National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for building wind solar

  1. Clark County- Solar and Wind Building Permit Guides

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Clark County, Nevada has established guides for obtaining building permits for wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) systems for both residential and commercial purposes. The guides outline applicable...

  2. Wind Tunnel Building - 7 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2005-06-30

    or gravitational energy to some extent. Moreover, wave energy provides “15-20 times more available energy per square meter than either wind or solar” [1]. Of these the most commercially viable resources studied so far are ocean currents and waves. Some... limited commercial development and is therefore of more interest. Ocean waves arise from the transfer of energy from the sun to wind then water. Solar energy creates wind, which then blows over the ocean, converting wind energy to wave energy. Once...

  3. Wind Tunnel Building - 1 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2005-06-30

    This paper describes a simple graphic tool that enables a building designer to evaluate the potential for wind induced ventilation cooling in several climate zones. Long term weather data were analyzed to determine the conditions for which available...

  4. Passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1992-10-01

    Developments in passive solar buildings that took place from the early 1970`s through 1989 are described. Much of the work covered was federally sponsored during the period 1975 through 1986. About half the volume is devoted to quantitative methods for modeling, simulation, and design analysis of passive buildings; the other half summarizes the quantitative results of testing and monitoring of models and buildings. The following are covered: building solar gain modeling, simulation analysis, simplified methods, materials and components, analytical results for specific systems, test modules, building integration, performance monitoring and results, and design tools. (MHR)

  5. Passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D. )

    1992-01-01

    Developments in passive solar buildings that took place from the early 1970's through 1989 are described. Much of the work covered was federally sponsored during the period 1975 through 1986. About half the volume is devoted to quantitative methods for modeling, simulation, and design analysis of passive buildings; the other half summarizes the quantitative results of testing and monitoring of models and buildings. The following are covered: building solar gain modeling, simulation analysis, simplified methods, materials and components, analytical results for specific systems, test modules, building integration, performance monitoring and results, and design tools. (MHR)

  6. Petrovay: Solar physics Solar wind and heliosphere THE SOLAR WIND AND THE HELIOSPHERE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    Petrovay: Solar physics Solar wind and heliosphere THE SOLAR WIND AND THE HELIOSPHERE 1951: First proposal of solar corpuscular radiation by Biermann, to explain slight deviation of comets' ion tails from radial (aberration effect). 1958: Parker's supersonic wind model 1962: Mariner-2 detects solar wind. v

  7. Passive solar buildings research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1992-12-31

    This chapter covers research advances in passive solar buildings research during the time span from 1982 through 1991. These advances fall within the following categories: (1) short-term energy monitoring, (2) heat transport by natural convection within buildings, and (3) design guidelines and design tools. In short-term energy monitoring, a simulation model of the building is calibrated, based on data taken in a 3-day test. The method accurately predicts performance over an extended period. Heat transport through doorways is characterized for complex situations that arise in passive solar buildings. Simple concepts and models adequately describe the energy transport in many situations of interest. In a new approach, design guidelines are automatically generated for any specific locality. Worksheets or an accompanying computer program allow the designer to quickly and accurately evaluate performance and investigate design alternatives. 29 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Solar Ready Buildings Planning Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisell, L.; Tetreault, T.; Watson, A.

    2009-12-01

    This guide offers a checklist for building design and construction to enable installation of solar photovoltaic and heating systems at some time after the building is constructed.

  9. Wind Tunnel Building - 3 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2005-06-30

    1 Energy Systems Laboratory 1 A METHODOLOGY FOR CALCULATING EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS FROM RENEWABLE ENERGY PROGRAMS AND ITS APPLICATION TO THE WIND FARMS IN THE TEXAS ERCOT REGION Zi Liu, Jeff Haberl, Juan-Carlos Baltazar, Kris Subbarao, Charles... on Sweetwater I Wind Farm Capacity Factor Analysis Application to All Wind Farms Uncertainty Analysis Emissions Reduction Summary Energy Systems Laboratory 3 SUMMARYEMISSIONS REDUCTION UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS APPLICATIONMETHODOLOGYINTRODUCTION Background...

  10. Supercomputers Capture Turbulence in the Solar Wind

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capture Turbulence in the Solar Wind Supercomputers Capture Turbulence in the Solar Wind Berkeley Lab visualizations could help scientists forecast destructive space weather...

  11. SciTech Connect: "solar plasma wind"

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    solar plasma wind" Find + Advanced Search Term Search Semantic Search Advanced Search All Fields: "solar plasma wind" Semantic Semantic Term Title: Full Text: Bibliographic...

  12. Forecasting Solar Wind Speeds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takeru K. Suzuki

    2006-02-03

    By explicitly taking into account effects of Alfven waves, I derive from a simple energetics argument a fundamental relation which predicts solar wind (SW) speeds in the vicinity of the earth from physical properties on the sun. Kojima et al. recently found from their observations that a ratio of surface magnetic field strength to an expansion factor of open magnetic flux tubes is a good indicator of the SW speed. I show by using the derived relation that this nice correlation is an evidence of the Alfven wave which accelerates SW in expanding flux tubes. The observations further require that fluctuation amplitudes of magnetic field lines at the surface should be almost universal in different coronal holes, which needs to be tested by future observations.

  13. Wind and Solar Curtailment: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Bird, L.; Milligan, M.; Speer, B.; Wang, X.; Carlini, E. M.; Estanqueiro, A.; Flynn, D.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Menemenlis, N.; Orths, A.; Pineda, I.; Smith, J. C.; Soder, L.; Sorensen, P.; Altiparmakis, A.; Yoh, Y.

    2013-09-01

    High penetrations of wind and solar generation on power systems are resulting in increasing curtailment. Wind and solar integration studies predict increased curtailment as penetration levels grow. This paper examines experiences with curtailment on bulk power systems internationally. It discusses how much curtailment is occurring, how it is occurring, why it is occurring, and what is being done to reduce curtailment. This summary is produced as part of the International Energy Agency Wind Task 25 on Design and Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power.

  14. Wind Tunnel Building - 4 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2005-06-30

    of the Sargassum loop system sheds light on the seasonal migration patterns of the macro-algae. Through use of NASA’s Landsat satellite imagery the presence and abundance of Sargassum has been analyzed. Based on several factors, such as ocean currents, wind...

  15. RELATED LINKS Photos: Solar & Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RELATED LINKS Photos: Solar & Wind Power for the Home Photos: Energy Efficiency for the Home Photos of Architects (AIA) Home Design Trends Survey for the second quarter of 2009 that focused on emerging home

  16. STATIONARITY IN SOLAR WIND FLOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perri, S.; Balogh, A. E-mail: a.balogh@imperial.ac.u

    2010-05-01

    By using single-point measurements in space physics it is possible to study a phenomenon only as a function of time. This means that we cannot have direct access to information about spatial variations of a measured quantity. However, the investigation of the properties of turbulence and of related phenomena in the solar wind widely makes use of an approximation frequently adopted in hydrodynamics under certain conditions, the so-called Taylor hypothesis; indeed, the solar wind flow has a bulk velocity along the radial direction which is much higher than the velocity of a single turbulent eddy embedded in the main flow. This implies that the time of evolution of the turbulent features is longer than the transit time of the flow through the spacecraft position, so that the turbulent field can be considered frozen into the solar wind flow. This assumption allows one to easily associate time variations with spatial variations and stationarity to homogeneity. We have investigated, applying criteria for weak stationarity to Ulysses magnetic field data in different solar wind regimes, at which timescale and under which conditions the hypothesis of stationarity, and then of homogeneity, of turbulence in the solar wind is well justified. We extend the conclusions of previous studies by Matthaeus and Goldstein to different parameter ranges in the solar wind. We conclude that the stationarity assumption in the inertial range of turbulence on timescales of 10 minutes to 1 day is reasonably satisfied in fast and uniform solar wind flows, but that in mixed, interacting fast, and slow solar wind streams the assumption is frequently only marginally valid.

  17. MODELING PASSIVE SOLAR BUILDINGS WITH HAND CALCULATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Stromberg, and S.O. Woodall. "Passive Solar Buildings: ASome Analytic Models of Passive Solar Building Per­at the Third National Passive Solar Conference, San Jose,

  18. Solar and Wind Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The law stipulates that associations must adopt an energy policy statement specifying details such as location, design, and architectural requirements of the solar energy systems within 120 days...

  19. ASYMMETRIC SOLAR WIND ELECTRON DISTRIBUTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Peter H.; Kim, Sunjung; Lee, Junggi; Lee, Junhyun; Park, Jongsun; Park, Kyungsun; Seough, Jungjoon [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jinhy [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-20

    The present paper provides a possible explanation for the solar wind electron velocity distribution functions possessing asymmetric energetic tails. By numerically solving the electrostatic weak turbulence equations that involve nonlinear interactions among electrons, Langmuir waves, and ion-sound waves, it is shown that different ratios of ion-to-electron temperatures lead to the generation of varying degrees of asymmetric tails. The present finding may be applicable to observations in the solar wind near 1 AU and in other regions of the heliosphere and interplanetary space.

  20. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GE Energy

    2010-05-01

    This report provides a full description of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) and its findings.

  1. Turbulence of the Solar Wind Studies of the Solar Wind Using the ACE and Helios Spacecraft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    provide enough energy to account for the heating of the solar wind relative to an adiabatic expansion Composition Explorer to compute the cascade rate of the turbulence in the solar wind. We nd the energy cascadeTurbulence of the Solar Wind Studies of the Solar Wind Using the ACE and Helios Spacecraft Bejamin

  2. Solar wind electron density and temperature over solar cycle 23: Thermal noise measurements on Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Solar wind electron density and temperature over solar cycle 23: Thermal noise measurements on Wind; received in revised form 6 April 2005; accepted 25 April 2005 Abstract We present the solar wind plasma parameters obtained from the Wind spacecraft during more than nine years, encompassing almost the whole solar

  3. Radiation belt electrons respond to multiple solar wind inputs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radiation belt electrons respond to multiple solar wind inputs E. J. Rigler,1 M. Wiltberger,1 and D is clearly valuable from a practical standpoint, but the latter helps build confidence in any physical on the fractional or percent variance of radiation belt electron flux that can be attributed to each different solar

  4. The Structure of the Solar Wind in the Inner Heliosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Christina On-Yee

    2010-01-01

    Improvement in the prediction of solar wind condi- tions2007, Metric for solar wind prediction models: Comparison oflong- term predictions of the episodic solar disturbances,

  5. The Solar Wind Helium Abundance: Variation with Wind Speed and the Solar Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, John

    The Solar Wind Helium Abundance: Variation with Wind Speed and the Solar Cycle Matthias R. Aellig Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM 87545 Abstract We investigate the helium abundance in the solar wind of 1994 and early 2000 are analyzed. In agreement with similar work for previous solar cycles, we find

  6. Capacity Building in Wind Energy for PICs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (biomass, hydro, and a bit of solar and wind). · Other half comes from imported oil, mainly dependency on petroleum are country specific but include wind, solar, small-scale hydro, biomass granted funding to UNEP for a project to strengthen the capability of PICs to plan and manage

  7. The Heating & Acceleration of the Solar Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurtele, Jonathan

    The Heating & Acceleration of the Solar Wind Eliot Quataert (UC Berkeley) Collaborators: Steve & Slow Winds · The Puzzle of the High Frequency Cascade (or the lack thereof ....) · Possible Solutions #12;Background · Heating required to accelerate the solar wind · Early models invoked e- conduction

  8. MODELING PASSIVE SOLAR BUILDINGS WITH HAND CALCULATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, David B.

    2011-01-01

    of day for simple passive buildings with free-floating (and S.O. Woodall. "Passive Solar Buildings: A Compilation ofAnalytic Models of Passive Solar Building Per­ formance."

  9. Physics of passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Primary emphasis in the paper is on methods of characterizing and analyzing passive solar buildings. Simplifying assumptions are described which make this analysis tractable without compromising significant accuracy or loss of insight into the basic physics of the situation. The overall nature of the mathematical simulation approach is described. Validation procedures based on data from test rooms and monitored buildings are outlined. Issues of thermal comfort are discussed. Simplified methods of analysis based on correlation procedures are reported and the nature of the economic conservation-solar optimization process is explored. Future trends are predicted.

  10. NATURAL CONVECTION IN PASSIVE SOLAR BUILDINGS: EXPERIMENTS, ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gadgil, Ashok; Bauman, Fred; Kammerud, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    CONVECTION IN PASSIVE SOLAR BUILDINGS: ANALYSIS AND RESULTSCONVECTION IN PASSIVE SOLAR BUILDINGS: EXPERIMENTS, ANALYSISin a direct gain passive solar building; this is described

  11. Passive Solar Building Design and Solar Thermal Space Heating Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Webinar of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Senior Engineer Andy Walker's presentation about passive solar building design and solar thermal space heating technologies and applications.

  12. Solar wind plasma correlations between IMP 8, INTERBALL-1 and WIND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, John

    an important task. Clearly even if the impact on Earth's magnetosphere of a change in solar wind plasma1 21 Solar wind plasma correlations between IMP 8, INTERBALL-1 and WIND K. I. Paularena Center Short title: SOLAR WIND CORRELATIONS: IMP 8, INTERBALL, AND WIND #12;2 Abstract. Solar wind plasma ux

  13. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Hodge, B.-M.; King, J.

    2012-09-01

    The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) investigates the impacts of high penetrations of wind and solar power into the Western Interconnection of the United States. WWSIS2 builds on the Phase 1 study but with far greater refinement in the level of data inputs and production simulation. It considers the differences between wind and solar power on systems operations. It considers mitigation options to accommodate wind and solar when full costs of wear-and-tear and full impacts of emissions rates are taken into account. It determines wear-and-tear costs and emissions impacts. New data sets were created for WWSIS2, and WWSIS1 data sets were refined to improve realism of plant output and forecasts. Four scenarios were defined for WWSIS2 that examine the differences between wind and solar and penetration level. Transmission was built out to bring resources to load. Statistical analysis was conducted to investigate wind and solar impacts at timescales ranging from seasonal down to 5 minutes.

  14. IDENTIFYING CURRENT-SHEET–LIKE STRUCTURES IN THE SOLAR WIND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Gang

    2008-01-01

    Barish, F. D. 1974, in Solar Wind Three, ed. C. T. Russell (in AIP Conf. Proc. 471, Solar Wind Nine, ed. S. R. Habbal (SHEET–LIKE STRUCTURES IN THE SOLAR WIND G. Li Space Science

  15. The Structure of the Solar Wind in the Inner Heliosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Christina On-Yee

    2010-01-01

    and allows solar wind forecasts at the ?rst Lagrange point (reliably model and forecast the global solar wind and theto some extent forecast, the solar wind structure for quiet

  16. IDENTIFYING CURRENT-SHEET–LIKE STRUCTURES IN THE SOLAR WIND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Gang

    2008-01-01

    Barish, F. D. 1974, in Solar Wind Three, ed. C. T. Russell (AIP Conf. Proc. 471, Solar Wind Nine, ed. S. R. Habbal (NewSTRUCTURES IN THE SOLAR WIND G. Li Space Science Laboratory,

  17. Large-scale structure of the fast solar wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bisi, M. M.; Fallows, R. A.; Breen, A. R.; Habbal, S. Rifai; Jones, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    measurements of Solar Wind velocity, in press, Journal of1992), The Ulysses solar wind plasma experiment, AstronomyA. Hewish (1967), The solar wind outside the plane of the

  18. Hydro, Solar, Wind The Future of Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lavaei, Javad

    Hydro, Solar, Wind The Future of Renewable Energy Joseph Flocco David Lath Department of Electrical the turbine speed constant. The available hydro power is calculated using the height difference between source has become popular and has many immediate benefits to communities that opt to build a hydro

  19. Expansion effects on solar wind hybrid simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parashar, Tulasi N.; Velli, Marco; Goldstein, Bruce E. [NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2013-06-13

    Ion kinetic simulations of the solar wind using hybrid codes can model local wave input, heating and instabilities, but generally do not include long term evolution effects in the expanding solar wind. We further develop the expanding box model used in earlier studies to include the mirror force effects and study their role in the evolution of the proton distribution functions in the outer corona and inner heliosphere. The mirror force, significant in the acceleration region of the solar wind, is required for consistency with the conservation of magnetic moment of particles in the expanding wind. We present preliminary results from the modified 1D expanding box hybrid (EBHM) simulations.

  20. MODELING PASSIVE SOLAR BUILDINGS WITH HAND CALCULATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Solar Buildings: A Compilation of Data and Results." Sandia Laboratories, SAND 77-1204, Albuquerque, New Mexico,

  1. Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment Programme's Renewable...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment Programme's Renewable Energy Resource Explorer Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Solar and Wind Energy Resource...

  2. Solar energy system with wind vane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grip, Robert E

    2015-11-03

    A solar energy system including a pedestal defining a longitudinal axis, a frame that is supported by the pedestal and that is rotateable relative to the pedestal about the longitudinal axis, the frame including at least one solar device, and a wind vane operatively connected to the frame to urge the frame relative to the pedestal about the longitudinal axis in response to wind acting on the wind vane.

  3. How do Wind and Solar Power Affect Grid Operations: The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Milligan, M.; Jordan, G.; Freeman, L.; Miller, N.; Clark, K.; Piwko, R.

    2009-09-01

    This paper reviews the scope of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study, the development of wind and solar datasets, and the results to date on three scenarios.

  4. Small Solar Wind Transients and Their Connection to the Large-Scale Coronal Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    AT SOLAR MINIMUM Small Solar Wind Transients and Theirinclude closed loops, Small Solar Wind Transients and Theirthe transient on Small Solar Wind Transients and Their

  5. Recent Ionospheric Observations Relating to Solar-Wind--Magnetosphere Coupling [and Discussion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lockwood, Mike

    , and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and toolsRecent Ionospheric Observations Relating to Solar-Wind--Magnetosphere Coupling [and Discussion Printedin GreatBritain Recent ionosphericobservationsIrelatingto solar-wind-magnetosphere coupling BY M

  6. The Solar Wind and Its Interaction with the Interstellar Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, John

    The Solar Wind and Its Interaction with the Interstellar Medium John D. Richardson Abstract The solar wind is a magnetized plasma of ions and electrons which flows outward from the Sun. This chapter begins with a brief history of the discovery of the solar wind. Solar wind properties at 1 AU

  7. The solar wind in the outer heliosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, John D.

    The solar wind evolves as it moves outward due to interactions with both itself and with the circum-heliospheric interstellar medium. The speed is, on average, constant out to 30 AU, then starts a slow decrease due to the ...

  8. Wind and Solar Energy Curtailment Practices (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Cochran, J.; Wang, X.

    2014-10-01

    This presentation to the fall 2014 technical meeting of the Utility Variable-Generation Integration Group summarizes experience with curtailment of wind and solar in the U.S.

  9. Large-scale structure of the fast solar wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bisi, M. M.; Fallows, R. A.; Breen, A. R.; Habbal, S. Rifai; Jones, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    to detect small variations in the fast solar wind struc-small-scale (?100 km) density variations in the solar wind.small step in density seen in the Ulysses data indicated the presence of two modes of fast wind,

  10. Name _____________________ Lab 10. Solar and Wind Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perfect, Ed

    be "daisy-chained" by connecting them together to create a solar panel to produce more electricity. For example solar panels can be put on the roofs of buildings or they can be arranged in larger arrays in open that we can produce using solar panels obviously depends on the amount of sunlight that strikes the panels

  11. Research & Development Needs for Building-Integrated Solar Technologie...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Needs for Building-Integrated Solar Technologies Research & Development Needs for Building-Integrated Solar Technologies The Building Technologies Office (BTO) has identified...

  12. Empirical Solar Wind Forecasting from the Chromosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert J. Leamon; Scott W. McIntosh

    2007-01-12

    Recently, we correlated the inferred structure of the solar chromospheric plasma topography with solar wind velocity and composition data measured at 1AU. We now offer a physical justification of these relationships and present initial results of a empirical prediction model based on them. While still limited by the fundamentally complex physics behind the origins of the solar wind and how its structure develops in the magnetic photosphere and expands into the heliosphere, our model provides a near continuous range of solar wind speeds and composition quantities that are simply estimated from the inferred structure of the chromosphere. We suggest that the derived quantities may provide input to other, more sophisticated, prediction tools or models such as those to study Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) propagation and Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) generation.

  13. Large-scale structure of the fast solar wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bisi, M. M.; Fallows, R. A.; Breen, A. R.; Habbal, S. Rifai; Jones, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    Scintillation measurements of Solar Wind velocity, in press,K. Sakurai (1992), The Ulysses solar wind plasma experiment,Telescope for the SOHO Mission, Solar Physics, 162, 291–312.

  14. Pierre’s Prototype for Wind and Solar- Capitol Lake Plaza

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Capitol Lake Plaza sits centrally on Pierre, S.D.’s government plaza. Originally built in 1974, the building has been undergoing major energy renovations since being purchased by the state two years ago. Two major components of the renovation are about to appear at the building’s highest point: solar panels and wind turbines are being installed on the roof.

  15. Solar Wind Forecasting with Coronal Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Robbins; C. J. Henney; J. W. Harvey

    2007-01-09

    An empirical model for forecasting solar wind speed related geomagnetic events is presented here. The model is based on the estimated location and size of solar coronal holes. This method differs from models that are based on photospheric magnetograms (e.g., Wang-Sheeley model) to estimate the open field line configuration. Rather than requiring the use of a full magnetic synoptic map, the method presented here can be used to forecast solar wind velocities and magnetic polarity from a single coronal hole image, along with a single magnetic full-disk image. The coronal hole parameters used in this study are estimated with Kitt Peak Vacuum Telescope He I 1083 nm spectrograms and photospheric magnetograms. Solar wind and coronal hole data for the period between May 1992 and September 2003 are investigated. The new model is found to be accurate to within 10% of observed solar wind measurements for its best one-month periods, and it has a linear correlation coefficient of ~0.38 for the full 11 years studied. Using a single estimated coronal hole map, the model can forecast the Earth directed solar wind velocity up to 8.5 days in advance. In addition, this method can be used with any source of coronal hole area and location data.

  16. Turbulent density fluctuations in the solar wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ingale, Madhusudan

    2015-01-01

    Treatments of the radio scattering due to density turbulence in the solar wind typically employ asymptotic approximations to the phase structure function. We use a general structure function (GSF) that straddles the asymptotic limits and quantify the relative error introduced by the approximations. We show that the regimes where GSF predictions are accurate than those of its asymptotic approximations is not only of practical relevance, but are where inner scale effects influence the estimate of the scatter-broadening. Thus we propose that GSF should henceforth be used for scatter broadening calculations and estimates of quantities characterizing density turbulence in the solar corona and solar wind. In the next part of this thesis we use measurements of density turbulence in the solar wind from previously publish observations of radio wave scattering and interplanetary scintillations. Density fluctuations are inferred using the GSF for radio scattering data and existing analysis methods for IPS. Assuming that...

  17. 15/06/2005 Solar Wind 11/SOHO 16 1 Radial Dependence of Solar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kallenrode, May-Britt

    small solar events Invariant spectra Hucke et al., 1992, Solar Phys. 142, 143 #12;15/06/2005 Solar Wind15/06/2005 Solar Wind 11/SOHO 16 1 Radial Dependence of Solar Energetic Particle Events M.-B. Kallenrode #12;15/06/2005 Solar Wind 11/SOHO 16 2 Outline No discussion about composition and charge states

  18. Energy Transfer via Solar Wind Driven Ultra Low Frequency Waves in the Earth's Magnetosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartinger, Michael David

    2012-01-01

    Modeling energy transfer via solar wind driven ULFthrough which solar wind energy can drive wave activity. Inthrough which solar wind energy can drive wave activity. In

  19. Laboratory Facility for Simulating Solar Wind Sails

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Funaki, Ikkoh [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 229-8510 (Japan); JST/CREST, Kawaguchi, Saitama, 332-0012 (Japan); Ueno, Kazuma; Oshio, Yuya [Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 229-8510 (Japan); Ayabe, Tomohiro; Horisawa, Hideyuki [Tokai University, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa, 259-1292 (Japan); Yamakawa, Hiroshi [Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto, 611-0011 (Japan); JST/CREST, Kawaguchi, Saitama, 332-0012 (Japan)

    2008-12-31

    Magnetic sail (MagSail) is a deep space propulsion system, in which an artificial magnetic cavity captures the energy of the solar wind to propel a spacecraft in the direction leaving the sun. For a scale-model experiment of the plasma flow of MagSail, we employed a magnetoplasmadynamic arcjet as a solar wind simulator. It is observed that a plasma flow from the solar wind simulator reaches a quasi-steady state of about 0.8 ms duration after a transient phase when initiating the discharge. During this initial phase of the discharge, a blast-wave was observed to develop radially in a vacuum chamber. When a solenoidal coil (MagSail scale model) is immersed into the quasi-steady flow where the velocity is 45 km/s, and the number density is 10{sup 19} m-3, a bow shock as well as a magnetic cavity were formed in front of the coil. As a result of the interaction between the plasma flow and the magnetic cavity, the momentum of the simulated solar wind is decreased, and it is found from the thrust measurement that the solar wind momentum is transferred to the coil simulating MagSail.

  20. Wind Issues in Solar Thermal Performance Ratings: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Casey, R.

    2009-04-01

    We suggest that wind bias against unglazed solar water heaters be mitigated by using a calibrated collector model to derive a wind correction to the measured efficiency curve.

  1. Energy dissipation processes in solar wind turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Y; Feng, X S; Xu, X J; Zhang, J; Sun, T R; Zuo, P B

    2015-01-01

    Turbulence is a chaotic flow regime filled by irregular flows. The dissipation of turbulence is a fundamental problem in the realm of physics. Theoretically, dissipation cannot be ultimately achieved without collisions, and so how turbulent kinetic energy is dissipated in the nearly collisionless solar wind is a challenging problem. Wave particle interactions and magnetic reconnection are two possible dissipation mechanisms, but which mechanism dominates is still a controversial topic. Here we analyze the dissipation region scaling around a solar wind magnetic reconnection region. We find that the magnetic reconnection region shows a unique multifractal scaling in the dissipation range, while the ambient solar wind turbulence reveals a monofractal dissipation process for most of the time. These results provide the first observational evidences for the intermittent multifractal dissipation region scaling around a magnetic reconnection site, and they also have significant implications for the fundamental energy...

  2. Solar and Wind Technologies for Hydrogen Production Report to Congress

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    DOE's Solar and Wind Technologies for Hydrogen Production Report to Congress summarizes the technology roadmaps for solar- and wind-based hydrogen production. Published in December 2005, it fulfills t

  3. DOE Announces Webinars on Top Solar Tools, Building Energy Optimizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Top Solar Tools, Building Energy Optimization Tool Training, and More DOE Announces Webinars on Top Solar Tools, Building Energy Optimization Tool Training, and More May 8, 2014 -...

  4. Florida Solar Energy Center (Building America Partnership for...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Florida Solar Energy Center (Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction Jump to: navigation, search Name: Florida Solar Energy Center (Building America...

  5. Solar and Wind Contractor Licensing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In June of 2014, SB 447 mandated that the Louisiana State Licencsing Board for Contractors develop new rules for solar contractors no later than January 1, 2015. Licensed contractors must be in c...

  6. Identifying Wind and Solar Ramping Events: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Florita, A.; Hodge, B. M.; Orwig, K.

    2013-01-01

    Wind and solar power are playing an increasing role in the electrical grid, but their inherent power variability can augment uncertainties in power system operations. One solution to help mitigate the impacts and provide more flexibility is enhanced wind and solar power forecasting; however, its relative utility is also uncertain. Within the variability of solar and wind power, repercussions from large ramping events are of primary concern. At the same time, there is no clear definition of what constitutes a ramping event, with various criteria used in different operational areas. Here the Swinging Door Algorithm, originally used for data compression in trend logging, is applied to identify variable generation ramping events from historic operational data. The identification of ramps in a simple and automated fashion is a critical task that feeds into a larger work of 1) defining novel metrics for wind and solar power forecasting that attempt to capture the true impact of forecast errors on system operations and economics, and 2) informing various power system models in a data-driven manner for superior exploratory simulation research. Both allow inference on sensitivities and meaningful correlations, as well as the ability to quantify the value of probabilistic approaches for future use in practice.

  7. SUBMITTED TO GRL 1 Thermal Anisotropies in the Solar Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, John

    SUBMITTED TO GRL 1 E Thermal Anisotropies in the Solar Wind: vidence of Heating by Interstellar cyclotron instabilit s generated by newly created pickup ions and heats the thermal solar wind protons TO GRL 2 T Introduction he thermal anisotropy of the solar wind is the ratio between the temperatures p

  8. Solar and wind power advancing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation ofAlbuquerque|Sensitive Species3performedValley |Solar PowerofThermalSolar and

  9. The Genesis Mission: Solar Wind Conditions, and Implications for the FIP Fractionation of the Solar Wind.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reisenfeld, D. B.; Wiens, R. C.; Barraclough, B. L.; Steinberg, J. T; Dekoning, C. A.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Burnett, D. S.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Genesis mission collected solar wind on ultrapure materials between November 30, 2001 and April 1, 2004. The samples were returned to Earth September 8, 2004. Despite the hard landing that resulted from a failure of the avionics to deploy the parachute, many samples were returned in a condition that will permit analyses. Sample analyses of these samples should give a far better understanding of the solar elemental and isotopic composition (Burnett et al. 2003). Further, the photospheric composition is thought to be representative of the solar nebula, so that the Genesis mission will provide a new baseline for the average solar nebula composition with which to compare present-day compositions of planets, meteorites, and asteroids. Sample analysis is currently underway. The Genesis samples must be placed in the context of the solar and solar wind conditions under which they were collected. Solar wind is fractionated from the photosphere by the forces that accelerate the ions off of the Sun. This fractionation appears to be ordered by the first ionization potential (FIP) of the elements, with the tendency for low-FIP elements to be over-abundant in the solar wind relative to the photosphere, and high-FIP elements to be under-abundant (e.g. Geiss, 1982; von Steiger et al., 2000). In addition, the extent of elemental fractionation differs across different solarwind regimes. Therefore, Genesis collected solar wind samples sorted into three regimes: 'fast wind' or 'coronal hole' (CH), 'slow wind' or 'interstream' (IS), and 'coronal mass ejection' (CME). To carry this out, plasma ion and electron spectrometers (Barraclough et al., 2003) continuously monitored the solar wind proton density, velocity, temperature, the alpha/proton ratio, and angular distribution of suprathermal electrons, and those parameters were in turn used in a rule-based algorithm that assigned the most probable solar wind regime (Neugebauer et al., 2003). At any given time, only one of three regime-specific collectors (CH, IS, or CME) was exposed to the solar wind. Here we report on the regime-specific solar wind conditions from in-situ instruments over the course of the collection period. Further, we use composition data from the SWICS (Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer) instrument on ACE (McComas et al., 1998) to examine the FIP fractionation between solar wind regimes, and make a preliminary comparison of these to the FIP analysis of Ulysses/SWICS composition data (von Steiger et al. 2000). Our elemental fractionation study includes a reevaluation of the Ulysses FIP analysis in light of newly reported photospheric abundance data (Asplund, Grevesse & Sauval, 2005). The new abundance data indicate a metallicity (Z/X) for the Sun almost a factor of two lower than that reported in the widely used compilation of Anders & Grevesse (1989). The new photospheric abundances suggest a lower degree of solar wind fractionation than previously reported by von Steiger et al. (2000) for the first Ulysses polar orbit (1991-1998).

  10. IDENTIFYING CURRENT-SHEET–LIKE STRUCTURES IN THE SOLAR WIND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Gang

    2008-01-01

    Ulysses for two periods, one in solar maximum and the otherstructures in solar wind turbulence are one-dimensionalone can infer the existence of current sheets in the solar

  11. Solar Wind | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'SHeavyAgencyTendo New Energy Equipment Co LtdSimranSkykonAllianceWind

  12. Building a market for small wind: The break-even turnkey cost of residential wind systems in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Jennifer L.; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Forsyth, Trudy

    2004-01-01

    L ABORATORY Building a Market for Small Wind: The Break-Evenemployer. BUILDING A MARKET FOR SMALL WIND: T HE B REAK -E

  13. Lognormal distributions and spectra of solar wind plasma fluctuations: Wind 19951998

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, John

    Lognormal distributions and spectra of solar wind plasma fluctuations: Wind 1995­1998 L. F. Burlaga, and T were double-peaked; nevertheless, the number of observations associated with the fast wind distribution with large tails. There remains a need for dynamical models of the solar wind that incorporate and describe

  14. Wind/SWE observations of firehose constraint on solar wind proton temperature anisotropy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, John

    Wind/SWE observations of firehose constraint on solar wind proton temperature anisotropy Justin C the Wind spacecraft are reported here. These measurements show for the first time with a comprehensive plasma and magnetic field data set that this constraint is statistically satisfied in the solar wind near

  15. Denver Solar and Wind | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePower VenturesInformation9) WindGridDeepiSolar and Wind Jump to:

  16. Mesquite Solar Plan - build out next to existing FF plants Solar...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mesquite Solar Plan - build out next to existing FF plants Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Mesquite Solar Plan - build out next to existing FF plants Solar Power...

  17. The Solar Wind in the Outer Heliosphere at Solar John D. Richardson and Chi Wang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, John

    The Solar Wind in the Outer Heliosphere at Solar Maximum John D. Richardson and Chi Wang Center solar wind observations in the outer heliosphere, concentrating on the recent data near solar maximum. The speed and temperature tend to be lower at solar maximum, due to the lack of coronal holes. The near

  18. ELECTRON PROPERTIES AND COULOMB COLLISIONS IN THE SOLAR WIND AT 1 AU: WIND OBSERVATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    headings: methods: data analysis -- plasmas -- solar wind 1. INTRODUCTION One of the major issues of solar, the electrons play an important role in the solar wind expansion and the associated energy transport since of the energy sources that drives the expansion of the solar corona (Hundhausen 1972; Feldman et al. 1975

  19. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    Initiated in 2007 to examine the operational impact of up to 35% penetration of wind, photovoltaic (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) energy on the electric power system, the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) is one of the largest regional wind and solar integration studies to date. The goal is to understand the effects of variability and uncertainty of wind, PV, and CSP on the grid. In the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 1, solar penetration was limited to 5%. Utility-scale PV was not included because of limited capability to model sub-hourly, utility-scale PV output . New techniques allow the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 to include high penetrations of solar - not only CSP and rooftop PV but also utility-scale PV plants.

