to equal additional costs at different levels of production and savings in hauling costs. TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMEN'T STATION R. D...

Moore, Donald S.; Stelly, Randall; Parker, Cecil A.

1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

RAPID/BulkTransmission/Texas | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: EnergyPotentialUrbanUtilityScalePVCapacityPulaskiRAPID/BulkTransmission/Texas < RAPID‎ | BulkTransmission

310

RAPID/BulkTransmission/Water Quality | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: EnergyPotentialUrbanUtilityScalePVCapacityPulaskiRAPID/BulkTransmission/Texas <RAPID/BulkTransmission/Water

311

RAPID/BulkTransmission/Wyoming | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: EnergyPotentialUrbanUtilityScalePVCapacityPulaskiRAPID/BulkTransmission/TexasRAPID/BulkTransmission/Wyoming <

312

Using a surface-sensitive chemical probe and a bulk structure technique to  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism inS-4500II Field Emission SEMUsedUserUsingelectronEnergyThemonitor the

313

Energy implications of glass-container recycling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report addresses the question of whether glass-container recycling actually saves energy. Glass-container production in 1991 was 10{sup 7} tons, with cullet making up about 30% of the input to manufacture. Two-thirds of the cullet is postconsumer waste; the remainder is in-house scrap (rejects). Most of the glass recycled is made into new containers. Total primary energy consumption includes direct process-energy use by the industry (adjusted to account for the efficiency of fuel production) plus fuel and raw-material transportation and production energies; the grand total for 1991 is estimated to be about 168 {times} 10{sup 12} Btu. The total primary energy use decreases as the percent of glass recycled rises, but the maximum energy saved is only about 13%. If distance to the landfill is kept fixed and that to the recovery facility multiplied by about eight, to 100 mi, a break-even point is reached, and recycling saves no energy. Previous work has shown that to save energy when using glass bottles, reuse is the clear choice. Recycling of glass does not save much energy or valuable raw material and does not reduce air or water pollution significantly. The most important impacts are the small reduction of waste sent to the landfill and increased production rates at glass plants.

Gaines, L.L.; Mintz, M.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Finsler geometric perspective on the bulk flow in the universe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Astronomical observations showed that there may exist a bulk flow with peculiar velocities in the universe, which contradicts with the (\\Lambda)CDM model. The bulk flow reveals that the observational universe is anisotropic at large scales. In fact, a more reliable observation on the anisotropy of spacetime comes from the CMB power spectra. The WMAP and Planck satellites both show that there is a hemispherical power asymmetry at large-angular scales. In this paper, we propose a "wind" scenario to the bulk flow (or the anisotropy of spacetime). Under the influence of the "wind", the spacetime metric could become a Finsler structure. By resolving the null geodesic equation, we obtain the modified luminosity distance, which has a dipolar form at the leading order. Thus, the "wind" describes well the bulk flow. In addition, we perform a least-(\\chi^2) fit to the data of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the Union2.1 compilation. The peculiar velocity of the bulk flow has an upper limit (v_{bulk}\\lesssim 4000 \\rm{km/s}), which is compatible with all the existing observational values.

Zhe Chang; Ming-Hua Li; Sai Wang

2013-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

315

Cosmic No Hair for Braneworlds with a Bulk Dilaton Field  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Braneworld cosmology supported by a bulk scalar field with an exponential potential is developed. A general class of separable backgrounds for both single and two-brane systems is derived, where the bulk metric components are given by products of world-volume and bulk coordinates and the world-volumes represent any anisotropic and inhomogeneous solution to an effective four-dimensional Brans-Dicke theory of gravity. We deduce a cosmic no hair theorem for all ever expanding, spatially homogeneous Bianchi world-volumes and find that the spatially flat and isotropic inflationary scaling solution represents a late-time attractor when the bulk potential is sufficiently flat. The dependence of this result on the separable nature of the bulk metric is investigated by applying the techniques of Hamilton-Jacobi theory to five-dimensional Einstein gravity. We employ the spatial gradient expansion method to determine the asymptotic form of the bulk metric up to third-order in spatial gradients. It is found that the condition for the separable form of the metric to represent the attractor of the system is precisely the same as that for the four-dimensional world-volume to isotropize. We also derive the fourth-order contribution to the Hamilton-Jacobi generating functional. Finally, we conclude by placing our results within the context of the holographic approach to braneworld cosmology.

James E. Lidsey; David Seery

2005-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

316

Dynamics and rheology of active glasses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Within the framework of mode-coupling theory, we present a simple model for describing dense assemblies of active (self-propelled) spherical colloidal particles. For isotropic suspensions, we demonstrate that the glass transition is shifted to higher volume fraction by the addition of activity, in agreement with recent Brownian dynamics simulations. Activity-induced changes in the static structure factor of the fluid are predicted. The mechanical response of an active glass to applied strain is shown to be softer than the corresponding passive glass; both the nonergodicity parameter and the yield stress reduce with increasing activity.

T. F. F. Farage; J. M. Brader

2014-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

317

Glass/polymer composites and methods of making  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to new glass/polymer composites and methods for making them. More specifically, the invention is glass/polymer composites having phases that are at the molecular level and thereby practicably indistinguishable. The invention further discloses making molecular phase glass/polymer composites by mixing a glass and a polymer in a compatible solvent.

Samuels, W. D. (Richland, WA); Exarhos, Gregory J. (Richland, WA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Solar Cells: Spin-Cast Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: A Dynamical...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Solar Cells: Spin-Cast Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: A Dynamical Investigation Solar Cells: Spin-Cast Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: A Dynamical Investigation Print Wednesday,...

319

The Role of Surface Chemistry and Bulk Properties on the Cycling...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

The Role of Surface Chemistry and Bulk Properties on the Cycling and Rate Capability of Lithium Positive Electrode Materials The Role of Surface Chemistry and Bulk Properties on...

320

ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING USING LOCATION SPECIFIC AIR MONITORING IN BULK HANDLING FACILITIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the introduction of safeguards strengthening measures approved by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Board of Governors (1992-1997), international nuclear safeguards inspectors have been able to utilize environmental sampling (ES) (e.g. deposited particulates, air, water, vegetation, sediments, soil and biota) in their safeguarding approaches at bulk uranium/plutonium handling facilities. Enhancements of environmental sampling techniques used by the IAEA in drawing conclusions concerning the absence of undeclared nuclear materials or activities will soon be able to take advantage of a recent step change improvement in the gathering and analysis of air samples at these facilities. Location specific air monitoring feasibility tests have been performed with excellent results in determining attribute and isotopic composition of chemical elements present in an actual test-bed sample. Isotopic analysis of collected particles from an Aerosol Contaminant Extractor (ACE) collection, was performed with the standard bulk sampling protocol used throughout the IAEA network of analytical laboratories (NWAL). The results yielded bulk isotopic values expected for the operations. Advanced designs of air monitoring instruments such as the ACE may be used in gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEP) to detect the production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) or enrichments not declared by a State. Researchers at Savannah River National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing the next generation of ES equipment for air grab and constant samples that could become an important addition to the international nuclear safeguards inspector's toolkit. Location specific air monitoring to be used to establish a baseline environmental signature of a particular facility employed for comparison of consistencies in declared operations will be described in this paper. Implementation of air monitoring will be contrasted against the use of smear ES when used during unannounced inspections, design information verification, limited frequency unannounced access, and complementary access visits at bulk handling facilities. Analysis of technical features required for tamper indication and resistance will demonstrate the viability of successful application of the system in taking ES within a bulk handling location. Further exploration of putting this technology into practice is planned to include mapping uranium enrichment facilities for the identification of optimal for installation of air monitoring devices.

Sexton, L.; Hanks, D.; Degange, J.; Brant, H.; Hall, G.; Cable-Dunlap, P.; Anderson, B.

2011-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bulk chemicals glass" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Cooling rate and size effects on the medium-range structure of multicomponent oxide glasses simulated by molecular dynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A set of molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the effect of cooling rate and system size on the medium-range structure of melt-derived multicomponent silicate glasses, represented by the quaternary 45S5 Bioglass composition. Given the significant impact of the glass degradation on applications of these materials in biomedicine and nuclear waste disposal, bulk structural features which directly affect the glass dissolution process are of particular interest. Connectivity of the silicate matrix, ion clustering and nanosegregation, distribution of ring and chain structural patterns represent critical features in this context, which can be directly extracted from the models. A key issue is represented by the effect of the computational approach on the corresponding glass models, especially in light of recent indications questioning the suitability of conventional MD approaches (that is, involving melt-and-quench of systems containing ?10{sup 3} atoms at cooling rates of 5-10 K/ps) when applied to model these glasses. The analysis presented here compares MD models obtained with conventional and nonconventional cooling rates and system sizes, highlighting the trend and range of convergence of specific structural features in the medium range. The present results show that time-consuming computational approaches involving much lower cooling rates and/or significantly larger system sizes are in most cases not necessary in order to obtain a reliable description of the medium-range structure of multicomponent glasses. We identify the convergence range for specific properties and use them to discuss models of several glass compositions for which a possible influence of cooling-rate or size effects had been previously hypothesized. The trends highlighted here represent an important reference to obtain reliable models of multicomponent glasses and extract converged medium-range structural features which affect the glass degradation and thus their application in different fields. In addition, as a first application of the present findings, the fully converged structure of the 45S5 glass was further analyzed to shed new light on several dissolution-related features whose interpretation has been rather controversial in the past.

Tilocca, Antonio [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom)] [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom)

2013-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

322

794 The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, Volume 82, August 2004 Rate of Bitumen Film Transfer from a Quartz Surface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

794 The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, Volume 82, August 2004 Rate of Bitumen Film be addressed. E-mail address: jdmiller@mines.utah.edu The rate of bitumen transfer from a bitumen-coated quartz bitumen spreading, a bulk layer followed the formation of thin bitumen films (precursor films). The bulk

Drelich, Jaroslaw W.

323

ANALYSIS OF DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 6 (MACROBATCH 7) POUR STREAM GLASS SAMPLES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 6 (SB6), also referred to as Macrobatch 7 (MB7), in June 2010. SB6 is a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from Sludge Batch 5 (SB5), H-Canyon Np transfers and SB6 that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51.1 SB6 was processed using Frit 418. Sludge is received into the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) and is processed through the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator Tank (SME). The treated sludge slurry is then transferred to the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) and fed to the melter. During processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program (GPCP) and to complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. The DWPF requested various analyses of radioactive glass samples obtained from the melter pour stream during processing of SB6 as well as reduction/oxidation (REDOX) analysis of MFT samples to determine the impact of Argon bubbling. Sample analysis followed the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) and an Analytical Study Plan (ASP). Four Pour Stream (PS) glass samples and two MFT slurry samples were delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) from the DWPF. Table 1-1 lists the sample information for each pour stream glass sample. SB6 PS3 (S03472) was selected as the official pour stream sample for SB6 and full analysis was requested. This report details the visual observations of the as-received SB6 PS No.3 glass sample as well as results for the chemical composition, Product Consistency Test (PCT), radionuclide content, noble metals, and glass density. REDOX results will be provided for all four pour stream samples and vitrified samples of MFT-558 and MFT-568A. Where appropriate, data from other pour stream samples will be provided.

Johnson, F.

2012-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

324

Chemical Management  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTieCelebrate Earth DayFuels Chemical Kinetic Modeling of1 DOEKinetics

325

Glass bead micromodel study of solute transport  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This study presents the quantification of glass bead micromodel experiments through a combination of computational modeling and experimental analysis. The computational model simulates two-dimensional solute flow through porous media using a finite...

Fedirchuk, Paula Diane

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Neutron Brillouin scattering in a metallic glass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dispersion of collective modes in a metallic glass (Mg{sub 70}Zn{sub 30}) measured earlier at the thermal neutron time-of-flight spectrometer IN4 of the HFR of the ILL could be extended towards lower momentum transfers down to the first pseudo-Brillouin zone for the first time. This extension to momentum transfer not accessible up to now was possible using the highly resolving time-of-flight spectrometer HET of the new spallation source ISIS. In the region of overlap the two parts of the dispersion determined with different samples of the same metallic glass on different instruments agree very well. Also the earlier discrepancies with the dispersion determined for this metallic glass from a computer simulation could be nearly completely eliminated due to a more recent and more complete investigations of this glass.

