National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for building wind solar

  1. Clark County- Solar and Wind Building Permit Guides

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Clark County, Nevada has established guides for obtaining building permits for wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) systems for both residential and commercial purposes. The guides outline applicable...

  2. Solar Wind | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wind Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Wind Place: Krasnodar, Romania Zip: 350000 Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product: Russia-based PV product manufacturer. Solar Wind...

  3. Solar and Wind Rights | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Photovoltaics Wind (All) Wind (Small) Program Info Sector Name State State...

  4. Atlantic Wind Solar Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Atlantic Wind & Solar Inc. Place: Coconut Groove, Florida Zip: 33133 Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product: Florida-based installer of distributed wind and solar systems...

  5. Chaninik Wind Group: Harnessing Wind, Building Capacity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chaninik Wind Group: Harnessing Wind, Building Capacity Installation of Village Energy Information System Smart Grid Controller, Thermal Stoves and Meters to Enhance the Efficiency of Wind- Diesel Hybrid Power Generation in Tribal Regions of Alaska Department of Energy Tribal Energy Program Review November 16-20, 2009 The Chananik Wind Group Our goal is to become the "heartbeat of our region." Department of Energy Tribal Energy Program Review November 16-20, 2009 Department of Energy

  6. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Executive Summary,...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... benefit of integrating wind and solar forecasting into grid operations? * How can hydro ... different interstate transmission build-outs and in- cluded these costs in the scenarios. ...

  7. Passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1992-10-01

    Developments in passive solar buildings that took place from the early 1970`s through 1989 are described. Much of the work covered was federally sponsored during the period 1975 through 1986. About half the volume is devoted to quantitative methods for modeling, simulation, and design analysis of passive buildings; the other half summarizes the quantitative results of testing and monitoring of models and buildings. The following are covered: building solar gain modeling, simulation analysis, simplified methods, materials and components, analytical results for specific systems, test modules, building integration, performance monitoring and results, and design tools. (MHR)

  8. Passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D. )

    1992-01-01

    Developments in passive solar buildings that took place from the early 1970's through 1989 are described. Much of the work covered was federally sponsored during the period 1975 through 1986. About half the volume is devoted to quantitative methods for modeling, simulation, and design analysis of passive buildings; the other half summarizes the quantitative results of testing and monitoring of models and buildings. The following are covered: building solar gain modeling, simulation analysis, simplified methods, materials and components, analytical results for specific systems, test modules, building integration, performance monitoring and results, and design tools. (MHR)

  9. Edison Solar & Wind Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wind Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Edison Solar & Wind Ltd Address: 11 E. Church St, 57 Place: Milan, Ohio Zip: 44846 Sector: Geothermal energy, Solar, Wind energy...

  10. Nebraska Wind and Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Nebraska Wind and Solar Name: Nebraska Wind and Solar Address: 2026 East 29th Street Place: Scottsbluff, Nebraska Zip: 69361 Region: Rockies...

  11. Solar wind samples give insight into birth of solar system

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar wind samples Solar wind samples give insight into birth of solar system Most of the Genesis payload consisted of fragile solar-wind collectors, which had been exposed to the ...

  12. Ion-driven instabilities in the solar wind: Wind observations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ion-driven instabilities in the solar wind: Wind observations of 19 March 2005 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ion-driven instabilities in the solar wind: Wind ...

  13. Passive solar buildings research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1992-12-31

    This chapter covers research advances in passive solar buildings research during the time span from 1982 through 1991. These advances fall within the following categories: (1) short-term energy monitoring, (2) heat transport by natural convection within buildings, and (3) design guidelines and design tools. In short-term energy monitoring, a simulation model of the building is calibrated, based on data taken in a 3-day test. The method accurately predicts performance over an extended period. Heat transport through doorways is characterized for complex situations that arise in passive solar buildings. Simple concepts and models adequately describe the energy transport in many situations of interest. In a new approach, design guidelines are automatically generated for any specific locality. Worksheets or an accompanying computer program allow the designer to quickly and accurately evaluate performance and investigate design alternatives. 29 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Denver Solar and Wind | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar and Wind Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Denver Solar and Wind Name: Denver Solar and Wind Address: 12445 E. 39th Ave, Suite 310 Denver, Colorado 80239 Place: Denver,...

  15. Solar Ready Buildings Planning Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisell, L.; Tetreault, T.; Watson, A.

    2009-12-01

    This guide offers a checklist for building design and construction to enable installation of solar photovoltaic and heating systems at some time after the building is constructed.

  16. Solar and wind power advancing

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Solar and wind power advancing U.S. electricity generation from wind and solar energy show no signs of slowing down. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration expects wind-powered generation to grow by 19 percent this year and rise another 8 percent in 2014. Congress's extension in January of a tax credit for electricity producers that use renewables is behind the wind power boost. Solar generation in the electric power sector is expected to grow even more, rising

  17. SciTech Connect: "solar plasma wind"

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    solar plasma wind" Find + Advanced Search Term Search Semantic Search Advanced Search All Fields: "solar plasma wind" Semantic Semantic Term Title: Full Text: Bibliographic...

  18. NREL: Innovation Impact - Wind

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind Energy Menu Home Home Solar Solar Wind Wind Analysis Analysis Bioenergy Bioenergy Buildings Buildings Transportation Transportation Manufacturing Manufacturing Energy Systems ...

  19. Solar and Wind Easements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In April 2011, the provisions related to wind easements were repealed by House Bill 295 (2011) and replaced with more extensive wind easements provisions.  This legislation defines wind energy ri...

  20. Wind and Solar Curtailment: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Bird, L.; Milligan, M.; Speer, B.; Wang, X.; Carlini, E. M.; Estanqueiro, A.; Flynn, D.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Menemenlis, N.; Orths, A.; Pineda, I.; Smith, J. C.; Soder, L.; Sorensen, P.; Altiparmakis, A.; Yoh, Y.

    2013-09-01

    High penetrations of wind and solar generation on power systems are resulting in increasing curtailment. Wind and solar integration studies predict increased curtailment as penetration levels grow. This paper examines experiences with curtailment on bulk power systems internationally. It discusses how much curtailment is occurring, how it is occurring, why it is occurring, and what is being done to reduce curtailment. This summary is produced as part of the International Energy Agency Wind Task 25 on Design and Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power.

  1. STATIONARITY IN SOLAR WIND FLOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perri, S.; Balogh, A. E-mail: a.balogh@imperial.ac.u

    2010-05-01

    By using single-point measurements in space physics it is possible to study a phenomenon only as a function of time. This means that we cannot have direct access to information about spatial variations of a measured quantity. However, the investigation of the properties of turbulence and of related phenomena in the solar wind widely makes use of an approximation frequently adopted in hydrodynamics under certain conditions, the so-called Taylor hypothesis; indeed, the solar wind flow has a bulk velocity along the radial direction which is much higher than the velocity of a single turbulent eddy embedded in the main flow. This implies that the time of evolution of the turbulent features is longer than the transit time of the flow through the spacecraft position, so that the turbulent field can be considered frozen into the solar wind flow. This assumption allows one to easily associate time variations with spatial variations and stationarity to homogeneity. We have investigated, applying criteria for weak stationarity to Ulysses magnetic field data in different solar wind regimes, at which timescale and under which conditions the hypothesis of stationarity, and then of homogeneity, of turbulence in the solar wind is well justified. We extend the conclusions of previous studies by Matthaeus and Goldstein to different parameter ranges in the solar wind. We conclude that the stationarity assumption in the inertial range of turbulence on timescales of 10 minutes to 1 day is reasonably satisfied in fast and uniform solar wind flows, but that in mixed, interacting fast, and slow solar wind streams the assumption is frequently only marginally valid.

  2. Solar & Wind Equipment Certification

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With the exception of solar energy systems designed or installed by the final owner, systems sold or installed in Arizona must be installed by licensed solar contractors and must comply with any...

  3. Hybrid Wind and Solar Electric Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Buying & Making Electricity Hybrid Wind and Solar Electric Systems Hybrid Wind and Solar Electric Systems Because the peak operating times for wind and solar systems occur at...

  4. Solar and Wind Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The law stipulates that associations must adopt an energy policy statement specifying details such as location, design, and architectural requirements of the solar energy systems within 120 days...

  5. Solar and Wind Contractor Licensing | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    < Back Eligibility InstallersContractors Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Photovoltaics Wind (All) Wind (Small) Program Info Sector Name...

  6. ASYMMETRIC SOLAR WIND ELECTRON DISTRIBUTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Peter H.; Kim, Sunjung; Lee, Junggi; Lee, Junhyun; Park, Jongsun; Park, Kyungsun; Seough, Jungjoon [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jinhy [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-20

    The present paper provides a possible explanation for the solar wind electron velocity distribution functions possessing asymmetric energetic tails. By numerically solving the electrostatic weak turbulence equations that involve nonlinear interactions among electrons, Langmuir waves, and ion-sound waves, it is shown that different ratios of ion-to-electron temperatures lead to the generation of varying degrees of asymmetric tails. The present finding may be applicable to observations in the solar wind near 1 AU and in other regions of the heliosphere and interplanetary space.

  7. Solar Wind Europe SL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Europe SL Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Wind Europe SL Place: Madrid, Spain Zip: 28028 Product: Spain-based distributor of Russia-made PV modules. References: Solar Wind...

  8. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GE Energy

    2010-05-01

    This report provides a full description of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) and its findings.

  9. Solar and Wind Easements | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Easements Solar and Wind Easements < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Industrial Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Federal Government...

  10. Guidelines for Solar and Wind Local Ordinances | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar Photovoltaics Wind (All) Wind (Small) Program Info Sector Name State State Virginia Program Type SolarWind Permitting Standards Summary In March 2011, the Virginia...

  11. Power House Solar and Wind | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar and Wind Jump to: navigation, search Name: Power House Solar and Wind Address: 1504 Woodlawn Ave Place: Canon City, Colorado Zip: 81212 Region: Rockies Area Sector: Solar...

  12. Solar, Wind, and Energy Efficiency Easements and Rights Laws...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar, Wind, and Energy Efficiency Easements and Rights Laws Solar, Wind, and Energy Efficiency Easements and Rights Laws < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Solar -...

  13. Solar/Wind Access Policy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SolarWind Access Policy < Solar Jump to: navigation, search Solar and wind access laws are designed to establish a right to install and operate a solar or wind energy system at a...