  20. The Solar Wind, CMEs and the Origins of Heliospheric Activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    release o Coronal holes o Source of high-speed solar wind #12;peter.gallagher@tcd.ie #12;#12;peter Parker => Parker Spiral: r - r0 = -(v/ )( - 0) o Winding angle: o Inclined at ~45º at 1 AU and ~90º by 10The Solar Wind, CMEs and the Origins of Heliospheric Activity Peter T. Gallagher School of Physics

  1. Turbulent heating of the corona and solar wind: the heliospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turbulent heating of the corona and solar wind: the heliospheric dark energy problem Stuart D. Bale that the gas is highly ionized, i.e. a magnetized collisionless plasma ( wind model A `solar wind' is accelerated from the corona - Hydrostatic solution (similar to Bondi accretion

  2. Oxygen Loss from Venus and the Influence of Extreme Solar Wind Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McEnulty, Tess

    2012-01-01

    W. C. Feldman (1978), Solar wind stream interfaces, Journal2008a), Evolution of solar wind structures from 0.72 to 123/24 with Historical Solar Wind Records at 1 AU, Solar

  3. Building design guidelines for solar energy technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Givoni, B.

    1989-01-01

    There are two main objectives to this publication. The first is to find out the communalities in the experience gained in previous studies and in actual applications of solar technologies in buildings, residential as well as nonresidential. The second objective is to review innovative concepts and products which may have an impact on future developments and applications of solar technologies in buildings. The available information and common lessons were collated and presented in a form which, hopefully, is useful for architects and solar engineers, as well as for teachers of solar architecture'' and students in Architectural Schools. The publication is based mainly on the collection and analysis of relevant information. The information included previous studies in which the performance of solar buildings was evaluated, as well as the personal experience of the Author and the research consultants. The state of the art, as indicated by these studies and personal experience, was summarized and has served as basis for the development of the Design Guidelines. In addition to the summary of the state of the art, as was already applied in solar buildings, an account was given of innovative concepts and products. Such innovations have occurred in the areas of thermal storage by Phase Change Materials (PCM) and in glazing with specialized or changeable properties. Interesting concepts were also developed for light transfer, which may enable to transfer sunlight to the core areas of large multi story nonresidential buildings. These innovations may have a significant impact on future developments of solar technologies and their applications in buildings. 15 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Organization of Energetic Particles by the Solar Wind Structure During the Declining to Minimum Phase of Solar Cycle 23

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    Feldman, W.C. : 1978, Solar wind stream interfaces. J.of large-scale solar wind structures. Ph.D. dissertation,R.M. : 2008, Weaker solar wind from the polar coronal holes

  5. ISOTOPIC MASS FRACTIONATION OF SOLAR WIND: EVIDENCE FROM FAST AND SLOW SOLAR WIND COLLECTED BY THE GENESIS MISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heber, Veronika S.; Baur, Heinrich; Wieler, Rainer; Bochsler, Peter; McKeegan, Kevin D.; Neugebauer, Marcia; Reisenfeld, Daniel B.; Wiens, Roger C.

    2012-11-10

    NASA's Genesis space mission returned samples of solar wind collected over {approx}2.3 years. We present elemental and isotopic compositions of He, Ne, and Ar analyzed in diamond-like carbon targets from the slow and fast solar wind collectors to investigate isotopic fractionation processes during solar wind formation. The solar wind provides information on the isotopic composition for most volatile elements for the solar atmosphere, the bulk Sun and hence, on the solar nebula from which it formed 4.6 Ga ago. Our data reveal a heavy isotope depletion in the slow solar wind compared to the fast wind composition by 63.1 {+-} 2.1 per mille for He, 4.2 {+-} 0.5 per mille amu{sup -1} for Ne and 2.6 {+-} 0.5 per mille amu{sup -1} for Ar. The three Ne isotopes suggest that isotopic fractionation processes between fast and slow solar wind are mass dependent. The He/H ratios of the collected slow and fast solar wind samples are 0.0344 and 0.0406, respectively. The inefficient Coulomb drag model reproduces the measured isotopic fractionation between fast and slow wind. Therefore, we apply this model to infer the photospheric isotopic composition of He, Ne, and Ar from our solar wind data. We also compare the isotopic composition of oxygen and nitrogen measured in the solar wind with values of early solar system condensates, probably representing solar nebula composition. We interpret the differences between these samples as being due to isotopic fractionation during solar wind formation. For both elements, the magnitude and sign of the observed differences are in good agreement with the values predicted by the inefficient Coulomb drag model.

  6. Statement of Interest in a New Project, in response to PPARC call of April 26th FHIRN: A next-generation radio network for exploring the 3-dimensional solar wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    spacecraft will build on these successes, with the Japan-UK Solar-B and NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO-generation radio network for exploring the 3-dimensional solar wind Future Heliospheric Imaging Radio Network The solar wind is a supersonically-expanding extension of the solar atmosphere into interplanetary space

  7. Passive solar concepts for multistory buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Multistory buildings long in the east-west direction and short in the north-south direction offer good opportunity for passive solar application. If each unit within the building is designed so that the Solar Savings Fraction is the same, each will respond to the weather the same way and no unit-to-unit heat distribution is needed. A numerical example for Denver is given indicating excellent thermal performance and a several-day thermal response time. Solutions involving distribution of heat from unit to unit are also discussed as well as top-floor and south-wall variations.

  8. Passive solar concepts for multistory buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Multistory buildings long in the east-west direction and short in the north-south direction offer good opportunity for passive solar application. If each unit within the building is designed so that the solar Savings Fraction is the same, each will respond to the weather the same way and no unit-to-unit heat distribution is needed. A numerical example for Denver is given indicating excellent thermal performance and a several-day thermal response time. Solutions involving distribution of heat from unit to unit are also discussed as well as top-floor and south-wall variations.

  9. Solar wind electron temperature and density measurements on the Solar Orbiter with thermal noise spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    for the Solar Orbiter mission. One can already figure out what could be the Te gra- dients in this radial rangeSolar wind electron temperature and density measurements on the Solar Orbiter with thermal noise Abstract The measurement of the solar wind electron temperature in the unexplored region between 1 and 45

  10. Development of Multidimensional MHD Model for the Solar Corona and Solar Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    self-consistent 2D MHD model of the solar corona and solar wind that explicitly solves the energy models assume polytropic energy equations, or an ad-hoc heating function. Chen & Hu (2001) includedDevelopment of Multidimensional MHD Model for the Solar Corona and Solar Wind E. C. Sittler Jr.1

  11. Large-Distributed Solar and Wind Grant Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Illinois Department of Commerce and Economic Opportunity (DCEO) is offering grants for community-scale solar and wind projects located in Illinois.

  12. On the response of polar cap dynamics to its solar wind and magnetotail drivers at high levels of geomagnetic activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Ye

    2012-01-01

    nearly universal solar wind-magnetosphere coupling functionits controlling factors in solar wind and magnetotail, J.on its controlling factors in solar wind and magnetotail, J.

  13. On the response of polar cap dynamics to its solar wind and magnetotail drivers at high levels of geomagnetic activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Ye

    2012-01-01

    of polar cap potential by intense solar wind electricelectric potential as a function of solar wind parameters bypolar cap potential increases linearly with the solar wind

  14. Atlantic Wind Solar Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAandAmminex A SOpenAshley, Ohio:Atchison-HoltAtlantaBiomassEnergyWind Solar

  15. Solar Wind: Manifestations of Solar Activity E N CYC LO PE D IA O F AS T R O N O MY AN D AS T R O PHYS I C S Solar Wind: Manifestations of Solar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webb, David F.

    Solar Wind: Manifestations of Solar Activity E N CYC LO PE D IA O F AS T R O N O MY AN D AS T R O PHYS I C S Solar Wind: Manifestations of Solar Activity The Sun's outer atmosphere, the corona, is continually heated and expands to create the solar wind. Solar activity waxes and wanes with the 11 yr cycle

  16. ELECTRON TRANSPORT IN THE FAST SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, H. M.; Marsch, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Sonnensystemforschung, Max-Planck-Strasse 2, 37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Helander, P., E-mail: hakan.smith@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The electron velocity distribution function is studied in the extended solar corona above coronal holes (i.e., the inner part of the fast solar wind) from the highly collisional corona close to the Sun to the weakly collisional regions farther out. The electron kinetic equation is solved with a finite-element method in velocity space using a linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. The ion density and temperature profiles are assumed to be known and the electric field and electron temperature are determined self-consistently. The results show quantitatively how much lower the electron heat flux and the thermal force are than predicted by high-collisionality theory. The sensitivity of the particle and heat fluxes to the assumed ion temperature profile and the applied boundary condition at the boundary far from the Sun is also studied.

  17. Research & Development Needs for Building-Integrated Solar Technologie...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Building Technologies Office (BTO) has identified Building Integrated Solar Technologies (BIST) as a potentially valuable piece of the comprehensive pathway to help achieve its...

  18. Solar and Wind Easements & Rights Laws & Local Option Solar Rights...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Schools State Government Federal Government Agricultural Institutional Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal...

  19. ON THE ORIGIN OF MID-LATITUDE FAST WIND: CHALLENGING THE TWO-STATE SOLAR WIND PARADIGM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stakhiv, Mark

    The bimodal paradigm of solar wind describes a slow solar wind situated near the heliospheric current sheet while a fast wind overexpands from the poles to fill in the remainder of the heliosphere. In this paper, we challenge ...

  20. Solar Correction Factors of Building Envelope in Tebei 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, D.; Tang, M.

    2006-01-01

    Tebei has very rich solar energy in China and needs heating in winter,but the present energy building design code has no solar correction factor for the overall heat transfer coefficient of building envelope for Tebei. ...

  1. Small Solar Wind Transients and Their Connection to the Large-Scale Coronal Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    I.G. : 2006, In situ solar wind and magnetic ?eld signaturesE. : 2008, The IMPACT Solar Wind Electron Analyzer (SWEA).Heliospheric images of the solar wind at Earth. Astrophys.

  2. Interplanetary Scintillation Observations of Stream Interaction Regions in the Solar Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bisi, M. M.; Fallows, R. A.; Breen, A. R.; O’Neill, I. J.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of the solar wind velocity with EISCAT. Astron.measurements of the solar wind. Ann. Geophys. 14, 1235.regions in the solar wind. Adv. Space Res. Breen, A.R. ,

  3. Comment on "Air Emissions Due to Wind and Solar Power" and Supporting Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew D.

    2011-01-01

    due to wind and solar power. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2)Emissions Due to Wind and Solar Power” Andrew Mills, ? , †due to wind and solar power. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2)

  4. Solar wind-magnetosphere coupling leading to relativistic electron energization during high-speed streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyons, Larry

    Solar wind-magnetosphere coupling leading to relativistic electron energization during high. Smith (2005), Solar wind-magnetosphere coupling leading to relativistic electron energization during. Using observations during a period of persistent high-speed, corotating, solar wind streams, we

  5. Solar wind driving of magnetospheric ULF waves: Field line resonances driven by dynamic pressure fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar wind driving of magnetospheric ULF waves: Field line resonances driven by dynamic pressure observational studies suggest that solar wind dynamic pressure fluctuations can drive magnetosphericFedderMobarry (LFM) global, threedimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the solar wind

  6. A Multispacecraft Analysis of a Small-Scale Transient Entrained by Solar Wind Streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    panels show IMPACT observations of solar wind proton speed (Entrained by Solar Wind Streams Figure 8 PLASTIC and IMPACTIMPACT package, are used in the present study. Near-Earth solar wind

  7. Dust Detection by the Wave Instrument on STEREO: Nanoparticles Picked up by the Solar Wind?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    the solar wind at 1 AU were produced by impacts of micron-solar wind during the Jupiter ?y-by, which are consistent with impactsimpacts and thus shows the ubiquitous plasma quasi-thermal noise in the solar wind,

  8. Dust Detection by the Wave Instrument on STEREO: Nanoparticles Picked up by the Solar Wind?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    2007, Basics of the Solar Wind, Cambridge University Press,Picked up by the Solar Wind? N. Meyer-Vernet · M. Maksimovicof magnitude of the solar wind speed. Nanoparticles, which

  9. Assessment of Wind/Solar Co-located Generation in Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven M. Wiese

    2009-07-20

    This paper evaluates the opportunity to load co-located wind and solar generation capacity onto a constrained transmission system while engendering only minimal losses. It quantifies the economic and energy opportunities and costs associated with pursuing this strategy in two Texas locations �¢���� one in west Texas and the other in south Texas. The study builds upon previous work published by the American Solar Energy Society (ASES) which illuminated the potential benefits of negative correlation of wind and solar generation in some locations by quantifying the economic and energy losses which would arise from deployment of solar generation in areas with existing wind generation and constrained transmission capacity. Clean Energy Associates (CEA) obtained and incorporated wind and solar resource data and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT)) load and price data into a model which evaluates varying levels of solar thermal, solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind capacity against an assumed transmission capacity limit at each of the two locations.

  10. Energetic neutral atom response to solar wind dynamic pressure enhancements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyons, Larry

    Energetic neutral atom response to solar wind dynamic pressure enhancements D.-Y. Lee,1 S. Ohtani,2; published 11 September 2007. [1] We have investigated the response of the ring current to solar wind dynamic adiabatically energized by the compression. The increased ENA emission rate drops as Pdyn decreases, implying

  11. Solar and Wind Technologies for Hydrogen Production Report to Congress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2005-12-01

    DOE's Solar and Wind Technologies for Hydrogen Production Report to Congress summarizes the technology roadmaps for solar- and wind-based hydrogen production. Published in December 2005, it fulfills the requirement under section 812 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

  12. Mirror Mode Structures in the Solar Wind: STEREO Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Mirror Mode Structures in the Solar Wind: STEREO Observations O. Enríquez-Rivera1 , X. Blanco-Cano1 Autónoma de México, Coyoacán, D.F., 04510, MEXICO 2. Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA Abstract. Mirror mode structures occur in the solar wind either

  13. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 3: Technical Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-11-01

    Technical fact sheet outlining the key findings of Phase 3 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-3). NREL and GE find that with good system planning, sound engineering practices, and commercially available technologies, the Western grid can maintain reliability and stability during the crucial first minute after grid disturbances with high penetrations of wind and solar power.

  14. OPTIMAi UTILIZATION OF SOLAR ENERGY IN HEATING AND COOLINGOF BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, John Barratt

    OPTIMAi UTILIZATION OF SOLAR ENERGY IN HEATING AND COOLINGOF BUILDINGS C. Byron Winn Gearold R fundamental optimization problems involved in the design of a solar building. The first is a parameter- formance analysis of specific designs of solar heated and cooled buildings. To use the design program

  15. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, Debra; Brinkman, Greg; Ibanez, E.; Florita, A.; Heaney, M.; Hodge, B. -M.; Hummon, M.; Stark, G.; King, J.; Lefton, S. A.; Kumar, N.; Agan, D.; Jordan, G.; Venkataraman, S.

    2013-09-01

    The electric grid is a highly complex, interconnected machine, and changing one part of the grid can have consequences elsewhere. Adding wind and solar affects the operation of the other power plants and adding high penetrations can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) evaluated these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This built on Phase 1, one of the largest wind and solar integration studies ever conducted, which examined operational impacts of high wind and solar penetrations in the West(GE Energy 2010).

  16. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Hodge, B. M.; Hummon, M.; Florita, A.; Heaney, M.

    2013-09-01

    The electric grid is a highly complex, interconnected machine, and changing one part of the grid can have consequences elsewhere. Adding wind and solar affects the operation of the other power plants and adding high penetrations can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) evaluated these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This built on Phase 1, one of the largest wind and solar integration studies ever conducted, which examined operational impacts of high wind and solar penetrations in the West.

  17. OBSERVATION OF FLUX-TUBE CROSSINGS IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, L.; Li, G.; Li, X.; Yan, Y.

    2013-03-20

    Current sheets are ubiquitous in the solar wind. They are a major source of the solar wind MHD turbulence intermittency. They may result from nonlinear interactions of the solar wind MHD turbulence or are the boundaries of flux tubes that originate from the solar surface. Some current sheets appear in pairs and are the boundaries of transient structures such as magnetic holes and reconnection exhausts or the edges of pulsed Alfven waves. For an individual current sheet, discerning whether it is a flux-tube boundary or due to nonlinear interactions or the boundary of a transient structure is difficult. In this work, using data from the Wind spacecraft, we identify two three-current-sheet events. Detailed examination of these two events suggests that they are best explained by the flux-tube-crossing scenario. Our study provides convincing evidence supporting the scenario that the solar wind consists of flux tubes where distinct plasmas reside.

  18. Solar energetic particle events in different types of solar wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahler, S. W.; Vourlidas, A.

    2014-08-10

    We examine statistically some properties of 96 20 MeV gradual solar energetic proton (SEP) events as a function of three different types of solar wind (SW) as classified by Richardson and Cane. Gradual SEP (E > 10 MeV) events are produced in shocks driven by fast (V ? 900 km s{sup –1}) and wide (W > 60°) coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We find no differences among the transient, fast, and slow SW streams for SEP 20 MeV proton event timescales. It has recently been found that the peak intensities Ip of these SEP events scale with the ?2 MeV proton background intensities, which may be a proxy for the near-Sun shock seed particles. Both the intensities Ip and their 2 MeV backgrounds are significantly enhanced in transient SW compared to those of fast and slow SW streams, and the values of Ip normalized to the 2 MeV backgrounds only weakly correlate with CME V for all SW types. This result implies that forecasts of SEP events could be improved by monitoring both the Sun and the local SW stream properties and that the well known power-law size distributions of Ip may differ between transient and long-lived SW streams. We interpret an observed correlation between CME V and the 2 MeV background for SEP events in transient SW as a manifestation of enhanced solar activity.

  19. Comment on "Air Emissions Due to Wind and Solar Power" and Supporting Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew D.

    2011-01-01

    and Renewable Energy (Wind & Hy- dropower Technologiesand Renewable Energy (Wind & Hy- dropower Technologies7) GE Energy Consulting, Western Wind & Solar Integration

  20. ASYMMETRIC ELECTRON DISTRIBUTIONS IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rha, Kicheol; Ryu, Chang-Mo [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Peter H. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)] [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    A plausible mechanism responsible for producing asymmetric electron velocity distribution functions in the solar wind is investigated by means of one-dimensional electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. A recent paper suggests that the variation in the ion-to-electron temperature ratio influences the nonlinear wave-particle dynamics such that it results in the formation of asymmetric distributions. The present PIC code simulation largely confirms this finding, but quantitative differences between the weak turbulence formalism and the present PIC simulation are also found, suggesting the limitation of the analytical method. The inter-relationship between the asymmetric electron distribution and the ion-to-electron temperature ratio may be a new useful concept for the observation.

  1. RELAXATION PROCESSES IN SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Servidio, S.; Carbone, V.; Gurgiolo, C.; Goldstein, M. L.

    2014-07-10

    Based on global conservation principles, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) relaxation theory predicts the existence of several equilibria, such as the Taylor state or global dynamic alignment. These states are generally viewed as very long-time and large-scale equilibria, which emerge only after the termination of the turbulent cascade. As suggested by hydrodynamics and by recent MHD numerical simulations, relaxation processes can occur during the turbulent cascade that will manifest themselves as local patches of equilibrium-like configurations. Using multi-spacecraft analysis techniques in conjunction with Cluster data, we compute the current density and flow vorticity and for the first time demonstrate that these localized relaxation events are observed in the solar wind. Such events have important consequences for the statistics of plasma turbulence.

  2. Innovations in Wind and Solar PV Financing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cory, K.; Coughlin, J.; Jenkin, T.; Pater, J.; Swezey, B.

    2008-02-01

    There is growing national interest in renewable energy development based on the economic, environmental, and security benefits that these resources provide. Historically, greater development of our domestic renewable energy resources has faced a number of hurdles, primarily related to cost, regulation, and financing. With the recent sustained increase in the costs and associated volatility of fossil fuels, the economics of renewable energy technologies have become increasingly attractive to investors, both large and small. As a result, new entrants are investing in renewable energy and new business models are emerging. This study surveys some of the current issues related to wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) energy project financing in the electric power industry, and identifies both barriers to and opportunities for increased investment.

  3. COMPOSITION OF THE SOLAR CORONA, SOLAR WIND, AND SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmelz, J. T.; Reames, D. V.; Von Steiger, R.; Basu, S.

    2012-08-10

    Along with temperature and density, the elemental abundance is a basic parameter required by astronomers to understand and model any physical system. The abundances of the solar corona are known to differ from those of the solar photosphere via a mechanism related to the first ionization potential of the element, but the normalization of these values with respect to hydrogen is challenging. Here, we show that the values used by solar physicists for over a decade and currently referred to as the 'coronal abundances' do not agree with the data themselves. As a result, recent analysis and interpretation of solar data involving coronal abundances may need to be revised. We use observations from coronal spectroscopy, the solar wind, and solar energetic particles as well as the latest abundances of the solar photosphere to establish a new set of abundances that reflect our current understanding of the coronal plasma.

  4. Residual Energy Spectrum of Solar Wind Turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, C H K; Salem, C S; Maruca, B A

    2013-01-01

    It has long been known that the energy in velocity and magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind is not in equipartition. In this paper, we present an analysis of 5 years of Wind data at 1 AU to investigate the reason for this. The residual energy (difference between energy in velocity and magnetic field fluctuations) was calculated using both the standard magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) normalization for the magnetic field and a kinetic version, which includes temperature anisotropies and drifts between particle species. It was found that with the kinetic normalization, the fluctuations are closer to equipartition, with a mean normalized residual energy of sigma_r = -0.19 and mean Alfven ratio of r_A = 0.71. The spectrum of residual energy, in the kinetic normalization, was found to be steeper than both the velocity and magnetic field spectra, consistent with some recent MHD turbulence predictions and numerical simulations, having a spectral index close to -1.9. The local properties of residual energy and cros...

  5. Impact of increased penetration of wind and PV solar resources on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoltz, Brian M.

    Impact of increased penetration of wind and PV solar resources on the bulk power system Vijay;Wind and PV solar grid interface · Modern wind turbine generators are typically rated between 1.5 MW through a power electronic converter 3 #12;Wind and PV solar grid interface 4 Schematic of Type 3 wind

  6. Solar Wind Turbulence A Study of Corotating Interaction Regions at 1 AU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar Wind Turbulence A Study of Corotating Interaction Regions at 1 AU Je rey A. Tessein Department of Physics University of New Hampshire Durham, NH 03824 May 15, 2009 #12;Abstract The solar wind's rotation and the variability in the source of the solar wind, fast moving wind can crash into slow wind

  7. Solar Wind Sources in the Late Declining Phase of Cycle 23: Effects of the Weak Solar Polar Field on High Speed Streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    Isenberg, P.A. (eds. ) Solar Wind Nine, AIP Conf. Proc. 471,AT SOLAR MINIMUM Solar Wind Sources in the Late Decliningfor their high speed solar wind streams that dominate the

  8. SOLAR: BUILDING A CONTEXT FUSION NETWORK FOR PERVASIVE COMPUTING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kotz, David

    SOLAR: BUILDING A CONTEXT FUSION NETWORK FOR PERVASIVE COMPUTING Dartmouth Technical Report TR2004 of Graduate Studies #12;c Copyright by Guanling Chen 2004 #12;Abstract of the Dissertation SOLAR: BUILDING- textual data. In this dissertation, we present a Context Fusion Network (CFN), called Solar, which

  9. Altered solar wind -magnetosphere interaction at low Mach numbers: coronal mass ejections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Altered solar wind - magnetosphere interaction at low Mach numbers: coronal mass ejections Benoit fundamental alterations of the solar wind ­ magnetosphere interaction that occur during low Mach number solar wind. We first show that low Mach number solar wind conditions are often characteristic of coronal mass

  10. Narrow coronal holes in Yohkoh soft X-ray images and the slow solar wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Narrow coronal holes in Yohkoh soft X-ray images and the slow solar wind C.N. Arge , K.L. Harvey of this phenomenon, and have found several candidates. From observations of the associated solar wind, and from modeling, we find these regions to be sources of slow solar wind. INTRODUCTION The solar wind arguably

  11. Solar Applications to Multiple County Buildings Feasibility Study

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This study was requested by Salt Lake County in an effort to obtain a cursory overview of solar electric and solar thermal application possibilities on the rooftops of existing county buildings. The subject buildings represent various County Divisions: Aging Services, Community Services, County Health, County Library, Parks & Recreation, Public Works, County Sheriff and Youth Services. There are fifty two buildings included in the study.

  12. Optimisation of buildings' solar irradiation availability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaempf, Jerome Henri; Montavon, Marylene; Bunyesc, Josep; Robinson, Darren; Bolliger, Raffaele

    2010-04-15

    In order to improve the sustainability of new and existing urban settlements it is desirable to maximise the utilisation of the solar energy incident on the building envelope, whether by passive or active means. To this end we have coupled a multi-objective optimisation algorithm with the backwards ray tracing program RADIANCE which itself uses a cumulative sky model for the computation of incident irradiation (W h/m{sup 2}) in a single simulation. The parameters to optimise are geometric (the height of buildings up to their facade and the height and orientation of roofs), but with the constraint of maintaining an overall built volume, and the objective function is heating season solar irradiation offset by envelope heat losses. This methodology has been applied to a range of urban typologies and produces readily interpretable results. The focus of this work is on the design of new urban forms but the method could equally be applied to examine the relative efficiency of existing urban settlements, by comparison of existing forms with the calculated optima derived from relevant specifications of the building envelope. (author)

  13. 10 Questions for a Wind & Solar Integration Analyst: Kirsten Orwig

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Kirsten Orwig shares how her experiences in storm chasing led her to this position at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and why understanding meteorology is important for advancing reliable solar and wind energy.

  14. Wind and Solar Energy Curtailment: Experience and Practices in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind and Solar Energy Curtailment: Experience and Practices in the United States Lori Bird, Jaquelin Cochran, and Xi Wang Technical Report NRELTP-6A20-60983 March 2014 NREL is a...

  15. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-09-01

    This is one-page, two-sided fact sheet presents high-level summary results of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2, which examined operational impacts of high penetrations of variable renewable generation in the West.

  16. Understanding of solar wind structure might be wrong

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of solar wind structure might be wrong The plasma particles flowing from the Sun and blasting past the Earth might be configured more as a network of tubes than a...

  17. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Phase 2 (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Lefton, S.; Kumar, N.; Venkataraman, S.; Jordan, G.

    2013-09-01

    This presentation summarizes the scope and results of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2, which examined operational impacts of high penetrations of variable renewable generation in the West.

  18. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Greg Brinkman will present the results of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS), Phase 2. This study, which follows the first phase of WWSIS, focuses on potential emissions and wear...

  19. Potential for Development of Solar and Wind Resource in Bhutan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilman, P.; Cowlin, S.; Heimiller, D.

    2009-09-01

    With support from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) produced maps and data of the wind and solar resources in Bhutan. The solar resource data show that Bhutan has an adequate resource for flat-plate collectors, with annual average values of global horizontal solar radiation ranging from 4.0 to 5.5 kWh/m2-day (4.0 to 5.5 peak sun hours per day). The information provided in this report may be of use to energy planners in Bhutan involved in developing energy policy or planning wind and solar projects, and to energy analysts around the world interested in gaining an understanding of Bhutan's wind and solar energy potential.

  20. The dynamic character of the polar solar wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, B. V.; Yu, H.-S.; Buffington, A.; Hick, P. P. E-mail: hsyu@ucsd.edu E-mail: pphick@ucsd.edu

    2014-09-20

    The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph C2 and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) COR2A coronagraph images, when analyzed using correlation tracking techniques, show a surprising result in places ordinarily thought of as 'quiet' solar wind above the poles in coronal hole regions. Instead of the static well-ordered flow and gradual acceleration normally expected, coronagraph images show outflow in polar coronal holes consisting of a mixture of intermittent slow and fast patches of material. We compare measurements of this highly variable solar wind from C2 and COR2A images and show that both coronagraphs measure essentially the same structures. Measurements of the mean velocity as a function of height of these structures are compared with mass flux determinations of the solar wind outflow in the large polar coronal hole regions and give similar results.

  1. Interplanetary Scintillation Observations of Stream Interaction Regions in the Solar Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bisi, M. M.; Fallows, R. A.; Breen, A. R.; O’Neill, I. J.

    2010-01-01

    1985, Measurements of the solar wind velocity with EISCAT.scintillation. J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys. 58, 507. Breen,Eiscat measurements of the solar wind. Ann. Geophys. 14,

  2. Interplanetary Field Enhancements: The Interaction between Solar Wind and Interplanetary Dusty Plasma Released by Interplanetary Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lai, Hairong

    2014-01-01

    R.A. , 1976. Depletion of solar wind plasma near a planetaryLayers………………………. ………. ………………1 1.1.2. Solar MagneticField and Solar Wind……………………………. …………. …2 1.2. Small

  3. Passive Solar Building Design Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The difference between a passive solar home and a conventional home is design. Passive solar homes and other buildings are designed to take advantage of the local climate. Passive...

  4. Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Before installing a solar water heating system, you should investigate local building codes, zoning ordinances, and subdivision covenants, as well as any special...

  5. "Building the Dye-Sensitized Solar Fuel Device" Conference |...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    "Building the Dye-Sensitized Solar Fuel Device" Conference Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News & Events EFRC News EFRC...

  6. Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Photo Credit: iStockphoto Photo Credit: iStockphoto Before installing a solar water heating system, you should investigate local building codes, zoning ordinances, and subdivision...

  7. Heat storage and distribution inside passive-solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-05-01

    Passive solar buildings are investigated from the viewpoint of the storage of solar heat in materials of the building: walls, floors, ceilings, and furniture. The effects of the location, material, thickness, and orientation of each internal building surface are investigated. The concept of diurnal heat capacity is introduced and a method of using this parameter to estimate clear-day temperature swings is developed. Convective coupling to remote rooms within a building is discussed. Design guidelines are given.

  8. Modeling Jets in the Corona and Solar Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torok, T; Titov, V S; Leake, J E; Mikic, Z; Linker, J A; Linton, M G

    2015-01-01

    Coronal jets are transient, collimated eruptions that occur in regions of predominantly open magnetic field in the solar corona. Our understanding of these events has greatly evolved in recent years but several open questions, such as the contribution of coronal jets to the solar wind, remain. Here we present an overview of the observations and numerical modeling of coronal jets, followed by a brief description of "next-generation" simulations that include an advanced description of the energy transfer in the corona ("thermodynamic MHD"), large spherical computational domains, and the solar wind. These new models will allow us to address some of the open questions.

  9. Relationship Between Solar Wind Speed and Coronal Magnetic Field Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fujiki, Ken'ichi; Iju, Tomoya; Hakamada, Kazuyuki; Kojima, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the relationship between the solar-wind speed $[V]$ and the coronal magnetic-field properties (a flux expansion factor [$f$] and photospheric magnetic-field strength [$B_{\\mathrm{S}}$]) at all latitudes using data of interplanetary scintillation and solar magnetic field obtained for 24 years from 1986 to 2009. Using a cross-correlation analyses, we verified that $V$ is inversely proportional to $f$ and found that $V$ tends to increase with $B_{\\mathrm{S}}$ if $f$ is the same. As a consequence, we find that $V$ has extremely good linear correlation with $B_{\\mathrm{S}}/f$. However, this linear relation of $V$ and $B_{\\mathrm{S}}/f$ cannot be used for predicting the solar-wind velocity without information on the solar-wind mass flux. We discuss why the inverse relation between $V$ and $f$ has been successfully used for solar-wind velocity prediction, even though it does not explicitly include the mass flux and magnetic-field strength, which are important physical parameters for solar-wind accele...

  10. Solar, Wind, Hydropower: Home Renewable Energy Installations...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to find out about financial incentives in your area. Addthis Related Articles Use solar power to heat water and more Today's solar power is highly efficient. You can buy...

  11. Role of Concentrating Solar Power in Integrating Solar and Wind Energy: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Mehos, M.

    2015-06-03

    As wind and solar photovoltaics (PV) increase in penetration it is increasingly important to examine enabling technologies that can help integrate these resources at large scale. Concentrating solar power (CSP) when deployed with thermal energy storage (TES) can provide multiple services that can help integrate variable generation (VG) resources such as wind and PV. CSP with TES can provide firm, highly flexible capacity, reducing minimum generation constraints which limit penetration and results in curtailment. By acting as an enabling technology, CSP can complement PV and wind, substantially increasing their penetration in locations with adequate solar resource.

  12. "Complexity" Induced Plasma Turbulence in Coronal Holes and the Solar Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that are generally detected in the solar wind [10]. We also address the concept of resonant energization of solar"Complexity" Induced Plasma Turbulence in Coronal Holes and the Solar Wind Tom Chang Center that plasma turbulence emanating from coronal holes may efficiently accelerate the solar wind to observed

  13. Evidence that solar wind fluctuations substantially affect global convection and substorm occurrence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    that this implies that solar wind ULF power may be an important contributor to the strength of coupling of solar for the connection between iono- spheric convection and solar wind ULF power. The high correlations between ULF powerEvidence that solar wind fluctuations substantially affect global convection and substorm

  14. The characteristics of sharp (small-scale) boundaries of solar wind plasma and magnetic field structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, John

    The characteristics of sharp (small-scale) boundaries of solar wind plasma and magnetic field are the boundaries of small-scale and mid- dle-scale solar wind structures. We describe the behavior of the solar boundaries of small and medium scale solar wind plasma structures which we identify by looking for sharp

  15. CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF THE ``DARK'' MOON AND GEOCORONAL SOLAR WIND CHARGE TRANSFER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wargelin, Bradford J.

    CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF THE ``DARK'' MOON AND GEOCORONAL SOLAR WIND CHARGE TRANSFER B. J. Wargelin, which were tentatively ascribed to continuum emission from energetic solar wind electrons impacting with contemporaneous measurements of solar wind parameters, strongly favor charge transfer between highly charged solar

  16. Long-term-average, solar cycle, and seasonal response of magnetospheric energetic electrons to the solar wind speed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vassiliadis, Dimitrios

    is parameterized by the time delay (t), measured from the time of solar wind impact, and the L shell (L). We to the solar wind speed D. Vassiliadis,1 A. J. Klimas,2 S. G. Kanekal,3 D. N. Baker,3 and R. S. Weigel4. [1] Among the interplanetary activity parameters the solar wind speed is the one best correlated

  17. Magnetic field gradients in solar wind plasma and geophysics periods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Bershadskii

    2006-11-16

    Using recent data obtained by Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) the pumping scale of the magnetic field gradients of the solar wind plasma has been calculated. This pumping scale is found to be equal to 24h $\\pm$ 2h. The ACE spacecraft orbits at the L1 libration point which is a point of Earth-Sun gravitational equilibrium about 1.5 million km from Earth. Since the Earth's magnetosphere extends into the vacuum of space from approximately 80 to 60,000 kilometers on the side toward the Sun the pumping scale cannot be a consequence of the 24h-period of the Earth's rotation. Vise versa, a speculation is suggested that for the very long time of the coexistence of Earth and of the solar wind the weak interaction between the solar wind and Earth could lead to stochastic synchronization between the Earth's rotation and the pumping scale of the solar wind magnetic field gradients. This synchronization could transform an original period of the Earth's rotation to the period close to the pumping scale of the solar wind magnetic field gradients.

