National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for bulk average united

  1. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Vacant housing units, seasonal units, second homes, military housing, and group quarters are excluded. 2Total square footage includes all basements, finished or conditioned (heated ...

  2. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... includes households that occupy their primary housing unit without payment of rent. ... includes households that occupy their primary housing unit without payment of rent. ...

  3. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Unconditioned and unfinished areas in attics and attached garages are excluded. 3Housing units are classified as urban or rural using definitions created by the U.S. Census Bureau, ...

  4. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy and Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). 5Rented includes households that occupy their primary housing unit without payment of rent. ...

  5. Table HC1.1.4 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2005" ,,,"Average Square Feet per Apartment in a --" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"2 to 4 Unit Building",,,"5 or More Unit Building" ,,"Apartments (millions)" "Housing Unit Characteristics",,,"Total","Heated","Cooled","Total","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,24.5,1090,902,341,872,780,441

  6. Table HC1.1.2 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace, 2005 " ,,"Average Square Feet per--" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Housing Unit",,,"Household Member" "Housing Unit Characteristics",,"Total1","Heated","Cooled","Total","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,2171,1618,1031,845,630,401 "Census Region and Division" "Northeast",20.6,2334,1664,562,911,649,220

  7. Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy, is a notice issued by the Department of Energy. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document."

  8. United States Wind Resource Map: Annual Average Wind Speed at 30 Meters

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    30 m 21-FEB-2012 2.1.1 Wind Speed m/s >10.5 10.0 9.5 9.0 8.5 8.0 7.5 7.0 6.5 6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0 < 4.0 Source: Wind resource estimates developed by AWS Truepower, LLC. Web: http://www.awstruepower.com. Map developed by NREL. Spatial resolution of wind resource data: 2.0 km. Projection: Albers Equal Area WGS84. The average wind speeds indicated on this map are model-derived estimates that may not represent the true wind resource at any given location. Small terrain features, vegetation,

  9. Radiological consequences of ship collisions that might occur in U.S. Ports during the shipment of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel to the United States in break-bulk freighters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sprung, J.L.; Bespalko, S.J.; Massey, C.D.; Yoshimura, R.; Johnson, J.D.; Reardon, P.C.; Ebert, M.W.; Gallagher D.W.

    1996-08-01

    Accident source terms, source term probabilities, consequences, and risks are developed for ship collisions that might occur in U.S. ports during the shipment of spent fuel from foreign research reactors to the United States in break-bulk freighters.

  10. An atomic orbital-based formulation of analytical gradients and nonadiabatic coupling vector elements for the state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field method on graphical processing units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, James W.; Hohenstein, Edward G.; Luehr, Nathan; Martínez, Todd J.

    2015-10-21

    We recently presented an algorithm for state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) orbital optimization that capitalizes on sparsity in the atomic orbital basis set to reduce the scaling of computational effort with respect to molecular size. Here, we extend those algorithms to calculate the analytic gradient and nonadiabatic coupling vectors for SA-CASSCF. Combining the low computational scaling with acceleration from graphical processing units allows us to perform SA-CASSCF geometry optimizations for molecules with more than 1000 atoms. The new approach will make minimal energy conical intersection searches and nonadiabatic dynamics routine for molecular systems with O(10{sup 2}) atoms.

  11. Hanford ETR Bulk Vitrification System - Demonstration Bulk Vitrificati...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Hanford ETR Bulk Vitrification System - Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) Review Report Hanford ETR Bulk Vitrification System - Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System ...

  12. Neutron resonance averaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chrien, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    The principles of resonance averaging as applied to neutron capture reactions are described. Several illustrations of resonance averaging to problems of nuclear structure and the distribution of radiative strength in nuclei are provided. 30 refs., 12 figs.

  13. Rotary bulk solids divider

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maronde, Carl P.; Killmeyer, Jr., Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for the disbursement of a bulk solid sample comprising, a gravity hopper having a top open end and a bottom discharge end, a feeder positioned beneath the gravity hopper so as to receive a bulk solid sample flowing from the bottom discharge end, and a conveyor receiving the bulk solid sample from the feeder and rotating on an axis that allows the bulk solid sample to disperse the sample to a collection station.

  14. ROTARY BULK SOLIDS DIVIDER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maronde, Carl P.; Killmeyer JR., Richard P.

    1992-03-03

    An apparatus for the disbursement of a bulk solid sample comprising, a gravity hopper having a top open end and a bottom discharge end, a feeder positioned beneath the gravity hopper so as to receive a bulk solid sample flowing from the bottom discharge end, and a conveyor receiving the bulk solid sample from the feeder and rotating on an axis that allows the bulk solid sample to disperse the sample to a collection station.

  15. Average Residential Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data Series: Average Residential Price Residential Price - Local Distribution Companies Residential Price - Marketers Residential % Sold by Local Distribution Companies Average Commercial Price Commercial Price - Local Distribution Companies Commerical Price - Marketers Commercial % Sold by Local Distribution Companies Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2010 2011

  16. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...,0.5,1030,968,711,524,492,362 "Year of Construction" "Before 1940",5.6,1991,1428,573,826,5... "Major Outside Wall Construction" "Siding (Aluminum, Vinyl, ...

  17. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...4.1,2090,1718,523,752,618,188 "Year of Construction" "Before 1940",10.1,2603,1836,963,1002... "Major Outside Wall Construction" "Siding (Aluminum, Vinyl, ...

  18. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...3.9,1128,1008,894,423,378,335 "Year of Construction" "Before 1940",2.4,2048,1477,1138,828,... "Major Outside Wall Construction" "Siding (Aluminum, Vinyl, ...

  19. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...",1.4,995,867,466,369,322,173 "Year of Construction" "Before 1940",1.9,1646,1077,274,671,4... "Major Outside Wall Construction" "Siding (Aluminum, Vinyl, ...

  20. Bulk and mechanical properties of the Paintbrush tuff recovered from boreholes UE25 NRG-4 and -5: Data report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, P.J.; Noel, J.S.; Martin, R.J. [New England Research, Inc., White River Junction, VT (United States); Price, R.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Experimental results are presented for bulk and mechanical properties measurements on specimens of the Paintbrush tuff recovered from boreholes UE25 NRG-4 and -5, at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Measurements have been performed on three thermal/mechanical units, PTn, TSwl, and TSw2. On each specimen the following bulk properties have been reported: dry bulk density, saturated bulk density, average grain density, and porosity. Unconfined compression to failure, confined compression to failure, and indirect tensile strength tests were performed on selected specimens recovered from the boreholes. In addition, compressional and shear wave velocities were measured on specimens designated for unconfined compression and confined compression experiments. Measurements were conducted at room temperature on nominally water-saturated specimens. The nominal rate for the fracture experiments was 10{sup -5}s{sup -1}.

  1. Concentration Averaging | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Concentration Averaging Concentration Averaging Summary Notes from 3 October 2007 Generic Technical Issue Discussion on Concentration Averaging PDF icon Summary Notes from 3...

  2. Large area bulk superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Dean J.; Field, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    A bulk superconductor having a thickness of not less than about 100 microns is carried by a polycrystalline textured substrate having misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.; the bulk superconductor may have a thickness of not less than about 100 microns and a surface area of not less than about 50 cm.sup.2. The textured substrate may have a thickness not less than about 10 microns and misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.. Also disclosed is a process of manufacturing the bulk superconductor and the polycrystalline biaxially textured substrate material.

  3. Creating bulk nanocrystalline metal.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fredenburg, D. Anthony; Saldana, Christopher J.; Gill, David D.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Roemer, Timothy John; Vogler, Tracy John; Yang, Pin

    2008-10-01

    Nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials offer unique microstructure-dependent properties that are superior to coarse-grained materials. These materials have been shown to have very high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. However, most current methods of producing nanostructured materials in weapons-relevant materials create powdered metal that must be consolidated into bulk form to be useful. Conventional consolidation methods are not appropriate due to the need to maintain the nanocrystalline structure. This research investigated new ways of creating nanocrystalline material, new methods of consolidating nanocrystalline material, and an analysis of these different methods of creation and consolidation to evaluate their applicability to mesoscale weapons applications where part features are often under 100 {micro}m wide and the material's microstructure must be very small to give homogeneous properties across the feature.

  4. Explosive bulk charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Jacob Lee

    2015-04-21

    An explosive bulk charge, including: a first contact surface configured to be selectively disposed substantially adjacent to a structure or material; a second end surface configured to selectively receive a detonator; and a curvilinear side surface joining the first contact surface and the second end surface. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface form a bi-truncated hemispherical structure. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface are formed from an explosive material. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface each have a substantially circular shape. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface consist of planar structures that are aligned substantially parallel or slightly tilted with respect to one another. The curvilinear side surface has one of a smooth curved geometry, an elliptical geometry, and a parabolic geometry.

  5. Spacetime averaged null energy condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, Douglas; Olum, Ken D.

    2010-06-15

    The averaged null energy condition has known violations for quantum fields in curved space, even when one considers only achronal geodesics. Many such examples involve rapid variation in the stress-energy tensor in the vicinity of the geodesic under consideration, giving rise to the possibility that averaging in additional dimensions would yield a principle universally obeyed by quantum fields. However, after discussing various procedures for additional averaging, including integrating over all dimensions of the manifold, we give here a class of examples that violate any such averaged condition.

  6. U.S. Refiner Sales to End Users (Average) Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales Type: Sales to End Users, Average Through Retail Outlets Sales for Resale, Average DTW Rack Bulk Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Formulation/ Grade Sales Type Jan-16 Feb-16 Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 View History Conventional, Average 1.346 1.209 1.450 1.617 1.790 1.894 1994-2016 Conventional Regular 1.305 1.167 1.412 1.576 1.749 1.854 1994-2016 Conventional Midgrade 1.524 1.376 1.601 1.781

  7. Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device (Patent) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device Title: Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device A microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device comprises a periodic ...

  8. Bulk Data Mover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-01-03

    Bulk Data Mover (BDM) is a high-level data transfer management tool. BDM handles the issue of large variance in file sizes and a big portion of small files by managing the file transfers with optimized transfer queue and concurrency management algorithms. For example, climate simulation data sets are characterized by large volume of files with extreme variance in file sizes. The BDN achieves high performance using a variety of techniques, including multi-thraded concurrent transfer connections, data channel caching, load balancing over multiple transfer servers, and storage i/o pre-fetching. Logging information from the BDM is collected and analyzed to study the effectiveness of the transfer management algorithms. The BDM can accept a request composed of multiple files or an entire directory. The request also contains the target site and directory where the replicated files will reside. If a directory is provided at the source, then the BDM will replicate the structure of the source directory at the target site. The BDM is capable of transferring multiple files concurrently as well as using parallel TCP streams. The optimal level of concurrency or parallel streams depends on the bandwidth capacity of the storage systems at both ends of the transfer as well as achievable bandwidth of the wide-area network. Hardware req.-PC, MAC, Multi-platform & Workstation; Software req.: Compile/version-Java 1.50_x or ablove; Type of files: source code, executable modules, installation instructions other, user guide; URL: http://sdm.lbl.gov/bdm/

  9. Modeling direct interband tunneling. I. Bulk semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Andrew; Chui, Chi On

    2014-08-07

    Interband tunneling is frequently studied using the semiclassical Kane model, despite uncertainty about its validity. Revisiting the physical basis of this formula, we find that it neglects coupling to other bands and underestimates transverse tunneling. As a result, significant errors can arise at low and high fields for small and large gap materials, respectively. We derive a simple multiband tunneling model to correct these defects analytically without arbitrary parameters. Through extensive comparison with band structure and quantum transport calculations for bulk InGaAs, InAs, and InSb, we probe the accuracy of the Kane and multiband formulas and establish the superiority of the latter. We also show that the nonlocal average electric field should be used when applying either of these models to nonuniform potentials. Our findings are important for efficient analysis and simulation of bulk semiconductor devices involving tunneling.

  10. High average power pockels cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daly, Thomas P.

    1991-01-01

    A high average power pockels cell is disclosed which reduces the effect of thermally induced strains in high average power laser technology. The pockels cell includes an elongated, substantially rectangular crystalline structure formed from a KDP-type material to eliminate shear strains. The X- and Y-axes are oriented substantially perpendicular to the edges of the crystal cross-section and to the C-axis direction of propagation to eliminate shear strains.

  11. Bulk Data Mover

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2011-01-03

    Bulk Data Mover (BDM) is a high-level data transfer management tool. BDM handles the issue of large variance in file sizes and a big portion of small files by managing the file transfers with optimized transfer queue and concurrency management algorithms. For example, climate simulation data sets are characterized by large volume of files with extreme variance in file sizes. The BDN achieves high performance using a variety of techniques, including multi-thraded concurrent transfer connections,more » data channel caching, load balancing over multiple transfer servers, and storage i/o pre-fetching. Logging information from the BDM is collected and analyzed to study the effectiveness of the transfer management algorithms. The BDM can accept a request composed of multiple files or an entire directory. The request also contains the target site and directory where the replicated files will reside. If a directory is provided at the source, then the BDM will replicate the structure of the source directory at the target site. The BDM is capable of transferring multiple files concurrently as well as using parallel TCP streams. The optimal level of concurrency or parallel streams depends on the bandwidth capacity of the storage systems at both ends of the transfer as well as achievable bandwidth of the wide-area network. Hardware req.-PC, MAC, Multi-platform & Workstation; Software req.: Compile/version-Java 1.50_x or ablove; Type of files: source code, executable modules, installation instructions other, user guide; URL: http://sdm.lbl.gov/bdm/« less

  12. Commercialization of Bulk Thermoelectric Materials for Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commercialization of Bulk Thermoelectric Materials for Power Generation Commercialization of Bulk Thermoelectric Materials for Power Generation Critical aspects of technology ...

