National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for buildings photovoltaic systems

  1. Impacts of Regional Electricity Prices and Building Type on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, S.; Campbell, C.; Clark, N.

    2012-12-01

    To identify the impacts of regional electricity prices and building type on the economics of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, 207 rate structures across 77 locations and 16 commercial building types were evaluated. Results for expected solar value are reported for each location and building type. Aggregated results are also reported, showing general trends across various impact categories.

  2. Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) in the Residential Sector: An Analysis of Installed Rooftop System Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, T.; Goodrich, A.; Woodhouse, M.; Margolis, R.; Ong, S.

    2011-11-01

    For more than 30 years, there have been strong efforts to accelerate the deployment of solar-electric systems by developing photovoltaic (PV) products that are fully integrated with building materials. This report examines the status of building-integrated PV (BIPV), with a focus on the cost drivers of residential rooftop systems, and explores key opportunities and challenges in the marketplace.

  3. Apparatus for mounting photovoltaic power generating systems on buildings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Russell, Miles C.

    2009-08-18

    Rectangular photovoltaic (PV) modules are mounted on a building roof by mounting stands that are distributed in rows and columns. Each stand comprises a base plate and first and second different height brackets attached to opposite ends of the base plate. Each first and second bracket comprises two module-support members. One end of each module is pivotally attached to and supported by a first module-support member of a first bracket and a second module-support member of another first bracket. At its other end each module rests on but is connected by flexible tethers to module-support members of two different second brackets. The tethers are sized to allow the modules to pivot up away from the module-support members on which they rest to a substantially horizontal position in response to wind uplift forces.

  4. Procedure for Measuring and Reporting the Performance of Photovoltaic Systems in Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pless, S.; Deru, M.; Torcellini, P.; Hayter, S.

    2005-10-01

    This procedure provides a standard method for measuring and characterizing the long-term energy performance of photovoltaic (PV) systems in buildings and the resulting implications to the building's energy use. The performance metrics determined here may be compared against benchmarks for evaluating system performance and verifying that performance targets have been achieved. Uses may include comparison of performance with the design intent; comparison with other PV systems in buildings; economic analysis of PV systems in buildings; and the establishment of long-term performance records that enable maintenance staff to monitor trends in energy performance.

  5. Building America Best Practices Series, Volume 6: High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Ruiz, Kathleen A.; Steward, Heidi E.; Love, Pat M.

    2007-06-04

    This guide is was written by PNNL for the US Department of Energy's Building America program to provide information for residential production builders interested in building near zero energy homes. The guide provides indepth descriptions of various roof-top photovoltaic power generating systems for homes. The guide also provides extensive information on various designs of solar thermal water heating systems for homes. The guide also provides construction company owners and managers with an understanding of how solar technologies can be added to their homes in a way that is cost effective, practical, and marketable. Twelve case studies provide examples of production builders across the United States who are building energy-efficient homes with photovoltaic or solar water heating systems.

  6. Low Cost Thin Film Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Subhendu Guha; Dr. Jeff Yang

    2012-05-25

    The goal of the program is to develop 'LOW COST THIN FILM BUILDING-INTEGRATED PV SYSTEMS'. Major focus was on developing low cost solution for the commercial BIPV and rooftop PV market and meet DOE LCOE goal for the commercial market segment of 9-12 cents/kWh for 2010 and 6-8 cents/kWh for 2015. We achieved the 2010 goal and were on track to achieve the 2015 goal. The program consists of five major tasks: (1) modules; (2) inverters and BOS; (3) systems engineering and integration; (4) deployment; and (5) project management and TPP collaborative activities. We successfully crossed all stage gates and surpassed all milestones. We proudly achieved world record stable efficiencies in small area cells (12.56% for 1cm2) and large area encapsulated modules (11.3% for 800 cm2) using a triple-junction amorphous silicon/nanocrystalline silicon/nanocrystalline silicon structure, confirmed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. We collaborated with two inverter companies, Solectria and PV Powered, and significantly reduced inverter cost. We collaborated with three universities (Syracuse University, University of Oregon, and Colorado School of Mines) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and improved understanding on nanocrystalline material properties and light trapping techniques. We jointly published 50 technical papers in peer-reviewed journals and International Conference Proceedings. We installed two 75kW roof-top systems, one in Florida and another in New Jersey demonstrating innovative designs. The systems performed satisfactorily meeting/exceeding estimated kWh/kW performance. The 50/50 cost shared program was a great success and received excellent comments from DOE Manager and Technical Monitor in the Final Review.

  7. Energy analysis of facade-integrated photovoltaic systems applied to UAE commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radhi, Hassan

    2010-12-15

    Developments in the design and manufacture of photovoltaic cells have recently been a growing concern in the UAE. At present, the embodied energy pay-back time (EPBT) is the criterion used for comparing the viability of such technology against other forms. However, the impact of PV technology on the thermal performance of buildings is not considered at the time of EPBT estimation. If additional energy savings gained over the PV system life are also included, the total EPBT could be shorter. This paper explores the variation of the total energy of building integrated photovoltaic systems (BiPV) as a wall cladding system applied to the UAE commercial sector and shows that the ratio between PV output and saving in energy due to PV panels is within the range of 1:3-1:4. The result indicates that for the southern and western facades in the UAE, the embodied energy pay-back time for photovoltaic system is within the range of 12-13 years. When reductions in operational energy are considered, the pay-back time is reduced to 3.0-3.2 years. This study comes to the conclusion that the reduction in operational energy due to PV panels represents an important factor in the estimation of EPBT. (author)

  8. Project Profile: Transformational Approach to Reducing the Total System Costs of Building-Integrated Photovoltaics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Dow Chemical Company, under the BOS-X funding opportunity, has launched a transformational product in the building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) industry: the Dow POWERHOUSE Solar Shingle.

  9. Connector device for building integrated photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keenihan, James R.; Langmaid, Joe A.; Eurich, Gerald K.; Lesniak, Michael J.; Mazor, Michael H.; Cleerman, Robert J.; Gaston, Ryan S.

    2015-11-10

    The present invention is premised upon a connector device and method that can more easily electrically connect a plurality of PV devices or photovoltaic system components and/or locate these devices/components upon a building structure. It also may optionally provide some additional sub-components (e.g. at least one bypass diode and/or an indicator means) and may enhance the serviceability of the device.

  10. Connector device for building integrated photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keenihan, James R.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Eurich, Gerald K.; Lesniak, Michael J.; Mazor, Michael H.; Cleereman, Robert J.; Gaston, Ryan S.

    2014-06-03

    The present invention is premised upon a connector device and method that can more easily electrically connect a plurality of PV devices or photovoltaic system components and/or locate these devices/components upon a building structure. It also may optionally provide some additional sub-components (e.g. at least one bypass diode and/or an indicator means) and may enhance the serviceability of the device.

  11. Photovoltaic systems and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts are given of presentations given at a project review meeting held at Albuquerque, NM. The proceedings cover the past accomplishments and current activities of the Photovoltaic Systems Research, Balance-of-System Technology Development and System Application Experiments Projects at Sandia National Laboratories. The status of intermediate system application experiments and residential system analysis is emphasized. Some discussion of the future of the Photovoltaic Program in general, and the Sandia projects in particular is also presented.

  12. Photovoltaics for Residential Buildings Webinar | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Watch a recording of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Senior Engineer Otto VanGeet's Jan. 25, 2011, presentation about using solar photovoltaic (PV) systems to provide ...

  13. SERC Photovoltaics for Residential Buildings Webinar Transcript

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A presentation sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy about using solar photovoltaics (PV) systems to provide electricity for homes.

  14. Amonix Photovoltaic System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This photograph features the Amonix and Arizona Public Service (APS) partnership to install the world’s largest utility-scale concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) power plant in 2002. Photovoltaic (PV) systems at the APS facility use a combination of technologies. The systems in the foreground are single-axis tracking flat-plate silicon systems. Shown in the upper right are three large (35 kilowatt) Amonix CPV.

  15. Building America Case Study: Photovoltaic Systems with Module-Level Power Electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-09-01

    Direct current (DC) power optimizers and microinverters (together known as module-level power electronics, or MLPE) are one of the fastest growing market segments in the solar industry. According to GTM Research in The Global PV Inverter Landscape 2015, over 55% of all residential photovoltaic (PV) installations in the United States used some form of MLPE in 2014.

  16. Photovoltaic System Fault Detection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photovoltaic System Fault Detection and Diagnostics using Laterally Primed Adaptive Resonance Theory Neural Network C. Birk Jones, Joshua S. Stein, Sigifredo Gonzalez, and Bruce H. King Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, 87185, U.S.A Abstract-Cost effective integration of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems requires increased reliability. This can be achieved with a robust fault detection and diagnostic (FDD) tool that auto- matically discovers faults. This paper introduces the Laterally

  17. Photovoltaics for Buildings: New Applications and Lessons Learned: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayter, S.; Torcellini, P.; Deru, M.

    2002-07-01

    Photovoltaics (PV) for buildings system applications are experiencing exponential growth. This increased activity is the result of building owners becoming more confident with this new technology, designers becoming more comfortable incorporating PV into architectural and building electrical designs, decreasing PV system cost, the heightened public awareness of depleting conventional energy resources, and issues related to power reliability and stability. Usually, these systems meet primary objectives to offset building electrical loads, decrease building electrical demand, or provide continuous power supply during utility grid outages; but because of design flaws, installation errors, or improper maintenance, these systems can perform below the design expectations.

  18. Aternating current photovoltaic building block

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bower, Ward Issac; Thomas, Michael G.; Ruby, Douglas S.

    2004-06-15

    A modular apparatus for and method of alternating current photovoltaic power generation comprising via a photovoltaic module, generating power in the form of direct current; and converting direct current to alternating current and exporting power via one or more power conversion and transfer units attached to the module, each unit comprising a unitary housing extending a length or width of the module, which housing comprises: contact means for receiving direct current from the module; one or more direct current-to-alternating current inverters; an alternating current bus; and contact means for receiving alternating current from the one or more inverters.

  19. Concentrator Photovoltaic System Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concentrator Photovoltaic System Basics Concentrator Photovoltaic System Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:12pm Addthis Concentrator photovoltaic (PV) systems use less solar cell material ...

  20. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 Building America Best Practices Series

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The sixth volume of the Building America Best Practices Series presents information that is useful throughout the U.S. for enhancing the energy efficiency practices in the specific climate zones that are presented in each of the volumes.

  1. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 Building America Best Practices Series

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-06-01

    The sixth volume of the Building America Best Practices Series presents information that is useful throughout the U.S. for enhancing the energy efficiency practices in the specific climate zones that are presented in each of the volumes.

  2. Alternating Current Photovoltaic Building Block - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Alternating Current Photovoltaic Building Block Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (891 KB) Technology Marketing Summary This technology provides a fully integrated and self-containing alternating current (AC) photovoltaic (PV) Building Block device and method that allows photovoltaic applications to become true plug-and-play devices. The

  3. A Program Plan for Photovoltaic Buildings in Florida

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document outlines plans developed by the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) to support photovoltaic buildings application in the state through the first decade of the 21st century. The emphasis of this program is on identifying and increasing the value of rooftop systems to targeted end users through the use of application experiments.

  4. Apparatus and method for mounting photovoltaic power generating systems on buildings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Russell, Miles Clayton

    2008-10-14

    Rectangular PV modules (6) are mounted on a building roof (4) by mounting stands that are distributed in rows and columns. Each stand comprises a base plate (10) that rests on the building roof (4) and first and second brackets (12, 14) of different height attached to opposite ends of the base plate (10). Each bracket (12, 14) has dual members for supporting two different PV modules (6), and each PV module (6) has a mounting pin (84) adjacent to each of its four corners. Each module (6) is supported by attachment of two of its mounting pins (84) to different first brackets (12), whereby the modules (6) and their supporting stands are able to resist uplift forces resulting from high velocity winds without the base plates (10) being physically attached to the supporting roof structure (4). Preferably the second brackets (14) have a telescoping construction that permits their effective height to vary from less than to substantially the same as that of the first brackets (12).

  5. Photovoltaic building sheathing element with anti-slide features

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keenihan, James R.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.

    2015-09-08

    The present invention is premised` upon an assembly that includes at least a photovoltaic building sheathing element capable of being affixed on a building structure, the photovoltaic building sheathing element. The element including a photovoltaic cell assembly, a body portion attached to one or more portions of the photovoltaic cell assembly; and at feast a first and a second connector assembly capable of directly or indirectly electrically connecting the photovoltaic cell assembly to one or more adjoining devices; wherein the body portion includes one or more geometric features adapted to engage a vertically adjoining device before installation.

  6. Photovoltaic System Performance

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1989-09-25

    PVFORM4.0 is used to design a photovoltaic (PV) system using a set of design parameters which optimize the system's economic potential for the proposed location and the expected operating conditions. PVFORM3.3 has been used to determine PV system size and optimum mounting configuration. The anticipated electrical load determines the system size and the weather and the mounting configuration affect the system output. PVFORM4.0 uses program-supplied default values or their user-supplied equivalents for each of amore » large number of parameters describing the system and time-series data describing the environment to perform a series of hourly calculations to simulate the physical (photovoltaic) performance of a PV system for a one-year period. These iterative calculations sample the performance of the PV system throughout a simulated 365-day year of system operation. Within any simulated day on which system performance is sampled, the calculations are done hourly. The number of days sampled and the interval between them is determined by an input parameter. The results of these calculations are summarized on a monthly basis in output tables and an optional plot file. The program is applicable to grid interactive or stand-alone flat-plate systems. The grid interactive system is assumed to use power purchased from a local utility to supply that portion of the load not met by the simulated PV array. If the array produces more energy than can be consumed by the load, the excess energy is assumed to be sold back to the utility at a constant energy sellback price. If a stand-alone system is being modeled, the program assumes that all energy produced by the simulated PV array is first applied to the external load, and any excess is then used to charge the battery bank. Energy not consumed by the load or the batteries is considered to be wasted.« less

  7. Photovoltaic System Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System Basics Photovoltaic System Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:00pm Addthis A photovoltaic (PV), or solar electric system, is made up of several photovoltaic solar cells. An ...

  8. Photovoltaic array mounting apparatus, systems, and methods ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Photovoltaic array mounting apparatus, systems, and methods Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Photovoltaic array mounting apparatus, systems, and methods An ...

  9. Institute of Concentration Photovoltaic Systems ISFOC | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Photovoltaic Systems ISFOC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Institute of Concentration Photovoltaic Systems (ISFOC) Place: Puertallano, Spain Zip: 13500 Product: Part of the R&D...

  10. Southwest Photovoltaic Systems Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Southwest Photovoltaic Systems Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Southwest Photovoltaic Systems Inc Place: Tomball, Texas Zip: 77375 Product: Distributor of small scale PV...

  11. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miros, Robert H. J.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Seery, Martin N.; Holland, Rodney H.

    2012-04-17

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  12. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miros, Robert H. J.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Seery, Martin N; Holland, Rodney H

    2012-09-18

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  13. Denver International Airport Photovoltaic System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Denver International Airport (DIA) features a 2-megawatt (MW) photovoltaic (PV) system. DIA also hosts to a second 1.6-MW system. Denver is a Solar America City.

  14. Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Designs for Commercial and Institutional Structures: A Sourcebook for Architects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-18

    Sourcebook for architects on building-integrated photovoltaic designs covering commercial and institutional structures.

  15. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 Building America Best Practices Series

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Commercial Cold Climate Heat Pump High-Performance Commercial Cold Climate Heat Pump Credit: United Technologies Research Center Credit: United Technologies Research Center Lead Performer: United Technologies Research Center - East Hartford, CT Partners: Carrier Corporation - Farmington, CT DOE Funding: $1,500,000 Cost Share: $373,000 Project Term: 3/1/2013 - 5/29/2015 Funding Opportunity: Energy Savings Through Improved Mechanical Systems and Building Envelope Technologies 2012 (DE-FOA-0000621)

  16. Photovoltaic power generation system free of bypass diodes (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Photovoltaic power generation system free of bypass diodes Title: Photovoltaic power generation system free of bypass diodes A photovoltaic power generation system that includes a ...

  17. PVT -- A photovoltaic/thermal concentrator total energy system: Final phase 1 project report. Building opportunities in the U.S. for photovoltaics (PV:BONUS) Two

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-31

    United Solar completed its Phase 1 report and its proposal for Phase 2 of the PVBONUS Two program at the end of March 1998. At the same time, it also completed and submitted a proposal to the California Energy Commission PIER program for additional funding to cost-share development and testing of a pre-production model of the PVT-14. It was unsuccessful in both of these proposed efforts. While waiting for the proposal decisions, work continued in April and May to analyze the system design and component decisions described below. This document is a final summation report on the Phase 1 effort of the PVBONUS Two program that describes the key technical issues that United Solar and its subcontractor, Industrial Solar Technology Corporation, worked on in preparation of a Phase 2 award. The decisions described were ones that will guide the design and fabrication of a pre-production prototype of a 1500:1 mirrored concentrator with gallium arsenide cells when United solar resumes its development work. The material below is organized by citing the key components that underwent a design review, what the company considered, what was decided, the name of the expected supplier, if not to be produced in-house, and some information about expected costs. The cost figures given are usually budgetary estimates, not the result of firm quotations or extensive analysis.

  18. Photovoltaic Geographical Information System | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Information System Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Photovoltaic Geographical Information System Focus Area: Renewable Energy Topics: Opportunity...

  19. Subsystem engineering and development of grid-connected photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burgess, E.L.; Post, H.N.; Key, T.S.

    1982-01-01

    The experience gained in fielding residential and intermediate sized photovoltaic application experiments is summarized. This experience is used to guide the engineering and development of array and power conditioning subsystems for grid-connected photovoltaic systems. A major consideration in this development effort is cost. Through innovative engineering, using a modular building block approach for the array subsystem, it is now possible to construct array fields, in moderate quantities, for about $52/m/sup 2/ excluding the photovoltaic modules. Similarly, results of power conditioning subsystem development indicate a projected cost of about $0.25/W/sub p/ for advanced units with conversion efficiencies in excess of 90%.

  20. PHOTOVOLTAIC LIGHTING SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Grid-Tied PV System Energy Smoothing Thomas D. Hund, Sigifredo Gonzalez, and Keith Barrett *Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA ABSTRACT Grid-tied PV energy smoothing was implemented by using a valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery as a temporary energy storage device to both charge and discharge as required to smooth the inverter energy output from the PV array. Inverter output was controlled by the average solar irradiance over the previous 1h time

  1. Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Balance of System Basics | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Balance of System Basics Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Balance of System Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:29pm Addthis Complete photovoltaic (PV) energy systems are ...

  2. A prototype photovoltaic/thermal system integrated with transpired collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Athienitis, Andreas K.; Bambara, James; O'Neill, Brendan; Faille, Jonathan

    2011-01-15

    Building-integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPV/T) systems may be utilized to produce useful heat while simultaneously generating electricity from the same building envelope surface. A well known highly efficient collector is the open-loop unglazed transpired collector (UTC) which consists of dark porous cladding through which outdoor air is drawn and heated by absorbed solar radiation. Commercially available photovoltaic systems typically produce electricity with efficiencies up to about 18%. Thus, it is beneficial to obtain much of the normally wasted heat from the systems, possibly by combining UTC with photovoltaics. Combination of BIPV/T and UTC systems for building facades is considered in this paper - specifically, the design of a prototype facade-integrated photovoltaic/thermal system with transpired collector (BIPV/T). A full scale prototype is constructed with 70% of UTC area covered with PV modules specially designed to enhance heat recovery and compared to a UTC of the same area under outdoor sunny conditions with low wind. The orientation of the corrugations in the UTC is horizontal and the black-framed modules are attached so as to facilitate flow into the UTC plenum. While the overall combined thermal efficiency of the UTC is higher than that of the BIPV/T system, the value of the generated energy - assuming that electricity is at least four times more valuable than heat - is between 7% and 17% higher. Also, the electricity is always useful while the heat is usually utilized only in the heating season. The BIPV/T concept is applied to a full scale office building demonstration project in Montreal, Canada. The ratio of photovoltaic area coverage of the UTC may be selected based on the fresh air heating needs of the building, the value of the electricity generated and the available building surfaces. (author)

  3. Interim performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. [Glossary included

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeBlasio, R.; Forman, S.; Hogan, S.; Nuss, G.; Post, H.; Ross, R.; Schafft, H.

    1980-12-01

    This document is a response to the Photovoltaic Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-590) which required the generation of performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. Since the document is evolutionary and will be updated, the term interim is used. More than 50 experts in the photovoltaic field have contributed in the writing and review of the 179 performance criteria listed in this document. The performance criteria address characteristics of present-day photovoltaic systems that are of interest to manufacturers, government agencies, purchasers, and all others interested in various aspects of photovoltaic system performance and safety. The performance criteria apply to the system as a whole and to its possible subsystems: array, power conditioning, monitor and control, storage, cabling, and power distribution. They are further categorized according to the following performance attributes: electrical, thermal, mechanical/structural, safety, durability/reliability, installation/operation/maintenance, and building/site. Each criterion contains a statement of expected performance (nonprescriptive), a method of evaluation, and a commentary with further information or justification. Over 50 references for background information are also given. A glossary with definitions relevant to photovoltaic systems and a section on test methods are presented in the appendices. Twenty test methods are included to measure performance characteristics of the subsystem elements. These test methods and other parts of the document will be expanded or revised as future experience and needs dictate.

  4. Case Study: Mobile Photovoltaic System at Bechler Meadows Ranger...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mobile Photovoltaic System at Bechler Meadows Ranger Station, Yellowstone National Park Case Study: Mobile Photovoltaic System at Bechler Meadows Ranger Station, Yellowstone ...

  5. Study Guide for Photovoltaic System Installers and Sample Examination...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Information Resources Study Guide for Photovoltaic System Installers and Sample Examination Questions Study Guide for Photovoltaic System Installers and Sample Examination ...

  6. Introduction to Small-Scale Photovoltaic Systems (Including RETScreen...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Photovoltaic Systems (Including RETScreen Case Study) (Webinar) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Introduction to Small-Scale Photovoltaic Systems...

  7. Photovoltaic power generation system free of bypass diodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-07-28

    A photovoltaic power generation system that includes a solar panel that is free of bypass diodes is described herein. The solar panel includes a plurality of photovoltaic sub-modules, wherein at least two of photovoltaic sub-modules in the plurality of photovoltaic sub-modules are electrically connected in parallel. A photovoltaic sub-module includes a plurality of groups of electrically connected photovoltaic cells, wherein at least two of the groups are electrically connected in series. A photovoltaic group includes a plurality of strings of photovoltaic cells, wherein a string of photovoltaic cells comprises a plurality of photovoltaic cells electrically connected in series. The strings of photovoltaic cells are electrically connected in parallel, and the photovoltaic cells are microsystem-enabled photovoltaic cells.

  8. Building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV): Analysis and US market potential. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frantzis, L.; Friedman, D.; Hill, S.; Teagan, P.; Strong, S.; Strong, M.

    1995-02-01

    Arthur D. Little, Inc., in conjunction with Solar Design Associates, conducted a study for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Building Technologies (OBT) to determine the market potential for grid-connected, building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). This study defines BIPV as two types of applications: (1) where the PV modules are an integral part of the building, often serving as the exterior weathering skin; and (2) the PV modules are mounted on the existing building exterior. Both of these systems are fully integrated with the energy usage of the building and have potential for significant market penetration in the US. Off-grid building applications also offer a near-term market for BIPV, but are not included in the scope of this study.

  9. 25 Year Lifetime for Flexible Buildings Integrated Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gross, Mark E.

    2010-07-10

    Although preliminary proof-of-principle of the efficacy of barrier materials and processes, first developed by Battelle at PNNL and commercialized by Vitex, has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale, there are several challenges to the practical commercial implementation of these developments in the Buildings Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) market. Two important issues that are addressed in this project are identifying a low cost substrate material that can survive in the outside environment (rain, heat, dust, hail, etc.) for 25 years and developing an encapsulation method for the photovoltaic (PV) cells that can meet the required barrier performance without driving the cost of the total barrier package out of range (remaining below $3.00/Wp). Without these solutions, current encapsulation technologies will limit the use of PV for BIPV applications. Flexible, light-weight packaging that can withstand 25 years in the field is required for a totally flexible integrated PV package. The benefit of this research is to make substantial progress in the development of a cost-effective, viable thin film barrier package which will be a critical enabling technology to meet the Solar America Initiative cost and device reliability goals, and to make photovoltaics (PV) more cost-competitive with electricity generated using fossil fuels. Increased PV installations will enable increased US electrical capacity and reduce dependence on imported oil through increased utilization of a widely abundant source of renewable energy (sunlight).

  10. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 Building America Best Practices Series High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; ...

  11. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 Building America Best Practices Series High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 ...

  12. Evaluation of phase change materials for thermal regulation enhancement of building integrated photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasan, A.; Norton, B.; McCormack, S.J.; Huang, M.J.

    2010-09-15

    Regulating the temperature of building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) using phase change materials (PCMs) reduces the loss of temperature dependent photovoltaic (PV) efficiency. Five PCMs were selected for evaluation all with melting temperatures {proportional_to}25 {+-} 4 C and heat of fusion between 140 and 213 kJ/kg. Experiments were conducted at three insolation intensities to evaluate the performance of each PCM in four different PV/PCM systems. The effect on thermal regulation of PV was determined by changing the (i) mass of PCM and (ii) thermal conductivities of the PCM and PV/PCM system. A maximum temperature reduction of 18 C was achieved for 30 min while 10 C temperature reduction was maintained for 5 h at -1000 W/m{sup 2} insolation. (author)

  13. Photovoltaic systems for export application. Informal report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffy, J.; Campbell, H.; Sajo, A.; Sanz, E.

    1988-01-31

    One approach to improving the competitiveness of photovoltaic systems is the development of designs specifically for export applications. In other words, where is it appropriate in a system design to incorporate components manufactured and/or assembled in the receiving country in order to improve the photovoltaic exports from the US? What appears to be needed is a systematic method of evaluating the potential for export from the US of PV systems for various application in different countries. Development of such a method was the goal of this project.

  14. Nationwide Analysis of U.S. Commercial Building Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Breakeven Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Carolyn; Gagnon, Pieter; Denholm, Paul; Margolis, Robert

    2015-10-01

    The commercial sector offers strong potential for solar photovoltaics (PV) owing to abundant available roof space suitable for PV and the opportunity to offset the sector's substantial retail electricity purchases. This report evaluated the breakeven price of PV for 15 different building types and various financing options by calculating electricity savings based on detailed rate structures for most U.S. utility territories (representing approximately two thirds of U.S. commercial customers). We find that at current capital costs, an estimated 1/3 of U.S. commercial customers break even in the cash scenario and approximately 2/3 break even in the loan scenario. Variation in retail rates is a stronger driver of breakeven prices than is variation in building load or solar generation profiles. At the building level, variation in the average breakeven price is largely driven by the ability for a PV system to reduce demand charges.

  15. Solar Photovoltaic (PV) System Permit Application Checklist

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Permit Application Checklist is intended to be used as a best management practice when establishing local government requirements for residential and commercial solar photovoltaic (PV) system permits. Local governments may modify this checklist to accommodate their local ordinances, code requirements, and permit procedures.

  16. Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) in the Residential Section: An Analysis of Installed Rooftop Prices (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, T.; Goodrich, A.; Woodhouse, M.; Margolis, R.; Ong, S.

    2012-06-01

    This powerpoint presentation to be presented at the World Renewable Energy Forum on May 17, 2012, in Denver, CO, discusses building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) in the residential section and includes an analysis of installed rooftop prices.

  17. Superior Valley photovoltaic power processing and system controller evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonn, R.; Ginn, J.; Zirzow, J.; Sittler, G.

    1995-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management, conducts the photovoltaic balance-of-system program. Under this program, Sandia supports the Department of Defense Strategic Environmental Research Development Plan, SERDP, which is advancing the use of photovoltaics in operational DoD facilities. This report details the acceptance testing of the first of these photovoltaic hybrid systems: the Superior Valley photovoltaic-diesel hybrid system. This is the first of several photovoltaic installations for the Department of Defense. The system hardware tested at Sandia included an inverter, maximum power trackers, and a system controller.

  18. Sandia Energy Photovoltaic Systems Evaluation Laboratory ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    feed 0 Sandians Win 'Best Paper' Award at Photovoltaic Conference in Japan http:energy.sandia.govsandians-win-best-paper-award-at-photovoltaic-conference-in-j...

  19. Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2010-09-28

    The fact sheet summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its photovoltaics subprogram.

  20. Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-09-01

    Summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its photovoltaics subprogram.

  1. Progress in photovoltaic system and component improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, H.P.; Kroposki, B.; McNutt, P.; Witt, C.E.; Bower, W.; Bonn, R.; Hund, T.D.

    1998-07-01

    The Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project is a partnership between the US government (through the US Department of Energy [DOE]) and the PV industry. Part of its purpose is to conduct manufacturing technology research and development to address the issues and opportunities identified by industry to advance photovoltaic (PV) systems and components. The project was initiated in 1990 and has been conducted in several phases to support the evolution of PV industrial manufacturing technology. Early phases of the project stressed PV module manufacturing. Starting with Phase 4A and continuing in Phase 5A, the goals were broadened to include improvement of component efficiency, energy storage and manufacturing and system or component integration to bring together all elements for a PV product. This paper summarizes PV manufacturers` accomplishments in components, system integration, and alternative manufacturing methods. Their approaches have resulted in improved hardware and PV system performance, better system compatibility, and new system capabilities. Results include new products such as Underwriters Laboratories (UL)-listed AC PV modules, modular inverters, and advanced inverter designs that use readily available and standard components. Work planned in Phase 5A1 includes integrated residential and commercial roof-top systems, PV systems with energy storage, and 300-Wac to 4-kWac inverters.

  2. Building opportunities for photovoltaics in the U.S. Final report [PV BONUS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Nicklas

    1999-09-08

    The objective of the North Carolina's PV Bonus Team was to develop and demonstrate a commercially viable, building-integrated, photovoltaic system that, in addition to providing electricity, would capture and effectively utilize the thermal energy produced by the photovoltaic array. This project objective was successfully achieved by designing, testing, constructing, and monitoring two roof integrated photovoltaic systems--one on a Applebee's Restaurant in Salisbury, North Carolina and the second on a Central Carolina Bank in Bessemer City, North Carolina. The goal of Innovative Design is to now use these successful demonstrations to facilitate entry of building integrated, pv/thermal systems into the marketplace. The strategy was to develop the two systems that could be utilized in future applications. Both systems were designed and then constructed at the North Carolina Solar Center at North Carolina State University. After extensive testing at the North Carolina Solar Center, the systems were moved to the actual construction sites and implemented. The Applebee's Restaurant system was designed to substitute for the roof assembly of a low sloping, south-facing sunspace roof that typically incorporated clay tile. After monitoring the installed system for one year it was determined that the 1.2 kilowatt (peak) system produces an average peak reduction of 1 kilowatt (rated peak is 1.7 kiloWatts), saves 1,529 kilowatt-hours of electricity, and offsets 11,776 kilowatt-hours of thermal energy savings used to pre-heat water. A DC fan connected directly to eight of the thirty-two amorphous modules moves air through air passages mounted on the backside of the modules and into a closed loop duct system to a heat exchanger. This heat exchanger is, in turn, connected to a pre-heat hot water tank that is used to heat the water for the restaurant. The Central Carolina Bank system was designed to substitute for the roof assembly of the drive-in window area of the bank. The design featured a triangulated truss that incorporated ten crystalline photovoltaic modules on one side of the truss and a reflective panel on the opposite side. The system used a utility interactive, programmable inverter and a 18.9 kilowatt-hour battery bank. The system is designed so that a DC fan, connected to one of the modules, forces ambient air across the back side of the modules. In the summer this heat is vented to the outside but in the winter this heated, fresh air is introduced into the building as ventilation air. Like the Applebee's system, the design allowed the entire roof assembly to be constructed off-site, tested, and then shipped to the site in pie-assembled, large components. During the first full year of operation, the 2.2 kilowatt (rated peak is 2.7 kilowatts) system contributed to an average peak reduction of .9 kilowatts. The system, as designed, saves 2,576 kilowatt-hours of electricity and offsets 3,473 kilowatt hours (of a potential thermal benefit of 10,172 collected kWhs) of thermal energy savings that is used as fresh air make-up in the colder months. This report is a summary of their conclusions.

  3. Photovoltaic array mounting apparatus, systems, and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Jack Raymond; Atchley, Brian; Hudson, Tyrus Hawkes; Johansen, Emil

    2015-04-14

    A photovoltaic array, including: (a) supports laid out on a surface in rows and columns; (b) photovoltaic modules positioned on top of the supports; and (c) fasteners connecting the photovoltaic modules to the supports, wherein the supports have an upper pedestal surface and a lower pedestal surface such that the photovoltaic modules are positioned at a non-horizontal angle when edges of the photovoltaic modules are positioned on top of the upper and lower pedestal surfaces, and wherein a portion of the fasteners rotate to lock the photovoltaic modules onto the supports.

  4. Photovoltaic array mounting apparatus, systems, and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Jack Raymond; Atchley, Brian; Hudson, Tyrus Hawkes; Johansen, Emil

    2016-01-05

    A photovoltaic array, including: (a) supports laid out on a surface in rows and columns; (b) photovoltaic modules positioned on top of the supports; and (c) fasteners connecting the photovoltaic modules to the supports, wherein the supports have an upper pedestal surface and a lower pedestal surface such that the photovoltaic modules are positioned at a non-horizontal angle when edges of the photovoltaic modules are positioned on top of the upper and lower pedestal surfaces, and wherein a portion of the fasteners rotate to lock the photovoltaic modules onto the supports.