  14. Supercomputers Capture Turbulence in the Solar Wind

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supercomputers Capture Turbulence in the Solar Wind Supercomputers Capture Turbulence in the Solar Wind Berkeley Lab visualizations could help scientists forecast destructive space weather December 16, 2013 Linda Vu, +1 510 495 2402, lvu@lbl.gov eddies1.jpg This visualization zooms in on current sheets revealing the "cascade of turbulence" in the solar wind occurring down to electron scales. This is a phenomenon common in fluid dynamics-turbulent energy injected at large eddies is

  15. Large Distributed Solar and Wind Grant Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Illinois Department of Commerce and Economic Opportunity (DCEO) is offering grants for community-scale solar and wind projects located in Illinois.

  16. Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA)

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wiki Page Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment A United Nations Environment Programme facilitated effort. Getting Started Data Sets Analysis Tools About SWERA Loading.....

  17. Physics of passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Primary emphasis in the paper is on methods of characterizing and analyzing passive solar buildings. Simplifying assumptions are described which make this analysis tractable without compromising significant accuracy or loss of insight into the basic physics of the situation. The overall nature of the mathematical simulation approach is described. Validation procedures based on data from test rooms and monitored buildings are outlined. Issues of thermal comfort are discussed. Simplified methods of analysis based on correlation procedures are reported and the nature of the economic conservation-solar optimization process is explored. Future trends are predicted.

  18. Solar wind thermal electron distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, J.L.; Gosling, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    Solar wind thermal electron distributions exhibit distinctive trends which suggest Coulomb collisions and geometric expansion in the interplanetary magnetic field play keys roles in electron transport. We introduce a simple numerical model incorporating these mechanisms, discuss the ramifications of model results, and assess the validity of the model in terms of ISEE-3 and Ulysses observations. Although the model duplicates the shape of the electron distributions, and explains certain other observational features, observed gradients in total electron temperature indicate the importance of additional heating mechanisms. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Passive Solar Building Design and Solar Thermal Space Heating Webinar |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Passive Solar Building Design and Solar Thermal Space Heating Webinar Passive Solar Building Design and Solar Thermal Space Heating Webinar Watch a recording of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Senior Engineer Andy Walker's Nov. 30, 2010, presentation about passive solar building design, and solar thermal space heating technologies and applications. It's one in a series of Webinars to support state and local projects funded by Sustainable Energy Resources for

  20. Gold SolarWind GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SolarWind GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: Gold SolarWind GmbH Place: Aiterhofen, Germany Zip: 94330 Sector: Wind energy Product: German project developer of PV and wind...

  1. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Hodge, B.-M.; King, J.

    2012-09-01

    The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) investigates the impacts of high penetrations of wind and solar power into the Western Interconnection of the United States. WWSIS2 builds on the Phase 1 study but with far greater refinement in the level of data inputs and production simulation. It considers the differences between wind and solar power on systems operations. It considers mitigation options to accommodate wind and solar when full costs of wear-and-tear and full impacts of emissions rates are taken into account. It determines wear-and-tear costs and emissions impacts. New data sets were created for WWSIS2, and WWSIS1 data sets were refined to improve realism of plant output and forecasts. Four scenarios were defined for WWSIS2 that examine the differences between wind and solar and penetration level. Transmission was built out to bring resources to load. Statistical analysis was conducted to investigate wind and solar impacts at timescales ranging from seasonal down to 5 minutes.

  2. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Executive Summary,...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    GE Energy MAY 2010 WESTERN WIND AND SOLAR INTEGRATION STUDY: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY NOTICE This ... 20% postconsumer waste WESTERN WIND AND SOLAR INTEGRATION STUDY: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY May ...

  3. Solar and Wind Permitting Standards | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Residential Residential Schools State Government Wind Yes City and County of Denver - Solar Panel Permitting (Colorado) SolarWind Permitting Standards Colorado Commercial...

  4. Solar/Wind Permitting Standards | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Residential Residential Schools State Government Wind Yes City and County of Denver - Solar Panel Permitting (Colorado) SolarWind Permitting Standards Colorado Commercial...

  5. New England Breeze Solar and Wind Installers | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Greater Boston Area Sector: Renewable energy, Services, Solar, Wind energy Product: Solar Panel and Wind Turbine Installation Year Founded: 2006 Phone Number: 978-567-9463...

  6. Transport of transient solar wind particles in Earth's cusps...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Transport of transient solar wind particles in Earth's cusps Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Transport of transient solar wind particles in Earth's cusps An important ...

  7. Nonlinear Development of Shocklike Structure in the Solar Wind...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nonlinear Development of Shocklike Structure in the Solar Wind Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nonlinear Development of Shocklike Structure in the Solar Wind We report ...

  8. Biogas, Solar, and Wind Energy Equipment Exemption | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biogas, Solar, and Wind Energy Equipment Exemption Biogas, Solar, and Wind Energy Equipment Exemption < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Residential Agricultural Multifamily...

  9. Global Atlas for Solar and Wind Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Atlas for Solar and Wind Energy Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Global Atlas for Solar and Wind Energy AgencyCompany Organization: International Renewable Energy...

  10. Supercomputing Model Provides Insights from Higher Wind and Solar...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Supercomputing Model Provides Insights from Higher Wind and Solar Generation in the Eastern Power Grid Supercomputing Model Provides Insights from Higher Wind and Solar Generation ...

  11. Solar energy system with wind vane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grip, Robert E

    2015-11-03

    A solar energy system including a pedestal defining a longitudinal axis, a frame that is supported by the pedestal and that is rotateable relative to the pedestal about the longitudinal axis, the frame including at least one solar device, and a wind vane operatively connected to the frame to urge the frame relative to the pedestal about the longitudinal axis in response to wind acting on the wind vane.

  12. How do Wind and Solar Power Affect Grid Operations: The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Milligan, M.; Jordan, G.; Freeman, L.; Miller, N.; Clark, K.; Piwko, R.

    2009-09-01

    This paper reviews the scope of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study, the development of wind and solar datasets, and the results to date on three scenarios.

  13. Hawaii Solar and Wind Integration Studies | Grid Modernization...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the effects of high penetrations of solar and wind energy on the operations of the electric ... Development of Regional Wind Resource and Wind Plant Output Datasets for the ...

  14. Free Consumer Workshops On Solar & Wind Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Golden, Colo., Dec. 9, 1997 -- The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will host three free consumer workshops on solar and wind power for the ...

  15. Supercomputers Capture Turbulence in the Solar Wind

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the solar wind occurring down to electron scales. This is a phenomenon common in fluid dynamics-turbulent energy ... he created tools to filter out the "noise" in the datasets. ...

  16. Solar and Wind Easements & Rights Laws

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Solar and wind systems are also protected from siting restrictions that would "significantly decrease the efficiency or performance of the system and not allow for the use of an alternative system...

  17. Wind and Solar Energy Curtailment Practices (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Cochran, J.; Wang, X.

    2014-10-01

    This presentation to the fall 2014 technical meeting of the Utility Variable-Generation Integration Group summarizes experience with curtailment of wind and solar in the U.S.

  18. Solar and Wind Energy Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department is no longer accepting applications for the FY 2015 Solar and Wind Rebate Program. The anticipated opening of the FY 2016 program is late this Summer. See website for highlights of...

  19. Shock heating of the solar wind plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whang, Y.C.; Liu, Shaoliang ); Burlaga, L.F. )

    1990-11-01

    The authors present a study of all shocks observed from Pioneers and Voyagers in 1973-1982. The average shock strength increases with the heliocentric distance outside 1 AU, reaches a maximum near 5 AU, and then decreases with the distance. The increase in the entropy of the solar wind protons across shocks also reaches a maximum near 5 AU. When an average shock propagates through the solar wind, the shock heating increases the entropy of the solar wind protons by approximately 0.8 {times} 10{sup {minus}23} J/K/proton. They also use plasma data from Voyagers and Pioneers between 1 and 30 AU and data from IMP at 1 AU to calculate the increase in the average entropy of solar wind protons with the heliocentric distance. When the distance increases by a factor of 10, the entropy increases by about 4 {times} 10{sup {minus}23} J/K/proton. In order to evaluate the role played by shocks for the heating of the solar wind, they use a MHD simulation model to calculate the entropy changes for the November, 1977 event. Shock heating is the only heating mechanism included in the model. The calculated entropy increase agrees reasonably well with that calculated from observational data. The simulation result suggests that shocks are chiefly responsible for the heating of the solar wind plasma between 1 and 15 AU.

  20. Wind Issues in Solar Thermal Performance Ratings: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Casey, R.

    2009-04-01

    We suggest that wind bias against unglazed solar water heaters be mitigated by using a calibrated collector model to derive a wind correction to the measured efficiency curve.

  1. Solar and Wind Easements & Rights Laws & Local Option Solar Rights Law

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Oregon's solar and wind easements provisions allow property owners to create solar and wind easements for the purpose of protecting and maintaining proper access to sunlight and wind. Easements...

  2. Solar and Wind Technologies for Hydrogen Production Report to Congress

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    DOE's Solar and Wind Technologies for Hydrogen Production Report to Congress summarizes the technology roadmaps for solar- and wind-based hydrogen production. Published in December 2005, it fulfills t

  3. Excise Tax Exemption for Solar or Wind Powered Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Massachusetts law exempts any "solar or wind powered climatic control unit and any solar or wind powered water heating unit or any other type unit or system powered thereby," that qualifies for the...

  4. COLLOQUIUM: On Tracing the Origins of the Solar Wind | Princeton...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the two suggest different sources for the fast and slow solar wind. Using state of the art models and observations I find that the solar wind observations used to distinguish...

  5. Fact Sheet: Multilateral Solar and Wind Working Group | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar and Wind Working Group will focus its initial work on developing a Global Atlas for Solar and Wind Energy and a corresponding Long-Term Strategy on Joint Capacity ...

  6. Solar and Wind Contractor Licensing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In June of 2014, SB 447 mandated that the Louisiana State Licencsing Board for Contractors develop new rules for solar contractors no later than January 1, 2015. Licensed contractors must be in c...

  7. Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems June 24, 2012 - 1:50pm Addthis Photo Credit:...

  8. DOE Announces Webinars on Top Solar Tools, Building Energy Optimizatio...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Top Solar Tools, Building Energy Optimization Tool Training, and More DOE Announces Webinars on Top Solar Tools, Building Energy Optimization Tool Training, and More May 8, 2014 - ...

  9. City of Austin - Residential and Commercial Green Building Requirement...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Savings Category Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Photovoltaics Wind (All) Biomass Geothermal Heat Pumps Daylighting Comprehensive MeasuresWhole Building Wind (Small)...