  18. THE TURBULENT CASCADE AND PROTON HEATING IN THE SOLAR WIND DURING SOLAR MINIMUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coburn, Jesse T.; Smith, Charles W.; Vasquez, Bernard J.; Stawarz, Joshua E.; Forman, Miriam A. E-mail: Charles.Smith@unh.edu E-mail: Joshua.Stawarz@Colorado.edu

    2012-08-01

    The recently protracted solar minimum provided years of interplanetary data that were largely absent in any association with observed large-scale transient behavior on the Sun. With large-scale shear at 1 AU generally isolated to corotating interaction regions, it is reasonable to ask whether the solar wind is significantly turbulent at this time. We perform a series of third-moment analyses using data from the Advanced Composition Explorer. We show that the solar wind at 1 AU is just as turbulent as at any other time in the solar cycle. Specifically, the turbulent cascade of energy scales in the same manner proportional to the product of wind speed and temperature. Energy cascade rates during solar minimum average a factor of 2-4 higher than during solar maximum, but we contend that this is likely the result of having a different admixture of high-latitude sources.

  19. Physical Building Information Modeling for Solar Building Design and Simulation- Annual Report 2011 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan, W.; Haberl, J.; Clayton, M.; Jeong, W.; Kim, J.; Kota, S.; Alcocer, J.; Dixit, M.

    2011-01-01

    This report was created for the National Science Foundation-Physical Building Information Modeling (NSF-PBIM) project. This report describes the analysis of a solar office building using the following software: the legacy ...

  20. Weakest solar wind of the space age and the current 'MINI' solar maximum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McComas, D. J.; Angold, N.; Elliott, H. A.; Livadiotis, G.; Schwadron, N. A.; Smith, C. W.; Skoug, R. M.

    2013-12-10

    The last solar minimum, which extended into 2009, was especially deep and prolonged. Since then, sunspot activity has gone through a very small peak while the heliospheric current sheet achieved large tilt angles similar to prior solar maxima. The solar wind fluid properties and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) have declined through the prolonged solar minimum and continued to be low through the current mini solar maximum. Compared to values typically observed from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s, the following proton parameters are lower on average from 2009 through day 79 of 2013: solar wind speed and beta (?11%), temperature (?40%), thermal pressure (?55%), mass flux (?34%), momentum flux or dynamic pressure (?41%), energy flux (?48%), IMF magnitude (?31%), and radial component of the IMF (?38%). These results have important implications for the solar wind's interaction with planetary magnetospheres and the heliosphere's interaction with the local interstellar medium, with the proton dynamic pressure remaining near the lowest values observed in the space age: ?1.4 nPa, compared to ?2.4 nPa typically observed from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s. The combination of lower magnetic flux emergence from the Sun (carried out in the solar wind as the IMF) and associated low power in the solar wind points to the causal relationship between them. Our results indicate that the low solar wind output is driven by an internal trend in the Sun that is longer than the ?11 yr solar cycle, and they suggest that this current weak solar maximum is driven by the same trend.

  1. Energy Efficiency in Commercial Buildings: Experiences and Results from the German funding Program SolarBau 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herkel, S.; Lohnert, G.; Voss, K.; Wagner, A.

    2004-01-01

    Solar energy is receiving much more attention in building energy systems in recent years. Solar thermal utilization should be based on the integration of solar collectors into buildings. The facades of buildings can be ...

  2. THE PASSIVE SOLAR DESIGN PROCESS FOR A SMALL OFFICE/LABORATORY BUILDING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andersson, Brandt

    2011-01-01

    More and more passive solar buildings will be built in theroles for passive solar in small commercial buildings, in aPASSIVE SOLAR DESIGN PROCESS FOR A SMALL OFFICE/LABORATORY BUILDING

  3. Equivalent Static Wind Loads on Buildings: New Model Xinzhong Chen1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xinzhong

    Equivalent Static Wind Loads on Buildings: New Model Xinzhong Chen1 and Ahsan Kareem2 Abstract: In current design practice, spatiotemporally varying wind loads on buildings are modeled as equivalent static static wind load for any given peak response of buildings with uncoupled responses in the three primary

  4. Report on High Performance Building's Energy Modeling, Physical Building Information Modeling for Solar Building Design and Simulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alcocer, J.; Haberl, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    This report was created for the National Science Foundation-Physical Building Information Modeling (NSF-PBIM) project. This report describes the analysis of a solar office building using the following software: the legacy ...

  5. Solar Wind Sources in the Late Declining Phase of Cycle 23: Effects of the Weak Solar Polar Field on High Speed Streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    B spacecraft for L1 solar wind prediction purposes (e.g.solar wind model currently running at the NOAA Space Weather Prediction

  6. Agua Caliente Wind/Solar Project at Whitewater Ranch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooks, Todd; Stewart, Royce

    2014-12-16

    Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians (ACBCI) was awarded a grant by the Department of Energy (DOE) to study the feasibility of a wind and/or solar renewable energy project at the Whitewater Ranch (WWR) property of ACBCI. Red Mountain Energy Partners (RMEP) was engaged to conduct the study. The ACBCI tribal lands in the Coachella Valley have very rich renewable energy resources. The tribe has undertaken several studies to more fully understand the options available to them if they were to move forward with one or more renewable energy projects. With respect to the resources, the WWR property clearly has excellent wind and solar resources. The DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has continued to upgrade and refine their library of resource maps. The newer, more precise maps quantify the resources as among the best in the world. The wind and solar technology available for deployment is also being improved. Both are reducing their costs to the point of being at or below the costs of fossil fuels. Technologies for energy storage and microgrids are also improving quickly and present additional ways to increase the wind and/or solar energy retained for later use with the network management flexibility to provide power to the appropriate locations when needed. As a result, renewable resources continue to gain more market share. The transitioning to renewables as the major resources for power will take some time as the conversion is complex and can have negative impacts if not managed well. While the economics for wind and solar systems continue to improve, the robustness of the WWR site was validated by the repeated queries of developers to place wind and/or solar there. The robust resources and improving technologies portends toward WWR land as a renewable energy site. The business case, however, is not so clear, especially when the potential investment portfolio for ACBCI has several very beneficial and profitable alternatives.

  7. The turbulent cascade and proton heating in the solar wind during solar minimum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coburn, Jesse T.; Smith, Charles W.; Vasquez, Bernard J.; Stawarz, Joshua E.; Forman, Miriam A.

    2013-06-13

    Solar wind measurements at 1 AU during the recent solar minimum and previous studies of solar maximum provide an opportunity to study the effects of the changing solar cycle on in situ heating. Our interest is to compare the levels of activity associated with turbulence and proton heating. Large-scale shears in the flow caused by transient activity are a source that drives turbulence that heats the solar wind, but as the solar cycle progresses the dynamics that drive the turbulence and heat the medium are likely to change. The application of third-moment theory to Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) data gives the turbulent energy cascade rate which is not seen to vary with the solar cycle. Likewise, an empirical heating rate shows no significan changes in proton heating over the cycle.

  8. CORE ELECTRON HEATING IN SOLAR WIND RECONNECTION EXHAUSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pulupa, M. P.; Salem, C.; Phan, T. D.; Bale, S. D.; Gosling, J. T.

    2014-08-10

    We present observational evidence of core electron heating in solar wind reconnection exhausts. We show two example events, one which shows clear heating of the core electrons within the exhaust, and one which demonstrates no heating. The event with heating occurred during a period of high inflow Alfvén speed (V {sub AL}), while the event with no heating had a low V {sub AL}. This agrees with the results of a recent study of magnetopause exhausts, and suggests that similar core electron heating can occur in both symmetric (solar wind) and asymmetric (magnetopause) exhausts.

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF TRANSITIONS IN THE SOLAR WIND PARAMETERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perri, S.; Balogh, A. E-mail: a.balogh@imperial.ac.u

    2010-02-20

    The distinction between fast and slow solar wind streams and the dynamically evolved interaction regions is reflected in the characteristic fluctuations of both the solar wind and the embedded magnetic field. High-resolution magnetic field data from the Ulysses spacecraft have been analyzed. The observations show rapid variations in the magnetic field components and in the magnetic field strength, suggesting a structured nature of the solar wind at small scales. The typical sizes of fluctuations cover a broad range. If translated to the solar surface, the scales span from the size of granules ({approx}10{sup 3} km) and supergranules ({approx}10{sup 4} km) on the Sun down to {approx}10{sup 2} km and less. The properties of the short time structures change in the different types of solar wind. While fluctuations in fast streams are more homogeneous, slow streams present a bursty behavior in the magnetic field variances, and the regions of transition are characterized by high levels of power in narrow structures around the transitions. The probability density functions of the magnetic field increments at several scales reveal a higher level of intermittency in the mixed streams, which is related to the presence of well localized features. It is concluded that, apart from the differences in the nature of fluctuations in flows of different coronal origin, there is a small-scale structuring that depends on the origin of streams themselves but it is also related to a bursty generation of the fluctuations.

  10. Wind and Solar on the Power Grid: Myths and Misperceptions, Greening...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SOLAR ON THE POWER GRID: MYTHS AND MISPERCEPTIONS GREENING THE GRID Wind and solar are inherently more variable and uncertain than the traditional dispatchable thermal and hydro...

  11. MODELING PASSIVE SOLAR BUILDINGS WITH HAND CALCULATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, David B.

    2011-01-01

    time of day for a passive solar house under four differentresponse function for a passive solar house would begin toB(w)/A(w). A good passive solar house w i l l have B/A large

  12. Economic analysis of wind-powered farmhouse and farm building heating systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stafford, R.W.; Greeb, F.J.; Smith, M.F.; Des Chenes, C.; Weaver, N.L.

    1981-01-01

    The study evaluated the break-even values of wind energy for selected farmhouses and farm buildings focusing on the effects of thermal storage on the use of WECS production and value. Farmhouse structural models include three types derived from a national survey - an older, a more modern, and a passive solar structure. The eight farm building applications that were analyzed include: poultry-layers, poultry-brooding/layers, poultry-broilers, poultry-turkeys, swine-farrowing, swine-growing/finishing, dairy, and lambing. These farm buildings represent the spectrum of animal types, heating energy use, and major contributions to national agricultural economic values. All energy analyses were based on hour-by-hour computations which allowed for growth of animals, sensible and latent heat production, and ventilation requirements. Hourly or three-hourly weather data obtained from the National Climatic Center was used for the nine chosen analysis sites, located throughout the United States and corresponding to regional agricultural production centers.

  13. MODELING PASSIVE SOLAR BUILDINGS WITH HAND CALCULATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, David B.

    2011-01-01

    heat gains from the heater or from solar absorption on l i gof heater output, by collecting and storing solar energy.

  14. Wind Response Control of Building with Variable Stiffness Tuned Mass Damper Using Empirical Mode Decomposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagarajaiah, Satish

    and is robust to changes in building stiffness and damping. In comparison, the passive tuned mass damper TMD canWind Response Control of Building with Variable Stiffness Tuned Mass Damper Using Empirical Mode of a wind-excited tall benchmark building is investigated in this study. The benchmark building considered

  15. U.S. Virgin Islands- Solar and Wind Easements & Rights Laws

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In the U.S. Virgin Islands, the owner of a solar or wind-energy system is permitted to negotiate for assurance of continued access to the system’s energy source. "Solar or wind-energy system" is...

  16. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Executive Summary, (WWSIS) May 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Piwko; K. Clark; L. Freeman; G. Jordan; N. Miller

    2010-05-01

    This report provides a summary of background, approach, and findings of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS).

  17. Grand Traverse Band Renewable Energy Feasibility Study in Wind, Biomass and Solar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzanne McSawby, Project Director Steve Smiley, Principle Investigator Grand Traverse Resort, Cost Sharing Partner

    2008-12-31

    Renewable Energy Feasibility Study for wind, biomass, solar on the Grand Traverse Band tribal lands from 2005 - 2008

  18. Solar wind drivers of large geomagnetically induced currents during the solar cycle 23

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergen, Universitetet i

    amplitudes. The best correlation with the GIC amplitudes was found with the solar wind electric field geomagnetically induced currents during the solar cycle 23, Space Weather, 6, S10002, doi:10.1029/2007SW000374. 1) in tech- nological conductor systems such as power grids or pipelines [e.g., Boteler, 2003; Pirjola, 2000

  19. IMPLICATIONS OF THE RECENT LOW SOLAR MINIMUM FOR THE SOLAR WIND DURING THE MAUNDER MINIMUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lockwood, M.; Owens, M. J., E-mail: m.lockwood@reading.ac.uk [Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Earley Gate, RG6 6BB (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-20

    The behavior of the Sun and near-Earth space during grand solar minima is not understood; however, the recent long and low minimum of the decadal-scale solar cycle gives some important clues, with implications for understanding the solar dynamo and predicting space weather conditions. The speed of the near-Earth solar wind and the strength of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) embedded within it can be reliably reconstructed for before the advent of spacecraft monitoring using observations of geomagnetic activity that extend back to the mid-19th century. We show that during the solar cycle minima around 1879 and 1901 the average solar wind speed was exceptionally low, implying the Earth remained within the streamer belt of slow solar wind flow for extended periods. This is consistent with a broader streamer belt, which was also a feature of the recent low minimum (2009), and yields a prediction that the low near-Earth IMF during the Maunder minimum (1640-1700), as derived from models and deduced from cosmogenic isotopes, was accompanied by a persistent and relatively constant solar wind of speed roughly half the average for the modern era.

  20. The genesis solar-wind sample return mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiens, Roger C

    2009-01-01

    The compositions of the Earth's crust and mantle, and those of the Moon and Mars, are relatively well known both isotopically and elementally. The same is true of our knowledge of the asteroid belt composition, based on meteorite analyses. Remote measurements of Venus, the Jovian atmosphere, and the outer planet moons, have provided some estimates of their compositions. The Sun constitutes a large majority, > 99%, of all the matter in the solar system. The elemental composition of the photosphere, the visible 'surface' of the Sun, is constrained by absorption lines produced by particles above the surface. Abundances for many elements are reported to the {+-}10 or 20% accuracy level. However, the abundances of other important elements, such as neon, cannot be determined in this way due to a relative lack of atomic states at low excitation energies. Additionally and most importantly, the isotopic composition of the Sun cannot be determined astronomically except for a few species which form molecules above sunspots, and estimates derived from these sources lack the accuracy desired for comparison with meteoritic and planetary surface samples measured on the Earth. The solar wind spreads a sample of solar particles throughout the heliosphere, though the sample is very rarified: collecting a nanogram of oxygen, the third most abundant element, in a square centimeter cross section at the Earth's distance from the Sun takes five years. Nevertheless, foil collectors exposed to the solar wind for periods of hours on the surface of the Moon during the Apollo missions were used to determine the helium and neon solar-wind compositions sufficiently to show that the Earth's atmospheric neon was significantly evolved relative to the Sun. Spacecraft instruments developed subsequently have provided many insights into the composition of the solar wind, mostly in terms of elemental composition. These instruments have the advantage of observing a number of parameters simultaneously, including charge state distributions, velocities, and densities, all of which have been instrumental in characterizing the nature of the solar wind. However, these instruments have lacked the ability to make large dynamic range measurements of adjacent isotopes (i.e., {sup 17}O/{sup 16}O {approx} 2500) or provide the permil (tenths of percent) accuracy desirable for comparison with geochemical isotopic measurements. An accurate knowledge of the solar and solar-wind compositions helps to answer important questions across a number of disciplines. It aids in understanding the acceleration mechanisms of the solar wind, gives an improved picture of the charged particle environment near the photosphere, it constrains processes within the Sun over its history, and it provides a database by which to compare differences among planetary systems with the solar system's starting composition, providing key information on planetary evolution. For example, precise knowledge of solar isotopic and elemental compositions of volatile species in the Sun provides a baseline for models of atmospheric evolution over time for Earth, Venus, and Mars. Additionally, volatile and chemically active elements such as C, H, O, N, and S can tell us about processes active during the evolution of the solar nebula. A classic example of this is the oxygen isotope system. In the 1970s it was determined that the oxygen isotopic ratio in refractory inclusions in primitive meteorites was enriched {approx}4% in {sup 16}O relative to the average terrestrial, lunar, and thermally processed meteorite materials. In addition, all processed solar-system materials appeared to each have a unique oxygen isotopic composition (except the Moon and Earth, which are thought to be formed from the same materials), though differences are in the fraction of a percent range, much smaller than the refractory material {sup 16}O enrichment. Several theories were developed over the years to account for the oxygen isotope heterogeneity, each theory predicting a different solar isotopic composition and each invoking a differ

  1. Proton corebeam system in the expanding solar wind: Hybrid simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Proton corebeam system in the expanding solar wind: Hybrid simulations Petr Hellinger1,2 and Pavel 9 November 2011. [1] Results of a twodimensional hybrid expanding box simulation of a proton to a decrease of the ratio between the proton perpendicular and parallel temperatures as well as to an increase

  2. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Executive Summary

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This study investigates the operational impact of up to 35% energy penetration of wind, photovoltaics (PVs), and concentrating solar power (CSP) on the power system operated by the WestConnect group of utilities in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Wyoming.

  3. Ring current formation influenced by solar wind substorm conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winglee, Robert M.

    Click Here for Full Article Ring current formation influenced by solar wind substorm conditions M outflows during an internally driven substorm. We show that the energization of the ions is not correlated with the time that the ions leave the ionosphere; instead energization is correlated with the formation

  4. Enhanced solar wind geoeffectiveness after a sudden increase in dynamic pressure during southward IMF orientation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lummerzheim, Dirk

    a pressure front impact lead to enhanced coupling between the solar wind and the terrestrial magnetosphereEnhanced solar wind geoeffectiveness after a sudden increase in dynamic pressure during southward increase in solar wind pressure results in poleward expansion of the auroral oval and closing of the polar

  5. THEMIS observations of a hot flow anomaly: Solar wind, magnetosheath, and ground-based measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mende, Stephen B.

    solar wind, and it has been suggested that they have a significant impact on the mag- netosphere [eTHEMIS observations of a hot flow anomaly: Solar wind, magnetosheath, and ground-based measurements and the subsequent downstream response. THEMIS-A, in the solar wind, observed classic HFA signatures. Isotropic

  6. Nightside flow enhancement associated with solar wind dynamic pressure driven reconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lummerzheim, Dirk

    the impact of a solar wind dynamic pressure front. Their results show a significant increase in iono- sphericNightside flow enhancement associated with solar wind dynamic pressure driven reconnection A years the prominent role of solar wind dynamic pressure in enhancing dayside and nightside reconnection

  7. Title: Feasibility Study for 20 MW Hybrid Solar and Wind Park in Colombia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    1 of 2 Title: Feasibility Study for 20 MW Hybrid Solar and Wind Park in Colombia Principal to assess the Colombian solar and wind resources, looking at different technology options, anticipated performance, and evaluating the economics of solar and wind power technologies. The NMSU team also evaluates

  8. Effect of solar wind pressure pulses on the size and strength of the auroral oval

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lummerzheim, Dirk

    Effect of solar wind pressure pulses on the size and strength of the auroral oval A. Boudouridis, E. [1] It has recently been found that solar wind dynamic pressure changes can dramatically affect solar wind dynamic pressure increases on the location, size, and intensity of the auroral oval using

  9. Predicting the arrival of high-speed solar wind streams at Earth using the STEREO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lockwood, Mike

    Predicting the arrival of high-speed solar wind streams at Earth using the STEREO Heliospheric of solar wind speed to predict the arrival of such streams at Earth, assuming they corotated with the Sun November 2011; accepted 11 December 2011; published 16 February 2012. [1] High-speed solar wind streams

  10. Prediction of the AL index using solar wind Xinlin Li,1,2,5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xinlin

    Prediction of the AL index using solar wind parameters Xinlin Li,1,2,5 Kap Soo Oh,1,3 and M are based on solar wind and magnetometer data from the year 1995. The simple model predicts the 10-min averaged AL index for 1995 using only solar wind measurements with a prediction efficiency of 0

  11. Interplanetary scintillation observations of the solar wind disappearance event of May 1999

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Padmanabhan, Janardhan

    of the solar wind. They are derived from the power spectrum of the observed intensity fluctuations of compactInterplanetary scintillation observations of the solar wind disappearance event of May 1999 V scintillation (IPS) observations of the solar wind during the period centered around 11 May 1999, when the Earth

  12. Energy analysis of substorms based on remote sensing techniques, solar wind measurements, and geomagnetic indices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ã?stgaard, Nikolai

    Energy analysis of substorms based on remote sensing techniques, solar wind measurements to balance the energy budget. We find that a viscous interaction that transfers 0.17% of the solar wind, is sufficient to balance the total energy dissipation UT. INDEX TERMS: 2784 Magnetospheric Physics: Solar wind

  13. Global and multi-scale features of solar wind-magnetosphere coupling: From modeling to forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sitnov, Mikhail I.

    Global and multi-scale features of solar wind-magnetosphere coupling: From modeling to forecasting issue. This paper presents a data-derived model of the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling that combines of solar wind-magnetosphere coupling: From modeling to forecasting, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L08802, doi:10

  14. The Solar Wind: Probing the Heliosphere with Multiple Spacecraft John D. Richardson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, John

    1 The Solar Wind: Probing the Heliosphere with Multiple Spacecraft John D. Richardson Center of the Voyager spacecraft in the outer heliosphere, Ulysses at high latitudes, and multiple solar wind monitors near Earth provides a unique opportunity to study the global structure and evolution of the solar wind

  15. Solar Wind and Interplanetary Magnetic Field: A Tutorial C. T. Russell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Christopher T.

    Solar Wind and Interplanetary Magnetic Field: A Tutorial C. T. Russell Institute of Geophysics at the center of the sun to its radiation into space by the photosphere, but most importantly for the solar wind controls the properties of the solar wind. In this tutorial review we examine the properties of the fields

  16. THE SOLAR WIND INTERACTION WITH UNMAGNETIZED PLANETS: A TUTORIAL J. G. Luhmann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    THE SOLAR WIND INTERACTION WITH UNMAGNETIZED PLANETS: A TUTORIAL J. G. Luhmann Institute of solar wind origin is transported through the ionopause and distributed within the ionosphere theorists and observationalists. The relative strength of the solar wind and ionospheric pressures at Mars

  17. Effect of solar wind variation on low-energy O+ populations in the magnetosphere during

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Charles W.

    Effect of solar wind variation on low-energy O+ populations in the magnetosphere during geomagneticFadden, E. J. Lund, and C. W. Carlson (2008), Effect of solar wind variation on low-energy O+ populations 2008. [1] The relationship between solar wind conditions and variations in low-energy (

  18. Are energetic electrons in the solar wind the source of the outer radiation belt?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xinlin

    . Mewaldt6 Abstract. Using data from WIND, SAMPEX (Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer the outer radiation belt electrons. Al- though lower energy electrons in the solar wind could be a seedAre energetic electrons in the solar wind the source of the outer radiation belt? Xinlin Li,1 D. N

  19. Hybrid energy cell for simultaneously harvesting wind, solar, and chemical energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Hybrid energy cell for simultaneously harvesting wind, solar, and chemical energies Yingchun Wu1 KEYWORDS hybrid energy cell, wind energy, solar energy, triboelectric nanogenerators, electrochemical cells ABSTRACT We report a hybrid energy cell that can simultaneously or individually harvest wind, solar

  20. Discrepancies in the Prediction of Solar Wind using Potential Field Source Surface Model: An

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Xuepu

    Discrepancies in the Prediction of Solar Wind using Potential Field Source Surface Model. This inverse relation has been made use of in the prediction of solar wind speed at 1 AU using a potential between the magnetic flux tube expansion factor (FTE) at the source surface and the solar wind speed

  1. Solar wind turbulence at 0.72 AU and solar minimum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teodorescu, Eliza; Munteanu, Costel; Zhang, Tielong; Bruno, Roberto; Kovacs, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We investigate Venus Express (VEX) observations of magnetic field fluctuations performed systematically in the solar wind at 0.72 Astronomical Units (AU), between 2007 and 2009, during the deep minimum of the solar cycle 24. The Power Spectral Densities (PSD) of the magnetic field components have been computed for the time intervals that satisfy data integrity criteria and have been grouped according to the type of wind, fast and slow defined for speeds larger and respectively smaller than 450 km/s. The PSDs show higher levels of power for the fast than for the slow wind. The spectral slopes estimated for all PSDs in the frequency range 0.005-0.1 Hz exhibit a normal distribution. The average value of the trace of the spectral matrix is -1.60 for fast solar wind and -1.65 for slow wind. Compared to the corresponding average slopes at 1 AU, the PSDs are shallower at 0.72 AU for slow wind conditions suggesting a steepening of the solar wind spectra between Venus and Earth. No significant time variation trend is ...

  2. Research and Development Needs for Building-Integrated Solar Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-01-01

    The Building Technologies Office (BTO) has identified Building Integrated Solar Technologies (BIST) as a potentially valuable piece of the comprehensive pathway to help achieve its goal of reducing energy consumption in residential and commercial buildings by 50% by the year 2030. This report helps to identify the key research and development (R&D) needs that will be required for BIST to make a substantial contribution toward that goal. BIST include technologies for space heating and cooling, water heating, hybrid photovoltaic-thermal systems (PV/T), active solar lighting, and building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV).

  3. Heat storage and distribution inside passive-solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Passive-solar buildings are investigated from the viewpoint of the storage of solar heat in materials of the building: walls, floors, ceilings, and furniture. The effects of the location, material, thickness, and orientation of each internal building surface are investigated. The concept of diurnal heat capacity is introduced and a method of using this parameter to estimate clear-day temperature swings is developed. Convective coupling to remote rooms within a building is discussed, including both convection through single doorways and convective loops that may exist involving a sunspace. Design guidelines are given.

  4. Modeling and Analysis of Solar Radiation Potentials on Building Rooftops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Kodysh, Jeffrey B [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The active application of photovoltaic for electricity generation could effectively transform neighborhoods and commercial districts into small, localized power plants. This application, however, relies heavily on an accurate estimation of the amount of solar radiation that is available on individual building rooftops. While many solar energy maps exist at higher spatial resolution for concentrated solar energy applications, the data from these maps are not suitable for roof-mounted photovoltaic for several reasons, including lack of data at the appropriate spatial resolution and lack of integration of building-specific characteristics into the models used to generate the maps. To address this problem, we have developed a modeling framework for estimating solar radiation potentials on individual building rooftops that is suitable for utility-scale applications as well as building-specific applications. The framework uses light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data at approximately 1-meter horizontal resolution and 0.3-meter vertical resolution as input for modeling a large number of buildings quickly. One of the strengths of this framework is the ability to parallelize its implementation. Furthermore, the framework accounts for building specific characteristics, such as roof slope, roof aspect, and shadowing effects, that are critical to roof-mounted photovoltaic systems. The resulting data has helped us to identify the so-called solar panel sweet spots on individual building rooftops and obtain accurate statistics of the variation in solar radiation as a function of time of year and geographical location.

  5. Large Scale Wind and Solar Integration in Germany

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernst, Bernhard; Schreirer, Uwe; Berster, Frank; Pease, John; Scholz, Cristian; Erbring, Hans-Peter; Schlunke, Stephan; Makarov, Yuri V.

    2010-02-28

    This report provides key information concerning the German experience with integrating of 25 gigawatts of wind and 7 gigawatts of solar power capacity and mitigating its impacts on the electric power system. The report has been prepared based on information provided by the Amprion GmbH and 50Hertz Transmission GmbH managers and engineers to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory representatives during their visit to Germany in October 2009. The trip and this report have been sponsored by the BPA Technology Innovation office. Learning from the German experience could help the Bonneville Power Administration engineers to compare and evaluate potential new solutions for managing higher penetrations of wind energy resources in their control area. A broader dissemination of this experience will benefit wind and solar resource integration efforts in the United States.

  6. Thermal Solar Energy Systems for Space Heating of Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gomri, R.; Boulkamh, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the simulation and the analysis of a solar flat plate collectors combined with a compression heat pump is carried out. The system suggested must ensure the heating of a building without the recourse to an ...

  7. City of Grand Rapids Building Solar Roof Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeClercq, Mark; Martinez, Imelda

    2012-08-31

    Grand Rapids, Michigan is striving to reduce it environmental footprint. The municipal government organization has established environmental sustainability policies with the goal of securing 100% of its energy from renewable sources by 2020. This report describes the process by which the City of Grand Rapids evaluated, selected and installed solar panels on the Water/Environmental Services Building. The solar panels are the first to be placed on a municipal building. Its new power monitoring system provides output data to assess energy efficiency and utilization. It is expected to generate enough clean solar energy to power 25 percent of the building. The benefit to the public includes the economic savings from reduced operational costs for the building; an improved environmentally sustainable area in which to live and work; and increased knowledge about the use of solar energy. It will serve as a model for future energy saving applications.

  8. The optimization of solar radiation upon a rectangular building 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ingle, James Allen

    1973-01-01

    THE OPTIMIZATION OF SOLAR RADIATION UPON A RECTANGULAR BUILDING A Thesis by JAMES ALLEN INGLF. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM University in Partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 19... 3 Major Subjeoti Meteorology THE OPTIMIZATION OF SOLAR RADIATION UPON A RECTANGULAR BUILDING A Thesis by JAILS ALLEN INGLE Approved as to style and content bye Cha an of ittee Mr, ' ohn F, Griffiths Member Dro Robert CD Runnels Head...

  9. Improved Method for Specifying Solar Wind Speed Near the Sun Charles N. Arge*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    much better than one derived previously, which is a function of fs only. We focus here on the solarImproved Method for Specifying Solar Wind Speed Near the Sun Charles N. Arge* , Dusan Odstrcil solar wind flow speed near the Sun (~0.1 AU) us- ing a set of three simple inter-linked coronal/solar

  10. Long-term-average, solar cycle, and seasonal response of magnetospheric energetic electrons to the solar wind speed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . [1] Among the interplanetary activity parameters the solar wind speed is the one best correlatedLong-term-average, solar cycle, and seasonal response of magnetospheric energetic electrons to the solar wind speed D. Vassiliadis,1 A. J. Klimas,2 S. G. Kanekal,3 D. N. Baker,3 and R. S. Weigel4

  11. Procuring and Implementing Solar Projects on Public Buildings: How to Avoid Common Pitfalls

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Procuring and Implementing Solar Projects on Public Buildings: How to Avoid Common Pitfalls Webinar.

  12. Optimum mix of conservation and solar energy in buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    A methodology is developed for optimally allocating resources between conservation and solar strategies in building design. Formulas are presented for a constrained optimum in which the initial investment is limited. The procedure is amenable to hand analysis if tables are available which give the Solar Savings Fraction as a function of the Load Collector Ratio for the locality. A numerical example is given.

  13. Solar wind samples give insight into birth of solar system

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation ofAlbuquerque|Sensitive Species3performedValley |Solar PowerofThermalSolar

  14. Simple procedure for schematic design of passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wray, W.O.; Kosiewicz, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    A simple procedure for use during the schematic phase of passive solar building design is presented in this article. The procedure is quantitative and accurate enough to insure that designs based on the provided starting point values of the primary building parameters will be cost effective.

  15. Small Business Harnessing Solar Energy with Building Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Business partners Jeff Szczepanski and Rob Lyndall imagine a world where many of the buildings have walls, windows and other materials that are integrated with photovoltaic technology — that is, buildings that generate solar energy without necessarily adding panels to the roof. And because of new funding opportunities, that vision might not be too far into the future.

  16. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Hydropower Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acker, T.; Pete, C.

    2012-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) study of 20% Wind Energy by 2030 was conducted to consider the benefits, challenges, and costs associated with sourcing 20% of U.S. energy consumption from wind power by 2030. This study found that with proactive measures, no insurmountable barriers were identified to meet the 20% goal. Following this study, DOE and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted two more studies: the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS) covering the eastern portion of the U.S., and the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) covering the western portion of the United States. The WWSIS was conducted by NREL and research partner General Electric (GE) in order to provide insight into the costs, technical or physical barriers, and operational impacts caused by the variability and uncertainty of wind, photovoltaic, and concentrated solar power when employed to serve up to 35% of the load energy in the WestConnect region (Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Wyoming). WestConnect is composed of several utility companies working collaboratively to assess stakeholder and market needs to and develop cost-effective improvements to the western wholesale electricity market. Participants include the Arizona Public Service, El Paso Electric Company, NV Energy, Public Service of New Mexico, Salt River Project, Tri-State Generation and Transmission Cooperative, Tucson Electric Power, Xcel Energy and the Western Area Power Administration.

  17. CME propagation: Where does the solar wind drag take over?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sachdeva, Nishtha; Colaninno, Robin; Vourlidas, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the Sun-Earth dynamics of a set of eight well observed solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) using data from the STEREO spacecraft. We seek to quantify the extent to which momentum coupling between these CMEs and the ambient solar wind (i.e., the aerodynamic drag) influences their dynamics. To this end, we use results from a 3D flux rope model fit to the CME data. We find that solar wind aerodynamic drag adequately accounts for the dynamics of the fastest CME in our sample. For the relatively slower CMEs, we find that drag-based models initiated below heliocentric distances ranging from 15 to 50 $R_{\\odot}$ cannot account for the observed CME trajectories. This is at variance with the general perception that the dynamics of slow CMEs are influenced primarily by solar wind drag from a few $R_{\\odot}$ onwards. Several slow CMEs propagate at roughly constant speeds above 15--50 $R_{\\odot}$. Drag-based models initiated above these heights therefore require negligible aerodynamic drag to explain their...

  18. Small solar wind transients: Stereo-A observations in 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, W.; Farrugia, C. J.; Galvin, A. B.; Simunac, K. D. C.; Popecki, M. A.; Lugaz, N.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Moestl, C.; Luhmann, J. G.; Opitz, A.; Sauvaud, J.-A.