  5. Photovoltaic Systems Evaluation Laboratory (PSEL)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Systems Evaluation Laboratory (PSEL) - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management

  6. Recommendations for Maximizing Battery Life in Photovoltaic Systems...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Recommendations for Maximizing Battery Life in Photovoltaic Systems: A Review of Lessons Learned Notes, observations and recommendations about the use of batteries in small ...

  7. Rate Analysis of Two Photovoltaic Systems in San Diego

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doris, E.; Ong, S.; Van Geet, O.

    2009-07-01

    Analysts have found increasing evidence that rate structure has impacts on the economics of solar systems. This paper uses 2007 15-minute interval photovoltaic (PV) system and load data from two San Diego City water treatment facilities to illustrate impacts of different rate designs. The comparison is based on rates available in San Diego at the time of data collection and include proportionately small to large demand charges (relative to volumetric consumption), and varying on- and off- peak times. Findings are twofold for these large commercial systems: 1) transferring costs into demand charges does not result in savings and 2) changes in peak times do not result in a major cost difference during the course of a year. While lessons learned and discussion on rate components are based on the findings, the applicability is limited to buildings with similar systems, environments, rate options, and loads.

  8. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, M.; Gilbride, T.; Ruiz, K.; Steward, H.; Love, P.

    2007-06-01

    This document is the sixth volume of the Building America Best Practices Series. It presents information that is useful throughout the United States for enhancing the energy efficiency practices in the specific climate zones that are presented in the first five Best Practices volumes. It provides an introduction to current photovoltaic and solar thermal building practices. Information about window selection and shading is included.

  9. Research & Development Needs for Building-Integrated Solar Technologie...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and cooling, water heating, hybrid photovoltaic-thermal systems (PVT), active solar ... Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 Building America ...

  10. NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Pholtovoltaic System Performance Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pholtovoltaic System Performance Data Photo looking north-northwest at solar panels aligned in rows on the roof of a commercial building. The Terry Sanford Federal Building in Raleigh, North Carolina, hosts a roof-mounted 564.5 kilowatt (kW) PV array made up of 2,352 monocrystalline silicon modules in 168 strings of 14 modules. Image from Ryan Smith/NREL Photo looking east at solar panels aligned in rows on the roof of a commercial building. The General Services Administration partnered with

  11. Nationwide Analysis of U.S. Commercial Building Solar Photovoltaic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of breakeven prices than is variation in building load or solar generation profiles. vi This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory...

  12. Building America System Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-04-01

    Residential Buildings Integration Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review

  13. Photovoltaic power systems and the National Electrical Code: Suggested practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiles, J.

    1996-12-01

    This guide provides information on how the National Electrical Code (NEC) applies to photovoltaic systems. The guide is not intended to supplant or replace the NEC; it paraphrases the NEC where it pertains to photovoltaic systems and should be used with the full text of the NEC. Users of this guide should be thoroughly familiar with the NEC and know the engineering principles and hazards associated with electrical and photovoltaic power systems. The information in this guide is the best available at the time of publication and is believed to be technically accurate; it will be updated frequently. Application of this information and results obtained are the responsibility of the user.

  14. Solar Ready Buildings Planning Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisell, L.; Tetreault, T.; Watson, A.

    2009-12-01

    This guide offers a checklist for building design and construction to enable installation of solar photovoltaic and heating systems at some time after the building is constructed.

  15. Study Guide for Photovoltaic System Installers and Sample Examination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Questions | Department of Energy Information Resources » Study Guide for Photovoltaic System Installers and Sample Examination Questions Study Guide for Photovoltaic System Installers and Sample Examination Questions This study guide presents some of the basic cognitive material that individuals who install and maintain PV systems should understand. This information is intended primarily as a study guide to help better prepare for the NABCEP PV installer examination but does not provide all

  16. Evaluating Future Standards and Codes with a Focus on High Penetration Photovoltaic (HPPV) System Deployment (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M.; Kroposki, B.; Basso, T.; Lynn, K.

    2010-12-01

    Poster displaying solutions for evaluating future standards and codes for high penetration photovoltaic (HPPV) systems.

  17. Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaics

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Gupta, Vipin; Nielson, Greg; Okandan, Murat, Granata, Jennifer; Nelson, Jeff; Haney, Mike; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luiz

    2014-06-23

    Sandia's microsystems enabled photovoltaic advances combine mature technology and tools currently used in microsystem production with groundbreaking advances in photovoltaics cell design, decreasing production and system costs while improving energy conversion efficiency. The technology has potential applications in buildings, houses, clothing, portable electronics, vehicles, and other contoured structures.

  18. Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Vipin; Nielson, Greg; Okandan, Murat, Granata, Jennifer; Nelson, Jeff; Haney, Mike; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luiz

    2012-07-02

    Sandia's microsystems enabled photovoltaic advances combine mature technology and tools currently used in microsystem production with groundbreaking advances in photovoltaics cell design, decreasing production and system costs while improving energy conversion efficiency. The technology has potential applications in buildings, houses, clothing, portable electronics, vehicles, and other contoured structures.

  19. Microsystem enabled photovoltaic modules and systems (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The absorber layer includes an array of photovoltaic (PV) elements. The fixed optic layer ... the translatable optic layer into one of the PV elements such that it is quasi-collimated. ...

  20. Mandatory Photovoltaic System Cost Analysis | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to compare the cost of line extension with the cost of installing of a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system for remote locations with electricity needs. This ruling applies to...

  1. Project Profile: Innovative Ballasted Flat Roof Solar Photovoltaic Racking System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A 2010 Rocky Mountain Institute report estimated that structural systems alone cost about $0.95 per watt for rooftop installations. Cascade is developing a plastic-based photovoltaic (PV) racking...

  2. Case Study: Mobile Photovoltaic System at Bechler Meadows Ranger...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Mobile solar systems consist of photovoltaic (PV) solar-energy panels, batteries, and ... A battery the size of two car batteries is required per each 1 kWh of energy stored, so, ...

  3. Photovoltaics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photovoltaics - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  4. Detailed Performance Model for Photovoltaic Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, H.; Mancilla-David, F.; Ellis, K.; Muljadi, E.; Jenkins, P.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents a modified current-voltage relationship for the single diode model. The single-diode model has been derived from the well-known equivalent circuit for a single photovoltaic cell. The modification presented in this paper accounts for both parallel and series connections in an array.

  5. Performance model assessment for multi-junction concentrating photovoltaic systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Riley, Daniel M.; McConnell, Robert.; Sahm, Aaron; Crawford, Clark; King, David L.; Cameron, Christopher P.; Foresi, James S.

    2010-03-01

    Four approaches to modeling multi-junction concentrating photovoltaic system performance are assessed by comparing modeled performance to measured performance. Measured weather, irradiance, and system performance data were collected on two systems over a one month period. Residual analysis is used to assess the models and to identify opportunities for model improvement. Large photovoltaic systems are typically developed as projects which supply electricity to a utility and are owned by independent power producers. Obtaining financing at favorable rates and attracting investors requires confidence in the projected energy yield from the plant. In this paper, various performance models for projecting annual energy yield from Concentrating Photovoltaic (CPV) systems are assessed by comparing measured system output to model predictions based on measured weather and irradiance data. The results are statistically analyzed to identify systematic error sources.

  6. Models Used to Assess the Performance of Photovoltaic Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report documents the various photovoltaic (PV) performance models and software developed and utilized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in support of the Photovoltaics and Grid Integration Department. In addition to PV performance models, hybrid system and battery storage models are discussed. A hybrid system using other distributed sources and energy storage can help reduce the variability inherent in PV generation, and due to the complexity of combining multiple generation sources and system loads, these models are invaluable for system design and optimization.

  7. A stochastic method for stand-alone photovoltaic system sizing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, Claudia Valeria Tavora; Filho, Delly Oliveira; Martins, Jose Helvecio; Toledo, Olga Moraes

    2010-09-15

    Photovoltaic systems utilize solar energy to generate electrical energy to meet load demands. Optimal sizing of these systems includes the characterization of solar radiation. Solar radiation at the Earth's surface has random characteristics and has been the focus of various academic studies. The objective of this study was to stochastically analyze parameters involved in the sizing of photovoltaic generators and develop a methodology for sizing of stand-alone photovoltaic systems. Energy storage for isolated systems and solar radiation were analyzed stochastically due to their random behavior. For the development of the methodology proposed stochastic analysis were studied including the Markov chain and beta probability density function. The obtained results were compared with those for sizing of stand-alone using from the Sandia method (deterministic), in which the stochastic model presented more reliable values. Both models present advantages and disadvantages; however, the stochastic one is more complex and provides more reliable and realistic results. (author)

  8. Microsystem enabled photovoltaic modules and systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N; Sweatt, William C; Okandan, Murat

    2015-05-12

    A microsystem enabled photovoltaic (MEPV) module including: an absorber layer; a fixed optic layer coupled to the absorber layer; a translatable optic layer; a translation stage coupled between the fixed and translatable optic layers; and a motion processor electrically coupled to the translation stage to controls motion of the translatable optic layer relative to the fixed optic layer. The absorber layer includes an array of photovoltaic (PV) elements. The fixed optic layer includes an array of quasi-collimating (QC) micro-optical elements designed and arranged to couple incident radiation from an intermediate image formed by the translatable optic layer into one of the PV elements such that it is quasi-collimated. The translatable optic layer includes an array of focusing micro-optical elements corresponding to the QC micro-optical element array. Each focusing micro-optical element is designed to produce a quasi-telecentric intermediate image from substantially collimated radiation incident within a predetermined field of view.

  9. Performance model assessment for multi-junction concentrating photovoltaic systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, Daniel M.; McConnell, Robert.; Sahm, Aaron; Crawford, Clark; King, David L.; Cameron, Christopher P.; Foresi, James S.

    2010-03-01

    Four approaches to modeling multi-junction concentrating photovoltaic system performance are assessed by comparing modeled performance to measured performance. Measured weather, irradiance, and system performance data were collected on two systems over a one month period. Residual analysis is used to assess the models and to identify opportunities for model improvement.

  10. Flat-Plate Photovoltaic System Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System Basics Flat-Plate Photovoltaic System Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:03pm Addthis The most common photovoltaic (PV) array design uses flat-plate PV modules or panels. These panels can be fixed in place or allowed to track the movement of the Illustration of a cutaway of a typical flat-plate module. The layers, in order from top to bottom, are: cover film, solar cell, encapsulant, substrate, cover film, seal, gasket, and frame. One typical flat-plate module design uses a substrate of metal,

  11. Controlling of grid connected photovoltaic lighting system with fuzzy logic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saglam, Safak; Ekren, Nazmi; Erdal, Hasan

    2010-02-15

    In this study, DC electrical energy produced by photovoltaic panels is converted to AC electrical energy and an indoor area is illuminated using this energy. System is controlled by fuzzy logic algorithm controller designed with 16 rules. Energy is supplied from accumulator which is charged by photovoltaic panels if its energy would be sufficient otherwise it is supplied from grid. During the 1-week usage period at the semester time, 1.968 kWh energy is used from grid but designed system used 0.542 kWh energy from photovoltaic panels at the experiments. Energy saving is determined by calculations and measurements for one education year period (9 months) 70.848 kWh. (author)

  12. Utilizing Photovoltaic Cells and Systems (9 Activities)

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    These nine projects allow students to set up their own investigations and manipulate the variables that influence photovoltaic cells. The projects can be easily integrated into a normal science classroom curriculum, or can be completed by students individually for science fair projects. All of the projects will fit easily into classroom lessons surrounding scientific inquiry and the scientific method. They will also help illustrate concepts in electricity, light and color, velocity and gravity, chemistry and polarity, and could even lead to social studies or social action projects.

  13. Application of smart grid in photovoltaic power systems, ForskEL...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    smart grid in photovoltaic power systems, ForskEL (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Application of smart grid in photovoltaic power systems, ForskEL...

  14. Energy Department Issues Green Building Certification System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Green Building Certification System Final Rule to Support Increased Energy Measurement and Efficient Building Design Energy Department Issues Green Building Certification System ...

  15. Sustainable Building Rating Systems Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Rauch, Emily M.

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to offer information that could be used to compare and contrast sustainable building rating systems.

  16. Green Building Certification Systems Requirement for New Federal Buildings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings Final Rule | Department of Energy Final Rule Green Building Certification Systems Requirement for New Federal Buildings and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings Final Rule Document details the Green Building Certification Systems Requirement for New Federal Buildings and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings' Final Rule for 10 CFR Parts 433, 435 and 436. File greenblgcert.docx More Documents & Publications EA-1991: Final Environmental

  17. Green Building Certification Systems Requirement for New Federal Buildings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings OIRA Comparison Document | Department of Energy OIRA Comparison Document Green Building Certification Systems Requirement for New Federal Buildings and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings OIRA Comparison Document Document details the Green Building Certification Systems Requirement for New Federal Buildings and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings' OIRA Comparison Document for 10 CFR Parts 433, 435 and 436. File greenblgcert_compare2014.docx

  18. SolarPower Restoration Systems Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Product: SolarPower Restoration Systems is pursuing Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) systems and large scale Photovoltaic Power (PV) Array Systems over concrete...

  19. Implementing Solar Photovoltaic Projects on Historic Buildings and in Historic Districts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kandt, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Walker, A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite a global recession, the number of photovoltaic (PV) installations in the United States grew 30% from 2008 to 2009. A number of trends point toward continued growth of new PV installations. The efficiency of solar panels is increasing, while installation costs are going down. At the same time, federal, state, and local regulations are requiring that greater amounts of energy must come from renewable sources. Incentives for solar power technology implementation are being created and regulatory barriers removed. Corporations and governments are focusing on solar power to demonstrate leadership in environmental sustainability and resource conservation. Architects and builders are including PV arrays as a way to meet green building standards and property owners are seeking PV as a way to reduce their utility bills, as well as their carbon footprints. This publication focuses on the implementation of PV systems on historic properties. Many private property owners, as well as local, state, and national government entities, are seeking guidance on how best to integrate solar PV installations on historic buildings. Historic preservationists maintain that preserving, reusing, and maintaining historic structures is a key sustainable design strategy while also recognizing the importance of accommodating renewable energy technologies where they are appropriate. In some cases, however, conflicts have arisen over the installation of PV panels on historic properties. Addressing these conflicts and providing guidance regarding solutions and best practices is an important step toward resolving or eliminating barriers. Historic properties and districts in the United States provide tangible connections to the nation's past. Thousands of buildings, sites, districts, structures, and objects have been recognized for their historic and architectural significance. Local, state, and national designations of historic properties provide recognition, protection, and incentives that help to preserve those properties for future generations. At the national level, the National Register of Historic Places includes more than 86,000 listings, which encompass a total of more than 1.6 million historic resources. State registers of historic places also provide recognition and protection for historic sites and districts. Locally, more than 2,400 communities have established historic preservation ordinances. Typically implemented through zoning overlays, these local land use regulations manage changes to hundreds of thousands of historic properties. Over a period of 2 years (2007 and 2008) the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) designated 25 major U.S. cities as Solar America Cities. DOE provided financial and technical assistance to help the cities develop comprehensive approaches to accelerate the adoption of solar energy technologies. The Solar America Cities partnerships represent the foundation of DOE's larger Solar America Communities program. As a part of this program, DOE identified the implementation of solar projects on historic properties and in historic districts as one area to address. A workshop titled 'Implementing Solar Projects on Historic Buildings and in Historic Districts' was held in Denver, Colorado, in June of 2010. Participants included representatives from the solar industry as well as historic preservationists from nonprofit organizations and government agencies at the local, state, and national levels. The workshop provided an opportunity to gain a common understanding of solar technologies and historic preservation procedures and priorities. The workshop participants also discussed some of the challenges involved in locating PV systems on historic properties and identified potential solutions. This publication is based on the discussions that occurred at this workshop and the recommendations that were developed by participants. Ideas expressed by participants in the workshop, and included in this document, do not necessarily reflect the opinion of any government council, agency, or entity.

  20. Solar photovoltaic applications seminar: design, installation and operation of small, stand-alone photovoltaic power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    This seminar material was developed primarily to provide solar photovoltaic (PV) applied engineering technology to the Federal community. An introduction to photoconductivity, semiconductors, and solar photovoltaic cells is included along with a demonstration of specific applications and application identification. The seminar details general systems design and incorporates most known information from industry, academia, and Government concerning small solar cell power system design engineering, presented in a practical and applied manner. Solar PV power system applications involve classical direct electrical energy conversion and electric power system analysis and synthesis. Presentations and examples involve a variety of disciplines including structural analysis, electric power and load analysis, reliability, sizing and optimization; and, installation, operation and maintenance. Four specific system designs are demonstrated: water pumping, domestic uses, navigational and aircraft aids, and telecommunications. All of the applications discussed are for small power requirement (under 2 kilowatts), stand-alone systems to be used in remote locations. Also presented are practical lessons gained from currently installed and operating systems, problems at sites and their resolution, a logical progression through each major phase of system acquisition, as well as thorough design reviews for each application.

  1. Induction soldering of photovoltaic system components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kumaria, Shashwat; de Leon, Briccio

    2015-11-17

    A method comprises positioning a pair of photovoltaic wafers in a side-by-side arrangement. An interconnect is placed on the pair of wafers such that the interconnect overlaps both wafers of the pair, solder material being provided between the interconnect and the respective wafers. A solder head is then located adjacent the interconnect, and the coil is energized to effect inductive heating of the solder material. The solder head comprises an induction coil shaped to define an eye, and a magnetic field concentrator located at least partially in the eye of the coil. The magnetic field concentrator defines a passage extending axially through the eye of the coil, and may be of a material with a high magnetic permeability.

  2. Photovoltaic array mounting apparatus, systems, and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, John Raymond; Atchley, Brian; Hudson, Tyrus Hawkes; Johansen, Emil

    2014-12-02

    An apparatus for mounting a photovoltaic (PV) module on a surface, including a support with an upper surface, a lower surface, tabs, one or more openings, and a clip comprising an arm and a notch, where the apparatus resists wind forces and seismic forces and creates a grounding electrical bond between the PV module, support, and clip. The invention further includes a method for installing PV modules on a surface that includes arranging supports in rows along an X axis and in columns along a Y axis on a surface such that in each row the distance between two neighboring supports does not exceed the length of the longest side of a PV module and in each column the distance between two neighboring supports does not exceed the length of the shortest side of a PV module.

  3. Photovoltaic Systems Interconnected onto Secondary Network Distribution Systems – Success Stories

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report examines six case studies of photovoltaic (PV) systems integrated into secondary network systems. The six PV systems were chosen for evaluation because they are interconnected to secondary network systems located in four major Solar America Cities.

  4. Sandia photovoltaic systems definition and application experiment projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.

    1983-04-01

    A compilation is given of the abstracts and visual material used in presentation at the Fourth Photovoltaic Systems Definition and Applications Projects Integration Meeting held at the Marriott Hotel, April 12-14, 1983, in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The meeting provided a forum for detailed analyses on recently completed and current activities. These activities include systems research, balance-of-system technology development, residential experimentation, and evaluation of intermediate-sized applications.

  5. Oncor Electric Delivery - Solar Photovoltaic Standard Offer Program...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Summary Oncor Electric Delivery offers rebates to its customers that install photovoltaic (PV) systems on homes or other buildings.* Oncor customers of all rate classes...

  6. City of San Jose - Photovoltaic Permit Requirements | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    panels is required when applying for a building permit. Electrical Plan Review for photovoltaic systems is required for all multi-family, commercial and industrial installations....

  7. Integrated Building Management System (IBMS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anita Lewis

    2012-07-01

    This project provides a combination of software and services that more easily and cost-effectively help to achieve optimized building performance and energy efficiency. Featuring an open-platform, cloud- hosted application suite and an intuitive user experience, this solution simplifies a traditionally very complex process by collecting data from disparate building systems and creating a single, integrated view of building and system performance. The Fault Detection and Diagnostics algorithms developed within the IBMS have been designed and tested as an integrated component of the control algorithms running the equipment being monitored. The algorithms identify the normal control behaviors of the equipment without interfering with the equipment control sequences. The algorithms also work without interfering with any cooperative control sequences operating between different pieces of equipment or building systems. In this manner the FDD algorithms create an integrated building management system.

  8. ancient building system | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ancient building system architect biomimicry building technology cooling cu daylight design problem energy use engineer fred andreas geothermal green building heat transfer...

  9. National System Templates: Building Sustainable National Inventory...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    System Templates: Building Sustainable National Inventory Management Systems Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: National System Templates: Building...

  10. Antitrust implications of utility participation in the market for remote photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starrs, T.J.

    1994-12-31

    Remote photovoltaic systems are an important niche market in the development of a viable photovoltaics industry. Electric utilities in the US have started offering remote photovoltaic service. Utilities have the potential to use their monopoly power in regulated markets to unfair competitive advantage in competitive markets. Therefore, utility participation in remote photovoltaic markets raises potentially significant issues of antitrust law and policy. This paper describes some of the legal and factual criteria that US courts and regulatory agencies are likely to use in assessing the antitrust implications of utility participation in the market for remote photovoltaic systems.

  11. A novel hybrid (wind-photovoltaic) system sizing procedure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hocaoglu, Fatih O.; Gerek, Oemer N.; Kurban, Mehmet

    2009-11-15

    Wind-photovoltaic hybrid system (WPHS) utilization is becoming popular due to increasing energy costs and decreasing prices of turbines and photovoltaic (PV) panels. However, prior to construction of a renewable generation station, it is necessary to determine the optimum number of PV panels and wind turbines for minimal cost during continuity of generated energy to meet the desired consumption. In fact, the traditional sizing procedures find optimum number of the PV modules and wind turbines subject to minimum cost. However, the optimum battery capacity is either not taken into account, or it is found by a full search between all probable solution spaces which requires extensive computation. In this study, a novel description of the production/consumption phenomenon is proposed, and a new sizing procedure is developed. Using this procedure, optimum battery capacity, together with optimum number of PV modules and wind turbines subject to minimum cost can be obtained with good accuracy. (author)

  12. Building America Webinar: Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building America Webinar: Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems Building America Webinar: Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems This webinar was presented by research team...

  13. Invensys Building System | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zip: 61132 Product: Invensys was a supplier of integrated systems for building automation, and is now merged with TAC. References: Invensys Building System1 This article is...

  14. Basement Insulation Systems - Building America Top Innovation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Basement Insulation Systems - Building America Top Innovation Basement Insulation Systems - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows a framed basement wall with insulation ...

  15. Models used to assess the performance of photovoltaic systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2009-12-01

    This report documents the various photovoltaic (PV) performance models and software developed and utilized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in support of the Photovoltaics and Grid Integration Department. In addition to PV performance models, hybrid system and battery storage models are discussed. A hybrid system using other distributed sources and energy storage can help reduce the variability inherent in PV generation, and due to the complexity of combining multiple generation sources and system loads, these models are invaluable for system design and optimization. Energy storage plays an important role in reducing PV intermittency and battery storage models are used to understand the best configurations and technologies to store PV generated electricity. Other researcher's models used by SNL are discussed including some widely known models that incorporate algorithms developed at SNL. There are other models included in the discussion that are not used by or were not adopted from SNL research but may provide some benefit to researchers working on PV array performance, hybrid system models and energy storage. The paper is organized into three sections to describe the different software models as applied to photovoltaic performance, hybrid systems, and battery storage. For each model, there is a description which includes where to find the model, whether it is currently maintained and any references that may be available. Modeling improvements underway at SNL include quantifying the uncertainty of individual system components, the overall uncertainty in modeled vs. measured results and modeling large PV systems. SNL is also conducting research into the overall reliability of PV systems.

  16. Photovoltaic System Modeling. Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, Clifford W.; Martin, Curtis E.

    2015-08-01

    We report an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for modeling AC energy from ph otovoltaic systems . Output from a PV system is predicted by a sequence of models. We quantify u ncertainty i n the output of each model using empirical distribution s of each model's residuals. We propagate uncertainty through the sequence of models by sampli ng these distributions to obtain a n empirical distribution of a PV system's output. We consider models that: (1) translate measured global horizontal, direct and global diffuse irradiance to plane - of - array irradiance; (2) estimate effective irradiance; (3) predict cell temperature; (4) estimate DC voltage, current and power ; (5) reduce DC power for losses due to inefficient maximum power point tracking or mismatch among modules; and (6) convert DC to AC power . O ur analysis consider s a notional PV system com prising an array of FirstSolar FS - 387 modules and a 250 kW AC inverter ; we use measured irradiance and weather at Albuquerque, NM. We found the uncertainty in PV syste m output to be relatively small, on the order of 1% for daily energy. We found that unce rtainty in the models for POA irradiance and effective irradiance to be the dominant contributors to uncertainty in predicted daily energy. Our analysis indicates that efforts to reduce the uncertainty in PV system output predictions may yield the greatest improvements by focusing on the POA and effective irradiance models.

  17. Solar Leasing for Residential Photovoltaic Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This publication examines the solar lease option for residential PV systems and describes two solar lease programs already in place. As a result of the $2,000 cap on the residential ITC being lifted in 2009, the expansion of the solar lease model across the United States may be slower than anticipated. The lease model, though, still offers homeowners some distinct advantages. This publication helps homeowners revisit the comparison between the solar lease and home-equity financing in light of the change to the ITC.

  18. Japan's Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Market: An Analysis of Residential System Prices (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, T.

    2014-03-01

    This presentation summarizes market and policy factors influencing residential solar photovoltaic system prices in Japan, and compares these factors to related developments in the United States.

  19. Building America Systems Engineering Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-15

    The Building America Research Teams use a systems engineering approach to achieve higher quality and energy savings in homes. Using these techniques, the energy consumption of new houses can be reduced by 40% or more with little or no impact on the cost of ownership.

  20. System Advisor Model: Flat Plate Photovoltaic Performance Modeling Validation Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, J.; Whitmore, J.; Kaffine, L.; Blair, N.; Dobos, A. P.

    2013-12-01

    The System Advisor Model (SAM) is a free software tool that performs detailed analysis of both system performance and system financing for a variety of renewable energy technologies. This report provides detailed validation of the SAM flat plate photovoltaic performance model by comparing SAM-modeled PV system generation data to actual measured production data for nine PV systems ranging from 75 kW to greater than 25 MW in size. The results show strong agreement between SAM predictions and field data, with annualized prediction error below 3% for all fixed tilt cases and below 8% for all one axis tracked cases. The analysis concludes that snow cover and system outages are the primary sources of disagreement, and other deviations resulting from seasonal biases in the irradiation models and one axis tracking issues are discussed in detail.

  1. Generic solar photovoltaic system dynamic simulation model specification.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, Abraham; Behnke, Michael Robert; Elliott, Ryan Thomas

    2013-10-01

    This document is intended to serve as a specification for generic solar photovoltaic (PV) system positive-sequence dynamic models to be implemented by software developers and approved by the WECC MVWG for use in bulk system dynamic simulations in accordance with NERC MOD standards. Two specific dynamic models are included in the scope of this document. The first, a Central Station PV System model, is intended to capture the most important dynamic characteristics of large scale (> 10 MW) PV systems with a central Point of Interconnection (POI) at the transmission level. The second, a Distributed PV System model, is intended to represent an aggregation of smaller, distribution-connected systems that comprise a portion of a composite load that might be modeled at a transmission load bus.

  2. Energy Department Issues Green Building Certification System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Department Issues Green Building Certification System Final Rule to Support Increased Energy Measurement and Efficient Building Design Energy Department Issues Green...

  3. Building America Case Study: Ventilation System Effectiveness...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts Tyler, Texas ... Building Component: Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC), whole-building ...

  4. The Impact of Retail Rate Structures on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To achieve a sizable and self-sustaining market for grid-connected, customer-sited photovoltaic (PV) systems, solar will likely need to be competitive with retail electricity rates. In this report, we examine the impact of retail rate design on the economic value of commercial PV systems in California. Using 15-minute interval building load and PV production data from 24 actual commercial PV installations, we compare the value of the bill savings across 20 commercial customer retail rates currently offered in the state. We find that the specifics of the rate structure, combined with the characteristics of the customer’s underlying load and the size of the PV system, can have a substantial impact on the customer-economics of commercial PV systems.

  5. Comparison of Photovoltaic Models in the System Advisor Model: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blair, N. J.; Dobos, A. P.; Gilman, P.

    2013-08-01

    The System Advisor Model (SAM) is free software developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for predicting the performance of renewable energy systems and analyzing the financial feasibility of residential, commercial, and utility-scale grid-connected projects. SAM offers several options for predicting the performance of photovoltaic (PV) systems. The model requires that the analyst choose from three PV system models, and depending on that choice, possibly choose from three module and two inverter component models. To obtain meaningful results from SAM, the analyst must be aware of the differences between the model options and their applicability to different modeling scenarios. This paper presents an overview the different PV model options and presents a comparison of results for a 200-kW system using different model options.

  6. Technical analysis of prospective photovoltaic systems in Utah.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quiroz, Jimmy Edward; Cameron, Christopher P.

    2012-02-01

    This report explores the technical feasibility of prospective utility-scale photovoltaic system (PV) deployments in Utah. Sandia National Laboratories worked with Rocky Mountain Power (RMP), a division of PacifiCorp operating in Utah, to evaluate prospective 2-megawatt (MW) PV plants in different locations with respect to energy production and possible impact on the RMP system and customers. The study focused on 2-MW{sub AC} nameplate PV systems of different PV technologies and different tracking configurations. Technical feasibility was evaluated at three different potential locations in the RMP distribution system. An advanced distribution simulation tool was used to conduct detailed time-series analysis on each feeder and provide results on the impacts on voltage, demand, voltage regulation equipment operations, and flicker. Annual energy performance was estimated.

  7. Deploying High Penetration Photovoltaic Systems: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M. H.; Baca, D.; Kroposki, B. D.; Basso, T.

    2011-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) system capacity penetration, or simply 'penetration,' is often defined as the rated power output of the aggregate PV systems on a distribution circuit segment divided by the peak load of that circuit segment. Industry experts agree that a single value defining high penetration is not universally applicable. However, it is generally agreed that a conservative value to designate high penetration is the condition when the ratio of aggregate PV systems ratings to peak load exceeds 15%. This case study illustrates the case of a distribution feeder which is able to accommodate a traditional capacity penetration level of 47%, and perhaps more. New maximum penetration levels need to be defined and verified and enhanced definitions for penetration on a distribution circuit need to be developed. The new penetration definitions and studies will help utility engineers, system developers, and regulatory agencies better agree what levels of PV deployment can be attained without jeopardizing the reliability and power quality of a circuit.

  8. Feasibility Study for Photovoltaics, Wind, solar Hot Water and Hybrid Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooks, Ronald; Montoya, Valerie

    2008-03-26

    Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute (SIPI) located in Albuquerque New Mexico is a community college that serves American Indians and Alaska Natives. SIPIs student body represents over 100 Native American Tribes. SIPI completed a renewable energy feasibility study program and established renewable energy hardware on the SIPI campus, which supplements and creates an educational resource to teach renewable energy courses. The SIPI campus is located, and has as student origins, areas, in which power is an issue in remote reservations. The following hardware was installed and integrated into the campus facilities: small wind turbine, large photovoltaic array that is grid-connected, two photovoltaic arrays, one thin film type, and one polycrystalline type, one dual-axis active tracker and one passive tracker, a hot air system for heating a small building, a portable hybrid photovoltaic system for remote power, and a hot water system to preheat water used in the SIPI Child Care facility. Educational curriculum has been developed for two renewable energy courses one being the study of energy production and use, and especially the roles renewable energy forms like solar, wind, geothermal, hydro, and biomass plays, and the second course being a more advanced in-depth study of renewable energy system design, maintenance, installation, and applications. Both courses rely heavily on experiential learning techniques so that installed renewable energy hardware is continuously utilized in hand-on laboratory activities and are part of the Electronics program of studies. Renewable energy technologies and science has also been included in other SIPI programs of study such as Environmental Science, Natural Resources, Agriculture, Engineering, Network Management, and Geospatial Technology.

  9. Analysis of Photovoltaic System Energy Performance Evaluation Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.; Newmiller, J.; Kimber, A.; Flottemesch, R.; Riley, E.; Dierauf, T.; McKee, J.; Krishnani, P.

    2013-11-01

    Documentation of the energy yield of a large photovoltaic (PV) system over a substantial period can be useful to measure a performance guarantee, as an assessment of the health of the system, for verification of a performance model to then be applied to a new system, or for a variety of other purposes. Although the measurement of this performance metric might appear to be straight forward, there are a number of subtleties associated with variations in weather and imperfect data collection that complicate the determination and data analysis. A performance assessment is most valuable when it is completed with a very low uncertainty and when the subtleties are systematically addressed, yet currently no standard exists to guide this process. This report summarizes a draft methodology for an Energy Performance Evaluation Method, the philosophy behind the draft method, and the lessons that were learned by implementing the method.

  10. Building America System Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System Research Building America System Research Residential Buildings Integration Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review PDF icon resbldgs01_werling_040213.pdf More Documents & Publications Solar Decathlon Multi-Function Fuel-Fired Heat Pump - 2013 Peer Review Whole Building Performance-Based Procurement Training

  11. Experimental natural convection on vertical surfaces for building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fossa, M.; Menezo, C.; Leonardi, E.