  10. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study | Grid Modernization...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Can we integrate large amounts of wind and solar energy into the electric power system of the ... Development of Regional Wind Resource and Wind Plant Output Datasets Phase 2 Research ...

  11. NREL: Transmission Grid Integration - Western Wind and Solar...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of integrating up to 35% wind and solar energy in the WestConnect subregion and, more ... Development of Regional Wind Resource and Wind Plant Output Datasets This report ...

  12. Identifying Wind and Solar Ramping Events: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Florita, A.; Hodge, B. M.; Orwig, K.

    2013-01-01

    Wind and solar power are playing an increasing role in the electrical grid, but their inherent power variability can augment uncertainties in power system operations. One solution to help mitigate the impacts and provide more flexibility is enhanced wind and solar power forecasting; however, its relative utility is also uncertain. Within the variability of solar and wind power, repercussions from large ramping events are of primary concern. At the same time, there is no clear definition of what constitutes a ramping event, with various criteria used in different operational areas. Here the Swinging Door Algorithm, originally used for data compression in trend logging, is applied to identify variable generation ramping events from historic operational data. The identification of ramps in a simple and automated fashion is a critical task that feeds into a larger work of 1) defining novel metrics for wind and solar power forecasting that attempt to capture the true impact of forecast errors on system operations and economics, and 2) informing various power system models in a data-driven manner for superior exploratory simulation research. Both allow inference on sensitivities and meaningful correlations, as well as the ability to quantify the value of probabilistic approaches for future use in practice.

  13. Solar wind conditions for a quiet magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerns, K.J.; Gussenhoven, M.S. )

    1990-12-01

    The conditions of the solar wind that lead to a quiet magnetosphere are determined under the assumption that the quiet or baseline magnetosphere can be identified by prolonged periods of low values of the am index. The authors analyzed solar wind data from 1978 to 1984 (7 years) during periods in which am {<=} 3 nT to identify those solar wind parameters that deviate significantly from average values. Parallel studies were also performed for prolonged periods of Kp = 0, 0+ and AE < 35 nT. They find that for quiet times the solar wind velocity (V), the interplanetary magnetic field magnitude (B), and the z component of the IMF (B{sub z}) show distinctive variations from average values. They independently varied these solar wind parameters and the length of time the conditions must persist to minimize am. This was done with the additional requirement that the conditions yield a reasonable number of occurrences (5% of the data set). The resulting baseline conditions are V {le} 390 km/s; 180{degree} - arctan {vert bar}B{sub y}/B{sub z}{vert bar} {le} 101{degree}, when b{sub z} {le} 0 (no restriction on B{sub z} positive); B {le} 6.5 nT; and persistence of these conditions for at least 5 hours. Minimizing the am index does not require a clear upper limit on the value of B{sub z} as might be anticipated from the work of Gussenhoven (1988) and Berthelier (1980). Apparently, this is a result of the requirement that the conditions must occur 5% of the time. When the requirement is lowered to 1% occurrence, an upper limit to B{sub z} emerges.

  14. Building Design Guidelines for Solar Energy Technologies

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Givoni, B.

    1989-01-01

    There are two main objectives to this publication. The first is to find out the communalities in the experience gained in previous studies and in actual applications of solar technologies in buildings, residential as well as nonresidential. The second objective is to review innovative concepts and products which may have an impact on future developments and applications of solar technologies in buildings. The available information and common lessons were collated and presented in a form which, hopefully, is useful for architects and solar engineers, as well as for teachers of "solar architecture" and students in Architectural Schools. The publication is based mainly on the collection and analysis of relevant information. The information included previous studies in which the performance of solar buildings was evaluated, as well as the personal experience of the Author and the research consultants. The state of the art, as indicated by these studies and personal experience, was summarized and has served as basis for the development of the Design Guidelines. In addition to the summary of the state of the art, as was already applied in solar buildings, an account was given of innovative concepts and products. Such innovations have occurred in the areas of thermal storage by Phase Change Materials (PCM) and in glazing with specialized or changeable properties. Interesting concepts were also developed for light transfer, which may enable to transfer sunlight to the core areas of large multi story nonresidential buildings. These innovations may have a significant impact on future developments of solar technologies and their applications in buildings.

  15. The Genesis Mission: Solar Wind Conditions, and Implications for the FIP Fractionation of the Solar Wind.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reisenfeld, D. B.; Wiens, R. C.; Barraclough, B. L.; Steinberg, J. T; Dekoning, C. A.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Burnett, D. S.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Genesis mission collected solar wind on ultrapure materials between November 30, 2001 and April 1, 2004. The samples were returned to Earth September 8, 2004. Despite the hard landing that resulted from a failure of the avionics to deploy the parachute, many samples were returned in a condition that will permit analyses. Sample analyses of these samples should give a far better understanding of the solar elemental and isotopic composition (Burnett et al. 2003). Further, the photospheric composition is thought to be representative of the solar nebula, so that the Genesis mission will provide a new baseline for the average solar nebula composition with which to compare present-day compositions of planets, meteorites, and asteroids. Sample analysis is currently underway. The Genesis samples must be placed in the context of the solar and solar wind conditions under which they were collected. Solar wind is fractionated from the photosphere by the forces that accelerate the ions off of the Sun. This fractionation appears to be ordered by the first ionization potential (FIP) of the elements, with the tendency for low-FIP elements to be over-abundant in the solar wind relative to the photosphere, and high-FIP elements to be under-abundant (e.g. Geiss, 1982; von Steiger et al., 2000). In addition, the extent of elemental fractionation differs across different solarwind regimes. Therefore, Genesis collected solar wind samples sorted into three regimes: 'fast wind' or 'coronal hole' (CH), 'slow wind' or 'interstream' (IS), and 'coronal mass ejection' (CME). To carry this out, plasma ion and electron spectrometers (Barraclough et al., 2003) continuously monitored the solar wind proton density, velocity, temperature, the alpha/proton ratio, and angular distribution of suprathermal electrons, and those parameters were in turn used in a rule-based algorithm that assigned the most probable solar wind regime (Neugebauer et al., 2003). At any given time, only one of three

  16. Solar Design Standards for State Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    From 2010 to 2012, solar photovoltaic systems have been installed at seven state government facilities, providing an estimated 650 kW of power. In one building, a 50 kW system has reduced energy ...

  17. Solar, Wind, Hydropower: Home Renewable Energy Installations | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Solar, Wind, Hydropower: Home Renewable Energy Installations Solar, Wind, Hydropower: Home Renewable Energy Installations April 17, 2013 - 1:44pm Addthis This Lakewood, Colorado home was built in 1956. Brent and Mo Nelson upgraded the home with multiple solar technologies including; daylighting, passive solar and active solar. They also have an 80 gallon solar hot water heater. | Photo by Dennis Schroeder, National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This Lakewood, Colorado home was built

  18. WATER POWER SOLAR POWER WIND POWER

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    get curren WATER POWER SOLAR POWER WIND POWER Be part of the Clean Energy Generation! YOUR HOUSE BIOMASS ENERGY GEOTHERMAL ENERGY Clean energy can come from the sun. 2 The energy in wind can make electricity. We can make energy with moving water. Bioenergy comes from plants we can turn into fuel. Logs Wood Chips Straw Corn Switchgrass We can use energy from the earth to heat and cool our homes. Check out these cool websites to learn more about clean energy! Energy Information Administration

  19. Mesquite Solar Plan - build out next to existing FF plants Solar...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mesquite Solar Plan - build out next to existing FF plants Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Mesquite Solar Plan - build out next to existing FF plants Solar Power...

  20. Turbulence and waves in the solar wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, D.A.; Goldstein, M.L. )

    1991-01-01

    Studies of turbulence and waves in the solar wind is discussed. Consideration is given to the observations and theory concerning the origin and evolution of interplanetary MHD fluctuations and to the observations, theory, and simulations of compressive fluctuations. Particular attention is given to extrapolations to near-sun and polar fields regions. Results obtained on turbulence at comets and magnetic turbulence of low-frequency waves excited by unstable distributions of ions are discussed. 230 refs.

  1. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    Initiated in 2007 to examine the operational impact of up to 35% penetration of wind, photovoltaic (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) energy on the electric power system, the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) is one of the largest regional wind and solar integration studies to date. The goal is to understand the effects of variability and uncertainty of wind, PV, and CSP on the grid. In the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 1, solar penetration was limited to 5%. Utility-scale PV was not included because of limited capability to model sub-hourly, utility-scale PV output . New techniques allow the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 to include high penetrations of solar - not only CSP and rooftop PV but also utility-scale PV plants.

  2. Building design guidelines for solar energy technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Givoni, B.

    1989-01-01

    There are two main objectives to this publication. The first is to find out the communalities in the experience gained in previous studies and in actual applications of solar technologies in buildings, residential as well as nonresidential. The second objective is to review innovative concepts and products which may have an impact on future developments and applications of solar technologies in buildings. The available information and common lessons were collated and presented in a form which, hopefully, is useful for architects and solar engineers, as well as for teachers of solar architecture'' and students in Architectural Schools. The publication is based mainly on the collection and analysis of relevant information. The information included previous studies in which the performance of solar buildings was evaluated, as well as the personal experience of the Author and the research consultants. The state of the art, as indicated by these studies and personal experience, was summarized and has served as basis for the development of the Design Guidelines. In addition to the summary of the state of the art, as was already applied in solar buildings, an account was given of innovative concepts and products. Such innovations have occurred in the areas of thermal storage by Phase Change Materials (PCM) and in glazing with specialized or changeable properties. Interesting concepts were also developed for light transfer, which may enable to transfer sunlight to the core areas of large multi story nonresidential buildings. These innovations may have a significant impact on future developments of solar technologies and their applications in buildings. 15 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. ISOTOPIC MASS FRACTIONATION OF SOLAR WIND: EVIDENCE FROM FAST AND SLOW SOLAR WIND COLLECTED BY THE GENESIS MISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heber, Veronika S.; Baur, Heinrich; Wieler, Rainer; Bochsler, Peter; McKeegan, Kevin D.; Neugebauer, Marcia; Reisenfeld, Daniel B.; Wiens, Roger C.