    2013-06-13

    Year 2009 was the last year of a long and pronounced solar activity minimum. In this year the solar wind in the inner heliosphere was for 90% of the time slow (< 450 km s{sup -1}) and with a weaker magnetic field strength compared to the previous solar minimum 1995-1996. We choose this year to present the results of a systematic search for small solar wind transients (STs) observed by the STEREO-Ahead (ST-A) probe. The data are from the PLASTIC and IMPACT instrument suites. By 'small' we mean a duration from {approx}1 to 12 hours. The parameters we search for to identify STs are (i) the total field strength, (ii) the rotation of the magnetic field vector, (iii) its smoothness, (iv) proton temperature, (v) proton beta, and (vi) Alfven Mach number. We find 45 examples. The STs have an average duration of {approx}4 hours. Ensemble averages of key quantities are: (i) maximum B = 7.01 nT; (ii) proton {beta}= 0.18; (iii) proton thermal speed = 20.8 km s{sup -1}; and (iv) Alfven Mach number = 6.13. No distinctive feature is found in the pitch angle distributions of suprathermal electrons. Our statistical results are compared with those of STs observed near Earth by Wind during 2009.

  19. Evaluating the performance of passive-solar-heated buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Methods of evaluating the thermal performance of passive-solar buildings are reviewed. Instrumentation and data logging requirements are outlined. Various methodologies that have been used to develop an energy balance for the building and various performance measures are discussed. Methods for quantifying comfort are described. Subsystem and other special-purpose monitoring are briefly reviewed. Summary results are given for 38 buildings that have been monitored.

  20. NIST BUILDING SCIENCE SERIES 180 Database-Assisted Design for Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NIST BUILDING SCIENCE SERIES 180 Database-Assisted Design for Wind: Concepts, Software, and Examples for Rigid and Flexible Buildings Joseph A. Main and William P. Fritz #12;Cover Photo: Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel Laboratory, The University of Western Ontario #12;NIST BUILDING SCIENCE SERIES 180

  1. Solar and Wind Easements | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher iSlide 1 More Documents &1000radiation, often6 SolarLoan to InvestWebsite

  2. Solar and Wind Rights | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher iSlide 1 More Documents &1000radiation, often6 SolarLoanSavings<- Passive

  3. Nebraska Wind and Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPI Ventures Ltd Jump to:InformationNdunga Geothermal PowerSolar Jump to:

  4. Supercomputers Capture Turbulence in the Solar Wind

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production 1: Total systemsSuccess NSECCapture

  5. VENUS EXPRESS STUDIES PERTAINING TO THE LOSS OF THE VENUS ATMOSPHERE BY ITS INTERACTION WITH THE SOLAR WIND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    WITH THE SOLAR WIND C. T. Russell, T. L. Zhang, M. Delva, S. Barabash, J. G. Luhmann, and H. Y. Wei The solar wind can be a source and a sink for planetary atmospheres. This is especially true for unmagnetized effectively excludes the solar wind from the planetary atmosphere but that the solar wind can still erode

  6. Better Buildings Alliance Solar Decision Guide

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Businesses considering implementing solar PV may encounter widespread geographic differences regarding utility incentive structures (buy-down incentives, performance based incentives, feed-in tariffs, etc.), utility policies (net metering, interconnection requirements), regulatory structures, and permitting requirements. They might also have uncertainty about how to assess the different ownership structures (PPA, lease, own, etc.). The Solar Decision Guide can help companies navigate this complex environment to determine if investing in solar makes financial sense and to identify the regions that offer the most promising returns on solar investment.

  7. Extended Coronal Heating and Solar Wind Acceleration Over the Solar Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cranmer, Steven R; Miralles, Mari Paz; van Ballegooijen, Adriaan A

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews our growing understanding of the physics behind coronal heating (in open-field regions) and the acceleration of the solar wind. Many new insights have come from the last solar cycle's worth of observations and theoretical work. Measurements of the plasma properties in the extended corona, where the primary solar wind acceleration occurs, have been key to discriminating between competing theories. We describe how UVCS/SOHO measurements of coronal holes and streamers over the last 14 years have provided clues about the detailed kinetic processes that energize both fast and slow wind regions. We also present a brief survey of current ideas involving the coronal source regions of fast and slow wind streams, and how these change over the solar cycle. These source regions are discussed in the context of recent theoretical models (based on Alfven waves and MHD turbulence) that have begun to successfully predict both the heating and acceleration in fast and slow wind regions with essentially no fre...

  8. Predicted Impacts of Proton Temperature Anisotropy on Solar Wind Turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, Kristopher G

    2015-01-01

    Particle velocity distributions measured in the weakly collisional solar wind are frequently found to be non-Maxwellian, but how these non-Maxwellian distributions impact the physics of plasma turbulence in the solar wind remains unanswered. Using numerical solutions of the linear dispersion relation for a collisionless plasma with a bi-Maxwellian proton velocity distribution, we present a unified framework for the four proton temperature anisotropy instabilities, identifying the associated stable eigenmodes, highlighting the unstable region of wavevector space, and presenting the properties of the growing eigenfunctions. Based on physical intuition gained from this framework, we address how the proton temperature anisotropy impacts the nonlinear dynamics of the \\Alfvenic fluctuations underlying the dominant cascade of energy from large to small scales and how the fluctuations driven by proton temperature anisotropy instabilities interact nonlinearly with each other and with the fluctuations of the large-scal...

  9. Magnetic Field Rotations in the Solar Wind at Kinetic Scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, C H K; Burgess, D; Horbury, T S

    2015-01-01

    The solar wind magnetic field contains rotations at a broad range of scales, which have been extensively studied in the MHD range. Here we present an extension of this analysis to the range between ion and electron kinetic scales. The distribution of rotation angles was found to be approximately log-normal, shifting to smaller angles at smaller scales almost self-similarly, but with small, statistically significant changes of shape. The fraction of energy in fluctuations with angles larger than $\\alpha$ was found to drop approximately exponentially with $\\alpha$, with e-folding angle $9.8^\\circ$ at ion scales and $0.66^\\circ$ at electron scales, showing that large angles ($\\alpha > 30^\\circ$) do not contain a significant amount of energy at kinetic scales. Implications for kinetic turbulence theory and the dissipation of solar wind turbulence are discussed.

  10. Dissipation-Scale Turbulence in the Solar Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gregory G. Howes; Steven C. Cowley; William Dorland; Gregory W. Hammett; Eliot Quataert; Alexander A. Schekochihin

    2007-07-20

    We present a cascade model for turbulence in weakly collisional plasmas that follows the nonlinear cascade of energy from the large scales of driving in the MHD regime to the small scales of the kinetic Alfven wave regime where the turbulence is dissipated by kinetic processes. Steady-state solutions of the model for the slow solar wind yield three conclusions: (1) beyond the observed break in the magnetic energy spectrum, one expects an exponential cut-off; (2) the widely held interpretation that this dissipation range obeys power-law behavior is an artifact of instrumental sensitivity limitations; and, (3) over the range of parameters relevant to the solar wind, the observed variation of dissipation range spectral indices from -2 to -4 is naturally explained by the varying effectiveness of Landau damping, from an undamped prediction of -7/3 to a strongly damped index around -4.

  11. Residual energy in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence and in the solar wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanislav Boldyrev; Jean Carlos Perez; Vladimir Zhdankin

    2011-08-30

    Recent observations indicate that kinetic and magnetic energies are not in equipartition in the solar wind turbulence. Rather, magnetic fluctuations are more energetic and have somewhat steeper energy spectrum compared to the velocity fluctuations. This leads to the presence of the so-called residual energy E_r=E_v-E_b in the inertial interval of turbulence. This puzzling effect is addressed in the present paper in the framework of weak turbulence theory. Using a simple model of weakly colliding Alfv\\'en waves, we demonstrate that the kinetic-magnetic equipartition indeed gets broken as a result of nonlinear interaction of Alfv\\'en waves. We establish that magnetic energy is indeed generated more efficiently as a result of these interactions, which proposes an explanation for the solar wind observations.

  12. Development of thermal performance criteria for residential passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabatiuk, P.A.; Cassel, D.E.; McCabe, M.; Scarbrough, C.

    1980-01-01

    In support of the development of thermal performance criteria for residential passive solar buildings, thermal design characteristics and anticipated performance for 266 projects in the HUD Passive Residential Design Competition and the HUD Cycle 5 Demonstration Program were analyzed. These passive residences are located in all regions of the United States requiring space heating, and they represent a variety of passive solar system types including direct gain, indirect gain, and solarium (isolated gain) systems. The results of this statistical analysis are being used to develop proposed minimum acceptable levels of thermal performance for passive solar buildings for the residential performance criteria. A number of performance measures were examined, including net solar contribution, solar fraction, and auxiliary energy use. These and other design and climate-related parameters were statistically correlated using the DATAPLOT computer program and standard statistical analysis techniques.

  13. Solar Buildings Research Network A brief overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Bin

    enough solar energy over a year that exceeds by far its total energy consumption! Photovoltaic (PV) panels mounted on the roof and façade typically convert 6-18% of the sun's energy into electricity, 50 with semitransparent systems. Combined solar energy utilization efficiencies of up to about 80% can be achieved

  14. Magnetic Discontinuities in Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence and in the Solar Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vladimir Zhdankin; Stanislav Boldyrev; Joanne Mason; Jean Carlos Perez

    2012-04-19

    Recent measurements of solar wind turbulence report the presence of intermittent, exponentially distributed angular discontinuities in the magnetic field. In this Letter, we study whether such discontinuities can be produced by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. We detect the discontinuities by measuring the fluctuations of the magnetic field direction, Delta theta, across fixed spatial increments Delta x in direct numerical simulations of MHD turbulence with an imposed uniform guide field B_0. A large region of the probability density function (pdf) for Delta theta is found to follow an exponential decay, proportional to exp(-Delta theta/theta_*), with characteristic angle theta_* ~ (14 deg) (b_rms/B_0)^0.65 for a broad range of guide-field strengths. We find that discontinuities observed in the solar wind can be reproduced by MHD turbulence with reasonable ratios of b_rms/B_0. We also observe an excess of small angular discontinuities when Delta x becomes small, possibly indicating an increasing statistical significance of dissipation-scale structures. The structure of the pdf in this case closely resembles the two-population pdf seen in the solar wind. We thus propose that strong discontinuities are associated with inertial-range MHD turbulence, while weak discontinuities emerge from near-dissipation-range turbulence. In addition, we find that the structure functions of the magnetic field direction exhibit anomalous scaling exponents, which indicates the existence of intermittent structures.

  15. Scaling anisotropy of the power in parallel and perpendicular components of the solar wind magnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oughton, Sean

    Scaling anisotropy of the power in parallel and perpendicular components of the solar wind magnetic of the Power in Parallel and Perpendicular Components of the Solar Wind Magnetic Field Miriam A. Forman1 ZLWK GLVWDQFH IURP WKH 6XQ 7KLV GDWD LQFOXGHV WKH VRlar wind whose total power (Pxx + Pyy + Pzz#12; LQ

  16. Kinetic And Potential Sputtering Of Lunar Regolith: The Contribution Of The Heavy (Minority) Solar Wind Ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wind Ions F.W. Meyera1 , P.R. Harrisa2 , H.M. Meyer IIIb , H. Hijazia , A.F. Barghoutyc a Physics, Huntsville, AL 35812, USA Abstract. In this paper the sputtering of lunar regolith by protons and solar wind of JSC-1A AGGL lunar regolith simulant at solar wind velocities, and TRIM simulations of kinetic

  17. A SURVEY OF FIELD-ALIGNED MACH NUMBER AND PLASMA BETA IN THE SOLAR WIND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Sterck, Hans

    A SURVEY OF FIELD-ALIGNED MACH NUMBER AND PLASMA BETA IN THE SOLAR WIND JOHAN DE KEYSER and MICHEL Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium Abstract. We have surveyed solar wind plasma beta and field-aligned Alfvénic Mach number using Ulysses and Wind data. We show the characteristic timescale and occurrence

  18. Kolmogorov versus IroshnikovKraichnan spectra: Consequences for ion heating in the solar wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Chung-Sang

    heating in the solar wind C. S. Ng,1 A. Bhattacharjee,2 D. Munsi,2 P. A. Isenberg,2 and C. W. Smith2 wind provides a quantitative, if indirect, observational constraint on the relevant phenomenology. Recently, a solar wind heating model based on Kolmogorov spectral scaling has produced reasonably good

  19. Multiple-spacecraft study of an extended magnetic structure in the solar wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiegelmann, Thomas

    ] studied a small-scale flux rope in the solar wind, which is in close proximity to a heat flux dropoutMultiple-spacecraft study of an extended magnetic structure in the solar wind P. Ruan,1 A. Korth,1. [1] An extended magnetic structure was observed consecutively by five spacecraft (ACE, WIND, STEREO

  20. Sharp boundaries of small-and middle-scale solar wind structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, John

    Sharp boundaries of small- and middle-scale solar wind structures M. O. Riazantseva1 and G. N wind ion flux changes which are not due to shocks. These changes are boundaries of small- and middle boundaries of small- and middle-scale solar wind structures, J. Geophys. Res., 110, A12110, doi:10

  1. RAPID MEASUREMENTS OF SOLAR WIND IONS WITH THE TRIANA PLASMAG FARADAY CUP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, John

    of the solar wind all the time, data in a new energy per charge window can be taken as soon as the power supply for several instruments on various spacecraft (s/c). Instrument s/c stabilization tspec [s] Launch year WIND/SWE/FCRAPID MEASUREMENTS OF SOLAR WIND IONS WITH THE TRIANA PLASMAG FARADAY CUP MATTHIAS R. AELLIG, ALAN

  2. The Solar Wind Interaction with the Earth's Magnetosphere: A Tutorial C. T. Russell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Christopher T.

    The Solar Wind Interaction with the Earth's Magnetosphere: A Tutorial C. T. Russell Department wind dynamic pressure and the pressure exerted by the magnetosphere, principally that of its magnetic field. The shape of the magnetosphere is additionally influenced by the drag of the solar wind

  3. Value of Wind Power Forecasting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Milligan, M.; Jordan, G.; Piwko, R.

    2011-04-01

    This study, building on the extensive models developed for the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS), uses these WECC models to evaluate the operating cost impacts of improved day-ahead wind forecasts.

  4. Building and using the solar greenhouse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1983-01-01

    Thorough directions are given for planning, constructing and using a solar greenhouse attached to a house. Included is a method of calculating the savings accruing from the use of the greenhouse. (LEW)

  5. Solar-wind magnetosphere coupling, including relativistic electron energization, during high-speed streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyons, Larry

    Solar-wind­ magnetosphere coupling, including relativistic electron energization, during high. If this inference is correct, and if it is chorus that energizes the relativistic electrons, then high-speed solar-speed solar wind streams, and fluxes of relativistic electrons observed at geosynchronous orbit enhance

  6. Complementary Effect of Wind and Solar Energy Sources in a Microgrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    Complementary Effect of Wind and Solar Energy Sources in a Microgrid M. A. Barik, Student Member. Index Terms--Microgrid, renewable energy sources, reactive power mismatch, solar integration, voltage-mass energy, etc. Of them wind and solar energy is broadly used for their characteristics. This paper presents

  7. Propagation of three--dimensional Alfv'en waves in a stratified, thermally conducting solar wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Propagation of three--dimensional Alfv'en waves in a stratified, thermally conducting solar wind S to the well--known thermal expansion of the solar corona [Parker, 1958, 1963, 1991]. In particular Alfv'en waves in the solar atmosphere and wind, taking into account relevant physical effects

  8. THE GENESIS SOLAR-WIND COLLECTOR MATERIALS A. J. G. Jurewicz1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE GENESIS SOLAR-WIND COLLECTOR MATERIALS A. J. G. Jurewicz1 , D. S. Burnett2 , R. C. Wiens3 , T. #12;THE GENESIS SOLAR-WIND COLLECTOR MATERIALS Abstract. Genesis (NASA Discovery Mission #5) is a sample return mission. Collectors comprised of ultra-high purity materials will be exposed to the solar

  9. EPRI conference proceedings: solar and wind power - 1982 status and outlook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeMeo, E.A.

    1983-02-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 18 papers in this proceedings. Not separately abstracted are speeches and presentations covering: past progress and future directions in solar and wind power research and development, new directions in Federal solar electric programs, Solar Energy Research Institute status and outlook, ARCO Solar Industries' involvement in the production of potential solar electric technologies, wind power status and outlook, utility requirements, roles and rewards, and a panel discussion on solar and wind power status and outlook as viewed from industrial, utility, financial, and government perspectives. (LEW)

  10. Radio Remote Sensing of the Corona and the Solar Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steven R. Spangler; Catherine A. Whiting

    2008-09-26

    Modern radio telescopes are extremely sensitive to plasma on the line of sight from a radio source to the antenna. Plasmas in the corona and solar wind produce measurable changes in the radio wave amplitude and phase, and the phase difference between wave fields of opposite circular polarization. Such measurements can be made of radio waves from spacecraft transmitters and extragalactic radio sources, using radio telescopes and spacecraft tracking antennas. Data have been taken at frequencies from about 80 MHz to 8000 MHz. Lower frequencies probe plasma at greater heliocentric distances. Analysis of these data yields information on the plasma density, density fluctuations, and plasma flow speeds in the corona and solar wind, and on the magnetic field in the solar corona. This paper will concentrate on the information that can be obtained from measurements of Faraday rotation through the corona and inner solar wind. The magnitude of Faraday rotation is proportional to the line of sight integral of the plasma density and the line-of-sight component of the magnetic field. Faraday rotation provides an almost unique means of estimating the magnetic field in this part of space. This technique has contributed to measurement of the large scale coronal magnetic field, the properties of electromagnetic turbulence in the corona, possible detection of electrical currents in the corona, and probing of the internal structure of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). This paper concentrates on the search for small-scale coronal turbulence and remote sensing of the structure of CMEs. Future investigations with the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) or Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) could provide unique observational input on the astrophysics of CMEs.

  11. Depth profiling analysis of solar wind helium collected in diamond-like carbon film from Genesis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bajo, Ken-ichi; Olinger, Chad T.; Jurewicz, Amy J.G.; Burnett, Donald S.; Sakaguchi, Isao; Suzuki, Taku; Itose, Satoru; Ishihara, Morio; Uchino, Kiichiro; Wieler, Rainer; et al

    2015-10-01

    The distribution of solar-wind ions in Genesis mission collectors, as determined by depth profiling analysis, constrains the physics of ion solid interactions involving the solar wind. Thus, they provide an experimental basis for revealing ancient solar activities represented by solar-wind implants in natural samples. We measured the first depth profile of ?He in a collector; the shallow implantation (peaking at more »is consistent with TRIM simulations using the observed ?He velocity distribution during the Genesis mission. It is therefore likely that all solar-wind elements heavier than H are completely intact in this Genesis collector and, consequently, the solar particle energy distributions for each element can be calculated from their depth profiles. Ancient solar activities and space weathering of solar system objects could be quantitatively reproduced by solar particle implantation profiles.« less

  12. Wind Tunnel Tests of Parabolic Trough Solar Collectors: March 2001--August 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosoya, N.; Peterka, J. A.; Gee, R. C.; Kearney, D.

    2008-05-01

    Conducted extensive wind-tunnel tests on parabolic trough solar collectors to determine practical wind loads applicable to structural design for stress and deformation, and local component design for concentrator reflectors.

  13. Using Solar Business Models to Expand the Distributed Wind Market (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savage, S.

    2013-05-01

    This presentation to attendees at Wind Powering America's All-States Summit in Chicago describes business models that were responsible for rapid growth in the solar industry and that may be applicable to the distributed wind industry as well.

  14. Investigating the Correlation Between Wind and Solar Power Forecast Errors in the Western Interconnection: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, J.; Hodge, B. M.; Florita, A.

    2013-05-01

    Wind and solar power generations differ from conventional energy generation because of the variable and uncertain nature of their power output. This variability and uncertainty can have significant impacts on grid operations. Thus, short-term forecasting of wind and solar generation is uniquely helpful for power system operations to balance supply and demand in an electricity system. This paper investigates the correlation between wind and solar power forecasting errors.

  15. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers Webinar on Building Design & Passive Solar Transcript

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video recording transcript of a Webinar on Nov. 16, 2010 about residential passive solar building design and solar thermal heating applications

  16. Operation of Concentrating Solar Power Plants in the Western Wind and Solar Integration Phase 2 Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Brinkman, G.; Lew, D.; Hummon, M.

    2014-05-01

    The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) explores various aspects of the challenges and impacts of integrating large amounts of wind and solar energy into the electric power system of the West. The phase 2 study (WWSIS-2) is one of the first to include dispatchable concentrating solar power (CSP) with thermal energy storage (TES) in multiple scenarios of renewable penetration and mix. As a result, it provides unique insights into CSP plant operation, grid benefits, and how CSP operation and configuration may need to change under scenarios of increased renewable penetration. Examination of the WWSIS-2 results indicates that in all scenarios, CSP plants with TES provides firm system capacity, reducing the net demand and the need for conventional thermal capacity. The plants also reduced demand during periods of short-duration, high ramping requirements that often require use of lower efficiency peaking units. Changes in CSP operation are driven largely by the presence of other solar generation, particularly PV. Use of storage by the CSP plants increases in the higher solar scenarios, with operation of the plant often shifted to later in the day. CSP operation also becomes more variable, including more frequent starts. Finally, CSP output is often very low during the day in scenarios with significant PV, which helps decrease overall renewable curtailment (over-generation). However, the configuration studied is likely not optimal for High Solar Scenario implying further analysis of CSP plant configuration is needed to understand its role in enabling high renewable scenarios in the Western United States.

  17. Reconstruction of Helio-latitudinal Structure of the Solar Wind Proton Speed and Density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sokó?, Justyna M; Bzowski, Maciej; Tokumaru, Munetoshi

    2015-01-01

    The modeling of the heliosphere requires continuous three-dimensional solar wind data. The in-situ out-of-ecliptic measurements are very rare, so that other methods of solar wind detection are needed. We use the remote sensing data of the solar wind speed from observations of interplanetary scintillation (IPS) to reconstruct spatial and temporal structures of the solar wind proton speed from 1985 to 2013. We developed a method of filling the data gaps in the IPS observations to obtain continuous and homogeneous solar wind speed records. We also present a method to retrieve the solar wind density from the solar wind speed, utilizing the invariance of the solar wind dynamic pressure and energy flux with latitude. To construct the synoptic maps of solar wind speed we use the decomposition into spherical harmonics of each of the Carrington rotation map. To fill the gaps in time we apply the singular spectrum analysis to the time series of the coefficients of spherical harmonics. We obtained helio-latitudinal prof...

  18. The solar wind interaction with Mars: Recent progress and future directions The Sun has a powerful influence on planetary atmospheres.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Editorial The solar wind interaction with Mars: Recent progress and future directions The Sun has field, because the solar wind can interact directly with the upper atmo- sphere. Neutral particles in the upper atmosphere are ionized by solar photons and through interactions with solar wind charged particles

  19. A study of density modulation index in the inner heliospheric solar wind during solar cycle 23

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bisoi, Susanta Kumar; Janardhan, P.; Ingale, M.; Subramanian, P.; Ananthakrishnan, S.; Tokumaru, M.; Fujiki, K. E-mail: jerry@prl.res.in E-mail: p.subramanian@iiserpune.ac.in E-mail: tokumaru@stelab.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2014-11-01

    The ratio of the rms electron density fluctuations to the background density in the solar wind (density modulation index, ? {sub N} ? ?N/N) is of vital importance for understanding several problems in heliospheric physics related to solar wind turbulence. In this paper, we have investigated the behavior of ? {sub N} in the inner heliosphere from 0.26 to 0.82 AU. The density fluctuations ?N have been deduced using extensive ground-based observations of interplanetary scintillation at 327 MHz, which probe spatial scales of a few hundred kilometers. The background densities (N) have been derived using near-Earth observations from the Advanced Composition Explorer. Our analysis reveals that 0.001 ? ? {sub N} ? 0.02 and does not vary appreciably with heliocentric distance. We also find that ? {sub N} declines by 8% from 1998 to 2008. We discuss the impact of these findings on problems ranging from our understanding of Forbush decreases to the behavior of the solar wind dynamic pressure over the recent peculiar solar minimum at the end of cycle 23.

  20. Solar/Wind Permitting Standards | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-Enhancing Capacity forSilicium deEnergyCompany LimitedSolar/Wind Permitting Standards

  1. Power House Solar and Wind | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to:Newberg,Energy LLC JumpPhonoSolar and Wind Jump to: navigation, search

  2. Global Atlas for Solar and Wind Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA Jump to:ofEniaElectric JumpAtlas for Solar and Wind Energy Jump to:

  3. Low-Resolution STELab IPS 3D Reconstructions of the Whole Heliosphere Interval and Comparison with in-Ecliptic Solar Wind Measurements from STEREO and Wind Instrumentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bisi, M. M.; Jackson, B. V.; Buffington, A.; Clover, J. M.; Hick, P. P.; Tokumaru, M.

    2009-01-01

    structure of the fast solar wind. J. Geophys. Res. 112,observations of the solar wind. Proc. SPIE 6689, 668911-1.W.A. , Maagoe, S. : 1972, Solar wind velocity from ips

  4. SCALE DEPENDENCE OF MAGNETIC HELICITY IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenburg, Axel; Subramanian, Kandaswamy; Balogh, Andre; Goldstein, Melvyn L. E-mail: kandu@iucaa.ernet.in E-mail: melvyn.l.goldstein@nasa.gov

    2011-06-10

    We determine the magnetic helicity, along with the magnetic energy, at high latitudes using data from the Ulysses mission. The data set spans the time period from 1993 to 1996. The basic assumption of the analysis is that the solar wind is homogeneous. Because the solar wind speed is high, we follow the approach first pioneered by Matthaeus et al. by which, under the assumption of spatial homogeneity, one can use Fourier transforms of the magnetic field time series to construct one-dimensional spectra of the magnetic energy and magnetic helicity under the assumption that the Taylor frozen-in-flow hypothesis is valid. That is a well-satisfied assumption for the data used in this study. The magnetic helicity derives from the skew-symmetric terms of the three-dimensional magnetic correlation tensor, while the symmetric terms of the tensor are used to determine the magnetic energy spectrum. Our results show a sign change of magnetic helicity at wavenumber k {approx} 2 AU{sup -1} (or frequency {nu} {approx} 2 {mu}Hz) at distances below 2.8 AU and at k {approx} 30 AU{sup -1} (or {nu} {approx} 25 {mu}Hz) at larger distances. At small scales the magnetic helicity is positive at northern heliographic latitudes and negative at southern latitudes. The positive magnetic helicity at small scales is argued to be the result of turbulent diffusion reversing the sign relative to what is seen at small scales at the solar surface. Furthermore, the magnetic helicity declines toward solar minimum in 1996. The magnetic helicity flux integrated separately over one hemisphere amounts to about 10{sup 45} Mx{sup 2} cycle{sup -1} at large scales and to a three times lower value at smaller scales.

  5. Resolving the enigmatic solar wind disappearance event of 11 May 1999

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Padmanabhan, Janardhan

    ), potential field computations of the solar magnetic fields in the period, and HeI 10830A° observations with global, large-scale solar phenomena like the periodic 11-year solar polar field reversal is most likelyResolving the enigmatic solar wind disappearance event of 11 May 1999 P. Janardhan Astronomy

  6. Procuring and Implementing Solar Projects on Public Buildings: How to Avoid Common Pitfalls (Text Version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Transcript of the webinar, "Procuring and Implementing Solar Projects on Public Buildings: How to Avoid Common Pitfalls."

  7. Convective heat transfer inside passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, R.W.; Balcomb, J.D.; Yamaguchi, K.

    1983-11-01

    Natural convection between spaces in a building which play a major role in energy transfer are discussed. Two situations are investigated: Convection through a single doorway into a remote room, and a convective loop in a two story house with a south sunspace where a north stairway serves as the return path. A doorway sizing equation is given for the single door case. Data from airflow monitoring in one two-story house and summary data for five others are presented. The nature of the airflow and design guidelines are presented.

  8. Convective heat transfer inside passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, R.W.; Balcomb, J.D.; Yamaguchi, K.

    1983-01-01

    Natural convection between spaces in a building can play a major role in energy transfer. Two situations are investigated: convection through a single doorway into a remote room, and a convective loop in a two-story house with a south sunspace where a north stairway serves as the return path. A doorway-sizing equation is given for the single-door case. Detailed data are given from the monitoring of airflow in one two-story house and summary data are given for five others. Observations on the nature of the airflow and design guidelines are presented.

  9. Temporal Evolution of the Solar-Wind Electron Core Density at Solar Minimum by Correlating SWEA Measurements from STEREO A and B

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    IMPACT instrument suite, the SWEA electron exper- iment provides the solar-windIMPACT) investigation (Luh- mann et al. , 2008) on the STEREO mission provides multipoint solar-wind

  10. ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS PROGRAM Chapter from the Energy and Environment Division Annual Report 1980

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2014-01-01

    for Conservation and Solar Energy, Office of Build- ings andsolar, and wind options for a given house, These algorithms include recent advances in build-

  11. Small Scale Energy Cascade of the Solar Wind Turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Alexandrova; V. Carbone; P. Veltri; L. Sorriso-Valvo

    2007-10-03

    Magnetic fluctuations in the solar wind are distributed according to Kolmogorov's power law $f^{-5/3}$ below the ion cyclotron frequency $f_{ci}$. Above this frequency, the observed steeper power law is usually interpreted in two different ways: a dissipative range of the solar wind turbulence or another turbulent cascade, the nature of which is still an open question. Using the Cluster magnetic data we show that after the spectral break the intermittency increases toward higher frequencies, indicating the presence of non-linear interactions inherent to a new inertial range and not to the dissipative range. At the same time the level of compressible fluctuations raises. We show that the energy transfer rate and intermittency are sensitive to the level of compressibility of the magnetic fluctuations within the small scale inertial range. We conjecture that the time needed to establish this inertial range is shorter than the eddy-turnover time, and is related to dispersive effects. A simple phenomenological model, based on the compressible Hall MHD, predicts the magnetic spectrum $\\sim k^{-7/3+2\\alpha}$, which depends on the degree of plasma compression $\\alpha$.

  12. The Solar Wind Charge-Exchange Production Factor for Hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuntz, K D; Collier, M R; Connor, H K; Cravens, T E; Koutroumpa, D; Porter, F S; Robertson, I P; Sibeck, D G; Snowden, S L; Thomas, N E; Wash, B M

    2015-01-01

    The production factor, or broad band averaged cross-section, for solar wind charge-exchange with hydrogen producing emission in the ROSAT 1/4 keV (R12) band is $3.8\\pm0.2\\times10^{-20}$ count degree$^{-2}$ cm$^4$. This value is derived from a comparison of the Long-Term (background) Enhancements in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey with magnetohysdrodynamic simulations of the magnetosheath. This value is 1.8 to 4.5 times higher than values derived from limited atomic data, suggesting that those values may be missing a large number of faint lines. This production factor is important for deriving the exact amount of 1/4 keV band flux that is due to the Local Hot Bubble, for planning future observations in the 1/4 keV band, and for evaluating proposals for remote sensing of the magnetosheath. The same method cannot be applied to the 3/4 keV band as that band, being composed primarily of the oxygen lines, is far more sensitive to the detailed abundances and ionization balance in the solar wind. We also show, incidentally,...

  13. Solar energy and multi-storey residential buildings Larry Hughes and Tylor Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Larry

    ERG/200702 Solar energy and multi-storey residential buildings Larry Hughes and Tylor Wood Energy.hughes@dal.ca 26 March 2007 #12;Hughes and Wood: Solar energy and multi-storey residential buildings 1 Summary This report considers the limitations on solar energy in new, multi-storey residential buildings. In a time

  14. Integrating High Penetrations of Solar in the Western United States: Results of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Lew, D.

    2013-10-01

    This poster presents a summary of the results of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2.

  15. Suprathermal particle addition to solar wind pressure: possible influence on magnetospheric transmissivity of low energy cosmic rays?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bobik, P; Consolandi, C; Della Torre, S; Gervasi, M; Grandi, D; Kudela, K; La Vacca, G; Mallamaci, M; Pensotti, S; Rancoita, P G; Rozza, D; Tacconi, M

    2013-01-01

    Energetic (suprathermal) solar particles, accelerated in the interplanetary medium, contribute to the solar wind pressure, in particular during high solar activity periods. We estimated the effect of the increase of solar wind pressure due to suprathermal particles on magnetospheric transmissivity of galactic cosmic rays in the case of one recent solar event.

  16. Use of Renewable Energy in Buildings: Experiences With Solar Thermal Utilization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, R.; Zhai, X.

    2006-01-01

    collectors on the south tilted roofs, south walls, balconies or awnings. Experiences on solar thermal utilization are mainly introduced in this paper, which include solar hot water systems with different design methods in residential buildings and solar...

  17. NATURAL CONVECTION IN PASSIVE SOLAR BUILDINGS: EXPERIMENTS, ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gadgil, A.; Bauman, F.; Kammerud, R.

    1981-04-01

    Computer programs have been developed to numerically simulate natural convection in two- and three-dimensional room geometries. The programs have been validated using published data from the literature, results from a full-scale experiment performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and results from a small-scale experiment performed at LBL. One of the computer programs has been used to study the influence of natural convection on the thermal performance of a single zone in a direct-gain passive solar building. It is found that the convective heat transfer coefficients between the air and the enclosure surfaces can be substantially different from the values assumed in the standard building energy analysis methods, and can exhibit significant variations across a given surface. This study implies that the building heating loads calculated by standard building energy analysis methods may have substantial errors as a result of their use of common assumptions regarding the convection processes which occur in an enclosure.