    2008-02-15

    An experimental study on natural convection in an open channel is carried out in order to investigate the effect of the geometrical configuration of heat sources on the heat transfer behaviour. To this aim, a series of vertical heaters are cooled by natural convection of air flowing between two parallel walls. The objective of the work is to investigate the physical mechanisms which influence the thermal behaviour of a double-skin photovoltaic (PV) facade. This results in a better understanding of the related phenomena and infers useful engineering information for controlling the energy transfers from the environment to the PV surfaces and from the PV surfaces to the building. Furthermore increasing the heat transfer rate from the PV surfaces increases the conversion efficiency of the PV modules since they operate better as their temperature is lower. The test section consists in a double vertical wall, 2 m high, and each wall is constituted by 10 different heating modules 0.2 m high. The heater arrangement simulates, at a reduced scale, the presence of a series of vertical PV modules. The heat flux at the wall ranges from 75 to 200 W/m{sup 2}. In this study, the heated section is 1.6 m in height, preceded by an adiabatic of 0.4 m in height. Different heating configurations are analyzed, including the uniform heating mode and two different configurations of non uniform, alternate heating. The experimental procedure allows the wall surface temperature, local heat transfer coefficient and local and average Nusselt numbers to be inferred. The experimental evidences show that the proper selection of the separating distance and heating configuration can noticeably decrease the surface temperatures and hence enhance the conversion efficiency of PV modules. (author)

  12. Photovoltaic System Pricing Trends: Historical, Recent, and Near...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory. * Chung, D.; Davidson, C.; Fu, R.; Ardani, K. Margolis, R. (2015). U.S. Photovoltaic (PV) Prices and Cost Breakdowns: Q1 2015 Benchmarks for Residential, Commercial,...

  13. Integrating Renewable Energy Systems in Buildings (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayter, S. J.

    2011-08-01

    This presentation on integrating renewable energy systems into building was presented at the August, 2011 ASHRAE Region IX CRC meetings.

  14. Predicting the Spectral Effects of Soils on Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Burton, Patrick D.; King, Bruce Hardison; Riley, Daniel M.

    2014-12-15

    The soiling losses on high concentrating photovoltaic (HCPV) systems may be influenced by the spectral properties of accumulated soil. We predicted the response of an isotype cell to changes in spectral content and reduction in transmission due to soiling using measured UV/vis transmittance through soil films. Artificial soil test blends deposited on glass coupons were used to supply the transmission data, which was then used to calculate the effect on model spectra. Moreover, the wavelength transparency of the test soil was varied by incorporating red and yellow mineral pigments into graded sand. The more spectrally responsive (yellow) soils were predictedmore » to alter the current balance between the top and middle subcells throughout a range of air masses corresponding to daily and seasonal variation.« less

  15. System for characterizing semiconductor materials and photovoltaic devices through calibration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L.; Allen, Larry C.; Marshall, Craig; Murphy, Robert C.; Marshall, Todd

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring characteristics of a piece of material, typically semiconductor materials including photovoltaic devices. The characteristics may include dislocation defect density, grain boundaries, reflectance, external LBIC, internal LBIC, and minority carrier diffusion length. The apparatus includes a light source, an integrating sphere, and a detector communicating with a computer. The measurement or calculation of the characteristics is calibrated to provide accurate, absolute values. The calibration is performed by substituting a standard sample for the piece of material, the sample having a known quantity of one or more of the relevant characteristics. The quantity measured by the system of the relevant characteristic is compared to the known quantity and a calibration constant is created thereby.

  16. System for characterizing semiconductor materials and photovoltaic devices through calibration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.; Allen, L.C.; Marshall, C.; Murphy, R.C.; Marshall, T.

    1998-05-26

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for measuring characteristics of a piece of material, typically semiconductor materials including photovoltaic devices. The characteristics may include dislocation defect density, grain boundaries, reflectance, external LBIC, internal LBIC, and minority carrier diffusion length. The apparatus includes a light source, an integrating sphere, and a detector communicating with a computer. The measurement or calculation of the characteristics is calibrated to provide accurate, absolute values. The calibration is performed by substituting a standard sample for the piece of material, the sample having a known quantity of one or more of the relevant characteristics. The quantity measured by the system of the relevant characteristic is compared to the known quantity and a calibration constant is created thereby. 44 figs.

  17. Predicting the Spectral Effects of Soils on Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burton, Patrick D.; King, Bruce Hardison; Riley, Daniel M.

    2014-12-15

    The soiling losses on high concentrating photovoltaic (HCPV) systems may be influenced by the spectral properties of accumulated soil. We predicted the response of an isotype cell to changes in spectral content and reduction in transmission due to soiling using measured UV/vis transmittance through soil films. Artificial soil test blends deposited on glass coupons were used to supply the transmission data, which was then used to calculate the effect on model spectra. Moreover, the wavelength transparency of the test soil was varied by incorporating red and yellow mineral pigments into graded sand. The more spectrally responsive (yellow) soils were predicted to alter the current balance between the top and middle subcells throughout a range of air masses corresponding to daily and seasonal variation.

  18. Impacts of Commercial Electric Utility Rate Structure Elements on the Economics of Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, S.; Denholm, P.; Doris, E.

    2010-06-01

    This analysis uses simulated building data, simulated solar photovoltaic (PV) data, and actual electric utility tariff data from 25 cities to understand better the impacts of different commercial rate structures on the value of solar PV systems. By analyzing and comparing 55 unique rate structures across the United States, this study seeks to identify the rate components that have the greatest effect on the value of PV systems. Understanding the beneficial components of utility tariffs can both assist decision makers in choosing appropriate rate structures and influence the development of rates that favor the deployment of PV systems. Results from this analysis show that a PV system's value decreases with increasing demand charges. Findings also indicate that time-of-use rate structures with peaks coincident with PV production and wide ranges between on- and off-peak prices most benefit the types of buildings and PV systems simulated. By analyzing a broad set of rate structures from across the United States, this analysis provides an insight into the range of impacts that current U.S. rate structures have on PV systems.

  19. Research & Development Needs for Building-Integrated Solar Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Building Integrated Solar Technologies (BIST) can help achieve the Building Technologies Office goal of reducing energy consumption in residential and commercial buildings by 50% by the year 2030. BIST include technologies for space heating and cooling, water heating, hybrid photovoltaic-thermal systems (PV/T), active solar lighting, and building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV).

  20. Renewable Energy, Photovoltaic Systems Near Airfields. Electromagnetic Interference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deline, Chris; Dann, Geoff

    2015-04-01

    Recent increases in photovoltaic (PV) systems on Department of the Navy (DON) land and potential siting near airfields prompted Commander, Naval Installations Command to fund the Naval Facilities Engineering Command to evaluate the impact of electromagnetic interference (EMI) from PV systems on airfield electronic equipment. Naval Facilities Engineering and Expeditionary Warfare Center tasked Department of Energy National Renewable Energy laboratory (NREL) to conduct the assessment. PV systems often include high-speed switching semiconductor circuits to convert the voltage produced by the PV arrays to the voltage needed by the end user. Switching circuits inherently produce electromagnetic radiation at harmonics of the switching frequency. In this report, existing literature is summarized and tests to measure emissions and mitigation methods are discussed. The literature shows that the emissions from typical PV systems are low strength and unlikely to cause interference to most airfield electronic systems. With diligent procurement and siting of PV systems, including specifications for FCC Part 15 Class A compliant equipment and a 250-foot setback from communication equipment, NREL anticipates little to no EMI impact on nearby communications or telemetry equipment.

  1. Building International Emergency Management Systems | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home ... International Emergency Management Systems Building ... response management system DC Survey 2013 NNSA ...

  2. Green Building Certification Systems Requirement for New Federal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Final Rule Green Building Certification Systems Requirement for New Federal Buildings and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings Final Rule Document details the Green Building ...

  3. Photovoltaic Powering And Control System For Electrochromic Windows

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schulz, Stephen C.; Michalski, Lech A.; Volltrauer, Hermann N.; Van Dine, John E.

    2000-04-25

    A sealed insulated glass unit is provided with an electrochromic device for modulating light passing through the unit. The electrochromic device is controlled from outside the unit by a remote control electrically unconnected to the device. Circuitry within the unit may be magnetically controlled from outside. The electrochromic device is powered by a photovoltaic cells. The photovoltaic cells may be positioned so that at least a part of the light incident on the cell passes through the electrochromic device, providing a form of feedback control. A variable resistance placed in parallel with the electrochromic element is used to control the response of the electrochromic element to changes in output of the photovoltaic cell.

  4. Valuation of Solar Photovoltaic Systems Using a Discounted Cash Flow Approach

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Valuation of Solar Photovoltaic Systems Using a Discounted Cash Flow Approach by Geoffrey T. Klise, Jamie L. Johnson, and Sandra K. Adomatis, SRA Solar energy systems include photovoltaic (PV) materials and devices that convert sunlight into electric energy; PV cells are commonly called solar cells. 1 The rate of PV system installations for residential and commercial markets has increased substantially over the past five years. Several reasons for the growth in PV installations include

  5. The Impact of Retail Rate Structures on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Golove, William

    2008-05-11

    This article examines the impact of retail electricity rate design on the economic value of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, focusing on commercial customers in California. Using 15-minute interval building load and PV production data from a sample of 24 actual commercial PV installations, we compare the value of the bill savings across 20 commercial-customer retail electricity rates currently offered in the state. Across all combinations of customers and rates, we find that the annual bill savings from PV, per kWh generated, ranges from $0.05/kWh to $0.24/kWh. This sizable range in rate-reduction value reflects differences in rate structures, revenue requirements, the size of the PV system relative to building load, and customer load shape. The most significant rate design issue for the value of commercial PV is found to be the percentage of total utility bills recovered through demand charges, though a variety of other factors are also found to be of importance. The value of net metering is found to be substantial, but only when commercial PV systems represent a sizable portion of annual customer load. Though the analysis presented here is specific to California, our general results demonstrate the fundamental importance of retail rate design for the customer-economics of grid-connected, customer-sited PV.

  6. The impact of retail rate structures on the economics of commercial photovoltaic systems in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Andrew D.; Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Golove, William

    2008-06-24

    This article examines the impact of retail electricity rate design on the economic value of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, focusing on commercial customers in California. Using 15-min interval building load and PV production data from a sample of 24 actual commercial PV installations, we compare the value of the bill savings across 20 commercial-customer retail electricity rates currently offered in the state. Across all combinations of customers and rates, we find that the annual bill savings from PV, per kWh generated, ranges from $0.05 to $0.24/kWh. This sizable range in rate-reduction value reflects differences in rate structures, revenue requirements, the size of the PV system relative to building load, and customer load shape. The most significant rate design issue for the value of commercial PV is found to be the percentage of total utility bills recovered through demand charges, though a variety of other factors are also found to be of importance. The value of net metering is found to be substantial, but only when energy from commercial PV systems represents a sizable portion of annual customer load. Though the analysis presented here is specific to California, our general results demonstrate the fundamental importance of retail rate design for the customer-economics of grid-connected, customer-sited PV.

  7. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for photovoltaic system modeling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, Clifford W.; Pohl, Andrew Phillip; Jordan, Dirk

    2013-12-01

    We report an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for modeling DC energy from photovoltaic systems. We consider two systems, each comprised of a single module using either crystalline silicon or CdTe cells, and located either at Albuquerque, NM, or Golden, CO. Output from a PV system is predicted by a sequence of models. Uncertainty in the output of each model is quantified by empirical distributions of each model's residuals. We sample these distributions to propagate uncertainty through the sequence of models to obtain an empirical distribution for each PV system's output. We considered models that: (1) translate measured global horizontal, direct and global diffuse irradiance to plane-of-array irradiance; (2) estimate effective irradiance from plane-of-array irradiance; (3) predict cell temperature; and (4) estimate DC voltage, current and power. We found that the uncertainty in PV system output to be relatively small, on the order of 1% for daily energy. Four alternative models were considered for the POA irradiance modeling step; we did not find the choice of one of these models to be of great significance. However, we observed that the POA irradiance model introduced a bias of upwards of 5% of daily energy which translates directly to a systematic difference in predicted energy. Sensitivity analyses relate uncertainty in the PV system output to uncertainty arising from each model. We found that the residuals arising from the POA irradiance and the effective irradiance models to be the dominant contributors to residuals for daily energy, for either technology or location considered. This analysis indicates that efforts to reduce the uncertainty in PV system output should focus on improvements to the POA and effective irradiance models.

  8. Photovoltaic array with minimally penetrating rooftop support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lenox, Carl J.S.

    2012-10-23

    A photovoltaic array including a plurality of photovoltaic assemblies and a plurality of mounting units. The mounting units each include an elongate rail and a plurality of leg assemblies. The rail is sized and configured to maintain a portion of at least two of the photovoltaic assemblies, with the leg assemblies extending from the rail in a spaced-apart fashion and terminating in a foot for placement against a rooftop structure for minimally penetration installation. Further, at least one of the leg assemblies can include a retractable leg. When the photovoltaic array is installed to a rooftop structure including a membrane intermittently secured to a rooftop deck, the retractable leg accommodates upward billowing of the membrane under windy conditions.

  9. Enhanced Reliability of Photovoltaic Systems with Energy Storage and Controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manz, D.; Schelenz, O.; Chandra, R.; Bose, S.; de Rooij, M.; Bebic, J.

    2008-02-01

    This report summarizes efforts to reconfigure loads during outages to allow individual customers the opportunity to enhance the reliability of their electric service through the management of their loads, photovoltaics, and energy storage devices.

  10. Photovoltaic balance-of-system designs and costs at PVUSA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reyes, A.B.; Jennings, C.

    1995-05-01

    This report is one in a series of 1994-1995 PVUSA reports that document PVUSA lessons learned at demonstration sites in California and Texas. During the last 7 years (1988 to 1994), 16 PV systems ranging from 20 kW to 500 kW have been installed. Six 20-kW emerging module technology (EMT) arrays and three turnkey (i.e., vendor designed and integrated) utility-scale systems were procured and installed at PVUSA`s main test site in Davis, California. PVUSA host utilities have installed a total of seven EMT arrays and utility-scale systems in their service areas. Additional systems at Davis and host utility sites are planned. One of PVUSA`s key objectives is to evaluate the performance, reliability, and cost of PV balance-of-system (BOS). In the procurement stage PVUSA encouraged innovative design to improve upon present practice by reducing maintenance, improving reliability, or lowering manufacturing or construction costs. The project team worked closely with suppliers during the design stage not only to ensure designs met functional and safety specifications, but to provide suggestions for improvement. This report, intended for the photovoltaic (PV) industry and for utility project managers and engineers considering PV plant construction and ownership, documents PVUSA utility-scale system design and cost lessons learned. Complementary PVUSA topical reports document: construction and safety experience; five-year assessment of EMTs; validation of the Kerman 500-kW grid-support PV plant benefits; PVUSA instrumentation and data analysis techniques; procurement, acceptance, and rating practices for PV power plants; experience with power conditioning units and power quality.

  11. Project Profile: Development of a Low-Cost Residential Plug-and-Play Photovoltaic System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    North Carolina State University FREEDM Systems Engineering Center and its partners, under the Plug-and-Play Photovoltaics FOA, are performing analysis, design, and innovation to address each stage...

  12. Retrospective Benefit-Cost Evaluation of DOE Investment in Photovoltaic Energy Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Retrospective Benefit-Cost Evaluation of DOE Investment in Photovoltaic Energy Systems, a report from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

  13. Retrospective Benefit-Cost Evaluation of DOE Investments in Photovoltaic Energy Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Retrospective Benefit-Cost Evaluation of DOE Investment in Photovoltaic Energy Systems, a report from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

  14. Local Option- Building Permit Fee Waivers for Renewable Energy Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Public Act 15-194 effective October 1st 2015, requires each municipality to incorporate residential solar photovoltaic systems on its building permit application process. The municipalities are...

  15. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Grupe,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SmartVent night ventilation cooling; and FreshVent continuous ventilation. ... Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 Building America Best ...

  16. Clark County- Solar and Wind Building Permit Guides

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Clark County, Nevada has established guides for obtaining building permits for wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) systems for both residential and commercial purposes. The guides outline applicable...

  17. Durability of Polymeric Encapsulation Materials for Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D. C.; Muller, M.; Kempe, M. D.; Araki, K.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-03-01

    Many concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems use a polymeric encapsulant to couple and optical component and/or coverglass to the cell. In that location, the encapsulation improves the transmission of concentrated optical flux through interface(s), while protecting the cell from the environment. The durability of encapsulation materials, however, is not well established relative to the desired service life of 30 years. Therefore, we have initiated a screen test to identify the field-induced failure modes for a variety of popular PV encapsulation materials. An existing CPV module (with no PV cells present) was modified to accommodate encapsulation specimens. The module (where nominal concentration of solar flux is 500x for the domed-Fresnel design) has been mounted on a tracker in Golden, CO (elevation 1.79 km). Initial results are reported here for 18 months cumulative exposure, including the hottest and coldest months of the past year. Characteristics observed at intervals during that time include: visual appearance, direct and hemispherical transmittance, and mass. Degradation may be assessed from subsequent analysis (including yellowness index and cut-on frequency) relative to the ambient conditions present during field exposure. The fluorescence signature observed of all the silicone specimens is examined here, including possible factors of causation -- the platinum catalyst used in the addition cured materials as well as the primer used to promote adhesion to the quartz substrate and superstrate.

  18. Building America Webinar: Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems Building America Webinar: Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems This webinar was presented by research team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), and reviewed findings from a feasibility study of ductless hydronic distribution systems in new homes and deep retrofits. File webinar_arbi_20111108.wmv More Documents & Publications Building America Webinar: National Residential Efficiency Measures Database Unveiled

  19. Building Management System Integrators | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Berkshire, England, United Kingdom Zip: SL1 5AU Product: Service and maintenance provider. References: Building Management System Integrators1 This article is a...

  20. Building America Systems Integration Research Annual Report:...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Building America Systems Integration Research Annual Report: ... fee to U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors, in ... the houses, and a utility usage database that captures ...

  1. Federal policies to promote the widespread utilization of photovoltaic systems. Supplement: review and critique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J.L.

    1980-04-15

    This document is intended as a supplement to the two-volume report entitled Federal Policies to Promote the Widespread Utilization of Photovoltaic Systems that was submitted to Congress by the Department of Energy in February and April of 1980. This supplement contains review comments prepared by knowledgeable experts who reviewed early drafts of the Congressional report. Responses to the review comments by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, preparer of the Congressional report, are also included in this supplement. The Congressional report, mandated in the Solar Photovoltaic Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-590), discusses various issues related to promoting the deployment of photovoltaic systems through the Federal Photovoltaic Program. Various program strategies and funding levels are examined.

  2. Quantifying Interannual Variability for Photovoltaic Systems in PVWatts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryberg, David Severin; Freeman, Janine; Blair, Nate

    2015-10-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) PVWatts is a relatively simple tool used by industry and individuals alike to easily estimate the amount of energy a photovoltaic (PV) system will produce throughout the course of a typical year. PVWatts Version 5 has previously been shown to be able to reasonably represent an operating system's output when provided with concurrent weather data, however this type of data is not available when estimating system output during future time frames. For this purpose PVWatts uses weather data from typical meteorological year (TMY) datasets which are available on the NREL website. The TMY files represent a statistically 'typical' year which by definition excludes anomalous weather patterns and as a result may not provide sufficient quantification of project risk to the financial community. It was therefore desired to quantify the interannual variability associated with TMY files in order to improve the understanding of risk associated with these projects. To begin to understand the interannual variability of a PV project, we simulated two archetypal PV system designs, which are common in the PV industry, in PVWatts using the NSRDB's 1961-1990 historical dataset. This dataset contains measured hourly weather data and spans the thirty years from 1961-1990 for 239 locations in the United States. To note, this historical dataset was used to compose the TMY2 dataset. Using the results of these simulations we computed several statistical metrics which may be of interest to the financial community and normalized the results with respect to the TMY energy prediction at each location, so that these results could be easily translated to similar systems. This report briefly describes the simulation process used and the statistical methodology employed for this project, but otherwise focuses mainly on a sample of our results. A short discussion of these results is also provided. It is our hope that this quantification of the interannual variability of PV systems will provide a starting point for variability considerations in future PV system designs and investigations. however this type of data is not available when estimating system output during future time frames.

  3. Advanced Residential Buildings Research; Electricity, Resources, & Building Systems Integration (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-09-01

    Factsheet describing the Advanced Residential Buildings Research group within NREL's Electricity, Resources, and Buildings Systems Integration Center.

  4. Advanced Commercial Buildings Research; Electricity, Resources, & Building Systems Integration (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-09-01

    Factsheet describing the Advanced Commercial Buildings Research group within NREL's Electricity, Resources, and Buildings Systems Integration Center.

  5. Building Controls and Lighting Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presentation to State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB) February 22, 2011 Francis Rubinstein Lead, Lighting Group Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory fmrubinstein@lbl.gov Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory U.S. Building End Use Energy Consumption Buildings consume 40% of Building
sector
has:
 total U.S. energy Largest
Energy
Use!
 * 71% of electricity *54% of natural gas No Single End Use Dominates Fastest
growth
rate!
 Lawrence

  6. US manufacturers of commercially available stand-alone photovoltaic lighting systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNutt, P.

    1994-05-01

    This report introduces photovoltaic (PV) lighting systems, gives some specifications for ordering these systems, and provides a list of some of the manufacturers of these systems in the United States. These PV lighting systems are all commercially available. They are stand-alone systems because they are not tied to the electric utility power grid.

  7. See-through amorphous silicon solar cells with selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal back reflectors for building integrated photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yang; OBrien, Paul G.; Materials Chemistry Research Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 ; Ozin, Geoffrey A. E-mail: kherani@ecf.utoronto.ca; Kherani, Nazir P. E-mail: kherani@ecf.utoronto.ca

    2013-11-25

    Thin semi-transparent hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells with selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal (STCPC) back-reflectors are demonstrated. Short circuit current density of a 135?nm thick a-Si:H cell with a given STCPC back-reflector is enhanced by as much as 23% in comparison to a reference cell with an ITO film functioning as its rear contact. Concurrently, solar irradiance of 295?W/m{sup 2} and illuminance of 3480 lux are transmitted through the cell with a given STCPC back reflector under AM1.5 Global tilt illumination, indicating its utility as a source of space heating and lighting, respectively, in building integrated photovoltaic applications.

  8. Effect of Component Failures on Economics of Distributed Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lubin, Barry T.

    2012-02-02

    This report describes an applied research program to assess the realistic costs of grid connected photovoltaic (PV) installations. A Board of Advisors was assembled that included management from the regional electric power utilities, as well as other participants from companies that work in the electric power industry. Although the program started with the intention of addressing effective load carrying capacity (ELCC) for utility-owned photovoltaic installations, results from the literature study and recommendations from the Board of Advisors led investigators to the conclusion that obtaining effective data for this analysis would be difficult, if not impossible. The effort was then re-focused on assessing the realistic costs and economic valuations of grid-connected PV installations. The 17 kW PV installation on the University of Hartford's Lincoln Theater was used as one source of actual data. The change in objective required a more technically oriented group. The re-organized working group (changes made due to the need for more technically oriented participants) made site visits to medium-sized PV installations in Connecticut with the objective of developing sources of operating histories. An extensive literature review helped to focus efforts in several technical and economic subjects. The objective of determining the consequences of component failures on both generation and economic returns required three analyses. The first was a Monte-Carlo-based simulation model for failure occurrences and the resulting downtime. Published failure data, though limited, was used to verify the results. A second model was developed to predict the reduction in or loss of electrical generation related to the downtime due to these failures. Finally, a comprehensive economic analysis, including these failures, was developed to determine realistic net present values of installed PV arrays. Two types of societal benefits were explored, with quantitative valuations developed for both. Some societal benefits associated with financial benefits to the utility of having a distributed generation capacity that is not fossil-fuel based have been included into the economic models. Also included and quantified in the models are several benefits to society more generally: job creation and some estimates of benefits from avoiding greenhouse emissions. PV system failures result in a lowering of the economic values of a grid-connected system, but this turned out to be a surprisingly small effect on the overall economics. The most significant benefit noted resulted from including the societal benefits accrued to the utility. This provided a marked increase in the valuations of the array and made the overall value proposition a financially attractive one, in that net present values exceeded installation costs. These results indicate that the Department of Energy and state regulatory bodies should consider focusing on societal benefits that create economic value for the utility, confirm these quantitative values, and work to have them accepted by the utilities and reflected in the rate structures for power obtained from grid-connected arrays. Understanding and applying the economic benefits evident in this work can significantly improve the business case for grid-connected PV installations. This work also indicates that the societal benefits to the population are real and defensible, but not nearly as easy to justify in a business case as are the benefits that accrue directly to the utility.

  9. Solar Photovoltaic Economic Development: Building and Growing a Local PV Industry, August 2011 (Book)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. photovoltaic (PV) industry is forecast to grow, and it represents an opportunity for economic development and job creation in communities throughout the United States. This report helps U.S. cities evaluate economic opportunities in the PV industry. It serves as a guide for local economic development offices in evaluating their community?s competitiveness in the solar PV industry, assessing the viability of solar PV development goals, and developing strategies for recruiting and retaining PV companies to their areas.

  10. The interconnection of photovoltaic power systems with the utility grid: An overview for utility engineers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wills, R.H.

    1994-06-01

    Utility-interactive (UI) photovoltaic power systems mounted on residences and commercial buildings are likely to become a small, but important source of electric generation in the next century. This is a new concept in utility power production--a change from large-scale central generation to small-scale dispersed generation. As such, it requires a re-examination of many existing standards and practices to enable the technology to develop and emerge into the marketplace. Much work has been done over the last 20 years to identify and solve the potential problems associated with dispersed power generation systems. This report gives an overview of these issues and also provides a guide to applicable codes, standards and other related documents. The main conclusion that can be drawn from this work is that there are no major technical barriers to the implementation of dispersed PV generating systems. While more technical research is needed in some specific areas, the remaining barriers are fundamentally price and policy.

  11. Intermediate photovoltaic system application experiment operational performance report. Volume 3. For G. N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital, Kauai, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    Presented are the project description, list of participants, and system specifications for the intermediate photovoltaic project at G.N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital, Kauai, Hawaii.

  12. High Penetration of Photovoltaic (PV) Systems into the Distribution Grid, Workshop Report, February 24-25, 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-06-01

    Outcomes from the EERE Solar Energy Technologies Program workshop on high penetration of photovoltaic (PV) systems into the distribution grid, Feb. 24-25, 2009, Ontario, Calif.

  13. Green Building Certification Systems Requirement for New Federal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    OIRA Comparison Document Green Building Certification Systems Requirement for New Federal Buildings and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings OIRA Comparison Document Document ...

  14. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-02-26

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  15. Integration of Photovoltaics into Building Energy Usage through Advanced Control of Rooftop Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starke, Michael R; Nutaro, James J; Irminger, Philip; Ollis, Benjamin; Kuruganti, Phani Teja; Fugate, David L

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a computational approach to forecast photovoltaic (PV) power in kW based on a neural network linkage of publicly available cloud cover data and on-site solar irradiance sensor data. We also describe a control approach to utilize rooftop air conditioning units (RTUs) to support renewable integration. The PV forecasting method is validated using data from a rooftop PV panel installed on the Distributed Energy, Communications, and Controls (DECC) laboratory at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The validation occurs in multiple phases to ensure that each component of the approach is the best representation of the actual expected output. The control of the RTU is based on model predictive methods.

  16. Photovoltaic power converter system with a controller configured to actively compensate load harmonics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    de Rooij, Michael Andrew; Steigerwald, Robert Louis; Delgado, Eladio Clemente

    2008-12-16

    Photovoltaic power converter system including a controller configured to reduce load harmonics is provided. The system comprises a photovoltaic array and an inverter electrically coupled to the array to generate an output current for energizing a load connected to the inverter and to a mains grid supply voltage. The system further comprises a controller including a first circuit coupled to receive a load current to measure a harmonic current in the load current. The controller includes a second circuit to generate a fundamental reference drawn by the load. The controller further includes a third circuit for combining the measured harmonic current and the fundamental reference to generate a command output signal for generating the output current for energizing the load connected to the inverter. The photovoltaic system may be configured to compensate harmonic currents that may be drawn by the load.

  17. Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruch, Russell; Ludwig, Peter; Maurer, Tessa

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution, and controls. The imbalance leads to tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity, and inefficient building operation. This research, conducted by Building America team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs. The team surveyed existing knowledge on cost-effective retrofits for optimizing distribution in typical multifamily hydronic systems, with the aim of identifying common situations and solutions, and then conducted case studies on two Chicago area buildings with known balancing issues in order to quantify the extent of temperature imbalance. At one of these buildings a booster pump was installed on a loop to an underheated wing of the building. This study found that unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary as much as 61°F, particularly if windows are opened or tenants use intermittent supplemental heating sources like oven ranges. Average temperature spread at the building as a result of this retrofit decreased from 22.1°F to 15.5°F.

  18. NREL: Technology Deployment - Building Energy Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Building Energy Systems NREL experts develop comprehensive energy assessments, models, and tools to optimize building systems across energy efficiency and renewable energy while also improving occupant comfort, safety, and productivity. Northeast Denver Housing Center Northeast Denver Housing Center NREL Identifies PV for 28 Affordable Housing Units Boulder County Housing Authority Boulder County Housing Authority NREL Recommendations Lead to 153 Net Zero Energy Residences Expertise and

  19. Building Systems Diagnostics and Predictive Maintenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Pratt, Robert G.; Braun, J.

    2001-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the development of methods and tools for automated fault detection and diagnostics (FDD) of building systems and components in the 1990s. This chapter, written for the CRC Handbook for HVAC&R Engineering, will describe the status of these methods and and methodologies as applied to HVAC&R and building systems and present certain illustrative case studies.

  20. SolarTile: A rooftop integrated photovoltaic system. Phase 1, final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-03-26

    AstroPower, Royal Group Technologies, and Solar Design Associates are jointly developing an integrated photovoltaic roofing system for residential and light commercial building applications. This family of products will rely heavily on the technological development of a roofing tile made from recycled plastic and innovative module fabrication and encapsulation processes in conjunction with an advanced Silicon-Film{trademark} solar cell product. This solar power generating roofing product is presently being referred to as the SolarTile. A conceptual drawing of the solar roofing tile is shown. The SolarTile will be integrated with non-solar tiles in a single roof installation permitting ease of assembly and the ability to use conventional roofing techniques at ridges, valleys, and eaves. The Phase 1 effort included tasks aimed at the development of the proposed product concept; product manufacturing or fabrication, and installation cost estimates; business planning; and a market assessment of the proposed product, including target selling prices, target market sectors, size estimates for each market sector, and planned distribution mechanisms for market penetration. Technical goals as stated in the Phase 1 proposal and relevant progress are reported.

  1. Detailed Photovoltaic Analysis Simulation Spreadsheet

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-12-31

    The software calculates photovoltaic system energy and financial performance via the utilization of very detailed parameters.

  2. Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruch, R.; Ludwig, P.; Maurer, T.

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution and controls. The effects of imbalance include tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity and inefficient building operation. This paper explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs. The research was conducted by The Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) in conjunction with Elevate Energy. The team surveyed existing knowledge on cost-effective retrofits for optimizing distribution in typical multifamily hydronic systems, with the aim of identifying common situations and solutions, and then conducted case studies on two Chicago area buildings with known balancing issues in order to quantify the extent of temperature imbalance. At one of these buildings a booster pump was installed on a loop to an underheated wing of the building. This study found that unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary as much as 61 degrees F, particularly if windows are opened or tenants use intermittent supplemental heating sources like oven ranges. Average temperature spread at the building as a result of this retrofit decreased from 22.1 degrees F to 15.5 degrees F.

  3. Durability of Polymeric Encapsulation Materials for Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D. C.; Kempe, M. D.; Araki, K.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2011-02-01

    Polymeric encapsulation materials are typically used in concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) modules to protect the cell from the field environment. Because it is physically located adjacent to the cell, the encapsulation is exposed to a high optical flux, often including light in the ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) wavelengths. The durability of encapsulants used in CPV modules is critical to the technology, but is presently not well understood. This work seeks to identify the appropriate material types, field-induced failure mechanisms, and factors of influence (if possible) of polymeric encapsulation. These results will ultimately be weighed against those of future qualification and accelerated life test procedures.

  4. Experimental investigation on the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system on water-heating mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Guiyin; Hu, Hainan; Liu, Xu

    2010-09-15

    An experimental study on operation performance of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was conducted in this paper. The experimental system of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure, the condensation pressure and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump air-conditioning system, the water temperature and receiving heat capacity in water heater, the photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and the photovoltaic efficiency were investigated. The experimental results show that the mean photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar heat pump air-conditioning system reaches 10.4%, and can improve 23.8% in comparison with that of the conventional photovoltaic module, the mean COP of heat pump air-conditioning system may attain 2.88 and the water temperature in water heater can increase to 42 C. These results indicate that the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system has better performances and can stably work. (author)

  5. Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems June 24, 2012 - 1:50pm Addthis Photo Credit:...

  6. Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Michael ...

  7. Quality Management System Guidelines - Building America Top Innovation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Quality Management System Guidelines - Building America Top Innovation Quality Management System Guidelines - Building America Top Innovation Effec guid-quality-mgnt.png The ...

  8. Advanced Framing Systems and Packages - Building America Top...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Framing Systems and Packages - Building America Top Innovation Advanced Framing Systems and Packages - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows advanced framing ...

  9. Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Emerging ...

  10. Hybrid solar thermal-photovoltaic systems demonstration, Phase I and II. Final technical progress report, July 5, 1979-December 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loferski, J.J.