  13. Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences Percent of Projections Over- Estimated Gross Domestic Product Real Gross Domestic Product (Average Cumulative Growth)* (Table 2) 0.9 45.8 Petroleum Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Constant $) (Table 3a) 37.7 17.3 Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Nominal $) (Table 3b) 36.6 18.7 Total Petroleum Consumption (Table 4) 7.9 70.7 Crude Oil Production (Table 5) 8.1 51.1 Petroleum Net Imports (Table 6) 24.7 73.8 Natural Gas

  14. Bulk Electronic Structure of Quasicrystals (Journal Article)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bulk Electronic Structure of Quasicrystals Prev Next Title: Bulk Electronic Structure of Quasicrystals Authors: Nayak, J. ; Maniraj, M. ; Rai, Abhishek ; Singh, Sanjay ; ...

  15. Bulk Electronic Structure of Quasicrystals (Journal Article)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bulk Electronic Structure of Quasicrystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Bulk Electronic Structure of Quasicrystals Authors: Nayak, J. ; Maniraj, M. ; Rai, Abhishek ; ...

  16. Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste ...

  17. RAPID/BulkTransmission | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    regulatory processes and requirements by searching our regulatory flowchart library. Learn more about bulk transmission. BulkTransCoverage.png Regulations and permitting...

  18. Average dynamics of a finite set of coupled phase oscillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dima, Germn C. Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2014-06-15

    We study the solutions of a dynamical system describing the average activity of an infinitely large set of driven coupled excitable units. We compared their topological organization with that reconstructed from the numerical integration of finite sets. In this way, we present a strategy to establish the pertinence of approximating the dynamics of finite sets of coupled nonlinear units by the dynamics of its infinitely large surrogate.

  19. Bulk Hauling Equipment for CHG

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BULK HAULING EQUIPMENT FOR CHG Don Baldwin Director of Product Development - Hexagon Lincoln HEXAGON LINCOLN TITAN(tm) Module System Compressed Hydrogen Gas * Capacity 250 bar - 616 kg 350 bar - 809 kg 540 bar - 1155 kg * Gross Vehicle Weight (with prime mover) 250 bar - 28 450 kg 350 bar - 30 820 kg 540 bar - 39 440 kg * Purchase Cost 250 bar - $510,000 350 bar - $633,750 540 bar - $1,100,000 Compressed Natural Gas * Capacity (250 bar at 15 C) - 7412 kg * GVW (With prime mover) - 35 250 kg *

  20. Thermoelectric Bulk Materials from the Explosive Consolidation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectric Bulk Materials from the Explosive Consolidation of Nanopowders Describes technique of explosively consolidating nanopowders to yield fully dense, consolidated, ...

  1. Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross sections Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Average and effective Q-values for ...

  2. Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross sections Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Average and ...

  3. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Air Quality | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    BulkTransmissionAir Quality < RAPID | BulkTransmission Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk Transmission...

  4. Synthesis of bulk superhard semiconducting B-C material (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Synthesis of bulk superhard semiconducting B-C material Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Synthesis of bulk superhard semiconducting B-C material A bulk composite ...

  5. ,"Selected National Average Natural Gas Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Selected National Average Natural Gas Prices" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data ...

  6. Dynamic Multiscale Averaging (DMA) of Turbulent Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard W. Johnson

    2012-09-01

    A new approach called dynamic multiscale averaging (DMA) for computing the effects of turbulent flow is described. The new method encompasses multiple applications of temporal and spatial averaging, that is, multiscale operations. Initially, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed for a relatively short time; it is envisioned that this short time should be long enough to capture several fluctuating time periods of the smallest scales. The flow field variables are subject to running time averaging during the DNS. After the relatively short time, the time-averaged variables are volume averaged onto a coarser grid. Both time and volume averaging of the describing equations generate correlations in the averaged equations. These correlations are computed from the flow field and added as source terms to the computation on the next coarser mesh. They represent coupling between the two adjacent scales. Since they are computed directly from first principles, there is no modeling involved. However, there is approximation involved in the coupling correlations as the flow field has been computed for only a relatively short time. After the time and spatial averaging operations are applied at a given stage, new computations are performed on the next coarser mesh using a larger time step. The process continues until the coarsest scale needed is reached. New correlations are created for each averaging procedure. The number of averaging operations needed is expected to be problem dependent. The new DMA approach is applied to a relatively low Reynolds number flow in a square duct segment. Time-averaged stream-wise velocity and vorticity contours from the DMA approach appear to be very similar to a full DNS for a similar flow reported in the literature. Expected symmetry for the final results is produced for the DMA method. The results obtained indicate that DMA holds significant potential in being able to accurately compute turbulent flow without modeling for practical

  7. Review: Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Second Five Year Review. Revision 0. DOE/OR/21548-891 review dated August 2001. The results of the five year review indicate that the remedies are functioning as intended in the four operable units. The operable units are Quarry Bulk Waste, Chemical Plant, Quarry Residuals, and Groundwater. Review contents include remedial actions in quarry bulk wastes, chemical plant (vicinity properties, southeast drainage, frog pond drainage, busch lakes, and site remediation), quarry residuals, environmental monitoring (radon gas monitoring, gamma radiation monitoring, radioactive air particulate monitoring, airborne asbestos monitoring, surfact water protection, and groundwater monitoring), applicable or relevant and appriopriate requirements (ARAR) for chemical plant, quarry residuals, and interim groundwater operable units. Figures include location maps, plan layouts, and charts. Tables include contaminant cleanup standards, summary data for uranium, nitroaromatic compound, and analytical, summary results for asbestos air monitoring, annual averages for monitoring locations, averages for uranium concentrations, and summary of detection monitoring data.

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

  8. U.S. Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    346 1.209 1.450 1.617 1.790 1.894 1994-2016 Through Retail Outlets 1.345 1.209 1.451 1.617 1.791 1.895 1994-2016 Sales for Resale, Average 1.117 0.998 1.276 1.416 1.573 1.597 1994-2016 DTW 1.337 1.143 1.369 1.498 1.641 1.696 1994-2016 Rack 1.109 0.995 1.283 1.421 1.583 1.602 1994-2016 Bulk 1.137 0.991 1.194 1.339 1.451 1.522

  9. U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    790 1.553 1.736 1.921 2.011 2.078 1994-2016 Through Retail Outlets 1.792 1.554 1.737 1.921 2.012 2.079 1994-2016 Sales for Resale, Average 1.331 1.143 1.463 1.601 1.694 1.740 1994-2016 DTW 1.796 1.471 1.783 1.895 1.917 1.983 1994-2016 Rack 1.221 1.066 1.388 1.533 1.645 1.690 1994-2016 Bulk 1.307 1.074 1.377 1.514 1.602 1.619

  10. RAPID/Bulk Transmission | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Page Edit History RAPIDBulk Transmission < RAPID(Redirected from RAPIDOverviewBulkTransmission) Redirect page Jump to: navigation, search REDIRECT RAPIDBulkTransmission...

  11. Summary - Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) for...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    External Technical Review of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) for ... What the ETR Team Recommended Additional cold testing and demonstration is needed for ...

  12. Spacetime Average Density (SAD) cosmological measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, Don N.

    2014-11-01

    The measure problem of cosmology is how to obtain normalized probabilities of observations from the quantum state of the universe. This is particularly a problem when eternal inflation leads to a universe of unbounded size so that there are apparently infinitely many realizations or occurrences of observations of each of many different kinds or types, making the ratios ambiguous. There is also the danger of domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here two new Spacetime Average Density (SAD) measures are proposed, Maximal Average Density (MAD) and Biased Average Density (BAD), for getting a finite number of observation occurrences by using properties of the Spacetime Average Density (SAD) of observation occurrences to restrict to finite regions of spacetimes that have a preferred beginning or bounce hypersurface. These measures avoid Boltzmann brain domination and appear to give results consistent with other observations that are problematic for other widely used measures, such as the observation of a positive cosmological constant.

  13. Powder metallurgy processing and deformation characteristics of bulk multimodal nickel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farbaniec, L.; Dirras, G.; Krawczynska, A.; Mompiou, F.; Couque, H.; Naimi, F.; Bernard, F.; Tingaud, D.

    2014-08-15

    Spark plasma sintering was used to process bulk nickel samples from a blend of three powder types. The resulting multimodal microstructure was made of coarse (average size ? 135 ?m) spherical microcrystalline entities (the core) surrounded by a fine-grained matrix (average grain size ? 1.5 ?m) or a thick rim (the shell) distinguishable from the matrix. Tensile tests revealed yield strength of ? 470 MPa that was accompanied by limited ductility (? 2.8% plastic strain). Microstructure observation after testing showed debonding at interfaces between the matrix and the coarse entities, but in many instances, shallow dimples within the rim were observed indicating local ductile events in the shell. Dislocation emission and annihilation at grain boundaries and twinning at crack tip were the main deformation mechanisms taking place within the fine-grained matrix as revealed by in-situ transmission electron microscopy. Estimation of the stress from loop's curvature and dislocation pile-up indicates that dislocation emission from grain boundaries and grain boundary overcoming largely contributes to the flow stress. - Highlights: Bulk multi-modal Ni was processed by SPS from a powder blend. Ultrafine-grained matrix or rim observed around spherical microcrystalline entities Yield strength (470 MPa) and ductility (2.8% plastic strain) were measured. Debonding was found at the matrix/microcrystalline entity interfaces. In-situ TEM showed twinning, dislocation emission and annihilation at grain boundaries.

  14. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poelker, Matthew

    2013-11-01

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today's CEBAF polarized source operating at ~ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  15. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulation of the heave performance of a two-body floating-point absorber wave energy system Yi-Hsiang Yu, Ye Li ⇑ National Wind Technology Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO 80401, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 7 September 2011 Received in revised form 5 August 2012 Accepted 9 October 2012 Available online 17 October 2012 Keywords: Wave energy conversion Heave Computational Fluid Dynamics Reynolds-averaged

  16. STEO January 2013 - average gasoline prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    drivers to see lower average gasoline prices in 2013 and 2014 U.S. retail gasoline prices are expected to decline over the next two years. The average pump price for regular unleaded gasoline was $3.63 a gallon during 2012. That is expected to fall to $3.44 this year and then drop to $3.34 in 2014, according to the new forecast from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Expected lower crude oil prices.....which accounted for about two-thirds of the price of gasoline in 2012....will

  17. Recent Device Developments with Advanced Bulk Thermoelectric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and nano-bulk materials with high ZT undertaken by RTI in collaboration with its research partners venkatasubramanian.pdf (1.82 MB) More Documents & Publications Nano-structur...

  18. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Transmission Siting & Interconnection...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    federal review). Bulk Transmission Transmission Siting & Interconnection in New Mexico New Mexico Statutes (N.M.S.) 62-9-1, 62-9-3(B), and 62-9-3.2 No Location Permit may be...

  19. Imprinting bulk amorphous alloy at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Song-Yi; Park, Eun-Soo; Ott, Ryan T.; Lograsso, Thomas A.; Huh, Moo-Young; Kim, Do-Hyang; Eckert, Jürgen; Lee, Min-Ha

    2015-11-13

    We present investigations on the plastic deformation behavior of a brittle bulk amorphous alloy by simple uniaxial compressive loading at room temperature. A patterning is possible by cold-plastic forming of the typically brittle Hf-based bulk amorphous alloy through controlling homogenous flow without the need for thermal energy or shaping at elevated temperatures. The experimental evidence suggests that there is an inconsistency between macroscopic plasticity and deformability of an amorphous alloy. Moreover, imprinting of specific geometrical features on Cu foil and Zr-based metallic glass is represented by using the patterned bulk amorphous alloy as a die. These results demonstrate the ability of amorphous alloys or metallic glasses to precisely replicate patterning features onto both conventional metals and the other amorphous alloys. In conclusion, our work presents an avenue for avoiding the embrittlement of amorphous alloys associated with thermoplastic forming and yields new insight the forming application of bulk amorphous alloys at room temperature without using heat treatment.

  20. bulk power system | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dc(266) Contributor 31 October, 2014 - 10:58 What do you know about the grid? black out brown out bulk power system electricity grid future grid grid history security Smart Grid...

  1. HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BEN-ZVI, ILAN, DAYRAN, D.; LITVINENKO, V.

    2005-08-21

    Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department.

  2. Overview of Western's Interconnected Bulk Electric System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Western's Interconnected Bulk Electric System Western Area Power Admin. Objectives * Describe Western Area Power Administration Region and Facilities Overview * Explain Fundamentals of Electricity, Power Transformers and Transmission Lines * Discuss Overview of the Bulk Electric System (BES) * Objectives Review Western's Service Area Western marketing areas and offices 3 Wholesale Power Services * Markets 10,479 MW from 56 Federal hydropower projects owned by Bureau of Reclamation (BOR) , Army

  3. New applications for high average power beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neau, E.L.; Turman, B.N.; Patterson, E.L.