    2012-11-10

    NASA's Genesis space mission returned samples of solar wind collected over {approx}2.3 years. We present elemental and isotopic compositions of He, Ne, and Ar analyzed in diamond-like carbon targets from the slow and fast solar wind collectors to investigate isotopic fractionation processes during solar wind formation. The solar wind provides information on the isotopic composition for most volatile elements for the solar atmosphere, the bulk Sun and hence, on the solar nebula from which it formed 4.6 Ga ago. Our data reveal a heavy isotope depletion in the slow solar wind compared to the fast wind composition by 63.1 {+-} 2.1 per mille for He, 4.2 {+-} 0.5 per mille amu{sup -1} for Ne and 2.6 {+-} 0.5 per mille amu{sup -1} for Ar. The three Ne isotopes suggest that isotopic fractionation processes between fast and slow solar wind are mass dependent. The He/H ratios of the collected slow and fast solar wind samples are 0.0344 and 0.0406, respectively. The inefficient Coulomb drag model reproduces the measured isotopic fractionation between fast and slow wind. Therefore, we apply this model to infer the photospheric isotopic composition of He, Ne, and Ar from our solar wind data. We also compare the isotopic composition of oxygen and nitrogen measured in the solar wind with values of early solar system condensates, probably representing solar nebula composition. We interpret the differences between these samples as being due to isotopic fractionation during solar wind formation. For both elements, the magnitude and sign of the observed differences are in good agreement with the values predicted by the inefficient Coulomb drag model.

  4. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study | Grid Modernization...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Value of Wind Power Forecasting Impact of ... Phase 2 of WWSIS was initiated to determine the wear-and-tear costs and emissions impacts ...

  5. Passive solar concepts for multistory buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Multistory buildings long in the east-west direction and short in the north-south direction offer good opportunity for passive solar application. If each unit within the building is designed so that the Solar Savings Fraction is the same, each will respond to the weather the same way and no unit-to-unit heat distribution is needed. A numerical example for Denver is given indicating excellent thermal performance and a several-day thermal response time. Solutions involving distribution of heat from unit to unit are also discussed as well as top-floor and south-wall variations.

  6. Passive solar concepts for multistory buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Multistory buildings long in the east-west direction and short in the north-south direction offer good opportunity for passive solar application. If each unit within the building is designed so that the solar Savings Fraction is the same, each will respond to the weather the same way and no unit-to-unit heat distribution is needed. A numerical example for Denver is given indicating excellent thermal performance and a several-day thermal response time. Solutions involving distribution of heat from unit to unit are also discussed as well as top-floor and south-wall variations.

  7. Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Web Application Link: en.openei.orgappsSWERA OpenEI Keyword(s): Featured Language: English The Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) initiative brings together...

  8. Bibliography of Literature for Avian Issues in Solar and Wind...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bibliography of Literature for Avian Issues in Solar and Wind Energy and Other Activities Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Bibliography of Literature for Avian Issues in ...

  9. Solar/Wind Construction Permitting Standards | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to wind turbines in the code) 10 kilowatts or less: Licensing Requirements Any person bidding or contracting for the installation of a solar collector system must possess a...

  10. Property Tax Exemption for Wind, Solar, and Geothermal Energy Producers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under these policies, commercial wind, solar, and geothermal energy producers, excluding those regulated by the Idaho Public Utilities Commission, are exempt from paying taxes on real estate,...

  11. Hybrid Wind and Solar Electric Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Buying & Making Electricity » Hybrid Wind and Solar Electric Systems Hybrid Wind and Solar Electric Systems Because the peak operating times for wind and solar systems occur at different times of the day and year, hybrid systems are more likely to produce power when you need it. Because the peak operating times for wind and solar systems occur at different times of the day and year, hybrid systems are more likely to produce power when you need it. According to many renewable energy experts,

  12. Wind and Solar-Electric (PV) Systems Exemption | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    taxation, but the real property (i.e., the land on which the solar energy generating system is located) is still subject to property tax. Wind and solar energy production...

  13. BLM - Solar and Wind Energy Applications - Pre-Application and...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar and Wind Energy Applications - Pre-Application and Screening Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: BLM - Solar and...

  14. Building America Case Study: Indirect Solar Water Heating Systems...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Indirect Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Homes Greenfield, Massachusetts ... Building Component: Solar water heating Application: Single-family Years Tested: 2010-2013 ...

  15. ELECTRON TRANSPORT IN THE FAST SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, H. M.; Marsch, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Sonnensystemforschung, Max-Planck-Strasse 2, 37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Helander, P., E-mail: hakan.smith@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The electron velocity distribution function is studied in the extended solar corona above coronal holes (i.e., the inner part of the fast solar wind) from the highly collisional corona close to the Sun to the weakly collisional regions farther out. The electron kinetic equation is solved with a finite-element method in velocity space using a linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. The ion density and temperature profiles are assumed to be known and the electric field and electron temperature are determined self-consistently. The results show quantitatively how much lower the electron heat flux and the thermal force are than predicted by high-collisionality theory. The sensitivity of the particle and heat fluxes to the assumed ion temperature profile and the applied boundary condition at the boundary far from the Sun is also studied.

  16. Building the Basic PVC Wind Turbine | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building the Basic PVC Wind Turbine Building the Basic PVC Wind Turbine Below is information about the student activity/lesson plan from your search. Grades 5-8, 9-12 Subject Wind Energy Summary This plan shows how to make a rugged and inexpensive classroom wind turbine that can be used for lab bench-based blade design experiments. While a few specialized parts are needed (a hub and DC motor), the rest of the components are easily found at most hardware stores. Curriculum Technology, Science

  17. Solar Decathlon 2013: Building Skills for Future Careers | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Building Skills for Future Careers Solar Decathlon 2013: Building Skills for Future ... Solar Decathlon 2013: In our new blog series, we're going behind the scenes to show you ...

  18. Passive Solar Building Design Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Homes & Buildings » Passive Solar Building Design Basics Passive Solar Building Design Basics July 30, 2013 - 3:20pm Addthis The difference between a passive solar home and a conventional home is design. Passive solar homes and other buildings are designed to take advantage of the local climate. Passive solar design-also known as climatic design-involves using a building's windows, walls, and floors to collect, store, and distribute solar energy in the form of heat in the winter and reject

  19. Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems Photo Credit: iStockphoto Photo Credit: iStockphoto Before installing a solar water heating system, you should investigate local building codes, zoning ordinances, and subdivision covenants, as well as any special regulations pertaining to the site. You will probably need a building permit to install a solar energy system onto an existing building. Not every

  20. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 3: Technical Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-11-01

    Technical fact sheet outlining the key findings of Phase 3 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-3). NREL and GE find that with good system planning, sound engineering practices, and commercially available technologies, the Western grid can maintain reliability and stability during the crucial first minute after grid disturbances with high penetrations of wind and solar power.

  1. Solar and Wind Technologies for Hydrogen Production Report to Congress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2005-12-01

    DOE's Solar and Wind Technologies for Hydrogen Production Report to Congress summarizes the technology roadmaps for solar- and wind-based hydrogen production. Published in December 2005, it fulfills the requirement under section 812 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

  2. Assessment of Wind/Solar Co-located Generation in Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven M. Wiese

    2009-07-20

    This paper evaluates the opportunity to load co-located wind and solar generation capacity onto a constrained transmission system while engendering only minimal losses. It quantifies the economic and energy opportunities and costs associated with pursuing this strategy in two Texas locations – one in west Texas and the other in south Texas. The study builds upon previous work published by the American Solar Energy Society (ASES) which illuminated the potential benefits of negative correlation of wind and solar generation in some locations by quantifying the economic and energy losses which would arise from deployment of solar generation in areas with existing wind generation and constrained transmission capacity. Clean Energy Associates (CEA) obtained and incorporated wind and solar resource data and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT)) load and price data into a model which evaluates varying levels of solar thermal, solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind capacity against an assumed transmission capacity limit at each of the two locations.

  3. Research & Development Needs for Building-Integrated Solar Technologies |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Needs for Building-Integrated Solar Technologies Research & Development Needs for Building-Integrated Solar Technologies The Building Technologies Office (BTO) has identified Building Integrated Solar Technologies (BIST) as a potentially valuable piece of the comprehensive pathway to help achieve its goal of reducing energy consumption in residential and commercial buildings by 50% by the year 2030. This report helps to identify the key research and development

  4. OBSERVATION OF FLUX-TUBE CROSSINGS IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, L.; Li, G.; Li, X.; Yan, Y.

    2013-03-20

    Current sheets are ubiquitous in the solar wind. They are a major source of the solar wind MHD turbulence intermittency. They may result from nonlinear interactions of the solar wind MHD turbulence or are the boundaries of flux tubes that originate from the solar surface. Some current sheets appear in pairs and are the boundaries of transient structures such as magnetic holes and reconnection exhausts or the edges of pulsed Alfven waves. For an individual current sheet, discerning whether it is a flux-tube boundary or due to nonlinear interactions or the boundary of a transient structure is difficult. In this work, using data from the Wind spacecraft, we identify two three-current-sheet events. Detailed examination of these two events suggests that they are best explained by the flux-tube-crossing scenario. Our study provides convincing evidence supporting the scenario that the solar wind consists of flux tubes where distinct plasmas reside.

  5. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Hodge, B. M.; Hummon, M.; Florita, A.; Heaney, M.

    2013-09-01

    The electric grid is a highly complex, interconnected machine, and changing one part of the grid can have consequences elsewhere. Adding wind and solar affects the operation of the other power plants and adding high penetrations can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) evaluated these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This built on Phase 1, one of the largest wind and solar integration studies ever conducted, which examined operational impacts of high wind and solar penetrations in the West.

  6. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, Debra; Brinkman, Greg; Ibanez, E.; Florita, A.; Heaney, M.; Hodge, B. -M.; Hummon, M.; Stark, G.; King, J.; Lefton, S. A.; Kumar, N.; Agan, D.; Jordan, G.; Venkataraman, S.

    2013-09-01

    The electric grid is a highly complex, interconnected machine, and changing one part of the grid can have consequences elsewhere. Adding wind and solar affects the operation of the other power plants and adding high penetrations can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) evaluated these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This built on Phase 1, one of the largest wind and solar integration studies ever conducted, which examined operational impacts of high wind and solar penetrations in the West(GE Energy 2010).

  7. Pierre’s Prototype for Wind and Solar- Capitol Lake Plaza

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Capitol Lake Plaza sits centrally on Pierre, S.D.’s government plaza. Originally built in 1974, the building has been undergoing major energy renovations since being purchased by the state two years ago. Two major components of the renovation are about to appear at the building’s highest point: solar panels and wind turbines are being installed on the roof.

  8. Solar Decathlon 2013: Building Skills for Future Careers | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building Skills for Future Careers Solar Decathlon 2013: Building Skills for Future Careers September 16, 2013 - 3:03pm Addthis It took six months and nearly 60 students to build...