  18. The solar wind neon abundance observed with ACE/SWICS and ULYSSES/SWICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shearer, Paul; Raines, Jim M.; Lepri, Susan T.; Thomas, Jonathan W.; Gilbert, Jason A.; Landi, Enrico; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Von Steiger, Rudolf

    2014-07-01

    Using in situ ion spectrometry data from ACE/SWICS, we determine the solar wind Ne/O elemental abundance ratio and examine its dependence on wind speed and evolution with the solar cycle. We find that Ne/O is inversely correlated with wind speed, is nearly constant in the fast wind, and correlates strongly with solar activity in the slow wind. In fast wind streams with speeds above 600 km s{sup –1}, we find Ne/O = 0.10 ± 0.02, in good agreement with the extensive polar observations by Ulysses/SWICS. In slow wind streams with speeds below 400 km s{sup –1}, Ne/O ranges from a low of 0.12 ± 0.02 at solar maximum to a high of 0.17 ± 0.03 at solar minimum. These measurements place new and significant empirical constraints on the fractionation mechanisms governing solar wind composition and have implications for the coronal and photospheric abundances of neon and oxygen. The results are made possible by a new data analysis method that robustly identifies rare elements in the measured ion spectra. The method is also applied to Ulysses/SWICS data, which confirms the ACE observations and extends our view of solar wind neon into the three-dimensional heliosphere.

  19. Energetic plasma sheet electrons and their relationship with the solar wind: A Cluster and Geotail study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xinlin

    Energetic plasma sheet electrons and their relationship with the solar wind: A Cluster and Geotail February 2009. [1] The statistical relationship between tens of kiloelectron volts plasma sheet electrons and the solar wind, as well as >2 MeV geosynchronous electrons, is investigated using plasma sheet measurements

  20. Modeling the radiation belt electrons with radial diffusion driven by the solar wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xinlin

    Modeling the radiation belt electrons with radial diffusion driven by the solar wind A. B. Barker1 October 2005. [1] On the basis of the correlation between the solar wind and radiation belt electron fluxes, we develop a model to simulate the MeV electron phase space density variations from L = 3 to L

  1. Proton aurora dynamics in response to the IMF and solar wind variations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Proton aurora dynamics in response to the IMF and solar wind variations S.-W. Chang,1,2 S. B. Mende; accepted 24 April 2002; published 13 July 2002. [1] On May 23, 2000, proton auroras observed by IMAGE FUV wind parameters. A proton aurora brightened at high latitude poleward from the dayside oval after solar

  2. Magnetic fluctuation power near proton temperature anisotropy instability thresholds in the solar wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Magnetic fluctuation power near proton temperature anisotropy instability thresholds in the solar wind S. D. Bale, J. C. Kasper, G. G. Howes, E. Quataert,§ C. Salem,¶ and D. Sundkvist¶ (Dated: August 10, 2009) The proton temperature anisotropy in the solar wind is known to be constrained by the theo

  3. A Two-component Transport Model for Solar Wind Fluctuations: Waves plus Quasi-2D Turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oughton, Sean

    component. Thus, it would seem appropriate, and advantageous, to develop an energy-containing style modelA Two-component Transport Model for Solar Wind Fluctuations: Waves plus Quasi-2D Turbulence Sean for the transport of solar wind fluctuations, based on the assumption that they can be well-represented using two

  4. Heavy noble gases in solar wind delivered by Genesis mission Alex Meshik a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    knowledge of the isotopic composition of the heavy noble gases in solar wind and, by inference, the Sun measured in the Genesis solar wind collectors generally agree with the less precise values obtained from), captured by Genesis Mission collectors (http://genesismis- sion.jpl.nasa.gov/; Burnett et al., 2003

  5. New Report: Integrating More Wind and Solar Reduces Utilities' Carbon Emissions and Fuel Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) released Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2), a follow-up to the initial WWSIS released in May 2010, which examined the viability, benefits, and challenges of integrating as much as 33% wind and solar power into the electricity grid of the western United States.

  6. innovati nNREL Confirms Large Potential for Grid Integration of Wind, Solar Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    innovati nNREL Confirms Large Potential for Grid Integration of Wind, Solar Power To fully harvest, examining the east and west sections of the U.S. power grid. The studies show that it is technically the nation's bountiful wind and solar resources, it is critical to know how much electrical power from

  7. Impact of the solar wind dynamic pressure on the Region 2 field-aligned currents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Higuchi, Tomoyuki

    Impact of the solar wind dynamic pressure on the Region 2 field-aligned currents S. Nakano,1,2 G and the solar wind dynamic pressure is investigated using magnetic field data from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-F13 (DMSP-F13). The generation of the Region 2 currents is associated with the direction

  8. Regulation of Solar WindMagnetosphere Coupling by Ionospheric Outflows William Lotko, PI for Dartmouth College

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lotko, William

    potential are also reduced, as is the flux of outflowing ionospheric ions, access of solar wind plasmaRegulation of Solar Wind­Magnetosphere Coupling by Ionospheric Outflows William Lotko, PI blunted as shown in the figure 2, which compares proton densities at 1634 UT in global simulations

  9. An empirical model of magnetospheric chorus amplitude using solar wind and geomagnetic indices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    potential global models of magnetospheric chorus amplitude: one which uses only instantaneous AE* and Kp, for the first time, the global evolution of chorus amplitude as a function of solar wind and geomagnetic drivingAn empirical model of magnetospheric chorus amplitude using solar wind and geomagnetic indices D. I

  10. A new view on the solar wind interaction with the Moon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Alok, Abhinaw; Barabash, Stas; Wieser, Martin; Futaana, Yoshifumi; Wurz, Peter; Vorburger, Audrey; Holmström, Mats; Lue, Charles; Harada, Yuki; Asamura, Kazushi

    2015-01-01

    Characterised by a surface bound exosphere and localised crustal magnetic fields, the Moon was considered as a passive object when solar wind interacts with it. However, the neutral particle and plasma measurements around the Moon by recent dedicated lunar missions, such as Chandrayaan-1, Kaguya, Chang'E-1, LRO, and ARTEMIS, as well as IBEX have revealed a variety of phenomena around the Moon which results from the interaction with solar wind, such as backscattering of solar wind protons as energetic neutral atoms (ENA) from lunar surface, sputtering of atoms from the lunar surface, formation of a "mini-magnetosphere" around lunar magnetic anomaly regions, as well as several plasma populations around the Moon, including solar wind protons scattered from the lunar surface, from the magnetic anomalies, pick-up ions, protons in lunar wake and more. This paper provides a review of these recent findings and presents the interaction of solar wind with the Moon in a new perspective.

  11. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 (Executive Summary)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, Debra; Brinkman, Greg

    2013-09-01

    The electric grid is a highly complex, interconnected machine, and changing one part of the grid can have consequences elsewhere. Adding wind and solar affects the operation of the other power plants and adding high penetrations can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) evaluated these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This built on Phase 1, one of the largest wind and solar integration studies ever conducted, which examined operational impacts of high wind and solar penetrations in the West(GE Energy 2010).

  12. Mars as a comet: Solar wind interaction on a large scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holmstrom, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Looking at the Mars-solar wind interaction on a larger spatial scale than the near Mars region, the planet can be seen as an ion source interacting with the solar wind, in many ways like a comet, but with a smaller ion source region. Here we study the interaction between Mars and the solar wind using a hybrid model (particle ions and fluid electrons). We find that the solar wind is disturbed by Mars out to 100 Mars radii downstream of the planet, and beyond. On this large scale it is clear that the escaping ions can be classified into two different populations. A polar plume of ions picked-up by the solar wind, and a more fluid outflow of ions behind the planet. The outflow increases linear with the production up to levels of observed outflow rates, then the escape levels off for higher production rates.

  13. MUNI Ways and Structures Building Integrated Solar Membrane Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Randall

    2014-07-03

    The initial goal of the MUNI Ways and Structures Building Integrated Solar Membrane Installation Project was for the City and County of San Francisco (CCSF) to gain experience using the integrated higher efficiency solar photovoltaic (PV) single-ply membrane product, as it differs from the conventional, low efficiency, thin-film PV products, to determine the feasibility of success of larger deployment. As several of CCSF’s municipal rooftops are constrained with respect to weight restrictions, staff of the Energy Generation Group of the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) proposed to install a solar PV system using single-ply membrane The installation of the 100 kW (DC-STC) lightweight photo voltaic (PV) system at the MUNI Ways and Structures Center (700 Pennsylvania Ave., San Francisco) is a continuation of the commitment of the City and County of San Francisco (CCSF) to increase the pace of municipal solar development, and serve its municipal facilities with clean renewable energy. The fourteen (14) solar photovoltaic systems that have already been installed at CCSF municipal facilities are assisting in the reduction of fossil-fuel use, and reduction of greenhouse gases from fossil combustion. The MUNI Ways & Structures Center roof has a relatively low weight-bearing capacity (3.25 pounds per square foot) and use of traditional crystalline panels was therefore rejected. Consequently it was decided to use the best available highest efficiency Building-Integrated PV (BIPV) technology, with consideration for reliability and experience of the manufacturer which can meet the low weight-bearing capacity criteria. The original goal of the project was to provide an opportunity to monitor the results of the BIPV technology and compare these results to other City and County of San Francisco installed PV systems. The MUNI Ways and Structures Center was acquired from the Cookson Doors Company, which had run the Center for many decades. The building was renovated in 1998, but the existing roof had not been designed to carry a large load. Due to this fact, a complete roofing and structural analysis had to be performed to match the available roof loading to the existing and/or new solar PV technology, and BIPV was considered an excellent solution for this structure with the roof weight limitations. The solar BIPV system on the large roof area was estimated to provide about 25% of the total facility load with an average of 52,560 kWh per month. In order to accomplish the goals of the project, the following steps were performed: 1. SFPUC and consultants evaluated the structural capability of the facility roof, with recommendations for improvements necessary to accommodate the solar PV system and determine the suitable size of the system in kilowatts. The electrical room and switchgear were evaluated for any improvements necessary and to identify any constraints that might impede the installation of necessary inverters, transformers or meters. 2. Development of a design-build Request for Proposal (RFP) to identify the specifications for the solar PV system, and to include SFPUC technical specifications, equipment warranties and performance warranties. Due to potential labor issues in the local solar industry, SFPUC adjusted the terms of the RFP to more clearly define scope of work between electricians, roofers and laborers. 3. Design phase of project included electrical design drawings, calculations and other construction documents to support three submittals: 50% (preliminary design), 90% (detailed design) and 100% (Department of Building Inspection permit approved). 4. Installation of solar photovoltaic panels, completion of conduit and wiring work, connection of inverters, isolation switches, meters and Data Acquisition System by Contractor (Department of Public Works). 5. Commissioning of system, including all necessary tests to make the PV system fully functional and operational at its rated capacity of 100 kW (DC-STC). Following completion of these steps, the solar PV system was installed and fully integrated by la

  14. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 0, NO. 0, PAGES 00, M 0, 2000 Three spacecraft observations of solar wind discontinuities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horbury, Tim

    of solar wind discontinuities Timothy S. Horbury, 1 David Burgess, and Markus FrË?anz Astronomy Unit, Queen

  15. Three-fluid, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic solar wind model with eddy viscosity and turbulent resistivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Usmanov, Arcadi V.; Matthaeus, William H.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.

    2014-06-10

    We have developed a three-fluid, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic solar wind model that incorporates turbulence transport, eddy viscosity, turbulent resistivity, and turbulent heating. The solar wind plasma is described as a system of co-moving solar wind protons, electrons, and interstellar pickup protons, with separate energy equations for each species. Numerical steady-state solutions of Reynolds-averaged solar wind equations coupled with turbulence transport equations for turbulence energy, cross helicity, and correlation length are obtained by the time relaxation method in the corotating with the Sun frame of reference in the region from 0.3 to 100 AU (but still inside the termination shock). The model equations include the effects of electron heat conduction, Coulomb collisions, photoionization of interstellar hydrogen atoms and their charge exchange with the solar wind protons, turbulence energy generation by pickup protons, and turbulent heating of solar wind protons and electrons. The turbulence transport model is based on the Reynolds decomposition and turbulence phenomenologies that describe the conversion of fluctuation energy into heat due to a turbulent cascade. In addition to using separate energy equations for the solar wind protons and electrons, a significant improvement over our previous work is that the turbulence model now uses an eddy viscosity approximation for the Reynolds stress tensor and the mean turbulent electric field. The approximation allows the turbulence model to account for driving of turbulence by large-scale velocity gradients. Using either a dipole approximation for the solar magnetic field or synoptic solar magnetograms from the Wilcox Solar Observatory for assigning boundary conditions at the coronal base, we apply the model to study the global structure of the solar wind and its three-dimensional properties, including embedded turbulence, heating, and acceleration throughout the heliosphere. The model results are compared with plasma and magnetic field observations on WIND, Ulysses, and Voyager 2 spacecraft.

  16. Could Building Energy Codes Mandate Rooftop Solar in the Future?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, Heather E.; Antonopoulos, Chrissi A.; Solana, Amy E.; Russo, Bryan J.; Williams, Jeremiah

    2012-08-01

    This paper explores existing requirements and compliance options for both commercial and residential code structures. Common alternative compliance options are discussed including Renewable Energy Credits (RECs), green-power purchasing programs, shared solar programs and other community-based renewable energy investments. Compliance options are analyzed to consider building lifespan, cost-effectiveness, energy trade-offs, enforcement concerns and future code development. Existing onsite renewable energy codes are highlighted as case studies for the code development process.

  17. Solar Decathlon 2013: Building Skills for Future Careers | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo.Hydrogen4Energy Smooth BromeBuildings |Solar

  18. Wind Power Today: Building a New Energy Future, Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program 2009 (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    Wind Power Today is an annual publication that provides an overview of the wind energy research conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program.

  19. Radial gradients of phase space density of the outer radiation belt electrons prior to sudden solar wind pressure enhancements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xinlin

    PSD radial gradient at and beyond GEO prior to a sudden solar wind pressure impact based on the fact by a sudden solar wind pressure enhancement, dayside trapped electrons are transported radially inwards), Radial gradients of phase space density of the outer radiation belt electrons prior to sudden solar wind

  20. Sputtering of lunar regolith simulant by protons and singly and multicharged Ar ions at solar wind energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sputtering of lunar regolith simulant by protons and singly and multicharged Ar ions at solar wind 2010 Keywords: Solar wind Sputtering Lunar regolith Ion-surface interactions a b s t r a c t We report charged solar wind ions using quadrupole and time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry approaches. Sputtering

  1. Solar-wind protons and heavy ions sputtering of lunar surface materials A.F. Barghouty a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar-wind protons and heavy ions sputtering of lunar surface materials A.F. Barghouty a, , F Available online 21 December 2010 Keywords: Solar wind sputtering Lunar regolith KREEP soil Potential a c t Lunar surface materials are exposed to $1 keV/amu solar-wind protons and heavy ions on almost

  2. Four-Field Equations: a New Model for Weakly Compressible MHD Turbulence in the Solar Wind and the Interstellar Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Chung-Sang

    Four-Field Equations: a New Model for Weakly Compressible MHD Turbulence in the Solar Wind Flight Center Turbulent plasmas in the solar wind and the interstellar medium of- ten contain a large to be in agreement. The scaling of density uctuations with Mach number are compared with solar wind data from Helios

  3. Solar wind plasma correlations between L1 and Earth J. D. Richardson, F. Dashevskiy, and K. I. Paularena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, John

    1 Solar wind plasma correlations between L1 and Earth J. D. Richardson, F. Dashevskiy, and K. I. Paularena Center for Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Abstract. Solar wind correlation coefficients are calculated as a function of lag. The average correlations of solar wind speed

  4. Solar wind structure in the outer heliosphere J.D. Richardson a,b,*, Y. Liu a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Solar wind structure in the outer heliosphere J.D. Richardson a,b,*, Y. Liu a , C. Wang b a Kavli form 8 February 2007; accepted 27 March 2007 Abstract A solar wind parcel evolves as it moves outward, interacting with the solar wind plasma ahead of and behind it and with the inter- stellar neutrals

  5. Discrepancies in the prediction of solar wind using potential field source surface model: An investigation of possible sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Discrepancies in the prediction of solar wind using potential field source surface model expansion factor (FTE) at the source surface and the solar wind speed (SWS) observed at Earth, which has been made use of in the prediction of solar wind speed near the Earth with reasonable accuracy. However

  6. Loss of solar wind plasma neutrality and affect on surface potentials near the lunar terminator and shadowed polar regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Loss of solar wind plasma neutrality and affect on surface potentials near the lunar terminator (2008), Loss of solar wind plasma neutrality and affect on surface potentials near the lunar terminator observations confirm a consistent solar wind-to-wake potential difference of many hundreds of volts (negative

  7. RECONNECTION OUTFLOW GENERATED TURBULENCE IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vörös, Z.; Sasunov, Y. L.; Zaqarashvili, T. V.; Khodachenko, M.; Semenov, V. S.; Bruno, R.

    2014-12-10

    Petschek-type time-dependent reconnection (TDR) and quasi-stationary reconnection (QSR) models are considered to understand reconnection outflow structures and the generation of local turbulence in the solar wind. Comparing TDR/QSR model predictions of the outflow structures with actual measurements shows that both models can explain the data equally well. It is demonstrated that the outflows can often generate more or less spatially extended turbulent boundary layers. The structure of a unique extended reconnection outflow is investigated in detail. The analysis of spectral scalings and spectral break locations shows that reconnection can change the local field and plasma conditions which may support different local turbulent dissipation mechanisms at their characteristic wavenumbers.

  8. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Kumar, N.; Lefton, S.; Jordan, G.; Venkataraman, S.; King, J.

    2013-06-01

    This presentation accompanies Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study, a follow-on to Phase 1, which examined the operational impacts of high penetrations of variable renewable generation on the electric power system in the West and was one of the largest variable generation studies to date. High penetrations of variable generation can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 calculated these costs and emissions, and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of variable generation on the fossil-fueled fleet. The presentation highlights the scope of the study and results.

  9. Particle acceleration via reconnection processes in the supersonic solar wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zank, G. P.; Le Roux, J. A.; Webb, G. M.; Dosch, A.; Khabarova, O.

    2014-12-10

    An emerging paradigm for the dissipation of magnetic turbulence in the supersonic solar wind is via localized small-scale reconnection processes, essentially between quasi-2D interacting magnetic islands. Charged particles trapped in merging magnetic islands can be accelerated by the electric field generated by magnetic island merging and the contraction of magnetic islands. We derive a gyrophase-averaged transport equation for particles experiencing pitch-angle scattering and energization in a super-Alfvénic flowing plasma experiencing multiple small-scale reconnection events. A simpler advection-diffusion transport equation for a nearly isotropic particle distribution is derived. The dominant charged particle energization processes are (1) the electric field induced by quasi-2D magnetic island merging and (2) magnetic island contraction. The magnetic island topology ensures that charged particles are trapped in regions where they experience repeated interactions with the induced electric field or contracting magnetic islands. Steady-state solutions of the isotropic transport equation with only the induced electric field and a fixed source yield a power-law spectrum for the accelerated particles with index ? = –(3 + M{sub A} )/2, where M{sub A} is the Alfvén Mach number. Considering only magnetic island contraction yields power-law-like solutions with index –3(1 + ? {sub c}/(8?{sub diff})), where ? {sub c}/?{sub diff} is the ratio of timescales between magnetic island contraction and charged particle diffusion. The general solution is a power-law-like solution with an index that depends on the Alfvén Mach number and the timescale ratio ?{sub diff}/? {sub c}. Observed power-law distributions of energetic particles observed in the quiet supersonic solar wind at 1 AU may be a consequence of particle acceleration associated with dissipative small-scale reconnection processes in a turbulent plasma, including the widely reported c {sup –5} (c particle speed) spectra observed by Fisk and Gloeckler and Mewaldt et al.

  10. CHARGE STATE EVOLUTION IN THE SOLAR WIND. II. PLASMA CHARGE STATE COMPOSITION IN THE INNER CORONA AND ACCELERATING FAST SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landi, E.; Gruesbeck, J. R.; Lepri, S. T.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Fisk, L. A. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2012-12-10

    In the present work, we calculate the evolution of the charge state distribution within the fast solar wind. We use the temperature, density, and velocity profiles predicted by Cranmer et al. to calculate the ionization history of the most important heavy elements in the solar corona and solar wind: C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe. The evolution of each charge state is calculated from the source region in the lower chromosphere to the final freeze-in point. We show that the solar wind velocity causes the plasma to experience significant departures from equilibrium at very low heights, well inside the field of view (within 0.6 R{sub sun} from the solar limb) of nearly all the available remote-sensing instrumentation, significantly affecting observed spectral line intensities. We also study the evolution of charge state ratios with distance from the source region, and the temperature they indicate if ionization equilibrium is assumed. We find that virtually every charge state from every element freezes in at a different height, so that the definition of freeze-in height is ambiguous. We also find that calculated freeze-in temperatures indicated by charge state ratios from in situ measurements have little relation to the local coronal temperature of the wind source region, and stop evolving much earlier than their correspondent charge state ratio. We discuss the implication of our results on plasma diagnostics of coronal holes from spectroscopic measurements as well as on theoretical solar wind models relying on coronal temperatures.

  11. Shock Acceleration of the Energetic Particle Background in the Solar Wind David T. Sodaitis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on planet Earth, the solar wind is an important topic for study because it is strongly influenced by solar activity, and it transfers that solar influence "to planets, comets, dust particles, and cosmic rays of three components, a fluid model of the sun's corona which in it's equilibrium state creates a supersonic

  12. What does it take to create a clean energy future for Washington? Solar, Wind, Hydro

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Michael

    Flexible Solar Film Atomic Force Microscope Materials Science Molecule Polymers Nanostructured Solar Cells Solar, Wind, Hydro A Complete Energy System Home and Commercial Generation Demand Response 10-10 m 10 established the Clean Energy Institute to support science & engineering research that sustains Washington

  13. Transmission Benefits of Co-Locating Concentrating Solar Power and Wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2012-03-01

    In some areas of the U.S. transmission constraints are a limiting factor in deploying new wind and concentrating solar power (CSP) plants. Texas is an example of one such location, where the best wind and solar resources are in the western part of the state, while major demand centers are in the east. The low capacity factor of wind is a compounding factor, increasing the relative cost of new transmission per unit of energy actually delivered. A possible method of increasing the utilization of new transmission is to co-locate both wind and concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage. In this work we examine the benefits and limits of using the dispatachability of thermal storage to increase the capacity factor of new transmission developed to access high quality solar and wind resources in remote locations.

  14. Correlation studies between solar wind parameters and the decimetric radio emission from Jupiter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolton, S.J.; Gulkis, S.; Klein, M.J.; De Pater, I.; Thompson, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    Results of a study comparing long-term time variations (years) in Jupiter's synchrotron radio emission with a variety of solar wind parameters and the 10.7-cm solar flux are reported. Data from 1963 through 1985 were analyzed, and the results suggest that many solar wind parameters are correlated with the intensity of the synchrotron emission produced by the relativistic electrons in the Jovian Van Allen radiation belts. Significant nonzero correlation coefficients appear to be associated with solar wind ion density, ram pressure, thermal pressure, flow velocity, momentum, and ion temperature. The highest correlation coefficients are obtained for solar wind ram pressure (NV/sup 2/) and thermal pressure (NT). The correlation analysis suggests that the delay time between fluctuations in the solar wind and changes in the Jovian synchrotron emission is typically about 2 years. The delay time of the correlation places important constraints on the theoretical models describing the radiation belts. The implication of these results, if the correlations are real, is that the solar wind is influencing the supply and/or loss of electrons to Jupiter's inner magnetosphere. We note that the data for this work spans only about two periods of the solar activity cycle, and because of the long time scales of the observed variations, it is important to confirm these results with additional observations. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  15. X-RAY EMISSION FROM PLANETS AND COMETS: RELATIONSHIP WITH SOLAR X-RAYS AND SOLAR WIND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergen, Universitetet i

    X-RAY EMISSION FROM PLANETS AND COMETS: RELATIONSHIP WITH SOLAR X-RAYS AND SOLAR WIND ANIL BHARDWAJ extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany 6 Applied Physics Laboratory, John Hopkins University, Laurel, MD 20723 planets Jupiter and Saturn in the energy range of 0.2-2 keV. These flares are found to occur in tandem

  16. Probability density functions for the variable solar wind near the solar cycle minimum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vörös,; Leitner, M; Narita, Y; Consolini, G; Kovács, P; Tóth, A; Lichtenberger, J

    2015-01-01

    Unconditional and conditional statistics is used for studying the histograms of magnetic field multi-scale fluctuations in the solar wind near the solar cycle minimum in 2008. The unconditional statistics involves the magnetic data during the whole year 2008. The conditional statistics involves the magnetic field time series splitted into concatenated subsets of data according to a threshold in dynamic pressure. The threshold separates fast stream leading edge compressional and trailing edge uncompressional fluctuations. The histograms obtained from these data sets are associated with both large-scale (B) and small-scale ({\\delta}B) magnetic fluctuations, the latter corresponding to time-delayed differences. It is shown here that, by keeping flexibility but avoiding the unnecessary redundancy in modeling, the histograms can be effectively described by a limited set of theoretical probability distribution functions (PDFs), such as the normal, log-normal, kappa and logkappa functions. In a statistical sense the...

  17. Building Toward a Small Wind Turbine Site Assessor Credential (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinclair, K.

    2013-09-01

    Proper site assessment is integral to the development of a successful small wind project. Without a small wind site assessor certification program, consumers, including state incentive program managers, lack a benchmark for differentiating between qualified and nonqualified site assessors. A small wind site assessor best practice manual is being developed as a resource for consumers until a credential program becomes available. This presentation describes the purpose, proposed content, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's approach to the development of such a manual.

  18. On Competing Models of Coronal Heating and Solar Wind Acceleration: The Debate in '08

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steven R. Cranmer

    2008-04-18

    In preparation for lively debate at the May 2008 SPD/AGU Meeting in Fort Lauderdale, this document attempts to briefly lay out my own view of the evolving controversy over how the solar wind is accelerated. It is still unknown to what extent the solar wind is fed by flux tubes that remain open (and are energized by footpoint-driven wavelike fluctuations), and to what extent much of the mass and energy is input more intermittently from closed loops into the open-field regions. It may turn out that a combination of the two ideas is needed to explain the full range of observed solar wind phenomena.

  19. On Competing Models of Coronal Heating and Solar Wind Acceleration: The Debate in '08

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cranmer, Steven R

    2008-01-01

    In preparation for lively debate at the May 2008 SPD/AGU Meeting in Fort Lauderdale, this document attempts to briefly lay out my own view of the evolving controversy over how the solar wind is accelerated. It is still unknown to what extent the solar wind is fed by flux tubes that remain open (and are energized by footpoint-driven wavelike fluctuations), and to what extent much of the mass and energy is input more intermittently from closed loops into the open-field regions. It may turn out that a combination of the two ideas is needed to explain the full range of observed solar wind phenomena.

  20. The Impact of Wind and Solar on the Value of Energy Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this analysis is to examine how the value proposition for energy storage changes as a function of wind and solar power penetration. It uses a grid modeling approach comparing the operational costs of an electric power system both with and without added storage. It creates a series of scenarios with increasing wind and solar power penetration and examines how the value of storage changes. It also explores the mechanisms behind this change in value, including the change in on-peak and off-peak price differentials and the cost of operating reserves created by increased penetration of wind and solar energy.

  1. 2003 Yerkes Summer Institute Day Lab 1 Solar System Model page-1 Building Models to Scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collar, Juan I.

    2003 Yerkes Summer Institute Day Lab 1 ­ Solar System Model page-1 Building Models to Scale visualize our solar neighborhood? One way is to build a scale model. Take, for example, the model of a BMW Z Introduction Can you picture the dimensions of the solar system? Probably not. The sizes and distances involved

  2. The study of pedestrian level wind at MacGregor dormitory building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wannaphahoon, Teerawut (Teerawut Lim)

    2011-01-01

    This study uses the Wright Brothers Wind Tunnel at MIT to study a 100:1 scaled model of the MacGregor dormitory building. The purposes are to quantify and analyze the effect of the presence of the building on pedestrian-level ...

  3. Proceedings of the 5th ISES Europe Solar Conf., Freiburg (2004), vol. 2 591 Solar utilisation in low-energy buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gieseler, Udo D. J.

    2004-01-01

    @physik.uni-siegen.de Abstract For low-energy buildings, passive solar gains can contribute significantly to the heat bal- ance solar radiation and the geometry of the building. However, the relevant part of the solar gains, which temperature inside the buildings, which, in turn, is influenced by the amount of solar and internal gains

  4. 5-minute Solar Oscillations and Ion Cyclotron Waves in the Solar Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guglielmi, Anatol; Dovbnya, Boris

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper we study impact of the photospheric 5-minute oscillations on the ion cyclotron waves in the solar wind. We proceed from the assumption that the ion cyclotron waves in solar wind are experiencing modulation with a characteristic period of 5 minutes under the influence of Alfven waves driven by photospheric motions. The theory presented in our paper predicts a deep frequency modulation of the ion cyclotron waves. The frequency modulation is expected mainly from variations in orientation of the IMF lines. In turn, the variations in orientation are caused by the Alfven waves, propagating from the Sun. To test the theoretical predictions we have analyzed records of the ultra-low-frequency (ULF) geoelectromagnetic waves in order to find the permanent quasi-monochromatic oscillations of natural origin in the Pc1-2 frequency band (0.1-5 Hz), the carrier frequency of which varies with time in a wide range. As a result we found the so-called "serpentine emission" (SE), which was observed in Antarct...

  5. Solar Wind at 33 AU: Setting Bounds on the Pluto Interaction for New Horizons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bagenal, F; Elliott, H A; Hill, M E; Lisse, C M; McComas, D J; McNutt,, R L; Richardson, J D; Smith, C W; Strobel, D F

    2015-01-01

    The NASA New Horizons spacecraft flies past Pluto on July 14, 2015, carrying two instruments that detect charged particles. Pluto has a tenuous, extended atmosphere that is escaping the weak gravity of the planet. The interaction of the solar wind with the escaping atmosphere of Pluto depends on solar wind conditions as well as the vertical structure of the atmosphere. We have analyzed Voyager 2 particles and fields measurements between 25 and 39 AU and present their statistical variations. We have adjusted these predictions to allow for the declining activity of the Sun and solar wind output. We summarize the range of SW conditions that can be expected at 33 AU and survey the range of scales of interaction that New Horizons might experience. Model estimates for the solar wind stand-off distance vary from approximately 7 to 1000 RP with our best estimate being around 40 RP (where we take the radius of Pluto to be RP=1184 km).

  6. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This is one-page, two-sided fact sheet presents high-level summary results of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2, which examined operational impacts of high penetrations of variable renewable generation in the West.

  7. Prototype Passive Solar Buildings in Louisiana - A Hot-Humid Climate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shih, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper on prototype passive solar buildings in Louisiana presents state of the art passive solar design. According to U.S. Department of Energy report, the annual energy consumption for a single family detached dwelling ...

  8. Integrating Solar Thermal and Photovoltaic Systems in Whole Building Energy Simulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, S.; Haberl, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces methodologies on how the renewable energy generated by the solar thermal and solar photovoltaic (PV) systems installed on site can be integrated in the whole building simulation analyses, which ...

  9. Solar energy dehumidification experiment on the Citicorp Center building : final report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown author

    The technical and economic feasibility of using solar energy to reduce conventional energy consumption of a large urban commercial building were studied in depth. Specifically, solar assisted dehumidification of ventillation ...

  10. Making Cents Out of Solar: Put More Power Into Your Building Plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-01-01

    This is a brochure developed specifically for residential home builders. It provides information on basic solar facts, selling tips, and important resources when incorporating solar technologies into building plans.

  11. Making Cents Out of Solar: Put More Power Into Your Building Plans (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-01-01

    This is a brochure developed specifically for residential home builders. It provides information on basic solar facts, selling tips, and important resources when incorporating solar technologies into building plans.

  12. THE ORIGIN OF NON-MAXWELLIAN SOLAR WIND ELECTRON VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION: CONNECTION TO NANOFLARES IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Che, H.; Goldstein, M. L.

    2014-11-10

    The formation of the observed core-halo feature in the solar wind electron velocity distribution function is a long-time puzzle. In this Letter, based on the current knowledge of nanoflares, we show that the nanoflare-accelerated electron beams are likely to trigger a strong electron two-stream instability that generates kinetic Alfvén wave and whistler wave turbulence, as we demonstrated in a previous paper. We further show that the core-halo feature produced during the origin of kinetic turbulence is likely to originate in the inner corona and can be preserved as the solar wind escapes to space along open field lines. We formulate a set of equations to describe the heating processes observed in the simulation and show that the core-halo temperature ratio of the solar wind is insensitive to the initial conditions in the corona and is related to the core-halo density ratio of the solar wind and to the quasi-saturation property of the two-stream instability at the time when the exponential decay ends. This relation can be extended to the more general core-halo-strahl feature in the solar wind. The temperature ratio between the core and hot components is nearly independent of the heliospheric distance to the Sun. We show that the core-halo relative drift previously reported is a relic of the fully saturated two-stream instability. Our theoretical results are consistent with the observations while new tests for this model are provided.

  13. Wednesday, March 25, 2009 SOLAR WIND AND GENESIS: MEASUREMENTS AND INTERPRETATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    and to photospheric data to rule on fractionation between the Sun and the SW. 2:00 p.m. Grimberg A. * Bühler F. Wieler Aluminum Solar Wind Collector on Genesis [#2037] Here we report the results of our Ar-Kr-Xe analysis of solar wind captured by the Genesis Polished Aluminum Collector. 2:45 p.m. Kitts K. * Choi Y. Eng P

  14. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-09-01

    This fact sheet is a basic overview of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study, Phase 2. The electric grid is a highly complex, interconnected machine, and changing one part of the grid can have consequences elsewhere. Adding wind and solar affects the operation of the other power plants and adding high penetrations can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions.

  15. Building America Top Innovations 2012: High-Performance with Solar Electric Reduced Peak Demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America solar home research that has demonstrated the ability to reduce peak demand by 75%. Numerous field studies have monitored power production and system effectiveness.

  16. The Structure of the Solar Wind in the Inner Heliosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Christina On-Yee

    2010-01-01

    do not occur for more than one solar rotation, as de?ned byof these properties that span one solar rotation (?27 days).the data are taken over one solar ro- tation as viewed from

  17. The Structure of the Solar Wind in the Inner Heliosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Christina On-Yee

    2010-01-01

    Global Solar Magnetohydrodynamic and Potential Field SourcePFSS - Potential Field Source Surface SC - Solar Cycle SEP -N.R. : 1992, On potential ?eld models of the solar corona,

  18. Turbulence-driven coronal heating and improvements to empirical forecasting of the solar wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woolsey, Lauren N.; Cranmer, Steven R.