    1993-08-01

    The technology base formed by the development of high peak power simulators, laser drivers, FEL`s, and ICF drivers from the early 60`s through the late 80`s is being extended to high average power short-pulse machines with the capabilities of supporting new types of manufacturing processes and performing new roles in environmental cleanup applications. This paper discusses a process for identifying and developing possible commercial applications, specifically those requiring very high average power levels of hundreds of kilowatts to perhaps megawatts. The authors discuss specific technology requirements and give examples of application development efforts. The application development work is directed at areas that can possibly benefit from the high specific energies attainable with short pulse machines.

  4. Table HC1.2.4 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2.4 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2005" ,,,"Average Square Feet per Apartment in a --" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"2 to 4 Unit Building",,,"5 or More Unit Building" ,,"Apartments (millions)" "Living Space Characteristics",,,"Total","Heated","Cooled","Total","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,24.5,1090,902,341,872,780,441

  5. Table 1. Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal, By Year and Primary Transport Mode" "Year","Average Transportation Cost of Coal (Dollars per Ton)","Average Delivered Cost...

  6. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Exploration | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk Transmission Geothermal Hydropower Solar Tools Contribute Contact Us RAPID Bulk Transmission ...

  7. Regulatory Roadmap Workshop for Federal Bulk Transmission Regulations...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for bulk transmission. Date: Tuesday, 29 July, 2014 - 09:30 - 15:30 Location: NREL Education Center Auditorium Golden, Colorado Groups: Federal Bulk Transmission Regulatory...

  8. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Water Use | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RAPIDBulkTransmissionWater Use < RAPID | BulkTransmission Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk Transmission...

  9. ,"Finished Motor Gasoline Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Finished Motor Gasoline Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and ... "Date","U.S. Finished Motor Gasoline Stocks at Refineries, Bulk ...

  10. Design of Bulk Nanocomposites as High Efficiency Thermoelectric...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Design of Bulk Nanocomposites as High Efficiency Thermoelectric Materials Energy Frontier ... News & Events Publications History Contact BES Home 04.27.12 Design of Bulk Nanocomposites ...

  11. RAPID/BulkTransmission/General Construction | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RAPIDBulkTransmissionGeneral Construction < RAPID | BulkTransmission Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk...

  12. RAPID/Overview/BulkTransmission/Siting/Colorado | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colorado < RAPID | Overview | BulkTransmission | Siting(Redirected from RAPIDAtlasBulkTransmissionSitingColorado) Redirect page Jump to: navigation, search REDIRECT...

  13. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Land Use | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RAPIDBulkTransmissionLand Use < RAPID | BulkTransmission Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk Transmission...

  14. Linux Kernel Co-Scheduling For Bulk Synchronous Parallel Applications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Linux Kernel Co-Scheduling For Bulk Synchronous Parallel Applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Linux Kernel Co-Scheduling For Bulk Synchronous Parallel ...

  15. Material Profile Influences in Bulk-Heterojunctions (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Material Profile Influences in Bulk-Heterojunctions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Material Profile Influences in Bulk-Heterojunctions he morphology in mixed ...

  16. Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in Bulk Organic Electrolytes from First Principles Molecular Dynamics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic ...

  17. Stability analysis of 5D gravitational solutions with N bulk...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Stability analysis of 5D gravitational solutions with N bulk scalar fields Prev Next Title: Stability analysis of 5D gravitational solutions with N bulk scalar fields ...

  18. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RAPIDBulkTransmissionPower Plant < RAPID | BulkTransmission Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk...

  19. Bulk-memory processor for data acquisition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, R.O.; McMillan, D.E.; Sunier, J.W.; Meier, M.; Poore, R.V.

    1981-01-01

    To meet the diverse needs and data rate requirements at the Van de Graaff and Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facilities, a bulk memory system has been implemented which includes a fast and flexible processor. This bulk memory processor (BMP) utilizes bit slice and microcode techniques and features a 24 bit wide internal architecture allowing direct addressing of up to 16 megawords of memory and histogramming up to 16 million counts per channel without overflow. The BMP is interfaced to the MOSTEK MK 8000 bulk memory system and to the standard MODCOMP computer I/O bus. Coding for the BMP both at the microcode level and with macro instructions is supported. The generalized data acquisition system has been extended to support the BMP in a manner transparent to the user.

  20. Micro benchtop optics by bulk silicon micromachining

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Abraham P.; Pocha, Michael D.; McConaghy, Charles F.; Deri, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    Micromachining of bulk silicon utilizing the parallel etching characteristics of bulk silicon and integrating the parallel etch planes of silicon with silicon wafer bonding and impurity doping, enables the fabrication of on-chip optics with in situ aligned etched grooves for optical fibers, micro-lenses, photodiodes, and laser diodes. Other optical components that can be microfabricated and integrated include semi-transparent beam splitters, micro-optical scanners, pinholes, optical gratings, micro-optical filters, etc. Micromachining of bulk silicon utilizing the parallel etching characteristics thereof can be utilized to develop miniaturization of bio-instrumentation such as wavelength monitoring by fluorescence spectrometers, and other miniaturized optical systems such as Fabry-Perot interferometry for filtering of wavelengths, tunable cavity lasers, micro-holography modules, and wavelength splitters for optical communication systems.

  1. Orchestrating Bulk Data Movement in Grid Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vazhkudai, SS

    2005-01-25

    Data Grids provide a convenient environment for researchers to manage and access massively distributed bulk data by addressing several system and transfer challenges inherent to these environments. This work addresses issues involved in the efficient selection and access of replicated data in Grid environments in the context of the Globus Toolkit{trademark}, building middleware that (1) selects datasets in highly replicated environments, enabling efficient scheduling of data transfer requests; (2) predicts transfer times of bulk wide-area data transfers using extensive statistical analysis; and (3) co-allocates bulk data transfer requests, enabling parallel downloads from mirrored sites. These efforts have demonstrated a decentralized data scheduling architecture, a set of forecasting tools that predict bandwidth availability within 15% error and co-allocation architecture, and heuristics that expedites data downloads by up to 2 times.

  2. A Green's function quantum average atom model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Starrett, Charles Edward

    2015-05-21

    A quantum average atom model is reformulated using Green's functions. This allows integrals along the real energy axis to be deformed into the complex plane. The advantage being that sharp features such as resonances and bound states are broadened by a Lorentzian with a half-width chosen for numerical convenience. An implementation of this method therefore avoids numerically challenging resonance tracking and the search for weakly bound states, without changing the physical content or results of the model. A straightforward implementation results in up to a factor of 5 speed-up relative to an optimized orbital based code.

  3. Interaction of graphene quantum dots with bulk semiconductor surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohapatra, P. K.; Singh, B. P.; Kushavah, Dushyant; Mohapatra, J.

    2015-05-15

    Highly luminescent graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are synthesized through thermolysis of glucose. The average lateral size of the synthesized GQDs is found to be ?5 nm. The occurrence of D and G band at 1345 and 1580 cm{sup ?1} in Raman spectrum confirms the presence of graphene layers. GQDs are mostly consisting of 3 to 4 graphene layers as confirmed from the AFM measurements. Photoluminescence (PL) measurement shows a distinct broadening of the spectrum when GQDs are on the semiconducting bulk surface compared to GQDs in water. The time resolved PL measurement shows a significant shortening in PL lifetime due to the substrate interaction on GQDs compared to the GQDs in solution phase.

  4. Imprinting bulk amorphous alloy at room temperature

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, Song-Yi; Park, Eun-Soo; Ott, Ryan T.; Lograsso, Thomas A.; Huh, Moo-Young; Kim, Do-Hyang; Eckert, Jürgen; Lee, Min-Ha

    2015-11-13

    We present investigations on the plastic deformation behavior of a brittle bulk amorphous alloy by simple uniaxial compressive loading at room temperature. A patterning is possible by cold-plastic forming of the typically brittle Hf-based bulk amorphous alloy through controlling homogenous flow without the need for thermal energy or shaping at elevated temperatures. The experimental evidence suggests that there is an inconsistency between macroscopic plasticity and deformability of an amorphous alloy. Moreover, imprinting of specific geometrical features on Cu foil and Zr-based metallic glass is represented by using the patterned bulk amorphous alloy as a die. These results demonstrate the abilitymore » of amorphous alloys or metallic glasses to precisely replicate patterning features onto both conventional metals and the other amorphous alloys. In conclusion, our work presents an avenue for avoiding the embrittlement of amorphous alloys associated with thermoplastic forming and yields new insight the forming application of bulk amorphous alloys at room temperature without using heat treatment.« less

  5. A stereoscopic look into the bulk

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Czech, Bartlomiej; Lamprou, Lampros; McCandlish, Samuel; Mosk, Benjamin; Sully, James

    2016-07-26

    Here, we present the foundation for a holographic dictionary with depth perception. The dictionary consists of natural CFT operators whose duals are simple, diffeomorphisminvariant bulk operators. The CFT operators of interest are the “OPE blocks,” contributions to the OPE from a single conformal family. In holographic theories, we show that the OPE blocks are dual at leading order in 1/N to integrals of effective bulk fields along geodesics or homogeneous minimal surfaces in anti-de Sitter space. One widely studied example of an OPE block is the modular Hamiltonian, which is dual to the fluctuation in the area of a minimalmore » surface. Thus, our operators pave the way for generalizing the Ryu-Takayanagi relation to other bulk fields. Although the OPE blocks are non-local operators in the CFT, they admit a simple geometric description as fields in kinematic space — the space of pairs of CFT points. We develop the tools for constructing local bulk operators in terms of these non-local objects. The OPE blocks also allow for conceptually clean and technically simple derivations of many results known in the literature, including linearized Einstein’s equations and the relation between conformal blocks and geodesic Witten diagrams.« less

  6. Average M shell fluorescence yields for elements with 70≤Z≤92

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahoul, A.; Deghfel, B.; Aylikci, V.; Aylikci, N. K.; Nekkab, M.

    2015-03-30

    The theoretical, experimental and analytical methods for the calculation of average M-shell fluorescence yield (ω{sup ¯}{sub M}) of different elements are very important because of the large number of their applications in various areas of physical chemistry and medical research. In this paper, the bulk of the average M-shell fluorescence yield measurements reported in the literature, covering the period 1955 to 2005 are interpolated by using an analytical function to deduce the empirical average M-shell fluorescence yield in the atomic range of 70≤Z≤92. The results were compared with the theoretical and fitted values reported by other authors. Reasonable agreement was typically obtained between our result and other works.

  7. Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady, Ihab F.; McCormick, Frederick; Fleming, James G.; Fleming, legal representative, Carol

    2010-11-23

    A microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device comprises a periodic two-dimensional array of scatterers embedded within the matrix material membrane, wherein the scatterer material has a density and/or elastic constant that is different than the matrix material and wherein the periodicity of the array causes destructive interference of the acoustic wave within an acoustic bandgap. The membrane can be suspended above a substrate by an air or vacuum gap to provide acoustic isolation from the substrate. The device can be fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. Such microfabricated bulk wave phononic bandgap devices are useful for acoustic isolation in the ultrasonic, VHF, or UHF regime (i.e., frequencies of order 1 MHz to 10 GHz and higher, and lattice constants of order 100 .mu.m or less).

  8. Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady, Ihab F.; McCormick, Frederick; Fleming, James G.; Fleming, Carol

    2010-06-08

    A microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device comprises a periodic two-dimensional array of scatterers embedded within the matrix material membrane, wherein the scatterer material has a density and/or elastic constant that is different than the matrix material and wherein the periodicity of the array causes destructive interference of the acoustic wave within an acoustic bandgap. The membrane can be suspended above a substrate by an air or vacuum gap to provide acoustic isolation from the substrate. The device can be fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. Such microfabricated bulk wave phononic bandgap devices are useful for acoustic isolation in the ultrasonic, VHF, or UHF regime (i.e., frequencies of order 1 MHz to 10 GHz and higher, and lattice constants of order 100 .mu.m or less).

  9. Structural rejuvenation in bulk metallic glasses

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tong, Yang; Iwashita, T.; Dmowski, Wojciech; Bei, Hongbin; Yokoyama, Y.; Egami, Takeshi

    2015-01-05

    Using high-energy X-ray diffraction we study structural changes in bulk metallic glasses after uniaxial compressive homogeneous deformation at temperatures slightly below the glass transition. We observe that deformation results in structural disordering corresponding to an increase in the fictive, or effective, temperature. However, the structural disordering saturates after yielding. Lastly, examination of the experimental structure and molecular dynamics simulation suggests that local changes in the atomic connectivity network are the main driving force of the structural rejuvenation.

  10. DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM (DBVS) EXTERNAL REVIEW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HONEYMAN, J.O.