Suck, J.B. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Nukleare Festkoerperphysik); Egelstaff, P.A. (Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics); Robinson, R.A.; Sivia, D.S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Taylor, A.D. (Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton (United Kingdom))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Preparation of fullerene/glass composites  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Synthesis of fullerene/glass composites is described. A direct method for preparing solid solutions of C{sub 60} in silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) glass matrices by means of sol-gel chemistry is described. In order to produce highly concentrated fullerene-sol-gel-composites it is necessary to increase the solubility of these ``guests`` in a delivery solvent which is compatible with the starter sol (receiving solvent). Sonication results in aggregate disruption by treatment with high frequency sound waves, thereby accelerating the rate of hydrolysis of the alkoxide precursor, and the solution process for the C{sub 60}. Depending upon the preparative procedure, C{sub 60} dispersed within the glass matrix as microcrystalline domains, or dispersed as true molecular solutions of C{sub 60} in a solid glass matrix, is generated by the present method.

Mattes, B.R.; McBranch, D.W.; Robinson, J.M.; Koskelo, A.C.; Love, S.P.

1995-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

328

Measurement of DWPF glass viscosity - Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report details the results of a scoping study funded by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for the measurement of melt viscosities for simulated glasses representative of Macrobatch 2 (Tank 42/51 feed).

Harbour, J.R.

2000-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

329

Energy Assessment Protocol for Glass Furnaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Department of Energy funded development of a methodology that could be used by glass producers to increase furnace efficiency, and that could serve as a model for other energy-intensive industries. Accordingly, a team comprising PPG Industries...

Plodinec, M. J.; Kauffman, B. M.; Norton, O. P.; Richards, C.; Connors, J.; Wishnick, D.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Tiny Glass Bubbles With Big Potential  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

If these glass microspheres' walls could talkThey would explain how their tiny pores allow the potential for handling, storing and transporting a variety of materials, including drugs that have...

331

Preparation of fullerene/glass composites  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Synthesis of fullerene/glass composites. A direct method for preparing solid solutions of C.sub.60 in silicon dioxide (SiO.sub.2) glass matrices by means of sol-gel chemistry is described. In order to produce highly concentrated fullerene-sol-gel-composites it is necessary to increase the solubility of these "guests" in a delivery solvent which is compatible with the starter sol (receiving solvent). Sonication results in aggregate disruption by treatment with high frequency sound waves, thereby accelerating the rate of hydrolysis of the alkoxide precursor, and the solution process for the C.sub.60. Depending upon the preparative procedure, C.sub.60 dispersed within the glass matrix as microcrystalline domains, or dispersed as true molecular solutions of C.sub.60 in a solid glass matrix, is generated by the present method.

Mattes, Benjamin R. (Santa Fe, NM); McBranch, Duncan W. (Santa Fe, NM); Robinson, Jeanne M. (Los Alamos, NM); Koskelo, Aaron C. (Los Alamos, NM); Love, Steven P. (Los Alamos, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Glass-ceramic joint and method of joining  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a glass-ceramic material and method of making useful for joining a solid ceramic component and at least one other solid component. The material is a blend of M1-M2-M3, wherein M1 is BaO, SrO, CaO, MgO, or combinations thereof, M2 is Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, present in the blend in an amount from 2 to 15 mol %, M3 is SiO.sub.2 with up to 50 mol % B.sub.2 O.sub.3 that substantially matches a coefficient of thermal expansion of the solid electrolyte. According to the present invention, a series of glass ceramics in the M1-Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 -M3 system can be used to join or seal both tubular and planar solid oxide fuel cells, oxygen electrolyzers, and membrane reactors for the production of syngas, commodity chemicals and other products.

Meinhardt, Kerry D [Richland, WA; Vienna, John D [West Richland, WA; Armstrong, Timothy R [Clinton, TN; Pederson, Larry R [Kennewick, WA

2003-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

333

MECS 2006 - Glass | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department of Energy Low-Temperature CombustionGlass MECS 2006 - Glass Manufacturing

334

ICG 2000 Amsterdam Glass in the new Millennium Absorption Spectra of Iron and Water in Silicate Glasses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ICG 2000 Amsterdam ­ Glass in the new Millennium Absorption Spectra of Iron and Water in Silicate of the absorption spectrum of silicate glasses and determination of absolute concentrations of ferric, ferrous of silicate glass. 2. Experimental The same glass samples were used in this work as were described in [3, 4

Glebov, Leon

335

Identification of chemical sedimentary protoliths using iron isotopes in the N3750 Ma Nuvvuagittuq supracrustal belt, Canada  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Identification of chemical sedimentary protoliths using iron isotopes in the N3750 Ma Nuvvuagittuq partly homogenized Fe isotopes. Variable Fe isotope compositions of bulk quartz­magnetite rocks

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

336

Sealed glass coating of high temperature ceramic superconductors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and article of manufacture of a lead oxide based glass coating on a high temperature superconductor. The method includes preparing a dispersion of glass powders in a solution, applying the dispersion to the superconductor, drying the dispersion before applying another coating and heating the glass powder dispersion at temperatures below oxygen diffusion onset and above the glass melting point to form a continuous glass coating on the superconductor to establish compressive stresses which enhance the fracture strength of the superconductor.

Wu, Weite (Tainan, TW); Chu, Cha Y. (Garnerville, NY); Goretta, Kenneth C. (Downers Grove, IL); Routbort, Jules L. (Darien, IL)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Hysteretic Optimization For Spin Glasses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The recently proposed Hysteretic Optimization (HO) procedure is applied to the 1D Ising spin chain with long range interactions. To study its effectiveness, the quality of ground state energies found as a function of the distance dependence exponent, $\\sigma$, is assessed. It is found that the transition from an infinite-range to a long-range interaction at $\\sigma=0.5$ is accompanied by a sharp decrease in the performance . The transition is signaled by a change in the scaling behavior of the average avalanche size observed during the hysteresis process. This indicates that HO requires the system to be infinite-range, with a high degree of interconnectivity between variables leading to large avalanches, in order to function properly. An analysis of the way auto-correlations evolve during the optimization procedure confirm that the search of phase space is less efficient, with the system becoming effectively stuck in suboptimal configurations much earlier. These observations explain the poor performance that HO obtained for the Edwards-Anderson spin glass on finite-dimensional lattices, and suggest that its usefulness might be limited in many combinatorial optimization problems.

B. Goncalves; S. Boettcher

2007-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

338

Glass Formulation and Fabrication Laboratory, Building 864, Hazards assessment document  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the Glass Formulation and Fabrication Laboratory, Building 864. The entire inventory was screened according to the potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distances at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the ERPG-2 threshold is 96 meters. The highest emergency classification is a Site Area Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is 100 meters.

Banda, Z.; Wood, C.L.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Bulk emission of scalars by a rotating black hole  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study in detail the scalar-field Hawking radiation emitted into the bulk by a higher-dimensional, rotating black hole. We numerically compute the angular eigenvalues, and solve the radial equation of motion in order to find transmission factors. The latter are found to be enhanced by the angular momentum of the black hole, and to exhibit the well-known effect of superradiance. The corresponding power spectra for scalar fields show an enhancement with the number of dimensions, as in the non-rotating case. We compute the total mass loss rate of the black hole for a variety of black-hole angular momenta and bulk dimensions, and find that, in all cases, the bulk emission remains significantly smaller than the brane emission. The angular-momentum loss rate is also computed and found to have a smaller value in the bulk than on the brane. We present accurate bulk-to-brane emission ratios for a range of scenarios.

M. Casals; S. R. Dolan; P. Kanti; E. Winstanley

2008-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

340

Natural glass analogues to alteration of nuclear waste glass: A review and recommendations for further study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to review previous work on the weathering of natural glasses; and to make recommendations for further work with respect to studying the alteration of natural glasses as it relates quantifying rates of dissolution. the first task was greatly simplified by the published papers of Jercinovic and Ewing (1987) and Byers, Jercinovic, and Ewing (1987). The second task is obviously the more difficult of the two and the author makes no claim of completeness in this regard. Glasses weather in the natural environment by reacting with aqueous solutions producing a rind of secondary solid phases. It had been proposed by some workers that the thickness of this rind is a function of the age of the glass and thus could be used to estimate glass dissolution rates. However, Jercinovic and Ewing (1987) point out that in general the rind thickness does not correlate with the age of the glass owing to the differences in time of contact with the solution compared to the actual age of the sample. It should be noted that the rate of glass dissolution is also a function of the composition of both the glass and the solution, and the temperature. Quantification of the effects of these parameters (as well as time of contact with the aqueous phase and flow rates) would thus permit a prediction of the consequences of glass-fluid interactions under varying environmental conditions. Defense high- level nuclear waste (DHLW), consisting primarily of liquid and sludge, will be encapsulated by and dispersed in a borosilicate glass before permanent storage in a HLW repository. This glass containing the DHLW serves to dilute the radionuclides and to retard their dispersion into the environment. 318 refs.

McKenzie, W.F.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bulk chemicals glass" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Quasiparticle theory of shear and bulk viscosities of hadronic matter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A theoretical framework for the calculation of shear and bulk viscosities of hadronic matter at finite temperature is presented. The framework is based on the quasiparticle picture. It allows for an arbitrary number of hadron species with pointlike interactions, and allows for both elastic and inelastic collisions. Detailed balance is ensured. The particles have temperature-dependent masses arising from mean-field or potential effects, which maintains self-consistency between the equation of state and the transport coefficients. As an example, we calculate the shear and bulk viscosity in the linear {sigma} model. The ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density shows a minimum in the vicinity of a rapid crossover transition, whereas the ratio of bulk viscosity to entropy density shows a maximum.

Chakraborty, P.; Kapusta, J. I. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

342

Van der Waals density-functional theory study for bulk solids with BCC, FCC, and diamond structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proper inclusion of van der Waals (vdW) interactions in theoretical simulations based on standard density functional theory (DFT) is crucial to describe the physics and chemistry of systems such as organic and layered materials. Many encouraging approaches have been proposed to combine vdW interactions with standard approximate DFT calculations. Despite many vdW studies, there is no consensus on the reliability of vdW methods. To help further development of vdW methods, we have assessed various vdW functionals through the calculation of structural prop- erties at equilibrium, such as lattice constants, bulk moduli, and cohesive energies, for bulk solids, including alkali, alkali-earth, and transition metals, with BCC, FCC, and diamond structures as the ground state structure. These results provide important information for the vdW-related materials research, which is essential for designing and optimizing materials systems for desired physical and chemical properties.

Park, Jinwoo; Hong, Suklyun

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Properties of Bulk Sintered Silver As a Function of Porosity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes a study where various properties of bulk-sintered silver were investigated over a range of porosity. This work was conducted within the National Transportation Research Center's Power Device Packaging project that is part of the DOE Vehicle Technologies Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program. Sintered silver, as an interconnect material in power electronics, inherently has porosity in its produced structure because of the way it is made. Therefore, interest existed in this study to examine if that porosity affected electrical properties, thermal properties, and mechanical properties because any dependencies could affect the intended function (e.g., thermal transfer, mechanical stress relief, etc.) or reliability of that interconnect layer and alter how its performance is modeled. Disks of bulk-sintered silver were fabricated using different starting silver pastes and different sintering conditions to promote different amounts of porosity. Test coupons were harvested out of the disks to measure electrical resistivity and electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, and yield stress. The authors fully recognize that the microstructure of processed bulk silver coupons may indeed not be identical to the microstructure produced in thin (20-50 microns) layers of sintered silver. However, measuring these same properties with such a thin actual structure is very difficult, requires very specialized specimen preparation and unique testing instrumentation, is expensive, and has experimental shortfalls of its own, so the authors concluded that the herein measured responses using processed bulk sintered silver coupons would be sufficient to determine acceptable values of those properties. Almost all the investigated properties of bulk sintered silver changed with porosity content within a range of 3-38% porosity. Electrical resistivity, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, and yield stress all depended on the porosity content in bulk-sintered silver. The only investigated property that was independent of porosity in that range was coefficient of thermal expansion.

Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Vuono, Daniel J [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Ferber, Mattison K [ORNL; Liang, Zhenxian [ORNL

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Mechanical property evaluation of porous 13-93 Bioactive Glass and GL1550 Borate Glass 3D scaffolds D. Li, A. Scully, and T. M. G. Chu  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical property evaluation of porous 13-93 Bioactive Glass and GL1550 Borate Glass 3D scaffolds-glass (A) and GL1550 borate bioactive-glass (B) powders, at different sintering temperatures, and with (failure, Pb) of scaffolds made from 13-93 bioactive- glass and GL1550 bioactive-glass powders are compared

Zhou, Yaoqi

345

Bulk-edge correspondence for two-dimensional topological insulators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Topological insulators can be characterized alternatively in terms of bulk or edge properties. We prove the equivalence between the two descriptions for two-dimensional solids in the single-particle picture. We give a new formulation of the $\\mathbb{Z}_{2}$-invariant, which allows for a bulk index not relying on a (two-dimensional) Brillouin zone. When available though, that index is shown to agree with known formulations. The method also applies to integer quantum Hall systems. We discuss a further variant of the correspondence, based on scattering theory.

G. M. Graf; M. Porta

2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

346

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND MANUFACTURING CHEMICAL ENGINEERING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND MANUFACTURING CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Objective Chemical Engineers manufacturing, etc. Now that students have a background on Chemical Engineers, it is time for the activity. Blue frosting e. Green frosting f. Pink frosting g. Purple frosting h. Sprinkle sorting i. Sprinkle

Provancher, William

347

An Insulating Glass Knowledge Base  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report will discuss issues relevant to Insulating Glass (IG) durability performance by presenting the observations and developed conclusions in a logical sequential format. This concluding effort discusses Phase II activities and focuses on beginning to quantifying IG durability issues while continuing the approach presented in the Phase I activities (Appendix 1) which discuss a qualitative assessment of durability issues. Phase II developed a focus around two specific IG design classes previously presented in Phase I of this project. The typical box spacer and thermoplastic spacer design including their Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA) and Fault Tree diagrams were chosen to address two currently used IG design options with varying components and failure modes. The system failures occur due to failures of components or their interfaces. Efforts to begin quantifying the durability issues focused on the development and delivery of an included computer based IG durability simulation program. The focus/effort to deliver the foundation for a comprehensive IG durability simulation tool is necessary to address advancements needed to meet current and future building envelope energy performance goals. This need is based upon the current lack of IG field failure data and the lengthy field observation time necessary for this data collection. Ultimately, the simulation program is intended to be used by designers throughout the current and future industry supply chain. Its use is intended to advance IG durability as expectations grow around energy conservation and with the growth of embedded technologies as required to meet energy needs. In addition the tool has the immediate benefit of providing insight for research and improvement prioritization. Included in the simulation model presentation are elements and/or methods to address IG materials, design, process, quality, induced stress (environmental and other factors), validation, etc. In addition, acquired data is presented in support of project and model assumptions. Finally, current and suggested testing protocol and procedure for future model validation and IG physical testing are discussed.

Michael L. Doll; Gerald Hendrickson; Gerard Lagos; Russell Pylkki; Chris Christensen; Charlie Cureija

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Glass science tutorial: Lecture No. 4, commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document serves as a manual for a workshop on commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues. Areas covered include: An overview of the glass industry; Furnace design and construction practices; Melting furnace operation; Energy input methods and controls; Air legislation and regulations; Soda lime emission mechanisms; and, Post furnace emission controls. Supporting papers are also included.

Kruger, A.A.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Magnetic behavior of erbium-zinc-borate glasses and glass ceramics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Glasses of the system (Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub x}?(B{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub (60?x)}?(ZnO){sub 40} (3 ? x ? 15 mol%) were prepared by conventional melt quenching and subsequently converted to glass ceramics by heat treatment of glass samples at 860 C for 2 h. The magnetic behaviour of the studied glasses and glass ceramics were investigated using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and a Faraday-type magnetic balance. Magnetic data show that erbium ions are involved in negative superexchange interactions in all the investigated samples, being antiferromagnetically coupled. For all studied samples the experimental values obtained for the effective magnetic moments are lower than the value corresponding to free Er{sup 3+} ions and decrease with the increasing of Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. The decrease is more pronounced in heat treated samples than untreated ones.

Borodi, G. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Pascuta, P.; Bosca, M.; Pop, V. [Technical University, 28 Memorandumului, 400114 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Technical University, 28 Memorandumului, 400114 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Stefan, R. [Agricultural Science and Veterinary Medicine University, 3-5 Calea Manastur, 400372 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Agricultural Science and Veterinary Medicine University, 3-5 Calea Manastur, 400372 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Tetean, R. [Babes-Bolyai University, 1 Mihail Kogalniceanu, Faculty of Physics, 400084 Cluj Napoca (Romania)] [Babes-Bolyai University, 1 Mihail Kogalniceanu, Faculty of Physics, 400084 Cluj Napoca (Romania); Radulescu, D. [University of Medicine and Pharmacy Iuliu Hatieganu, 8 Victor Babes, 400012 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [University of Medicine and Pharmacy Iuliu Hatieganu, 8 Victor Babes, 400012 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

350

COMPUTER MODELING OF HIGH-LEVEL WASTE GLASS TEMPERATURES WITHIN DWPF CANISTERS DURING POURING AND COOL DOWN  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the results of a computer simulation study to predict the temperature of the glass at any location inside a DWPF canister during pouring and subsequent cooling. These simulations are an integral part of a larger research focus aimed at developing methods to predict, evaluate, and ultimately suppress nepheline formation in HLW glasses. That larger research focus is centered on holistically understanding nepheline formation in HLW glass by exploring the fundamental thermal and chemical driving forces for nepheline crystallization with respect to realistic processing conditions. Through experimental work, the goal is to integrate nepheline crystallization potential in HLW glass with processing capability to ultimately optimize waste loading and throughput while maintaining an acceptable product with respect to durability. The results of this study indicated severe temperature gradients and prolonged temperature dwell times exist throughout different locations in the canister and that the time and temperatures that HLW glass is subjected to during processing is a function of pour rate. The simulations indicate that crystallization driving forces are not uniform throughout the glass volume in a DWPF (or DWPF-like) canister and illustrate the importance of considering overall kinetics (chemical and thermal driving forces) of nepheline formation when developing methods to predict and suppress its formation in HLW glasses. The intended path forward is to use the simulation data both as a driver for future experimental work and, as an investigative tool for evaluating the impact of experimental results. Simulation data will be used to develop laboratory experiments to more acutely evaluate nepheline formation in HLW glass by incorporating the simulated temperatures throughout the canister into the laboratory experiments. Concurrently, laboratory experiments will be performed to identify nepheline crystallization potential in HLW glass as a function of time and temperature, the results of which will be fed back into simulations to evaluate the potential impacts. Through an iterative process involving computer simulations and experimental results, the potential for nepheline crystallization in HLW glass can be predicted, evaluated, and suppressed to maximize waste loading and throughput of canisters.

Amoroso, J.

2011-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

351

Dynamics of window glass fracture in explosions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An exploratory study was conducted under the Architectural Surety Program to examine the possibility of modifying fracture of glass in the shock-wave environment associated with terrorist bombings. The intent was to explore strategies to reduce the number and severity of injuries resulting from those attacks. The study consisted of a series of three experiments at the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center (EMRTC) of the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology at Socorro, NM, in which annealed and tempered glass sheets were exposed to blast waves at several different levels of overpressure and specific impulse. A preliminary assessment of the response of tempered glass to the blast environment suggested that inducing early failure would result in lowering fragment velocity as well as reducing the loading from the window to the structure. To test that possibility, two different and novel procedures (indentation flaws and spot annealing) were used to reduce the failure strength of the tempered glass while maintaining its ability to fracture into small cube-shaped fragments. Each experiment involved a comparison of the performance of four sheets of glass with different treatments.

Beauchamp, E.K.; Matalucci, R.V.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Sealing glasses for titanium and titanium alloys  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are provided comprising various combinations (in terms of mole-%) of boron oxide (B.sub.2 O.sub.3), barium oxide (BaO), lanthanum oxide (La.sub.2 O.sub.3), and at least one other oxide selected from the group consisting of aluminum oxide (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3), calcium oxide (CaO), lithium oxide (Li.sub.2 O), sodium oxide (Na.sub.2 O), silicon dioxide (SiO.sub.2), or titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2). These sealing-glass compositions are useful for forming hermetic glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys having an improved aqueous durability and favorable sealing characteristics. Examples of the sealing-glass compositions are provided having coefficients of thermal expansion about that of titanium or titanium alloys, and with sealing temperatures less than about 900.degree. C., and generally about 700.degree.-800.degree. C. The barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are useful for components and devices requiring prolonged exposure to moisture or water, and for implanted biomedical devices (e.g. batteries, pacemakers, defibrillators, pumps).

Brow, Richard K. (Albuquerque, NM); McCollister, Howard L. (Albuquerque, NM); Phifer, Carol C. (Albuquerque, NM); Day, Delbert E. (Rolla, MO)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Sealing glasses for titanium and titanium alloys  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are provided comprising various combinations (in terms of mole-%) of boron oxide (B{sub 2}O{sub 3}), barium oxide (BaO), lanthanum oxide (La{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and at least one other oxide selected from the group consisting of aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), calcium oxide (CaO), lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O), sodium oxide (Na{sub 2}O), silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}), or titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}). These sealing-glass compositions are useful for forming hermetic glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys having an improved aqueous durability and favorable sealing characteristics. Examples of the sealing-glass compositions are provided having coefficients of thermal expansion about that of titanium or titanium alloys, and with sealing temperatures less than about 900 C, and generally about 700--800 C. The barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are useful for components and devices requiring prolonged exposure to moisture or water, and for implanted biomedical devices (e.g. batteries, pacemakers, defibrillators, pumps). 1 fig.

Brow, R.K.; McCollister, H.L.; Phifer, C.C.; Day, D.E.

1997-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

354

Retention of Halogens in Waste Glass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In spite of their potential roles as melting rate accelerators and foam breakers, halogens are generally viewed as troublesome components for glass processing. Of five halogens, F, Cl, Br, I, and At, all but At may occur in nuclear waste. A nuclear waste feed may contain up to 10 g of F, 4 g of Cl, and ?100 mg of Br and I per kg of glass. The main concern is halogen volatility, producing hazardous fumes and particulates, and the radioactive iodine 129 isotope of 1.7x10^7-year half life. Because F and Cl are soluble in oxide glasses and tend to precipitate on cooling, they can be retained in the waste glass in the form of dissolved constituents or as dispersed crystalline inclusions. This report compiles known halogen-retention data in both high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) glasses. Because of its radioactivity, the main focus is on I. Available data on F and Cl were compiled for comparison. Though Br is present in nuclear wastes, it is usually ignored; no data on Br retention were found.

Hrma, Pavel R.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Permanent magnet with MgB{sub 2} bulk superconductor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Superconductors with persistent zero-resistance currents serve as permanent magnets for high-field applications requiring a strong and stable magnetic field, such as magnetic resonance imaging. The recent global helium shortage has quickened research into high-temperature superconductors (HTSs)materials that can be used without conventional liquid-helium cooling to 4.2?K. Herein, we demonstrate that 40-K-class metallic HTS magnesium diboride (MgB{sub 2}) makes an excellent permanent bulk magnet, maintaining 3?T at 20?K for 1 week with an extremely high stability (<0.1 ppm/h). The magnetic field trapped in this magnet is uniformly distributed, as for single-crystalline neodymium-iron-boron. Magnetic hysteresis loop of the MgB{sub 2} permanent bulk magnet was determined. Because MgB{sub 2} is a simple-binary-line compound that does not contain rare-earth metals, polycrystalline bulk material can be industrially fabricated at low cost and with high yield to serve as strong magnets that are compatible with conventional compact cryocoolers, making MgB{sub 2} bulks promising for the next generation of Tesla-class permanent-magnet applications.