    1983-12-01

    The purpose of the project is to investigate a system based on combined photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) panels to supply the energy needs of a small single family residence. The system finally selected and constructed uses PV/T panels which utilize air as the heat transfer medium. Optimization of thermal performance was accomplished by attaching metal fins to the back surface of each cell which significantly increased the heat transfer coefficient from the solar cells to the air stream. The other major components of the selected system are an air-to-air heat pump, a rock bin thermal energy storage bin, a synchronous dc-to-ac converter, a microprocessor to control the system, a heat exchanger for the domestic hot water system and of course the building itself which is a one story, well insulated structure having a floor area of 1200 ft/sup 2/. A prototype collector was constructed and tested. Based on this experience, twenty collectors, containing 2860 four inch diameter solar cells, were constructed and installed on the building. Performance of the system was simulated using a TRNSYS-derived program, modified to accommodate PV/T panels and to include the particular components included in the selected system. Simulation of the performance showed that about 65 percent of the total annual energy needs of the building would be provided by the PV/T system. Of this total, about one half is produced at a time when it can be used in the building and one half must be sold back to the utility.

  11. Solar Design Standards for State Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    From 2010 to 2012, solar photovoltaic systems have been installed at seven state government facilities, providing an estimated 650 kW of power. In one building, a 50 kW system has reduced energy ...

  12. Case Study: Mobile Photovoltaic System at Bechler Meadows Ranger Station, Yellowstone National Park

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Case study describes the performance of a mobile photovoltaic system installed in 2011 to provide power to Bechler Ranger Station in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. This small, remote outpost is not served by the electric utility grid and previously relied on a propane generator as the only source of power.

  13. Recommendations for Maximizing Battery Life in Photovoltaic Systems: A Review of Lessons Learned

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Notes, observations and recommendations about the use of batteries in small stand-alone photovoltaic system drawn from over a decade of research at FSEC. The most critical findings were battery life and the importance of an adequate PV array-to-load ratio.

  14. Building International Emergency Management Systems | National Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Administration Building International Emergency Management Systems NNSA helps nations develop the core elements of an emergency response program. Based on preliminary discussions with counterparts, NNSA develops emergency management programs with partner nations to exchange views and enhance development of effective emergency management systems. Generally, NNSA will assist foreign governments and international organizations with integration of emergency-program core elements,

  15. Towards SustainabilityGreen Building, Sustainability Objectives, and Building America Whole House Systems Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2008-02-01

    This paper discusses Building America whole-house systems research within the broad effort to reduce or eliminate the environmental impact of building and provides specific recommendations for future Building America research based on Building Science Corporations experience with several recent projects involving green home building programs.

  16. Field Test and Evaluation Report Five Photovoltaic Power Systems for the City of Tucson

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Members of the DOE solar energy Tiger Team tested five municipally owned, grid connected photovoltaic (PV) power systems for the City of Tucson on March 26 and 27, 2008. The five PV systems tested were Southeast Service Center, Clements Fitness Center, and Thonydale water treatment plant systems 1, 2, and 3. During all tests, skies were virtually cloudless with only occasional, high cirrus present, and none during array testing.

  17. NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) Report - Fraunhofer ISE and NREL Analyze Status of Market and Technology February 4, 2015 The German Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems...

  18. Photovoltaic device and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cleereman, Robert J; Lesniak, Michael J; Keenihan, James R; Langmaid, Joe A; Gaston, Ryan; Eurich, Gerald K; Boven, Michelle L

    2015-01-27

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PVD") and method of use, more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with an integral locator and electrical terminal mechanism for transferring current to or from the improved photovoltaic device and the use as a system.

  19. Photovoltaic device and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cleereman, Robert; Lesniak, Michael J.; Keenihan, James R.; Langmaid, Joe A.; Gaston, Ryan; Eurich, Gerald K.; Boven, Michelle L.

    2015-11-24

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PVD") and method of use, more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with an integral locator and electrical terminal mechanism for transferring current to or from the improved photovoltaic device and the use as a system.

  20. LBNL: High Performance Active Perimeter Building Systems - 2015 Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy High Performance Active Perimeter Building Systems - 2015 Peer Review LBNL: High Performance Active Perimeter Building Systems - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Eleanor Lee, LBNL View the Presentation PDF icon LBNL: High Performance Active Perimeter Building Systems - 2015 Peer Review More Documents & Publications FLEXLAB Connected Buildings Interoperability Vision Webinar 2015 DOE CONNECTED LIGHTING SYSTEMS PRESENTATIONS

  1. EMBODY(Environmental Modules Build System Software)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-02-09

    Embody (Environment Modules Build) is a software build tool with integrated support for the environment-modules package. The tool eases and automates the task of building and installing software packages from source or binary distributions, as well as the management of associated modulefiles. An administrator or software pool maintainer has to write a brief script for the installation process. These steps are usually described for manual execution, in a package's README or INSTALL file. It wouldmore » be up to the site administrator to work out a procedure to capture the steps taken. This tool: streamlines and codifies the installation tasks in a common framework; it provides a self-documenting and unified way for maintaining package installations; uses bash shell variables and functions for portability; keeps log files of the proceedings. It is similar in intent and function to other existing tools, such as RPM, but has several novel features tailored for High Performance Computing (HPC) software deployments. The design goal is simplicity and decoupling from RPM's dependencies and its database, which enables coexistence of several builds. Useful on HPC systems, new builds can be deployed centrally to shared file systems and without affecting running jobs.« less

  2. Energy Management Systems Package for Small Commercial Buildings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Building America System Research Multi-Function Fuel-Fired Heat Pump - 2013 Peer Review Buildings Performance Database - 2013 BTO Peer

  3. Proceedings of the flat-plate solar array project research forum on photovoltaic metallization systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1983-11-15

    A Photovoltaic Metallization Research Forum, under the sponsorship of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Flat-Plate Solar Array Project and the US Department of Energy, was held March 16-18, 1983 at Pine Mountain, Georgia. The Forum consisted of five sessions, covering (1) the current status of metallization systems, (2) system design, (3) thick-film metallization, (4) advanced techniques and (5) future metallization challenges. Twenty-three papers were presented.

  4. Utility-Interconnected Photovoltaic Systems: Evaluating the Rationale for the Utility-Accessible External Disconnect Switch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M.; Margolis, R.M.; Aabakken, J.

    2008-01-01

    The utility-accessible alternating current (AC) external disconnect switch (EDS) for distributed generators, including photovoltaic (PV) systems, is a hardware feature that allows a utility?s employees to manually disconnect a customer-owned generator from the electricity grid. This paper examines the utility-accessible EDS debate in the context of utility-interactive PV systems for residential and small commercial installations. It also evaluates the rationale for EDS requirements.

  5. System for characterizing semiconductor materials and photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1996-01-01

    Apparatus for detecting and mapping defects in the surfaces of polycrystalline material in a manner that distinguishes dislocation pits from grain boundaries includes a first laser of a first wavelength for illuminating a wide spot on the surface of the material, a second laser of a second relatively shorter wavelength for illuminating a relatively narrower spot on the surface of the material, a light integrating sphere with apertures for capturing light scattered by etched dislocation pits in an intermediate range away from specular reflection while allowing light scattered by etched grain boundaries in a near range from specular reflection to pass through, and optical detection devices for detecting and measuring intensities of the respective intermediate scattered light and near specular scattered light. A center blocking aperture or filter can be used to screen out specular reflected light, which would be reflected by nondefect portions of the polycrystalline material surface. An X-Y translation stage for mounting the polycrystalline material and signal processing and computer equipment accommodate raster mapping, recording, and displaying of respective dislocation and grain boundary defect densities. A special etch procedure is included, which prepares the polycrystalline material surface to produce distinguishable intermediate and near specular light scattering in patterns that have statistical relevance to the dislocation and grain boundary defect densities. A reflectance measurement of the piece of material is obtained by adding together the signals from the optical detection devices. In the case where the piece of material includes a photovoltaic device, the current induced in the device by the illuminating light can be measured with a current sensing amplifier after the light integrating sphere is moved away from the device.

  6. System for characterizing semiconductor materials and photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.

    1996-12-03

    Apparatus for detecting and mapping defects in the surfaces of polycrystalline material in a manner that distinguishes dislocation pits from grain boundaries includes a first laser of a first wavelength for illuminating a wide spot on the surface of the material, a second laser of a second relatively shorter wavelength for illuminating a relatively narrower spot on the surface of the material, a light integrating sphere with apertures for capturing light scattered by etched dislocation pits in an intermediate range away from specular reflection while allowing light scattered by etched grain boundaries in a near range from specular reflection to pass through, and optical detection devices for detecting and measuring intensities of the respective intermediate scattered light and near specular scattered light. A center blocking aperture or filter can be used to screen out specular reflected light, which would be reflected by nondefect portions of the polycrystalline material surface. An X-Y translation stage for mounting the polycrystalline material and signal processing and computer equipment accommodate raster mapping, recording, and displaying of respective dislocation and grain boundary defect densities. A special etch procedure is included, which prepares the polycrystalline material surface to produce distinguishable intermediate and near specular light scattering in patterns that have statistical relevance to the dislocation and grain boundary defect densities. A reflectance measurement of the piece of material is obtained by adding together the signals from the optical detection devices. In the case where the piece of material includes a photovoltaic device, the current induced in the device by the illuminating light can be measured with a current sensing amplifier after the light integrating sphere is moved away from the device. 22 figs.

  7. Status report on a solar photovoltaic concentrating energy system for a hospital in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seki, A.; Curtis, G.; Yuen, P.

    1983-06-01

    The largest parabolic concentrating photovoltaic/solar thermal system in the U.S. began producing electricity and hot water for a hospital on the island of Kauai, Hawaii in November 1981. Each of the 80 parabolic collectors is 6 feet by 10 feet and concentrates incident sunlight on photovoltaic cells mounted on two faces of the receiver at the focus. Although the 35 kilowatt system has been designed to produce 22,000 net kilowatt-hours per year of electricity and 620,000 gallons of 180 F water, electrical output (12 to 15 kilowatt-hours per day) is only 20 percent of that expected, primarily because insolation at the site has been only 40 percent of predicted values. A second problem with fungal attack on the receivers has been solved by better sealing. The system has also withstood a hurricane with negligible damage.

  8. A 10kW photovoltaic/hybrid system for Pinnacles National Monument

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ball, T.J.; DeNio, D.

    1997-12-31

    Visitors to the Chaparral area of the Pinnacles National Monument now can enjoy this beautiful section of the park without the constant drone of diesel generators, thanks to a recently installed photovoltaic/hybrid system. Electrical power had been supplied by two 100 KW diesel generators operating 24 hours per day. The diesels were running lightly loaded resulting in poor efficiency and high operating cost. Applied Power Corporation under contract with the National Park Service designed and supplied a 10 KW photovoltaic array, 200 KW hr battery bank and 24 KW of inverters to power the maintenance facility, visitor center and ranger residences. A new 20 KW propane generator was installed to provide supplemental power, totally eliminating the storage and transport of diesel fuel at this site. The Pinnacles PV/Hybrid system was brought on line in early 1996 and the park is now benefiting from the cost savings associated with the system.

  9. A reliability and availability sensitivity study of a large photovoltaic system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Granata, Jennifer E.; Mundt, Michael Joseph; Miller, Steven P.; Quintana, Michael A.; Collins, Elmer W.; Sorensen, Neil Robert

    2010-08-01

    A reliability and availability model has been developed for a portion of the 4.6 megawatt (MWdc) photovoltaic system operated by Tucson Electric Power (TEP) at Springerville, Arizona using a commercially available software tool, GoldSim{trademark}. This reliability model has been populated with life distributions and repair distributions derived from data accumulated during five years of operation of this system. This reliability and availability model was incorporated into another model that simulated daily and seasonal solar irradiance and photovoltaic module performance. The resulting combined model allows prediction of kilowatt hour (kWh) energy output of the system based on availability of components of the system, solar irradiance, and module and inverter performance. This model was then used to study the sensitivity of energy output as a function of photovoltaic (PV) module degradation at different rates and the effect of location (solar irradiance). Plots of cumulative energy output versus time for a 30 year period are provided for each of these cases.

  10. New York City- Property Tax Abatement for Photovoltaic (PV) Equipment Expenditures

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In August 2008 the State of New York enacted legislation allowing a property tax abatement for photovoltaic (PV) system expenditures made on buildings located in cities with a population of 1 mil...

  11. The Impact of Retail Rate Structure on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impact of Retail Rate Structure on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California Ryan Wiser, Andrew Mills, Galen Barbose & William Golove State Energy Advisory Board Meeting Berkeley, CA August 14, 2007 The Electricity Markets and Policy Group Conducts research and provides assistance to policy makers on issues related to: ¾ Energy Efficiency and Demand Response (Chuck Goldman) - Tracking industry trends - Program administration, planning, implementation, and evaluation -

  12. Ball State building massive geothermal system

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ball State University is building America’s largest ground source district geothermal heating and cooling system. The new operation will save the school millions of dollars, slash greenhouse gases and create jobs. The project will also “expand how America will define the use of geothermal technology on a district-wide scale,” and provide health benefits such as reducing asthma rates for Indiana residents, says Philip Sachtleben, Ball State’s associate vice president of governmental relations. The system will cool and heat nearly 50 buildings on Ball State’s Muncie, Ind., campus, replace four coal-burning boilers and span more than 600 acres. The switch to geothermal will save the university $2.2 million in fuel costs and cut its carbon footprint in half.

  13. Chapter 5 - Increasing Efficiency of Buildings Systems and Technologies |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 5 - Increasing Efficiency of Buildings Systems and Technologies Chapter 5 - Increasing Efficiency of Buildings Systems and Technologies Chapter 5 - Increasing Efficiency of Buildings Systems and Technologies The buildings sector accounts for about 76%* of electricity use and 40% of all U.S. primary energy use and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, making it essential to reduce energy consumption in buildings in order to meet national energy and environmental

  14. Solar Leasing for Residential Photovoltaic Systems (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-02-01

    This publication examines the solar lease option for residential PV systems and describes two solar lease programs already in place.

  15. Unified HVAC and Refrigeration Control Systems for Small Footprint...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    refrigeration systems and integrate photovoltaic sources Key Issues: Low-cost, "low-touch" retrofit of control technology into buildings and refrigeration systems to facilitate ...

  16. Residential Photovoltaic Energy Systems in California: The Effect on Home Sales Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoen, Ben; Wiser, Ryan; Thayer, Mark; Cappers, Peter

    2012-04-15

    Relatively little research exists estimating the marginal impacts of photovoltaic (PV) energy systems on home sale prices. Using a large dataset of California homes that sold from 2000 through mid-2009, we find strong evidence, despite a variety of robustness checks, that existing homes with PV systems sold for a premium over comparable homes without PV systems, implying a near full return on investment. Premiums for new homes are found to be considerably lower than those for existing homes, implying, potentially, a tradeoff between price and sales velocity. The results have significant implications for homeowners, builders, appraisers, lenders, and policymakers.

  17. Energy Department Issues Green Building Certification System Final Rule to

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Support Increased Energy Measurement and Efficient Building Design | Department of Energy Green Building Certification System Final Rule to Support Increased Energy Measurement and Efficient Building Design Energy Department Issues Green Building Certification System Final Rule to Support Increased Energy Measurement and Efficient Building Design October 10, 2014 - 9:37am Addthis Supporting the Obama Administration's goal to reduce carbon emissions and protect the environment, the Energy

  18. Acoustic Building Infiltration Measurement System/Sonic Leak Quantifier |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne National Laboratory Acoustic Building Infiltration Measurement System/Sonic Leak Quantifier Acoustic Building Infiltration Measurement System/Sonic Leak Quantifier Building infiltration, the uncontrolled leakage of air in and out of a building envelope, accounts for a significant portion of the heating and cooling energy for buildings and is estimated to account for nearly 4% of all energy use in the United States. Infiltration can be measured on residential and small commercial

  19. ENERGY STAR Webinar: ENERGY STAR and Green Building Rating Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ENERGY STAR and Green Building Rating Systems ENERGY STAR Webinar: ENERGY STAR and Green Building Rating Systems October 13, 2015 2:00PM to 3:00PM EDT Online Hosted by the U.S....

  20. Utility-Interconnected Photovoltaic Systems STEVENS III,JOHN...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    STEVENS III,JOHN W.; BONN,RUSSELL H.; GINN,JERRY W.; GONZALEZ,SIGIFREDO; KERN,GREG 14 SOLAR ENERGY; 24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; INTERCONNECTED POWER SYSTEMS;...

  1. Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems Photo Credit: iStockphoto Photo Credit: iStockphoto Before installing a solar water heating system, you should investigate local building codes, zoning ordinances, and subdivision covenants, as well as any special regulations pertaining to the site. You will probably need a building permit to install a solar energy system onto an existing building. Not every

  2. Photovoltaic technology assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backus, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    After a brief review of the history of photovoltaic devices and a discussion of the cost goals set for photovoltaic modules, the status of photovoltaic technology is assessed. Included are discussions of: current applications, present industrial production, low-cost silicon production techniques, energy payback periods for solar cells, advanced materials research and development, concentrator systems, balance-of-system components. Also discussed are some nontechnical aspects, including foreign markets, US government program approach, and industry attitudes and approaches. (LEW)

  3. Energy 101: Solar Photovoltaics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    February 10, 2011 - 5:29pm Addthis Learn more about photovoltaic systems that convert ... What are the key facts? The literal translation of the word photovoltaic is ...

  4. Light-splitting photovoltaic system utilizing two dual-junction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiong, Kanglin; Yang, Hui; Lu, Shulong; Dong, Jianrong; Zhou, Taofei; Wang, Rongxin; Jiang, Desheng

    2010-12-15

    There are many difficulties limiting the further development of monolithic multi-junction solar cells, such as the growth of lattice-mismatched material and the current matching constraint. As an alternative approach, the light-splitting photovoltaic system is investigated intensively in different aspects, including the energy loss mechanism and the choice of energy bandgaps of solar cells. Based on the investigation, a two-dual junction system has been implemented employing lattice-matched GaInP/GaAs and InGaAsP/InGaAs cells grown epitaxially on GaAs and InP substrates, respectively. (author)

  5. Generic Photovoltaic System Models for WECC - A Status Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Generation Generation Southeastern’s Power Operations employees perform the tasks of declaring, scheduling, dispatching, and accounting for capacity and energy generated at the 22 hydroelectric projects in the agency’s 11-state marketing area. Southeastern has Certified System Operators, meeting the criteria set forth by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation. Southeastern's Power Operations employees perform the tasks of declaring, scheduling, dispatching, and accounting

  6. Building Energy Information Systems: User Case Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granderson, Jessica; Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish

    2010-03-22

    Measured energy performance data are essential to national efforts to improve building efficiency, as evidenced in recent benchmarking mandates, and in a growing body of work that indicates the value of permanent monitoring and energy information feedback. This paper presents case studies of energy information systems (EIS) at four enterprises and university campuses, focusing on the attained energy savings, and successes and challenges in technology use and integration. EIS are broadly defined as performance monitoring software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems to store, analyze and display building energy information. Case investigations showed that the most common energy savings and instances of waste concerned scheduling errors, measurement and verification, and inefficient operations. Data quality is critical to effective EIS use, and is most challenging at the subsystem or component level, and with non-electric energy sources. Sophisticated prediction algorithms may not be well understood but can be applied quite effectively, and sites with custom benchmark models or metrics are more likely to perform analyses external to the EIS. Finally, resources and staffing were identified as a universal challenge, indicating a need to identify additional models of EIS use that extend beyond exclusive in-house use, to analysis services.

  7. Photovoltaic Solar Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Photovoltaic Solar Projects Photovoltaic Solar Projects Photovoltaic Solar Projects Photovoltaic Solar Projects Photovoltaic Solar Projects Photovoltaic Solar Projects Photovoltaic ...

  8. Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems The webinar was presented on January 21, 2015, and focused on the ...

  9. PROJECT PROFILE: Dynamic Building Load Control to Facilitate High Penetration of Solar Photovoltaic Generation (SuNLaMP)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project aims to develop, demonstrate, and validate a sensing and control mechanism for using power loads to address variable photovoltaic (PV) generation, which will reduce two-way power flow and mitigate voltage instability on distribution level circuits. The availability of this technology will enable increased penetration of renewables while weakening the challenges that arise due to their intermittency in generation by using flexibility on load side.

  10. Financing, Overhead, and Profit: An In-Depth Discussion of Costs Associated with Third-Party Financing of Residential and Commercial Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, D.; Friedman, B.; Margolis, R.

    2013-10-01

    Previous work quantifying the non-hardware balance-of-system costs -- or soft costs -- associated with building a residential or commercial photovoltaic (PV) system has left a significant portion unsegmented in an 'other soft costs' category. This report attempts to better quantify the 'other soft costs' by focusing on the financing, overhead, and profit of residential and commercial PV installations for a specific business model. This report presents results from a bottom-up data-collection and analysis of the upfront costs associated with developing, constructing, and arranging third-party-financed residential and commercial PV systems. It quantifies the indirect corporate costs required to install distributed PV systems as well as the transactional costs associated with arranging third-party financing.

  11. Chapter 5: Increasing Efficiency of Building Systems and Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5: Increasing Efficiency of Building Systems and Technologies September 2015 Quadrennial Technology Review 5 Increasing Efficiency of Building Systems and Technologies Issues and RDD&D Opportunities The buildings sector accounts for about 76% of electricity use and 40% of all U. S. primary energy use and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, making it essential to reduce energy consumption in buildings in order to meet national energy and environmental challenges (Chapter 1) and to

  12. A View on Future Building System Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetter, Michael

    2011-04-01

    This chapter presents what a future environment for building system modeling and simulation may look like. As buildings continue to require increased performance and better comfort, their energy and control systems are becoming more integrated and complex. We therefore focus in this chapter on the modeling, simulation and analysis of building energy and control systems. Such systems can be classified as heterogeneous systems because they involve multiple domains, such as thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, electrical systems, control systems and communication systems. Also, they typically involve multiple temporal and spatial scales, and their evolution can be described by coupled differential equations, discrete equations and events. Modeling and simulating such systems requires a higher level of abstraction and modularisation to manage the increased complexity compared to what is used in today's building simulation programs. Therefore, the trend towards more integrated building systems is likely to be a driving force for changing the status quo of today's building simulation programs. Thischapter discusses evolving modeling requirements and outlines a path toward a future environment for modeling and simulation of heterogeneous building systems.A range of topics that would require many additional pages of discussion has been omitted. Examples include computational fluid dynamics for air and particle flow in and around buildings, people movement, daylight simulation, uncertainty propagation and optimisation methods for building design and controls. For different discussions and perspectives on the future of building modeling and simulation, we refer to Sahlin (2000), Augenbroe (2001) and Malkawi and Augenbroe (2004).

  13. Do Photovoltaic Energy Systems Effect Residential Selling Prices? Results from a California Statewide Investigation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoen, Ben; Cappers, Pete; Wiser, Ryan; Thayer, Mark

    2011-04-12

    An increasing number of homes in the U.S. have sold with photovoltaic (PV) energy systems installed at the time of sale, yet relatively little research exists that provides estimates of the marginal impacts of those PV systems on home sale prices. This research analyzes a large dataset of California homes that sold from 2000 through mid-2009 with PV installed. We find strong evidence that homes with PV systems sold for a premium over comparable homes without PV systems during this time frame. Estimates for this premium expressed in dollars per watt of installed PV range, from roughly $4 to $6.4/watt across the full dataset, to approximately $2.3/watt for new homes, to more than $6/watt for existing homes. A number of ideas for further research are suggested.

  14. Performance and Economic Analysis of Distributed Power Electronics in Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deline, C.; Marion, B.; Granata, J.; Gonzalez, S.

    2011-01-01

    Distributed electronics like micro-inverters and DC-DC converters can help recover mismatch and shading losses in photovoltaic (PV) systems. Under partially shaded conditions, the use of distributed electronics can recover between 15-40% of annual performance loss or more, depending on the system configuration and type of device used. Additional value-added features may also increase the benefit of using per-panel distributed electronics, including increased safety, reduced system design constraints and added monitoring and diagnostics. The economics of these devices will also become more favorable as production volume increases, and integration within the solar panel?s junction box reduces part count and installation time. Some potential liabilities of per-panel devices include increased PV system cost, additional points of failure, and an insertion loss that may or may not offset performance gains under particular mismatch conditions.

  15. Calcium manganate: A promising candidate as buffer layer for hybrid halide perovskite photovoltaic-thermoelectric systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Pengjun; Wang, Hongguang; Kong, Wenwen; Xu, Jinbao Wang, Lei; Ren, Wei; Bian, Liang; Chang, Aimin

    2014-11-21

    We have systematically studied the feasibility of CaMnO{sub 3} thin film, an n-type perovskite, to be utilized as the buffer layer for hybrid halide perovskite photovoltaic-thermoelectric device. Locations of the conduction band and the valence band, spontaneous polarization performance, and optical properties were investigated. Results indicate the energy band of CaMnO{sub 3} can match up well with that of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} on separating electron-hole pairs. In addition, the consistent polarization angle helps enlarge the open circuit voltage of the composite system. Besides, CaMnO{sub 3} film shows large absorption coefficient and low extinction coefficient under visible irradiation, demonstrating high carrier concentration, which is beneficial to the current density. More importantly, benign thermoelectric properties enable CaMnO{sub 3} film to assimilate phonon vibration from CH{sub 3}NH3PbI{sub 3}. All the above features lead to a bright future of CaMnO{sub 3} film, which can be a promising candidate as a buffer layer for hybrid halide perovskite photovoltaic-thermoelectric systems.

  16. A review of current anti-islanding methods for photovoltaic power system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Byunggyu; Yu, Gwonjong; Matsui, Mikihiko

    2010-05-15

    Islanding phenomenon is undesirable because it leads to a safety hazard to utility service personnel and may cause damage to power generation and power supply facilities as a result of unsynchronized re-closure. Until now, various anti-islanding methods (AIMs) for detecting and preventing islanding of photovoltaic and other distributed generations (DGs) have been proposed. This paper presents an overview of recent anti-islanding method developments for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) power generation, focusing on the concept and operating principle, mainly based on single phase system. For the performance comparison, the experimental results of the various AIMs with 3 kW PV inverter are provided based on the islanding detection capability and power quality. As a result, the active AIMs have better islanding detection capability rather than the passive one. However, the active AIMs have power quality degradation on harmonic distortion or displacement power factor based on the injected active signal type. In addition to the evaluation and comparison of the main anti-islanding methods, this paper also summarizes the related anti-islanding standards to evaluate anti-islanding capability for PV system. This paper can be used as a useful anti-islanding reference for future work in DG like PV, and wind turbine. (author)

  17. Design, construction, and startup of a concentrating photovoltaic solar energy system in Hawaii: Phase II. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, R.; Harper, R.; Maberry, G.; Bedard, R.; Rafinejad, D.

    1982-10-01

    Acurex Corporation has designed, constructed, and is now operating a 35-kWp concentrating photovoltaic solar system located at the G.N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital in Lihue, Kauai, Hawaii. The facility consists of 446 m/sup 2/ (4800 ft/sup 2/) of parabolic trough photovoltaic collectors, an electrical power generation system which converts the direct current field output into grid-compatible alternating current power, and a thermal power subsystem for heating the hospital potable water. This report summarizes the design, construction, startup, and performance of this solar facility.

  18. Simulation of a photovoltaic/thermal heat pump system having a modified collector/evaporator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Guoying; Deng, Shiming; Zhang, Xiaosong; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Yuehong

    2009-11-15

    A new photovoltaic/thermal heat pump (PV/T-HP) system having a modified collector/evaporator (C/E) has been developed and numerically studied. Multi-port flat extruded aluminum tubes were used in the modified C/E, as compared to round copper tubes used in a conventional C/E. Simulation results suggested that a better operating performance can be achieved for a PV/T-HP system having such a modified C/E. In addition, using the meteorological data in both Nanjing and Hong Kong, China, the simulation results showed that this new PV/T-HP system could efficiently generate electricity and thermal energy simultaneously in both cities all-year-round. Furthermore, improved operation by using variable speed compressor has been designed and discussed. (author)

  19. Performance of a grid connected residential photovoltaic system with energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palomino, G.E. [SRP, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Wiles, J. [Southwest Technology Development Institute, Las Cruces, NM (United States); Stevens, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goodman, F. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1997-11-01

    In 1995, Salt River Project (SRP), a public power utility located in Phoenix, Arizona, collaborated with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) to initiate a photovoltaic (PV) power system with battery energy storage to match PV output with residential customer peak energy demand periods. The PV power system, a 2.4kW PV array with 25.2kWh of energy storage, was designed and installed by Southwest Technology Development Institute (SWTDI) at an SRP-owned facility, known as the Chandler Research House during August 1995. This paper presents an overview of the system design, operation and performance. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Building America Webinar: Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This webinar was presented by research team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), and reviewed findings from a feasibility study of ductless hydronic distribution ...

  1. Acoustic Building Infiltration Measurement System (ABIMS)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ralph T Muehleisen, rmuehleisen@anl.gov Argonne National Laboratory Acoustic Building ...field tests Team Members * Argonne: Ralph T Muehleisen, Eric Tatara * IIT: Ganesh Raman, ...

  2. Active Integrated Perimeter Building Systems | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... With the momentum toward Internet of Things (IoT) connectivity, demand in the commercial buildings sector for open solutions is accelerating. Leading architects and engineers are ...

  3. Graphite-based photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagally, Max; Liu, Feng

    2010-12-28

    The present invention uses lithographically patterned graphite stacks as the basic building elements of an efficient and economical photovoltaic cell. The basic design of the graphite-based photovoltaic cells includes a plurality of spatially separated graphite stacks, each comprising a plurality of vertically stacked, semiconducting graphene sheets (carbon nanoribbons) bridging electrically conductive contacts.

  4. Solar electric buildings: An overview of today`s applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-02-01

    This brochure presents a broad look at photovoltaic-powered buildings. It includes residential and commercial systems, both stand-alone and connected to utility power, that are located in urban, near-urban, and rural settings around the world. As photovoltaic (PV) technology continues to improve and costs drop, opportunities for PV will multiply. PV systems for buildings, such as those shown here, represent one of the strongest near-term markets.

  5. Building America Technologies Solutions Case Study: Ventilation System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts | Department of Energy Technologies Solutions Case Study: Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts Building America Technologies Solutions Case Study: Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts In this study, the Building America team Building Science Corporation tested the effectiveness of various ventilation systems at two unoccupied, single-family lab homes at the University of

  6. Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems The webinar was presented on January 21, 2015, and focused on the effective use of central heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) and control systems to reduce the energy use in hot water distribution. Presenters and specific topics for this webinar included: Elizabeth Weitzel from the Building America team, Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, presenting

  7. Building America Case Study: Indirect Solar Water Heating Systems...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Indirect Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Homes Greenfield, Massachusetts ... Building Component: Solar water heating Application: Single-family Years Tested: 2010-2013 ...

  8. Integration of Real-Time Data Into Building Automation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark J. Stunder; Perry Sebastian; Brenda A. Chube; Michael D. Koontz

    2003-04-16

    The project goal was to investigate the possibility of using predictive real-time information from the Internet as an input to building management system algorithms. The objectives were to identify the types of information most valuable to commercial and residential building owners, managers, and system designers. To comprehensively investigate and document currently available electronic real-time information suitable for use in building management systems. Verify the reliability of the information and recommend accreditation methods for data and providers. Assess methodologies to automatically retrieve and utilize the information. Characterize equipment required to implement automated integration. Demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of using the information in building management systems. Identify evolutionary control strategies.

  9. Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This U.S. Department of Energy Building America webinar, Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems, will take place on January 21, 2015.

  10. Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Photo Credit: iStockphoto Photo Credit: iStockphoto Before installing a solar water heating system, you should investigate local building codes, zoning ordinances, and subdivision...

  11. LBNL: High Performance Active Perimeter Building Systems - 2015...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LBNL: High Performance Active Perimeter Building Systems - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Eleanor Lee, LBNL View the Presentation PDF icon LBNL: High Performance Active Perimeter ...

  12. Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Multifamily Central Heat Pump Water Heating Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems - Multifamily Central Heat Pump Water Heating This presentation will ...

  13. Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy-Efficient Controls for Multifamily Domestic Hot Water Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems - Energy-Efficient Controls for Multifamily ...

  14. Buildings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    is allowing Commercial Buildings (ISO 50003 - Buildings and Building Complexes) ... SEP program, including associated standards, protocols, and application may be used ...

  15. Thermal Systems Group; Electricity, Resources, & Building Systems Integration (ERBSI) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-11-01

    Factsheet developed to describe the activites of the Thermal Systems Group within NREL's Electricity, Resources, and Buildings Systems Integration center.

  16. Recording of SERC Monitoring Technologies - Solar Photovoltaics |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Recording of SERC Monitoring Technologies - Solar Photovoltaics Recording of SERC Monitoring Technologies - Solar Photovoltaics This document provides a transcript of the of SERC Monitoring Technologies - Solar Photovoltaics webinar, presented on 10/20/2011 by Peter McNutt. PDF icon serc_webinar_20111020_solar_pv_transcipt.pdf More Documents & Publications Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - Solar Hot Water SERC Photovoltaics for Residential Buildings

  17. Initial operating experience of the 12-MW La Ola photovoltaic system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, Abraham; Lenox, Carl; Johnson, Jay; Quiroz, Jimmy Edward; Schenkman, Benjamin L.

    2011-10-01

    The 1.2-MW La Ola photovoltaic (PV) power plant in Lanai, Hawaii, has been in operation since December 2009. The host system is a small island microgrid with peak load of 5 MW. Simulations conducted as part of the interconnection study concluded that unmitigated PV output ramps had the potential to negatively affect system frequency. Based on that study, the PV system was initially allowed to operate with output power limited to 50% of nameplate to reduce the potential for frequency instability due to PV variability. Based on the analysis of historical voltage, frequency, and power output data at 50% output level, the PV system has not significantly affected grid performance. However, it should be noted that the impact of PV variability on active and reactive power output of the nearby diesel generators was not evaluated. In summer 2011, an energy storage system was installed to counteract high ramp rates and allow the PV system to operate at rated output. The energy storage system was not fully operational at the time this report was written; therefore, analysis results do not address system performance with the battery system in place.