  9. Solar energetic particle events in different types of solar wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahler, S. W.; Vourlidas, A.

    2014-08-10

    We examine statistically some properties of 96 20 MeV gradual solar energetic proton (SEP) events as a function of three different types of solar wind (SW) as classified by Richardson and Cane. Gradual SEP (E > 10 MeV) events are produced in shocks driven by fast (V ≳ 900 km s{sup –1}) and wide (W > 60°) coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We find no differences among the transient, fast, and slow SW streams for SEP 20 MeV proton event timescales. It has recently been found that the peak intensities Ip of these SEP events scale with the ∼2 MeV proton background intensities, which may be a proxy for the near-Sun shock seed particles. Both the intensities Ip and their 2 MeV backgrounds are significantly enhanced in transient SW compared to those of fast and slow SW streams, and the values of Ip normalized to the 2 MeV backgrounds only weakly correlate with CME V for all SW types. This result implies that forecasts of SEP events could be improved by monitoring both the Sun and the local SW stream properties and that the well known power-law size distributions of Ip may differ between transient and long-lived SW streams. We interpret an observed correlation between CME V and the 2 MeV background for SEP events in transient SW as a manifestation of enhanced solar activity.

  10. Innovations in Wind and Solar PV Financing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cory, K.; Coughlin, J.; Jenkin, T.; Pater, J.; Swezey, B.

    2008-02-01

    There is growing national interest in renewable energy development based on the economic, environmental, and security benefits that these resources provide. Historically, greater development of our domestic renewable energy resources has faced a number of hurdles, primarily related to cost, regulation, and financing. With the recent sustained increase in the costs and associated volatility of fossil fuels, the economics of renewable energy technologies have become increasingly attractive to investors, both large and small. As a result, new entrants are investing in renewable energy and new business models are emerging. This study surveys some of the current issues related to wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) energy project financing in the electric power industry, and identifies both barriers to and opportunities for increased investment.

  11. ASYMMETRIC ELECTRON DISTRIBUTIONS IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rha, Kicheol; Ryu, Chang-Mo [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Peter H. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)] [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    A plausible mechanism responsible for producing asymmetric electron velocity distribution functions in the solar wind is investigated by means of one-dimensional electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. A recent paper suggests that the variation in the ion-to-electron temperature ratio influences the nonlinear wave-particle dynamics such that it results in the formation of asymmetric distributions. The present PIC code simulation largely confirms this finding, but quantitative differences between the weak turbulence formalism and the present PIC simulation are also found, suggesting the limitation of the analytical method. The inter-relationship between the asymmetric electron distribution and the ion-to-electron temperature ratio may be a new useful concept for the observation.

  12. RELAXATION PROCESSES IN SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Servidio, S.; Carbone, V.; Gurgiolo, C.; Goldstein, M. L.

    2014-07-10

    Based on global conservation principles, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) relaxation theory predicts the existence of several equilibria, such as the Taylor state or global dynamic alignment. These states are generally viewed as very long-time and large-scale equilibria, which emerge only after the termination of the turbulent cascade. As suggested by hydrodynamics and by recent MHD numerical simulations, relaxation processes can occur during the turbulent cascade that will manifest themselves as local patches of equilibrium-like configurations. Using multi-spacecraft analysis techniques in conjunction with Cluster data, we compute the current density and flow vorticity and for the first time demonstrate that these localized relaxation events are observed in the solar wind. Such events have important consequences for the statistics of plasma turbulence.

  13. COMPOSITION OF THE SOLAR CORONA, SOLAR WIND, AND SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmelz, J. T.; Reames, D. V.; Von Steiger, R.; Basu, S.

    2012-08-10

    Along with temperature and density, the elemental abundance is a basic parameter required by astronomers to understand and model any physical system. The abundances of the solar corona are known to differ from those of the solar photosphere via a mechanism related to the first ionization potential of the element, but the normalization of these values with respect to hydrogen is challenging. Here, we show that the values used by solar physicists for over a decade and currently referred to as the 'coronal abundances' do not agree with the data themselves. As a result, recent analysis and interpretation of solar data involving coronal abundances may need to be revised. We use observations from coronal spectroscopy, the solar wind, and solar energetic particles as well as the latest abundances of the solar photosphere to establish a new set of abundances that reflect our current understanding of the coronal plasma.

  14. Wind loading on solar concentrators: some general considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roschke, E. J.

    1984-05-01

    A survey has been completed to examine the problems and complications arising from wind loading on solar concentrators. Wind loading is site specific and has an important bearing on the design, cost, performance, operation and maintenance, safety, survival, and replacement of solar collecting systems. Emphasis herein is on paraboloidal, two-axis tracking systems. Thermal receiver problems also are discussed. Wind characteristics are discussed from a general point of view; current methods for determining design wind speed are reviewed. Aerodynamic coefficients are defined and illustrative examples are presented. Wind tunnel testing is discussed, and environmental wind tunnels are reviewed; recent results on heliostat arrays are reviewed as well. Aeroelasticity in relation to structural design is discussed briefly. Wind loads, i.e., forces and moments, are proportional to the square of the mean wind velocity. Forces are proportional to the square of concentrator diameter, and moments are proportional to the cube of diameter. Thus, wind loads have an important bearing on size selection from both cost and performance standpoints. It is concluded that sufficient information exists so that reasonably accurate predictions of wind loading are possible for a given paraboloidal concentrator configuration, provided that reliable and relevant wind conditions are specified. Such predictions will be useful to the design engineer and to the systems engineer as well. Information is lacking, however, on wind effects in field arrays of paraboloidal concentrators. Wind tunnel tests have been performed on model heliostat arrays, but there are important aerodynamic differences between heliostats and paraboloidal dishes.

  15. Optimisation of buildings' solar irradiation availability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaempf, Jerome Henri; Montavon, Marylene; Bunyesc, Josep; Robinson, Darren; Bolliger, Raffaele

    2010-04-15

    In order to improve the sustainability of new and existing urban settlements it is desirable to maximise the utilisation of the solar energy incident on the building envelope, whether by passive or active means. To this end we have coupled a multi-objective optimisation algorithm with the backwards ray tracing program RADIANCE which itself uses a cumulative sky model for the computation of incident irradiation (W h/m{sup 2}) in a single simulation. The parameters to optimise are geometric (the height of buildings up to their facade and the height and orientation of roofs), but with the constraint of maintaining an overall built volume, and the objective function is heating season solar irradiation offset by envelope heat losses. This methodology has been applied to a range of urban typologies and produces readily interpretable results. The focus of this work is on the design of new urban forms but the method could equally be applied to examine the relative efficiency of existing urban settlements, by comparison of existing forms with the calculated optima derived from relevant specifications of the building envelope. (author)

  16. Solar Applications to Multiple County Buildings Feasibility Study

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This study was requested by Salt Lake County in an effort to obtain a cursory overview of solar electric and solar thermal application possibilities on the rooftops of existing county buildings. The subject buildings represent various County Divisions: Aging Services, Community Services, County Health, County Library, Parks & Recreation, Public Works, County Sheriff and Youth Services. There are fifty two buildings included in the study.

  17. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-09-01

    This is one-page, two-sided fact sheet presents high-level summary results of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2, which examined operational impacts of high penetrations of variable renewable generation in the West.

  18. Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search SWERA logo.png Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) Interactive Web PortalPowered by OpenEI Getting Started Data Sets Analysis Tools About SWERA Tool...

  19. Final Solar and Wind H2 Report EPAct 812.doc

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Report to Congress (ESECS EE-3060) in response to section 812(e) of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 summarizing technology roadmaps for solar- and wind-based hydrogen production.

  20. New Report: Integrating More Wind and Solar Reduces Utilities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Addthis The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) released Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2), a follow-up to the initial WWSIS released in May ...

  1. Local Option- Solar, Wind & Biomass Energy Systems Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Section 487 of the New York State Real Property Tax Law provides a 15-year real property tax exemption for solar, wind energy, and farm-waste energy systems constructed in New York State. As curr...

  2. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Greg Brinkman will present the results of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS), Phase 2. This study, which follows the first phase of WWSIS, focuses on potential emissions and wear...

  3. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Phase 2 (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Lefton, S.; Kumar, N.; Venkataraman, S.; Jordan, G.

    2013-09-01

    This presentation summarizes the scope and results of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2, which examined operational impacts of high penetrations of variable renewable generation in the West.

  4. 10 Questions for a Wind & Solar Integration Analyst: Kirsten Orwig

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Kirsten Orwig shares how her experiences in storm chasing led her to this position at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and why understanding meteorology is important for advancing reliable solar and wind energy.

  5. Excise Tax Deduction for Solar or Wind Powered Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In Massachusetts, businesses may deduct from net income, for state excise tax purposes, expenditures paid or incurred from the installation of any "solar or wind powered climatic control unit and...

  6. NREL Supercomputing Model Provides Insights from Higher Wind and Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Generation in the Eastern Power Grid | Energy Systems Integration | NREL NREL Supercomputing Model Provides Insights from Higher Wind and Solar Generation in the Eastern Power Grid NREL opens data to help planners and regulators understand implications of higher wind and solar generation August 31, 2016 A new study from the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) used high-performance computing capabilities and innovative visualization tools to

  7. NREL Supercomputing Model Provides Insights from Higher Wind and Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Generation in the Eastern Power Grid | Grid Modernization | NREL Supercomputing Model Provides Insights from Higher Wind and Solar Generation in the Eastern Power Grid NREL opens data to help planners and regulators understand implications of higher wind and solar generation August 31, 2016 A new study from the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) used high-performance computing capabilities and innovative visualization tools to model, in

  8. NREL Supercomputing Model Provides Insights from Higher Wind and Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Generation in the Eastern Power Grid - News Releases | NREL Supercomputing Model Provides Insights from Higher Wind and Solar Generation in the Eastern Power Grid NREL opens data to help planners and regulators understand implications of higher wind and solar generation August 31, 2016 NREL's David Palchak, co-author of the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study, examines data visualizations developed with computing resources in NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility. NREL's

  9. DOE Announces Webinars on Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems, Wind

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Turbine Recycling and Repowering, and More | Department of Energy Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems, Wind Turbine Recycling and Repowering, and More DOE Announces Webinars on Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems, Wind Turbine Recycling and Repowering, and More January 8, 2015 - 8:41am Addthis EERE offers webinars to the public on a range of subjects, from adopting the latest energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies, to training for the clean energy workforce. Webinars are

  10. Potential for Development of Solar and Wind Resource in Bhutan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilman, P.; Cowlin, S.; Heimiller, D.