Yamamoto, Akiyasu, E-mail: yamamoto@appchem.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); JST-PRESTO, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Ishihara, Atsushi; Tomita, Masaru [Railway Technical Research Institute, 2-8-38 Hikari, Kokubunji, Tokyo 185-8540 (Japan); Kishio, Kohji [The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

356

Security-Constrained Adequacy Evaluation of Bulk Power System Reliability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Security-Constrained Adequacy Evaluation of Bulk Power System Reliability Fang Yang, Student Member contingency selection, (b) effects analysis, and (c) reliability index computation. Effects analysis and reliability index computations. The methodology is demonstrated with the IEEE reliability test system. Index

357

Stress tensor and bulk viscosity in relativistic nuclear collisions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss the influence of different initial conditions for the stress tensor and the effect of bulk viscosity on the expansion and cooling of the fireball created in relativistic heavy ion collisions. In particular, we explore the evolution...however, it does not significantly increase the entropy produced....

Fries, Rainer J.; Mueller, Berndt; Schaefer, Andreas.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Development of Bulk Nanocrystalline Cemented Tungsten Carbide for Industrial Applicaitons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report contains detailed information of the research program entitled "Development of Bulk Nanocrystalline Cemented Tungsten Carbide Materials for Industrial Applications". The report include the processes that were developed for producing nanosized WC/Co composite powders, and an ultrahigh pressure rapid hot consolidation process for sintering of nanosized powders. The mechanical properties of consolidated materials using the nanosized powders are also reported.

Z. Zak Fang, H. Y. Sohn

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

359

MORPHOLOGY DEPENDENT SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT IN BULK HETEROJUNCTION SOLAR CELL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the coupled exciton/electron/hole flow in the disordered polymer network, but also guarantees to connect kinetics appears complex and final structure is randomly interpenetrating clusters of polymer and fullerene, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA ABSTRACT Polymer based bulk heterostructure (BH) solar cell offers

Alam, Muhammad A.

360

Computing hypersurfaces which minimize surface energy plus bulk energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the energy of an interface surface, where the energy might be just area, or could have a density dependent curvature associated to the energy density ; if 1 so that the surface energy is just area[Page 17] Computing hypersurfaces which minimize surface energy plus bulk energy John M. Sullivan

Sullivan, John M.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bulk chemicals glass" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Chemical Potential in the First Law for Holographic Entanglement Entropy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Entanglement entropy in conformal field theories is known to satisfy a first law. For spherical entangling surfaces, this has been shown to follow via the AdS/CFT correspondence and the holographic prescription for entanglement entropy from the bulk first law for Killing horizons. The bulk first law can be extended to include variations in the cosmological constant $\\Lambda$, which we established in earlier work. Here we show that this implies an extension of the boundary first law to include varying the number of degrees of freedom of the boundary CFT. The thermodynamic potential conjugate to $\\Lambda$ in the bulk is called the thermodynamic volume and has a simple geometric formula. In the boundary first law it plays the role of a chemical potential. For the bulk minimal surface $\\Sigma$ corresponding to a boundary sphere, the thermodynamic volume is found to be proportional to the area of $\\Sigma$, in agreement with the variation of the known result for entanglement entropy of spheres. The dependence of the CFT chemical potential on the entanglement entropy and number of degrees of freedom is similar to how the thermodynamic chemical potential of an ideal gas depends on entropy and particle number.

David Kastor; Sourya Ray; Jennie Traschen

2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

362

A COMPREHENSIVE TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In May 2006, CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. chartered an Expert Review Panel (ERP) to review the current status of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS). It is the consensus of the ERP that bulk vitrification is a technology that requires further development and evaluation to determine its potential for meeting the Hanford waste stabilization mission. No fatal flaws (issues that would jeopardize the overall DBVS mission that cannot be mitigated) were found, given the current state of the project. However, a number of technical issues were found that could significantly affect the project's ability to meet its overall mission as stated in the project ''Justification of Mission Need'' document, if not satisfactorily resolved. The ERP recognizes that the project has changed from an accelerated schedule demonstration project to a formally chartered project that must be in full compliance with DOE 413.3 requirements. The perspective of the ERP presented herein, is measured against the formally chartered project as stated in the approved Justification of Mission Need document. A justification of Mission Need document was approved in July 2006 which defined the objectives for the DBVS Project. In this document, DOE concluded that bulk vitrification is a viable technology that requires additional development to determine its potential applicability to treatment of a portion of the Hanford low activity waste. The DBVS mission need statement now includes the following primary objectives: (1) process approximately 190,000 gallons of Tank S-109 waste into fifty 100 metric ton boxes of vitrified product; (2) store and dispose of these boxes at Hanford's Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF); (3) evaluate the waste form characteristics; (4) gather pilot plant operability data, and (5) develop the overall life cycle system performance of bulk vitrification and produce a comparison of the bulk vitrification process to building a second LAW Immobilization facility or other supplemental treatment alternatives as provided in M-62-08.

SCHAUS, P.S.

2006-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

363

Wetting of metals and glasses on Mo  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The wetting of low melting point metals and Si-Ca-Al-Ti-O glasses on molybdenum has been investigated. The selected metals (Au, Cu, Ag) form a simple eutectic with Mo. Metal spreading occurs under nonreactive conditions without interdiffusion or ridge formation. The metals exhibit low (non-zero) contact angles on Mo but this requires temperatures higher than 1100 C in reducing atmospheres in order to eliminate a layer of adsorbed impurities on the molybdenum surface. By controlling the oxygen activity in the furnace, glass spreading can take place under reactive or nonreactive conditions. We have found that in the glass/Mo system the contact angle does not decrease under reactive conditions. In all cases, adsorption from the liquid seems to accelerate the diffusivity on the free molybdenum surface.

Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Saiz, Eduardo; Lopez-Esteban, Sonia; Benhassine, Mehdi; de Coninck, Joel; Rauch, Nicole; Ruehle, Manfred

2008-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

364

Glass/ceramic coatings for implants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Glass coatings on metals including Ti, Ti6A14V and CrCo were prepared for use as implants. The composition of the glasses was tailored to match the thermal expansion of the substrate metal. By controlling the firing atmosphere, time, and temperature, it was possible to control the reactivity between the glass and the alloy and to fabricate coatings (25-150 .mu.m thick) with excellent adhesion to the substrate. The optimum firing temperatures ranged between 800 and 840.degree. C. at times up to 1 min in air or 15 min in N.sub.2. The same basic technique was used to create multilayered coatings with concentration gradients of hydroxyapatite (HA) particles and SiO.sub.2.

Tomsia, Antoni P. (Pinole, CA); Saiz, Eduardo (Berkeley, CA); Gomez-Vega, Jose M. (Nagoya, JP); Marshall, Sally J. (Larkspur, CA); Marshall, Grayson W. (Larkspur, CA)

2011-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

365

A Review of Iron Phosphate Glasses and Recommendations for Vitrifying Hanford Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report contains a comprehensive review of the research conducted, world-wide, on iron phosphate glass over the past ~30 years. Special attention is devoted to those iron phosphate glass compositions which have been formulated for the purpose of vitrifying numerous types of nuclear waste, with special emphasis on the wastes stored in the underground tanks at Hanford WA. Data for the structural, chemical, and physical properties of iron phosphate waste forms are reviewed for the purpose of understanding their (a) outstanding chemical durability which meets all current DOE requirements, (b) high waste loadings which can exceed 40 wt% (up to 75 wt%) for several Hanford wastes, (c) low melting temperatures, can be as low as 900C for certain wastes, and (d) high tolerance for problem waste components such as sulfates, halides, and heavy metals (chromium, actinides, noble metals, etc.). Several recommendations are given for actions that are necessary to smoothly integrate iron phosphate glass technology into the present waste treatment plans and vitrification facilities at Hanford.

Delbert E. Ray; Chandra S. Ray

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

PLUTONIUM SOLUBILITY IN HIGH-LEVEL WASTE ALKALI BOROSILICATE GLASS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solubility of plutonium in a Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) reference glass and the effect of incorporation of Pu in the glass on specific glass properties were evaluated. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass was studied. Prior to actual plutonium glass testing, surrogate testing (using Hf as a surrogate for Pu) was conducted to evaluate the homogeneity of significant quantities of Hf (Pu) in the glass, determine the most appropriate methods to evaluate homogeneity for Pu glass testing, and to evaluate the impact of Hf loading in the glass on select glass properties. Surrogate testing was conducted using Hf to represent between 0 and 1 wt % Pu in glass on an equivalent molar basis. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass translated to {approx}18 kg Pu per Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister, or about 10X the current allowed limit per the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (2500 g/m{sup 3} of glass or about 1700 g/canister) and about 30X the current allowable concentration based on the fissile material concentration limit referenced in the Yucca Mountain Project License Application (897 g/m{sup 3}3 of glass or about 600 g Pu/canister). Based on historical process throughput data, this level was considered to represent a reasonable upper bound for Pu loading based on the ability to provide Pu containing feed to the DWPF. The task elements included evaluating the distribution of Pu in the glass (e.g. homogeneity), evaluating crystallization within the glass, evaluating select glass properties (with surrogates), and evaluating durability using the Product Consistency Test -- Method A (PCT-A). The behavior of Pu in the melter was evaluated using paper studies and corresponding analyses of DWPF melter pour samples.The results of the testing indicated that at 1 wt % Pu in the glass, the Pu was homogeneously distributed and did not result in any formation of plutonium-containing crystalline phases as long as the glass was prepared under 'well-mixed' conditions. The incorporation of 1 wt % Pu in the glass did not adversely impact glass viscosity (as assessed using Hf surrogate) or glass durability. Finally, evaluation of DWPF glass pour samples that had Pu concentrations below the 897 g/m{sup 3} limit showed that Pu concentrations in the glass pour stream were close to targeted compositions in the melter feed indicating that Pu neither volatilized from the melt nor stratified in the melter when processed in the DWPF melter.

Marra, J.; Crawford, C.; Fox, K.; Bibler, N.

2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

367

Towards modeling gadolinium-lead-borate glasses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Infrared spectra of gadolinium-lead-borate glasses of the xGd{sub 2}O{sub 3}.(100 - x)[3B{sub 2}O{sub 3}.PbO] system, where x = 0, 5, 10, 15, 25, 35 and 50 mol.%, have been recorded to explore the role of content of gadolinium ions behaving as glass modifier. The FTIR spectroscopy data for the xGd{sub 2}O{sub 3}.(1 - x)[3B{sub 2}O{sub 3}.PbO] glasses show the structural role of lead ions as a network-formers and of the gadolinium ions network modifiers. Adding of the rare earth ion up to 35 mol.% into the glass matrix, the IR bands characteristic to the studied glasses become sharper and more pronounced. Structural changes, as recognized by analyzing band shapes of IR spectra, revealed that Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} causes a change from the continuous borate network to the continuous lead-borate network interconnected through Pb-O-B and B-O-B bridges and the transformation of some tetrahedral [BO{sub 4}] units into trigonal [BO{sub 3}] units. Then, gadolinium ions have affinity towards [BO{sub 3}] structural units which contain non-bridging oxygens necessary for the charge compensation because the more electronegative [BO{sub 3}] structural units were implied in the formation of B-O-Gd bonds and the transformation of glass network into a glass ceramic. We propose a possible structural model of building blocks for the formation of continuous random 3B{sub 2}O{sub 3}.PbO network glass used by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. DFT calculations show that lead atoms occupy three different sites in the proposed model. The first is coordinated with six oxygen atoms forming distorted octahedral geometries. The second lead atom has an octahedral oxygen environment and the five longer Pb-O bonds are considered as participating in the metal coordination scheme. The third lead atom has ionic character. In agreement with the results offered by the experimental FTIR data, the theoretical IR data confirm that our proposed structure is highly possible.