    2014-06-01

    Forecasting models of the solar wind often rely on simple parameterizations of the magnetic field that ignore the effects of the full magnetic field geometry. In this paper, we present the results of two solar wind prediction models that consider the full magnetic field profile and include the effects of Alfvén waves on coronal heating and wind acceleration. The one-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic code ZEPHYR self-consistently finds solar wind solutions without the need for empirical heating functions. Another one-dimensional code, introduced in this paper (The Efficient Modified-Parker-Equation-Solving Tool, TEMPEST), can act as a smaller, stand-alone code for use in forecasting pipelines. TEMPEST is written in Python and will become a publicly available library of functions that is easy to adapt and expand. We discuss important relations between the magnetic field profile and properties of the solar wind that can be used to independently validate prediction models. ZEPHYR provides the foundation and calibration for TEMPEST, and ultimately we will use these models to predict observations and explain space weather created by the bulk solar wind. We are able to reproduce with both models the general anticorrelation seen in comparisons of observed wind speed at 1 AU and the flux tube expansion factor. There is significantly less spread than comparing the results of the two models than between ZEPHYR and a traditional flux tube expansion relation. We suggest that the new code, TEMPEST, will become a valuable tool in the forecasting of space weather.

  19. Rhode Island to Build First Offshore Wind Farm

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Block Island, a small town with only 1,000 full-time, residents, is the site for a big project, when it will become home to Rhode Island’s first offshore wind farm.

  20. Influence of the ambient solar wind flow on the propagation behavior of interplanetary CMEs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Temmer, Manuela; Möstl, Christian; Veronig, Astrid M; Vrsnak, Bojan; Odstrcil, Dusan

    2011-01-01

    We study three CME/ICME events (2008 June 1-6, 2009 February 13-18, 2010 April 3-5) tracked from Sun to 1 AU in remote-sensing observations of STEREO Heliospheric Imagers and in situ plasma and magnetic field measurements. We focus on the ICME propagation in IP space that is governed by two forces, the propelling Lorentz force and the drag force. We address the question at which heliospheric distance range the drag becomes dominant and the CME gets adjusted to the solar wind flow. To this aim we analyze speed differences between ICMEs and the ambient solar wind flow as function of distance. The evolution of the ambient solar wind flow is derived from ENLIL 3D MHD model runs using different solar wind models, namely Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) and MHD-Around-A-Sphere (MAS). Comparing the measured CME kinematics with the solar wind models we find that the CME speed gets adjusted to the solar wind speed at very different heliospheric distances in the three events under study: from below 30 Rs, to beyond 1 AU, depend...

  1. Intense plasma waves at and near the solar wind termination shock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    LETTERS Intense plasma waves at and near the solar wind termination shock D. A. Gurnett1 & W. S wind termination shock. The observations were obtained from the plasma-wave instrument on the Voyager 2 a series of crossings of the termination shock at a heliocentric radial distance of 83.7 AU. The spectrum

  2. Anisotropy of Imbalanced Alfvenic Turbulence in Fast Solar Wind R. T. Wicks,1,* T. S. Horbury,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    energy to yet smaller scales [3­5]. In the fast wind, the turbulence is imbalanced: there is more power solar wind [8] and from numerical simulations [9] that balanced tur- bulence is made up of locallyAnisotropy of Imbalanced Alfve´nic Turbulence in Fast Solar Wind R. T. Wicks,1,* T. S. Horbury,1 C

  3. VLF wave activity in the solar wind and the photoelectron effect in electric field measurements: Ulysses observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    solar wind streams, Ulysses observed nearly continuous electric wave activity with peak power belowVLF wave activity in the solar wind and the photoelectron effect in electric field measurements present observations of very low frequency (VLF) waves (0.2 to 448 Hz) made by Ulysses during the solar

  4. Charge state evolution in the solar wind. III. Model comparison with observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landi, E.; Oran, R.; Lepri, S. T.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Fisk, L. A.; Van der Holst, B.

    2014-08-01

    We test three theoretical models of the fast solar wind with a set of remote sensing observations and in-situ measurements taken during the minimum of solar cycle 23. First, the model electron density and temperature are compared to SOHO/SUMER spectroscopic measurements. Second, the model electron density, temperature, and wind speed are used to predict the charge state evolution of the wind plasma from the source regions to the freeze-in point. Frozen-in charge states are compared with Ulysses/SWICS measurements at 1 AU, while charge states close to the Sun are combined with the CHIANTI spectral code to calculate the intensities of selected spectral lines, to be compared with SOHO/SUMER observations in the north polar coronal hole. We find that none of the theoretical models are able to completely reproduce all observations; namely, all of them underestimate the charge state distribution of the solar wind everywhere, although the levels of disagreement vary from model to model. We discuss possible causes of the disagreement, namely, uncertainties in the calculation of the charge state evolution and of line intensities, in the atomic data, and in the assumptions on the wind plasma conditions. Last, we discuss the scenario where the wind is accelerated from a region located in the solar corona rather than in the chromosphere as assumed in the three theoretical models, and find that a wind originating from the corona is in much closer agreement with observations.

  5. Proton Heating in Solar Wind Compressible Turbulence with Collisions between Counter-propagating Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Jiansen; Marsch, Eckart; Chen, Christopher H K; Wang, Linghua; Pei, Zhongtian; Zhang, Lei; Salem, Chadi S; Bale, Stuart D

    2015-01-01

    Magnetohydronamic turbulence is believed to play a crucial role in heating the laboratorial, space, and astrophysical plasmas. However, the precise connection between the turbulent fluctuations and the particle kinetics has not yet been established. Here we present clear evidence of plasma turbulence heating based on diagnosed wave features and proton velocity distributions from solar wind measurements by the Wind spacecraft. For the first time, we can report the simultaneous observation of counter-propagating magnetohydrodynamic waves in the solar wind turbulence. Different from the traditional paradigm with counter-propagating Alfv\\'en waves, anti-sunward Alfv\\'en waves (AWs) are encountered by sunward slow magnetosonic waves (SMWs) in this new type of solar wind compressible turbulence. The counter-propagating AWs and SWs correspond respectively to the dominant and sub-dominant populations of the imbalanced Els\\"asser variables. Nonlinear interactions between the AWs and SMWs are inferred from the non-orth...

  6. Integrated Modeling of Building Energy Requirements Incorporating Solar Assisted Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris; Wang, Juan

    2005-01-01

    2003), September 2004. Solar collector cost and performanceApproach Two types of solar collectors are considered 1) low

  7. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Community Scale High Performance with Solar - Pulte Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Pulte Homes of Tucson’s work with Building America to apply a suite of energy-efficiency measures integrated with passive solar design and solar water heating that reduced energy use more than 50% for a community of more than 1,000 homes.

  8. Computer Simulation of Cooling Effect of Wind Tower on Passively Ventilated Building 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seryak, J.; Kissock, J. K.

    2002-01-01

    equipment. A simple computer program was developed to simulate airflow through a wind tower based on tower dimensions and air temperature. The program was compared to experimental results with reasonable agreement. Parametric analysis indicates... of an occupied auditorium on an hour- by-hour basis using TMY2 data for Dayton, Ohio. SIMPLIFIED MODEL OF BUILDING INTERIOR AIR TEMPERATURE Assuming steady state conditions, an energy balance of major sensible heat flows into and out of a building yields...

  9. Using Wind and Solar to Reliably Meet Electricity Demand, Greening...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and wind generation technologies. A variety of approaches can be deployed, including demand response, which can be used to shift demand to periods of greater renewable output,...

  10. BP8.00119 Solar Coronal Heating and Magnetic Energy Build-Up in a Tectonics Model1 , M. GILSON, C.S. NG, A. BHATTACHARJEE, Center for Integrated Computation and Analysis of Reconnection and Turbulence and Center for Magnetic Self-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Chung-Sang

    BP8.00119 Solar Coronal Heating and Magnetic Energy Build-Up in a Tectonics Model1 , M. GILSON, C have shown that the solar surface is covered with a so-called "magnetic carpet," in which small Spectral Scaling on the Heating of the Solar Wind1 , D. MUNSI, C.S. NG, A. BHATTACHARJEE, P.A. ISENBERG

  11. Missing Money--Will the Current Electricity Market Structure Support High (~50%) Wind/Solar?; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, Michael

    2015-05-15

    This presentation summarizes the missing money problem and whether the current electricity market structure will support high penetration levels of wind and solar.

  12. Decision process for the retrofit of municipal buildings with solar energy systems: a technical guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Licciardello, Michael R.; Wood, Brian; Dozier, Warner; Braly, Mark; Yates, Alan

    1980-11-01

    As a background for solar applications, the following topics are covered: solar systems and components for retrofit installations; cost, performance, and quality considerations; and financing alternatives for local government. The retrofit decision process is discussed as follows: pre-screening of buildings, building data requirements, the energy conservation audit, solar system sizing and economics, comparison of alternatives, and implementation. Sample studies are presented for the West Valley Animal Shelter and the Hollywood Police Station. (MHR)

  13. EVIDENCE FOR POLAR X-RAY JETS AS SOURCES OF MICROSTREAM PEAKS IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neugebauer, Marcia

    2012-05-01

    It is proposed that the interplanetary manifestations of X-ray jets observed in solar polar coronal holes during periods of low solar activity are the peaks of the so-called microstreams observed in the fast polar solar wind. These microstreams exhibit velocity fluctuations of {+-}35 km s{sup -1}, higher kinetic temperatures, slightly higher proton fluxes, and slightly higher abundances of the low-first-ionization-potential element iron relative to oxygen ions than the average polar wind. Those properties can all be explained if the fast microstreams result from the magnetic reconnection of bright-point loops, which leads to X-ray jets which, in turn, result in solar polar plumes. Because most of the microstream peaks are bounded by discontinuities of solar origin, jets are favored over plumes for the majority of the microstream peaks.

  14. THE SOLAR WIND AS A POSSIBLE SOURCE OF FAST TEMPORAL VARIATIONS OF THE HELIOSPHERIC RIBBON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kucharek, H.; Lee, M. A.; Moebius, E.; Schwadron, N.; Fuselier, S. A.; McComas, D.; Wurz, P.; Pogorelov, N.; Borovikov, S.; Reisenfeld, D.; Funsten, H.

    2013-10-20

    We present a possible source of pickup ions (PUIs) the ribbon observed by the Interstellar Boundary EXplorer (IBEX). We suggest that a gyrating solar wind and PUIs in the ramp and in the near downstream region of the termination shock (TS) could provide a significant source of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) in the ribbon. A fraction of the solar wind and PUIs are reflected and energized during the first contact with the TS. Some of the solar wind may be reflected propagating toward the Sun but most of the solar wind ions form a gyrating beam-like distribution that persists until it is fully thermalized further downstream. Depending on the strength of the shock, these gyrating distributions can exist for many gyration periods until they are scattered/thermalized due to wave-particle interactions at the TS and downstream in the heliosheath. During this time, ENAs can be produced by charge exchange of interstellar neutral atoms with the gyrating ions. In order to determine the flux of energetic ions, we estimate the solar wind flux at the TS using pressure estimates inferred from in situ measurements. Assuming an average path length in the radial direction of the order of a few AU before the distribution of gyrating ions is thermalized, one can explain a significant fraction of the intensity of ENAs in the ribbon observed by IBEX. With a localized source and such a short integration path, this model would also allow fast time variations of the ENA flux.

  15. Superposed epoch analysis of magnetospheric substorms using solar wind, auroral zone, and geostationary orbit data sets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bargatze, L.F.; Baker, D.N.; McPherron, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    A primary goal in solar wind-magnetosphere studies is to understand how and what role the solar wind plays in controlling the temporal sequence of events during substorms at many widely separated regions within the magnetosphere. Here, the average, correlated behavior of definitive solar wind, auroral zone, and geostationary orbit parameters during isolated substorms is examined. High time resolution (1 min) measurements of two solar wind quantities: B/sub z/ and VB/sub s/, two auroral electrojet indices: AE and AL, and three parameters which define the energetic (30 to 300 keV) electron distribution at geostationary orbit from 13 events are analyzed by using the superposed epoch technique. The zero epoch time used to organize the analyses were defined by the time of energetic electron injection at geostationary orbit. The average variations of the auroral zone and geostationary orbit parameters in relation to the solar wind are discussed in context of the three phase (growth, expansion, and recovery) model of substorms. Notably, we find an approximate 6 minute time lag of expansion phase onset at geostationary orbit relative to time of expansion phase onset in the auroral zone. A possible explanation for this time lag is briefly discussed. 14 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Solar heating and cooling of residential buildings: sizing, installation and operation of systems. 1980 edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-09-01

    This manual was prepared as a text for a training course on solar heating and cooling of residential buildings. The course and text are directed toward sizing, installation, operation, and maintenance of solar systems for space heating and hot water supply, and solar cooling is treated only briefly. (MHR)

  17. Project title: Natural ventilation, solar heating and integrated low-energy building design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-07-10

    emissions targets. That is why the Cambridge-MIT Institute set up a project to design buildings that consume less energy. The Challenge Their work focuses on the design of energy efficient buildings that use natural ventilation processes, solar... Awards E-stack brings a breath of fresh air to UK schools HOME ABOUT US FUNDING OPPORTUNITIES PROJECTS EDUCATION NEWS EVENTS DOWNLOADS CONTACT US PROJECTS Natural Ventilation Solar Heating and Integrated Low-Energy Building Design SEARCH: Go Page 1...

  18. Analysis of Long Span Bridge Response to Winds: Building Nexus between Flutter and Buffeting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xinzhong

    Analysis of Long Span Bridge Response to Winds: Building Nexus between Flutter and Buffeting Xinzhong Chen1 Abstract: In current bridge aeroelastic analysis frameworks, predictions of flutter the self-excited forces influence bridge dynamics, especially the modal damping, and eventually drive

  19. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 3A: Low Levels of Synchronous Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Nicholas W.; Leonardi, Bruno; D'Aquila, Robert; Clark, Kara

    2015-11-17

    The stability of the North American electric power grids under conditions of high penetrations of wind and solar is a significant concern and possible impediment to reaching renewable energy goals. The 33% wind and solar annual energy penetration considered in this study results in substantial changes to the characteristics of the bulk power system. This includes different power flow patterns, different commitment and dispatch of existing synchronous generation, and different dynamic behavior from wind and solar generation. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, is one of the largest regional solar and wind integration studies to date. In multiple phases, it has explored different aspects of the question: Can we integrate large amounts of wind and solar energy into the electric power system of the West? The work reported here focused on the impact of low levels of synchronous generation on the transient stability performance in one part of the region in which wind generation has displaced synchronous thermal generation under highly stressed, weak system conditions. It is essentially an extension of WWSIS-3. Transient stability, the ability of the power system to maintain synchronism among all elements following disturbances, is a major constraint on operations in many grids, including the western U.S. and Texas systems. These constraints primarily concern the performance of the large-scale bulk power system. But grid-wide stability concerns with high penetrations of wind and solar are still not thoroughly understood. This work focuses on 'traditional' fundamental frequency stability issues, such as maintaining synchronism, frequency, and voltage. The objectives of this study are to better understand the implications of low levels of synchronous generation and a weak grid on overall system performance by: 1) Investigating the Western Interconnection under conditions of both high renewable generation (e.g., wind and solar) and low synchronous generation (e.g., significant coal power plant decommitment or retirement); and 2) Analyzing both the large-scale stability of the Western Interconnection and regional stability issues driven by more geographically dispersed renewable generation interacting with a transmission grid that evolved with large, central station plants at key nodes. As noted above, the work reported here is an extension of the research performed in WWSIS-3.

  20. THIRD MOMENTS AND THE ROLE OF ANISOTROPY FROM VELOCITY SHEAR IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stawarz, Joshua E.; Vasquez, Bernard J.; Smith, Charles W.; Forman, Miriam A.; Klewicki, Joseph E-mail: Bernie.Vasquez@unh.edu E-mail: Miriam.Forman@sunysb.edu

    2011-07-20

    We have extended the recent analyses of magnetohydrodynamic third moments as they relate to the turbulent energy cascade in the solar wind to consider the effects of large-scale shear flows. Moments from a large set of Advanced Composition Explorer data have been taken, and chosen data intervals are characterized by the rate of change in the solar wind speed. Mean dissipation rates are obtained in accordance with the predictions of homogeneous shear-driven turbulence. Agreement with predictions is best made for rarefaction intervals where the solar wind speed is decreasing with time. For decreasing speed intervals, we find that the dissipation rates increase with increasing shear magnitude and that the shear-induced fluctuation anisotropy is consistent with a relatively small amount.

  1. Anomalous Viscosity, Resistivity, and Thermal Diffusivity of the Solar Wind Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahendra K. Verma

    1995-09-05

    In this paper we have estimated typical anomalous viscosity, resistivity, and thermal difffusivity of the solar wind plasma. Since the solar wind is collsionless plasma, we have assumed that the dissipation in the solar wind occurs at proton gyro radius through wave-particle interactions. Using this dissipation length-scale and the dissipation rates calculated using MHD turbulence phenomenology [{\\it Verma et al.}, 1995a], we estimate the viscosity and proton thermal diffusivity. The resistivity and electron's thermal diffusivity have also been estimated. We find that all our transport quantities are several orders of magnitude higher than those calculated earlier using classical transport theories of {\\it Braginskii}. In this paper we have also estimated the eddy turbulent viscosity.

  2. Small-scale anisotropy and intermittency in high and low-latitude solar wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Bigazzi; L. Biferale; S. M. A. Gama; M. Velli

    2004-12-14

    We analyze low and high--latitude fast solar wind data from the Ulysses spacecraft from 1992 to 1994 using a a systematic method to analyse the anisotropic content of the magnetic field fluctuations. We investigate all available frequencies, 1-10^{-6} Hz, for both high and low--latitudes datasets and are able to quantify the relative importance of the anisotropic versus the isotropic fluctuations. We analyse, up to sixth order, longitudinal, transverse and mixed magnetic field correlations. Our results show that strongly intermittent and anisotropic events are present in the solar wind plasma at high frequencies/small scales, indicating the absence of a complete recovery of isotropy. Anisotropic scaling properties are compatible for high and low--latitude data, suggesting a universal behaviour in spite of the different rate of evolution of the fast solar wind streams in the two environments.

  3. Nonlinear interaction of proton whistler with kinetic Alfvén wave to study solar wind turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goyal, R.; Sharma, R. P.; Goldstein, M. L.; Dwivedi, N. K.

    2013-12-15

    This paper presents the nonlinear interaction between small but finite amplitude kinetic Alfvén wave (KAW) and proton whistler wave using two-fluid model in intermediate beta plasma, applicable to solar wind. The nonlinearity is introduced by modification in the background density. This change in density is attributed to the nonlinear ponderomotive force due to KAW. The solutions of the model equations, governing the nonlinear interaction (and its effect on the formation of localized structures), have been obtained using semi-analytical method in solar wind at 1AU. It is concluded that the KAW properties significantly affect the threshold field required for the filament formation and their critical size (for proton whistler). The magnetic and electric field power spectra have been obtained and their relevance with the recent observations of solar wind turbulence by Cluster spacecraft has been pointed out.

  4. Seasonal and solar cycle variations in high-latitude thermospheric winds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aruliah, A.L.; Rees, D. (University Coll., London (United Kingdom)); Steen, A. (Inst. for Rymdfysik, Kiruna (Sweden))

    1991-11-01

    Thermospheric wind measurements have been collected systematically every winter for over nine years from a high-latitude site at Kiruna, Sweden (67.8{degree}N, 20.4{degree}E). The database contains 1,242 nights of data collected with a Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI), perhaps the largest single-site database of thermospheric winds. This analysis shows a marked seasonal and solar cycle variation. Particularly at high solar activity, sunward winds of the evening period (16-20 UT) are more than 50% stronger at Spring than at Autumn equinox. This large asymmetry in the behavior of high-latitude thermospheric winds at spring and autumn equinox has not yet been predicted by model simulations.

  5. Optimization of a Solar Chimney Design to Enhance Natural Ventilation in a Multi-Storey Office Building 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gontikaki, M.; Trcka, M.; Hensen, J.; Hoes, P. J.

    2010-01-01

    Natural ventilation of buildings can be achieved with solar-driven , buoyancy-induced airflow through a solar chimney channel. Research on solar chimneys has covered a wide range of topics, yet study of the integration in ...

  6. Designing and Building Houses that are Solar Ready | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    after initial construction is completed can save time and money by following new house Solar Ready design guidelines. Solar Ready houses are designed and built with integrated...

  7. Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    but the solar thermal system supplies both domestic hot water and a secondary radiant floor heating system. | Photo courtesy of Jim Schmid Photography, NREL Active Solar...

  8. Property Tax Exemption for Solar and Wind Energy Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In May 2009 the exemption was amended yet again by H.B. 1171 to add "residential wind energy equipment" as an eligible technology. In order to qualify, equipment must be sited on residential...

  9. The pier and building of the European Solar Telescope (EST) F.C.M. Bettonvil*a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutten, Rob

    The pier and building of the European Solar Telescope (EST) F.C.M. Bettonvil*a , R. Codinab , A surrounded by an open framework. Keywords: Telescope pier, building, solar telescope, CFD analysis, tower. ABSTRACT EST (European Solar Telescope) is a 4-m class solar telescope, which is currently

  10. Fluctuations in the interplanetary electric potential and energy coupling between the solar-wind and the magnetosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Badruddin,

    2013-01-01

    We utilize solar rotation average geomagnetic index ap and various solar wind plasma and field parameters for four solar cycles 20-23. We perform analysis to search for a best possible coupling function at 27-day time resolution. Regression analysis using these data at different phases of solar activity (increasing including maximum/decreasing including minimum) led us to suggest that the time variation of interplanetary electric potential is a better coupling function for solar wind-magnetosphere coupling. We suspect that a faster rate of change in interplanetary electric potential at the magnetopause might enhance the reconnection rate and energy transfer from the solar wind into the magnetosphere. The possible mechanism that involves the interplanetary potential fluctuations in influencing the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling is being investigated.

  11. Turbulence-Driven Coronal Heating and Improvements to Empirical Forecasting of the Solar Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woolsey, Lauren N

    2014-01-01

    Forecasting models of the solar wind often rely on simple parameterizations of the magnetic field that ignore the effects of the full magnetic field geometry. In this paper, we present the results of two solar wind prediction models that consider the full magnetic field profile and include the effects of Alfv\\'en waves on coronal heating and wind acceleration. The one-dimensional MHD code ZEPHYR self-consistently finds solar wind solutions without the need for empirical heating functions. Another 1D code, introduced in this paper (The Efficient Modified-Parker-Equation-Solving Tool, TEMPEST), can act as a smaller, stand-alone code for use in forecasting pipelines. TEMPEST is written in Python and will become a publicly available library of functions that is easy to adapt and expand. We discuss important relations between the magnetic field profile and properties of the solar wind that can be used to independently validate prediction models. ZEPHYR provides the foundation and calibration for TEMPEST, and ultim...

  12. INTERMITTENCY OF SOLAR WIND DENSITY FLUCTUATIONS FROM ION TO ELECTRON SCALES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, C. H. K.; Sorriso-Valvo, L.; Šafránková, J.; N?me?ek, Z.

    2014-07-01

    The intermittency of density fluctuations in the solar wind at kinetic scales has been examined using high time resolution Faraday cup measurements from the Spektr-R spacecraft. It was found that the probability density functions (PDFs) of the fluctuations are highly non-Gaussian over this range, but do not show large changes in shape with scale. These properties are statistically similar to those of the magnetic fluctuations and are important to understanding the dynamics of small scale turbulence in the solar wind. Possible explanations for the behavior of the density and magnetic fluctuations are discussed.

  13. Effect of wind speed on the growth of the upper convective zone in a solar pond 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMinn, Steven Lee

    1990-01-01

    EFFECT OF WIND SPEED ON THE GROWTH OF THE UPPER CONVECTIVE ZONE IN A SOLAR POND A Thesis by STEVEN LEE MCMINN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering EFFECT OF WIND SPEED ON THE GROWTH OF THE UPPER CONVECTIVE ZONE IN A SOLAR POND A Thesis by STEVEN LEE MCMINN Approved as to style and content by: W. R. Laster (Chair...

  14. Depth profiling analysis of solar wind helium collected in diamond-like carbon film from Genesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bajo, Ken-ichi; Olinger, Chad T.; Jurewicz, Amy J.G.; Burnett, Donald S.; Sakaguchi, Isao; Suzuki, Taku; Itose, Satoru; Ishihara, Morio; Uchino, Kiichiro; Wieler, Rainer; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi

    2015-10-01

    The distribution of solar-wind ions in Genesis mission collectors, as determined by depth profiling analysis, constrains the physics of ion solid interactions involving the solar wind. Thus, they provide an experimental basis for revealing ancient solar activities represented by solar-wind implants in natural samples. We measured the first depth profile of ?He in a collector; the shallow implantation (peaking at <20 nm) required us to use sputtered neutral mass spectrometry with post-photoionization by a strong field. The solar wind He fluence calculated using depth profiling is ~8.5 x 10¹? cm?². The shape of the solar wind ?He depth profile is consistent with TRIM simulations using the observed ?He velocity distribution during the Genesis mission. It is therefore likely that all solar-wind elements heavier than H are completely intact in this Genesis collector and, consequently, the solar particle energy distributions for each element can be calculated from their depth profiles. Ancient solar activities and space weathering of solar system objects could be quantitatively reproduced by solar particle implantation profiles.

  15. NREL: Wind Research - Building 251 and High Bay

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines lightGeospatial ToolkitSMARTSWorkingManagement@NWTC NewsletterBuilding 251

  16. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 3 -- Frequency Response and Transient Stability (Report and Executive Summary)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N. W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D'Aquila, R.

    2014-12-01

    The primary objectives of Phase 3 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-3) were to examine the large-scale transient stability and frequency response of the Western Interconnection with high wind and solar penetration, and to identify means to mitigate any adverse performance impacts via transmission reinforcements, storage, advanced control capabilities, or other alternatives.

  17. Energetic electrons, 50 keV 6 MeV, at geosynchronous orbit: their responses to solar wind variations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xinlin

    1 Energetic electrons, 50 keV ­ 6 MeV, at geosynchronous orbit: their responses to solar wind Short title: ENERGETIC ELECTRONS AT GEOSYNCHRONOUS ORBIT #12;2 Abstract. Using simultaneous measurements of the upstream solar wind and of energetic electrons at geosynchronous orbit, we analyze the response

  18. E-LETTER Earth Planets Space, 65, e5e8, 2013 Doppler shift and broadening in solar wind turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and broadening using magnetic field data in solar wind turbulence. A model of the energy spectrum is constructedE-LETTER Earth Planets Space, 65, e5­e8, 2013 Doppler shift and broadening in solar wind turbulence extraterrestrische Physik, Technische Universit¨at Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstr. 3, D-38106, Germany 3Max

  19. Effects of solar wind magnetosphere coupling recorded at different geomagnetic latitudes: Separation of directly-driven and storage/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lockwood, Mike

    Effects of solar wind magnetosphere coupling recorded at different geomagnetic latitudes: Separation of directly-driven and storage/ release systems I. D. Finch,1 M. L. Lockwood,1,2 and A. P November 2008. [1] The effect on geomagnetic activity of solar wind speed, compared

  20. Integration Costs: Are They Unique to Wind and Solar Energy? Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Hodge, B.; Kirby, B.; Clark, C.

    2012-05-01

    Over the past several years, there has been considerable interest in assessing wind integration costs. This is understandable because wind energy does increase the variability and uncertainty that must be managed on a power system. However, there are other sources of variability and uncertainty that also must be managed in the power system. This paper describes some of these sources and shows that even the introduction of base-load generation can cause additional ramping and cycling. The paper concludes by demonstrating that integration costs are not unique to wind and solar, and should perhaps instead be assessed by power plant and load performance instead of technology type.

  1. A WIND TUNNEL INVESTIGATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF SOLAR-INDUCED WALL-HEATING ON THE FLOW REGIME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savory, Eric

    -section canyon model in a wind tunnel. For reference purposes, the neutral case (no wall heating), has also been viscosity of air (m2 s-1 ) 1. Introduction The wind flow field within urban areas has been studiedA WIND TUNNEL INVESTIGATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF SOLAR-INDUCED WALL-HEATING ON THE FLOW REGIME

  2. Observation and modeling of geocoronal charge exchange X-ray emission during solar wind gusts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wargelin, B. J.; Kornbleuth, M.; Juda, M.; Martin, P. L.

    2014-11-20

    Solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) X-rays are emitted when highly charged solar wind ions such as O{sup 7{sup +}} collide with neutral gas, including the Earth's tenuous outer atmosphere (exosphere or geocorona) and hydrogen and helium from the local interstellar medium drifting through the heliosphere. This geocoronal and heliospheric emission comprises a significant and varying fraction of the soft X-ray background (SXRB) and is seen in every X-ray observation, with the intensity dependent on solar wind conditions and observation geometry. Under the right conditions, geocoronal emission can increase the apparent SXRB by roughly an order of magnitude for an hour or more. In this work, we study a dozen occasions when the near-Earth solar wind flux was exceptionally high. These gusts of wind lead to abrupt changes in SWCX X-ray emission around Earth, which may or may not be seen by X-ray observatories depending on their line of sight. Using detailed three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulations of the solar wind's interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere, and element abundances and ionization states measured by ACE, we model the time-dependent brightness of major geocoronal SWCX emission lines during those gusts and compare with changes in the X-ray background measured by the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We find reasonably good agreement between model and observation, with measured geocoronal line brightnesses averaged over 1 hr of up to 136 photons s{sup –1} cm{sup –2} sr{sup –1} in the O VII K? triplet around 564 eV.

  3. Building a market for small wind: The break-even turnkey cost of residential wind systems in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Jennifer L.; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Forsyth, Trudy

    2004-01-01

    Break-Even Turnkey Cost of Residential Wind Systems in theaggregate installed cost of a small wind system that couldand wind resource class, (2) significant cost reductions

  4. Building a market for small wind: The break-even turnkey cost of residential wind systems in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Jennifer L.; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Forsyth, Trudy

    2004-01-01

    Association (2002). The U.S. Small Wind Turbine Industryof Grid-Connected Small Wind Turbines in the Domesticto Market Customer-Sited Small Wind Systems. 2002 Conference

  5. Measuring the Isotopic Composition of Solar Wind Noble Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Floss, Christine

    in meteorites are depleted by many orders of magnitude compared with the solar nebula and, although lunar soils the various components, these gases were extracted using stepped pyrolysis and analyzed in sensitive mass

  6. Hybrid Wind and Solar Electric Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the grid in remote locations. | Photo courtesy of Dave Parsons. Off-Grid or Stand-Alone Renewable Energy Systems Whether a home solar electric system will work for you depends on...

  7. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 0, NO. 0, PAGES 0-0, M 0, 2000 Three spacecraft observations of solar wind discontinuities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horbury, Tim

    of solar wind discontinuities Timothy S. Horbury,1 David Burgess, and Markus Fr¨anz Astronomy Unit, Queen

  8. Whistler mode waves and the electron heat flux in the solar wind: cluster observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacombe, C.; Alexandrova, O.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Mangeney, A.; De Conchy, Y.; Maksimovic, M.; Matteini, L.; Santolík, O.

    2014-11-20

    The nature of the magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind between the ion and electron scales is still under debate. Using the Cluster/STAFF instrument, we make a survey of the power spectral density and of the polarization of these fluctuations at frequencies f in [1, 400] Hz, during five years (2001-2005), when Cluster was in the free solar wind. In ?10% of the selected data, we observe narrowband, right-handed, circularly polarized fluctuations, with wave vectors quasi-parallel to the mean magnetic field, superimposed on the spectrum of the permanent background turbulence. We interpret these coherent fluctuations as whistler mode waves. The lifetime of these waves varies between a few seconds and several hours. Here, we present, for the first time, an analysis of long-lived whistler waves, i.e., lasting more than five minutes. We find several necessary (but not sufficient) conditions for the observation of whistler waves, mainly a low level of background turbulence, a slow wind, a relatively large electron heat flux, and a low electron collision frequency. When the electron parallel beta factor ? {sub e?} is larger than 3, the whistler waves are seen along the heat flux threshold of the whistler heat flux instability. The presence of such whistler waves confirms that the whistler heat flux instability contributes to the regulation of the solar wind heat flux, at least for ? {sub e?} ? 3, in slow wind at 1 AU.

  9. The climatological relationships between wind and solar energy supply in Britain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bett, Philip E

    2015-01-01

    We use reanalysis data to investigate the daily co-variability of wind and solar irradiance in Britain, and its implications for renewable energy supply balancing. The joint distribution of daily-mean wind speeds and irradiances shows that irradiance has a much stronger seasonal cycle than wind, due to the rotational tilt of the Earth. Irradiance is weakly anticorrelated with wind speed throughout the year ($-0.4 \\lesssim \\rho \\lesssim -0.2$): there is a weak tendency for windy days to be cloudier. This is particularly true in Atlantic-facing regions (western Scotland, south-west England). The east coast of Britain has the weakest anticorrelation, particularly in winter, primarily associated with a relative increase in the frequency of clear-but-windy days. We also consider the variability in total power output from onshore wind turbines and solar photovoltaic panels. In all months, daily variability in total power is always reduced by incorporating solar capacity. The scenario with the least seasonal variabi...

  10. The Global Solar and Wind Atlas: a unique Global Spatial Data Infrastructure for all renewable energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    @masdar.ac.ae Nicolas Fichaux International Renewable Energy Agency - IRENA Abu Dhabi United Arab Emirates NFichaux in the field of solar and wind energy. The initiative will be expanded to encompass all renewable energies by 2015, and will be the largest information source on renewable energy potentials ever created. It has

  11. An event-based approach to validating solar wind speed predictions: High-speed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    December 2005. [1] One of the primary goals of the Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling (CISM for the Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling (CISM) solar wind models and suggest an event-based approach-Sheeley-Arge Model [3] CISM is using the Wang-Sheeley-Arge model (WSA) [Arge and Pizzo, 2000; Arge et al., 2003

  12. Value of Geographic Diversity of Wind and Solar: Stochastic Geometry Approach; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diakov, V.

    2012-08-01

    Based on the available geographically dispersed data for the continental U.S. (excluding Alaska), we analyze to what extent the geographic diversity of these resources can offset their variability. A geometric model provides a convenient measure for resource variability, shows the synergy between wind and solar resources.

  13. Solar Wind Particle Distribution Function Fitted via the Generalized Kappa Distribution Function: Cluster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Charles W.