    2007-02-08

    The Hanford mission to retrieve and immobilize 53 million gallons of radioactive waste from 177 underground storage tanks will be accomplished using a combination of processing by the waste treatment plant currently under construction, and a supplemental treatment that would process low-activity waste. Under consideration for this treatment is bulk vitrification, a versatile joule-heated melter technology which could be deployed in the tank farms. The Department proposes to demonstrate this technology under a Research, Development and Demonstration (RD and D) permit issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology using both non-radioactive simulant and blends of actual tank waste. From the demonstration program, data would be obtained on cost and technical performance to enable a decision on the potential use of bulk vitrification as the supplemental treatment technology for Hanford. An independent review by sixteen subject matter experts was conducted to assure that the technical basis of the demonstration facility design would be adequate to meet the objectives of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) program. This review explored all aspects of the program, including flowsheet chemistry, project risk, vitrification, equipment design and nuclear safety, and was carried out at a time when issues can be identified and corrected. This paper describes the mission need, review approach, technical recommendations and follow-on activities for the DBVS program.

  11. Hydrogen isotope separation utilizing bulk getters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knize, Randall J. (Los Angeles, CA); Cecchi, Joseph L. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1990-01-01

    Tritium and deuterium are separated from a gaseous mixture thereof, derived from a nuclear fusion reactor or some other source, by providing a casing with a bulk getter therein for absorbing the gaseous mixture to produce an initial loading of the getter, partially desorbing the getter to produce a desorbed mixture which is tritium-enriched, pumping the desorbed mixture into a separate container, the remaining gaseous loading in the getter being deuterium-enriched, desorbing the getter to a substantially greater extent to produce a deuterium-enriched gaseous mixture, and removing the deuterium-enriched mixture into another container. The bulk getter may comprise a zirconium-aluminum alloy, or a zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy. The partial desorption may reduce the loading by approximately fifty percent. The basic procedure may be extended to produce a multistage isotope separator, including at least one additional bulk getter into which the tritium-enriched mixture is absorbed. The second getter is then partially desorbed to produce a desorbed mixture which is further tritium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed from the container for the second getter, which is then desorbed to a substantially greater extent to produce a desorbed mixture which is deuterium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed so that the cycle can be continued and repeated. The method of isotope separation is also applicable to other hydrogen isotopes, in that the method can be employed for separating either deuterium or tritium from normal hydrogen.

  12. Hydrogen isotope separation utilizing bulk getters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knize, Randall J. (Los Angeles, CA); Cecchi, Joseph L. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1991-01-01

    Tritium and deuterium are separated from a gaseous mixture thereof, derived from a nuclear fusion reactor or some other source, by providing a casing with a bulk getter therein for absorbing the gaseous mixture to produce an initial loading of the getter, partially desorbing the getter to produce a desorbed mixture which is tritium-enriched, pumping the desorbed mixture into a separate container, the remaining gaseous loading in the getter being deuterium-enriched, desorbing the getter to a substantially greater extent to produce a deuterium-enriched gaseous mixture, and removing the deuterium-enriched mixture into another container. The bulk getter may comprise a zirconium-aluminum alloy, or a zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy. The partial desorption may reduce the loading by approximately fifty percent. The basic procedure may be extended to produce a multistage isotope separator, including at least one additional bulk getter into which the tritium-enriched mixture is absorbed. The second getter is then partially desorbed to produce a desorbed mixture which is further tritium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed from the container for the second getter, which is then desorbed to a substantially greater extent to produce a desorbed mixture which is deuterium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed so that the cycle can be continued and repeated. The method of isotope separation is also applicable to other hydrogen isotopes, in that the method can be employed for separating either deuterium or tritium from normal hydrogen.

  13. Hydrogen isotope separation utilizing bulk getters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knize, R.J.; Cecchi, J.L.

    1991-08-20

    Tritium and deuterium are separated from a gaseous mixture thereof, derived from a nuclear fusion reactor or some other source, by providing a casing with a bulk getter therein for absorbing the gaseous mixture to produce an initial loading of the getter, partially desorbing the getter to produce a desorbed mixture which is tritium-enriched, pumping the desorbed mixture into a separate container, the remaining gaseous loading in the getter being deuterium-enriched, desorbing the getter to a substantially greater extent to produce a deuterium-enriched gaseous mixture, and removing the deuterium-enriched mixture into another container. The bulk getter may comprise a zirconium-aluminum alloy, or a zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy. The partial desorption may reduce the loading by approximately fifty percent. The basic procedure may be extended to produce a multistage isotope separator, including at least one additional bulk getter into which the tritium-enriched mixture is absorbed. The second getter is then partially desorbed to produce a desorbed mixture which is further tritium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed from the container for the second getter, which is then desorbed to a substantially greater extent to produce a desorbed mixture which is deuterium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed so that the cycle can be continued and repeated. The method of isotope separation is also applicable to other hydrogen isotopes, in that the method can be employed for separating either deuterium or tritium from normal hydrogen. 4 figures.

  14. Table 7.1 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: All Energy Sources Collected;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components" ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components"

  15. Fact #624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Years 2012-2016 | Department of Energy 4: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Model Years 2012-2016 Fact #624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Model Years 2012-2016 The final rule for the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards was published in March 2010. Under this rule, each light vehicle model produced for sale in the United States will have a fuel economy target based on its footprint. A vehicle's footprint is defined as the wheelbase

  16. Annual average efficiency of a solar thermochemical reactor....

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Annual average efficiency of a solar thermochemical reactor. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Annual average efficiency of a solar thermochemical reactor. Abstract not ...

  17. ARM: Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 60-min averaging...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ARM: Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 60-min averaging interval Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 60-min averaging ...

  18. ARM: Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 10-min averaging...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 10-min averaging interval Title: ARM: Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 10-min averaging interval Temperature Profiles from Raman ...

  19. ARM: AOS Wet Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages (Dataset) | Data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: ARM: AOS Wet Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages AOS Wet Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages Authors: Scott Smith ; Cynthia Salwen ; Janek Uin ; Gunnar Senum ; Stephen Springston ; ...

  20. ARM: AOS Dry Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages (Dataset) | Data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: ARM: AOS Dry Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages AOS Dry Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages Authors: Scott Smith ; Cynthia Salwen ; Janek Uin ; Gunnar Senum ; Stephen Springston ; ...

  1. High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for...

  2. United States- Land Based and Offshore Annual Average Wind Speed at 100 Meters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Full-size, high resolution version of the 100-meter land-based and offshore wind speed resource map.

  3. United States Wind Resource Map: Annual Average Wind Speed at 80 Meters

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    80 m 01-APR-2011 2.1.1 Wind Speed m/s >10.5 10.0 9.5 9.0 8.5 8.0 7.5 7.0 6.5 6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0 < 4.0 Source: Wind resource estimates developed by AWS Truepower, LLC for windNavigator . Web: http://www.windnavigator.com | http://www.awstruepower.com. Spatial resolution of wind resource data: 2.5 km. Projection: Albers Equal Area WGS84. ¶

  4. "Table HC1.1.3 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...661,1383,1037,488,866,722,367 "Year of Construction" "Before 1940",14.7,10.9,2855,1878,663... "Major Outside Wall Construction" "Siding (Aluminum, Vinyl, ...

  5. Improving the bulk data transfer experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guok, Chin; Guok, Chin; Lee, Jason R.; Berket, Karlo

    2008-05-07

    Scientific computations and collaborations increasingly rely on the network to provide high-speed data transfer, dissemination of results, access to instruments, support for computational steering, etc. The Energy Sciences Network is establishing a science data network to provide user driven bandwidth allocation. In a shared network environment, some reservations may not be granted due to the lack of available bandwidth on any single path. In many cases, the available bandwidth across multiple paths would be sufficient to grant the reservation. In this paper we investigate how to utilize the available bandwidth across multiple paths in the case of bulk data transfer.

  6. Towards bulk based preconditioning for quantum dotcomputations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dongarra, Jack; Langou, Julien; Tomov, Stanimire; Channing,Andrew; Marques, Osni; Vomel, Christof; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2006-05-25

    This article describes how to accelerate the convergence of Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) type eigensolvers for the computation of several states around the band gap of colloidal quantum dots. Our new approach uses the Hamiltonian from the bulk materials constituent for the quantum dot to design an efficient preconditioner for the folded spectrum PCG method. The technique described shows promising results when applied to CdSe quantum dot model problems. We show a decrease in the number of iteration steps by at least a factor of 4 compared to the previously used diagonal preconditioner.

  7. Active neutron multiplicity counting of bulk uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ensslin, N.; Krick, M.S.; Langner, D.G.; Miller, M.C. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a new nondestructive assay technique being developed to assay bulk uranium containing kilogram quantities of {sup 235}U. The new technique uses neutron multiplicity analysis of data collected with a coincidence counter outfitted with AmLi neutron sources. The authors have calculated the expected neutron multiplicity count rate and assay precision for this technique and will report on its expected performance as a function of detector design characteristics, {sup 235}U sample mass, AmLi source strength, and source-to-sample coupling.

  8. Boundary Entropy Can Increase Under Bulk RG Flow (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Boundary Entropy Can Increase Under Bulk RG Flow Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Boundary Entropy Can Increase Under Bulk RG Flow The boundary entropy log(g) of a critical ...

  9. Boundary Entropy Can Increase Under Bulk RG Flow (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Boundary Entropy Can Increase Under Bulk RG Flow Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Boundary Entropy Can Increase Under Bulk RG Flow You are accessing a document from ...

  10. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M.; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2016-01-21

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials’ responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)1–x). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times duemore » to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. Lastly, this opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition.« less

  11. Negative ion extraction from hydrogen plasma bulk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oudini, N.; Taccogna, F.; Minelli, P.

    2013-10-15

    A two-dimensional particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collision model has been developed and used to study low electronegative magnetized hydrogen plasma. A configuration characterized by four electrodes is used: the left electrode is biased at V{sub l} = −100 V, the right electrode is grounded, while the upper and lower transversal electrodes are biased at an intermediate voltage V{sub ud} between 0 and −100 V. A constant and homogeneous magnetic field is applied parallel to the lateral (left/right) electrodes. It is shown that in the magnetized case, the bulk plasma potential is close to the transversal electrodes bias inducing then a reversed sheath in front of the right electrode. The potential drop within the reversed sheath is controlled by the transversal electrodes bias allowing extraction of negative ions with a significant reduction of co-extracted electron current. Furthermore, introducing plasma electrodes, between the transversal electrodes and the right electrode, biased with a voltage just above the plasma bulk potential, increases the negative ion extracted current and decreases significantly the co-extracted electron current. The physical mechanism on basis of this phenomenon has been discussed.

  12. Summary - Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) for Low-Actvity Waste at Hanford

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    DBVS ETR Report Date: September 2006 ETR-3 United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) External Technical Review of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) for Low Activity Waste (LAW) at Hanford Why DOE-EM Did This Review The Department of Energy (DOE) is charged with the safe retrieval, treatment and disposal of 53 million gallons of Hanford radioactive waste. The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is being designed to treat and vitrify the High Level

  13. Impact of Improved Solar Forecasts on Bulk Power System Operations in ISO-NE (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brancucci Martinez-Anido, C.; Florita, A.; Hodge, B.M.

    2014-11-01

    The diurnal nature of solar power is made uncertain by variable cloud cover and the influence of atmospheric conditions on irradiance scattering processes. Its forecasting has become increasingly important to the unit commitment and dispatch process for efficient scheduling of generators in power system operations. This presentation is an overview of a study that examines the value of improved solar forecasts on Bulk Power System Operations.

  14. Organic hybrid planar-nanocrystalline bulk heterojunctions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Yang, Fan

    2011-03-01

    A photosensitive optoelectronic device having an improved hybrid planar bulk heterojunction includes a plurality of photoconductive materials disposed between the anode and the cathode. The photoconductive materials include a first continuous layer of donor material and a second continuous layer of acceptor material. A first network of donor material or materials extends from the first continuous layer toward the second continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of holes to the first continuous layer. A second network of acceptor material or materials extends from the second continuous layer toward the first continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of electrons to the second continuous layer. The first network and the second network are interlaced with each other. At least one other photoconductive material is interspersed between the interlaced networks. This other photoconductive material or materials has an absorption spectra different from the donor and acceptor materials.

  15. Organic hybrid planar-nanocrystalline bulk heterojunctions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Yang, Fan

    2013-04-09

    A photosensitive optoelectronic device having an improved hybrid planar bulk heterojunction includes a plurality of photoconductive materials disposed between the anode and the cathode. The photoconductive materials include a first continuous layer of donor material and a second continuous layer of acceptor material. A first network of donor material or materials extends from the first continuous layer toward the second continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of holes to the first continuous layer. A second network of acceptor material or materials extends from the second continuous layer toward the first continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of electrons to the second continuous layer. The first network and the second network are interlaced with each other. At least one other photoconductive material is interspersed between the interlaced networks. This other photoconductive material or materials has an absorption spectra different from the donor and acceptor materials.

  16. Rotary adsorbers for continuous bulk separations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Frederick S.

    2011-11-08

    A rotary adsorber for continuous bulk separations is disclosed. The rotary adsorber includes an adsorption zone in fluid communication with an influent adsorption fluid stream, and a desorption zone in fluid communication with a desorption fluid stream. The fluid streams may be gas streams or liquid streams. The rotary adsorber includes one or more adsorption blocks including adsorbent structure(s). The adsorbent structure adsorbs the target species that is to be separated from the influent fluid stream. The apparatus includes a rotary wheel for moving each adsorption block through the adsorption zone and the desorption zone. A desorption circuit passes an electrical current through the adsorbent structure in the desorption zone to desorb the species from the adsorbent structure. The adsorbent structure may include porous activated carbon fibers aligned with their longitudinal axis essentially parallel to the flow direction of the desorption fluid stream. The adsorbent structure may be an inherently electrically-conductive honeycomb structure.