Rada, S., E-mail: Simona.Rada@phys.utcluj.ro [Department of Physics, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Ristoiu, T. [Department of Physics, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Department of Physics, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Rada, M. [Department of Mechatronic, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Department of Mechatronic, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Coroiu, I. [Department of Physics, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Department of Physics, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Maties, V. [Department of Mechatronic, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Department of Mechatronic, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Culea, E. [Department of Physics, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Department of Physics, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

368

Compliant alkali silicate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel cell applications: the effect of protective alumina coating on electrical stability in dual environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An alkali-containing silicate glass was recently proposed as a potential sealant for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). The glass contains appreciable amount of alkalis and retains its glassy microstructure at elevated temperatures over time. It is more compliant as compared to conventional glass-ceramics sealants and could potentially heal cracks during thermal cycling. In previous papers the thermal cycle stability, thermal stability and chemical compatibility were reported with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte and YSZ-coated ferritic stainless steel interconnect. In this paper, we report the electrical stability of the compliant glass with aluminized AISI441 interconnect material under DC load in dual environment at 700-800oC. Apparent electrical resistivity was measured with a 4-point method for the glass sealed between two aluminized AISI441 metal coupons as well as plain AISI441 substrates. The results showed good electrical stability with the aluminized AISI441 substrate, while unstable behavior was observed for un-coated substrates. In addition, interfacial microstructure was examined with scanning electron microscopy and correlated with the measured resistivity results. Overall, the alumina coating demonstrated good chemical stability with the alkali-containing silicate sealing glass under DC loading.

Chou, Y. S.; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Electronic polarizability and crystallization of K{sub 2}O-TiO{sub 2}-GeO{sub 2} glasses with high TiO{sub 2} contents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Some K{sub 2}O-TiO{sub 2}-GeO{sub 2} glasses with a large amount of TiO{sub 2} contents (15-25mol%) such as 25K{sub 2}O-25TiO{sub 2}-50GeO{sub 2} have been prepared, and their electronic polarizability, Raman scattering spectra, and crystallization behavior are examined to clarify thermal properties and structure of the glasses and to develop new nonlinear optical crystallized glasses. It is proposed that the glasses consist of the network of TiO{sub 6} and GeO{sub 4} polyhedra. The glasses show large optical basicities of {lambda}=0.88-0.92, indicating the high polarizabity of TiO{sub n} (n=4-6) polyhedra in the glasses. K{sub 2}TiGe{sub 3}O{sub 9} crystals are formed through crystallization in all glasses prepared in the present study. In particular, 20K{sub 2}O-20TiO{sub 2}-60GeO{sub 2} glass shows bulk crystallization and 18K{sub 2}O-18TiO{sub 2}-64GeO{sub 2} glass exhibits surface crystallization giving the c-axis orientation. The crystallized glasses show second harmonic generations (SHGs), and it is suggested that the distortion of TiO{sub 6} octahedra in K{sub 2}TiGe{sub 3}O{sub 9} crystals induces SHGs.

Fukushima, T. [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan); Benino, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan); Fujiwara, T. [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-05 Aoba, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Dimitrov, V. [Department of Silicate Technology, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 Kl, Ohridki Blvd., Sofia 1756 (Bulgaria); Komatsu, T. [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)]. E-mail: komatsu@chem.nagaokaut.ac.jp

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

370

Development of a Procedure to Evaluate the Shear Modulus of Laminated Glass Interlayers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laminated glass is comprised of multiple glass plates coupled together in a sandwich construction through the use of a polymorphous interlayer that acts as a bonding agent between the glass plates. Laminated glass offers several advantages over...

Brackin, Michael S.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

371

PROCEDURES FOR DISPOSING OF WASTE CHEMICALS 1. All containers submitted for disposal must be clearly labeled with the following information  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-duty plastic bags. Tape all containers of chemically-contaminated dry materials securely shut and label. Container Is - Indicate P (plastic), G (glass), or M (metal). Physical State - Indicate if the material8/99 PROCEDURES FOR DISPOSING OF WASTE CHEMICALS 1. All containers submitted for disposal must

372

Heavy Metals in Glass Beads Used in Pavement Markings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pavement markings are vital for safely navigating roadways. The nighttime visibility of pavement markings is enhanced by addition of retroreflective glass beads, most of which are made from recycled glass. Concern has been raised over the presence...

Mangalgiri, Kiranmayi

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

373

Combustion Technology Development for an Advanced Glass Melting System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Concept feasibility of an innovative technology for glass production has recently been demonstrated. It is based on suspension heating of the glass-forming batch minerals while entrained in a combustion flow of preheated air and natural gas...

Stickler, D. B.; Westra, L.; Woodroffe, J.; Jeong, K. M.; Donaldson, L. W.

374

Synthesis and Characterization of Bulk, Vitreous Cadmium Germanium Arsenide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is presented to enable fabrication of high-purity, vitreous, crack-free ingots with sizes up to 10 mm diameter are the key function material in several important technological areas such as xerography,1 photovoltaics,2 formation within the CdGexAs2 system has been re- ported for x 5 0.02­1.3.12­18 The basic glass forming

Rockett, Angus

375

Kinetics of Cold-Cap Reactions for Vitrification of Nuclear Waste Glass Based on Simultaneous Differential Scanning Calorimetry - Thermogravimetry (DSC-TGA) and Evolved Gas Analysis (EGA)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For vitrifying nuclear waste glass, the feed, a mixture of waste with glass-forming and modifying additives, is charged onto the cold cap that covers 90-100% of the melt surface. The cold cap consists of a layer of reacting molten glass floating on the surface of the melt in an all-electric, continuous glass melter. As the feed moves through the cold cap, it undergoes chemical reactions and phase transitions through which it is converted to molten glass that moves from the cold cap into the melt pool. The process involves a series of reactions that generate multiple gases and subsequent mass loss and foaming significantly influence the mass and heat transfers. The rate of glass melting, which is greatly influenced by mass and heat transfers, affects the vitrification process and the efficiency of the immobilization of nuclear waste. We studied the cold-cap reactions of a representative waste glass feed using both the simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry thermogravimetry (DSC-TGA) and the thermogravimetry coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (TGA-GC-MS) as complementary tools to perform evolved gas analysis (EGA). Analyses from DSC-TGA and EGA on the cold-cap reactions provide a key element for the development of an advanced cold-cap model. It also helps to formulate melter feeds for higher production rate.

Rodriguez, Carmen P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); ; Pierce, David A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); ; Schweiger, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); ; Kruger, Albert A. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Chun, Jaehun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); ; Hrma, Pavel R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States);

2013-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

376

Structural properties of fluorozirconate-based glass ceramics doped with multivalent europium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The structure/property relationships of fluorochlorozirconate glass ceramics as a function of divalent and trivalent europium (Eu) co-doping and thermal processing have been investigated; the influence of doping ratio on the formation of barium chloride (BaCl{sub 2}) nanocrystals therein was elucidated. X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy shows that the post-thermal annealing changes the Eu valence of the as-poured glass slightly, but during the melting process Eu{sup 3+} is more strongly reduced to Eu{sup 2+}, in particular, when doped as a chloride instead of fluoride compound. The Eu{sup 2+}-to-Eu{sup 3+} doping ratio also plays a significant role in chemical equilibrium in the melt. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that a higher Eu{sup 2+} fraction leads to a BaCl{sub 2} phase transition from hexagonal to orthorhombic structure at a lower temperature.

Passlick, C. [Centre for Innovation Competence SiLi-nano registered , Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg, Karl-Freiherr-von-Fritsch-Str. 3, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Mueller, O.; Luetzenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Frahm, R. [Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal, Gaussstrasse 20, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Johnson, J. A. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Tennessee Space Institute, Tullahoma, Tennessee 37388 (United States); Schweizer, S. [Centre for Innovation Competence SiLi-nano registered , Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg, Karl-Freiherr-von-Fritsch-Str. 3, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Fraunhofer Center for Silicon Photovoltaics CSP, Walter-Huelse-Str. 1, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany)

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Microfluidic chemical reaction circuits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New microfluidic devices, useful for carrying out chemical reactions, are provided. The devices are adapted for on-chip solvent exchange, chemical processes requiring multiple chemical reactions, and rapid concentration of reagents.

Lee, Chung-cheng (Irvine, CA); Sui, Guodong (Los Angeles, CA); Elizarov, Arkadij (Valley Village, CA); Kolb, Hartmuth C. (Playa del Rey, CA); Huang, Jiang (San Jose, CA); Heath, James R. (South Pasadena, CA); Phelps, Michael E. (Los Angeles, CA); Quake, Stephen R. (Stanford, CA); Tseng, Hsian-rong (Los Angeles, CA); Wyatt, Paul (Tipperary, IE); Daridon, Antoine (Mont-Sur-Rolle, CH)

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

378

Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Combining theory and neutron scattering to understand molecular diffusion in porous materials David Sholl School of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology #12;Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Porous materials www

Pennycook, Steve

379

Optical absorption and ionization of silicate glasses Leonid B. Glebov  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical absorption and ionization of silicate glasses Leonid B. Glebov School of Optics and hydroxyl), and induced (color centers) absorption of multicomponent silicate glasses in UV, visible-photon ionization was detected in alkaline-silicate glasses exposed to high-power laser radiation in nano

Glebov, Leon

380

Crystallization behavior and properties of BaO-Al sub 2 O sub 3 -2SiO sub 2 glass matrices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Glass of stoichiometric celsian composition, BaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-2SiO{sub 2}, is a potential glass-ceramic matrix for high-temperature composites. The glass has a density of 3.39 g/cu cm, thermal expansion coefficient of 6.6 x 10(exp -6)/deg C glass transition temperature of 910 C, and dilatometric softening point of 925 C. On heat treatment, only hexacelsian crystallized out on the surface, but both celsian and hexacelsian were present in the bulk. Effects of cold isostatic pressing (CIP), sintering, and hot pressing, in the presence and absence of an additive, on the formation of the celsian phase in the glass were studied. CIP'ed samples, after appropriate heat treatments, always crystallized out as celsian whereas the presence of 5 to 10 weight percent of an additive was necessary for formation of celsian in sintered as well as hot pressed specimens. Green density increased with CIP'ing pressure but had no effect on sintered density. Hot pressing resulted in fully dense samples.

Drummond, C.H. III; Bansal, N.P.

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bulk chemicals glass" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

DWPF Glass Melter Technology Manual: Volume 3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document details information about the design of a glass melter to be used at the Defense Waste Processing Facility located at the Savannah River Site. Topics discussed include: Information collected during testing, equipment, materials, design basis, feed tubes, and an evaluation of the performance of various components. Information is conveyed using many diagrams and photographs.

Iverson, D.C.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

382

Equilibrium ultrastable glasses produced by random pinning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ultrastable glasses have risen to prominence due to their potentially useful material properties and the tantalizing possibility of a general method of preparation via vapor deposition. Despite the importance of this novel class of amorphous materials, numerical studies have been scarce because achieving ultrastability in atomistic simulations is an enormous challenge. Here we bypass this difficulty and establish that randomly pinning the position of a small fraction of particles inside an equilibrated supercooled liquid generates ultrastable configurations at essentially no numerical cost, while avoiding undesired structural changes due to the preparation protocol. Building on the analogy with vapor-deposited ultrastable glasses, we study the melting kinetics of these configurations following a sudden temperature jump into the liquid phase. In homogeneous geometries, we find that enhanced kinetic stability is accompanied by large scale dynamic heterogeneity, while a competition between homogeneous and heterogeneous melting is observed when a liquid boundary invades the glass at constant velocity. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of large-scale, atomistically resolved, and experimentally relevant simulations of the kinetics of ultrastable glasses.