  18. Quality Management System Guidelines - Building America Top Innovation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Quality Management System Guidelines - Building America Top Innovation Quality Management System Guidelines - Building America Top Innovation Effec guid-quality-mgnt.png The whole-building approach of constructing high performance homes requires a high degree of coordination and interdependencies between designers, builders, and trade partners to achieve energy efficiency goals, meet customer expectations, minimize risks for the builder, and avoid costly mistakes.

  19. Energy Savings Through Improved Mechanical Systems and Building Envelope

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies (DE-FOA-0000621) | Department of Energy Savings Through Improved Mechanical Systems and Building Envelope Technologies (DE-FOA-0000621) Energy Savings Through Improved Mechanical Systems and Building Envelope Technologies (DE-FOA-0000621) March 7, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis This funding opportunity is closed. The focus of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is to develop specifically-identified technologies for buildings that are cost effective and can have a tremendous

  20. Advanced Framing Systems and Packages - Building America Top Innovation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Advanced Framing Systems and Packages - Building America Top Innovation Advanced Framing Systems and Packages - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows advanced framing technique above a window. Building America field studies involving thousands of homes have documented significant material, labor, and energy savings when production builders implement advanced framing techniques. Advanced framing can reduce the number of studs in the walls by up to one-third,

  1. Enhanced Cloud-based Control System for Small Commercial Buildings |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Enhanced Cloud-based Control System for Small Commercial Buildings Enhanced Cloud-based Control System for Small Commercial Buildings Lead Performer: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - Richland, WA Partner: NorthWrite Inc. - Portland, OR DOE Total Funding: $300,000 Project Term: June 1, 2016 - November 30, 2017 Funding Type: Small Business Vouchers Pilot PROJECT OBJECTIVE NorthWrite Inc. delivers services to owners of small commercial buildings, using a cloud-based

  2. PVUSA experience with power conversion for grid-connected photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stolte, W.

    1995-11-01

    The Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Application (PVUSA) project was established to demonstrate photovoltaic (PV) systems in grid-connected utility applications. One of PVUSA`s key objectives is to evaluate the performance, reliability, and cost of the PV balance of system (BOS). Power conditioning units (PCUs) are the interface between the dc PV arrays and the ac utility lines, and have proved to be the most critical element in grid-connected PV systems. There are five different models of PCUs at PVUSA`s Davis and Kerman sites. This report describes the design, testing, performance characteristics, and maintenance history of each of these PCUs. PVUSA required PCUs in the power range 25 kW to 500 kW which could operate automatically and reliably under changing conditions of sunlight and changing conditions on the utility grid. Although a number of manufacturers can provide PCUs in this power range, none of these PCUs have been produced in sufficient quantity to allow refinement of a particular model into the highly reliable unit needed for long-term, unattended operation. Factory tests were useful but limited by the inability to test under full power and changing power conditions. The inability to completely test PCUs at the factory resulted in difficulty during startup, field testing, and subsequent operation. PVUSA has made significant progress in understanding the requirements for PCUs in grid-connected PV applications and improving field performance. This record of PVUSA`s experience with a variety of PCUs is intended to help utilities and their suppliers identify and retain the good performance characteristics of PCUs, and to make improvements where necessary to meet the needs of utilities.

  3. Building America Systems Integration Research Annual Report. FY 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gestwick, Michael

    2013-05-01

    This Building America FY2012 Annual Report includes an overview of the Building America Program activities and the work completed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Building America industry consortia (the Building America teams). The annual report summarizes major technical accomplishments and progress towards U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program's multi-year goal of developing the systems innovations that enable risk-free, cost effective, reliable and durable efficiency solutions that reduce energy use by 30%-50% in both new and existing homes.

  4. Building America Systems Integration Research Annual Report: FY 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gestwick, M.

    2013-05-01

    This document is the Building America FY2012 Annual Report, which includes an overview of the Building America Program activities and the work completed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Building America industry consortia (the Building America teams). The annual report summarizes major technical accomplishments and progress towards U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program's multi-year goal of developing the systems innovations that enable risk-free, cost effective, reliable and durable efficiency solutions that reduce energy use by 30%-50% in both new and existing homes.

  5. Field Guide for Testing Existing Photovoltaic Systems for Ground Faults and Installing Equipment to Mitigate Fire Hazards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, William; Basso, Thomas; Coddington, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Ground faults and arc faults are the two most common reasons for fires in photovoltaic (PV) arrays and methods exist that can mitigate the hazards. This report provides field procedures for testing PV arrays for ground faults, and for implementing high resolution ground fault and arc fault detectors in existing and new PV system designs.

  6. Photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-06-02

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  7. Photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-09-01

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device (10) with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly (100) and a body portion (200) joined at an interface region (410) and including an intermediate layer (500), at least one interconnecting structural member (1500), relieving feature (2500), unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  8. A grid-connected photovoltaic power conversion system with single-phase multilevel inverter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beser, Ersoy; Arifoglu, Birol; Camur, Sabri; Beser, Esra Kandemir

    2010-12-15

    This paper presents a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) power conversion system based on a single-phase multilevel inverter. The proposed system fundamentally consists of PV arrays and a single-phase multilevel inverter structure. First, configuration and structural parts of the PV assisted inverter system are introduced in detail. To produce reference output voltage waves, a simple switching strategy based on calculating switching angles is improved. By calculated switching angles, the reference signal is produced as a multilevel shaped output voltage wave. The control algorithm and operational principles of the proposed system are explained. Operating PV arrays in the same load condition is a considerable point; therefore a simulation study is performed to arrange the PV arrays. After determining the number and connection types of the PV arrays, the system is configured through the arrangement of the PV arrays. The validity of the proposed system is verified through simulations and experimental study. The results demonstrate that the system can achieve lower total harmonic distortion (THD) on the output voltage and load current, and it is capable of operating synchronous and transferring power values having different characteristic to the grid. Hence, it is suitable to use the proposed configuration as a PV power conversion system in various applications. (author)

  9. Ideas that Work!. Retuning the Building Automation System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Steven

    2015-03-01

    A building automation system (BAS) can save considerable energy by effectively and efficiently operating building energy systems (fans, pumps, chillers boilers, etc.), but only when the BAS is properly set up and operated. Tuning, or retuning, the BAS is a cost effective process worthy of your time and attention.

  10. ENERGY STAR Webinar: ENERGY STAR and Green Building Rating Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Hosted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) ENERGY STAR, this webinar will help attendees how to use EPA tools and resources to help meet requirements for green building rating systems, such as the U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), the Green Globes system, and others.

  11. Applications of Optimal Building Energy System Selection and Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Siddiqui, Afzal; DeForest, Nicholas; Donadee, Jon; Bhattacharya, Prajesh; Lai, Judy

    2011-04-01

    Berkeley Lab has been developing the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) for several years. Given load curves for energy services requirements in a building microgrid (u grid), fuel costs and other economic inputs, and a menu of available technologies, DER-CAM finds the optimum equipment fleet and its optimum operating schedule using a mixed integer linear programming approach. This capability is being applied using a software as a service (SaaS) model. Optimisation problems are set up on a Berkeley Lab server and clients can execute their jobs as needed, typically daily. The evolution of this approach is demonstrated by description of three ongoing projects. The first is a public access web site focused on solar photovoltaic generation and battery viability at large commercial and industrial customer sites. The second is a building CO2 emissions reduction operations problem for a University of California, Davis student dining hall for which potential investments are also considered. And the third, is both a battery selection problem and a rolling operating schedule problem for a large County Jail. Together these examples show that optimization of building u grid design and operation can be effectively achieved using SaaS.

  12. Photovoltaics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Photovoltaics (Redirected from Photovoltaic) Jump to: navigation, search (The following text is derived from NREL's description of photovoltaic technology.)1 Photovoltaic Panels...

  13. Photovoltaics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Photovoltaics (Redirected from Solar Photovoltaics) Jump to: navigation, search (The following text is derived from NREL's description of photovoltaic technology.)1 Photovoltaic...

  14. Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar systems simulation with Simulink/Matlab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    da Silva, R.M.; Fernandes, J.L.M.

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this work consists in thermodynamic modeling of hybrid photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar systems, pursuing a modular strategy approach provided by Simulink/Matlab. PV/T solar systems are a recently emerging solar technology that allows for the simultaneous conversion of solar energy into both electricity and heat. This type of technology present some interesting advantages over the conventional ''side-by-side'' thermal and PV solar systems, such as higher combined electrical/thermal energy outputs per unit area, and a more uniform and aesthetical pleasant roof area. Despite the fact that early research on PV/T systems can be traced back to the seventies, only recently it has gained a renewed impetus. In this work, parametric studies and annual transient simulations of PV/T systems are undertaken in Simulink/Matlab. The obtained results show an average annual solar fraction of 67%, and a global overall efficiency of 24% (i.e. 15% thermal and 9% electrical), for a typical four-person single-family residence in Lisbon, with p-Si cells, and a collector area of 6 m{sup 2}. A sensitivity analysis performed on the PV/T collector suggests that the most important variable that should be addressed to improve thermal performance is the photovoltaic (PV) module emittance. Based on those results, some additional improvements are proposed, such as the use of vacuum, or a noble gas at low-pressure, to allow for the removal of PV cells encapsulation without air oxidation and degradation, and thus reducing the PV module emittance. Preliminary results show that this option allows for an 8% increase on optical thermal efficiency, and a substantial reduction of thermal losses, suggesting the possibility of working at higher fluid temperatures. The higher working temperatures negative effect in electrical efficiency was negligible, due to compensation by improved optical properties. The simulation results are compared with experimental data obtained from other authors and perform reasonably well. The Simulink modeling platform has been mainly used worldwide on simulation of control systems, digital signal processing and electric circuits, but there are very few examples of application to solar energy systems modeling. This work uses the modular environment of Simulink/Matlab to model individual PV/T system components, and to assemble the entire installation layout. The results show that the modular approach strategy provided by Matlab/Simulink environment is applicable to solar systems modeling, providing good code scalability, faster developing time, and simpler integration with external computational tools, when compared with traditional imperative-oriented programming languages. (author)

  15. Plug-and-Play Photovoltaics Funding Opportunity | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of a commercial plug-and-play photovoltaic (PV) system, an off-the-shelf product ... State University: Development of an Innovative Plug and Play Photovoltaic Electric System

  16. Retrospective Benefit-Cost Evaluation of DOE Investments in Photovolta...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Investments in Photovoltaic Energy Systems Retrospective Benefit-Cost Evaluation of DOE Investments in Photovoltaic Energy Systems This study is a retrospective analysis of net ...

  17. Development of an Innovative Plug and Play Photovoltaic Electric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development of an Innovative Plug and Play Photovoltaic Electric System Development of an Innovative Plug and Play Photovoltaic Electric System logofreedm.jpg North Carolina State ...

  18. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.5 Thermal Distribution Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    2 U.S. Commercial Buildings Conditioned Floorspace, Building Type and System Type (Million SF) Total Education Food Sales Food Service Health Care Lodging Mercantile and Service Office Public Buildings Warehouse/Storage Total Source(s): BTS/A.D. Little, Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial Building HVAC Systems, Volume II: Thermal Distribution, Auxiliary Equipment, and Ventilation, Oct. 1999, Table A2-12, p. B2-1. 3,988 4,771 19,767 5,287 2,822 3,352 12,065 48,064 119 1,482 0 0 102

  19. Benchmarking Non-Hardware Balance of System (Soft) Costs for U.S. Photovoltaic Systems Using a Data-Driven Analysis from PV Installer Survey Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Benchmarking Non-Hardware Balance of System (Soft) Costs for U.S. Photovoltaic Systems Using a Data-Driven Analysis from PV Installer Survey Results November 2012 Benchmarking Non-Hardware Balance of System (Soft) Costs for U.S. Photovoltaic Systems Using a Data-Driven Analysis from PV Installer Survey Results NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Contract No.

  20. Reliability and Geographic Trends of 50,000 Photovoltaic Systems in the USA: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents performance and reliability data from nearly 50,000 photovoltaic (PV) systems totaling 1.7 gigawatts installed capacity in the USA from 2009 to 2012 and their geographic trends. About 90% of the normal systems and about 85% of all systems, including systems with known issues, performed to within 10% or better of expected performance. Although considerable uncertainty may exist due to the nature of the data, hotter climates appear to exhibit some degradation not seen in the more moderate climates. Special causes of underperformance and their impacts are delineated by reliability category. Hardware-related issues are dominated by inverter problems (totaling less than 0.5%) and underperforming modules (totaling less than 0.1%). Furthermore, many reliability categories show a significant decrease in occurrence from year 1 to subsequent years, emphasizing the need for higher-quality installations but also the need for improved standards development. The probability of PV system damage because of hail is below 0.05%. Singular weather events can have a significant impact such as a single lightning strike to a transformer or the impact of a hurricane. However, grid outages are more likely to have a significant impact than PV system damage when extreme weather events occur.

  1. Investigation of Ground-Fault Protection Devices for Photovoltaic Power Systems Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BOWER,WARD I.; WILES,JOHN

    2000-10-03

    Photovoltaic (PV) power systems, like other electrical systems, may be subject to unexpected ground faults. Installed PV systems always have invisible elements other than those indicated by their electrical schematics. Stray inductance, capacitance and resistance are distributed throughout the system. Leakage currents associated with the PV modules, the interconnected array, wires, surge protection devices and conduit add up and can become large enough to look like a ground-fault. PV systems are frequently connected to other sources of power or energy storage such as batteries, standby generators, and the utility grid. This complex arrangement of distributed power and energy sources, distributed impedance and proximity to other sources of power requires sensing of ground faults and proper reaction by the ground-fault protection devices. The different dc grounding requirements (country to country) often add more confusion to the situation. This paper discusses the ground-fault issues associated with both the dc and ac side of PV systems and presents test results and operational impacts of backfeeding commercially available ac ground-fault protection devices under various modes of operation. Further, the measured effects of backfeeding the tripped ground-fault devices for periods of time comparable to anti-islanding allowances for utility interconnection of PV inverters in the United States are reported.

  2. Economic Analysis of a Brackish Water Photovoltaic-Operated (BWRO-PV) Desalination System: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Karaghouli, A.; Kazmerski, L. L.

    2010-10-01

    The photovoltaic (PV)-powered reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination system is considered one of the most promising technologies in producing fresh water from both brackish and sea water, especially for small systems located in remote areas. We analyze the economic viability of a small PV-operated RO system with a capacity of 5 m3/day used to desalinate brackish water of 4000 ppm total dissolve solids, which is proposed to be installed in a remote area of the Babylon governorate in the middle of Iraq; this area possesses excellent insolation throughout the year. Our analysis predicts very good economic and environmental benefits of using this system. The lowest cost of fresh water achieved from using this system is US $3.98/ m3, which is very reasonable compared with the water cost reported by small-sized desalination plants installed in rural areas in other parts of the world. Our analysis shows that using this small system will prevent the release annually of 8,170 kg of CO2, 20.2 kg of CO, 2.23 kg of CH, 1.52 kg of particulate matter, 16.41 kg of SO2, and 180 kg of NOx.

  3. Partial Shade Evaluation of Distributed Power Electronics for Photovoltaic Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deline, C.; Meydbrav, J.; Donovan, M.

    2012-06-01

    Site survey data for several residential installations are provided, showing the extent and frequency of shade throughout the year. This background information is used to design a representative shading test that is conducted on two side-by-side 8-kW photovoltaic (PV) installations. One system is equipped with a standard string inverter, while the other is equipped with microinverters on each solar panel. Partial shade is applied to both systems in a comprehensive range of shading conditions, simulating one of three shade extents. Under light shading conditions, the microinverter system produced the equivalent of 4% annual performance improvement, relative to the string inverter system. Under moderate shading conditions, the microinverter system outperformed the string inverter system by 8%, and under heavy shading the microinverter increased relative performance by 12%. In all three cases, the percentage of performance loss that is recovered by the use of distributed power electronics is 40%-50%. Additionally, it was found that certain shading conditions can lead to additional losses in string inverters due to peak-power tracking errors and voltage limitations.

  4. Output Performance and Payback Analysis of a Residential Photovoltaic System in Colorado: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston, S.

    2012-06-01

    Cost of installation and ownership of a 9.66-kilowatt (kW) residential photovoltaic system is described, and the performance of this system over the past 3 years is shown. The system is located in Colorado at 40 degrees latitude and consists of arrays on two structures. Two arrays are installed on a detached garage, and these are each composed of 18 Kyocera 130-W modules strung in series facing south at an angle of 40 degrees above horizontal. Each 18-panel array feeds into a Xantrex/Schneider Electric 2.8-kW inverter. The other two arrays are installed on the house and face south at an angle of 30 degrees. One of these arrays has twelve 205-W Kyocera panels in series, and the other is made up of twelve 210-Kyocera panels. Each of these arrays feeds into Xantrex/Schneider Electric 3.3-kW inverters. Although there are various shading issues from trees and utility poles and lines, the overall output resembles that which is expected from PVWatts, a solar estimate program. The array cost, which was offset by rebates from the utility company and federal tax credits, was $1.17 per watt. Considering measured system performance, the estimated payback time of the system is 9 years.

  5. Systems and methods for analyzing building operations sensor data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mezic, Igor; Eisenhower, Bryan A.

    2015-05-26

    Systems and methods are disclosed for analyzing building sensor information and decomposing the information therein to a more manageable and more useful form. Certain embodiments integrate energy-based and spectral-based analysis methods with parameter sampling and uncertainty/sensitivity analysis to achieve a more comprehensive perspective of building behavior. The results of this analysis may be presented to a user via a plurality of visualizations and/or used to automatically adjust certain building operations. In certain embodiments, advanced spectral techniques, including Koopman-based operations, are employed to discern features from the collected building sensor data.

  6. Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning Systems, Part

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    II - Air Distribution Retrofit Strategies for Affordable Housing | Department of Energy Air Distribution Retrofit Strategies for Affordable Housing Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning Systems, Part II - Air Distribution Retrofit Strategies for Affordable Housing Jordan Dentz, Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES), and Francis Conlin, High Performance Building Solutions, Inc., presenting Air Distribution Retrofit Strategies for Affordable Housing.

  7. Building America Technology Solutions Case Study: Ventilation System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts | Department of Energy Case Study: Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts Building America Technology Solutions Case Study: Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts Building Science Corporation tested the effectiveness of various ventilation systems at two unoccupied, single-family lab homes at the University of Texas at Tyler. The only difference was that House 1 had a vented

  8. NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Bill Sekulic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Silicon Modules to Qualify Their Resistance to System Voltage Stress." Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, 22(7): 775-83; Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy...

  9. Modeling Photovoltaic Module-Level Power Electronics in the System Advisor Model; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-07-01

    Module-level power electronics, such as DC power optimizers, microinverters, and those found in AC modules, are increasing in popularity in smaller-scale photovoltaic (PV) systems as their prices continue to decline. Therefore, it is important to provide PV modelers with guidelines about how to model these distributed power electronics appropriately in PV modeling software. This paper extends the work completed at NREL that provided recommendations to model the performance of distributed power electronics in NREL’s popular PVWatts calculator [1], to provide similar guidelines for modeling these technologies in NREL's more complex System Advisor Model (SAM). Module-level power electronics - such as DC power optimizers, microinverters, and those found in AC modules-- are increasing in popularity in smaller-scale photovoltaic (PV) systems as their prices continue to decline. Therefore, it is important to provide PV modelers with guidelines about how to model these distributed power electronics appropriately in PV modeling software.

  10. Benchmarking Non-Hardware Balance of System (Soft) Costs for U.S. Photovoltaic Systems Using a Data-Driven Analysis from PV Installer Survey Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ardani, K.; Barbose, G.; Margolis, R.; Wiser, R.; Feldman, D.; Ong, S.

    2012-11-01

    This report presents results from the first U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored, bottom-up data-collection and analysis of non-hardware balance-of-system costs--often referred to as 'business process' or 'soft' costs--for residential and commercial photovoltaic (PV) systems.

  11. Chapter 5: Increasing Efficiency of Building Systems and Technologies | Building Technologies Office Potential Energy Savings Analysis Supplemental Information

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5: Increasing Efficiency of Building Systems and Technologies Supplemental Information Building Energy Technology Roadmaps Building Technologies Office Potential Energy Savings Analysis ENERGY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF Quadrennial Technology Review 2015 1 Quadrennial Technology Review 2015 Building Technologies Office Potential Energy Savings Analysis Chapter 5: Supplemental Information Introduction The analysis undertaken to support Chapter 5 compares the potential energy savings from research,

  12. System and method for design and optimization of grid connected photovoltaic power plant with multiple photovoltaic module technologies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bex George; Elasser, Ahmed; Bollapragada, Srinivas; Galbraith, Anthony William; Agamy, Mohammed; Garifullin, Maxim Valeryevich

    2016-03-29

    A system and method of using one or more DC-DC/DC-AC converters and/or alternative devices allows strings of multiple module technologies to coexist within the same PV power plant. A computing (optimization) framework estimates the percentage allocation of PV power plant capacity to selected PV module technologies. The framework and its supporting components considers irradiation, temperature, spectral profiles, cost and other practical constraints to achieve the lowest levelized cost of electricity, maximum output and minimum system cost. The system and method can function using any device enabling distributed maximum power point tracking at the module, string or combiner level.

  13. Residential photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The photovoltaics overview section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  14. Photovoltaic-Thermal New Technology Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean, Jesse; McNutt, Peter; Lisell, Lars; Burch, Jay; Jones, Dennis; Heinicke, David

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) hybrid solar systems offer increased electricity production by cooling the PV panel, and using the removed thermal energy to heat water - all in the same footprint as a standard PV system. GPG's assessment of the nation's first large-scale PV-T system installed at the Thomas P. O'Neill, Jr. Federal Building in Boston, MA, provided numerous lessons learned in system design, and identified a target market of locations with high utility costs and electric hot water backup.

  15. High Performance Sustainable Buildings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    science and bioscience capabiities. Occupational Medicine will become a High Performance Sustainable Building in 2013. On the former County landfill, a photovoltaic array field...

  16. Building a Smarter Distribution System in Pennsylvania

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    a Better Transmission Tower Building a Better Transmission Tower May 20, 2011 - 9:41am Addthis A helicopter hoists platforms for linemen during the construction of this single-circuit 500-kilovolt tower – one of hundreds on the McNary-John Day line saving BPA big bucks. | Photo courtesy of Bonneville Power Administration A helicopter hoists platforms for linemen during the construction of this single-circuit 500-kilovolt tower - one of hundreds on the McNary-John Day line saving BPA big

  17. Energy Signal Tool for Decision Support in Building Energy Systems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Signal Tool for Decision Support in Building Energy Systems Henze, G. P.; Pavlak, G. S.; Florita, A. R.; Dodier, R. H.; Hirsch, A. I. 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND...

  18. An Analysis of the Effects of Residential Photovoltaic Energy Systems on Home Sales Prices in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoen, Ben; Cappers, Peter; Wiser, Ryan; Thayer, Mark

    2011-04-19

    An increasing number of homes in the U.S. have sold with photovoltaic (PV) energy systems installed at the time of sale, yet relatively little research exists that estimates the marginal impacts of those PV systems on home sale prices. A clearer understanding of these possible impacts might influence the decisions of homeowners considering the installation of a PV system, homebuyers considering the purchase of a home with PV already installed, and new home builders considering including PV as an optional or standard product on their homes. This research analyzes a large dataset of California homes that sold from 2000 through mid-2009 with PV installed. It finds strong evidence that homes with PV systems sold for a premium over comparable homes without PV systems during this time frame. Estimates for this premium expressed in dollars per watt of installed PV range, on average, from roughly $4 to $5.5/watt across a large number of hedonic and repeat sales model specifications and robustness tests. When expressed as a ratio of the sales price premium of PV to estimated annual energy cost savings associated with PV, an average ratio of 14:1 to 19:1 can be calculated; these results are consistent with those of the more-extensive existing literature on the impact of energy efficiency on sales prices. When the data are split among new and existing homes, however, PV system premiums are markedly affected. New homes with PV show premiums of $2.3-2.6/watt, while existing homes with PV show premiums of more than $6/watt. Reasons for this discrepancy are suggested, yet further research is warranted. A number of other areas where future research would be useful are also highlighted.

  19. Sandia Energy - Sandia Tool Determines Value of Solar Photovoltaic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tool Determines Value of Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems Home Renewable Energy Energy Partnership News News & Events Photovoltaic Solar Sandia Tool Determines Value of Solar...

  20. Sandia Energy - Sandians Win 'Best Paper' Award at Photovoltaic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Win 'Best Paper' Award at Photovoltaic Conference in Japan Home Renewable Energy Energy Facilities News SunShot News & Events Photovoltaic Solar Systems Analysis Computational...

  1. Solar photovoltaics for development applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shepperd, L.W.; Richards, E.H.

    1993-08-01

    This document introduces photovoltaic technology to individuals and groups specializing in development activities. Examples of actual installations illustrate the many services supplied by photovoltaic systems in development applications, including water pumping, lighting, health care, refrigeration, communications, and a variety of productive uses. The various aspects of the technology are explored to help potential users evaluate whether photovoltaics can assist them in achieving their organizational goals. Basic system design, financing techniques, and the importance of infrastructure are included, along with additional sources of information and major US photovoltaic system suppliers.

  2. System and method for pre-cooling of buildings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Springer, David A.; Rainer, Leo I.

    2011-08-09

    A method for nighttime pre-cooling of a building comprising inputting one or more user settings, lowering the indoor temperature reading of the building during nighttime by operating an outside air ventilation system followed, if necessary, by a vapor compression cooling system. The method provides for nighttime pre-cooling of a building that maintains indoor temperatures within a comfort range based on the user input settings, calculated operational settings, and predictions of indoor and outdoor temperature trends for a future period of time such as the next day.

  3. Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Costs in the Buildings Sector

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Costs in the Buildings Sector August 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Costs in the Buildings Sector i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and

  4. Acoustic Building Infiltration Measurement System (ABIMS) | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Acoustic Building Infiltration Measurement System (ABIMS) Acoustic Building Infiltration Measurement System (ABIMS) Addthis 1 of 4 ABIMS team member performs a microphone calibration. Image: Argonne National Laboratory 2 of 4 ABIMS team member fits an insert into the test chamber to simulate a façade leak. Image: Argonne National Laboratory 3 of 4 ABIMS team member runs the acoustic measurement from the labview interface. Image: Argonne National Laboratory 4 of 4 ABIMS team members

  5. Basement Insulation Systems - Building America Top Innovation | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Basement Insulation Systems - Building America Top Innovation Basement Insulation Systems - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows a framed basement wall with insulation in between the studs. Efficient and durable construction practices for basements are critical because basements can account for 10% to 30% of a home's total heat loss and provide significant risk of moisture problems due to extensive cold surfaces at the walls and slab. For this Top Innovation award,

  6. Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy-Efficient Controls for Multifamily Domestic Hot Water | Department of Energy Energy-Efficient Controls for Multifamily Domestic Hot Water Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems - Energy-Efficient Controls for Multifamily Domestic Hot Water This presentation will be delivered at the U.S. Department of Energy Building America webinar on January 21, 2015, by Jordan Dentz and Eric Ansanelli of the Levy Partnership. Central domestic hot water (CDHW) systems are

  7. HPXML: A Standardized Home Performance Data Sharing System - Building

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    America Top Innovation | Department of Energy HPXML: A Standardized Home Performance Data Sharing System - Building America Top Innovation HPXML: A Standardized Home Performance Data Sharing System - Building America Top Innovation hpxml.png In the world of home energy analysis, a variety of software tools are available for compiling and evaluating home energy audit data. This means home performance companies need to be fluent in several reporting platforms that span multiple utility

  8. Integrated Energy Systems (IES) for Buildings: A Market Assessment,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    September 2002 | Department of Energy (IES) for Buildings: A Market Assessment, September 2002 Integrated Energy Systems (IES) for Buildings: A Market Assessment, September 2002 Integrated Energy Systems (IES) combine on-site power or distributed generation technologies with thermally activated technologies to provide cooling, heating, humidity control, energy storage and/or other process functions using thermal energy normally wasted in the production of electricity/power. This study

  9. Recent Developments of the Modelica"Buildings" Library for Building Energy and Control Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetter, Michael; Zuo, Wangda; Nouidui, Thierry Stephane

    2011-04-01

    At the Modelica 2009 conference, we introduced the Buildings library, a freely available Modelica library for building energy and control systems. This paper reports the updates of the library and presents example applications for a range of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Over the past two years, the library has been further developed. The number of HVAC components models has been doubled and various components have been revised to increase numerical robustness.The paper starts with an overview of the library architecture and a description of the main packages. To demonstrate the features of the Buildings library, applications that include multizone airflow simulation as well as supervisory and local loop control of a variable air volume (VAV) system are briefly described. The paper closes with a discussion of the current development.

  10. Research and Development Needs for Building-Integrated Solar Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-01-01

    The Building Technologies Office (BTO) has identified Building Integrated Solar Technologies (BIST) as a potentially valuable piece of the comprehensive pathway to help achieve its goal of reducing energy consumption in residential and commercial buildings by 50% by the year 2030. This report helps to identify the key research and development (R&D) needs that will be required for BIST to make a substantial contribution toward that goal. BIST include technologies for space heating and cooling, water heating, hybrid photovoltaic-thermal systems (PV/T), active solar lighting, and building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV).

  11. Industry Perspectives on Advanced Inverters for U.S. Solar Photovoltaic Systems: Grid Benefits, Deployment Challenges, and Emerging Solutions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industry Perspectives on Advanced Inverters for U.S. Solar Photovoltaic Systems: Grid Benefits, Deployment Challenges, and Emerging Solutions Emerson Reiter, Kristen Ardani, and Robert Margolis National Renewable Energy Laboratory Ryan Edge Solar Electric Power Association Technical Report NREL/TP-7A40-65063 September 2015 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This

  12. Photovoltaic product directory and buyers guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watts, R.L.; Smith, S.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.

    1981-06-01

    Basic information on photovoltaic conversion technology is provided for those unfamiliar with the field. Various types of photovoltaic products and systems currently available off-the-shelf are described. These include products without batteries, battery chargers, power packages, home electric systems, and partial systems. Procedures are given for designing a photovoltaic system from scratch. A few custom photovoltaic systems are described, and a list is compiled of photovoltaic firms which can provide custom systems. Guidance is offered for deciding whether or not to use photovoltaic products. A variety of installations are described and their performance is appraised by the owners. Information is given on various financial incentives available from state and federal governments. Sources of additional information on photovoltaics are listed. A matrix is provided indicating the sources of various types of photovoltaic products. The addresses of suppliers are listed. (LEW)

  13. Simulation of one-minute power output from utility-scale photovoltaic generation systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Ellis, Abraham; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2011-08-01

    We present an approach to simulate time-synchronized, one-minute power output from large photovoltaic (PV) generation plants in locations where only hourly irradiance estimates are available from satellite sources. The approach uses one-minute irradiance measurements from ground sensors in a climatically and geographically similar area. Irradiance is translated to power using the Sandia Array Performance Model. Power output is generated for 2007 in southern Nevada are being used for a Solar PV Grid Integration Study to estimate the integration costs associated with various utility-scale PV generation levels. Plant designs considered include both fixed-tilt thin-film, and single-axis-tracked polycrystalline Si systems ranging in size from 5 to 300 MW{sub AC}. Simulated power output profiles at one-minute intervals were generated for five scenarios defined by total PV capacity (149.5 MW, 222 WM, 292 MW, 492 MW, and 892 MW) each comprising as many as 10 geographically separated PV plants.

  14. Photovoltaic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Roy G.; Kurtz, Sarah

    1984-11-27

    In a photovoltaic cell structure containing a visibly transparent, electrically conductive first layer of metal oxide, and a light-absorbing semiconductive photovoltaic second layer, the improvement comprising a thin layer of transition metal nitride, carbide or boride interposed between said first and second layers.

  15. Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Solar Photovoltaic System Design Basics Solar Photovoltaic System Design Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:00pm Addthis Solar photovoltaic modules are where the electricity gets generated, but are only one of the many parts in a complete photovoltaic (PV) system. In order for the generated electricity to be useful in a home or business, a number of other technologies must be in place. Mounting Structures PV arrays must be mounted on a stable, durable structure that can support the array and withstand

  16. Building a Smarter Distribution System in Pennsylvania

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PPL is installing a distribution management system (DMS), distribution automation (DA) ... allows PPL to move forward with future automation projects. "Lack of an advanced DMS was ...

  17. Build-

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Cooling Equipment, Number of Buildings for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Build- ings*","Cooled Build- ings","Cooling Equipment (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Resid- ential- Type Central Air Condi- tioners","Heat Pumps","Indiv- idual Air Condi- tioners","District Chilled Water","Central Chillers","Pack- aged Air Condi- tioning Units","Swamp

  18. Green Building Incentive | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    California Commercial Industrial Residential Comprehensive MeasuresWhole Building Photovoltaics Yes State Agency Energy Efficiency or Renewable Energy Technology Test...

  19. Green Building Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    California Commercial Industrial Residential Comprehensive MeasuresWhole Building Photovoltaics Yes State Agency Energy Efficiency or Renewable Energy Technology Test...