  17. Bulk amorphous steels based on Fe alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, ZhaoPing; Liu, Chain T.

    2006-05-30

    A bulk amorphous alloy has the approximate composition: Fe.sub.(100-a-b-c-d-e)Y.sub.aMn.sub.bT.sub.cM.sub.dX.sub.e wherein: T includes at least one of the group consisting of: Ni, Cu, Cr and Co; M includes at least one of the group consisting of W, Mo, Nb, Ta, Al and Ti; X includes at least one of the group consisting of Co, Ni and Cr; a is an atomic percentage, and a<5; b is an atomic percentage, and b.ltoreq.25; c is an atomic percentage, and c.ltoreq.25; d is an atomic percentage, and d.ltoreq.25; and e is an atomic percentage, and 5.ltoreq.e.ltoreq.30.

  18. DEPLOYMENT OF THE BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanton, P.

    2013-10-10

    A new Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP) was designed by the Savannah River National Laboratory to be a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The BTSP was certified by the National Nuclear Safety Administration in 2011 for shipments of up to 150 grams of Tritium. Thirty packages were procured and are being delivered to various DOE sites for operational use. This paper summarizes the design features of the BTSP, as well as associated engineered material improvements. Fabrication challenges encountered during production are discussed as well as fielding requirements. Current approved tritium content forms (gas and tritium hydrides), are reviewed, as well as, a new content, tritium contaminated water on molecular sieves. Issues associated with gas generation will also be discussed.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF THE BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2008-09-14

    A new radioactive shipping packaging for transporting bulk quantities of tritium, the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP), has been designed for the Department of Energy (DOE) as a replacement for a package designed in the early 1970s. This paper summarizes significant design features and describes how the design satisfies the regulatory safety requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations and the International Atomic Energy Agency. The BTSP design incorporates many improvements over its predecessor by implementing improved testing, handling, and maintenance capabilities, while improving manufacturability and incorporating new engineered materials. This paper also discusses the results from testing of the BTSP to 10 CFR 71 Normal Conditions of Transport and Hypothetical Accident Condition events. The programmatic need of the Department of Energy (DOE) to ship bulk quantities of tritium has been satisfied since the late 1970s by the UC-609 shipping package. The current Certificate of Conformance for the UC-609, USA/9932/B(U) (DOE), will expire in late 2011. Since the UC-609 was not designed to meet current regulatory requirements, it will not be recertified and thereby necessitates a replacement Type B shipping package for continued DOE tritium shipments in the future. A replacement tritium packaging called the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP) is currently being designed and tested by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The BTSP consists of two primary assemblies, an outer Drum Assembly and an inner Containment Vessel Assembly (CV), both designed to mitigate damage and to protect the tritium contents from leaking during the regulatory Hypothetical Accident Condition (HAC) events and during Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT). During transport, the CV rests on a silicone pad within the Drum Liner and is covered with a thermal insulating disk within the insulated Drum Assembly. The BTSP packaging weighs approximately 500 lbs without contents and is 50

  20. Fact #889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years Fact 889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First ...

  1. Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51%...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014 Fact 849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better ...

  2. Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    35: Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 fotw835web.xlsx (21.31 KB) More Documents & Publications Fact 915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, ...

  3. Fact #693: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    It is calculated as the product of the wheelbase and the average track width of the vehicle. The upcoming Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards have fuel economy targets ...

  4. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Fact 870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Excel file and ...

  5. United States

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EA- 3 14 Order Authorizing Electricity Exports to Mexico Order No. EA-3 14 February ... to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico as a power marketer. ...

  6. United States

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Office of Research and EPA 600/R-941209 Environmental Protection Development January 1993 Agency Washington, DC 20460 Offsite Environmental 57,,7 Monitoring Report Radiation Monitoring Around United States Nuclear Test Areas, Calendar Year 1992 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING SYSTEMS LABORATORY-LAS VEGAS P.O. BOX 93478 LAS VEGAS. NEVADA 891 93-3478 702/798-2100 Dear Reader: Since 1954, the U.S. Environmental Protection

  7. Material Profile Influences in Bulk-Heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roehling, John D.; Rochester, Christopher W.; Ro, Hyun W.; Wang, Peng; Majewski, Jaroslaw; Batenburg, Kees J.; Arslan, Ilke; Delongchamp, Dean M.; Moule, Adam J.

    2014-10-01

    he morphology in mixed bulk-heterojunction films are compared using three different quantitative measurement techniques. We compare the vertical composition changes using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy with electron tomography and neutron and x-ray reflectometry. The three measurement techniques yield qualita-tively comparable vertical concentration measurements. The presence of a metal cathode during thermal annealing is observed to alter the fullerene concentration throughout the thickness of the film for all measurements. However, the abso-lute vertical concentration of fullerene is quantitatively different for the three measurements. The origin of the quantitative measurement differences is discussed. The authors thank Luna Innovations, Inc. for donating the endohedral fullerenes used in this study and Plextronics for the P3HT. They are gratefully thank the National Science Foundation Energy for Sustainability Program, Award No. 0933435. This work benefited from the use of the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center funded by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Los Alamos National Laboratory under DOE Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396. This research was also supported in part by Laboratory Directed Research & Development program at PNNL. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-76RL01830.

  8. Determination of Bulk Dimensional Variation in Castings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. James F. Cuttino Dr. Edward P. Morse

    2005-04-14

    The purpose of this work is to improve the efficiency of green sand foundries so that they may continue to compete as the most cost-effective method of fabrication while meeting tightening constraints on near-net shape manufacturing. In order to achieve this objective, the study is divided into two major components. The first component concentrated on identifying which processes control surface finish on the castings and which provide potential reductions in variations. The second component identified metrological methods that effectively discern between the geometry of bulk material versus surface finish in order to more accurately determine the quality of a part. The research resulted in the determination of an empirical relationship relating pouring parameters to dimensional variation, with an R2 value of greater than 0.79. A significant difference in variations obtained from vertical vs. horizontal molding machines was also noticed. When analyzed separately, however, the resulting empirical relationships for horizontal and vertical machines had reduced R2 values, probably due to the reduced data sets. Significant parameters when considering vertical and horizontal molding machines together included surface roughness, pattern type, iron type, pouring rate, copper content, amount of Western Bentonite, and permeability.

  9. Excitonic exchange splitting in bulk semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, H.; Wang, L.; Zunger, A.

    1999-02-01

    We present an approach to calculate the excitonic fine-structure splittings due to electron-hole short-range exchange interactions using the local-density approximation pseudopotential method, and apply it to bulk semiconductors CdSe, InP, GaAs, and InAs. Comparing with previous theoretical results, the current calculated splittings agree well with experiments. Furthermore, we provide an approximate relationship between the short-range exchange splitting and the exciton Bohr radius, which can be used to estimate the exchange splitting for other materials. The current calculation indicates that a commonly used formula for exchange splitting in quantum dot is not valid. Finally, we find a very large pressure dependence of the exchange splitting: a factor of 4.5 increase as the lattice constant changes by 3.5{percent}. This increase is mainly due to the decrease of the Bohr radius via the change of electron effective mass. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  10. Thermodynamic properties of bulk and confined water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mallamace, Francesco; Corsaro, Carmelo; Mallamace, Domenico; Vasi, Sebastiano; Vasi, Cirino; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2014-11-14

    The thermodynamic response functions of water display anomalous behaviors. We study these anomalous behaviors in bulk and confined water. We use nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to examine the configurational specific heat and the transport parameters in both the thermal stable and the metastable supercooled phases. The data we obtain suggest that there is a behavior common to both phases: that the dynamics of water exhibit two singular temperatures belonging to the supercooled and the stable phase, respectively. One is the dynamic fragile-to-strong crossover temperature (T{sub L} ? 225K). The second, T{sup *} ? 315 5K, is a special locus of the isothermal compressibility K{sub T}(T, P) and the thermal expansion coefficient ?{sub P}(T, P) in the PT plane. In the case of water confined inside a protein, we observe that these two temperatures mark, respectively, the onset of protein flexibility from its low temperature glass state (T{sub L}) and the onset of the unfolding process (T{sup *})

  11. "Table E8.1. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units." " ",," "," ",," "," " ,,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"RSE" "Economic","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel

  12. ARM - Campaign Instrument - ec-convair580-bulk

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsec-convair580-bulk Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Environment Canada Convair 580 Bulk Parameters (EC-CONVAIR580-BULK) Instrument Categories Aerosols, Airborne Observations, Cloud Properties Campaigns Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) [ Download Data ] North Slope Alaska, 2008.04.01 - 2008.04.30 Primary Measurements Taken The following measurements are those considered

  13. Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes from First Principles and Classical Reactive Molecular Dynamics Authors: Ong, M T ; Verners, O ; Draeger, E ...

  14. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Hawaii | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    information about BulkTransmission in Hawaii. Use the Edit with form button to editupdate. Planning Organizations not provided Hawaii Owners not provided Current Projects not...

  15. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Alaska | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    information about BulkTransmission in Alaska. Use the Edit with form button to editupdate. Planning Organizations not provided Alaska Owners not provided Current Projects not...

  16. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Texas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    information about BulkTransmission in Texas. Use the Edit with form button to editupdate. Planning Organizations not provided Texas Owners not provided Current Projects not...

  17. Investigation of Interfacial and Bulk Dissociation of HBr, HCl...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Investigation of Interfacial and Bulk Dissociation of HBr, HCl, and HNO3 Using Density Functional Theory-Based Molecular Dynamics Simulations Citation Details In-Document Search...

  18. Category:Bulk Transmission Regulatory Roadmap Sections | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Login | Sign Up Search Category Edit History Category:Bulk Transmission Regulatory Roadmap Sections Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png Looking for the RAPIDRoadmap?...

  19. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Colorado | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Regional Entity responsible for coordinating and promoting Bulk Electric System reliability in the Western Interconnection, including in Colorado. In addition, WECC provides...

  20. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Idaho | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Regional Entity responsible for coordinating and promoting Bulk Electric System reliability in the Western Interconnection, including in Idaho. In addition, WECC provides an...

  1. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Washington | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Regional Entity responsible for coordinating and promoting Bulk Electric System reliability in the Western Interconnection, including in Washington. In addition, WECC provides...

  2. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Nevada | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Regional Entity responsible for coordinating and promoting Bulk Electric System reliability in the Western Interconnection, including in Nevada. WECC also provides an...

  3. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Arizona | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Regional Entity responsible for coordinating and promoting Bulk Electric System reliability in the Western Interconnection, including Arizona. WECC also provides an...

  4. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Oregon | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Regional Entity responsible for coordinating and promoting Bulk Electric System reliability in the Western Interconnection, including Oregon. WECC also provides an environment...

  5. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Environment | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Policy Act (HEPA) Hawaii Department of Health Office of Environmental Quality Control Bulk Transmission Environment in Idaho Varies by local municipality Varies by...

  6. Economic manufacturing of bulk metallic glass compositions by microalloying

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Chain T.

    2003-05-13

    A method of making a bulk metallic glass composition includes the steps of:a. providing a starting material suitable for making a bulk metallic glass composition, for example, BAM-11; b. adding at least one impurity-mitigating dopant, for example, Pb, Si, B, Sn, P, to the starting material to form a doped starting material; and c. converting the doped starting material to a bulk metallic glass composition so that the impurity-mitigating dopant reacts with impurities in the starting material to neutralize deleterious effects of the impurities on the formation of the bulk metallic glass composition.

  7. Light-Emitting Diodes on Semipolar Bulk Gallium Nitride Substrate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project is producing high-efficiency semipolar light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on low-defect bulk gallium nitride (GaN) substrates.

  8. ,"Finished Motor Gasoline Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Natural Gas Plants (Thousand Barrels)","East Coast (PADD 1) Finished Motor Gasoline Stocks at Refineries, Bulk Terminals, and Natural Gas Plants (Thousand ...

  9. RAPID/BulkTransmission/About | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Current Topics in Bulk Transmission West-Wide Energy Corridor Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement The West-Wide Energy Corridor Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement...

  10. Federal Bulk Transmission Regulatory Roadmapping | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Federal Bulk Transmission Regulatory Roadmapping Home > Features > Groups Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Content type Blog entry Discussion Document Event Poll...

  11. Enhancing covalent mechanochemistry in bulk polymers using electrospun...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Enhancing covalent mechanochemistry in bulk polymers using electrospun ABA triblock copolymers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Enhancing covalent mechanochemistry in ...

  12. High-Quality, Low-Cost Bulk Gallium Nitride Substrates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    achieving GaN bulk growth without the limitations of tradi- tional crystal growth methods. ... MEMC technology transfer and marketing staff are coordinating with the research team to ...

  13. Strategies for High Thermoelectric zT in Bulk Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Zintl principle in chemistry, complex electronic band structures, and incorporation of nanometer sized particles were used to explore, optimize and improve bulk thermoelectric materials

  14. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Site Considerations | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and comparison for Bulk Transmission Site Considerations across various states. To learn more detailed information about Site Considerations in a state, click on the...

  15. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Federal | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk Transmission Geothermal Hydropower Solar Tools Contribute Contact Us Regulatory Information Overviews Search for other...