Glen M Hocky; Ludovic Berthier; David R. Reichman

2014-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

383

Erbium concentration dependent absorbance in tellurite glass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Enhancing the optical absorption cross-section in topically important rare earth doped tellurite glasses is challenging for photonic devices. Controlled synthesis and detailed characterizations of the optical properties of these glasses are important for the optimization. The influence of varying concentration of Er{sup 3+} ions on the absorbance characteristics of lead tellurite glasses synthesized via melt-quenching technique are investigated. The UV-Vis absorption spectra exhibits six prominent peaks centered at 490, 526, 652, 800, 982 and 1520 nm ascribed to the transitions in erbium ion from the ground state to the excited states {sup 4}F{sub 7/2}, {sup 2}H{sub 11/2}, {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 9/2}, {sup 2}H{sub 11/2} and {sup 4}I{sub 13/2}, respectively. The results are analyzed by means of optical band gap E{sub g} and Urbach energy E{sub u}. The values of the energy band gap are found decreased from 2.82 to 2.51 eV and the Urbach energy increased from 0.15 to 0.24 eV with the increase of the Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration from 0 to 1.5 mol%. The excellent absorbance of the prepared tellurite glasses makes them suitable for fabricating solid state lasers.

Sazali, E. S., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Rohani, M. S., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Sahar, M. R., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Arifin, R., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Ghoshal, S. K., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Hamzah, K., E-mail: mdsupar@utm [Advanced Optical Material Research Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Skudai, Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

2014-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

384

Mssbauer study of conductive oxide glass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heat treatment of barium iron vanadate glass, BaO?Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}?V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, at temperatures higher than crystallization temperature causes a marked decrease in resistivity (?) from several M?cm to several ?cm. {sup 57}Fe Mssbauer spectrum of heat-treated vanadate glass shows a marked decrease in quadrupole splitting (?) of Fe{sup III}, reflecting a structural relaxation, i.e., an increased symmetry of 'distorted' FeO{sub 4} and VO{sub 4} tetrahedra which are connected to each other by sharing corner oxygen atoms. Structural relaxation of 3D-network of vanadate glass accompanies a decrease in the activation energy for the conduction, reflecting a decreased energy gap between the donor level and conduction band. A marked increase in the conductivity was observed in CuO- or Cu{sub 2}O-containing barium iron vanadate glass after heat treatment at 450 C for 30 min or more. 'n-type semiconductor model combined with small polaron hopping theory' was proposed in order to explain the high conductivity.

Matsuda, Koken; Kubuki, Shiro [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachi-Oji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Nishida, Tetsuaki, E-mail: nishida@fuk.kindai.ac.jp [Kinki University, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8555 (Japan)

2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

385

DWPF Glass Melter Technology Manual: Volume 4  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document details information about the design of a glass melter to be used at the Defense Waste Processing Facility located at the Savannah River Plant. Information contained in this document consists solely of a machine drawing and parts list and purchase orders with specifications of equipment used in the development of the melter.

Iverson, D.C.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

386

Method of fabricating an optoelectronic device having a bulk heterojunction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of fabricating an optoelectronic device comprises: depositing a first layer having protrusions over a first electrode, in which the first layer comprises a first organic small molecule material; depositing a second layer on the first layer such that the second layer is in physical contact with the first layer; in which the smallest lateral dimension of the protrusions are between 1 to 5 times the exciton diffusion length of the first organic small molecule material; and depositing a second electrode over the second layer to form the optoelectronic device. A method of fabricating an organic optoelectronic device having a bulk heterojunction is also provided and comprises: depositing a first layer with protrusions over an electrode by organic vapor phase deposition; depositing a second layer on the first layer where the interface of the first and second layers forms a bulk heterojunction; and depositing another electrode over the second layer.

Shtein, Max (Ann Arbor, MI); Yang, Fan (Princeton, NJ); Forrest, Stephen R. (Princeton, NJ)

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

387

Bulk-Brane Interaction and Holographic Dark Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we consider the bulk-brane interaction to obtain the equation of state for the holographic energy density in non-flat universe enclosed by the event horizon measured from the sphere of horizon named $L$. We assumes that the cold dark matter energy density on the brane is conserved, but the holographic dark energy density on the brane is not conserved due to brane-bulk energy exchange. Our calculation show, taking $\\Omega_{\\Lambda}=0.73$ for the present time, the lower bound of $w_{\\rm \\Lambda}^{eff}$ is -0.9. This implies that one can not generate phantom-like equation of state from an interacting holographic dark energy model in non-flat universe.

M R Setare

2006-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

388

Bulk thermodynamics and charge fluctuations at non-vanishing baryon density  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present results on bulk thermodynamic quantities as well as net baryon number, strangeness and electric charge fluctuations in QCD at non-zero density and temperature obtained from lattice calculations with almost physical quark masses for two values of the lattice cut-off $aT=1/4$ and 1/6 . We show that with our improved p4fa3-action the cut-off effects are under control when using lattices with a temporal extent of 6 or larger and that the contribution to the equation of state, which is due to a finite chemical potential is small for $\\mu_q/T<1$. Moreover, at vanishing chemical potential, i.e. under conditions almost realized at RHIC and the LHC, quartic fluctuations of net baryon number and strangeness are large in a narrow temperature interval characterizing the transition region from the low to high temperature phase. At non-zero baryon number density, strangeness fluctuations are enhanced and correlated to fluctuations of the net baryon number. If strangeness is furthermore forced to vanish, as it may be the case in systems created in heavy ion collisions, strangeness fluctuations are significantly smaller than baryon number fluctuations.

Chuan Miao; Christian Schmidt

2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

389

Gravity-related spontaneous collapse in bulk matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the DP-model, gravity-related spontaneous wave function collapses suppress undesirable Schr\\"odinger Cat states. We derive the equations of the model for the hydrodynamic-elastic (acoustic) modes in a bulk. Two particular features are discussed: the universal dominance of spontaneous collapses at large wavelengths, and the reduction of spontaneous heating by a slight refinement of the DP-model.

Lajos Disi

2014-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

390

Comparison of bulk- and surface-micromachined pressure sensors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two piezoresistive micromachined pressure sensors were compared: a commercially available bulk-micromachined (BM) pressure sensor and an experimental surface-micromachined (SM) pressure sensor. While the SM parts had significantly smaller die sizes, they were outperformed in most areas by the BM parts. This was due primarily to the smaller piezoresistive gauge factor in the polysilicon piezoresistors in the SM parts compared to the single crystal strain gauge used in the BM parts.

Eaton, W.P.; Smith, J.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Monk, D.J.; O`Brien, G.; Miller, T.F. [Motorola, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

RAPID/BulkTransmission/Alaska | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: EnergyPotentialUrbanUtilityScalePVCapacityPulaski County, Kentucky:County,Quogue isRAPID/BulkTransmission/Alaska

392

RAPID/BulkTransmission/Hawaii | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: EnergyPotentialUrbanUtilityScalePVCapacityPulaski County,RAPID/BulkTransmission/Hawaii < RAPID‎ |

393

RAPID/BulkTransmission/Idaho | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: EnergyPotentialUrbanUtilityScalePVCapacityPulaski County,RAPID/BulkTransmission/Hawaii < RAPID‎

394

RAPID/BulkTransmission/Land Access | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: EnergyPotentialUrbanUtilityScalePVCapacityPulaski County,RAPID/BulkTransmission/Hawaii < RAPID‎Land Access

395

RAPID/BulkTransmission/Land Use | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: EnergyPotentialUrbanUtilityScalePVCapacityPulaski County,RAPID/BulkTransmission/Hawaii < RAPID‎Land

396

RAPID/BulkTransmission/Montana | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: EnergyPotentialUrbanUtilityScalePVCapacityPulaski County,RAPID/BulkTransmission/Hawaii <

397

RAPID/BulkTransmission/Nevada | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: EnergyPotentialUrbanUtilityScalePVCapacityPulaski County,RAPID/BulkTransmission/Hawaii <Nevada < RAPID‎

398

RAPID/BulkTransmission/New Mexico | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: EnergyPotentialUrbanUtilityScalePVCapacityPulaski County,RAPID/BulkTransmission/Hawaii <Nevada <

399

RAPID/BulkTransmission/Oregon | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: EnergyPotentialUrbanUtilityScalePVCapacityPulaski County,RAPID/BulkTransmission/Hawaii <Nevada

400

RAPID/BulkTransmission/Power Plant | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: EnergyPotentialUrbanUtilityScalePVCapacityPulaski County,RAPID/BulkTransmission/Hawaii

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bulk chemicals glass" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

RAPID/BulkTransmission/Transmission Siting & Interconnection | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: EnergyPotentialUrbanUtilityScalePVCapacityPulaskiRAPID/BulkTransmission/Texas < RAPID‎ |

402

RAPID/BulkTransmission/Utah | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: EnergyPotentialUrbanUtilityScalePVCapacityPulaskiRAPID/BulkTransmission/Texas < RAPID‎

403

RAPID/BulkTransmission/Washington | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: EnergyPotentialUrbanUtilityScalePVCapacityPulaskiRAPID/BulkTransmission/Texas <

404

RAPID/BulkTransmission/Water Use | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: EnergyPotentialUrbanUtilityScalePVCapacityPulaskiRAPID/BulkTransmission/Texas

405

Blocking effect of crystalglass interface in lanthanum doped barium strontium titanate glassceramics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: The blocking effect of the crystalglass interface on the carrier transport behavior in the lanthanum doped barium strontium titanate glassceramics: preparation and characterization. - Highlights: La{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition promotes the crystallization of the major crystalline phase. The Z? and M? peaks exist a significant mismatch for 0.5 mol% La{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition. The Z? and M? peaks separate obviously for 1.0 mol% La{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition. Crystallite impedance decreases while crystalglass interface impedance increases. La{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition increases blocking factor of the crystalglass interface. - Abstract: The microstructures and dielectric properties in La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped barium strontium titanate glassceramics have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and impedance spectroscopy. SEM analysis indicated that La{sub 2}O{sub 3} additive decreases the average crystallite size. Impedance spectroscopy revealed that the positions of Z? and M? peaks are close for undoped samples. When La{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration is 0.5 mol%, the Z? and M? peaks show a significant mismatch. Furthermore, these peaks separate obviously for 1.0 mol% La{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition. With increasing La{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration, the contribution of the crystallite impedance becomes smaller, while the contribution of the crystalglass interface impedance becomes larger. More interestingly, it was found that La{sub 2}O{sub 3} additive increases blocking factor of the crystalglass interface in the temperature range of 250450 C. This may be attributed to a decrease of activation energy of the crystallite and an increase of the crystalglass interface area.

Wang, Xiangrong [Beijing Fine Ceramics Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Yong, E-mail: yzhang@tsinghua.edu.cn [Beijing Fine Ceramics Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Baturin, Ivan [Ferroelectric Laboratory, Institute of Natural Science, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg 620000 (Russian Federation); Liang, Tongxiang [Beijing Fine Ceramics Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

406

Analyses by the Defense Waste Processing Facility Laboratory of Thorium Glasses from the Sludge Batch 6 Variability Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently processing Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) with Frit 418. At times during the processing of this glass system, thorium is expected to be at concentrations in the final wasteform that make it a reportable element for the first time since startup of radioactive operations at the DWPF. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) supported the qualification of the processing of this glass system at the DWPF. A recommendation from the SRNL studies was the need for the DWPF Laboratory to establish a method to measure thorium by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICPAES). This recommendation led to the set of thorium-bearing glasses from the SB6 Variability Study (VS) being submitted to the DWPF Laboratory for chemical composition measurement. The measurements were conducted by the DWPF Laboratory using the sodium peroxide fusion preparation method routinely employed for analysis of samples from the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME). These measurements are presented and reviewed in this report. The review indicates that the measurements provided by the DWPF Laboratory are comparable to those provided by Analytical Development's laboratory at SRNL for these same glasses. As a result, the authors of this report recommend that the DWPF Laboratory begin using its routine peroxide fusion dissolution method for the measurement of thorium in SME samples of SB6. The purpose of this technical report is to present the measurements generated by the DWPF Laboratory for the SB6 VS glasses and to compare the measurements to the targeted compositions for these VS glasses as well as to SRNL's measurements (both sets, targeted and measured, of compositional values were reported by SRNL in [2]). The goal of these comparisons is to provide information that will lead to the qualification of peroxide fusion dissolution as a method for the measurement by the DWPF Laboratory of thorium in SME glass samples.