  20. Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Multifamily Central Heat Pump Water Heating | Department of Energy Multifamily Central Heat Pump Water Heating Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems - Multifamily Central Heat Pump Water Heating This presentation will be delivered by Elizabeth Weitzel, Davis Energy Group, at the U.S. Department of Energy Building America webinar on January 21, 2015.The presentation will focus on the findings of an evaluation effort of a nominal 10.5 ton central HPWH installed at

  1. List of Energy Mgmt. Systems/Building Controls Incentives | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Thermal Process Heat Photovoltaics Wind Biomass Fuel Cells Ground Source Heat Pumps Hydrogen Biodiesel Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Other Distributed Generation...

  2. Plug-and-Play Photovoltaics Funding Opportunity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Through the Plug-and-Play Photovoltaics program, DOE will advance the development of a commercial plug-and-play photovoltaic (PV) system, an off-the-shelf product that is fully inclusive with...

  3. A Buildings Module for the Stochastic Energy Deployment System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacommare, Kristina S H; Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Borgeson, Sam; Coffey, Brian; Komiyama, Ryoichi; Lai, Judy

    2008-05-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) is building a new long-range (to 2050) forecasting model for use in budgetary and management applications called the Stochastic Energy Deployment System (SEDS), which explicitly incorporates uncertainty through its development within the Analytica(R) platform of Lumina Decision Systems. SEDS is designed to be a fast running (a few minutes), user-friendly model that analysts can readily run and modify in its entirety through a visual programming interface. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is responsible for implementing the SEDS Buildings Module. The initial Lite version of the module is complete and integrated with a shared code library for modeling demand-side technology choice developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Lumina. The module covers both commercial and residential buildings at the U.S. national level using an econometric forecast of floorspace requirement and a model of building stock turnover as the basis for forecasting overall demand for building services. Although the module is fundamentally an engineering-economic model with technology adoption decisions based on cost and energy performance characteristics of competing technologies, it differs from standard energy forecasting models by including considerations of passive building systems, interactions between technologies (such as internal heat gains), and on-site power generation.

  4. Satellite-based snow identification and its impact on monitoring photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wirth, Georg; Zehner, Mike; Becker, Gerd [University of Applied Sciences - Munich, Department of Electrical Engineering, Solar Technology Laboratory, Lothstrasse. 64, 80323 Munich (Germany); Schroedter-Homscheidt, Marion [German Aerospace Center (DLR), German Remote Sensing Data Center (DFD), Oberpfaffenhofen, P.O. Box 1116, 82234 Wessling (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    Earth observation allows the separation of snow cover and cloudiness using multispectral measurements. Several satellite-based snow monitoring services are available, ranging from regional to world-wide scales. Using these data enables photovoltaic (PV) plant management to differentiate between failures due to snow coverage on a PV system and other error sources. Additionally, yield estimates for solar siting are improved. This paper presents a validation study from January to April 2006 comparing satellite-based datasets with ground measurements from German and Swiss meteorological stations. A false alarm rate, an error due to irradiance underestimation, the availability of daily data, and the classification accuracy are introduced as quality metrics. Compared to Switzerland, generally a higher accuracy is found in all datasets for Southern Germany. The most significant difference among the datasets is found in the error pattern shifting from too much snow (which results in an error due to underestimation of irradiance) to too little snow detection, causing a false alarm in PV monitoring. Overall, the data records of the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Application Facility (LSA SAF), the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System (IMS) are found to be most suitable for solar energy purposes. The IMS dataset has a low false alarm rate (4%) and a good data availability (100%) making it a good choice for power plant monitoring, but the error due to underestimation relevant in site auditing is large with 59%. If a cumulative snow cover algorithm is applied to achieve information every day as needed both for power plant monitoring and site auditing, both the DLR and the LSA SAF datasets are comparable with classification accuracies of 70%, false alarm rates of 37% and 34%, respectively, and errors due to irradiance underestimation in 26% and 27% of all coincidences. (author)

  5. U.S. Photovoltaic Prices and Cost Breakdowns. Q1 2015 Benchmarks for Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Donald; Davidson, Carolyn; Fu, Ran; Ardani, Kristen; Margolis, Robert

    2015-09-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has continued to decline across all major market sectors. This report provides a Q1 2015 update regarding the prices of residential, commercial, and utility scale PV systems, based on an objective methodology that closely approximates the book value of a PV system. Several cases are benchmarked to represent common variations in business models, labor rates, and system architecture choice. We estimate a weighted-average cash purchase price of $3.09/W for residential scale rooftop systems, $2.15/W for commercial scale rooftop systems, $1.77/W for utility scale systems with fixed mounting structures, and $1.91/W for utility scale systems using single-axis trackers. All systems are modeled assuming standard-efficiency, polycrystalline-silicon PV modules, and further assume installation within the United States.

  6. Photovoltaics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search (The following text is derived from NREL's description of photovoltaic technology.)1 Photovoltaic Panels Solar cells, also called photovoltaic (PV)...

  7. Photovoltaics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Photovoltaics Jump to: navigation, search (The following text is derived from NREL's description of photovoltaic technology.)1 Photovoltaic Panels Solar cells, also called...

  8. U.S. Department of Energy Forrestal Building, Washington, D.C. | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Forrestal Building, Washington, D.C. U.S. Department of Energy Forrestal Building, Washington, D.C. Photo of Photovoltaic System at the Forrestal Building in Washington, DC The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is housed in the Forrestal Building in Washington, DC. A photovoltaic (PV) system was installed as part of the DOE's support of alternative energy and the Federal initiatives to lower energy usage. The 3 kW AC PV system is mounted on a balcony on the south side of the

  9. A toolkit for building earth system models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foster, I.

    1993-03-01

    An earth system model is a computer code designed to simulate the interrelated processes that determine the earth's weather and climate, such as atmospheric circulation, atmospheric physics, atmospheric chemistry, oceanic circulation, and biosphere. I propose a toolkit that would support a modular, or object-oriented, approach to the implementation of such models.

  10. A toolkit for building earth system models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foster, I.

    1993-03-01

    An earth system model is a computer code designed to simulate the interrelated processes that determine the earth`s weather and climate, such as atmospheric circulation, atmospheric physics, atmospheric chemistry, oceanic circulation, and biosphere. I propose a toolkit that would support a modular, or object-oriented, approach to the implementation of such models.

  11. Low-Cost High-Concentration Photovoltaic Systems for Utility Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McConnell, R.; Garboushian, V.; Gordon, R.; Dutra, D.; Kinsey, G.; Geer, S.; Gomez, H.; Cameron, C.

    2012-03-31

    Under DOE's Technology Pathway Partnership (TPP) program, Amonix, Inc. developed a new generation of high-concentration photovoltaic systems using multijunction technology and established the manufacturing capacity needed to supply multi-megawatt power plants buing using the new Amonix 7700-series solar energy systems. For this effort, Amonix Collaborated with a variety of suppliers and partners to complete project tasks. Subcontractors included: Evonik/Cyro; Hitek; the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Raytech; Spectrolab; UL; University of Nevada, Las Vegas; and TUV Rheinland PTL. The Amonix TPP tasks included: Task 1: Multijunction Cell Optimization for Field Operation, Task 2: Fresnel Lens R&D, Task 3: Cell Package Design & Production, Task 4: Standards Compliance and Reliability Testing, Task 5: Receiver Plate Production, Task 6: MegaModule Performance, Task 7: MegaModule Cost Reduction, Task 8: Factory Setup and MegaModule Production, Task 9: Tracker and Tracking Controller, Task 10: Installation and Balance of System (BOS), Task 11: Field Testing, and Task 12: Solar Advisor Modeling and Market Analysis. Amonix's TPP addressed nearly the complete PV value chain from epitaxial layer design and wafer processing through system design, manufacturing, deployment and O&M. Amonix has made progress toward achieving these reduced costs through the development of its 28%+ efficient MegaModule, reduced manufacturing and installation cost through design for manufacturing and assembly, automated manufacturing processes, and reduced O&M costs. Program highlights include: (1) Optimized multijunction cell and cell package design to improve performance by > 10%; (2) Updated lens design provided 7% increased performance and higher concentration; (3) 28.7% DC STC MegaModule efficiency achieved in Phase II exceeded Phase III performance goal; (4) New 16' focal length MegaModule achieved target materials and manufacturing cost reduction; (5) Designed and placed into production 25 MW/yr manufacturing capacity for complete MegaModules, including cell packages, receiver plates, and structures with lenses; (6) Designed and deployed Amonix 7700 series systems rated at 63 kW PTC ac and higher. Based on an LCOE assessment using NREL's Solar Advisor Model, Amonix met DOE's LCOE targets: Amonix 2011 LCOE 12.8 cents/kWh (2010 DOE goal 10-15); 2015 LCOE 6.4 cents/kWh (2015 goal 5-7) Amonix and TPP participants would like to thank the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technology Program for funding received under this program through Agreement No. DE-FC36-07GO17042.

  12. Building

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    DIV. Electricity Consumption and Expenditure Intensities by Census Division, 1999" ,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity Expenditures" ,"per Building (thousand kWh)","per...

  13. Energy Management Systems Package for Small Commercial Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Commercial Buildings Integration Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review

  14. Building America Technology Solutions Case Study: Photovoltaic Systems with Module-Level Power Electronics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This guide will show how DC power optimizers and microinverters (both known as module-level power electronics) are being used in new and/or retrofit, single and multifamily homes.

  15. International photovoltaic products and manufacturers directory, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shepperd, L.W.

    1995-11-01

    This international directory of more than 500 photovoltaic-related manufacturers is intended to guide potential users of photovoltaics to sources for systems and their components. Two indexes help the user to locate firms and materials. A glossary describes equipment and terminology commonly used in the photovoltaic industry.

  16. Build-

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Cooling Equipment, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Build- ings*","Cooled Build- ings","Cooling Equipment (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Resid- ential- Type Central Air Condi- tioners","Heat Pumps","Indiv- idual Air Condi- tioners","District Chilled Water","Central Chillers","Pack- aged Air Condi- tioning Units","Swamp

  17. NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Company Partners in Photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Manufacturing R&D Company Partners in Photovoltaic Manufacturing R&D More than 40 private-sector companies partnered with NREL on successful efforts within the PV Manufacturing R&D Project. They included manufacturers of crystalline silicon, thin-film, and concentrator solar technologies. The companies are listed below. Advanced Energy Systems Alpha Solarco ASE Americas AstroPower/GE Energy Boeing Aerospace BP Solar Cronar Crystal Systems Dow Corning Energy Conversion Devices

  18. HVAC & Building Management Control System Energy Efficiency Replacements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hernandez, Adriana

    2012-09-21

    The project objective was the replacement of an aging, un-repairable HVAC system which has grown inefficient and a huge energy consumer with low energy and efficient HVAC units, and installation of energy efficient building control technologies at City's YMCA Community Center.

  19. Photovoltaic System Pricing Trends: Historical, Recent, and Near-Term Projections (Presentation), Sunshot, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    gov/sunshot energy.gov/sunshot Photovoltaic System Pricing Trends Historical, Recent, and Near-Term Projections 2014 Edition David Feldman 1 , Galen Barbose 2 , Robert Margolis 1 , Ted James 1 , Samantha Weaver 2 , Naïm Darghouth 2 , Ran Fu 1 , Carolyn Davidson 1 , Sam Booth 1 , and Ryan Wiser 2 September 22, 2014 1 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 2 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory NREL/PR-6A20-62558 energy.gov/sunshot Contents * Introduction and Summary * Historical and Recent

  20. Building America Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes: Multifamily Individual Heating and Ventilation Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The conversion of an older Massachusetts building into condominiums illustrates a safe, durable, and cost-effective solution for heating and ventilation systems in multifamily buildings.

  1. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.8 Active Solar Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    7 2009 Top 10 Destinations of U.S. Photovoltaic Cell and Module Export Shipments, by Country Peak Percent of Country U.S. Exports Germany Italy France Canada Belgium Spain China India South Korea Australia Total U.S. Exports Note(s): Source(s): 8,368 1% 681,427 100% Total U.S. exports of photovoltaic cells and modules increased by 47% from 2008 to 2009. EIA, Solar Photovoltaic Cell/Module Manufacturing Activities, Dec. 2010, Table 3.14. 18,297 3% 14,806 2% 12,581 2% 43,458 6% 27,247 4% 23,460 3%

  2. Integrated Energy Systems (IES) for Buildings: A Market Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeMar, P.

    2002-10-29

    Integrated Energy Systems (IES) combine on-site power or distributed generation technologies with thermally activated technologies to provide cooling, heating, humidity control, energy storage and/or other process functions using thermal energy normally wasted in the production of electricity/power. IES produce electricity and byproduct thermal energy onsite, with the potential of converting 80 percent or more of the fuel into useable energy. IES have the potential to offer the nation the benefits of unprecedented energy efficiency gains, consumer choice and energy security. It may also dramatically reduce industrial and commercial building sector carbon and air pollutant emissions and increase source energy efficiency. Applications of distributed energy and Combined heat and power (CHP) in ''Commercial and Institutional Buildings'' have, however, been historically limited due to insufficient use of byproduct thermal energy, particularly during summer months when heating is at a minimum. In recent years, custom engineered systems have evolved incorporating potentially high-value services from Thermally Activated Technologies (TAT) like cooling and humidity control. Such TAT equipment can be integrated into a CHP system to utilize the byproduct heat output effectively to provide absorption cooling or desiccant humidity control for the building during these summer months. IES can therefore expand the potential thermal energy services and thereby extend the conventional CHP market into building sector applications that could not be economically served by CHP alone. Now more than ever, these combined cooling, heating and humidity control systems (IES) can potentially decrease carbon and air pollutant emissions, while improving source energy efficiency in the buildings sector. Even with these improvements over conventional CHP systems, IES face significant technological and economic hurdles. Of crucial importance to the success of IES is the ability to treat the heating, ventilation, air conditioning, water heating, lighting, and power systems loads as parts of an integrated system, serving the majority of these loads either directly or indirectly from the CHP output. The CHP Technology Roadmaps (Buildings and Industry) have focused research and development on a comprehensive integration approach: component integration, equipment integration, packaged and modular system development, system integration with the grid, and system integration with building and process loads. This marked change in technology research and development has led to the creation of a new acronym to better reflect the nature of development in this important area of energy efficiency: Integrated Energy Systems (IES). Throughout this report, the terms ''CHP'' and ''IES'' will sometimes be used interchangeably, with CHP generally reserved for the electricity and heat generating technology subsystem portion of an IES. The focus of this study is to examine the potential for IES in buildings when the system perspective is taken, and the IES is employed as a dynamic system, not just as conventional CHP. This effort is designed to determine market potential by analyzing IES performance on an hour-by-hour basis, examining the full range of building types, their loads and timing, and assessing how these loads can be technically and economically met by IES.

  3. Integrating fuel cell power systems into building physical plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carson, J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the integration of fuel cell power plants and absorption chillers to cogenerate chilled water or hot water/steam for all weather air conditioning as one possible approach to building system applications. Absorption chillers utilize thermal energy in an absorption based cycle to chill water. It is feasible to use waste heat from fuel cells to provide hydronic heating and cooling. Performance regimes will vary as a function of the supply and quality of waste heat. Respective performance characteristics of fuel cells, absorption chillers and air conditioning systems will define relationships between thermal and electrical load capacities for the combined systems. Specifically, this paper develops thermodynamic relationships between bulk electrical power and cooling/heating capacities for combined fuel cell and absorption chiller system in building applications.

  4. A generalized window energy rating system for typical office buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Cheng; Chen, Tingyao; Yang, Hongxing; Chung, Tse-ming

    2010-07-15

    Detailed computer simulation programs require lengthy inputs, and cannot directly provide an insight to relationship between the window energy performance and the key window design parameters. Hence, several window energy rating systems (WERS) for residential houses and small buildings have been developed in different countries. Many studies showed that utilization of daylight through elaborate design and operation of windows leads to significant energy savings in both cooling and lighting in office buildings. However, the current WERSs do not consider daylighting effect, while most of daylighting analyses do not take into account the influence of convective and infiltration heat gains. Therefore, a generalized WERS for typical office buildings has been presented, which takes all primary influence factors into account. The model includes embodied and operation energy uses and savings by a window to fully reflect interactions among the influence parameters. Reference locations selected for artificial lighting and glare control in the current common simulation practice may cause uncompromised conflicts, which could result in over- or under-estimated energy performance. Widely used computer programs, DOE2 and ADELINE, for hourly daylighting and cooling simulations have their own weaknesses, which may result in unrealistic or inaccurate results. An approach is also presented for taking the advantages of the both programs and avoiding their weaknesses. The model and approach have been applied to a typical office building of Hong Kong as an example to demonstrate how a WERS in a particular location can be established and how well the model can work. The energy effect of window properties, window-to-wall ratio (WWR), building orientation and lighting control strategies have been analyzed, and can be indicated by the localized WERS. An application example also demonstrates that the algebraic WERS derived from simulation results can be easily used for the optimal design of windows in buildings similar to the typical buildings. (author)

  5. Hourly Simulation of Grid-Connected PV Systems Using Realistic Building Loads (Preprint)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Hayter, S.J.; Weaver, N.L.

    2001-02-27

    This is one of two companion papers that describe the ENERGY-10 PV design tool computer simulation program. The other paper is titled ''ENERGY-10 Photovoltaics: A New Capability.'' Whereas this paper focuses on the PV aspects of the program, the companion paper focuses on the implementation method. The case study in this paper is a commercial building application, whereas the case study in the companion paper is a residential application with an entirely different building load characteristic. Together they provide a balanced view.

  6. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.5 Thermal Distribution Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    3 Thermal Distribution Design Load and Electricity Intensities, by Building Activity Education 0.5 1.3 Food Sales 1.1 6.4 Food Service 1.5 6.4 Health Care 1.5 5.6 Lodging 0.5 1.9 Mercantile and Service 0.9 2.7 Office 1.3 3.3 Public Assembly 1.2 3.0 Warehouse 0.4 1.8 All Buildings 1.0 2.8 Source(s): Design Load Intensity End Use Intensity (W/SF) (kWh/SF) BTS/A.D. Little, Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial Building HVAC Systems, Volume II: Thermal Distribution, Auxiliary Equipment,

  7. Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning Systems, Part

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    II - Design Options for Locating Ducts within Conditioned Space | Department of Energy II - Design Options for Locating Ducts within Conditioned Space Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning Systems, Part II - Design Options for Locating Ducts within Conditioned Space William Zoeller, Consortium for Advanced Residential Retrofit (CARB) delivers this presentation, which provides an overview of the technical aspects of buried and encapsulated duct systems as well as the

  8. Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning Systems, Part

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    I | Department of Energy I Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning Systems, Part I The webinar on Oct. 23, 2014, focused on strategies to improve the performance of HVAC systems for low load homes and home performance retrofits. Presenters and specific topics for this webinar will be: * Andrew Poerschke, IBACOS, presenting Simplified Space Conditioning in Low-load Homes. The presentation will focus on what is "simple" when it comes to space conditioning?

  9. Energy Signal Tool for Decision Support in Building Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henze, G. P.; Pavlak, G. S.; Florita, A. R.; Dodier, R. H.; Hirsch, A. I.

    2014-12-01

    A prototype energy signal tool is demonstrated for operational whole-building and system-level energy use evaluation. The purpose of the tool is to give a summary of building energy use which allows a building operator to quickly distinguish normal and abnormal energy use. Toward that end, energy use status is displayed as a traffic light, which is a visual metaphor for energy use that is either substantially different from expected (red and yellow lights) or approximately the same as expected (green light). Which light to display for a given energy end use is determined by comparing expected to actual energy use. As expected, energy use is necessarily uncertain; we cannot choose the appropriate light with certainty. Instead, the energy signal tool chooses the light by minimizing the expected cost of displaying the wrong light. The expected energy use is represented by a probability distribution. Energy use is modeled by a low-order lumped parameter model. Uncertainty in energy use is quantified by a Monte Carlo exploration of the influence of model parameters on energy use. Distributions over model parameters are updated over time via Bayes' theorem. The simulation study was devised to assess whole-building energy signal accuracy in the presence of uncertainty and faults at the submetered level, which may lead to tradeoffs at the whole-building level that are not detectable without submetering.

  10. Enhancements to the SHARP Build System and NEK5000 Coupling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCaskey, Alex; Bennett, Andrew R.; Billings, Jay Jay

    2014-10-01

    The SHARP project for the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program provides a multiphysics framework for coupled simulations of advanced nuclear reactor designs. It provides an overall coupling environment that utilizes custom interfaces to couple existing physics codes through a common spatial decomposition and unique solution transfer component. As of this writing, SHARP couples neutronics, thermal hydraulics, and structural mechanics using PROTEUS, Nek5000, and Diablo respectively. This report details two primary SHARP improvements regarding the Nek5000 and Diablo individual physics codes: (1) an improved Nek5000 coupling interface that lets SHARP achieve a vast increase in overall solution accuracy by manipulating the structure of the internal Nek5000 spatial mesh, and (2) the capability to seamlessly couple structural mechanics calculations into the framework through improvements to the SHARP build system. The Nek5000 coupling interface now uses a barycentric Lagrange interpolation method that takes the vertex-based power and density computed from the PROTEUS neutronics solver and maps it to the user-specified, general-order Nek5000 spectral element mesh. Before this work, SHARP handled this vertex-based solution transfer in an averaging-based manner. SHARP users can now achieve higher levels of accuracy by specifying any arbitrary Nek5000 spectral mesh order. This improvement takes the average percentage error between the PROTEUS power solution and the Nek5000 interpolated result down drastically from over 23 % to just above 2 %, and maintains the correct power profile. We have integrated Diablo into the SHARP build system to facilitate the future coupling of structural mechanics calculations into SHARP. Previously, simulations involving Diablo were done in an iterative manner, requiring a large amount manual work, and left only as a task for advanced users. This report will detail a new Diablo build system that was implemented using GNU Autotools, mirroring much of the current SHARP build system, and easing the use of structural mechanics calculations for end-users of the SHARP multiphysics framework. It lets users easily build and use Diablo as a stand-alone simulation, as well as fully couple with the other SHARP physics modules. The top-level SHARP build system was modified to allow Diablo to hook in directly. New dependency handlers were implemented to let SHARP users easily build the framework with these new simulation capabilities. The remainder of this report will describe this work in full, with a detailed discussion of the overall design philosophy of SHARP, the new solution interpolation method introduced, and the Diablo integration work. We will conclude with a discussion of possible future SHARP improvements that will serve to increase solution accuracy and framework capability.

  11. Tianda Photovoltaic Co Ltd Yunnan Tianda Photovoltaic | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tianda Photovoltaic Co Ltd Yunnan Tianda Photovoltaic Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tianda Photovoltaic Co Ltd (Yunnan Tianda Photovoltaic) Place: Kunming, Yunnan Province,...

  12. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.5 Thermal Distribution Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    5 Typical Commercial Building Thermal Energy Distribution Design Load Intensities (Watts per SF) Distribution System Fans Other Central System Supply Fans Cooling Tower Fan Central System Return Fans Air-Cooled Chiller Condenser Fan 0.6 Terminal Box Fans 0.5 Exhaust Fans (2) Fan-Coil Unit Fans (1) Condenser Fans 0.6 Packaged or Split System Indoor Blower 0.6 Pumps Chilled Water Pump Condenser Water Pump Heating Water Pump Note(s): Source(s): 0.1 - 0.2 0.1 - 0.2 1) Unducted units are lower than

  13. Making America's Buildings Better (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technologies program. Buildings use more energy than any other sector of the U.S. economy? In fact, buildings consume more than 70% of the electricity and more than 50% of the natural gas Americans use. That's why the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Building Technologies Program (BTP) is working to improve building energy performance through high-impact research, out-reach, and regulatory efforts. These efforts will result in affordable, high-performance homes and commercial buildings. These grid-connected buildings will be more energy efficient than today's typical buildings, with renewable energy providing a portion of the power needs. They will combine energy-smart 'whole building' design and construction, appliances and equipment that minimize plug loads, and cost-effective photovoltaics or other on-site energy systems.

  14. Optimization of Electric Power Systems for Off-Grid Domestic Applications: An Argument for Wind/Photovoltaic Hybrids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, W.; Green, J.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the optimal configuration of home power systems relevant to different regions in the United States. The hypothesis was that, regardless of region, the optimal system would be a hybrid incorporating wind technology, versus a photovoltaic hybrid system without the use of wind technology. The method used in this research was HOMER, the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables. HOMER is a computer program that optimizes electrical configurations under user-defined circumstances. According to HOMER, the optimal system for the four regions studied (Kansas, Massachusetts, Oregon, and Arizona) was a hybrid incorporating wind technology. The cost differences between these regions, however, were dependent upon regional renewable resources. Future studies will be necessary, as it is difficult to estimate meteorological impacts for other regions.

  15. A DISTRIBUTED INTELLIGENT AUTOMATED DEMAND RESPONSE BUILDING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auslander, David; Culler, David; Wright, Paul; Lu, Yan; Piette, Mary

    2013-12-30

    The goal of the 2.5 year Distributed Intelligent Automated Demand Response (DIADR) project was to reduce peak electricity load of Sutardja Dai Hall at UC Berkeley by 30% while maintaining a healthy, comfortable, and productive environment for the occupants. We sought to bring together both central and distributed control to provide “deep” demand response1 at the appliance level of the building as well as typical lighting and HVAC applications. This project brought together Siemens Corporate Research and Siemens Building Technology (the building has a Siemens Apogee Building Automation System (BAS)), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (leveraging their Open Automated Demand Response (openADR), Auto-­Demand Response, and building modeling expertise), and UC Berkeley (related demand response research including distributed wireless control, and grid-­to-­building gateway development). Sutardja Dai Hall houses the Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society (CITRIS), which fosters collaboration among industry and faculty and students of four UC campuses (Berkeley, Davis, Merced, and Santa Cruz). The 141,000 square foot building, occupied in 2009, includes typical office spaces and a nanofabrication laboratory. Heating is provided by a district heating system (steam from campus as a byproduct of the campus cogeneration plant); cooling is provided by one of two chillers: a more typical electric centrifugal compressor chiller designed for the cool months (Nov-­ March) and a steam absorption chiller for use in the warm months (April-­October). Lighting in the open office areas is provided by direct-­indirect luminaries with Building Management System-­based scheduling for open areas, and occupancy sensors for private office areas. For the purposes of this project, we focused on the office portion of the building. Annual energy consumption is approximately 8053 MWh; the office portion is estimated as 1924 MWh. The maximum peak load during the study period was 1175 kW. Several new tools facilitated this work, such as the Smart Energy Box, the distributed load controller or Energy Information Gateway, the web-­based DR controller (dubbed the Central Load-­Shed Coordinator or CLSC), and the Demand Response Capacity Assessment & Operation Assistance Tool (DRCAOT). In addition, an innovative data aggregator called sMAP (simple Measurement and Actuation Profile) allowed data from different sources collected in a compact form and facilitated detailed analysis of the building systems operation. A smart phone application (RAP or Rapid Audit Protocol) facilitated an inventory of the building’s plug loads. Carbon dioxide sensors located in conference rooms and classrooms allowed demand controlled ventilation. The extensive submetering and nimble access to this data provided great insight into the details of the building operation as well as quick diagnostics and analyses of tests. For example, students discovered a short-­cycling chiller, a stuck damper, and a leaking cooling coil in the first field tests. For our final field tests, we were able to see how each zone was affected by the DR strategies (e.g., the offices on the 7th floor grew very warm quickly) and fine-­tune the strategies accordingly.

  16. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Surek, Thomas; Catalano, Anthony

    1993-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1992 progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)-formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Crystalline Materials and Advanced Concepts project, the Polycrystalline Thin Films project, Amorphous Silicon Research project, the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project, PV Module and System Performance and Engineering project, and the PV Analysis and Applications Development project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1992, and future research directions.

  17. Concentrating photovoltaic solar panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cashion, Steven A; Bowser, Michael R; Farrelly, Mark B; Hines, Braden E; Holmes, Howard C; Johnson, Jr., Richard L; Russell, Richard J; Turk, Michael F

    2014-04-15

    The present invention relates to photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic concentrator modules, and related methods. In particular, the present invention features concentrator modules having interior points of attachment for an articulating mechanism and/or an articulating mechanism that has a unique arrangement of chassis members so as to isolate bending, etc. from being transferred among the chassis members. The present invention also features adjustable solar panel mounting features and/or mounting features with two or more degrees of freedom. The present invention also features a mechanical fastener for secondary optics in a concentrator module.

  18. Optimal Sizing of Energy Storage and Photovoltaic Power Systems for Demand Charge Mitigation (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.; Simpson, M.

    2013-10-01

    Commercial facility utility bills are often a strong function of demand charges -- a fee proportional to peak power demand rather than total energy consumed. In some instances, demand charges can constitute more than 50% of a commercial customer's monthly electricity cost. While installation of behind-the-meter solar power generation decreases energy costs, its variability makes it likely to leave the peak load -- and thereby demand charges -- unaffected. This then makes demand charges an even larger fraction of remaining electricity costs. Adding controllable behind-the-meter energy storage can more predictably affect building peak demand, thus reducing electricity costs. Due to the high cost of energy storage technology, the size and operation of an energy storage system providing demand charge management (DCM) service must be optimized to yield a positive return on investment (ROI). The peak demand reduction achievable with an energy storage system depends heavily on a facility's load profile, so the optimal configuration will be specific to both the customer and the amount of installed solar power capacity. We explore the sensitivity of DCM value to the power and energy levels of installed solar power and energy storage systems. An optimal peak load reduction control algorithm for energy storage systems will be introduced and applied to historic solar power data and meter load data from multiple facilities for a broad range of energy storage system configurations. For each scenario, the peak load reduction and electricity cost savings will be computed. From this, we will identify a favorable energy storage system configuration that maximizes ROI.

  19. Integration of Rooftop Photovoltaic Systems in St. Paul Ford Site's Redevelopment Plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olis, D.; Mosey, G.

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to estimate how much electricity the redeveloped Ford Motor Company assembly plant site in St. Paul, Minnesota, might consume under different development scenarios and how much rooftop photovoltaic (PV) generation might be possible at the site. Because the current development scenarios are high-level, preliminary sketches that describe mixes of residential, retail, commercial, and industrial spaces, electricity consumption and available rooftop area for PV under each scenario can only be grossly estimated. These results are only indicative and should be used for estimating purposes only and to help inform development goals and requirements moving forward.

  20. Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning Systems, Part

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    II - Compact Buried Ducts | Department of Energy Compact Buried Ducts Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning Systems, Part II - Compact Buried Ducts Dave Mallay, Partnership for Home Innovation (PHI), presenting Compact Buried Ducts. Dave will discuss buried ducts and design considerations, the compact duct concept, results of field testing and monitoring, and alternative solutions for air sealing and insulating the ducts. PDF icon ba_webinar_mallay_11_18-14.pdf More

  1. FORTRAN M as a language for building earth system models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foster, I.

    1992-01-01

    FORTRAN M is a small set of extensions to FORTRAN 77 that supports a modular or object-oriented approach to the development of parallel programs. In this paper, I discuss the use of FORTRAN M as a tool for building earth system models on massively parallel computers. I hypothesize that the use of FORTRAN M has software engineering advantages and outline experiments that we are conducting to investigate this hypothesis.

  2. FORTRAN M as a language for building earth system models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foster, I.

    1992-12-31

    FORTRAN M is a small set of extensions to FORTRAN 77 that supports a modular or object-oriented approach to the development of parallel programs. In this paper, I discuss the use of FORTRAN M as a tool for building earth system models on massively parallel computers. I hypothesize that the use of FORTRAN M has software engineering advantages and outline experiments that we are conducting to investigate this hypothesis.

  3. Web-based energy information systems for large commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-03-29

    Energy Information Systems (EIS), which monitor and organize building energy consumption and related trend data over the Internet, have been evolving over the past decade. This technology helps perform key energy management functions such as organizing energy use data, identifying energy consumption anomalies, managing energy costs, and automating demand response strategies. During recent years numerous developers and vendors of EIS have been deploying these products in a highly competitive market. EIS offer various software applications and services for a variety of purposes. Costs for such system vary greatly depending on the system's capabilities and how they are marketed. Some products are marketed directly to end users while others are made available as part of electric utility programs. EIS can be a useful tool in building commissioning and retro-commissioning. This paper reviews more than a dozen EIS. We have developed an analytical framework to characterize the main features of these products, which are developed for a variety of utility programs and end-use markets. The purpose of this research is to evaluate EIS capabilities and limitations, plus examine longer-term opportunities for utilizing such technology to improve building energy efficiency and load management.

  4. Photovoltaics Program: utility interface southwest regional workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-04-01

    This was the first of a series of regional workshops that will focus on the photovoltaic and utility interface, and the use of photovoltaics as a cogeneration option by utilities. The needs and constraints of the utilities are defined and an understanding is established of the capabilities and limitations of photovoltaic systems as an alternative electricity generation option by utilities. Utilities' viewpoints regarding large-scale central systems and small-scale, interconnected, distributed systems are given. The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act and other economic, legislative, and regulatory factors affecting photovoltaic systems are discussed. Current status of photovoltaic systems with respect to the Department of Energy Photovoltaic Program is given. (LEW)

  5. Plug-and-Play Photovoltaics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On December 7, 2012, DOE announced $21 million in funding for the Plug-and-Play Photovoltaics funding opportunity. Part of the SunShot Systems Integration efforts, the following projects were...

  6. Salem Electric- Photovoltaic Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Salem Electric offers a rebate to residential customers who install solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. The rebate offered is $600 for the first three kilowatts (kWs) installed and $300/kW for any...

  7. Advanced Photovoltaic Inverter Functionality using 500 kW Power Hardware-in-Loop Complete System Laboratory Testing: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mather, B. A.; Kromer, M. A.; Casey, L.