  16. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Land Access | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RAPIDBulkTransmissionLand Access < RAPID | BulkTransmission(Redirected from RAPIDBulkTransmissionLeasing) Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting...

  17. Recent Device Developments with Advanced Bulk Thermoelectric Materials at RTI

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reviews work in engineered thin-film nanoscale thermoelectric materials and nano-bulk materials with high ZT undertaken by RTI in collaboration with its research partners

  18. High Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents high heat flux thermoelectric module design for cooling using a novel V-shaped shunt configuration with bulk TE elements achieving high area packing fractions

  19. Ensuring a Reliable Bulk Electric System | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC): Ensuring a Reliable Bulk Electric System Cooling Tower Report, October 2008 Transmission Constraints and Congestion in the Western...

  20. Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Automotive Waste Heat Recovery ...

  1. The Best of Both Worlds: Bulk Diamond Properties Realized at...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a level of crystallographic and electronic ordering in purified HPHT nanodiamonds that matches fundamental properties of bulk diamond to the nanoscale while retaining its...

  2. "Table A25. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census" " Region, Industry Group, and Selected Industries, 1991: Part 1" " (Estimates in Dollars per Physical Unit)" ,,,,," " " "," "," ","Residual","Distillate","Natural Gas(c)"," "," ","RSE" "SIC"," ","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel

  3. "Table A47. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas" " by Type of Supplier, Census Region, Industry Group, and Selected Industries," 1991 " (Estimates in Dollars per Physical Units)" ,," Electricity",," Steam",," Natural Gas" ,," (million kWh)",," (Billion BTU)",," (1000 cu ft)" ,"

  4. "Table E8.2. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu." " ",," "," ",," "," ","RSE" "Economic",,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Row"

  5. Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; " " Column: All Energy Sources Collected;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components" ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components"

  6. Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu. Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components Coal Components Coke Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Total Wood Residues Bituminous Electricity Diesel Fuel Motor Natural Gas Steam and Wood-Related and Electricity from Sources and Gasoline Pulping Liquor Natural Gas from Sources Steam

  7. Table N8.2. Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 1998

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected","Wood and Other","Biomass","Components" ,,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,"Electricity","Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural

  8. WHAT GOVERNS THE BULK VELOCITY OF THE JET COMPONENTS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chai Bo; Cao Xinwu; Gu Minfeng E-mail: cxw@shao.ac.cn

    2012-11-10

    We use a sample of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with measured black hole masses to explore the jet formation mechanisms in these sources. Based on Koenigl's inhomogeneous jet model, the jet parameters, such as the bulk motion Lorentz factor, magnetic field strength, and electron density in the jet, can be estimated with the very long baseline interferometry and X-ray data.. We find a significant correlation between black hole mass and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components for this sample, while no significant correlation is present between the bulk Lorentz factor and the Eddington ratio. The massive black holes will be spun up through accretion, as the black holes acquire mass and angular momentum simultaneously through accretion. Recent investigation indeed suggested that most supermassive black holes in elliptical galaxies have on average higher spins than the black holes in spiral galaxies, where random, small accretion episodes (e.g., tidally disrupted stars, accretion of molecular clouds) might have played a more important role. If this is true, then the correlation between black hole mass and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components found in this work implies that the motion velocity of the jet components is probably governed by the black hole spin. No correlation is found between the magnetic field strength at 10R {sub S} (R {sub S} = 2GM/c {sup 2} is the Schwarzschild radius) in the jets and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components for this sample. This is consistent with the black hole spin scenario, i.e., the faster moving jets are magnetically accelerated by the magnetic fields threading the horizon of more rapidly rotating black holes. The results imply that the Blandford-Znajek mechanism may dominate over the Blandford-Payne mechanism for the jet acceleration, at least in these radio-loud AGNs.

  9. Bulk Vitrification Castable Refractory Block Protection Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Beck, Andrew E.; Brouns, Thomas M.; Caldwell, Dustin D.; Elliott, Michael L.; Matyas, Josef; Minister, Kevin BC; Schweiger, Michael J.; Strachan, Denis M.; Tinsley, Bronnie P.; Hollenberg, Glenn W.

    2005-05-01

    Bulk vitrification (BV) was selected for a pilot-scale test and demonstration facility for supplemental treatment to accelerate the cleanup of low-activity waste (LAW) at the Hanford U.S. DOE Site. During engineering-scale (ES) tests, a small fraction of radioactive Tc (and Re, its nonradioactive surrogate) were transferred out of the LAW glass feed and molten LAW glass, and deposited on the surface and within the pores of the castable refractory block (CRB). Laboratory experiments were undertaken to understand the mechanisms of the transport Tc/Re into the CRB during vitrification and to evaluate various means of CRB protection against the deposition of leachable Tc/Re. The tests used Re as a chemical surrogate for Tc. The tests with the baseline CRB showed that the molten LAW penetrates into CRB pores before it converts to glass, leaving deposits of sulfates and chlorides when the nitrate components decompose. Na2O from the LAW reacts with the CRB to create a durable glass phase that may contain Tc/Re. Limited data from a single CRB sample taken from an ES experiment indicate that, while a fraction of Tc/Re is present in the CRB in a readily leachable form, most of the Tc/Re deposited in the refractory is retained in the form of a durable glass phase. In addition, the molten salts from the LAW, mainly sulfates, chlorides, and nitrates, begin to evaporate from BV feeds at temperatures below 800 C and condense on solid surfaces at temperatures below 530 C. Three approaches aimed at reducing or preventing the deposition of soluble Tc/Re within the CRB were proposed: metal lining, sealing the CRB surface with a glaze, and lining the CRB with ceramic tiles. Metal liners were deemed unsuitable because evaluations showed that they can cause unacceptable distortions of the electric field in the BV system. Sodium silicate and a low-alkali borosilicate glaze were selected for testing. The glazes slowed down molten salt condensate penetration, but did little to reduce the

  10. Silicon bulk micromachined hybrid dimensional artifact.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claudet, Andre A.; Tran, Hy D.; Bauer, Todd Marks; Shilling, Katherine Meghan; Oliver, Andrew David

    2010-03-01

    A mesoscale dimensional artifact based on silicon bulk micromachining fabrication has been developed and manufactured with the intention of evaluating the artifact both on a high precision coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and video-probe based measuring systems. This hybrid artifact has features that can be located by both a touch probe and a video probe system with a k=2 uncertainty of 0.4 {micro}m, more than twice as good as a glass reference artifact. We also present evidence that this uncertainty could be lowered to as little as 50 nm (k=2). While video-probe based systems are commonly used to inspect mesoscale mechanical components, a video-probe system's certified accuracy is generally much worse than its repeatability. To solve this problem, an artifact has been developed which can be calibrated using a commercially available high-accuracy tactile system and then be used to calibrate typical production vision-based measurement systems. This allows for error mapping to a higher degree of accuracy than is possible with a glass reference artifact. Details of the designed features and manufacturing process of the hybrid dimensional artifact are given and a comparison of the designed features to the measured features of the manufactured artifact is presented and discussed. Measurement results from vision and touch probe systems are compared and evaluated to determine the capability of the manufactured artifact to serve as a calibration tool for video-probe systems. An uncertainty analysis for calibration of the artifact using a CMM is presented.

  11. High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications Authors: Rao T. ; Ben-Zvi I. ; Skarita, J. ; Wang, E. Publication Date: 2013-08-26 OSTI Identifier: ...

  12. Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination Authors: Carroll, James 1 ; Monteith, Kristine 2 ; Seppi, Kevin 2 ; Martinez, Tony 2 + Show Author ...

  13. "Table 2. Real Average Annual Coal Transportation Costs, By Primary...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Real Average Annual Coal Transportation Costs, By Primary Transport Mode and Supply Region" "(2013 dollars per ton)" "Coal Supply Region",2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "Railroad"...

  14. "Variable","Average Absolute Percent Differences","Percent of...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual Energy Outlook Retrospective Review, 2014" "Variable","Average Absolute Percent Differences","Percent of Projections Over- Estimated" "Gross Domestic Product" "Real Gross ...

  15. Table 14a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Constant Dollars" " (constant dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour in ""dollar year"" specific to each AEO)" ...

  16. Bulk Hauling Equipment for CHG | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bulk Hauling Equipment for CHG Bulk Hauling Equipment for CHG This presentation by Don Baldwin of Hexagon Composites was given at the DOE Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Workshop in March 2013. csd_workshop_8_baldwin.pdf (1.2 MB) More Documents & Publications Tank Manufacturing, Testing, Deployment and Field Performance Hydrogen Delivery Roadmap US DRIVE Hydrogen Delivery Technical Team Roadmap

  17. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Vacant housing units, seasonal units, second homes, military housing, and group quarters ... Vacant housing units, seasonal units, second homes, military housing, and group quarters ...

  18. " Million Housing Units, Final"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Vacant housing units, seasonal units, second homes, military housing, and group quarters ... Vacant housing units, seasonal units, second homes, military housing, and group quarters ...

  19. Fact #803: November 11, 2013 Average Number of Transmission Gears...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Average Number of Gears for New Light Vehicles, Model Years 1979-2012 Model Year Average Number of Gears 1979 3.3 1980 3.5 1981 3.5 1982 3.6 1983 3.7 1984 3.7 1985 3.8 1986 3.8 ...

  20. Carbon nanotubes grown on bulk materials and methods for fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menchhofer, Paul A.; Montgomery, Frederick C.; Baker, Frederick S.

    2011-11-08

    Disclosed are structures formed as bulk support media having carbon nanotubes formed therewith. The bulk support media may comprise fibers or particles and the fibers or particles may be formed from such materials as quartz, carbon, or activated carbon. Metal catalyst species are formed adjacent the surfaces of the bulk support material, and carbon nanotubes are grown adjacent the surfaces of the metal catalyst species. Methods employ metal salt solutions that may comprise iron salts such as iron chloride, aluminum salts such as aluminum chloride, or nickel salts such as nickel chloride. Carbon nanotubes may be separated from the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species by using concentrated acids to oxidize the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species.

  1. "Table A49. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Steam...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...teristics(a)","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Supplier(b)","Pipelines","Supplier(d)","Factors" " "," "," "," "," "," "," " ,"Total United States" "RSE ...

  2. United States

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    E-T Global Energy, LLC OE Docket No. EA-381 Order Authorizing Electricity Exports to Mexico Order No. EA-381 June 10, 2011 I. BACKGROUND E-T Global Energy, LLC Order No. EA-381 Exports of electricity from the United States to a foreign country are regulated by the Department of Energy (DOE) pursuant to sections 301(b) and 402(f) of the Department ofEnergy Organization Act (42 U.S.C. 7151(b), 7172(f)) and require authorization under section 202(e) ofthe Federal Power Act (FPA) (16 U.S.C.824a(e))

  3. United States

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tenaslta Power Services Co. OE Docket No. EA-243-A Order Authorizing Electricity Exports to Canada Order No. EA-243-A March 1,2007 Tenaska Power Services Co. Order No. EA-243-A I. BACKGROUND Exports of elcctricity from the United States to a foreign country are regulated by the Department of Energy (DOE) pursuant to sections 30 I(b) and 402(f) of the Departrncnt of' Energy Organizatio~l Act (42 U, S.C. 7 15 1 (b), 7 1 72Cf)) and rcquirc authorization under section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act

  4. United States

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    TexMex Energy, LLC OE Docket No. EA-294-A Order Authorizing Electricity Exports to Mexico Order No. EA-294-A February 22, 2007 TexMex Energy, LLC Order No. EA-294-A I. BACKGROUND Exports of electricity from the United States to a foreign count~y are regulated by the Department of Energy (DOE) pursuant to sections 301(b) and 402(f) of the Department of Energy Organization Act (42 U.S.C. 7 15 1 (b), 71 72(f)) and require authorization under section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA) (16

  5. United States

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CSW Power Marketing OE Docket No. EA-3 1 8 Order Authorizing Electricity Exports to Mexico Order No. EA-3 18 February 22,2007 CSW Power Marketing Order No. EA-318 I. BACKGROUND Exports of electricity from the United States to a foreign country are regulated by the Department of Energy (DOE) pursuant to sections 30l(b) and 402(f) of the Department of Energy Organization Act (42 U.S.C. 7 1 5 1 (b), 7 1 72(f)) and require authorization under section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA) (16

  6. United States

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    E-T Global Energy, LLC OE Docket No. EA-381 Order Authorizing Electricity Exports to Mexico Order No. EA-381 June 10, 2011 I. BACKGROUND E-T Global Energy, LLC Order No. EA-381 Exports of electricity from the United States to a foreign country are regulated by the Department of Energy (DOE) pursuant to sections 301(b) and 402(f) of the Department ofEnergy Organization Act (42 U.S.C. 7151(b), 7172(f)) and require authorization under section 202(e) ofthe Federal Power Act (FPA) (16 U.S.C.824a(e))

  7. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1978-2014 - Dataset | Department of Energy 0: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 fotw#870_web.xlsx (17.92 KB) More Documents & Publications Reactor Pressure Vessel Task of Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Milestone Report on Materials and Machining of Specimens for the ATR-2

  8. Bulk Energy Storage Webinar Rescheduled for February 9, 2012 | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Bulk Energy Storage Webinar Rescheduled for February 9, 2012 Bulk Energy Storage Webinar Rescheduled for February 9, 2012 February 1, 2012 - 12:48pm Addthis The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Iowa Stored Energy Park (ISEP) are conducting a free, 1-hour webinar, Lessons from Iowa: The Economic, Market, and Organizational Issues in Making Bulk Energy Storage Work, on Thursday, February 9, 2012 at 1 p.m. ET. Presenters include Dr. Imre Gyuk of DOE's Office of Electricity

  9. Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by utility company? I'm seeing an inconsistency between the OpenEI website and EIA 861 data set. Home > Groups > Utility...