    Solar Wind Particle Distribution Function Fitted via the Generalized Kappa Distribution Function Maxwellian distributions as it would be expected for a quasi-collisionless plasma. However, the presence of high energy tail and shoulders in the profile of distribution function stimulate to look for a better

  14. Understanding electron heat flux signatures in the solar wind N. U. Crooker,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    continuously modify heat flux. This is inconsistent with magnetic disconnection as the primary cause of heat most of the heat flux away from the Sun due to their high mobility. The rate at which heat flux dropsUnderstanding electron heat flux signatures in the solar wind C. Pagel,1 N. U. Crooker,1 D. E

  15. Systematic Measurements of Ion-Proton Differential Streaming in the Solar Wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berger, L.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Gloeckler, G. [Extraterrestrial Physics, Institute for Experimental and Applied Physics, Christian-Albrechts-University Kiel, Leibnizstrasse 11-19, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2143 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    The small amount of heavy ions in the highly rarefied solar wind are sensitive tracers for plasma-physics processes, which are usually not accessible in the laboratory. We have analyzed differential streaming between heavy ions and protons in the solar wind at 1 AU. 3D velocity vector and magnetic field measurements from the Solar Wind Electron Proton Alpha Monitor and the Magnetometer aboard the Advanced Composition Explorer were used to reconstruct the ion-proton difference vector v{sub ip}=v{sub i}-v{sub p} from the 12 min 1D Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer observations. We find that all 44 analyzed heavy ions flow along the interplanetary magnetic field at velocities which are smaller than, but comparable to, the local Alfven speed C{sub A}. The flow speeds of 35 of the 44 ion species lie within the range of {+-}0.15C{sub A} around 0.55C{sub A}, the flow speed of He{sup 2+}.

  16. Proposed model for Saturn's auroral response to the solar wind: Centrifugal instability model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, John

    Proposed model for Saturn's auroral response to the solar wind: Centrifugal instability model E. C in the intensity of Saturn Kilometric Radiation (SKR). Our model, referred to as the centrifugal instability model by centrifugally driven flux tube interchange motions, when the magnetosphere spins up, outward transport

  17. NREL Energy Models Examine the Potential for Wind and Solar Grid Integration (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    As renewable energy generating sources, such as wind turbines and solar power systems, reach high levels of penetration in parts of the United States, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is helping the utility industry to peer into the future. Using software modeling tools that the lab developed, NREL is examining the future operation of the electrical grid as renewable energy continues to grow.

  18. Langmuir wave-packet generation from an electron beam propagating in the inhomogeneous solar wind.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Langmuir wave-packet generation from an electron beam propagating in the inhomogeneous solar wind of an electron beam in an homogeneous plasma leads to the generation of Lang- muir waves, that are electrostatic of the generation of plasma waves during type III radio bursts or close to the electron foreshock. It is also known

  19. Electron and proton heating by solar wind turbulence B. Breech,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oughton, Sean

    magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence are generalized to incorporate separate internal energy equations for electronsElectron and proton heating by solar wind turbulence B. Breech,1 W. H. Matthaeus,2 S. R. Cranmer,3 and protons. Electron heat conduction is included. Energy is supplied by turbulent heating that affects both

  20. Magnetic fields at the solar wind termination shock L. F. Burlaga1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, John

    LETTERS Magnetic fields at the solar wind termination shock L. F. Burlaga1 , N. F. Ness2 , M. H and dynamics of the termination shock, made by Voyager 2 on 31 August­1 September 2007 at a distance of 83.7 AU') at the shock. This Letter discusses three termination shock crossings (TS-2, TS- 3 and TS-4) that were observed

  1. THE DYNAMIC QUIET SUN: CONTRIBUTION TO CORONAL HEATING ANF SOLAR WIND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE DYNAMIC QUIET SUN: CONTRIBUTION TO CORONAL HEATING ANF SOLAR WIND Maria Madjarska Wednesday, September 19, 2012 #12;The dynamic Sun at all scales Wednesday, September 19, 2012 #12;The dynamic Sun at all scales Wednesday, September 19, 2012 #12;The dynamic Sun at all scales Wednesday, September 19

  2. Impacts of Wind and Solar on Fossil-Fueled Generators: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Agan, D.; Lefton, S.

    2012-08-01

    High penetrations of wind and solar power will impact the operations of the remaining generators on the power system. Regional integration studies have shown that wind and solar may cause fossil-fueled generators to cycle on and off and ramp down to part load more frequently and potentially more rapidly. Increased cycling, deeper load following, and rapid ramping may result in wear-and-tear impacts on fossil-fueled generators that lead to increased capital and maintenance costs, increased equivalent forced outage rates, and degraded performance over time. Heat rates and emissions from fossil-fueled generators may be higher during cycling and ramping than during steady-state operation. Many wind and solar integration studies have not taken these increased cost and emissions impacts into account because data have not been available. This analysis considers the cost and emissions impacts of cycling and ramping of fossil-fueled generation to refine assessments of wind and solar impacts on the power system.

  3. The Local Energy Indicator: Designing for Wind and Solar Energy Systems in the Home

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulos, Eric

    The Local Energy Indicator: Designing for Wind and Solar Energy Systems in the Home James Pierce energy for interactive systems design. We characterize local energy in terms of three themes: contextuality, seasonality, and visibility/tangibility. Here we focus on two specific local energy technologies

  4. Solar wind oscillations with a 1.3 year period John D. Richardson, Karolen I. Paularena, John W. Belcher, and Alan J. Lazaru

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, John

    Solar wind oscillations with a 1.3 year period s C John D. Richardson, Karolen I. Paularena, John W Abstract. The IMP-8 and Voyager 2 spacecraft have ecently detected a very strong modulation in the solar. Introduction The Sun emits a continuous stream of ionized particles s d called the solar wind. This wind

  5. A New Model for the Prediction of Dst on the Basis of the Solar Wind Space Sciences Lab., University of California, Berkeley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xinlin

    1 A New Model for the Prediction of Dst on the Basis of the Solar Wind M. Temerin Space Sciences on solar wind data for the years 1995-1999 gives a good fit with a prediction efficiency of 88%, a linear and a term proportional to the square root of the solar wind dynamic pressure is added to give the predicted

  6. arXiv:0710.0763v1[astro-ph]3Oct2007 Small scale energy cascade of the solar wind turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexandrova, Olga

    arXiv:0710.0763v1[astro-ph]3Oct2007 Small scale energy cascade of the solar wind turbulence O depends neither on the energy injection nor on the energy dissipation processes. In the solar wind/CNR, Ponte P. Bucci, Cubo 33B, 87036 Rende (CS), Italy ABSTRACT Magnetic fluctuations in the solar wind

  7. Features of a fully renewable US electricity system: Optimized mixes of wind and solar PV and transmission grid extensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, Sarah; Andresen, Gorm B; Zeyer, Timo; Schramm, Stefan; Greiner, Martin; Jacobson, Mark Z

    2014-01-01

    Wind and solar PV generation data for the entire contiguous US are calculated, on the basis of 32 years of weather data with temporal resolution of one hour and spatial resolution of 40x40km$^2$, assuming site-suitability-based as well as stochastic wind and solar PV capacity distributions throughout the country. These data are used to investigate a fully renewable electricity system, resting primarily upon wind and solar PV power. We find that the seasonal optimal mix of wind and solar PV comes at around 80% solar PV share, owing to the US summer load peak. By picking this mix, long-term storage requirements can be more than halved compared to a wind only mix. The daily optimal mix lies at about 80% wind share due to the nightly gap in solar PV production. Picking this mix instead of solar only reduces backup energy needs by about 50%. Furthermore, we calculate shifts in FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission)-level LCOE (Levelized Costs Of Electricity) for wind and solar PV due to their differing resour...

  8. Investigation of a Novel Solar Assisted Water Heating System with Enhanced Energy Yield for Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, X.; Zhao, X.; Xu, J.; Yu, X.

    2012-01-01

    utilization of the additional heat for servicing buildings. These approaches, known as PV/Thermal (PV/T) technology, have been proven effectively in increasing solar conversion ratio and making economic use of the solar energy in buildings. In recent... years, numerous researchers has made efforts to develop various PV/T technologies including those by air, water, refrigerant and heat pipe [X Zhang et al., 2012], whose research results indicated the excellent effectiveness of the PV/T devices...

  9. WP2 IEA Wind Task 26:The Past and Future Cost of Wind Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lantz, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Prospects for Offshore Wind Farms. ” Wind Engineering, 28:Techniques for Offshore Wind Farms. ” Journal of Solar

  10. Influence of Non-Potential Coronal Magnetic Topology on Solar-Wind Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, S J; Bocquet, F -X; Mackay, D H

    2015-01-01

    By comparing a magneto-frictional model of the low coronal magnetic field to a potential-field source-surface model, we investigate the possible impact of non-potential magnetic structure on empirical solar-wind models. These empirical models (such as Wang-Sheeley-Arge) estimate the distribution of solar-wind speed solely from the magnetic-field structure in the low corona. Our models are computed in a domain between the solar surface and 2.5 solar radii, and are extended to 0.1 AU using a Schatten current-sheet model. The non-potential field has a more complex magnetic skeleton and quasi-separatrix structures than the potential field, leading to different sub-structure in the solar-wind speed proxies. It contains twisted magnetic structures that can perturb the separatrix surfaces traced down from the base of the heliospheric current sheet. A significant difference between the models is the greater amount of open magnetic flux in the non-potential model. Using existing empirical formulae this leads to higher...

  11. Understanding of solar wind structure might be wrong

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAbout /Two0 - 19 Publicationsresearch reveals the effects ofSolar

  12. Solar and Wind Contractor Licensing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo.Hydrogen4Energy SmoothEquipmentSolar PV inSolarLoan to Invest

  13. Solar and Wind Easements, Local Options, and Severability | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo.Hydrogen4Energy SmoothEquipmentSolar PV inSolarLoan to

  14. Solar and Wind Energy Business Franchise Tax Exemption | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo.Hydrogen4Energy SmoothEquipmentSolar PV inSolarLoan toEnergy

  15. Solar and Wind Energy Credit (Corporate) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo.Hydrogen4Energy SmoothEquipmentSolar PV inSolarLoan

  16. Solar and Wind Energy Credit (Personal) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo.Hydrogen4Energy SmoothEquipmentSolar PV inSolarLoanPersonal)

  17. Gold SolarWind GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'SHeavy ElectricalsFTL SolarGate SolarGijeon Wintec coInc GSE

  18. Heat Transfer in Buildings: Application to Solar Air Collector and Trombe Wall Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    11 Heat Transfer in Buildings: Application to Solar Air Collector and Trombe Wall Design H. Boyer applications are finally discussed. One concerns the modeling of a flat plate air collector and the second focuses on the modeling of Trombe solar walls. In each case, detailed modeling of heat transfer allows

  19. CORRELATED STUDIES AT ACTIVITY MAXIMUM: THE SUN AND THE SOLAR WIND H. S. Hudson 1 and A. B. Galvin 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    , University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA ABSTRACT The breadth and power of the set of solar1 CORRELATED STUDIES AT ACTIVITY MAXIMUM: THE SUN AND THE SOLAR WIND H. S. Hudson 1 and A. B at solar minimum or in the declining phase of the past maxi­ mum, but we anticipate that most

  20. Solar Wind Charge Exchange Studies of Highly Charged Ions on Atomic Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Draganic, Ilija N [ORNL; Seely, D. G. [Albion College; McCammon, D [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Havener, Charles C [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Accurate studies of low energy charge exchange (CX) are critical to understanding underlying soft X ray radiation processes in the interaction of highly charged ions from the solar wind with the neutral atoms and molecules in the heliosphere, cometary comas, planetary atmospheres, interstellar winds, etc.. Particularly important are the CX cross sections for bare, H like, and He like ions of C, N, O and Ne, which are the dominant charge states for these heavier elements in the solar wind. Absolute total cross sections for single electron capture by H like ions of C, N, O and fully stripped O ions from atomic hydrogen have been measured in an expanded range of relative collision energies (5 eV u 20 keV u) and compared to previous H oven measurements. The present measurements are performed using a merged beams technique with intense highly charged ion beams extracted from a 14.5 GHz ECR ion source installed on a high voltage platform at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. For the collision energy range of 0.3 keV u 3.3 keV u, which corresponds to typical ion velocities in the solar wind, the new measurements are in good agreement with previous H oven measurements. The experimental results are discussed in detail and compared with theoretical calculations where available.

  1. Solar Wind Charge Exchange Studies Of Highly Charged Ions On Atomic Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Draganic, I. N.; Havener, C. C. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Seely, D. G. [Department of Physics, Albion College, Albion, MI 49224 (United States); McCammon, D. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Accurate studies of low-energy charge exchange (CX) are critical to understanding underlying soft X-ray radiation processes in the interaction of highly charged ions from the solar wind with the neutral atoms and molecules in the heliosphere, cometary comas, planetary atmospheres, interstellar winds, etc.. Particularly important are the CX cross sections for bare, H-like, and He-like ions of C, N, O and Ne, which are the dominant charge states for these heavier elements in the solar wind. Absolute total cross sections for single electron capture by H-like ions of C, N, O and fully-stripped O ions from atomic hydrogen have been measured in an expanded range of relative collision energies (5 eV/u-20 keV/u) and compared to previous H-oven measurements. The present measurements are performed using a merged-beams technique with intense highly charged ion beams extracted from a 14.5 GHz ECR ion source installed on a high voltage platform at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. For the collision energy range of 0.3 keV/u-3.3 keV/u, which corresponds to typical ion velocities in the solar wind, the new measurements are in good agreement with previous H-oven measurements. The experimental results are discussed in detail and compared with theoretical calculations where available.

  2. Edison Solar & Wind Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, AlabamaETEC GmbH Jump to:Providence,New Mexico: Energy ResourcesMaterial TechnologyWind

  3. Solar and Wind Equipment Sales Tax Exemption | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo.Hydrogen4Energy SmoothEquipmentSolar PVEquipment Sales Tax

  4. Solar, Wind, and Energy Efficiency Easements and Rights Laws | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo.Hydrogen4Energy SmoothEquipmentSolar PVEquipment Salesof

  5. Third Sun Solar and Wind Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJThin Film Solar Technologies Jump to: navigation,

  6. Solar wind suprathermal electron Stahl widths across high-speed stream structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skoug, Ruth M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steinberg, John T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goodrich, Katherine A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, Brett R [DARTMUTH UNIV.

    2011-01-03

    Suprathermal electrons (100-1500 eV) observed in the solar wind typically show a strahl distribution, that is, a beam directed away from the Sun along the magnetic field direction. The strahl width observed at 1 AU is highly variable, ranging from 10-70 degrees. The obsenred finite width of the strahl results from the competition between beam focusing as the interplanetary magnetic field strength drops with distance from the Sun, and pitch-angle scattering as the beam interacts with the solar wind plasma in transit from the sun. Here we examine strahl width, observed with ACE SWEPAM across high-speed stream structures to investigate variations in electron scattering as a function of local plasma characteristics. We find that narrow strahls (less than 20 degrees wide), indicating reduced scattering, are observed within high-speed streams. Narrow strahls are also observed in both very low temperature solar wind, in association with ICMEs. Case studies of high-speed streams typically show the strahl narrowing at the leading edge of the stream. In some cases, the strahl narrows at the reverse shock or pressure wave, in other cases at the stream interface. The narrowing can either occur discontinuously or gradually over a period of hours. Within the high-speed wind, the strahl remains narrow for a period of hours to days, and then gradually broadens. The strahl width is roughly constant at all energies across these structures. For some fraction of high-speed streams, counterstreaming is associated with passage of the corotating interaction region. In these cases, we find the widths of the two counterstreaming beams frequently differ by more than 40 degrees. This dramatic difference in strahl width contrasts with observations in the solar wind as a whole, in which counterstreaming strahls typically differ in width by less than 20 degrees.

  7. Chaotic mean wind in turbulent thermal convection and long-term correlations in solar activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Bershadskii

    2009-12-25

    It is shown that correlation function of the mean wind velocity in a turbulent thermal convection (Rayleigh number $Ra \\sim 10^{11}$) exhibits exponential decay with a very long correlation time, while corresponding largest Lyapunov exponent is certainly positive. These results together with the reconstructed phase portrait indicate presence of a chaotic component in the examined mean wind. Telegraph approximation is also used to study relative contribution of the chaotic and stochastic components to the mean wind fluctuations and an equilibrium between these components has been studied. Since solar activity is based on the thermal convection processes, it is reasoned that the observed solar activity long-term correlations can be an imprint of the mean wind chaotic properties. In particular, correlation function of the daily sunspots number exhibits exponential decay with a very long correlation time and corresponding largest Lyapunov exponent is certainly positive, also relative contribution of the chaotic and stochastic components follows the same pattern as for the convection mean wind.

  8. City of Portland- Streamlined Building Permits for Residential Solar Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The City of Portland's Bureau of Development Services (BDS) developed a streamlined permitting process for residential solar energy system installations. The City of Portland has staff at the...

  9. Validity of the Taylor hypothesis for linear kinetic waves in the weakly collisional solar wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howes, G. G.; Klein, K. G.; TenBarge, J. M.

    2014-07-10

    The interpretation of single-point spacecraft measurements of solar wind turbulence is complicated by the fact that the measurements are made in a frame of reference in relative motion with respect to the turbulent plasma. The Taylor hypothesis—that temporal fluctuations measured by a stationary probe in a rapidly flowing fluid are dominated by the advection of spatial structures in the fluid rest frame—is often assumed to simplify the analysis. But measurements of turbulence in upcoming missions, such as Solar Probe Plus, threaten to violate the Taylor hypothesis, either due to slow flow of the plasma with respect to the spacecraft or to the dispersive nature of the plasma fluctuations at small scales. Assuming that the frequency of the turbulent fluctuations is characterized by the frequency of the linear waves supported by the plasma, we evaluate the validity of the Taylor hypothesis for the linear kinetic wave modes in the weakly collisional solar wind. The analysis predicts that a dissipation range of solar wind turbulence supported by whistler waves is likely to violate the Taylor hypothesis, while one supported by kinetic Alfvén waves is not.

  10. Solar & Wind Equipment Certification | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo.Hydrogen4Energy Smooth BromeBuildings | Department of

  11. DOE Announces Webinars on Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems, Wind

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar:IAbout Us »Buildings Resource, and

  12. Presented July 16, 2015 2:00 PM Geothermal & Solar Breakout Session

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Branoff, Theodore J.

    sources. Geothermal Split-heat/heat pump Solar PV Solar heat Solar thermal Small/micro wind Fuel? Small wind: vibration noise? Flickering light? Maintenance? Solar: visual aesthetics? 11 #12; Determine Environmental Beautification Commission Energy and building science - experience & proficiency Owner

  13. Coronal sources and in situ properties of the solar winds sampled by ACE during 1999-2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Hui; Li, Xing; Huang, Zhenghua; Mou, Chaozhou; Jiao, Fangran; Xia, Lidong

    2015-01-01

    We identify the coronal sources of the solar winds sampled by the ACE spacecraft during 1999-2008, and examine the in situ solar wind properties as a function of wind sources. The standard two-step mapping technique is adopted to establish the photospheric footpoints of the magnetic flux tubes along which the ACE winds flow. The footpoints are then placed in the context of EIT 284~\\AA\\ images and photospheric magnetograms, allowing us to categorize the sources into four groups: coronal holes (CHs), active regions (ARs), the quiet Sun (QS), and "Undefined". This practice also enables us to establish the response to solar activity of the fractions occupied by each kind of solar winds, and of their speeds and O$^{7+}$/O$^{6+}$ ratios measured in situ. We find that during the maximum phase, the majority of ACE winds originate from ARs. During the declining phase, CHs and ARs are equally important contributors to the ACE solar winds. The QS contribution increases with decreasing solar activity, and maximizes in th...

  14. Solar and Wind Easements & Rights Laws | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher iSlide 1 More Documents &1000radiation, often6 SolarLoan to Invest

  15. Solar and Wind Energy Rebate Program | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher iSlide 1 More Documents &1000radiation, often6 SolarLoanSavings

  16. Solar and Wind Powering Wyoming Home | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher iSlide 1 More Documents &1000radiation, often6 SolarLoanSavings<

  17. NREL: Transmission Grid Integration - Western Wind and Solar Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJessework usesof EnergyY-12WorkingSolarTechnologies AvailableTransfer

  18. Solar, Wind, Hydropower: Home Renewable Energy Installations | Department

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation ofAlbuquerque|Sensitive Species3performedValley |Solar PowerofThermalSolarof

  19. Anisotropic MHD Turbulence in the Interstellar Medium and Solar Wind http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&i... 1 of 1 6/18/07 12:12 PM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Chung-Sang

    Anisotropic MHD Turbulence in the Interstellar Medium and Solar Wind http://scitation, pp. 433-438 SOLAR WIND TEN: Proceedings of the Tenth International Solar Wind Conference Full Text. Anisotropic MHD Turbulence in the Interstellar Medium and Solar Wind A. Bhattacharjee and C. S. Ng Center

  20. Suppressing the non-Gaussian statistics of Renewable Power from Wind and Solar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anvari, M; Tabar, M Reza Rahimi; Wächter, M; Milan, P; Heinemann, D; Peinke, Joachim; Lorenz, E

    2015-01-01

    The power from wind and solar exhibits a nonlinear flickering variability, which typically occurs at time scales of a few seconds. We show that high-frequency monitoring of such renewable powers enables us to detect a transition, controlled by the field size, where the output power qualitatively changes its behaviour from a flickering type to a diffusive stochastic behaviour. We find that the intermittency and strong non-Gaussian behavior in cumulative power of the total field, even for a country-wide installation still survives for both renewable sources. To overcome the short time intermittency, we introduce a time-delayed feedback method for power output of wind farm and solar field that can change further the underlying stochastic process and suppress their strong non- gaussian fluctuations.

  1. Features of a fully renewable US electricity system: Optimized mixes of wind and solar PV and transmission grid extensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Mark

    in FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission)-level LCOE (Levelized Costs Of Electricity) for wind and solar PV due to differing weather conditions. Regional LCOE vary by up to 29%, and LCOE-optimal mixes

  2. First lunar wake passage of ARTEMIS: Discrimination of wake effects and solar wind fluctuations by 3D hybrid simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    with the solar wind were found by the IMP-1 satellite (Ness et al., 1964; Ness, 1965). Later, the magnetic field the existence of a lunar wake (Ness et al., 1967). This pioneering mission revealed the low electric

  3. One-point statistics and intermittency of induced electric field in the solar wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luca Sorriso-Valvo; Vincenzo Carbone; Roberto Bruno

    2004-05-26

    The interplanetary induced electric field e=vxb is studied, using solar wind time series. The probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the electric field components are measured from the data and their non-gaussianity is discussed. Moreover, for the first time we show that the electric field turbulence is characterized by intermittency. This point is addressed by studying, as usual, the scaling of the PDFs of field increments, which allows a quantitative characterization of intermittency.

  4. Variations in solar wind fractionation as seen by ACE/SWICS over a solar cycle and the implications for Genesis Mission results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilleri, P; Zurbuchen, T H; Lepri, S T; Shearer, P; Gilbert, J A; von Steiger, R; Wiens, R C

    2015-01-01

    We use ACE/SWICS elemental composition data to compare the variations in solar wind fractionation as measured by SWICS during the last solar maximum (1999-2001), the solar minimum (2006-2009) and the period in which the Genesis spacecraft was collecting solar wind (late 2001 - early 2004). We differentiate our analysis in terms of solar wind regimes (i.e. originating from interstream or coronal hole flows, or coronal mass ejecta). Abundances are normalized to the low-FIP ion magnesium to uncover correlations that are not apparent when normalizing to high-FIP ions. We find that relative to magnesium, the other low-FIP elements are measurably fractionated, but the degree of fractionation does not vary significantly over the solar cycle. For the high-FIP ions, variation in fractionation over the solar cycle is significant: greatest for Ne/Mg and C/Mg, less so for O/Mg, and the least for He/Mg. When abundance ratios are examined as a function of solar wind speed, we find a strong correlation, with the remarkable ...

  5. Innovative Systems for Solar Air Conditioning of Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessling, W.; Peltzer, M.

    2004-01-01

    Solar air conditioning is an attractive technology to achieve comfortable room conditions, especially in hot and sunny climates. In particular air conditioning systems based on sorption technologies offer several advantages as they can be designed...

  6. Statistical study of reconnection exhausts in the solar wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enžl, J.; P?ech, L.; Šafránková, J.; N?me?ek, Z.

    2014-11-20

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental process that changes magnetic field configuration and converts a magnetic energy to flow energy and plasma heating. This paper presents a survey of the plasma and magnetic field parameters inside 418 reconnection exhausts identified in the WIND data from 1995-2012. The statistical analysis is oriented on the re-distribution of the magnetic energy released due to reconnection between a plasma acceleration and its heating. The results show that both the portion of the energy deposited into heat as well as the energy spent on the acceleration of the exhaust plasma rise with the magnetic shear angle in accord with the increase of the magnetic flux available for reconnection. The decrease of the normalized exhaust speed with the increasing magnetic shear suggests a decreasing efficiency of the acceleration and/or the increasing efficiency of heating in high-shear events. However, we have found that the already suggested relation between the exhaust speed and temperature enhancement would be rather considered as an upper limit of the plasma heating during reconnection regardless of the shear angle.

  7. Long Term Operation of Renewable Energy Building 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, V.; Starcher, K.; Davis, D.

    1996-01-01

    As part of a renewable energy project, a building was designed and constructed to demonstrate several renewable energy technologies at the Wind Test Center of the Alternative Energy Institute (AEI). The systems are passive and active heating, solar...

  8. SELF-CONSISTENT ION CYCLOTRON ANISOTROPY-BETA RELATION FOR SOLAR WIND PROTONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isenberg, Philip A.; Maruca, Bennett A.; Kasper, Justin C. E-mail: bmaruca@ssl.berkeley.edu

    2013-08-20

    We derive a set of self-consistent marginally stable states for a system of ion-cyclotron waves propagating parallel to the large-scale magnetic field through a homogeneous proton-electron plasma. The proton distributions and the wave dispersions are related through the condition that no further ion-cyclotron resonant particle scattering or wave growth/damping may take place. The thermal anisotropy of the protons in these states therefore defines the threshold value for triggering the proton-cyclotron anisotropy instability. A number of recent papers have noted that the anisotropy of solar wind protons at 1 AU does not seem to be limited by the proton-cyclotron anisotropy threshold, even at low plasma beta. However, this puzzle seems to be due solely to the estimation of this anisotropy threshold under the assumption that the protons have a bi-Maxwellian distribution. We note that bi-Maxwellian distributions are never marginally stable to the resonant cyclotron interaction, so these estimates do not represent physically valid thresholds. The threshold anisotropies obtained from our marginally stable states are much larger, as a function of proton parallel beta, than the bi-Maxwellian estimates, and we show that the measured data remains below these more rigorous thresholds. Thus, the results of this paper resolve the apparent contradiction presented by the solar wind anisotropy observations at 1 AU: the bi-Maxwellian anisotropies are not rigorous thresholds, and so do not limit the proton distributions in the solar wind.

  9. Variable cascade dynamics and intermittency in the solar wind at 1 AU

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coburn, Jesse T.; Smith, Charles W.; Vasquez, Bernard J.; Forman, Miriam A.; Stawarz, Julia E. E-mail: Charles.Smith@unh.edu E-mail: Miriam.Forman@sunysb.edu

    2014-05-01

    In recent studies by ourselves and others of third-moment expressions for the rate of energy cascade in the solar wind, it has been shown that relatively large volumes of data are needed to produce convergent averages. These averages are in good agreement with independently obtained estimates for the average heating rate for a solar wind plasma under those conditions. The unanswered question has been whether the convergence issue is the result of intermittent dynamics or simple measurement uncertainties. In other words, is the difficulty in obtaining a single result that characterizes many similarly prepared samples due to in situ dynamics that create physically real variations or simple statistics? There have been publications showing evidence of intermittent dynamics in the solar wind. Here we show that the third-moment expressions and the computed energy cascade for relatively small samples of data comparable to the correlation length are generally well-formed estimates of the local dynamics. This leads us to conclude that intermittency and not simple measurement uncertainties are responsible for the slow convergence to expected heating rates. We partially characterize the scale size of the intermittency to be comparable to or smaller than the correlation length of the turbulence and we attempt to rephrase the discussion of third moments in terms of intermittent dynamics.

  10. The global morphology of the solar wind interaction with comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendis, D. A.; Horányi, M.

    2014-10-10

    The forthcoming Rosetta-Philae mission to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko provides a novel opportunity to observe the variable nature of the solar wind interaction with a comet over an extended range of heliocentric distance. We use a simple analytical one-dimensional MHD model to estimate the sizes of the two most prominent features in the global structure of the solar wind interaction with a comet. When the heliocentric distance of the comet reaches d ? 1.51 AU, we expect a sharp shock to be observed, whose size would increase monotonically as the comet approaches the Sun, reaching a value ? 15, 000 km at perihelion (d ? 1.29 AU). Upstream of the shock, we expect the velocity-space distribution of the picked up cometary ions to be essentially gyrotropic. A well-defined ionopause is predicted when d ?1.61 AU, though its size is expected to be only ?25 km at perihelion, and it is expected to be susceptible to the 'flute' instability due to its small size. Consequently, we expect the magnetic field to penetrate all the way to the surface of the nucleus. We conclude with a brief discussion of the response of the comet's plasma environment to fast temporal variations in the solar wind.

  11. THE NONLINEAR AND NONLOCAL LINK BETWEEN MACROSCOPIC ALFVÉNIC AND MICROSCOPIC ELECTROSTATIC SCALES IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valentini, F.; Vecchio, A.; Donato, S.; Carbone, V.; Veltri, P.; Briand, C.; Bougeret, J.

    2014-06-10

    The local heating of the solar-wind gas during its expansion represents one of the most intriguing problems in space plasma physics and is at present the subject of a relevant scientific effort. The possible mechanisms that could account for local heat production in the interplanetary medium are most likely related to the turbulent character of the solar-wind plasma. Nowadays, many observational and numerical analyses are devoted to the identification of fluctuation channels along which energy is carried from large to short wavelengths during the development of the turbulent cascade; these fluctuation channels establish the link between macroscopic and microscopic scales. In this Letter, by means of a quantitative comparison between in situ measurements in the solar wind from the STEREO spacecraft and numerical results from kinetic simulations, we identify an electrostatic channel of fluctuations that develops along the turbulent cascade in a direction parallel to the ambient magnetic field. This channel appears to be efficient in transferring the energy from large Alfvénic to short electrostatic acoustic-like scales up to a range of wavelengths where it can finally be turned into heat, even when the electron to proton temperature ratio is of the order of unity.

  12. THE GENESIS SOLAR WIND CONCENTRATOR TARGET: MASS FRACTIONATION CHARACTERISED BY NE ISOTOPES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WIENS, ROGER C.; OLINGER, C.; HEBER, V.S.; REISENFELD, D.B.; BURNETT, D.S.; ALLTON, J.H.; BAUR, H.; WIECHERT, U.; WIELER, R.

    2007-01-02

    The concentrator on Genesis provides samples of increased fluences of solar wind ions for precise determination of the oxygen isotopic composition of the solar wind. The concentration process caused mass fractionation as function of the radial target position. They measured the fractionation using Ne released by UV laser ablation along two arms of the gold cross from the concentrator target to compare measured Ne with modeled Ne. The latter is based on simulations using actual conditions of the solar wind during Genesis operation. Measured Ne abundances and isotopic composition of both arms agree within uncertainties indicating a radial symmetric concentration process. Ne data reveal a maximum concentration factor of {approx} 30% at the target center and a target-wide fractionation of Ne isotopes of 3.8%/amu with monotonously decreasing {sup 20}Ne/{sup 22}Ne ratios towards the center. The experimentally determined data, in particular the isotopic fractionation, differ from the modeled data. They discuss potential reasons and propose future attempts to overcome these disagreements.

  13. Solar wind-magnetosphere coupling during intense magnetic storms (1978--1979)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, W.D. ); Tsurutani, B.T.; Gonzalez, A.L.C.; Smith, E.J.; Tang, F.; Akasofu, S.

    1989-07-01

    The solar wind-magnetosphere coupling problem is investigated for the ten intense magnetic storms (Dst {lt}{minus}100 nT) that occurred during the 500 days (August 16, 1978 to December 28, 1979) studied by Gonzalez and Tsurutani (1987). This investigation concentrates on the ring current energization in terms of solar wind parameters, in order to explain the {vert bar} {minus}Dst {vert bar} growth observed during these storms. Thus several coupling functions are tested as energy input and several sets of the ring current decay time-constant {tau} are searched to find best correlations with the Dst response. From the fairly large correlation coefficients found in this study, there is strong evidence that large scale magnetopause reconnection operates during such intense storm events and that the solar wind ram pressure plays an important role in the ring current energization. Thus a ram pressure correction factor is suggested for expressions concerning the reconnection power during time intervals with large ram pressure variations.

  14. ON THE LOW-FREQUENCY BOUNDARY OF SUN-GENERATED MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE IN THE SLOW SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shergelashvili, Bidzina M.; Fichtner, Horst

    2012-06-20

    New aspects of the slow solar wind turbulent heating and acceleration are investigated. A physical meaning of the lower boundary of the Alfven wave turbulent spectra in the solar atmosphere and the solar wind is studied and the significance of this natural parameter is demonstrated. Via an analytical and quantitative treatment of the problem we show that a truncation of the wave spectra from the lower frequency side, which is a consequence of the solar magnetic field structure and its cyclic changes, results in a significant reduction of the heat production and acceleration rates. An appropriate analysis is presented regarding the link of the considered problem with existing observational data and slow solar wind initiation scenarios.

  15. Puerto Rico- Building Energy Code with Mandatory Solar Water Heating

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2009, the Governor of Puerto Rico provided assurance that Puerto Rico would update its building energy codes as part of the state's application for State Energy Program funds from the American...

  16. Solar Energy Windows and Smart IR Switchable Building Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarny, James; Kornish, Brian

    2011-09-30

    The three building envelope functions with the largest impact on the energy usage are illumination, energy flux and energy production. In general, these three functions are addressed separately in the building design. A step change toward a zero-energy building can be achieved with a glazing system that combines these three functions and their control into a single unit. In particular, significant value could be realized if illumination into the building is dynamically controlled such that it occurs during periods of low load on the grid (e.g., morning) to augment illumination supplied by interior lights and then to have that same light diverted to PV energy production and the thermal energy rejected during periods of high load on the grid. The objective of this project is to investigate the feasibility of a glazing unit design that integrates these three key functions (illumination and energy flux control, and power production) into a single module.