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing penetration of distribution connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, more and more PV developers and utilities are interested in easing future PV interconnection concerns by mitigating some of the impacts of PV integration using advanced PV inverter controls and functions. This paper describes the testing of a 500 kW PV inverter using Power Hardware-in-Loop (PHIL) testing techniques. The test setup is described and the results from testing the inverter in advanced functionality modes, not commonly used in currently interconnected PV systems, are presented. PV inverter operation under PHIL evaluation that emulated both the DC PV array connection and the AC distribution level grid connection are shown for constant power factor (PF) and constant reactive power (VAr) control modes. The evaluation of these modes was completed under varying degrees of modeled PV variability.

  8. Three-Phase Modular Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter with Individual MPPT for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Bailu; Hang, Lijun; Riley, Cameron; Tolbert, Leon M; Ozpineci, Burak

    2013-01-01

    A three-phase modular cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter for a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system is presented in this paper. To maximize the solar energy extraction of each PV string, an individual maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control scheme is applied, which allows the independent control of each dc-link voltage. PV mismatches may introduce unbalanced power supplied to the three-phase system. To solve this issue, a control scheme with modulation compensation is proposed. The three-phase modular cascaded multilevel inverter prototype has been built. Each H-bridge is connected to a 185 W solar panel. Simulation and experimental results are presented to validate the proposed ideas.

  9. Evaluation of a photovoltaic energy mechatronics system with a built-in quadratic maximum power point tracking algorithm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chao, R.M.; Ko, S.H.; Lin, I.H.; Pai, F.S.; Chang, C.C.

    2009-12-15

    The historically high cost of crude oil price is stimulating research into solar (green) energy as an alternative energy source. In general, applications with large solar energy output require a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm to optimize the power generated by the photovoltaic effect. This work aims to provide a stand-alone solution for solar energy applications by integrating a DC/DC buck converter to a newly developed quadratic MPPT algorithm along with its appropriate software and hardware. The quadratic MPPT method utilizes three previously used duty cycles with their corresponding power outputs. It approaches the maximum value by using a second order polynomial formula, which converges faster than the existing MPPT algorithm. The hardware implementation takes advantage of the real-time controller system from National Instruments, USA. Experimental results have shown that the proposed solar mechatronics system can correctly and effectively track the maximum power point without any difficulties. (author)

  10. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.5 Thermal Distribution Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    1 Market Share of Major HVAC Equipment Manufacturers ($2009 Million) Air-Handling Units 1032 Cooling Towers 533 Pumps 333 Central System Terminal Boxes 192 Classroom Unit Ventilator 160 Fan Coil Units 123 Source(s): Total Market Size BTS/A.D. Little, Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial Building HVAC Systems, Volume II: Thermal Distribution, Auxiliary Equipment, and Ventilation, Oct. 1999, Table 4-1, p. 4-4; and EIA, Annual Energy Review 2010, Oct. 2011, Appendix D, p. 353 for price

  11. Photovoltaic Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duty, C.; Angelini, J.; Armstrong, B.; Bennett, C.; Evans, B.; Jellison, G. E.; Joshi, P.; List, F.; Paranthaman, P.; Parish, C.; Wereszczak, A.

    2012-10-15

    The goal of the current project was to help make the US solar industry a world leader in the manufacture of thin film photovoltaics. The overall approach was to leverage ORNL’s unique characterization and processing technologies to gain a better understanding of the fundamental challenges for solar cell processing and apply that knowledge to targeted projects with industry members. ORNL has the capabilities in place and the expertise required to understand how basic material properties including defects, impurities, and grain boundaries affect the solar cell performance. ORNL also has unique processing capabilities to optimize the manufacturing process for fabrication of high efficiency and low cost solar cells. ORNL recently established the Center for Advanced Thin-film Systems (CATS), which contains a suite of optical and electrical characterization equipment specifically focused on solar cell research. Under this project, ORNL made these facilities available to industrial partners who were interested in pursuing collaborative research toward the improvement of their product or manufacturing process. Four specific projects were pursued with industrial partners: Global Solar Energy is a solar industry leader in full scale production manufacturing highly-efficient Copper Indium Gallium diSelenide (CIGS) thin film solar material, cells and products. ORNL worked with GSE to develop a scalable, non-vacuum, solution technique to deposit amorphous or nanocrystalline conducting barrier layers on untextured stainless steel substrates for fabricating high efficiency flexible CIGS PV. Ferro Corporation’s Electronic, Color and Glass Materials (“ECGM”) business unit is currently the world’s largest supplier of metallic contact materials in the crystalline solar cell marketplace. Ferro’s ECGM business unit has been the world's leading supplier of thick film metal pastes to the crystalline silicon PV industry for more than 30 years, and has had operational cells and modules in the field for 25 years. Under this project, Ferro leveraged world leading analytical capabilities at ORNL to characterize the paste-to-silicon interface microstructure and develop high efficiency next generation contact pastes. Ampulse Corporation is developing a revolutionary crystalline-silicon (c-Si) thin-film solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. Utilizing uniquely-textured substrates and buffer materials from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and breakthroughs in Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HW-CVD) techniques in epitaxial silicon developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Ampulse is creating a solar technology that is tunable in silicon thickness, and hence in efficiency and economics, to meet the specific requirements of multiple solar PV applications. This project focused on the development of a high rate deposition process to deposit Si, Ge, and Si1-xGex films as an alternate to hot-wire CVD. Mossey Creek Solar is a start-up company with great expertise in the solar field. The primary interest is to create and preserve jobs in the solar sector by developing high-yield, low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells using MSC-patented and -proprietary technologies. The specific goal of this project was to produce large grain formation in thin, net-shape-thickness mc-Si wafers processed with high-purity silicon powder and ORNL's plasma arc lamp melting without introducing impurities that compromise absorption coefficient and carrier lifetime. As part of this project, ORNL also added specific pieces of equipment to enhance our ability to provide unique insight for the solar industry. These capabilities include a moisture barrier measurement system, a combined physical vapor deposition and sputtering system dedicated to cadmium-containing deposits, adeep level transient spectroscopy system useful for identifying defects, an integrating sphere photoluminescence system, and a high-speed ink jet printing system. These tools were combined with others to study the effect of defects on the performance of crystalline silicon and thin film solar cells, to explore non-vacuum ink-based approaches to solar cell production, as well as large-scale and low-cost deposition and processing of thin film CdTe material.

  12. DOE, RTI to Design and Build Gas Cleanup System for IGCC Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE, RTI to Design and Build Gas Cleanup System for IGCC Power Plants DOE, RTI to Design and Build Gas Cleanup System for IGCC Power Plants July 13, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis ...

  13. House-as-a-System Business Case - Building America Top Innovations...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    House-as-a-System Business Case - Building America Top Innovations House-as-a-System Business Case - Building America Top Innovations August 25, 2014 - 10:48am Addthis...

  14. Field Guide for Testing Existing Photovoltaic Systems for Ground Faults and Installing Equipment to Mitigate Fire Hazards: November 2012 - October 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, William

    2015-02-01

    Ground faults and arc faults are the two most common reasons for fires in photovoltaic (PV) arrays and methods exist that can mitigate the hazards. This report provides field procedures for testing PV arrays for ground faults, and for implementing high resolution ground fault and arc fault detectors in existing and new PV system designs.

  15. Ashland Electric Utility - Photovoltaic Rebate Program | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The City of Ashland Conservation Division offers electric customers installing photovoltaic systems a rebate of either 0.50 per watt (residential) or 0.75 per watt...

  16. Sandia National Laboratory Photovoltaic Design Resources | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    are included, along with additional sources of information and major U.S. PV system suppliers. References Sandia Photovoltaic Research and Development Retrieved from "http:...

  17. Photovoltaics Economic Calculator (United States) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (United States) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Photovoltaics Economic Calculator (United States) Focus Area: Solar Topics: System & Application...

  18. Sandia Energy - Glitter-Sized Photovoltaic Cells in Utility-Scale...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Glitter-Sized Photovoltaic Cells in Utility-Scale Solar Power Systems Home Renewable Energy Energy News Photovoltaic Solar Glitter-Sized Photovoltaic Cells in Utility-Scale Solar...

  19. Photovoltaic Energy Program Overview Fiscal Year 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    Significant activities in the National Photovoltaic Program are reported for each of the three main program elements. In Research and Development, advances in thin-film materials and crystalline silicon materials are described. The Technology Development report describes activities in photovoltaic manufacturing technology, industrial expansion, module and array development, and testing photovoltaic system components. Systems Engineering and Applications projects described include projects with government agencies, projects with utilities, documentation of performance for international applications, and product certification.

  20. NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Events

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    success. The following events and meetings are of interest to partners of NREL Photovoltaics (PV) Research and the National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV). Printable Version...

  1. House-as-a-System Business Case - Building America Top Innovations |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy House-as-a-System Business Case - Building America Top Innovations House-as-a-System Business Case - Building America Top Innovations August 25, 2014 - 10:48am Addthis House-as-a-System Business Case - Building America Top Innovations Top Innovations in this category include profiles of Building America field research projects with production builders who have used a whole-house approach to achieve exceptional energy efficiency, comfort, and durability. These examples

  2. Tracking the Sun VIII. The Installed Price of Residential and Non-Residential Photovoltaic Systems in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbose, Galen L.; Darghouth, Naïm R.; Millstein, Dev; Spears, Mike; Wiser, Ryan H.; Buckley, Michael; Widiss, Rebecca; Grue, Nick

    2015-08-01

    Now in its eighth edition, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)’s Tracking the Sun report series is dedicated to summarizing trends in the installed price of grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States. The present report focuses on residential and nonresidential systems installed through year-end 2014, with preliminary trends for the first half of 2015. As noted in the text box below, this year’s report incorporates a number of important changes and enhancements. Among those changes, this year's report focuses solely on residential and nonresidential PV systems; data on utility-scale PV are reported in LBNL’s companion Utility-Scale Solar report series. Installed pricing trends presented within this report derive primarily from project-level data reported to state agencies and utilities that administer PV incentive programs, solar renewable energy credit (SREC) registration systems, or interconnection processes. In total, data were collected for roughly 400,000 individual PV systems, representing 81% of all U.S. residential and non-residential PV capacity installed through 2014 and 62% of capacity installed in 2014, though a smaller subset of this data were used in analysis.

  3. Methods for Automated and Continuous Commissioning of Building Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry Luskay; Michael Brambley; Srinivas Katipamula

    2003-04-30

    Avoidance of poorly installed HVAC systems is best accomplished at the close of construction by having a building and its systems put ''through their paces'' with a well conducted commissioning process. This research project focused on developing key components to enable the development of tools that will automatically detect and correct equipment operating problems, thus providing continuous and automatic commissioning of the HVAC systems throughout the life of a facility. A study of pervasive operating problems reveled the following would most benefit from an automated and continuous commissioning process: (1) faulty economizer operation; (2) malfunctioning sensors; (3) malfunctioning valves and dampers, and (4) access to project design data. Methodologies for detecting system operation faults in these areas were developed and validated in ''bare-bones'' forms within standard software such as spreadsheets, databases, statistical or mathematical packages. Demonstrations included flow diagrams and simplified mock-up applications. Techniques to manage data were demonstrated by illustrating how test forms could be populated with original design information and the recommended sequence of operation for equipment systems. Proposed tools would use measured data, design data, and equipment operating parameters to diagnosis system problems. Steps for future research are suggested to help more toward practical application of automated commissioning and its high potential to improve equipment availability, increase occupant comfort, and extend the life of system equipment.

  4. Impacts of different data averaging times on statistical analysis of distributed domestic photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widen, Joakim; Waeckelgaard, Ewa; Paatero, Jukka; Lund, Peter

    2010-03-15

    The trend of increasing application of distributed generation with solar photovoltaics (PV-DG) suggests that a widespread integration in existing low-voltage (LV) grids is possible in the future. With massive integration in LV grids, a major concern is the possible negative impacts of excess power injection from on-site generation. For power-flow simulations of such grid impacts, an important consideration is the time resolution of demand and generation data. This paper investigates the impact of time averaging on high-resolution data series of domestic electricity demand and PV-DG output and on voltages in a simulated LV grid. Effects of 10-minutely and hourly averaging on descriptive statistics and duration curves were determined. Although time averaging has a considerable impact on statistical properties of the demand in individual households, the impact is smaller on aggregate demand, already smoothed from random coincidence, and on PV-DG output. Consequently, the statistical distribution of simulated grid voltages was also robust against time averaging. The overall judgement is that statistical investigation of voltage variations in the presence of PV-DG does not require higher resolution than hourly. (author)

  5. Post Office Building, Rancho Mirage, California | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Post Office Building, Rancho Mirage, California Post Office Building, Rancho Mirage, California Photo of Photovoltaic System at Rancho Mirage Post Office in California The U.S. Postal Service (USPS) has been making an effort to add solar power to its offices as part of the Million Solar Roofs Initiative. They have been working with the staff at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to implement energy systems at USPS facilities. NREL assisted the USPS in rehabilitating an inoperable

  6. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.5 Thermal Distribution Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    4 Thermal Distribution Equipment Design Load and Electricity Intensities, by System Type Central VAV Central CAV Packaged CAV Central VAV Central CAV Packaged CAV Condenser Fan 0.3 0.2 Cooling Tower Fan 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.0 Condenser Water Pump 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.0 Chilled Water Pump 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.0 Supply & Return Fans 0.7 0.5 0.6 1.2 1.9 1.9 Chiller/Compressor 1.9 1.8 3.3 1.7 2.3 4.0 Source(s): BTS/A.D. Little, Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial Building HVAC Systems, Volume II:

  7. 2011 News | Buildings | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 News Below are news stories related to Buildings. RSS Learn about RSS. December 30, 2011 St. Thomas Airport Installs Largest Solar Project in U.S. Virgin Islands Solar energy is making its mark in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI), as evidenced by the large-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) system installed at the Cyril E. King Airport on St. Thomas. December 13, 2011 NREL Employees Recognized by Industry Peers Trade media and industry groups recently have honored several employees at the U.S.

  8. EPA ENERGY STAR Webcast: ENERGY STAR and Green Building Rating Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    During this session, attendees will learn how to use EPA tools and resources to help meet requirements for green building rating systems such as the U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in...

  9. Benchmarking Non-Hardware Balance-of-System (Soft) Costs for U.S. Photovoltaic Systems, Using a Bottom-Up Approach and Installer Survey - Second Edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, B.; Ardani, K.; Feldman, D.; Citron, R.; Margolis, R.; Zuboy, J.

    2013-10-01

    This report presents results from the second U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored, bottom-up data-collection and analysis of non-hardware balance-of-system costs -- often referred to as 'business process' or 'soft' costs -- for U.S. residential and commercial photovoltaic (PV) systems. In service to DOE's SunShot Initiative, annual expenditure and labor-hour-productivity data are analyzed to benchmark 2012 soft costs related to (1) customer acquisition and system design (2) permitting, inspection, and interconnection (PII). We also include an in-depth analysis of costs related to financing, overhead, and profit. Soft costs are both a major challenge and a major opportunity for reducing PV system prices and stimulating SunShot-level PV deployment in the United States. The data and analysis in this series of benchmarking reports are a step toward the more detailed understanding of PV soft costs required to track and accelerate these price reductions.

  10. Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System Needs:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Scoping Study | Department of Energy Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Emerging Technologies Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review PDF icon emrgtech05_brambley_040213.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Building Control Solutions PNNL: VOLTTRON Commercialization (CBI/ET Open Call) - 2015 Peer Review U.S. Industrial

  11. China Solar Photovoltaic Group CNPV aka Dongying Photovoltaic...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Group CNPV aka Dongying Photovoltaic Power Co Ltd or China Solar PV Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Solar Photovoltaic Group (CNPV, aka Dongying Photovoltaic Power Co Ltd...

  12. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Sanchez, Carlos Anthony; Clews, Peggy J.; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2015-09-08

    A process including forming a photovoltaic solar cell on a substrate, the photovoltaic solar cell comprising an anchor positioned between the photovoltaic solar cell and the substrate to suspend the photovoltaic solar cell from the substrate. A surface of the photovoltaic solar cell opposite the substrate is attached to a receiving substrate. The receiving substrate may be bonded to the photovoltaic solar cell using an adhesive force or a metal connecting member. The photovoltaic solar cell is then detached from the substrate by lifting the receiving substrate having the photovoltaic solar cell attached thereto and severing the anchor connecting the photovoltaic solar cell to the substrate. Depending upon the type of receiving substrate used, the photovoltaic solar cell may be removed from the receiving substrate or remain on the receiving substrate for use in the final product.

  13. US photovoltaic patents: 1991--1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pohle, L

    1995-03-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1991 to 1993. The entries were located by searching USPA, the database of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors, and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaic. Some patents on these three subjects were included when ft appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  14. Photovoltaic water pumping for Bolivia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Post, H.N.; Garvison, P.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the design, installation and performance of photovoltaically-powered water pumping systems which provide potable water to residents of three villages in the Altiplano region of Bolivia. The installation of these systems during August 1986 was the culmination of a cooperative effort between The World Bank, US Department of Energy and the Bolivian government. This project was configured to demonstrate, through pilot systems, the many potential benefits of using photovoltaic water pumping in developing countries. The lessons learned through the procurement and installation of these systems are discussed and the resulting benefits of the project to international lending institutions, US industry, and the Bolivian participants are examined.

  15. Intermediate photovoltaic system application experiment operational performance report for G. N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital, Kauai, Hawaii, for November 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The data accumulated during November 1982 at the intermediate photovoltaic project at G.N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital, Kauai, Hawaii, are presented. Generated energy and environmental (weather) data are presented graphically. Explanations of irregularities not attributable to weather are provided.

  16. American Photovoltaics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Photovoltaics Jump to: navigation, search Logo: American Photovoltaics Name: American Photovoltaics Place: Houston, Texas Zip: 77002 Region: Texas Area Sector: Solar Product: Will...

  17. Solar photovoltaic reflective trough collection structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Benjamin J.; Sweatt, William C.; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-11-19

    A photovoltaic (PV) solar concentration structure having at least two troughs encapsulated in a rectangular parallelepiped optical plastic structure, with the troughs filled with an optical plastic material, the troughs each having a reflective internal surface and approximately parabolic geometry, and the troughs each including photovoltaic cells situated so that light impinging on the optical plastic material will be concentrated onto the photovoltaic cells. Multiple structures can be connected to provide a solar photovoltaic collection system that provides portable, efficient, low-cost electrical power.

  18. NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Solar Energy Research Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Energy Research Facility Photo of the Solar Energy Research Facility. The exterior stepped clerestory of the Solar Energy Research Facility. Photovoltaics (PV) and basic energy sciences are two major research areas conducted in the Solar Energy Research Facility (SERF). The building incorporates a multitude of energy saving features that make it one of the government's most energy efficient buildings with 40 percent lower energy costs than similar buildings designed to meet federal energy

  19. Building America Update - March 11, 2013

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... current photovoltaic and solar thermal building practices ... reports, measure and strategy guidelines, case studies, and other resources to help you boost energy efficiency in new ...

  20. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.8 Active Solar Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    Solar Collector Shipments, by Type and Market (Thousand SF, unless noted) (1) Type 1980 1990 2000 2009 Solar Thermal Collectors (2) Residential N.A. Commercial N.A. Industrial N.A. Utility N.A. Other N.A. (4) Photovoltaics (kW) (5) Note(s): Source(s): (6) 6,897 13,837 88,221 1,282,560 1) Shipments for 1980-2000 include imports and exports; 2008 shipments are domestic only. 2) Solar thermal collectors: receive solar radiation, convert it to thermal energy, and are typically used forspace

  1. Photovoltaic self-assembly.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavin, Judith; Kemp, Richard Alan; Stewart, Constantine A.

    2010-10-01

    This late-start LDRD was focused on the application of chemical principles of self-assembly on the ordering and placement of photovoltaic cells in a module. The drive for this chemical-based self-assembly stems from the escalating prices in the 'pick-and-place' technology currently used in the MEMS industries as the size of chips decreases. The chemical self-assembly principles are well-known on a molecular scale in other material science systems but to date had not been applied to the assembly of cells in a photovoltaic array or module. We explored several types of chemical-based self-assembly techniques, including gold-thiol interactions, liquid polymer binding, and hydrophobic-hydrophilic interactions designed to array both Si and GaAs PV chips onto a substrate. Additional research was focused on the modification of PV cells in an effort to gain control over the facial directionality of the cells in a solvent-based environment. Despite being a small footprint research project worked on for only a short time, the technical results and scientific accomplishments were significant and could prove to be enabling technology in the disruptive advancement of the microelectronic photovoltaics industry.

  2. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mrig, L.

    1990-01-01

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  3. Energy Management Systems Package for Small Commercial Buildings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Berkeley National Laboratory JGranderson@lbl.gov 510.486.6792 April 4, 2013 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: Small ...

  4. Building America Case Study: Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lessons Learned * Unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary by as much as 61F, particularly if windows are open or tenants use intermittent supplemen- tal ...

  5. Building America Case Study: Raised Ceiling Interior Duct System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... * September 2014 BUILDING AMERICA CASE STUDY: TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS FOR NEW AND EXISTING HOMES Lateral run-outs were then installed in the chase over partition walls. ...

  6. Chapter 5: Increasing Efficiency of Building Systems and Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and new technology advances supported by ongoing RDD&D activities, the energy use intensity (EUI) of the current residential and commercial building stock is compared to a ...

  7. Chapter 5: Increasing Efficiency of Building Systems and Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF Quadrennial Technology Review 2015 1 Quadrennial Technology Review 2015 Building Energy Technology Roadmaps Chapter 5: Supplemental Information The Department of ...

  8. A novel multi-model neuro-fuzzy-based MPPT for three-phase grid-connected photovoltaic system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaouachi, Aymen; Kamel, Rashad M.; Nagasaka, Ken

    2010-12-15

    This paper presents a novel methodology for Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) of a grid-connected 20 kW photovoltaic (PV) system using neuro-fuzzy network. The proposed method predicts the reference PV voltage guarantying optimal power transfer between the PV generator and the main utility grid. The neuro-fuzzy network is composed of a fuzzy rule-based classifier and three multi-layered feed forwarded Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). Inputs of the network (irradiance and temperature) are classified before they are fed into the appropriated ANN for either training or estimation process while the output is the reference voltage. The main advantage of the proposed methodology, comparing to a conventional single neural network-based approach, is the distinct generalization ability regarding to the nonlinear and dynamic behavior of a PV generator. In fact, the neuro-fuzzy network is a neural network based multi-model machine learning that defines a set of local models emulating the complex and nonlinear behavior of a PV generator under a wide range of operating conditions. Simulation results under several rapid irradiance variations proved that the proposed MPPT method fulfilled the highest efficiency comparing to a conventional single neural network and the Perturb and Observe (P and O) algorithm dispositive. (author)

  9. Photovoltaic Energy Program overview, fiscal year 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Photovoltaic Energy Program fosters the widespread acceptance of photovoltaic (PV) technology and accelerates commercial use of US PV products. The Program is founded on a collaborative strategy involving industry, the research and development community, potential users, utilities, and state and federal agencies. There are three main Program elements: Systems Engineering and Applications, Technology Development, and Research and Development.

  10. Photovoltaic System Pricing Trends: Historical, Recent, and Near-Term Projections 2013 Edition (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, D.; Margolis, R.; James, T.; Goodrich, A.; Barbose, G.; Dargouth, N.; Weaver, S.; Wiser, R.

    2013-09-01

    This briefing provides a high-level overview of historical, recent, and projected near-term PV system pricing trends in the United States, drawing on several ongoing research activities from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. It also discusses the different methodologies and factors that impact the estimated price of a PV system, such as system size, location, technology, and reporting methods. These factors, including timing, can have a significant impact on system pricing.

  11. Grid-Interactive Electric Vehicle DC-Link Photovoltaic Charging System -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Grid-Connected Renewable Energy Systems Grid-Connected Renewable Energy Systems When connecting a home energy system to the electric grid, research and consider equipment required as well as your power provider’s requirements and agreements. | Photo courtesy of Solar Design Associates, Inc. When connecting a home energy system to the electric grid, research and consider equipment required as well as your power provider's requirements and agreements. | Photo courtesy of Solar Design

  12. Transmission and Grid Integration: Electricity, Resources, & Building Systems Integration (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-09-01

    Factsheet developed to describe the activities of the Transmission and Grid Integration Group within NREL's Electricity, Resources, and Buildings Systems Integration center.

  13. Greater than the Sum of its Parts; Electricity, Resources, & Building Systems Integration (ERBSI) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-11-01

    NREL's Electricity, Resources, and Building Systems Integration Center brings together a diverse group of experts performing grid integration and optimization R&D activities.

  14. Transmission and Grid Integration: Electricity, Resources, & Building Systems Integration (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-09-01

    Factsheet developed to describe the activites of the Transmission and Grid Integration Group within NREL's Electricity, Resources, and Buildings Systems Integration center.

  15. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Advanced Framing Systems and Packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America research showing advanced 2x6, 24-inch on-center framing, single top plates, open headers, and 2-stud corners reduced board feet of lumber by more than 1,000 feet, cut energy use by 13%, and cut material and labor costs by more than $1,000 on a typical home.

  16. Direct mounted photovoltaic device with improved front clip

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keenihan, James R; Boven, Michelle; Brown, Jr., Claude; Gaston, Ryan S; Hus, Michael; Langmaid, Joe A; Lesniak, Mike

    2013-11-05

    The present invention is premised upon a photovoltaic assembly system for securing and/or aligning at least a plurality of vertically adjacent (overlapping) photovoltaic device assemblies to one another. The securing function being accomplished by a clip member that may be a separate component or integral to one or more of the photovoltaic device assemblies.

  17. Direct mounted photovoltaic device with improved side clip

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keenihan, James R; Boven, Michelle L; Brown, Jr., Claude; Eurich, Gerald K; Gaston, Ryan S; Hus, Michael

    2013-11-19

    The present invention is premised upon a photovoltaic assembly system for securing and/or aligning at least a plurality of vertically adjacent photovoltaic device assemblies to one another. The securing function being accomplished by a clip member that may be a separate component or integral to one or more of the photovoltaic device assemblies.

  18. Systems and methods for controlling energy use in a building management system using energy budgets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wenzel, Michael J; Drees, Kirk H

    2014-09-23

    Systems and methods for limiting power consumption by a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) subsystem of a building are shown and described. A feedback controller is used to generate a manipulated variable based on an energy use setpoint and a measured energy use. The manipulated variable may be used for adjusting the operation of an HVAC device.

  19. NREL Photovoltaic Program FY 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This report reviews the in-house and subcontracted research and development (R&D) activities under the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Photovoltaic (PV) Program from October 1, 1992, through September 30, 1993 (fiscal year [FY] 1993). The NREL PV Program is part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) National Photovoltaics Program, as described in the DOE Photovoltaics Program Plan, FY 1991 - FY 1995. The FY 1993 budget authority (BA) for carrying out the NREL PV Program was $40.1 million in operating funds and $0.9 million in capital equipment funds. An additional $4.8 million in capital equipment funds were made available for the new Solar Energy Research Facility (SERF) that will house the in-house PV laboratories beginning in FY 1994. Subcontract activities represent a major part of the NREL PV Program, with more than $23.7 million (nearly 59%) of the FY 1993 operating funds going to 70 subcontractors. In FY 1993, DOE assigned certain other PV subcontracting efforts to the DOE Golden Field Office (DOE/GO), and assigned responsibility for their technical support to the NREL PV Program. An example is the PV:BONUS (Building Opportunities in the U.S. for Photovoltaics) Project. These DOE/GO efforts are also reported in this document.

  20. Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this case study , Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit and Elevate Energy. explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs.

  1. Advancing Net-Zero Energy Commercial Buildings; Electricity, Resources, & Building Systems Integration (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-10-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the research the National Renewable Energy Laboratory is conducting to achieve net-zero energy buildings (NZEBs). It also includes key definitions of NZEBs and inforamtion about an NZEB database that captures information about projects around the world.

  2. Systems and methods for controlling energy use in a building management system using energy budgets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wenzel, Michael J.

    2012-06-17

    Systems and methods for limiting power consumption by a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) subsystem of a building are shown and described. A mathematical linear operator is found that transforms the unused or deferred cooling power usage of the HVAC system based on pre-determined temperature settings to a target cooling power usage. The mathematical operator is applied to the temperature settings to create a temperature setpoint trajectory expected to provide the target cooling power usage.

  3. Modeling and Analysis of Solar Radiation Potentials on Building Rooftops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Kodysh, Jeffrey B; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2012-01-01

    The active application of photovoltaic for electricity generation could effectively transform neighborhoods and commercial districts into small, localized power plants. This application, however, relies heavily on an accurate estimation of the amount of solar radiation that is available on individual building rooftops. While many solar energy maps exist at higher spatial resolution for concentrated solar energy applications, the data from these maps are not suitable for roof-mounted photovoltaic for several reasons, including lack of data at the appropriate spatial resolution and lack of integration of building-specific characteristics into the models used to generate the maps. To address this problem, we have developed a modeling framework for estimating solar radiation potentials on individual building rooftops that is suitable for utility-scale applications as well as building-specific applications. The framework uses light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data at approximately 1-meter horizontal resolution and 0.3-meter vertical resolution as input for modeling a large number of buildings quickly. One of the strengths of this framework is the ability to parallelize its implementation. Furthermore, the framework accounts for building specific characteristics, such as roof slope, roof aspect, and shadowing effects, that are critical to roof-mounted photovoltaic systems. The resulting data has helped us to identify the so-called solar panel sweet spots on individual building rooftops and obtain accurate statistics of the variation in solar radiation as a function of time of year and geographical location.

  4. Integrated Building Energy Systems Design Considering Storage Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy; Aki, Hirohisa

    2009-04-07

    The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems (e.g., PV or fuel cells with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. The interactions among PV, solar thermal, and storage systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and CO2 emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that can pursue two strategies as its objective function. These two strategies are minimization of its annual energy costs or of its CO2 emissions. The problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, e.g., nursing homes, to obtain not only the optimal investment portfolio, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules for the selected technologies. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in micro-generation optimization on a building level, with example applications in New York State and California. It shows results from a two-year research projectperformed for the U.S. Department of Energy and ongoing work. Contrary to established expectations, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption compete rather than supplement each other considering the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply. The work shows that high electricity tariffs during on-peak hours are a significant driver for the adoption of electric storage technologies. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries have to be charged by grid power during off-peak hours instead of PV during on-peak hours. In contrast, we also show a CO2 minimization strategy where the common assumption that batteries can be charged by PV can be fulfilled at extraordinarily high energy costs for the site.

  5. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.8 Active Solar Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    0 Annual Installed Capacity of Photovoltaic Cells and Modules, Off-Grid and On-Grid (DC MW) On-Grid Off-Grid Total 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Cumulative (1) Note(s): Source(s): 1) Cumulative grid-tied capacity as of 2007 differs from total estimate in Table 6.3.9. Sherwood, Larry. Interstate Renewable Energy Council. Personal Communication. July, 2008. 150.1 55.0 205.1 469.9 282.0 751.9 67.4 33.0 100.4 103.2 0.0 103.2 43.4 25.0 68.4 54.7 28.0 82.7 11.1 16.0 27.1 22.5

  6. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.8 Active Solar Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    6 Annual Shipments of Photovoltaic Cells and Modules (Peak Kilowatts) Number of Year Companies Domestic Exports Total 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Source(s): EIA, Annual Energy Review 2010, Oct. 2011, Tables 10.8 and 10.9, p. 309-311. 66 524,252 462,252 986,504 101 601,133 681,427 1,282,560 41 206,511 130,757 337,268 46 280,475 237,209 517,684 19 78,346 102,770 181,116 29 134,465 92,451 226,916 19 45,313 66,778 112,091 20 48,664 60,693 109,357 21 19,838

  7. Power System Planning: Emerging Practices Suitable for Evaluating the Impact of High-Penetration Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bebic, J.

    2008-02-01

    This report explores the impact of high-penetration renewable generation on electric power system planning methodologies and outlines how these methodologies are evolving to enable effective integration of variable-output renewable generation sources.

  8. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Basement Insulation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes research on basement insulation, which identifies the wall installation methods and materials that perform best in terms of insulation and water resistance.

  9. Photovoltaic System Pricing Trends: Historical, Recent, and Near-Term Projections. 2014 Edition (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, D.; Barbose, G.; Margolis, R.; James, T.; Weaver, S.; Darghouth, N.; Fu, R.; Davidson, C.; Booth, S.; Wiser, R.

    2014-09-01

    This presentation, based on research at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, provides a high-level overview of historical, recent, and projected near-term PV pricing trends in the United States focusing on the installed price of PV systems. It also attempts to provide clarity surrounding the wide variety of potentially conflicting data available about PV system prices. This PowerPoint is the third edition from this series.

  10. Photovoltaic System Pricing Trends. Historical, Recent, and Near-Term Projections, 2015 Edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, David; Barbose, Galen; Margolis, Robert; Bolinger, Mark; Chung, Donald; Fu, Ran; Seel, Joachim; Davidson, Carolyn; Darghouth, Naïm; Wiser, Ryan

    2015-08-25

    This presentation, based on research at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, provides a high-level overview of historical, recent, and projected near-term PV pricing trends in the United States focusing on the installed price of PV systems. It also attempts to provide clarity surrounding the wide variety of potentially conflicting data available about PV system prices. This PowerPoint is the fourth edition from this series.

  11. Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    The fact sheet summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its photovoltaics subprogram.

  12. Sandia Energy Photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    feed 0 Sandian Contributes to Western Electricity Coordinating Council Photovoltaic Power Plant Model Validation Guideline http:energy.sandia.gov...

  13. Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2011-06-27

    The fact sheet summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its photovoltaics subprogram.