  10. Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 fotw915web.xlsx (24.76 KB) More Documents & Publications Fact 888: August 31, 2015 Historical Gas Prices - Dataset Fact ...

  11. Fact #624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The final rule for the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards was published in ... The CAFE levels that must be met by the fleet of each manufacturer will be determined by ...

  12. Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Nominal Dollars" " (nominal dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,200...

  13. Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Nominal Dollars (nominal dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 ...

  14. Flavor Physics Data from the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) was established at the May 2002 Flavor Physics and CP Violation Conference in Philadelphia, and continues the LEP Heavy Flavor Steering Group's tradition of providing regular updates to the world averages of heavy flavor quantities. Data are provided by six subgroups that each focus on a different set of heavy flavor measurements: B lifetimes and oscillation parameters, Semi-leptonic B decays, Rare B decays, Unitarity triangle parameters, B decays to charm final states, and Charm Physics.

  15. Averaged null energy condition violation in a conformally flat spacetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, Douglas; Olum, Ken D.

    2010-01-15

    We show that the averaged null energy condition can be violated by a conformally coupled scalar field in a conformally flat spacetime in 3+1 dimensions. The violation is dependent on the quantum state and can be made as large as desired. It does not arise from the presence of anomalies, although anomalous violations are also possible. Since all geodesics in conformally flat spacetimes are achronal, the achronal averaged null energy condition is likewise violated.

  16. Revision of the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation - 12510

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, Maurice; Kennedy, James E.; Ridge, Christianne; Lowman, Donald [U.S. NRC, Washington, DC, 20555-0001 (United States); Cochran, John [Sandia National Laboratory (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulation governing low-level waste (LLW) disposal, 'Licensing Requirements for Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste', 10 CFR Part 61, establishes a waste classification system based on the concentration of specific radionuclides contained in the waste. The regulation also states, at 10 CFR 61.55(a)(8), that, 'the concentration of a radionuclide (in waste) may be averaged over the volume of the waste, or weight of the waste if the units are expressed as nanocuries per gram'. The NRC's Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation provides guidance on averaging radionuclide concentrations in waste under 10 CFR 61.55(a)(8) when classifying waste for disposal. In 2007, the NRC staff proposed to revise the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation. The Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation is an NRC guidance document for averaging and classifying wastes under 10 CFR 61. The Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation is used by nuclear power plants (NPPs) licensees and sealed source users, among others. In addition, three of the four U.S. LLW disposal facility operators are required to honor the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation as a licensing condition. In 2010, the Commission directed the staff to develop guidance regarding large scale blending of similar homogenous waste types, as described in SECY-10-0043 as part of its Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation revision. The Commission is improving the regulatory approach used in the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation by moving towards a making it more risk-informed and performance-based approach, which is more consistent with the agency's regulatory policies. Among the improvements to the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation

  17. Comparing Multiple Exciton Generation in Quantum Dots To Impact Ionization in Bulk Semiconductors: Implications for Enhancement of Solar Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beard, Matthew C.; Midgett, Aaron G.; Hanna, Mark C.; Luther, Joseph M.; Hughes, Barbara K.; Nozik, Arthur J.

    2010-07-26

    Multiple exciton generation (MEG) in quantum dots (QDs) and impact ionization (II) in bulk semiconductors are processes that describe producing more than one electron-hole pair per absorbed photon. We derive expressions for the proper way to compare MEG in QDs with II in bulk semiconductors and argue that there are important differences in the photophysics between bulk semiconductors and QDs. Our analysis demonstrates that the fundamental unit of energy required to produce each electron-hole pair in a given QD is the band gap energy. We find that the efficiency of the multiplication process increases by at least 2 in PbSe QDs compared to bulk PbSe, while the competition between cooling and multiplication favors multiplication by a factor of 3 in QDs. We also demonstrate that power conversion efficiencies in QD solar cells exhibiting MEG can greatly exceed conversion efficiencies of their bulk counterparts, especially if the MEG threshold energy can be reduced toward twice the QD band gap energy, which requires a further increase in the MEG efficiency. Finally, we discuss the research challenges associated with achieving the maximum benefit of MEG in solar energy conversion since we show the threshold and efficiency are mathematically related.

  18. Interplay of topological surface and bulk electronic states in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Interplay of topological surface and bulk electronic states in Bi2Se3 Authors: Romanowich, Megan ; Lee, Mal-Soon ; Chung, Duck-Young ; Mahanti, S. D. ; Kanatzidis, Mercouri ...

  19. High Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Presents high heat flux thermoelectric module design for cooling using a novel V-shaped shunt configuration with bulk TE elements achieving high area packing fractions crane.pdf ...

  20. Bulk viscosity of anisotropically expanding hot QCD plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandra, Vinod

    2011-11-01

    The bulk viscosity, {zeta} and its ratio with the shear viscosity, {zeta}/{eta} have been studied in an anisotropically expanding pure glue plasma in the presence of turbulent color fields. It has been shown that the anisotropy in the momentum distribution function of gluons, which has been determined from a linearized transport equation eventually leads to the bulk viscosity. For the isotropic (equilibrium) state, a recently proposed quasiparticle model of pure SU(3) lattice QCD equation of state has been employed where the interactions are encoded in the effective fugacity. It has been argued that the interactions present in the equation of state, significantly contribute to the bulk viscosity. Its ratio with the shear viscosity is significant even at 1.5T{sub c}. Thus, one needs to take in account the effects of the bulk viscosity while studying the hydrodynamic expansion of quark-gluon plasma in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the Large Hadron Collider.

  1. Active hopper for promoting flow of bulk granular or powdered...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Data Explorer Search Results Active hopper for promoting flow of bulk granular or powdered ... An apparatus that promotes the flow of materials has a body having an inner shape for ...

  2. Development of a Wet Logistics System for Bulk Corn Stover

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    a Wet Logistics System for Bulk Corn Stover March 25, 2015 Lynn M. Wendt, William A. Smith, Austin Murphy, and Ian J. Bonner Idaho National Laboratory This presentation does not ...

  3. Bulk and mechanical properties of the Paintbrush tuff recovered from boreholes UE25 NRG-2, 2A, 2B, and 3: Data report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, P.J.; Martin, R.J.; Noel, J.S. [New England Research, Inc., White River Junction, VT (United States); Price, R.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-09-01

    An integral part of the licensing procedure for the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, involves characterization of the in situ rheology for the design and construction of the facility and the emplacement of canisters containing radioactive waste. The data used to model the thermal and mechanical behavior of the repository and surrounding lithologies include dry and saturated bulk densities, average grain density, porosity, compressional and shear wave velocities, elastic moduli, and compressional and tensional fracture strengths. In this study, a suite of experiments was performed on cores recovered from boreholes UE25 NRG-2, 2A, 2B, and 3 drilled in support of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. The holes penetrated the Timber Mountain tuff and two thermal/mechanical units of the Paintbrush tuff. The thermal/mechanical stratigraphy was defined by Ortiz to group rock horizons of similar properties for the purpose of simplifying modeling efforts. The relationship between the geologic stratigraphy and the thermal/mechanical stratigraphy for each borehole is presented. The tuff samples in this study have a wide range of welding characteristics (usually reflected in sample porosity), and a smaller range of mineralogy and petrology characteristics. Generally, the samples are silicic, ash-fall tuffs that exhibit large variability in their elastic and strength properties.

  4. Bulk and mechanical properties of the Paintbrush tuff recovered from borehole USW NRG-7/7A: Data report. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, R.J.; Boyd, P.J.; Noel, J.S.; Price, R.H.

    1995-05-01

    An integral part of the licensing procedure for the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, involves prediction of the in situ rheology for the design and construction of the facility and the emplacement of canisters containing radioactive waste. The data used to model the thermal and mechanical behavior of the repository and surrounding lithologies include dry and saturated bulk densities, average grain density, porosity, compressional and shear wave velocities, elastic moduli, and compressional and tensional fracture strengths. In this study, a suite of experiments was performed on cores recovered from the USW NRG-717A borehole drilled in support of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. USW NRG-7/7A was drilled to a depth of 1,513.4 feet through five thermal/mechanical units of Paintbrush tuff and terminating in the tuffaceous beds of the Calico IEUS. The thermal/mechanical stratigraphy was defined by Orfiz et al. to group rock horizons of similar properties for the purpose of simplifying modeling efforts. The relationship between the geologic stratigraphy and the thermal/mechanical stratigraphy is presented. The tuff samples in this study have a wide range of welding characteristics, and a smaller range of mineralogy and petrology characteristics. Generally, the samples are silicic, ash-fall tuffs that exhibit large variability in their elastic and strength properties.

  5. The influence of molecular orientation on organic bulk heterojunction solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cells The influence of molecular orientation on organic bulk heterojunction solar cells The influence of molecular orientation on organic bulk heterojunction solar cells Print Monday, 28 April 2014 09:03 Work done on ALS Beamlines 11.0.1.2, 7.3.3, and 5.3.2.2. reveals that preferential orientation of polymer chains with respect to the fullerene domain leads to a high photovoltaic performance. Featured on the cover of Nature Photonics 8. Article link

  6. Compositional ordering and stability in nanostructured, bulk thermoelectric alloys.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hekmaty, Michelle A.; Faleev, S.; Medlin, Douglas L.; Leonard, F.; Lensch-Falk, J.; Sharma, Peter Anand; Sugar, J. D.

    2009-09-01

    Thermoelectric materials have many applications in the conversion of thermal energy to electrical power and in solid-state cooling. One route to improving thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency in bulk material is to embed nanoscale inclusions. This report summarize key results from a recently completed LDRD project exploring the science underpinning the formation and stability of nanostructures in bulk thermoelectric and the quantitative relationships between such structures and thermoelectric properties.

  7. CMI Unique Facility: Bulk Combinatoric Materials Synthesis Facility |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Critical Materials Institute Bulk Combinatoric Materials Synthesis Facility The Bulk Combinatoric Materials Synthesis Facility is one of more than a dozen unique facilities developed by the Critical Materials Institute, an Energy Innovation Hub of the U.S. Department of Energy. Combinatoric studies of materials involve the creation of samples with varying composition, allowing the researcher to find the optimum combination of elements to produce a desired set of properties. The method has

  8. Waste Form Qualification Compliance Strategy for Bulk Vitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagaasen, Larry M.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Brouns, Thomas M.

    2005-01-03

    The Bulk Vitrification System is being pursued to assist in immobilizing the low-activity tank waste from the 53 million gallons of radioactive waste in the 177 underground storage tanks on the Hanford Site. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the bulk vitrification process, a research and development facility known as the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) is being built to demonstrate the technology. Specific performance requirements for the final packaged bulk vitrification waste form have been identified. In addition to the specific product-performance requirements, performance targets/goals have been identified that are necessary to qualify the waste form but do not lend themselves to specifications that are easily verified through short-term testing. Collectively, these form the product requirements for the DBVS. This waste-form qualification (WFQ) strategy document outlines the general strategies for achieving and demonstrating compliance with the BVS product requirements. The specific objectives of the WFQ activities are discussed, the bulk vitrification process and product control strategy is outlined, and the test strategy to meet the WFQ objectives is described. The DBVS product performance targets/goals and strategies to address those targets/goals are described. The DBVS product-performance requirements are compared to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant immobilized low-activity waste product specifications. The strategies for demonstrating compliance with the bulk vitrification product requirements are presented.

  9. "Table A29. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...,"(gallon)","(gallon)","(1000 cu ft)","(gallon)","(short ton)","Factors" ,"Total United States" "RSE Column Factors:",0.7,1.2,1.1,0.8,1.2,1 "Value of Shipments and Receipts " ...

  10. "Table A41. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...allons)","(gallons)","(1000 cu ft)","(gallons)","(short tons)","Factors" ,"Total United States" "RSE Column Factors:",0.6,0.8,1.2,0.7,2.5,0.9 "Value of Shipments and Receipts" ...

  11. "Table A29. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Gas(c)","LPG","Coal","Factors" ,"Total United States" "RSE Column Factors:",0.8,1.2,1.2,0.9,1.3,0.8 "Value of Shipments and Receipts" ...

  12. Table A44. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity and Steam

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...cs(a)","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Factors" ,"Total United States" "RSE Column Factors:",0.3,1.6,1.5,1.3 "Value of Shipments and Receipts" "(million ...

  13. "Table A41. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Gas(c)","LPG","Coal","Factors" ,"Total United States" "RSE Column Factors:",0.6,0.8,1.2,0.7,2.5,0.9 "Value of Shipments and Receipts" ...