    2009-09-01

    With support from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) produced maps and data of the wind and solar resources in Bhutan. The solar resource data show that Bhutan has an adequate resource for flat-plate collectors, with annual average values of global horizontal solar radiation ranging from 4.0 to 5.5 kWh/m2-day (4.0 to 5.5 peak sun hours per day). The information provided in this report may be of use to energy planners in Bhutan involved in developing energy policy or planning wind and solar projects, and to energy analysts around the world interested in gaining an understanding of Bhutan's wind and solar energy potential.

  11. The dynamic character of the polar solar wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, B. V.; Yu, H.-S.; Buffington, A.; Hick, P. P. E-mail: hsyu@ucsd.edu E-mail: pphick@ucsd.edu

    2014-09-20

    The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph C2 and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) COR2A coronagraph images, when analyzed using correlation tracking techniques, show a surprising result in places ordinarily thought of as 'quiet' solar wind above the poles in coronal hole regions. Instead of the static well-ordered flow and gradual acceleration normally expected, coronagraph images show outflow in polar coronal holes consisting of a mixture of intermittent slow and fast patches of material. We compare measurements of this highly variable solar wind from C2 and COR2A images and show that both coronagraphs measure essentially the same structures. Measurements of the mean velocity as a function of height of these structures are compared with mass flux determinations of the solar wind outflow in the large polar coronal hole regions and give similar results.

  12. How Do High Levels of Wind and Solar Impact the Grid? The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Piwko, D.; Miller, N.; Jordan, G.; Clark, K.; Freeman, L.

    2010-12-01

    This paper is a brief introduction to the scope of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS), inputs and scenario development, and the key findings of the study.

  13. Breakout Session: Solar in the Connected Building | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    which solar penetration can be optimized across various environments, including integration with loads and other power sources at the building and microgrid levels. Moderator: Dr. ...

  14. "Building the Dye-Sensitized Solar Fuel Device" Conference |...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Building the Dye-Sensitized Solar Fuel Device" Conference Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News & Events EFRC News EFRC ...

  15. Florida Solar Energy Center (Building America Partnership for...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for Improved Residential Construction Jump to: navigation, search Name: Florida Solar Energy Center (Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction Place:...

  16. DOE Announces Webinars on Adding Solar to Your Building Portfolio...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    DOE Announces Webinars on Adding Solar to Your Building ... from adopting the latest energy efficiency and renewable ... January 28: How to Utilize the National Geothermal Data ...

  17. Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Photo Credit: iStockphoto Photo Credit: iStockphoto Before installing a solar water heating system, you should investigate local building codes, zoning ordinances, and subdivision...

  18. Nationwide Analysis of U.S. Commercial Building Solar Photovoltaic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of breakeven prices than is variation in building load or solar generation profiles. vi This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory...

  19. How Do High Levels of Wind and Solar Impact the Grid? The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How Do High Levels of Wind and Solar Impact the Grid? The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Debra Lew National Renewable Energy Laboratory Dick Piwko, Nick Miller, Gary Jordan, Kara Clark, and Lavelle Freeman GE Energy Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-50057 December 2010 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole

  20. Dovetail Solar and Wind | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wind energy Product: Consulting; Engineeringarchitecturaldesign;Installation; Maintenance and repair; Retail product sales and distribution;Trainining and education Phone...

  1. Solar America Initiative--In Focus: The Building Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2007-01-01

    Fact sheet introduces the building industry to the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar America Initiative (SAI) and describes how the building industry can benefit from and contribute to the SAI.

  2. Heat storage and distribution inside passive-solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-05-01

    Passive solar buildings are investigated from the viewpoint of the storage of solar heat in materials of the building: walls, floors, ceilings, and furniture. The effects of the location, material, thickness, and orientation of each internal building surface are investigated. The concept of diurnal heat capacity is introduced and a method of using this parameter to estimate clear-day temperature swings is developed. Convective coupling to remote rooms within a building is discussed. Design guidelines are given.

  3. The interaction of active comets with the solar wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neugebauer, M. )

    1990-11-01

    The interaction of the solar wind with active comets is investigated based on observations of cometary plasma processes and studies of comets using telescopes and photographic plates. Data were also collected when a spacecraft flew through the tail of Comet Giacobini-Zinner in 1985 and five spacecraft encountered Comet Halley in 1986. The solar wind is considered to be supersonic (thermal Mach number 2-10) and to carry a magnetic field twisted into an Archimedean spiral by the rotation of the sun. Since the wind can change its properties during the time a spacecraft is inside the ionosphere or magnetosphere of the body being studied, it is difficult to separate spatial from temporal effects. Photoionization results in addition of plasma to the solar wind. Between the outer and inner edges of the cometosheath, the increasing rate of ion pickup causes the flow to slow down until it stagnates, while the plasma density and the magnetic field strength increase.

  4. Hunting Hurricanes...and Data to Help Build Better Offshore Wind...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Hunting Hurricanes...and Data to Help Build Better Offshore Wind Turbines Hunting Hurricanes...and Data to Help Build Better Offshore Wind Turbines June 2, 2014 - 12:21pm Addthis ...

  5. Role of Concentrating Solar Power in Integrating Solar and Wind Energy: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Mehos, M.

    2015-06-03

    As wind and solar photovoltaics (PV) increase in penetration it is increasingly important to examine enabling technologies that can help integrate these resources at large scale. Concentrating solar power (CSP) when deployed with thermal energy storage (TES) can provide multiple services that can help integrate variable generation (VG) resources such as wind and PV. CSP with TES can provide firm, highly flexible capacity, reducing minimum generation constraints which limit penetration and results in curtailment. By acting as an enabling technology, CSP can complement PV and wind, substantially increasing their penetration in locations with adequate solar resource.

  6. Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Below is information about the student activity/lesson plan from your search. Grades K-4, 5-8, 9-12 Subject Solar Summary Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. Curriculum Science, Visual Arts, Language Arts Plan Time One class period Materials One pizza box from a local pizza delivery store, tape, scissors, black construction paper, clear plastic wrap, aluminum foil,

  7. THE TURBULENT CASCADE AND PROTON HEATING IN THE SOLAR WIND DURING SOLAR MINIMUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coburn, Jesse T.; Smith, Charles W.; Vasquez, Bernard J.; Stawarz, Joshua E.; Forman, Miriam A. E-mail: Charles.Smith@unh.edu E-mail: Joshua.Stawarz@Colorado.edu

    2012-08-01

    The recently protracted solar minimum provided years of interplanetary data that were largely absent in any association with observed large-scale transient behavior on the Sun. With large-scale shear at 1 AU generally isolated to corotating interaction regions, it is reasonable to ask whether the solar wind is significantly turbulent at this time. We perform a series of third-moment analyses using data from the Advanced Composition Explorer. We show that the solar wind at 1 AU is just as turbulent as at any other time in the solar cycle. Specifically, the turbulent cascade of energy scales in the same manner proportional to the product of wind speed and temperature. Energy cascade rates during solar minimum average a factor of 2-4 higher than during solar maximum, but we contend that this is likely the result of having a different admixture of high-latitude sources.

  8. Weakest solar wind of the space age and the current 'MINI' solar maximum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McComas, D. J.; Angold, N.; Elliott, H. A.; Livadiotis, G.; Schwadron, N. A.; Smith, C. W.; Skoug, R. M.

    2013-12-10

    The last solar minimum, which extended into 2009, was especially deep and prolonged. Since then, sunspot activity has gone through a very small peak while the heliospheric current sheet achieved large tilt angles similar to prior solar maxima. The solar wind fluid properties and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) have declined through the prolonged solar minimum and continued to be low through the current mini solar maximum. Compared to values typically observed from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s, the following proton parameters are lower on average from 2009 through day 79 of 2013: solar wind speed and beta (?11%), temperature (?40%), thermal pressure (?55%), mass flux (?34%), momentum flux or dynamic pressure (?41%), energy flux (?48%), IMF magnitude (?31%), and radial component of the IMF (?38%). These results have important implications for the solar wind's interaction with planetary magnetospheres and the heliosphere's interaction with the local interstellar medium, with the proton dynamic pressure remaining near the lowest values observed in the space age: ?1.4 nPa, compared to ?2.4 nPa typically observed from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s. The combination of lower magnetic flux emergence from the Sun (carried out in the solar wind as the IMF) and associated low power in the solar wind points to the causal relationship between them. Our results indicate that the low solar wind output is driven by an internal trend in the Sun that is longer than the ?11 yr solar cycle, and they suggest that this current weak solar maximum is driven by the same trend.

  9. PROTON KINETIC EFFECTS IN VLASOV AND SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Servidio, S.; Valentini, F.; Perrone, D.; Veltri, P.; Osman, K. T.; Chapman, S.; Califano, F.; Matthaeus, W. H.

    2014-02-01

    Kinetic plasma processes are investigated in the framework of solar wind turbulence, employing hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell (HVM) simulations. Statistical analysis of spacecraft observation data relates proton temperature anisotropy T /T {sub ∥} and parallel plasma beta β{sub ∥}, where subscripts refer to the ambient magnetic field direction. Here, this relationship is recovered using an ensemble of HVM simulations. By varying plasma parameters, such as plasma beta and fluctuation level, the simulations explore distinct regions of the parameter space given by T /T {sub ∥} and β{sub ∥}, similar to solar wind sub-datasets. Moreover, both simulation and solar wind data suggest that temperature anisotropy is not only associated with magnetic intermittent events, but also with gradient-type structures in the flow and in the density. This connection between non-Maxwellian kinetic effects and various types of intermittency may be a key point for understanding the complex nature of plasma turbulence.

  10. Simulation of period doubling of recurrent solar wind structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whang, Y.C. ); Burlaga, L.F. )

    1990-12-01

    In 1974, IMP, Pioneer 11 and Pioneer 10 observed a recurrent solar wind structure over five consecutive solar rotations at three different trajectories between 1 and 6 AU. Using MHD simulations and input functions generated from plasma and magnetic field data observed from Pioneer 11. The authors study the continuing evolution of this solar wind structure between 5 and 20 AU. This simulation uses the shock interactions model which treats MHD shocks as discontinuity surfaces with zero thickness and which uses the exact Rankine-Hugoniot relations to describe the jump conditions. The model can calculate the collision and merging of shocks and the dynamical evolution of the solar wind in the outer heliosphere. The simulation result shows that between 5 and 10 AU there is an evolution from two corotating interaction regions per solar rotation to one merged interaction region (MIR) per solar rotation near 10 AU, i.e., period doubling has occurred. Each MIR was bounded by a forward and a reverse shock and additional weaker shocks may exist inside the MIR. Between 10 and 20 AU the structure of one MIR per solar rotation appears as a very persistent structure.