Edwards, T.; Click, D.; Feller, M.

2011-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

407

The development of design factors for heat-strengthened and tempered glass based on the glass failure prediction model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the interior. According to ASTM, the residual surface compression of tempered glass is defined to have a value of 10, 000 psi (68. 95 MPa) while heat-strengthened glass has residual compressive stresses greater than 3, 500 psi (24. 13 MPa) but less than 10..., 000 psi (68. 95 MPa) (ASTM, 1989). These residual surface compressive stresses must be overcome by mechanical stresses before the glass surfaces experience tension. Hence heat-strengthened and tempered glass are considerably stronger than annealed...

Oakes, Timothy Andrew

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

chemical analysis | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

chemical analysis chemical analysis Leads No leads are available at this time. Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide. Abstract: As a...

409

Bulk viscous matter-dominated Universes: asymptotic properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

By means of a combined use of the type Ia supernovae and H(z) data tests, together with the study of the asymptotic properties in the equivalent phase space through the use of the dynamical systems tools we demonstrate that the bulk viscous matter-dominated scenario is not a good model to explain the accepted cosmological paradigm, at least, under the parametrization of bulk viscosity considered in this paper. The main objection against such scenarios is the absence of conventional radiation and matter-dominated critical points in the phase space of the model. This entails that radiation and matter dominance are not generic solutions of the cosmological equations, so that these stages can be implemented only by means of unique and very specific initial conditions, i. e., of very unstable particular solutions. Such a behavior is in marked contradiction with the accepted cosmological paradigm which requires of an earlier stage dominated by relativistic species, followed by a period of conventional non-relativistic matter domination, during which the cosmic structure we see was formed. Also, we found that the bulk viscosity is positive just until very late times in the cosmic evolution, around z < 1. For earlier epochs it is negative, been in tension with the local second law of thermodynamics.

Avelino, Arturo [Departamento de Fsica, Campus Len, Universidad de Guanajuato, Len, Guanajuato (Mexico); Garca-Salcedo, Ricardo [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada - Legaria del IPN, Mxico D.F. (Mexico); Gonzalez, Tame [Departamento de Ingeniera Civil, Divisin de Ingeniera, Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato (Mexico); Nucamendi, Ulises [Instituto de Fsica y Matemticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicols de Hidalgo, Edificio C-3, Ciudad Universitaria, CP. 58040 Morelia, Michoacn (Mexico); Quiros, Israel, E-mail: avelino@fisica.ugto.mx, E-mail: rigarcias@ipn.mx, E-mail: tamegc72@gmail.com, E-mail: ulises@ifm.umich.mx, E-mail: iquiros6403@gmail.com [Departamento de Matemticas, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e Ingenieras (CUCEI), Corregidora 500 S.R., Universidad de Guadalajara, 44420 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Standard practice for bulk sampling of liquid uranium hexafluoride  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1.1 This practice covers methods for withdrawing representative samples of liquid uranium hexafluoride (UF6) from bulk quantities of the material. Such samples are used for determining compliance with the applicable commercial specification, for example Specification C787 and Specification C996. 1.2 It is assumed that the bulk liquid UF6 being sampled comprises a single quality and quantity of material. This practice does not address any special additional arrangements that might be required for taking proportional or composite samples, or when the sampled bulk material is being added to UF6 residues already in a container (heels recycle). 1.3 The number of samples to be taken, their nominal sample weight, and their disposition shall be agreed upon between the parties. 1.4 The scope of this practice does not include provisions for preventing criticality incidents. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of th...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Bulk Viscosity and Cavitation in Boost-Invariant Hydrodynamic Expansion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We solve second order relativistic hydrodynamics equations for a boost-invariant 1+1-dimensional expanding fluid with an equation of state taken from lattice calculations of the thermodynamics of strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma. We investigate the dependence of the energy density as a function of proper time on the values of the shear viscosity, the bulk viscosity, and second order coefficients, confirming that large changes in the values of the latter have negligible effects. Varying the shear viscosity between zero and a few times s/(4 pi), with s the entropy density, has significant effects, as expected based on other studies. Introducing a nonzero bulk viscosity also has significant effects. In fact, if the bulk viscosity peaks near the crossover temperature Tc to the degree indicated by recent lattice calculations in QCD without quarks, it can make the fluid cavitate -- falling apart into droplets. It is interesting to see a hydrodynamic calculation predicting its own breakdown, via cavitation, at the temperatures where hadronization is thought to occur in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions.

Krishna Rajagopal; Nilesh Tripuraneni

2010-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

412

Glasstech. Ber. Glass Sci. Technol. 75 C2 (2002) 1 Linear and Nonlinear Photoionization of Silicate Glasses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Glasstech. Ber. Glass Sci. Technol. 75 C2 (2002) 1 Linear and Nonlinear Photoionization of Silicate, photoinduced phenomena, and laser-induced damage of silicate glasses. The discussion will be concentrated devices, such as alkaline-silicate, sodium-calcium-silicate, borosilicate, and lead- silicate glasses

Glebov, Leon

413

Responsiveness summary for the remedial investigation/feasibility study for management of the bulk wastes at the Weldon Spring quarry, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for conducting remedial actions at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri, under its Surplus Facilities Management Program. The site consists of a quarry and a chemical plant area located about 6.4 km (4 mi) northeast of the quarry. The quarry is surrounded by the Weldon Spring Wildfire Area and is near an alluvial well field that constitutes a major source of potable water for St. Charles County; the nearest supply well is located about 0.8 km (0.5 mi) southeast of the quarry. From 1942 to 1969, the quarry was used for the disposal of various radioactively and chemically contaminated materials. Bulk wastes in the quarry consist of contaminated soils and sediments, rubble, metal debris, and equipment. As part of overall site remediation, DOE is proposing to conduct an interim remedial action at the quarry to manage the radioactively and chemically contaminated bulk wastes contained therein. Potential remedial action alternatives for managing the quarry bulk wastes have been evaluated consistent with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance for conducting remedial actions under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. The contents of these documents were developed in consultation with EPA Region VII and the state of Missouri and reflect the focused scope defined for this interim remedial action. 9 refs.

Peterson, J.M.; MacDonell, M.M.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Energy Efficient Glass Melting - The Next Generation Melter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate a high intensity glass melter, based on the submerged combustion melting technology. This melter will serve as the melting and homogenization section of a segmented, lower-capital cost, energy-efficient Next Generation Glass Melting System (NGMS). After this project, the melter will be ready to move toward commercial trials for some glasses needing little refining (fiberglass, etc.). For other glasses, a second project Phase or glass industry research is anticipated to develop the fining stage of the NGMS process.

David Rue

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Rapid process for producing transparent, monolithic porous glass  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for making transparent porous glass monoliths from gels. The glass is produced much faster and in much larger sizes than present technology for making porous glass. The process reduces the cost of making large porous glass monoliths because: 1) the process does not require solvent exchange nor additives to the gel to increase the drying rates, 2) only moderate temperatures and pressures are used so relatively inexpensive equipment is needed, an 3) net-shape glass monoliths are possible using this process. The process depends on the use of temperature to control the partial pressure of the gel solvent in a closed vessel, resulting in controlled shrinking during drying.

Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA)

2006-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

416

Sealed glass coating of high temperature ceramic superconductors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and article of manufacture of a lead oxide based glass coating on a high temperature superconductor is disclosed. The method includes preparing a dispersion of glass powders in a solution, applying the dispersion to the superconductor, drying the dispersion before applying another coating and heating the glass powder dispersion at temperatures below oxygen diffusion onset and above the glass melting point to form a continuous glass coating on the superconductor to establish compressive stresses which enhance the fracture strength of the superconductor. 8 figs.

Wu, W.; Chu, C.Y.; Goretta, K.C.; Routbort, J.L.

1995-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

417

Effects of bulk charged impurities on the bulk and surface transport in three-dimensional topological insulators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the three-dimensional topological insulator (TI), the physics of doped semiconductors exists literally side-by-side with the physics of ultrarelativistic Dirac fermions. This unusual pairing creates a novel playground for studying the interplay between disorder and electronic transport. In this mini-review, we focus on the disorder caused by the three-dimensionally distributed charged impurities that are ubiquitous in TIs, and we outline the effects it has on both the bulk and surface transport in TIs. We present self-consistent theories for Coulomb screening both in the bulk and at the surface, discuss the magnitude of the disorder potential in each case, and present results for the conductivity. In the bulk, where the band gap leads to thermally activated transport, we show how disorder leads to a smaller-than-expected activation energy that gives way to variable-range hopping at low temperatures. We confirm this enhanced conductivity with numerical simulations that also allow us to explore different degrees of impurity compensation. For the surface, where the TI has gapless Dirac modes, we present a theory of disorder and screening of deep impurities, and we calculate the corresponding zero-temperature conductivity. We also comment on the growth of the disorder potential in passing from the surface of the TI into the bulk. Finally, we discuss how the presence of a gap at the Dirac point, introduced by some source of time-reversal symmetry breaking, affects the disorder potential at the surface and the mid-gap density of states.

Skinner, B.; Chen, T.; Shklovskii, B. I., E-mail: shklovsk@physics.spa.umn.edu [University of Minnesota, Fine Theoretical Physics Institute (United States)

2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

418

Risk-based Maintenance Allocation and Scheduling for Bulk Electric Power Transmission System Equipment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

most state of the art reliability centered maintenance (RCM) approaches, but it also accounts equipment, maintenance, reliability, risk, security, optimization 1.Introduction Maintenance of bulk1 Risk-based Maintenance Allocation and Scheduling for Bulk Electric Power Transmission System

419

Notes 10. A thermohydrodynamic bulk-flow model for fluid film bearings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The complete set of bulk-flow equations for the analysis of turbulent flow fluid film bearings. Importance of thermal effects in process fluid applications. A CFD method for solution of the bulk-flow equations....

San Andres, Luis

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Characterization of Surface and Bulk Nitrates of ?-Al2O3...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Surface and Bulk Nitrates of ?-Al2O3-Supported Alkaline Earth Oxides using Density Functional Theory. Characterization of Surface and Bulk Nitrates of ?-Al2O3-Supported...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bulk chemicals glass" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Analysis and forecast of the capesize bulk carriers shipping market using Artificial Neural Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Investing in the bulk carrier market constitutes a rather risky investment due to the volatility of the bulk carrier freight rates. In this study it is attempted to uncover the benefits of using Artificial Neural Networks ...

Voudris, Athanasios V

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

DEVELOPMENT OF GLASS MATRICES FOR HLW RADIOACTIVE WASTES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vitrification is currently the most widely used technology for the treatment of high level radioactive wastes (HLW) throughout the world. Most of the nations that have generated HLW are immobilizing in either borosilicate glass or phosphate glass. One of the primary reasons that glass has become the most widely used immobilization media is the relative simplicity of the vitrification process, e.g. melt waste plus glass forming frit additives and cast. A second reason that glass has become widely used for HLW is that the short range order (SRO) and medium range order (MRO) found in glass atomistically bonds the radionuclides and governs the melt properties such as viscosity, resistivity, sulphate solubility. The molecular structure of glass controls contaminant/radionuclide release by establishing the distribution of ion exchange sites, hydrolysis sites, and the access of water to those sites. The molecular structure is flexible and hence accounts for the flexibility of glass formulations to waste variability. Nuclear waste glasses melt between 1050-1150 C which minimizes the volatility of radioactive components such as Tc{sup 99}, Cs{sup 137}, and I{sup 129}. Nuclear waste glasses have good long term stability including irradiation resistance. Process control models based on the molecular structure of glass have been mechanistically derived and have been demonstrated to be accurate enough to control the world's largest HLW Joule heated ceramic melter in the US since 1996 at 95% confidence.