  14. Termination unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Traeholt, Chresten [Frederiksberg, DK; Willen, Dag [Klagshamn, SE; Roden, Mark [Newnan, GA; Tolbert, Jerry C [Carrollton, GA; Lindsay, David [Carrollton, GA; Fisher, Paul W [Heiskell, TN; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann [Jaegerspris, DK

    2014-01-07

    This invention relates to a termination unit comprising an end-section of a cable. The end section of the cable defines a central longitudinal axis and comprising end-parts of N electrical phases, an end-part of a neutral conductor and a surrounding thermally insulation envelope adapted to comprising a cooling fluid. The end-parts of the N electrical phases and the end-part of the neutral conductor each comprising at least one electrical conductor and being arranged in the cable concentrically around a core former with a phase 1 located relatively innermost, and phase N relatively outermost in the cable, phase N being surrounded by the neutral conductor, electrical insulation being arrange between neighboring electrical phases and between phase N and the neutral conductor, and wherein the end-parts of the neutral conductor and the electrical phases each comprise a contacting surface electrically connected to at least one branch current lead to provide an electrical connection: The contacting surfaces each having a longitudinal extension, and being located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section of the cable. The branch current leads being individually insulated from said thermally insulation envelope by individual electrical insulators.

  15. High average power scaleable thin-disk laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beach, Raymond J.; Honea, Eric C.; Bibeau, Camille; Payne, Stephen A.; Powell, Howard; Krupke, William F.; Sutton, Steven B.

    2002-01-01

    Using a thin disk laser gain element with an undoped cap layer enables the scaling of lasers to extremely high average output power values. Ordinarily, the power scaling of such thin disk lasers is limited by the deleterious effects of amplified spontaneous emission. By using an undoped cap layer diffusion bonded to the thin disk, the onset of amplified spontaneous emission does not occur as readily as if no cap layer is used, and much larger transverse thin disks can be effectively used as laser gain elements. This invention can be used as a high average power laser for material processing applications as well as for weapon and air defense applications.

  16. Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination Authors: Carroll, James [1] ; Monteith, Kristine [2] ; Seppi, Kevin [2] ; Martinez, Tony [2] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory BYU Publication Date: 2011-07-28 OSTI Identifier: 1084524 Report Number(s): LA-UR-11-04419; LA-UR-11-4419 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396

  17. U.S. average gasoline price up slightly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. average gasoline price up slightly The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose slightly to $3.65 a gallon on Monday. That's up a tenth of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast region at 3.89 a gallon, down 4.4 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast States at 3.34 a gallon, down 2.6 cents. Jonathan Cogan for EIA,

  18. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Vacant housing units, seasonal units, second homes, military housing, and group quarters are excluded. 2Use of central air conditioning equipment for another housing unit also ...

  19. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Vacant housing units, seasonal units, second homes, military housing, and group quarters are excluded. 2Housing units are classified as urban or rural using definitions created by ...

  20. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Vacant housing units, seasonal units, second homes, military housing, and group quarters are excluded. 2Use of heating equipment for another housing unit also includes the use of ...

  1. " Million Housing Units, Final"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Vacant housing units, seasonal units, second homes, military housing, and group quarters are excluded. 2Use of central air conditioning equipment for another housing unit also ...

  2. Table 7.5 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu." " ",," "," ",," "," ","RSE" "Economic",,"Residual","Distillate","Natural ","LPG and",,"Row"

  3. Virginia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Market 9.45 8.76 10.20 10.63 12.69 15.51 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 6.88 6.67 7.18 6.65 7.24 7.22

  4. Speckle averaging system for laser raster-scan image projection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiszauer, Detlev H.; Hackel, Lloyd A.

    1998-03-17

    The viewers' perception of laser speckle in a laser-scanned image projection system is modified or eliminated by the addition of an optical deflection system that effectively presents a new speckle realization at each point on the viewing screen to each viewer for every scan across the field. The speckle averaging is accomplished without introduction of spurious imaging artifacts.

  5. Maryland Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8.35 18.44 19.08 19.39 13.51 12.72 1989-2015 Commercial Average Price 11.74 10.98 11.61 11.11 9.98 9.56...

  6. Michigan Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2.50 13.65 13.52 13.21 8.93 7.84 1989-2015 Commercial Average Price 8.91 9.31 9.17 9.05 7.46 6.75...

  7. Parity-violating anomalies and the stationarity of stochastic averages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reuter, M.

    1988-01-15

    Within the framework of stochastic quantization the parity-violating anomalies in odd space-time dimensions are derived from the asymptotic stationarity of the stochastic average of a certain fermion bilinear. Contrary to earlier attempts, this method yields the correct anomalies for both massive and massless fermions.

  8. Pennsylvania Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Ma 8.75 8.64 9.51 9.91 11.30 15.62 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 7.19 7.44 8.21 8.12 8.74 10.69

  9. Speckle averaging system for laser raster-scan image projection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiszauer, D.H.; Hackel, L.A.

    1998-03-17

    The viewers` perception of laser speckle in a laser-scanned image projection system is modified or eliminated by the addition of an optical deflection system that effectively presents a new speckle realization at each point on the viewing screen to each viewer for every scan across the field. The speckle averaging is accomplished without introduction of spurious imaging artifacts. 5 figs.

  10. Florida Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Markete 6.78 16.00 17.06 17.83 20.52 22.40 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 10.70 10.62 10.50 10.29 10.16 10.38

  11. Georgia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Markete 0.79 10.94 13.01 16.48 20.53 24.74 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 6.57 7.05 7.42 7.98 8.22 8.53

  12. Maryland Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 12.20 2006-2010 Marketers 13.51 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 81.7 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 9.87 10.29 10.00 10.06 ...

  13. Florida Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 17.85 2006-2010 Marketers 19.44 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 97.9 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 10.60 11.14 10.41 10.87 ...

  14. New Jersey Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 12.77 2006-2010 Marketers 14.87 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 96.6 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 10.11 9.51 8.50 9.55 ...

  15. Michigan Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Average Price 8.95 9.14 8.35 7.82 8.28 7.49 1967-2015 Local Distribution Companies 10.00 2006-2010 Marketers 7.61 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies ...

  16. Virginia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 12.64 2006-2010 Marketers 13.64 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 90.9 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 9.55 9.69 8.77 8.83 9.17 ...

  17. Pennsylvania Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 12.82 2006-2010 Marketers 13.78 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 91.2 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 10.47 10.42 10.24 10.11 ...

  18. District of Columbia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Price 12.26 12.24 11.19 11.64 12.18 11.55 1980-2015 Local Distribution Companies 12.99 2006-2010 Marketers 12.12 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 16.4 ...

  19. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by Housing Unit Type, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ... Units","5 or More Units","Mobile Homes" "Water Heating" "Total Homes",113.6,71.8,6.7,9,19...

  20. "Plastic" Solar Cells: Self-Assembly of Bulk HeterojunctionNano...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Self-Assembly of Bulk Heterojunction Nano-Materials by Spontaneous Phase Separation ... self-assembly of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) nano-materials by spontaneous phase separation. ...

  1. Solar Cells: Spin-Cast Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: A Dynamical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Cells: Spin-Cast Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: A Dynamical Investigation Solar Cells: Spin-Cast Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: A Dynamical Investigation Print Wednesday,...

  2. Palladium diffusion into bulk copper via the (100) surface.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bussmann, Ezra; Pohl, Karsten; Sun, Jiebing; Kellogg, Gary Lee

    2009-01-01

    Using low-energy electron microscopy, we measure the diffusion of Pd into bulk Cu at the Cu(100) surface. Interdiffusion is tracked by measuring the dissolution of the Cu(100)-c(2 x 2)-Pd surface alloy during annealing (T > 240 C). The activation barrier for Pd diffusion from the surface alloy into the bulk is determined to be (1.8 {+-} 0.6) eV. During annealing, we observe the growth of a new layer of Cu near step edges. Under this new Cu layer, dilute Pd remaining near the surface develops a layered structure similar to the Cu{sub 3}Pd L 1{sub 2} bulk alloy phase.

  3. Preparation of bulk superhard B-C-N nanocomposite compact

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhao, Yusheng; He, Duanwei

    2011-05-10

    Bulk, superhard, B--C--N nanocomposite compacts were prepared by ball milling a mixture of graphite and hexagonal boron nitride, encapsulating the ball-milled mixture at a pressure in a range of from about 15 GPa to about 25 GPa, and sintering the pressurized encapsulated ball-milled mixture at a temperature in a range of from about 1800-2500 K. The product bulk, superhard, nanocomposite compacts were well sintered compacts with nanocrystalline grains of at least one high-pressure phase of B--C--N surrounded by amorphous diamond-like carbon grain boundaries. The bulk compacts had a measured Vicker's hardness in a range of from about 41 GPa to about 68 GPa.

  4. Table 7.3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    United States" ,"RSE Column Factors:",0.9,0.9,1.2,1,1.4,1,1.2,0.6,1.2 , 311,"Food","W",0.054,"W",4.5,4.81,4.27,4.07,3.99,4.12,11.1 311221," Wet Corn Milling","W",0.036,"W",3.99,4.5...

  5. Properties of Bulk Sintered Silver As a Function of Porosity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A; Vuono, Daniel J; Wang, Hsin; Ferber, Mattison K; Liang, Zhenxian

    2012-06-01

    This report summarizes a study where various properties of bulk-sintered silver were investigated over a range of porosity. This work was conducted within the National Transportation Research Center's Power Device Packaging project that is part of the DOE Vehicle Technologies Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program. Sintered silver, as an interconnect material in power electronics, inherently has porosity in its produced structure because of the way it is made. Therefore, interest existed in this study to examine if that porosity affected electrical properties, thermal properties, and mechanical properties because any dependencies could affect the intended function (e.g., thermal transfer, mechanical stress relief, etc.) or reliability of that interconnect layer and alter how its performance is modeled. Disks of bulk-sintered silver were fabricated using different starting silver pastes and different sintering conditions to promote different amounts of porosity. Test coupons were harvested out of the disks to measure electrical resistivity and electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, and yield stress. The authors fully recognize that the microstructure of processed bulk silver coupons may indeed not be identical to the microstructure produced in thin (20-50 microns) layers of sintered silver. However, measuring these same properties with such a thin actual structure is very difficult, requires very specialized specimen preparation and unique testing instrumentation, is expensive, and has experimental shortfalls of its own, so the authors concluded that the herein measured responses using processed bulk sintered silver coupons would be sufficient to determine acceptable values of those properties. Almost all the investigated properties of bulk sintered silver changed with porosity content within a range of 3-38% porosity. Electrical resistivity, electrical conductivity, thermal

  6. Modeling an Application's Theoretical Minimum and Average Transactional Response Times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paiz, Mary Rose

    2015-04-01

    The theoretical minimum transactional response time of an application serves as a ba- sis for the expected response time. The lower threshold for the minimum response time represents the minimum amount of time that the application should take to complete a transaction. Knowing the lower threshold is beneficial in detecting anomalies that are re- sults of unsuccessful transactions. On the converse, when an application's response time falls above an upper threshold, there is likely an anomaly in the application that is causing unusual performance issues in the transaction. This report explains how the non-stationary Generalized Extreme Value distribution is used to estimate the lower threshold of an ap- plication's daily minimum transactional response time. It also explains how the seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average time series model is used to estimate the upper threshold for an application's average transactional response time.

  7. On-Site and Bulk Hydrogen Storage | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Delivery » On-Site and Bulk Hydrogen Storage On-Site and Bulk Hydrogen Storage On-site hydrogen storage is used at central hydrogen production facilities, transport terminals, and end-use locations. Storage options today include insulated liquid tanks and gaseous storage tanks. The four types of common high pressure gaseous storage vessels are shown in the table. Type I All-metal cylinder Type II Load-bearing metal liner hoop wrapped with resin-impregnated continuous filament Type III

  8. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.

    2014-10-23

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  9. Electric Sales, Revenue, and Average Price 2011 - Energy Information

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Administration Electricity Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Electricity Data Browser (interactive query tool with charting & mapping) Summary Sales (consumption), revenue, prices & customers Generation and thermal output Capacity of electric power plants Consumption of fuels used to generate electricity Receipts of fossil-fuels for electricity generation Average cost of fossil-fuels for electricity generation Fossil-fuel stocks for electricity generation Cost, revenue and expense

  10. Calculation of variable-base degree-days and degree-nights from monthly average temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonderegger, R.; Cleary, P.; Dickinson, B.

    1985-01-01

    The Computerized Instrumented Residential Audit (CIRA), a micro-computer building energy analysis program developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, uses a monthly variable-base degree-day method to calculate heating and cooling loads. The method's unique feature is its ability to model thermostat setbacks and storage of solar gain. The program accomplishes this by dividing each day into two periods, ''average day'' (8 a.m. to 8 p.m.) and ''average night'' (8 p.m. to 8 a.m.), with different base temperatures. For each mode (heating or cooling) and for each period (day or night), the program reconstructs degree-days as a function of average monthly day or night temperature using three empirical coefficients specific to the location. A comparison is made between degree-days computed from hourly weather tapes and those predicted using this method. The root mean square error between predicted and actual degree days is typically between 3 and 12 degree-days per month. Tables of the coefficients are given for over 150 locations in the United States, computed from hourly dry-bulb temperatures on TRY and TMY tapes. Seasonal predictions of heating and cooling energy budgets using this method show good correspondence to the DOE-2 hourly simulation method.