  11. Agua Caliente Wind/Solar Project at Whitewater Ranch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooks, Todd; Stewart, Royce

    2014-12-16

    Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians (ACBCI) was awarded a grant by the Department of Energy (DOE) to study the feasibility of a wind and/or solar renewable energy project at the Whitewater Ranch (WWR) property of ACBCI. Red Mountain Energy Partners (RMEP) was engaged to conduct the study. The ACBCI tribal lands in the Coachella Valley have very rich renewable energy resources. The tribe has undertaken several studies to more fully understand the options available to them if they were to move forward with one or more renewable energy projects. With respect to the resources, the WWR property clearly has excellent wind and solar resources. The DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has continued to upgrade and refine their library of resource maps. The newer, more precise maps quantify the resources as among the best in the world. The wind and solar technology available for deployment is also being improved. Both are reducing their costs to the point of being at or below the costs of fossil fuels. Technologies for energy storage and microgrids are also improving quickly and present additional ways to increase the wind and/or solar energy retained for later use with the network management flexibility to provide power to the appropriate locations when needed. As a result, renewable resources continue to gain more market share. The transitioning to renewables as the major resources for power will take some time as the conversion is complex and can have negative impacts if not managed well. While the economics for wind and solar systems continue to improve, the robustness of the WWR site was validated by the repeated queries of developers to place wind and/or solar there. The robust resources and improving technologies portends toward WWR land as a renewable energy site. The business case, however, is not so clear, especially when the potential investment portfolio for ACBCI has several very beneficial and profitable alternatives.

  12. Junior Solar Sprint - So.. You Want To Build A Model Solar Car

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 Revised 8/23/01 So... You Want To Build A Model Solar Car 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS TOPIC PAGE SOLAR ENERGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Teacher Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Activity One . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Activity Two . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  13. Solar and Wind Energy Credit (Personal)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Originally enacted in 1976, the Hawaii Energy Tax Credits allow individuals or corporations to claim an income tax credit of 20% of the cost of equipment and installation of a wind system and 35%...

  14. Solar and Wind Energy Credit (Corporate)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Originally enacted in 1976, the Hawaii Energy Tax Credits allow individuals or corporations to claim an income tax credit of 20% of the cost of equipment and installation of a wind system and 35%...

  15. The turbulent cascade and proton heating in the solar wind during solar minimum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coburn, Jesse T.; Smith, Charles W.; Vasquez, Bernard J.; Stawarz, Joshua E.; Forman, Miriam A.

    2013-06-13

    Solar wind measurements at 1 AU during the recent solar minimum and previous studies of solar maximum provide an opportunity to study the effects of the changing solar cycle on in situ heating. Our interest is to compare the levels of activity associated with turbulence and proton heating. Large-scale shears in the flow caused by transient activity are a source that drives turbulence that heats the solar wind, but as the solar cycle progresses the dynamics that drive the turbulence and heat the medium are likely to change. The application of third-moment theory to Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) data gives the turbulent energy cascade rate which is not seen to vary with the solar cycle. Likewise, an empirical heating rate shows no significan changes in proton heating over the cycle.

  16. Understanding of solar wind structure might be wrong

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar wind structure misunderstood Understanding of solar wind structure might be wrong The plasma particles flowing from the Sun and blasting past the Earth might be configured more as a network of tubes than a river-like stream. September 7, 2010 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new

  17. NREL Hosts Free Workshops on Solar and Wind Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Workshops on Solar and Wind Energy For more information contact: e:mail: Public Affairs Golden, Colo., Dec. 15, 1999 - Engineers from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) next month will host three workshops on "Solar and Wind Power for Farms and Ranches" at the National Western Stock Show in Denver. The workshops will feature hands-on displays of clean, renewable energy systems that farmers and ranchers can use today. The consumer-oriented

  18. CORE ELECTRON HEATING IN SOLAR WIND RECONNECTION EXHAUSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pulupa, M. P.; Salem, C.; Phan, T. D.; Bale, S. D.; Gosling, J. T.

    2014-08-10

    We present observational evidence of core electron heating in solar wind reconnection exhausts. We show two example events, one which shows clear heating of the core electrons within the exhaust, and one which demonstrates no heating. The event with heating occurred during a period of high inflow Alfvn speed (V {sub AL}), while the event with no heating had a low V {sub AL}. This agrees with the results of a recent study of magnetopause exhausts, and suggests that similar core electron heating can occur in both symmetric (solar wind) and asymmetric (magnetopause) exhausts.

  19. Economic analysis of wind-powered farmhouse and farm building heating systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stafford, R.W.; Greeb, F.J.; Smith, M.F.; Des Chenes, C.; Weaver, N.L.

    1981-01-01

    The study evaluated the break-even values of wind energy for selected farmhouses and farm buildings focusing on the effects of thermal storage on the use of WECS production and value. Farmhouse structural models include three types derived from a national survey - an older, a more modern, and a passive solar structure. The eight farm building applications that were analyzed include: poultry-layers, poultry-brooding/layers, poultry-broilers, poultry-turkeys, swine-farrowing, swine-growing/finishing, dairy, and lambing. These farm buildings represent the spectrum of animal types, heating energy use, and major contributions to national agricultural economic values. All energy analyses were based on hour-by-hour computations which allowed for growth of animals, sensible and latent heat production, and ventilation requirements. Hourly or three-hourly weather data obtained from the National Climatic Center was used for the nine chosen analysis sites, located throughout the United States and corresponding to regional agricultural production centers.

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF TRANSITIONS IN THE SOLAR WIND PARAMETERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perri, S.; Balogh, A. E-mail: a.balogh@imperial.ac.u

    2010-02-20

    The distinction between fast and slow solar wind streams and the dynamically evolved interaction regions is reflected in the characteristic fluctuations of both the solar wind and the embedded magnetic field. High-resolution magnetic field data from the Ulysses spacecraft have been analyzed. The observations show rapid variations in the magnetic field components and in the magnetic field strength, suggesting a structured nature of the solar wind at small scales. The typical sizes of fluctuations cover a broad range. If translated to the solar surface, the scales span from the size of granules ({approx}10{sup 3} km) and supergranules ({approx}10{sup 4} km) on the Sun down to {approx}10{sup 2} km and less. The properties of the short time structures change in the different types of solar wind. While fluctuations in fast streams are more homogeneous, slow streams present a bursty behavior in the magnetic field variances, and the regions of transition are characterized by high levels of power in narrow structures around the transitions. The probability density functions of the magnetic field increments at several scales reveal a higher level of intermittency in the mixed streams, which is related to the presence of well localized features. It is concluded that, apart from the differences in the nature of fluctuations in flows of different coronal origin, there is a small-scale structuring that depends on the origin of streams themselves but it is also related to a bursty generation of the fluctuations.

  1. U.S. Virgin Islands- Solar and Wind Easements & Rights Laws

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In the U.S. Virgin Islands, the owner of a solar or wind-energy system is permitted to negotiate for assurance of continued access to the system’s energy source. "Solar or wind-energy system" is...

  2. NREL: Solar and Wind Could Provide up to 30% of Electricity on...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    NREL: Solar and Wind Could Provide up to 30% of Electricity on Eastern Power Grid NREL: Solar and Wind Could Provide up to 30% of Electricity on Eastern Power Grid September 1, ...

  3. Enabling Technologies for High Penetration of Wind and Solar Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.

    2011-01-01

    High penetration of variable wind and solar electricity generation will require modifications to the electric power system. This work examines the impacts of variable generation, including uncertainty, ramp rate, ramp range, and potentially excess generation. Time-series simulations were performed in the Texas (ERCOT) grid where different mixes of wind, solar photovoltaic and concentrating solar power provide up to 80% of the electric demand. Different enabling technologies were examined, including conventional generator flexibility, demand response, load shifting, and energy storage. A variety of combinations of these technologies enabled low levels of surplus or curtailed wind and solar generation depending on the desired penetration of renewable sources. At lower levels of penetration (up to about 30% on an energy basis) increasing flexible generation, combined with demand response may be sufficient to accommodate variability and uncertainty. Introduction of load-shifting through real-time pricing or other market mechanisms further increases the penetration of variable generation. The limited time coincidence of wind and solar generation presents increasing challenges as these sources provide greater than 50% of total demand. System flexibility must be increased to the point of virtually eliminating must-run baseload generators during periods of high wind and solar generation. Energy storage also becomes increasingly important as lower cost flexibility options are exhausted. The study examines three classes of energy storage - electricity storage, including batteries and pumped hydro, hybrid storage (compressed-air energy storage), and thermal energy storage. Ignoring long-distance transmission options, a combination of load shifting and storage equal to about 12 hours of average demand may keep renewable energy curtailment below 10% in the simulated system.

  4. Grand Traverse Band Renewable Energy Feasibility Study in Wind, Biomass and Solar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzanne McSawby, Project Director Steve Smiley, Principle Investigator Grand Traverse Resort, Cost Sharing Partner

    2008-12-31

    Renewable Energy Feasibility Study for wind, biomass, solar on the Grand Traverse Band tribal lands from 2005 - 2008

  5. Do You Wonder How Much Energy Your Home Could Get from Solar or Wind?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Have you ever thought about installing wind or solar energy on your property? Learn more about it in this post.

  6. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Executive Summary, (WWSIS) May 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Piwko; K. Clark; L. Freeman; G. Jordan; N. Miller

    2010-05-01

    This report provides a summary of background, approach, and findings of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS).