Jantzen, C.

2010-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

423

Ammonia-treated phosphate glasses useful for sealing to metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of improving surface-dependent properties of phosphate glass such as durability and wear resistance without significantly affecting its thermal expansion coefficient is provided which comprises annealing the glass in a dry ammonia atmosphere at temperatures approximating the transition temperature of the glass. The ammonia annealing treatment of the present invention is carried out for a time sufficient to allow incorporation of a thin layer of nitrogen into the surface of the phosphate glass, and the treatment improves the durability of the glass without the reduction in the thermal expansion coefficient that has restricted the effectiveness of prior ammonia treatments. The improved phosphate glass resulting from this method is superior in wear resistance, yet maintains suitable thermal expansion properties so that it may be used effectively in a variety of applications requiring hermetic glass-metal seals.

Brow, R.K.; Day, D.E.

1991-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

424

System and method for glass processing and temperature sensing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Techniques for measuring the temperature at various locations through the thickness of glass products and to control the glass processing operation with the sensed temperature information are disclosed. Fluorescence emission of iron or cerium in glass is excited and imaged onto segmented detectors. Spatially resolved temperature data are obtained through correlation of the detected photoluminescence signal with location within the glass. In one form the detected photoluminescence is compared to detected scattered excitation light to determine temperature. Stress information is obtained from the time history of the temperature profile data and used to evaluate the quality of processed glass. A heating or cooling rate of the glass is also controlled to maintain a predetermined desired temperature profile in the glass.

Shepard, Chester L.; Cannon, Bret D.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2004-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

425

Low melting high lithia glass compositions and methods  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to methods of vitrifying waste and for lowering the melting point of glass forming systems by including lithia formers in the glass forming composition in significant amounts, typically from about 0.16 wt % to about 11 wt %, based on the total glass forming oxides. The lithia is typically included as a replacement for alkali oxide glass formers that would normally be present in a particular glass forming system. Replacement can occur on a mole percent or weight percent basis, and typically results in a composition wherein lithia forms about 10 wt % to about 100 wt % of the alkali oxide glass formers present in the composition. The present invention also relates to the high lithia glass compositions formed by these methods. The invention is useful for stabilization of numerous types of waste materials, including aqueous waste uranium oxides The decrease in melting point achieved by the present invention desirably prevents volatilization of hazardous or radioactive species during vitrification.

Jantzen, Carol M.; Pickett, John B.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Marra, James C.

2003-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

426

Chemical and kinetic equilibrations via radiative parton transport  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A hot and dense partonic system can be produced in the early stage of a relativistic heavy ion collision. How it equilibrates is important for the extraction of Quark-Gluon Plasma properties. We study the chemical and kinetic equilibrations of the Quark-Gluon Plasma using a radiative transport model. Thermal and Color-Glass-Condensate motivated initial conditions are used. We observe that screened parton interactions always lead to partial pressure isotropization. Different initial pressure anisotropies result in the same asymptotic evolution. Comparison of evolutions with and without radiative processes shows that chemical equilibration interacts with kinetic equilibration and radiative processes can contribute significantly to pressure isotropization.

Bin Zhang; Warner A. Wortman

2011-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

427

Guidance Document Reactive Chemicals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

showers and chillers. Health Hazards: The reactive chemicals are grouped primarily because of the physical

428

Chemical Management Contacts  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Contacts for additional information on Chemical Management and brief description on Energy Facility Contractors Group

429

DEVELOPMENT OF GLASS AND CRYSTALLINE CERAMIC FORMS FOR DISPOSITION OF EXCESS PLUTONIUM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the aftermath of the Cold War, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has identified up to 50 metric tons of excess plutonium that needs to be dispositioned. The bulk of the material is slated to be blended with uranium and fabricated into a Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel for subsequent burning in commercial nuclear reactors. Excess plutonium-containing impurity materials making it unsuitable for fabrication into MOX fuel will need to be dispositioned via other means. Glass and crystalline ceramics have been developed and studied as candidate forms to immobilize these impure plutonium feeds. A titanate-based ceramic was identified as an excellent actinide material host. This composition was based on Synroc compositions previously developed for nuclear waste immobilization. These titanate ceramics were found to be able to accommodate extremely high quantities of fissile material and exhibit excellent aqueous durability. A lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass was developed to accommodate high concentrations of plutonium and to be very tolerant of impurities yet still maintain good aqueous durability. Recent testing of alkali borosilicate compositions showed promise of using these compositions to disposition lower concentrations of plutonium using existing high level waste vitrification processes. The developed waste forms all appear to be suitable for Pu disposition. Depending on the actual types and concentrations of the Pu residue streams slated for disposition, each waste form offers unique advantages.

Marra, James; Cozzi, A; Crawford, C.; Herman, C.; Marra, John; Peeler, D.

2009-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

430

Glass transition and crystallization kinetics of a barium borosilicate glass by a non-isothermal method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The glass transition and crystallization kinetics of a glass with a molar composition 60BaO-30B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-10SiO{sub 2} were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) under non-isothermal conditions. DSC curves exhibited an endothermic peak associated with the glass transition and two partially overlapped exothermic peaks associated with the crystallization of the glass. The dependence of the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) and of the maximum crystallization temperature (T{sub p}) on the heating rate was used to determine the activation energy associated with the glass transition (E{sub g}), the activation energy for crystallization (E{sub c}), and the Avrami exponent (n). X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that barium borate (?-BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4}) was the first crystalline phase to be formed followed by the formation of barium silicate (Ba{sub 5}Si{sub 8}O{sub 21}). The variations of activation energy for crystallization and of Avrami exponent with the fraction of crystallization (?) were also examined. When the crystallization fraction (?) increased from 0.1 to 0.9, the value of local activation energy (E{sub c}(?)) decreased from 554 to 458?kJ/mol for the first exothermic peak and from 1104 to 831?kJ/mol for the second exothermic peak. The value determined for the Avrami exponent was near 2 indicating a similar one-dimensional crystallization mechanism for both crystalline phases. This was confirmed by the morphological studies performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on glass samples heat-treated at the first and at the second crystallization temperatures.

Lopes, Andreia A. S.; Soares, Roque S.; Lima, Maria M. A.; Monteiro, Regina C. C., E-mail: rcm@fct.unl.pt [Department of Materials Science, CENIMAT/I3N, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

431

Identification of Avalanche Precursors by Acoustic Probing in the Bulk of Tilted Granular Layers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Identification of Avalanche Precursors by Acoustic Probing in the Bulk of Tilted Granular Layers M simultaneously caracterize precursors on the free surface with an optical method and in the bulk with acoustic to probe rearrangements in the bulk of the granular material. A linear method can also be used provided

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

432

Highly conductive electrolyte composites containing glass and ceramic, and method of manufacture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrolyte composite is manufactured by pressurizing a mixture of sodium ion conductive glass and an ionically conductive compound at between 12,000 and 24,000 pounds per square inch to produce a pellet. The resulting pellet is then sintered at relatively lower temperatures (800--1200 C), for example 1000 C, than are typically required (1400 C) when fabricating single constituent ceramic electrolytes. The resultant composite is 100 percent conductive at 250 C with conductivity values of 2.5 to 4[times]10[sup [minus]2](ohm-cm)[sup [minus]1]. The matrix exhibits chemical stability against sodium for 100 hours at 250 to 300 C. 1 figure.

Hash, M.C.; Bloom, I.D.

1992-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

433

Chemical engineers design, control and optimize large-scale chemical,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Biochemical, Environmental, Petroleum Engineering and Nantoechnology. CHEMICAL&MATERIALSSCIENCE CHE OVERVIEW of Science 131 units · Chemical Engineering (Petroleum) Bachelor of Science 136 units · Chemical Engineering38 Chemical engineers design, control and optimize large-scale chemical, physicochemical

Rohs, Remo

434

Loose abrasive slurries for optical glass lapping  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Loose abrasive lapping is widely used to prepare optical glass before its final polishing. We carried out a comparison of 20 different slurries from four different vendors. Slurry particle sizes and morphologies were measured. Fused silica samples were lapped with these different slurries on a single side polishing machine and characterized in terms of surface roughness and depth of subsurface damage (SSD). Effects of load, rotation speed, and slurry concentration during lapping on roughness, material removal rate, and SSD were investigated.

Neauport, Jerome; Destribats, Julie; Maunier, Cedric; Ambard, Chrystel; Cormont, Philippe; Pintault, B.; Rondeau, Olivier

2010-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

435

DWPF Glass Melter Technology Manual: Volume 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document details information about the design of a glass melter to be used at the Defense Waste Processing Facility located at the Savannah River Site. Topics include: melter overview, design basis, materials, vessel configuration, insulation, refractory configuration, electrical isolation, electrodes, riser and pour spout heater design, dome heaters, feed tubes, drain valves, differential pressure pouring, and melter test results. Information is conveyed using many diagrams and photographs.

Iverson, D.C.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

436

Overview of Energy Efficiency for Glass Furnace  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,Particulates (Environmental norms) Global competitiveness #12;3 April, 2006 4Source: www.oilnergy.com Crude Oil Price #12;3 April, 2006 5 Natural Gas Price Source: www.oilnergy.com #12;3 April, 2006 6 Carbon Dioxide Endothermic heat of reaction Glass enthalpy at outlet of tank 1886 From temperature of 20 oC to 1500 oC Batch

Banerjee, Rangan

437

Efficient Bulk Data Replication for the Earth System Grid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Earth System Grid (ESG) community faces the difficult challenge of managing the distribution of massive data sets to thousands of scientists around the world. To move data replicas efficiently, the ESG has developed a data transfer management tool called the Bulk Data Mover (BDM). We describe the performance results of the current system and plans towards extending the techniques developed so far for the up- coming project, in which the ESG will employ advanced networks to move multi-TB datasets with the ulti- mate goal of helping researchers understand climate change and its potential impacts on world ecology and society.

Sim, Alex; Gunter, Dan; Natarajan, Vijaya; Shoshani, Arie; Williams, Dean; Long, Jeff; Hick, Jason; Lee, Jason; Dart, Eli

2010-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

438

Radiative cooling of bulk silicon by incoherent light pump  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In contrast to radiative cooling by light up conversion caused exclusively by a low-entropy laser pump and employing thermally assisted fluorescence/luminescence as a power out, we demonstrate light down conversion cooling by incoherent pumps, 0.470.94??m light emitting diodes, and employing thermal emission (TE) as a power out. We demonstrate ?3.5?K bulk cooling of Si at 450?K because overall energy of multiple below bandgap TE photons exceeds the energy of a single above bandgap pump photon. We show that using large entropy TE as power out helps avoid careful tuning of an incoherent pump wavelength and cool indirect-bandgap semiconductors.

Malyutenko, V. K., E-mail: malyut@isp.kiev.ua; Bogatyrenko, V. V.; Malyutenko, O. Yu. [V. E. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, 03028 Kiev (Ukraine)] [V. E. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, 03028 Kiev (Ukraine)

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

439

Bulk Handling of Milk on Texas Dairy Farms.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

areas dur- tem of handling milk. ing the spring and summer of 1957 on dairy - farms which have converted their operations to Dairymen interviewed in North Texas had tanks ranging from 150 gallons to 1,000 gallons, , the bulk system of producing... and handling milk. while tanks in the Corous Christi area raneDd Texas dairy farmers are operating larger from 200 gallons to 1,000 gallons. The average units, milking more cows, selling more milk and tank in North Texas had a capacity of 400 gal. generally...

Parker, Cecil A.; Stelly, Randall, Moore, Donald S.

1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Bulk Energy Storage Webinar Rescheduled for February 9, 2012 | Department  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of Energy Power Systems EngineeringDepartment of4 Federal6Clean Energyof Energy Bulk Energy Storage

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bulk chemicals glass" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Bulk Hauling Equipment for CHG | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTie Ltd:June 2015 < prevBuilding theINNOVATION &Bulk Hauling