  14. Co-Simulation of Detailed Whole Building with the Power System to Study Smart Grid Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Fuller, Jason C.; Srivastava, Viraj; Ciraci, Selim; Daily, Jeffrey A.

    2014-12-24

    Modernization of the power system in a way that ensures a sustainable energy system is arguably one of the most pressing concerns of our time. Buildings are important components in the power system. First, they are the main consumers of electricity and secondly, they do not have constant energy demand. Conventionally, electricity has been difficult to store and should be consumed as it is generated. Therefore, maintaining the demand and supply is critical in the power system. However, to reduce the complexity of power models, buildings (i.e., end-use loads) are traditionally modeled and represented as aggregated “dumb” nodes in the power system. This means we lack effective detailed whole building energy models that can support requirements and emerging technologies of the smart power grid. To gain greater insight into the relationship between building energy demand and power system performance, it is important to constitute a co-simulation framework to support detailed building energy modeling and simulation within the power system to study capabilities promised by the modern power grid. This paper discusses ongoing work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and presents underlying tools and framework needed to enable co-simulation of building, building energy systems and their control in the power system to study applications such as demand response, grid-based HVAC control, and deployment of buildings for ancillary services. The optimal goal is to develop an integrated modeling and simulation platform that is flexible, reusable, and scalable. Results of this work will contribute to future building and power system studies, especially those related to the integrated ‘smart grid’. Results are also expected to advance power resiliency and local (micro) scale grid studies where several building and renewable energy systems transact energy directly. This paper also reviews some applications that can be supported and studied using the framework introduced to understand their implications before they can be successfully implemented in the power system.

  15. Photovoltaic System Pricing Trends: Historical, Recent, and Near-Term Projections- 2014 Edition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This is the third edition in an annual briefing prepared jointly by LBNL and NREL intended to provide a high-level overview of historical, recent, and projected near-term PV system pricing trends in the United States. The briefing draws on several ongoing research activities at the two labs, including LBNL's annual Tracking the Sun report series, NREL's bottom-up PV cost modeling, and NREL's synthesis of PV market data and projections. The briefing examines progress in PV price reductions to help DOE and other PV stakeholders manage the transition to a market-driven PV industry, and integrates different perspectives and methodologies for characterizing PV system pricing, in order to provide a broader perspective on underlying trends within the industry. Median reported prices for systems completed in 2013 were $4.69/W for residential installations, $3.89/W for commercial installations and $3.00/W for utility-scale installations.

  16. Case Study: Mobile Photovoltaic System at Bechler Meadows Ranger Station, Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andy Walker

    2014-03-05

    The mobile PV/generator hybrid system deployed at Bechler Meadows provides a number of advantages. It reduces on-site air emissions from the generator. Batteries allow the generator to operate only at its rated power, reducing run-time and fuel consumption. Energy provided by the solar array reduces fuel consumption and run-time of the generator. The generator is off for most hours providing peace and quiet at the site. Maintenance trips from Mammoth Hot Springs to the remote site are reduced. The frequency of intrusive fuel deliveries to the pristine site is reduced. And the system gives rangers a chance to interpret Green Park values to the visiting public. As an added bonus, the system provides all these benefits at a lower cost than the basecase of using only a propane-fueled generator, reducing life cycle cost by about 26%.

  17. Case Study: Mobile Photovoltaic System at Bechler Meadows Ranger Station, Yellowstone National Park (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-03-01

    The mobile PV/generator hybrid system deployed at Bechler Meadows provides a number of advantages. It reduces on-site air emissions from the generator. Batteries allow the generator to operate only at its rated power, reducing run-time and fuel consumption. Energy provided by the solar array reduces fuel consumption and run-time of the generator. The generator is off for most hours providing peace and quiet at the site. Maintenance trips from Mammoth Hot Springs to the remote site are reduced. The frequency of intrusive fuel deliveries to the pristine site is reduced. And the system gives rangers a chance to interpret Green Park values to the visiting public. As an added bonus, the system provides all these benefits at a lower cost than the basecase of using only a propane-fueled generator, reducing life cycle cost by about 26%.

  18. Community Energy: Analysis of Hydrogen Distributed Energy Systems with Photovoltaics for Load Leveling and Vehicle Refueling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steward, D.; Zuboy, J.

    2014-10-01

    Energy storage could complement PV electricity generation at the community level. Because PV generation is intermittent, strategies must be implemented to integrate it into the electricity system. Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies offer possible PV integration strategies, including the community-level approaches analyzed in this report: (1) using hydrogen production, storage, and reconversion to electricity to level PV generation and grid loads (reconversion scenario); (2) using hydrogen production and storage to capture peak PV generation and refuel hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) (hydrogen fueling scenario); and (3) a comparison scenario using a battery system to store electricity for EV nighttime charging (electric charging scenario).

  19. Amorphous silicon photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, David E.; Lin, Guang H.; Ganguly, Gautam

    2004-08-31

    This invention is a photovoltaic device comprising an intrinsic or i-layer of amorphous silicon and where the photovoltaic device is more efficient at converting light energy to electric energy at high operating temperatures than at low operating temperatures. The photovoltaic devices of this invention are suitable for use in high temperature operating environments.

  20. High density photovoltaic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haigh, R.E.; Jacobson, G.F.; Wojtczuk, S.

    1997-10-14

    Photovoltaic technology can directly generate high voltages in a solid state material through the series interconnect of many photovoltaic diodes. We are investigating the feasibility of developing an electrically isolated, high-voltage power supply using miniature photovoltaic devices that convert optical energy to electrical energy.

  1. Renewable Energy Ready Home Solar Photovoltaic Specifications...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Energy Ready Home Solar Photovoltaic Specifications Renewable Energy Ready Home Solar Photovoltaic Specifications Solar Photovoltaic Specification, Checklist and Guide, ...

  2. Increasing Community Access to Solar: Designing and Developing a Shared Solar Photovoltaic System (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-06-01

    This document introduces the Energy Department's new Guide to Community Shared Solar: Utility, Private, and Nonprofit Project Development. The guide is designed to help those who want to develop community shared solar projects - from community organizers and advocates to utility managers and government officials - navigate the process of developing shared systems, from early planning to implementation.

  3. Commercial Building Energy Asset Score System: Program Overview and Technical Protocol (Version 1.0)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Na; Gorrissen, Willy J.

    2013-01-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a national voluntary energy asset score system that includes an energy asset score tool to help building owners evaluate their buildings with respect to the score system. The goal of the energy asset score system is to facilitate cost-effective investment in energy efficiency improvements of commercial buildings. The system will allow building owners and managers to compare their building infrastructure against peers and track building upgrade progress over time. The system can also help other building stakeholders (e.g., building operators, tenants, financiers, and appraisers) understand the relative efficiency of different buildings in a way that is independent from their operations and occupancy. This report outlines the technical protocol used to generate the energy asset score, explains the scoring methodology, and provides additional details regarding the energy asset score tool. This report also describes alternative methods that were considered prior to developing the current approach. Finally, this report describes a few features of the program where alternative approaches are still under evaluation.

  4. Intermediate photovoltaic system application experiment operational performance report, for G. N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital, Kauai, Hawaii. Vol. 9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    This report presents the data accumulated during January 1983 at the intermediate photovoltaic project at G.N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital, Kauai, Hawaii. Generated energy and environmental (weather) data are presented graphically. Explanations of irregularities not attributable to weather are provided.

  5. Intermediate photovoltaic system application experiment operational performance report. Volume 1. For G. N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital, Kauai, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    Presented are the data accumulated during January, February, and March 1982 at the intermediate photovoltaic project at G.N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital, Kauai, Hawaii. Generated energy and environmental (weather) data are presented graphically. Explanations of irregularities not attributable to weather are provided.

  6. Intermediate photovoltaic system application experiment operational performance report. Volume 2 for G. N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital, Kauai, HI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-10-01

    Presented are the data accumulated during April and May 1982 at this intermediate photovoltaic project at G.N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital, Kauai, Hawaii. Generated energy and environmental (weather) data are presented graphically. Explanations of irregularities not attributable to weather are provided.

  7. Net-Zero Energy Buildings: A Classification System Based on Renewable Energy Supply Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2010-06-01

    A net-zero energy building (NZEB) is a residential or commercial building with greatly reduced energy needs. In such a building, efficiency gains have been made such that the balance of energy needs can be supplied with renewable energy technologies. Past work has developed a common NZEB definition system, consisting of four well-documented definitions, to improve the understanding of what net-zero energy means. For this paper, we created a classification system for NZEBs based on the renewable sources a building uses.

  8. Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Photovoltaic (PV) System Prices in the United States: Current Drivers and Cost-Reduction Opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodrich, A.; James, T.; Woodhouse, M.

    2012-02-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has dropped precipitously in recent years, led by substantial reductions in global PV module prices. However, system cost reductions are not necessarily realized or realized in a timely manner by many customers. Many reasons exist for the apparent disconnects between installation costs, component prices, and system prices; most notable is the impact of fair market value considerations on system prices. To guide policy and research and development strategy decisions, it is necessary to develop a granular perspective on the factors that underlie PV system prices and to eliminate subjective pricing parameters. This report's analysis of the overnight capital costs (cash purchase) paid for PV systems attempts to establish an objective methodology that most closely approximates the book value of PV system assets.

  9. Solar Photovoltaic Technologies - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Marketing Summaries Site Map Printable Version Share this resource About Search Categories (15) Advanced Materials Biomass and Biofuels Building Energy Efficiency Electricity Transmission Energy Analysis Energy Storage Geothermal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydropower, Wave and Tidal Industrial Technologies Solar Photovoltaic Marketing Summaries (125) Success Stories (5) Solar Thermal Startup America Vehicles and Fuels Wind Energy Partners (27) Visual Patent Search Success Stories Browse

  10. Breakthrough: micro-electronic photovoltaics

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Okandan, Murat; Gupta, Vipin

    2014-06-23

    Sandia developed tiny glitter-sized photovoltaic (PV) cells that could revolutionize solar energy collection. The crystalline silicon micro-PV cells will be cheaper and have greater efficiencies than current PV collectors. Micro-PV cells require relatively little material to form well-controlled, highly efficient devices. Cell fabrication uses common microelectric and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) techniques.

  11. SAM Photovoltaic Model Technical Reference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilman, P.

    2015-05-27

    This manual describes the photovoltaic performance model in the System Advisor Model (SAM). The U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory maintains and distributes SAM, which is available as a free download from https://sam.nrel.gov. These descriptions are based on SAM 2015.1.30 (SSC 41).

  12. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.8 Active Solar Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    5 Shipments of Photovoltaic Cells and Modules, by Market (thousand Peak Kilowatts)(1) Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Utility Government Other Total 1995 6.3 8.1 7.2 2.4 3.8 2.0 1.3 31.1 2000 24.8 13.7 28.8 5.5 6.3 4.4 4.7 88.2 2002 29.3 20.6 32.2 12.9 7.6 8.6 0.8 112.1 2003 23.4 32.6 28.0 11.1 8.5 5.5 0.3 109.4 2004 53.9 74.5 30.5 1.4 3.2 3.3 14.3 181.1 2005 75.0 89.5 22.2 1.6 0.1 28.7 9.8 226.9 2006 95.8 180.9 28.6 2.5 4.0 7.7 17.9 337.3 2007 68.4 140.4 32.7 3.6 35.3 (2) 0.0

  13. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.8 Active Solar Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    8 Annual New Installations of Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Cells and Modules, by Market (MW) Peak Capacity by Use 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Residential 23.4 26.2 36.3 55.9 74.5 150.4 260.9 Non-Residential 30.6 49.0 64.2 96.5 202.4 202.4 343.8 Utility 1.8 0.6 0.2 8.7 21.3 66.6 286.0 Unknown 1.8 3.2 4.0 7.7 12.7 17.7 3.7 Total New Capacity 57.6 79.0 104.7 168.8 310.9 437.1 894.4 Cumulative Capacity 155.1 234.2 338.9 507.7 818.6 Number of Installations 6,873 7,718 Source(s): Sherwood, Larry.

  14. Whole Foods Market Retrofits Multiple Building Systems for Big Savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-03-01

    Whole Foods Market partnered with U.S. the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to reduce annual energy consumption in existing stores by at least 30% versus pre-retrofit energy use at its store in Edgewater, New Jersey, as part of DOEs Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) program.

  15. Building America System Research Results. Innovations for High Performance Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2006-05-01

    This report provides a summary of key lessons learned from the first 10 years of the Building America program and also included a summary of the future challenges that must be met to reach the programs long term performance goals.

  16. Improved photovoltaic energy output for cloudy conditions with a solar tracking system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Nelson A.; Gibson, Thomas L.

    2009-11-15

    This work describes measurements of the solar irradiance made during cloudy periods in order to improve the amount of solar energy captured during such periods. It is well-known that 2-axis tracking, in which solar modules are pointed at the sun, improves the overall capture of solar energy by a given area of modules by 30-50% versus modules with a fixed tilt. On sunny days the direct sunshine accounts for up to 90% of the total solar energy, with the other 10% from diffuse (scattered) solar energy. However, during overcast conditions nearly all of the solar irradiance is diffuse radiation that is isotropically-distributed over the whole sky. An analysis of our data shows that during overcast conditions, tilting a solar module or sensor away from the zenith reduces the irradiance relative to a horizontal configuration, in which the sensor or module is pointed toward the zenith (horizontal module tilt), and thus receives the highest amount of this isotropically-distributed sky radiation. This observation led to an improved tracking algorithm in which a solar array would track the sun during cloud-free periods using 2-axis tracking, when the solar disk is visible, but go to a horizontal configuration when the sky becomes overcast. During cloudy periods we show that a horizontal module orientation increases the solar energy capture by nearly 50% compared to 2-axis solar tracking during the same period. Improving the harvesting of solar energy on cloudy days is important to using solar energy on a daily basis for fueling fuel-cell electric vehicles or charging extended-range electric vehicles because it improves the energy capture on the days with the lowest hydrogen generation, which in turn reduces the system size and cost. (author)

  17. Building America Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes: Conway Street Apartments- Greenfield, Massachusetts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Through recent research efforts, CARB has been evaluating strategies and technologies that can make dramatic improvements in energy performance in multifamily buildings. In this project, the team helped to transform a 100-year-old empty school building into 12 high performance apartments with low energy costs. The advanced features included an excellent thermal envelope of closed-cell spray foam and triple-pane windows, ductless heat pumps, solar thermal hot water system, and photovoltaic system.

  18. PROJECT PROFILE: Enabling High Concentration Photovoltaics with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The efficiency and concentration of III-V multi-junction solar cells are essential to reduce the cost of high concentration photovoltaic systems (HCPV). This project will push the ...

  19. Photovoltaic Online Training Course for Code Officials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Photovoltaic Online Training Course for Code Officials is a free online training tool for those officials who conduct reviews and inspections of residential PV systems. Throughout the course's...

  20. Central Georgia EMC- Photovoltaic Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In June 2008, Central Georgia Electric Membership Corporation (CGEMC) began offering a rebate of $450 per kilowatt (kW) to residential members who install photovoltaic (PV) systems that are...

  1. GreyStone Power- Photovoltaic Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    GreyStone Power, an electricity cooperative in Georgia, offers a rebate for solar photovoltaic (PV) systems to members. The one-time rebate is offered for PV installations that are interconnected...

  2. Poudre Valley REA- Photovoltaic Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Poudre Valley REA (PVREA) is providing rebates to their residential customers who install photovoltaic (PV) systems on their homes. The consumer agrees to assign all Renewable Energy Credits (RECs)...

  3. Modeling and Optimization of Commercial Buildings and Stationary Fuel Cell Systems (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ainscough, C.; McLarty, D.; Sullivan, R.; Brouwer, J.

    2013-10-01

    This presentation describes the Distributed Generation Building Energy Assessment Tool (DG-BEAT) developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the University of California Irvine. DG-BEAT is designed to allow stakeholders to assess the economics of installing stationary fuel cell systems in a variety of building types in the United States.

  4. High-Penetration Photovoltaics Standards and Codes Workshop, Denver, Colorado, May 20, 2010: Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M.; Kroposki, B.; Basso, T.; Lynn, K.; Herig, C.; Bower, W.

    2010-09-01

    Effectively interconnecting high-level penetration of photovoltaic (PV) systems requires careful technical attention to ensuring compatibility with electric power systems. Standards, codes, and implementation have been cited as major impediments to widespread use of PV within electric power systems. On May 20, 2010, in Denver, Colorado, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), held a workshop to examine the key technical issues and barriers associated with high PV penetration levels with an emphasis on codes and standards. This workshop included building upon results of the High Penetration of Photovoltaic (PV) Systems into the Distribution Grid workshop held in Ontario California on February 24-25, 2009, and upon the stimulating presentations of the diverse stakeholder presentations.

  5. Building America Case Study: Selecting Ventilation Systems for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Selecting Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes Selecting the Best System When determining the most practical ventilation system for an existing home, planning is crucial. Keep ...

  6. Photovoltaic Energy Valuation Model v 1.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-01-09

    Currently, there is a need identified by Kennecott Land, as well as others in the real estate, appraisal and building industry to come up with a tool that is simple to use and can accurately value the electricity produced by a solar photovoltaic system. In the appraisal industry, comparable properties are used to help in the valuation of a residential property. Absent a comparable feature such as photovoltaic panels on a neighboring property, it ismore » difficult for appraisers to assign a value to that system. In many cases, photovoltaic systems are assigned a value of $0, which essentially ignores the value of energy being produced and being saved by the homeowner relative to the cost of energy they would otherwise have to purchase from the local utility. There are multiple programs that can calculate the value of the energy produced in terms of the payback period and desired internal rate of return, but none employ the concept of discounting the future value of the energy produced at any period in the expected lifetime of a photovoltaic energy system. By creating this spreadsheet, a necessary gap has been filled. It is the expectation that this product will be included in training programs aimed towards the local appraisal community in Salt Lake County, Utah as well as expand into training offered at the national level through the Appraisal Institute. This software product is an excel spreadsheet that is used to calculate the present value of future energy production for photovoltaic electricity generating systems on residential and commercial properties. Visual Basic (VB) code within the spreadsheet allows user data to be passed to the PVWatts System Advisor Model webservice (http://www.nrel.gov/rredc/pvwatts/) and back into the spreadsheet to estimate the annual solar energy production in Salt Lake County, Utah (as well as anywhere in the U.S.). VB is also used for a discount rate calculation and calls the most current Fannie Mae 30-Year Fixed Rate 60-day commitment.« less

  7. PHOTOVOLTAIC LIGHTING SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratories, PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA ABSTRACT Grid-tied PV energy ... Inverter output was controlled by the average solar irradiance over the previous 1h ...

  8. NREL: Learning - Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photovoltaic Technology Basics Photo of a large silicon solar array on a roof with a blue sky and trees in background. A large silicon solar array installed on the roof of a commercial building. Photo of a traditional-looking home with blue solar tiles integrated into the brown roof. Thin-film solar tiles installed on the roof of a home in Ohio. Photo of a long, blue solar array in a field of grass. A large solar array in Germany. Solar cells, also called photovoltaic (PV) cells by scientists,

  9. NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Photovoltaic Energy Ratings Methods

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Validation Photovoltaic Energy Ratings Methods Validation The Photovoltaic (PV) Engineering group at NREL validates energy ratings methods by standards committees to establish an energy rating methodology. We are evaluating techniques to account for the impact on PV performance from variations in the spectral distribution of solar radiation. Two types of methods were evaluated for correcting the short-circuit current of PV modules for variations in the solar spectrum under clear skies: (1)

  10. The technical and economic feasibility of establishing a building system integration laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawley, D.B.; Drost, M.K.; Johnson, B.M.

    1989-09-01

    On December 22, 1987, the US Congress provided funding to the US Department of Energy (DOE) to study the feasibility and conceptual design of a whole building system integration laboratory'' (Title II of Pub. L. 100--202). A whole-building system integration laboratory would be a full-scale experimental facility in which the energy performance interactions of two or more building components, e.g., walls, windows, lighting, could be tested under actual operating conditions. At DOE's request, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted the study with the assistance of a technical review and representing other federal agencies and the academic and private sectors, including professional societies, building component manufacturers, and building research organizations. The results of the feasibility study are presented in this report.

  11. MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION TEMPLATE FOR THE 35TH IEEE PHOTOVOLTAIC...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    INTRODUCTION Over the years, the cost of energy produced using rooftop mounted photovoltaic systems has decreased significantly, principally due to improved performance...

  12. NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Chris Deline, Ph.D.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Mismatched PV Systems with Submodule Integrated Converters." IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics. Vol. 4(1), January 2014; pp. 396-404; Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy...

  13. Economic Competitiveness of U.S. Utility-Scale Photovoltaics Systems in 2015: Regional Cost Modeling of Installed Cost ($/W) and LCOE ($/kWh)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Ran; James, Ted L.; Chung, Donald; Gagne, Douglas; Lopez, Anthony; Dobos, Aron

    2015-06-14

    Utility-scale photovoltaics (PV) system growth is largely driven by the economic metrics of total installed costs and levelized cost of electricity (LCOE), which differ by region. This study details regional cost factors, including environment (wind speed and snow loads), labor costs, material costs, sales taxes, and permitting costs using a new system-level bottom-up cost modeling approach. We use this model to identify regional all-in PV installed costs for fixed-tilt and one-axis tracker systems in the United States with consideration of union and non-union labor costs in 2015. LCOEs using those regional installed costs are then modeled and spatially presented. Finally, we assess the cost reduction opportunities of increasing module conversion efficiencies on PV system costs in order to indicate the possible economic impacts of module technology advancements and help future research and development (R&D) effects in the context of U.S. SunShot targets.

  14. Building the DOE Systems Biology Knowledgebase (KBase) ( 7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Brettin, Tom [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    2013-03-22

    Tom Brettin on "Building the DOE Systems Biology Knowledgebase (KBase)" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  15. Technical Meeting: Data/Communication Standards and Interoperability of Building Appliances, Equipment, and Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On May 1, BTO hosted a technical meeting on Data and Communications Standards and Interoperability of Building Appliances, Equipment and Systems. This page includes the presentation slides and meeting notes.

  16. Building America Expert Meeting: Summary for Diagnostic and Performance Feedback for Residential Space Conditioning System Equipment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Building Science Consortium held an Expert Meeting on Diagnostic and Performance Feedback for Residential Space Conditioning System Equipment on April 26,l 2010 on the NIST campus in Gaithersburg, Maryland.

  17. Decision process for the retrofit of municipal buildings with solar energy systems: a technical guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Licciardello, Michael R.; Wood, Brian; Dozier, Warner; Braly, Mark; Yates, Alan

    1980-11-01

    As a background for solar applications, the following topics are covered: solar systems and components for retrofit installations; cost, performance, and quality considerations; and financing alternatives for local government. The retrofit decision process is discussed as follows: pre-screening of buildings, building data requirements, the energy conservation audit, solar system sizing and economics, comparison of alternatives, and implementation. Sample studies are presented for the West Valley Animal Shelter and the Hollywood Police Station. (MHR)

  18. System Integration of Distributed Power for Complete Building Systems: Phase 2 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, R.

    2003-12-01

    This report describes NiSource Energy Technologies Inc.'s second year of a planned 3-year effort to advance distributed power development, deployment, and integration. Its long-term goal is to design ways to extend distributed generation into the physical design and controls of buildings. NET worked to meet this goal through advances in the implementation and control of combined heat and power systems in end-user environments and a further understanding of electric interconnection and siting issues. The specific objective of work under this subcontract is to identify the system integration and implementation issues of DG and develop and test potential solutions to these issues. In addition, recommendations are made to resolve identified issues that may hinder or slow the integration of integrated energy systems into the national energy picture.

  19. National Laboratory Photovoltaics Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE supports photovoltaic (PV) research and development and facilities at its national laboratories to accelerate progress toward achieving the SunShot Initiative's technological and economic...

  20. Concentrating Photovoltaics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.

    2009-01-20

    Solar is growing rapidly, and the concentrating photovoltaics industry-both high- and low-concentration cell approaches-may be ready to ramp production in 2009.

  1. Photovoltaics Business Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frantzis, L.; Graham, S.; Katofsky, R.; Sawyer, H.

    2008-02-01

    This report summarizes work to better understand the structure of future photovoltaics business models and the research, development, and demonstration required to support their deployment.

  2. Solar Photovoltaic SPECIFICATION, CHECKLIST...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ready Home SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC SPECIFICATION, CHECKLIST AND GUIDE i Table of Contents About the Renewable Energy Ready Home Specifications Assumptions of the RERH Solar ...

  3. Photovoltaic Power for the Nanosat Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, B.H.

    1999-06-01

    This report describes the characteristics of photovoltaic arrays that maybe suitable for use with nanosatellite electronic systems. It includes a thorough literature search on power management and distribution systems for satellites as small as microsatellites. The major conclusion to be drawn is that it is the total system, including satellite electronic system, photovoltaic systems, peak power tracker and the power management and distribution systems which need to be optimized. An example of a peak power tracker is given, and a novel series connected boost unit is described which might allow the system voltage to be increased if enough photovoltaic panels to operate the systems in real time is impractical. Finally, it is recommended that the development effort be oriented and expanded to include a peak power tracker and other power management and distribution systems.

  4. Procuring and Implementing Solar Projects on Public Buildings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Procuring and Implementing Solar Projects on Public Buildings: How to Avoid Common Pitfalls This webinar covered good practices for photovoltaic and solar water heating request for ...

  5. City of Austin - Residential and Commercial Green Building Requirement...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Savings Category Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Photovoltaics Wind (All) Biomass Geothermal Heat Pumps Daylighting Comprehensive MeasuresWhole Building Wind (Small)...

  6. Ligitek Photovoltaic | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Photovoltaic Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ligitek Photovoltaic Place: Taiwan Sector: Solar Product: Ligitek solar is a fully owned subsidiary of Ligitek Electronics, that will...

  7. NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Steve Rummel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Moriarty, Carl Osterwald, Larry Ottoson, Steve Rummel, and Rafell Williams, "Rating Photovoltaics" 39th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, Tampa Bay, Florida, June 16-21,...

  8. Integrated Photovoltaics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Photovoltaics Jump to: navigation, search Name: Integrated Photovoltaics Place: Sunnyvale, California Product: California-based stealth mode PV startup. Coordinates: 32.780338,...

  9. Improving energy efficiency via smart building energy management systems. A comparison with policy measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rocha, Paula; Siddiqui, Afzal; Stadler, Michael

    2014-12-09

    In this study, to foster the transition to more sustainable energy systems, policymakers have been approving measures to improve energy efficiency as well as promoting smart grids. In this setting, building managers are encouraged to adapt their energy operations to real-time market and weather conditions. Yet, most fail to do so as they rely on conventional building energy management systems (BEMS) that have static temperature set points for heating and cooling equipment. In this paper, we investigate how effective policy measures are at improving building-level energy efficiency compared to a smart BEMS with dynamic temperature set points. To this end, we present an integrated optimisation model mimicking the smart BEMS that combines decisions on heating and cooling systems operations with decisions on energy sourcing. Using data from an Austrian and a Spanish building, we find that the smart BEMS results in greater reduction in energy consumption than a conventional BEMS with policy measures.

  10. Development of a Model Specification for Performance MonitoringSystems for Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haves, Philip; Hitchcock, Robert J.; Gillespie, Kenneth L.; Brook, Martha; Shockman, Christine; Deringer, Joseph J.; Kinney,Kristopher L.

    2006-08-01

    The paper describes the development of a model specification for performance monitoring systems for commercial buildings. The specification focuses on four key aspects of performance monitoring: (1) performance metrics; (2) measurement system requirements; (3) data acquisition and archiving; and (4) data visualization and reporting. The aim is to assist building owners in specifying the extensions to their control systems that are required to provide building operators with the information needed to operate their buildings more efficiently and to provide automated diagnostic tools with the information required to detect and diagnose faults and problems that degrade energy performance. The paper reviews the potential benefits of performance monitoring, describes the specification guide and discusses briefly the ways in which it could be implemented. A prototype advanced visualization tool is also described, along with its application to performance monitoring. The paper concludes with a description of the ways in which the specification and the visualization tool are being disseminated and deployed.

  11. System Integration of Distributed Power for Complete Building Systems: Phase 1 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, R.

    2003-12-01

    This report describes NiSource Energy Technologies Inc.'s base year of a planned 3-year effort to advance distributed power development, deployment, and integration. Its long-term goal is to design ways to extend distributed generation into the physical design and controls of buildings. NET worked to meet this goal through advances in the implementation and control of CHP systems in end-user environments and a further understanding of electric interconnection and siting issues. Important results from the first year were a survey of the state of the art of interconnection issues associated with distributed generation, a survey of the local zoning requirements for the NiSource service territory, and the acquisition of data about the operation, reliability, interconnection, and performance of CHP systems and components of two test sites.

  12. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study, Weiss Building & Development, LLC., System Home, River Forest, Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-09-01

    The Passive House Challenge Home located in River Forest, Illinois, is a 5-bedroom, 4.5-bath, 3,600 ft2 two-story home (plus basement) that costs about $237 less per month to operate than a similar sized home built to the 2009 IECC. For a home with no solar photovoltaic panels installed, it scored an amazingly low 27 on the Home Energy Rating System (HERS) score.An ENERGY STAR-rated dishwasher, clothes washer, and refrigerator; an induction cooktop, condensing clothes dryer, and LED lighting are among the energy-saving devices inside the home. All plumbing fixtures comply with EPA WaterSense criteria. The home was awarded a 2013 Housing Innovation Award in the "systems builder" category.

  13. Simulation and optimization of ultra thin photovoltaics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis

    2010-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducts pioneering research and development in Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and solar cell research. This dissertation project combines these two areas to create ultra-thin small-form-factor crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells. These miniature solar cells create a new class of photovoltaics with potentially novel applications and benefits such as dramatic reductions in cost, weight and material usage. At the beginning of the project, unusually low efficiencies were obtained in the research group. The intention of this research was thus to investigate the main causes of the low efficiencies through simulation, design, fabrication, and characterization. Commercial simulation tools were used to find the main causes of low efficiency. Once the causes were identified, the results were used to create improved designs and build new devices. In the simulations, parameters were varied to see the effect on the performance. The researched parameters were: resistance, wafer lifetime, contact separation, implant characteristics (size, dosage, energy, ratio between the species), contact size, substrate thickness, surface recombination, and light concentration. Out of these parameters, it was revealed that a high quality surface passivation was the most important for obtaining higher performing cells. Therefore, several approaches for enhancing the passivation were tried, characterized, and tested on cells. In addition, a methodology to contact and test the performance of all the cells presented in the dissertation under calibrated light was created. Also, next generation cells that could incorporate all the optimized layers including the passivation was designed, built, and tested. In conclusion, through this investigation, solar cells that incorporate optimized designs and passivation schemes for ultrathin solar cells were created for the first time. Through the application of the methods discussed in this document, the efficiency of the solar cells increased from below 1% to 15% in Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaic (MEPV) devices.

  14. Photovoltaics industry profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-10-01

    A description of the status of the US photovoltaics industry is given. Principal end-user industries are identified, domestic and foreign market trends are discussed, and industry-organized and US government-organized trade promotion events are listed. Trade associations and trade journals are listed, and a photovoltaic product manufacturers list is included. (WHK)

  15. High voltage photovoltaic power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haigh, Ronald E.; Wojtczuk, Steve; Jacobson, Gerard F.; Hagans, Karla G.

    2001-01-01

    An array of independently connected photovoltaic cells on a semi-insulating substrate contains reflective coatings between the cells to enhance efficiency. A uniform, flat top laser beam profile is illuminated upon the array to produce electrical current having high voltage. An essentially wireless system includes a laser energy source being fed through optic fiber and cast upon the photovoltaic cell array to prevent stray electrical signals prior to use of the current from the array. Direct bandgap, single crystal semiconductor materials, such as GaAs, are commonly used in the array. Useful applications of the system include locations where high voltages are provided to confined spaces such as in explosive detonation, accelerators, photo cathodes and medical appliances.

  16. Photovoltaic performance and reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mrig, L.

    1993-12-01

    This workshop was the sixth in a series of workshops sponsored by NREL/DOE under the general subject of photovoltaic testing and reliability during the period 1986--1993. PV performance and PV reliability are at least as important as PV cost, if not more. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities, and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in the field were brought together to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this evolving field of PV reliability. The papers presented here reflect this effort since the last workshop held in September, 1992. The topics covered include: cell and module characterization, module and system testing, durability and reliability, system field experience, and standards and codes.

  17. Zone Level Occupant-Responsive Building Energy Systems at the GSA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, Alastair

    2014-03-01

    The General Services Administration (GSA) partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement building energy system retrofits, aiming to reduce energy consumption of at least two building systems by a total of 30 percent or more, as part of DOEs Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) Program. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) provided technical expertise in support of this DOE program, working with the GSA and a team of consultants. This case study reports expected energy savings from appropriate energy efficient design and operations modifications to lighting and heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems at the selected study sites. These retrofits comprised installation of new lighting systems with dimming capability and occupancy-sensor control at the individual light fixture level, and utilized lighting system occupancy sensor signals to continually readjust zone-level ventilation airflow according to the number of people present, down to minimum rates when vacant.

  18. City of Portland- Streamlined Building Permits for Residential Solar Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The City of Portland's Bureau of Development Services (BDS) developed a streamlined permitting process for residential solar energy system installations. The City of Portland has staff at the...

  19. Integrated Energy Systems (IES) for Buildings: A Market Assessment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Integrated Energy Systems (IES) combine on-site power or distributed generation ... functions using thermal energy normally wasted in the production of electricitypower. ...

  20. Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning Systems, Part II

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The webinar on Nov. 18, 2014, continued the series on strategies to improve the performance of HVAC systems for low load homes and home performance retrofits.