  17. Features of a fully renewable US electricity system: Optimized mixes of wind and solar PV and transmission grid extensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Mark

    . To quantify general features of such a weather dependent electricity supply in the contiguous US, windFeatures of a fully renewable US electricity system: Optimized mixes of wind and solar PV and transmission grid extensions Sarah Becker a, b, * , Bethany A. Frew b , Gorm B. Andresen d, b , Timo Zeyer c

  18. Solar electric buildings: An overview of today`s applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This brochure presents a broad look at photovoltaic-powered buildings. It includes residential and commercial systems, both stand-alone and connected to utility power, that are located in urban, near-urban, and rural settings around the world. As photovoltaic (PV) technology continues to improve and costs drop, opportunities for PV will multiply. PV systems for buildings, such as those shown here, represent one of the strongest near-term markets.

  19. Building America Best Practices Series, Volume 6: High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Ruiz, Kathleen A.; Steward, Heidi E.; Love, Pat M.

    2007-06-04

    This guide is was written by PNNL for the US Department of Energy's Building America program to provide information for residential production builders interested in building near zero energy homes. The guide provides indepth descriptions of various roof-top photovoltaic power generating systems for homes. The guide also provides extensive information on various designs of solar thermal water heating systems for homes. The guide also provides construction company owners and managers with an understanding of how solar technologies can be added to their homes in a way that is cost effective, practical, and marketable. Twelve case studies provide examples of production builders across the United States who are building energy-efficient homes with photovoltaic or solar water heating systems.

  20. The evolution of 1 AU equatorial solar wind and its association with the morphology of the heliospheric current sheet from solar cycles 23 to 24

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, L.; Landi, E.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Fisk, L. A.; Lepri, S. T.

    2014-09-20

    The solar wind can be categorized into three types based on its 'freeze-in' temperature (T {sub freeze-in}) in the coronal source: low T {sub freeze-in} wind mostly from coronal holes, high T {sub freeze-in} wind mostly from regions outside of coronal holes, including streamers (helmet streamer and pseudostreamer), active regions, etc., and transient interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) usually possessing the hottest T {sub freeze-in}. The global distribution of these three types of wind has been investigated by examining the most effective T {sub freeze-in} indicator, the O{sup 7+}/O{sup 6+} ratio, as measured by the Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer on board the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) during 1998-2008 by Zhao et al. In this study, we extend the previous investigation to 2011 June, covering the unusual solar minimum between solar cycles 23 and 24 (2007-2010) and the beginning of solar cycle 24. We find that during the entire solar cycle, from the ascending phase of cycle 23 in 1998 to the ascending phase of cycle 24 in 2011, the average fractions of the low O{sup 7+}/O{sup 6+} ratio (LOR) wind, the high O{sup 7+}/O{sup 6+} ratio (HOR) wind, and ICMEs at 1 AU are 50.3%, 39.4%, and 10.3%, respectively; the contributions of the three types of wind evolve with time in very different ways. In addition, we compare the evolution of the HOR wind with two heliospheric current sheet (HCS) parameters, which indicate the latitudinal standard deviation (SD) and the slope (SL) of the HCS on the synoptic Carrington maps at 2.5 solar radii surface. We find that the fraction of HOR wind correlates with SD and SL very well (slightly better with SL than with SD), especially after 2005. This result verifies the link between the production of HOR wind and the morphology of the HCS, implying that at least one of the major sources of the HOR wind must be associated with the HCS.

  1. Request for Information: Request for Information for Solar on Leased Commercial Buildings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In order to promote adoption of photovoltaics and other advanced cost-effective technologies for commercial buildings, the U.S. Department of Energy’s SunShot Initiative and the Better Buildings Alliance (BBA) are exploring best strategies to support, expand, and streamline efforts to deploy solar photovoltaics on and for commercial buildings in the U.S. real estate market. Understanding the benefits and most prominent challenges for building owners, tenants and other stakeholders is essential for developing resources and solutions to promote solar installations in this market. Areas of key interest center on technical, economic, administrative, and legal barriers and opportunities to reduce costs of capital, lower operational risks, protect consumers, and increase efficient market activities.

  2. Implementing Solar PV Projects on Historic Buildings and in Historic Districts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kandt, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Walker, A.; Buddenborg, J; Lindberg, J.

    2011-09-01

    Many municipalities, particularly in older communities of the United States, have a large amount of historic buildings and districts. In addition to preserving these historic assets, many municipalities have goals or legislative requirements to procure a certain amount of energy from renewable sources and to become more efficient in their energy use; often, these requirements do not exempt historic buildings. This paper details findings from a workshop held in Denver, Colorado, in June 2010 that brought together stakeholders from both the solar and historic preservation industries. Based on these findings, this paper identifies challenges and recommends solutions for developing solar photovoltaic (PV) projects on historic buildings and in historic districts in such a way as to not affect the characteristics that make a building eligible for historic status.

  3. Atmospheric radiative transfer parametrization for solar energy yield calculations on buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Jochen E

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the practical approach to evaluate the incoming solar radiation on buildings based on atmospheric composition and cloud cover is presented. The effects of absorption and scattering due to atmospheric composition is taken into account to calculate, using radiative transfer models, the net incoming solar radiation at surface level. A specific validation of the Alpine Region in Europe is presented with a special focus on the region of South Tyrol.

  4. Methodology for Estimating Solar Potential on Multiple Building Rooftops for Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kodysh, Jeffrey B [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL; Neish, Bradley S [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a methodology for estimating solar potential on multiple building rooftops is presented. The objective of this methodology is to estimate the daily or monthly solar radiation potential on individual buildings in a city/region using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data and a geographic information system (GIS) approach. Conceptually, the methodology is based on the upward-looking hemispherical viewshed algorithm, but applied using an area-based modeling approach. The methodology considers input parameters, such as surface orientation, shadowing effect, elevation, and atmospheric conditions, that influence solar intensity on the earth s surface. The methodology has been implemented for some 212,000 buildings in Knox County, Tennessee, USA. Based on the results obtained, the methodology seems to be adequate for estimating solar radiation on multiple building rooftops. The use of LiDAR data improves the radiation potential estimates in terms of the model predictive error and the spatial pattern of the model outputs. This methodology could help cities/regions interested in sustainable projects to quickly identify buildings with higher potentials for roof-mounted photovoltaic systems.

  5. Figure 1. The net load, or power load minus wind and solar generation, for the state of California on March 31.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nehorai, Arye

    increase in solar and wind installations. This graph, often called a "Duck Curve" in the industry because can have. When a power grid has a large #12;2 amount of solar power capacity, the middle of this curve1 Figure 1. The net load, or power load minus wind and solar generation, for the state

  6. Corotating solar wind structures and recurrent trains of enhanced diurnal variation in galactic cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeeram, T.; Ruffolo, D.; Sáiz, A.; Kamyan, N.; Nutaro, T. E-mail: david.ruf@mahidol.ac.th E-mail: p_chang24@hotmail.com

    2014-04-01

    Data from the Princess Sirindhorn Neutron Monitor at Doi Inthanon, Thailand, with a vertical cutoff rigidity of 16.8 GV, were utilized to determine the diurnal anisotropy (DA) of Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) near Earth during solar minimum conditions between 2007 November and 2010 November. We identified trains of enhanced DA over several days, which often recur after a solar rotation period (?27 days). By investigating solar coronal holes as identified from synoptic maps and solar wind parameters, we found that the intensity and anisotropy of cosmic rays are associated with the high-speed streams (HSSs) in the solar wind, which are in turn related to the structure and evolution of coronal holes. An enhanced DA was observed after the onset of some, but not all, HSSs. During time periods of recurrent trains, the DA was often enhanced or suppressed according to the sign of the interplanetary magnetic field B, which suggests a contribution from a mechanism involving a southward gradient in the GCR density, n, and a gradient anisotropy along B × ?n. In one non-recurrent and one recurrent sequence, an HSS from an equatorial coronal hole was merged with that from a trailing mid-latitude extension of a polar coronal hole, and the slanted HSS structure in space with suppressed GCR density can account for the southward GCR gradient. We conclude that the gradient anisotropy is a source of temporary changes in the GCR DA under solar minimum conditions, and that the latitudinal GCR gradient can sometimes be explained by the coronal hole morphology.

  7. The energy market is diversifying. In addition to traditional power sources, decision makers can choose among solar, wind, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the steps of analyzing the energy outputs and economics of a solar, wind, or geothermal project. NREL power towers. SAM even calculates the value of saved energy from a domestic solar water heating systeminnovati n The energy market is diversifying. In addition to traditional power sources, decision

  8. Cross polar cap potentials measured with Super Dual Auroral Radar Network during quasi-steady solar wind and interplanetary magnetic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shepherd, Simon

    Cross polar cap potentials measured with Super Dual Auroral Radar Network during quasi-steady solar, or cross polar cap potential, ÈPC. Periods are chosen to satisfy the criteria that (1) the solar wind-based radars to functional forms of the electrostatic potential [Ruohoniemi and Baker, 1998]; and global mag

  9. Evolution of turbulence in the expanding solar wind, a numerical study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Yue; Grappin, Roland; Verdini, Andrea E-mail: verdini@arcetri.astro.it

    2014-10-01

    We study the evolution of turbulence in the solar wind by solving numerically the full three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations embedded in a radial mean wind. The corresponding equations (expanding box model or EBM) have been considered earlier but never integrated in 3D simulations. Here, we follow the development of turbulence from 0.2 AU up to about 1.5 AU. Starting with isotropic spectra scaling as k {sup –1}, we observe a steepening toward a k {sup –5/3} scaling in the middle of the wave number range and formation of spectral anisotropies. The advection of a plasma volume by the expanding solar wind causes a non-trivial stretching of the volume in directions transverse to radial and the selective decay of the components of velocity and magnetic fluctuations. These two effects combine to yield the following results. (1) Spectral anisotropy: gyrotropy is broken, and the radial wave vectors have most of the power. (2) Coherent structures: radial streams emerge that resemble the observed microjets. (3) Energy spectra per component: they show an ordering in good agreement with the one observed in the solar wind at 1 AU. The latter point includes a global dominance of the magnetic energy over kinetic energy in the inertial and f {sup –1} range and a dominance of the perpendicular-to-the-radial components over the radial components in the inertial range. We conclude that many of the above properties are the result of evolution during transport in the heliosphere, and not just the remnant of the initial turbulence close to the Sun.

  10. Moving Toward Zero Energy Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ginsberg, M.

    2008-01-01

    to optimize the performance of the building. Then we need the best renewable energy technologies that can be incorporated into buildings: solar, small wind, and geothermal heat pumps (some day hydrogen storage). I see the day when every building... Conference for Enhanced Building Operations - ICEBO?08 Conference Center of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology Berlin, October 20 - 22, 2008 Mark Ginsberg Senior Executive Board Member EERE Board of Directors U.S. Department of Energy...

  11. One-Up On L1: Can X-rays Provide Longer Advanced Warning of Solar Wind Flux Enhancements Than Upstream Monitors?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. R. Collier; T. E. Moore; S. L. Snowden; K. D. Kuntz

    2005-02-17

    Observations of strong solar wind proton flux correlations with ROSAT X-ray rates along with high spectral resolution Chandra observations of X-rays from the dark Moon show that soft X-ray emission mirrors the behavior of the solar wind. In this paper, based on an analysis of an X-ray event observed by XMM-Newton resulting from charge exchange of high charge state solar wind ions and contemporaneous neutral solar wind data, we argue that X-ray observations may be able to provide reliable advance warning, perhaps by as much as half a day, of dramatic increases in solar wind flux at Earth. Like neutral atom imaging, this provides the capability to monitor the solar wind remotely rather than in-situ.

  12. A STEADY-STATE PICTURE OF SOLAR WIND ACCELERATION AND CHARGE STATE COMPOSITION DERIVED FROM A GLOBAL WAVE-DRIVEN MHD MODEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landi, E.

    The higher charge states found in slow (<400 km s[superscript ?1]) solar wind streams compared to fast streams have supported the hypothesis that the slow wind originates in closed coronal loops and is released intermittently ...

  13. Building a market for small wind: The break-even turnkey cost of residential wind systems in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Jennifer L.; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Forsyth, Trudy

    2004-01-01

    Wind Energy Association WindPower 2002 Conference, 3-5 JunePRESENTED AT GLOBAL WINDPOWER 2004 CHICAGO, ILLINOIS W IND EModel, prepared by Bergey Windpower Co. for the National

  14. Four Corners Wind Resource Center Webinar: Building Utility-Scale Wind: Permitting and Regulation Lessons for County Decision-Makers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Four Corners Wind Resource Center will host this webinar exploring lessons learned in the permitting of utility-scale wind projects and the development of ordinances and regulations for...

  15. STOCHASTIC HEATING, DIFFERENTIAL FLOW, AND THE ALPHA-TO-PROTON TEMPERATURE RATIO IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandran, B. D. G.; Verscharen, D.; Isenberg, P. A.; Bourouaine, S.; Quataert, E.; Kasper, J. C. E-mail: s.bourouaine@unh.edu E-mail: daniel.verscharen@unh.edu E-mail: jkasper@cfa.harvard.edu

    2013-10-10

    We extend previous theories of stochastic ion heating to account for the motion of ions along the magnetic field B . We derive an analytic expression for the temperature ratio T{sub i}/T{sub p} in the solar wind assuming that stochastic heating is the dominant ion heating mechanism, where T{sub i} is the perpendicular temperature of species i and T{sub p} is the perpendicular proton temperature. This expression describes how T{sub i}/T{sub p} depends upon U{sub i} and ?{sub ?p}, where U{sub i} is the average velocity along B of species i in the proton frame and ?{sub ?p} is the ratio of the parallel proton pressure to the magnetic pressure, which we take to be ?< 1. We compare our model with previously published measurements of alpha particles and protons from the Wind spacecraft. We find that stochastic heating offers a promising explanation for the dependence of T{sub ?}/T{sub p} on U{sub ?} and ?{sub ?p} when the fractional cross helicity and Alfvén ratio at the proton-gyroradius scale have values that are broadly consistent with solar-wind measurements. We also predict how the temperatures of other ion species depend on their drift speeds.

  16. Radial evolution of the intermittency of density fluctuations in the fast solar wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruno, R.; D'Amicis, R.; Telloni, D.; Primavera, L.; Sorriso-Valvo, L.; Carbone, V.; Malara, F.; Veltri, P.

    2014-05-01

    We study the radial evolution of the intermittency of density fluctuations in the fast solar wind. The study is performed by analyzing the plasma density measurements provided by Helios 2 in the inner heliosphere between 0.3 and 0.9 AU. The analysis is carried out by means of a complete set of diagnostic tools, including the flatness factor at different timescales to estimate intermittency, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to estimate the degree of intermittency, and the Fourier transform to estimate the power spectral densities of these fluctuations. Density fluctuations within the fast wind are rather intermittent and their level of intermittency, together with the amplitude of intermittent events, decreases with the distance from the Sun, at odds with the intermittency of both magnetic field and all other plasma parameters. Furthermore, the intermittent events are strongly correlated, exhibiting temporal clustering. This indicates that the mechanism underlying their generation departs from a time-varying Poisson process. A remarkable, qualitative similarity with the behavior of plasma density fluctuations obtained from a numerical study of the nonlinear evolution of parametric instability in the solar wind supports the idea that this mechanism has an important role in governing density fluctuations in the inner heliosphere.

  17. Impact of dispersed solar and wind systems on electric distribution planning and operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boardman, R.W.; Patton, R.; Curtice, D.H.

    1981-02-01

    Small-scale dispersed solar photovoltaic and wind generation (DSW) will affect the generation, transmission, and distribution systems of an electric utility. This study examines the technical and economic impacts of dispersing DSW devices within the distribution system. Dispersed intermittent generation is included. Effects of DSW devices on capital investments, reliability, operating and maintenance costs, protection requirements, and communication and control requirements are examined. A DSW operation model is developed to help determine the dependable capacity of fluctuating solar photovoltaic and wind generation as part of the distribution planning process. Specific case studies using distribution system data and renewable resource data for Southern California Edison Company and Consumers Power Company are analyzed to gain insights into the effects of interconnecting DSW devices. The DSW devices were found to offer some distribution investment savings, depending on their availability during peak loads. For a summer-peaking utility, for example, dispersing photovoltaic systems is more likely to defer distribution capital investments than dispersing wind systems. Dispersing storage devices to increase DSW's dependable capacity for distribution systems needs is not economically attractive. Substation placement of DSW and storage devices is found to be more cost effective than feeder or customer placement. Examination of the effects of DSW on distribution system operation showed that small customer-owned DSW devices are not likely to disrupt present time-current distribution protection coordination. Present maintenance work procedures, are adequate to ensure workmen's safety. Regulating voltages within appropriate limits will become more complex with intermittent generation along the distribution feeders.

  18. A NEW THREE-DIMENSIONAL SOLAR WIND MODEL IN SPHERICAL COORDINATES WITH A SIX-COMPONENT GRID

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Xueshang; Zhang, Man; Zhou, Yufen

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics numerical model to simulate the steady state ambient solar wind from the solar surface to 215 R {sub s} or beyond, and the model adopts a splitting finite-volume scheme based on a six-component grid system in spherical coordinates. By splitting the magnetohydrodynamics equations into a fluid part and a magnetic part, a finite volume method can be used for the fluid part and a constrained-transport method able to maintain the divergence-free constraint on the magnetic field can be used for the magnetic induction part. This new second-order model in space and time is validated when modeling the large-scale structure of the solar wind. The numerical results for Carrington rotation 2064 show its ability to produce structured solar wind in agreement with observations.

  19. Recent Observations of Plasma and Alfvenic Wave Energy Injection at the Base of the Fast Solar Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McIntosh, Scott W

    2012-01-01

    We take stock of recent observations that identify the episodic plasma heating and injection of Alfvenic energy at the base of fast solar wind (in coronal holes). The plasma heating is associated with the occurrence of chromospheric spicules that leave the lower solar atmosphere at speeds of order 100km/s, the hotter coronal counterpart of the spicule emits radiation characteristic of root heating that rapidly reaches temperatures of the order of 1MK. Furthermore, the same spicules and their coronal counterparts ("Propagating Coronal Disturbances"; PCD) exhibit large amplitude, high speed, Alfvenic (transverse) motion of sufficient energy content to accelerate the material to high speeds. We propose that these (disjointed) heating and accelerating components form a one-two punch to supply, and then accelerate, the fast solar wind. We consider some compositional constraints on this concept, extend the premise to the slow solar wind, and identify future avenues of exploration.

  20. Automated Continuous Commissioning of Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    wind information and solar radiation etc. , is available,wind information and solar radiation etc. , is available,humidity, wind, solar radiation) and resulting envelope heat

  1. Proton Kinetic Effects and Turbulent Energy Cascade Rate in the Solar Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osman, Kareem T; Kiyani, Khurom H; Hnat, Bogdan; Chapman, Sandra C

    2013-01-01

    The first observed connection between kinetic instabilities driven by proton temperature anisotropy and estimated energy cascade rates in the turbulent solar wind is reported using measurements from the Wind spacecraft at 1 AU. We find enhanced cascade rates are concentrated along the boundaries of the ($\\beta_{\\parallel}$, $T_{\\perp}/T_{\\parallel}$)-plane, which includes regions theoretically unstable to the mirror and firehose instabilities. A strong correlation is observed between the estimated cascade rate and kinetic effects such as temperature anisotropy and plasma heating, resulting in protons 5-6 times hotter and 70-90% more anisotropic than under typical isotropic plasma conditions. These results offer new insights into kinetic processes in a turbulent regime.

  2. Nationwide Analysis of U.S. Commercial Building Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Breakeven Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Carolyn; Gagnon, Pieter; Denholm, Paul; Margolis, Robert

    2015-10-01

    The commercial sector offers strong potential for solar photovoltaics (PV) owing to abundant available roof space suitable for PV and the opportunity to offset the sector's substantial retail electricity purchases. This report evaluated the breakeven price of PV for 15 different building types and various financing options by calculating electricity savings based on detailed rate structures for most U.S. utility territories (representing approximately two thirds of U.S. commercial customers). We find that at current capital costs, an estimated 1/3 of U.S. commercial customers break even in the cash scenario and approximately 2/3 break even in the loan scenario. Variation in retail rates is a stronger driver of breakeven prices than is variation in building load or solar generation profiles. At the building level, variation in the average breakeven price is largely driven by the ability for a PV system to reduce demand charges.

  3. Imaging the heliosphere using neutral atoms from solar wind energy down to 15 eV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galli, A.; Wurz, P.; Fuselier, S. A.; McComas, D. J.; Bzowski, M.; Sokó?, J. M.; Kubiak, M. A.; Möbius, E.

    2014-11-20

    We study the spatial and temporal distribution of hydrogen energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) from the heliosheath observed with the IBEX-Lo sensor of the Interstellar Boundary EXplorer (IBEX) from solar wind energies down to the lowest available energy (15 eV). All available IBEX-Lo data from 2009 January until 2013 June were included. The sky regions imaged when the spacecraft was outside of Earth's magnetosphere and when the Earth was moving toward the direction of observation offer a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio even at very low energies. We find that the ENA ribbon—a 20° wide region of high ENA intensities—is most prominent at solar wind energies whereas it fades at lower energies. The maximum emission in the ribbon is located near the poles for 2 keV and closer to the ecliptic plane for energies below 1 keV. This shift is an evidence that the ENA ribbon originates from the solar wind. Below 0.1 keV, the ribbon can no longer be identified against the globally distributed ENA signal. The ENA measurements in the downwind direction are affected by magnetospheric contamination below 0.5 keV, but a region of very low ENA intensities can be identified from 0.1 keV to 2 keV. The energy spectra of heliospheric ENAs follow a uniform power law down to 0.1 keV. Below this energy, they seem to become flatter, which is consistent with predictions. Due to the subtraction of local background, the ENA intensities measured with IBEX agree with the upper limit derived from Ly? observations.

  4. Integrating Wind and Solar Energy in the U.S. Bulk Power System: Lessons from Regional Integration Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Lew, D.

    2012-09-01

    Two recent studies sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have examined the impacts of integrating high penetrations of wind and solar energy on the Eastern and Western electric grids. The Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS), initiated in 2007, examined the impact on power system operations of reaching 20% to 30% wind energy penetration in the Eastern Interconnection. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) examined the operational implications of adding up to 35% wind and solar energy penetration to the Western Interconnect. Both studies examined the costs of integrating variable renewable energy generation into the grid and transmission and operational changes that might be necessary to address higher penetrations of wind or solar generation. This paper identifies key insights from these regional studies for integrating high penetrations of renewables in the U.S. electric grid. The studies share a number of key findings, although in some instances the results vary due to differences in grid operations and markets, the geographic location of the renewables, and the need for transmission.

  5. NREL Confirms Large Potential for Grid Integration of Wind, Solar Power (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    To fully harvest the nation's bountiful wind and solar resources, it is critical to know how much electrical power from these renewable resources could be integrated reliably into the grid. To inform the discussion about the potential of such variable sources, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) launched two key regional studies, examining the east and west sections of the U.S. power grid. The studies show that it is technically possible for U.S. power systems to integrate 20%-35% renewable electricity if infrastructure and operational improvements can be made.

  6. Analysis of Cycling Costs in Western Wind and Solar Integration Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, G.; Venkataraman, S.

    2012-06-01

    The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) examined the impact of up to 30% penetration of variable renewable generation on the Western Electricity Coordinating Council system. Although start-up costs and higher operating costs because of part-load operation of thermal generators were included in the analysis, further investigation of additional costs associated with thermal unit cycling was deemed worthwhile. These additional cycling costs can be attributed to increases in capital as well as operations and maintenance costs because of wear and tear associated with increased unit cycling. This analysis examines the additional cycling costs of the thermal fleet by leveraging the results of WWSIS Phase 1 study.

  7. Final Solar and Wind H2 Report EPAct 812.doc | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015Executive Order14,Energy 9,UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT||Solar and Wind H2

  8. Solar Design Standards for State Buildings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo.Hydrogen4Energy Smooth BromeBuildingsDesign Standards for State

  9. Solar Decathlon 2013: Let the Building Begin | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment ofOffice|inWestMayBuilding K-25 cleanup atDepartment ofHow|

  10. Solar Decathlon 2013: Let the Building Begin | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment ofOffice|inWestMayBuilding K-25 cleanup atDepartment ofHow|Day 7

  11. WHITE-LIGHT OBSERVATIONS OF SOLAR WIND TRANSIENTS AND COMPARISON WITH AUXILIARY DATA SETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, T. A.; DeForest, C. E.; Reinard, A. A.

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents results utilizing a new data processing pipeline for STEREO/SECCHI. The pipeline is used to identify and track 24 large- and small-scale solar wind transients from the Sun out to 1 AU. This comparison was performed during a few weeks around the minimum at the end of Solar Cycle 23 and the start of Cycle 24 (2008 December to 2009 January). We use coronagraph data to identify features near the Sun, track them through HI-2A, and identify their signatures with in situ data at the Earth and STEREO-B. We provide measurements and preliminary analysis of the in situ signatures of these features near 1 AU. Along with the demonstration of the utility of heliospheric imagers for tracking even small-scale structures, we identify and discuss an important limitation in using geometric triangulation for determining three-dimensional properties.

  12. Suprathermal electron loss cone distributions in the solar wind: Ulysses observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, J.L.; Feldman, W.C.; Gosling, J.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hammond, C.M. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Forsyth, R.J. [Imperial Coll. of Science and Technology, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-09-01

    We present observations by the Ulysses solar wind plasma experiment of a new class of suprathermal electron signatures. At low solar latitudes and heliocentric distances beyond 3.37 AU Ulysses encountered seven intervals, ranging in duration from 1 hour to 22 hours, in which the suprathermal distributions included an antisunward field-aligned beam and a return population with a flux dropout typically spanning {plus_minus}60 ft from the sunward field-aligned direction. All events occurred between the forward and reverse shocks or waves bounding corotating interaction regions (CIRs). The observations support a scenario in which the sunward-moving electrons result from reflection of the prevailing antisunward field-aligned beam at magnetic field compressions downstream from the spacecraft, with wide loss cones caused by the relatively weak mirror ratio. This hypothesis requires that the field magnitude within the CIRs actually increased locally with increasing field-aligned distance from the Sun.

  13. Solar heating and cooling of residential buildings: design of systems, 1980 edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-09-01

    This manual was prepared primarily for use in conducting a practical training course on the design of solar heating and cooling systems for residential and small office buildings, but may also be useful as a general reference text. The content level is appropriate for persons with different and varied backgrounds, although it is assumed that readers possess a basic understanding of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems of conventional (non-solar) types. This edition is a revision of the manual with the same title, first printed and distributed by the US Government Printing Office in October 1977. The manual has been reorganized, new material has been added, and outdated information has been deleted. Only active solar systems are described. Liquid and air-heating solar systems for combined space and service water heating or service water heating are included. Furthermore, only systems with proven experience are discussed to any extent.

  14. Solar and Wind Easements & Rights Laws & Local Option Solar Rights Law |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment ofOffice|inWestMayBuilding K-25 cleanupSavingsTennessee11WhileDepartment

  15. Effects of electron drift on the collisionless damping of kinetic Alfv\\'en waves in the solar wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tong, Yuguang; Chen, Christopher H K; Salem, Chadi S; Verscharen, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The collisionless dissipation of anisotropic Alfv\\'enic turbulence is a promising candidate to solve the solar wind heating problem. Extensive studies examined the kinetic properties of Alfv\\'en waves in simple Maxwellian or bi-Maxwellian plasmas. However, the observed electron velocity distribution functions in the solar wind are more complex. In this study, we analyze the properties of kinetic Alfv\\'en waves in a plasma with two drifting electron populations. We numerically solve the linearized Maxwell-Vlasov equations and find that the damping rate and the proton-electron energy partition for kinetic Alfv\\'en waves are significantly modified in such plasmas, compared to plasmas without electron drifts. We suggest that electron drift is an important factor to take into account when considering the dissipation of Alfv\\'enic turbulence in the solar wind or other $\\beta \\sim 1$ astrophysical plasmas.

  16. Searching for the Optimal Mix of Solar and Efficiency in Zero Net Energy Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horowitz, S.; Christensen, C.; Anderson, R.

    2008-01-01

    Zero net energy (ZNE) buildings employ efficiency to reduce energy consumption and solar technologies to produce as much energy on site as is consumed on an annual basis. Such buildings leverage utility grids and net-metering agreements to reduce solar system costs and maintenance requirements relative to off-grid photovoltaic (PV)-powered buildings with batteries. The BEopt software was developed to efficiently identify cost-optimal building designs using detailed hour-by-hour energy simulation programs to evaluate the user-selected options. A search technique identifies optimal and near-optimal building designs (based on energy-related costs) at various levels of energy savings along the path from a reference building to a ZNE design. In this paper, we describe results based on use of the BEopt software to develop cost-optimal paths to ZNE for various climates. Comparing the different cases shows optimal building design characteristics, percent energy savings and cash flows at key points along the path, including the point at which investments shift from building improvements to purchasing PV, and PV array sizes required to achieve ZNE. From optimizations using the BEopt software for a 2,000-ft{sup 2} house in 4 climates, we conclude that, relative to a code-compliant (IECC 2006) reference house, the following are achievable: (1) minimum cost point: 22 to 38% source energy savings and 15 to 24% annual cash flow savings; (2) PV start point: 40 to 49% source energy savings at 10 to 12% annual cash flow savings; (3) break-even point: 43 to 53% source energy savings at 0% annual cash flow savings; and (4) ZNE point: 100% source energy savings with 4.5 to 8.1 kW{sub DC} PV arrays and 76 to 169% increase in cash flow.

  17. INSTABILITIES DRIVEN BY THE DRIFT AND TEMPERATURE ANISOTROPY OF ALPHA PARTICLES IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verscharen, Daniel; Bourouaine, Sofiane; Chandran, Benjamin D. G. E-mail: s.bourouaine@unh.edu

    2013-08-20

    We investigate the conditions under which parallel-propagating Alfven/ion-cyclotron (A/IC) waves and fast-magnetosonic/whistler (FM/W) waves are driven unstable by the differential flow and temperature anisotropy of alpha particles in the solar wind. We focus on the limit in which w{sub Parallel-To {alpha}} {approx}> 0.25v{sub A}, where w{sub Parallel-To {alpha}} is the parallel alpha-particle thermal speed and v{sub A} is the Alfven speed. We derive analytic expressions for the instability thresholds of these waves, which show, e.g., how the minimum unstable alpha-particle beam speed depends upon w{sub Parallel-To {alpha}}/v{sub A}, the degree of alpha-particle temperature anisotropy, and the alpha-to-proton temperature ratio. We validate our analytical results using numerical solutions to the full hot-plasma dispersion relation. Consistent with previous work, we find that temperature anisotropy allows A/IC waves and FM/W waves to become unstable at significantly lower values of the alpha-particle beam speed U{sub {alpha}} than in the isotropic-temperature case. Likewise, differential flow lowers the minimum temperature anisotropy needed to excite A/IC or FM/W waves relative to the case in which U{sub {alpha}} = 0. We discuss the relevance of our results to alpha particles in the solar wind near 1 AU.

  18. Use of Solar and Wind as a Physical Hedge against Price Variability within a Generation Portfolio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkin, T.; Diakov, V.; Drury, E.; Bush, B.; Denholm, P.; Milford, J.; Arent, D.; Margolis, R.; Byrne, R.

    2013-08-01

    This study provides a framework to explore the potential use and incremental value of small- to large-scale penetration of solar and wind technologies as a physical hedge against the risk and uncertainty of electricity cost on multi-year to multi-decade timescales. Earlier studies characterizing the impacts of adding renewable energy (RE) to portfolios of electricity generators often used a levelized cost of energy or simplified net cash flow approach. In this study, we expand on previous work by demonstrating the use of an 8760 hourly production cost model (PLEXOS) to analyze the incremental impact of solar and wind penetration under a wide range of penetration scenarios for a region in the Western U.S. We do not attempt to 'optimize' the portfolio in any of these cases. Rather we consider different RE penetration scenarios, that might for example result from the implementation of a Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) to explore the dynamics, risk mitigation characteristics and incremental value that RE might add to the system. We also compare the use of RE to alternative mechanisms, such as the use of financial or physical supply contracts to mitigate risk and uncertainty, including consideration of their effectiveness and availability over a variety of timeframes.

  19. WHERE DOES FLUID-LIKE TURBULENCE BREAK DOWN IN THE SOLAR WIND?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perri, S.; Carbone, V.; Veltri, P.

    2010-12-10

    Power spectra of the magnetic field in solar wind display a Kolmogorov law f {sup -5/3} at intermediate range of frequencies f, say within the inertial range. Two spectral breaks are also observed: one separating the inertial range from an f {sup -1} spectrum at lower frequencies, and another one between the inertial range and an f {sup -7/3} spectrum at higher frequencies. The breaking of fluid-like turbulence at high frequencies has been attributed to either the occurrence of kinetic Alfven wave fluctuations above the ion-cyclotron frequency or to whistler turbulence above the frequency corresponding to the proton gyroradius. Using solar wind data, we show that the observed high-frequency spectral break seems to be independent of the distance from the Sun, and then of both the ion-cyclotron frequency and the proton gyroradius. We suppose that the observed high-frequency break could be either caused by a combination of different physical processes or associated with a remnant signature of coronal turbulence.

  20. Building a market for small wind: The break-even turnkey cost of residential wind systems in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, Jennifer L.; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Forsyth, Trudy

    2004-03-01

    Although small wind turbine technology and economics have improved in recent years, the small wind market in the United States continues to be driven in large part by state incentives, such as cash rebates, favorable loan programs, and tax credits. This paper examines the state-by-state economic attractiveness of small residential wind systems. Economic attractiveness is evaluated primarily using the break-even turnkey cost (BTC) of a residential wind system as the figure of merit. The BTC is defined here as the aggregate installed cost of a small wind system that could be supported such that the system owner would break even (and receive a specified return on investment) over the life of the turbine, taking into account current available incentives, the wind resource, and the retail electricity rate offset by on-site generation. Based on the analysis presented in this paper, we conclude that: (1) the economics of residential, grid-connected small wind systems is highly variable by state and wind resource class, (2) significant cost reductions will be necessary to stimulate widespread market acceptance absent significant changes in the level of policy support, and (3) a number of policies could help stimulate the market, but state cash incentives currently have the most significant impact, and will be a critical element of continued growth in this market.