  7. The genesis solar-wind sample return mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiens, Roger C

    2009-01-01

    The compositions of the Earth's crust and mantle, and those of the Moon and Mars, are relatively well known both isotopically and elementally. The same is true of our knowledge of the asteroid belt composition, based on meteorite analyses. Remote measurements of Venus, the Jovian atmosphere, and the outer planet moons, have provided some estimates of their compositions. The Sun constitutes a large majority, > 99%, of all the matter in the solar system. The elemental composition of the photosphere, the visible 'surface' of the Sun, is constrained by absorption lines produced by particles above the surface. Abundances for many elements are reported to the {+-}10 or 20% accuracy level. However, the abundances of other important elements, such as neon, cannot be determined in this way due to a relative lack of atomic states at low excitation energies. Additionally and most importantly, the isotopic composition of the Sun cannot be determined astronomically except for a few species which form molecules above sunspots, and estimates derived from these sources lack the accuracy desired for comparison with meteoritic and planetary surface samples measured on the Earth. The solar wind spreads a sample of solar particles throughout the heliosphere, though the sample is very rarified: collecting a nanogram of oxygen, the third most abundant element, in a square centimeter cross section at the Earth's distance from the Sun takes five years. Nevertheless, foil collectors exposed to the solar wind for periods of hours on the surface of the Moon during the Apollo missions were used to determine the helium and neon solar-wind compositions sufficiently to show that the Earth's atmospheric neon was significantly evolved relative to the Sun. Spacecraft instruments developed subsequently have provided many insights into the composition of the solar wind, mostly in terms of elemental composition. These instruments have the advantage of observing a number of parameters simultaneously

  8. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Executive Summary

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This study investigates the operational impact of up to 35% energy penetration of wind, photovoltaics (PVs), and concentrating solar power (CSP) on the power system operated by the WestConnect group of utilities in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Wyoming.

  9. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2010-05-01

    This Study investigates the operational impact of up to 35% energy penetration of wind, photovoltaics (PVs), and concentrating solar power (CSP) on the power system operated by the WestConnect group of utilities in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Wyoming.

  10. Modeling and Analysis of Solar Radiation Potentials on Building Rooftops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Kodysh, Jeffrey B; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2012-01-01

    The active application of photovoltaic for electricity generation could effectively transform neighborhoods and commercial districts into small, localized power plants. This application, however, relies heavily on an accurate estimation of the amount of solar radiation that is available on individual building rooftops. While many solar energy maps exist at higher spatial resolution for concentrated solar energy applications, the data from these maps are not suitable for roof-mounted photovoltaic for several reasons, including lack of data at the appropriate spatial resolution and lack of integration of building-specific characteristics into the models used to generate the maps. To address this problem, we have developed a modeling framework for estimating solar radiation potentials on individual building rooftops that is suitable for utility-scale applications as well as building-specific applications. The framework uses light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data at approximately 1-meter horizontal resolution and 0.3-meter vertical resolution as input for modeling a large number of buildings quickly. One of the strengths of this framework is the ability to parallelize its implementation. Furthermore, the framework accounts for building specific characteristics, such as roof slope, roof aspect, and shadowing effects, that are critical to roof-mounted photovoltaic systems. The resulting data has helped us to identify the so-called solar panel sweet spots on individual building rooftops and obtain accurate statistics of the variation in solar radiation as a function of time of year and geographical location.

  11. Research and Development Needs for Building-Integrated Solar Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-01-01

    The Building Technologies Office (BTO) has identified Building Integrated Solar Technologies (BIST) as a potentially valuable piece of the comprehensive pathway to help achieve its goal of reducing energy consumption in residential and commercial buildings by 50% by the year 2030. This report helps to identify the key research and development (R&D) needs that will be required for BIST to make a substantial contribution toward that goal. BIST include technologies for space heating and cooling, water heating, hybrid photovoltaic-thermal systems (PV/T), active solar lighting, and building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV).

  12. Heat storage and distribution inside passive-solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Passive-solar buildings are investigated from the viewpoint of the storage of solar heat in materials of the building: walls, floors, ceilings, and furniture. The effects of the location, material, thickness, and orientation of each internal building surface are investigated. The concept of diurnal heat capacity is introduced and a method of using this parameter to estimate clear-day temperature swings is developed. Convective coupling to remote rooms within a building is discussed, including both convection through single doorways and convective loops that may exist involving a sunspace. Design guidelines are given.

  13. Ion-driven instabilities in the solar wind: Wind observations of 19 March 2005

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gary, S. Peter; Jian, Lan K.; Broiles, Thomas W.; Stevens, Michael L.; Podesta, John J.; Kasper, Justin C.

    2016-01-16

    Intervals of enhanced magnetic fluctuations have been frequently observed in the solar wind. However, it remains an open question as to whether these waves are generated at the Sun and then transported outward by the solar wind or generated locally in the interplanetary medium. Magnetic field and plasma measurements from the Wind spacecraft under slow solar wind conditions on 19 March 2005 demonstrate seven events of enhanced magnetic fluctuations at spacecraft-frame frequencies somewhat above the proton cyclotron frequency and propagation approximately parallel or antiparallel to the background magnetic field Bo. The proton velocity distributions during these events are characterized bymore » two components: a more dense, slower core and a less dense, faster beam. In conclusion, observed plasma parameters are used in a kinetic linear dispersion equation analysis for electromagnetic fluctuations at k x Bo = 0; for two events the most unstable mode is the Alfvén-cyclotron instability driven by a proton component temperature anisotropy T⊥/T|| > 1 (where the subscripts denote directions relative to Bo), and for three events the most unstable mode is the right-hand polarized magnetosonic instability driven primarily by ion component relative flows. Thus, both types of ion anisotropies and both types of instabilities are likely to be local sources of these enhanced fluctuation events in the solar wind.« less

  14. Large Scale Wind and Solar Integration in Germany

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernst, Bernhard; Schreirer, Uwe; Berster, Frank; Pease, John; Scholz, Cristian; Erbring, Hans-Peter; Schlunke, Stephan; Makarov, Yuri V.

    2010-02-28

    This report provides key information concerning the German experience with integrating of 25 gigawatts of wind and 7 gigawatts of solar power capacity and mitigating its impacts on the electric power system. The report has been prepared based on information provided by the Amprion GmbH and 50Hertz Transmission GmbH managers and engineers to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory representatives during their visit to Germany in October 2009. The trip and this report have been sponsored by the BPA Technology Innovation office. Learning from the German experience could help the Bonneville Power Administration engineers to compare and evaluate potential new solutions for managing higher penetrations of wind energy resources in their control area. A broader dissemination of this experience will benefit wind and solar resource integration efforts in the United States.

  15. City of Grand Rapids Building Solar Roof Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeClercq, Mark; Martinez, Imelda

    2012-08-31

    Grand Rapids, Michigan is striving to reduce it environmental footprint. The municipal government organization has established environmental sustainability policies with the goal of securing 100% of its energy from renewable sources by 2020. This report describes the process by which the City of Grand Rapids evaluated, selected and installed solar panels on the Water/Environmental Services Building. The solar panels are the first to be placed on a municipal building. Its new power monitoring system provides output data to assess energy efficiency and utilization. It is expected to generate enough clean solar energy to power 25 percent of the building. The benefit to the public includes the economic savings from reduced operational costs for the building; an improved environmentally sustainable area in which to live and work; and increased knowledge about the use of solar energy. It will serve as a model for future energy saving applications.

  16. Electron distributions and solar wind interaction with nonmagnetic planets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu Gan.

    1991-01-01

    A two-stream transport model for suprathermal electrons and a time-dependent energy equation for thermal electrons were used to find the electron distributions at the solar wind-planetary atmosphere boundary regions of comet Halley, Venus, and Titan. Results provided a clearer understanding of the electron distributions in these regions, and of the collisional processes that contribute to the energy dissipation and energy budget among atmospheric species. Application of the model equations to the inner coma of comet Halley has demonstrated the existence of a sharp transition boundary, called the thermal electron collisionopause. Application to Venus' dayside upper ionosphere and the mantle region has given suprathermal electron distributions as functions of altitude, solar zenith angle, and solar wind boundary conditions. Application to the interaction region between Saturn's magnetosphere and Titan's ionosphere leads to the conclusion that air-glow emission due to photoelectron impact is a much more important process than that produced by magnetospheric electron interactions.

  17. Build-it-yourself solar water heater: reduce electric use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Drawings and instructions for a simple breadbox-style solar water heater are presented. This booklet is a step-by-step guide to building a solar water heater for approximately 15 percent of the cost of most commercially-installed systems. This system does not provide as much energy as the commercially available systems. (MHR)

  18. Optimum mix of conservation and solar energy in buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    A methodology is developed for optimally allocating resources between conservation and solar strategies in building design. Formulas are presented for a constrained optimum in which the initial investment is limited. The procedure is amenable to hand analysis if tables are available which give the Solar Savings Fraction as a function of the Load Collector Ratio for the locality. A numerical example is given.

  19. Hybrid Solar-Wind Generates Savings for South Dakota City | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    An array of six solar panels, similar to the ones shown, will be installed at Colton, ... one small-scale solar and two solar-wind hybrid systems, and conducting energy retrofits. ...

  20. Sustainable Buildings. Using Active Solar Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, M. Keith; Barnett, Russell

    2015-04-20

    The objective of this project is to promote awareness and knowledge of active solar energy technologies by installing and monitoring the following demonstration systems in Kentucky: 1) Pool heating system, Churchill Park School, 2) Water heating and daylighting systems, Middletown and Aiken Road Elementary Schools, 3) Photovoltaic street light comparison, Louisville Metro, 4) up to 25 domestic water heating systems across Kentucky. These tasks will be supported by outreach activities, including a solar energy installer training workshop and a Kentucky Solar Energy Conference.

  1. Simple procedure for schematic design of passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wray, W.O.; Kosiewicz, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    A simple procedure for use during the schematic phase of passive solar building design is presented in this article. The procedure is quantitative and accurate enough to insure that designs based on the provided starting point values of the primary building parameters will be cost effective.

  2. Better Buildings Alliance Solar Decision Guide

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Businesses considering implementing solar PV may encounter widespread geographic differences regarding utility incentive structures (buy-down incentives, performance based incentives, feed-in tariffs, etc.), utility policies (net metering, interconnection requirements), regulatory structures, and permitting requirements. They might also have uncertainty about how to assess the different ownership structures (PPA, lease, own, etc.). The Solar Decision Guide can help companies navigate this complex environment to determine if investing in solar makes financial sense and to identify the regions that offer the most promising returns on solar investment.

  3. Small solar wind transients: Stereo-A observations in 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, W.; Farrugia, C. J.; Galvin, A. B.; Simunac, K. D. C.; Popecki, M. A.; Lugaz, N.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Moestl, C.; Luhmann, J. G.; Opitz, A.; Sauvaud, J.-A.

    2013-06-13

    Year 2009 was the last year of a long and pronounced solar activity minimum. In this year the solar wind in the inner heliosphere was for 90% of the time slow (< 450 km s{sup -1}) and with a weaker magnetic field strength compared to the previous solar minimum 1995-1996. We choose this year to present the results of a systematic search for small solar wind transients (STs) observed by the STEREO-Ahead (ST-A) probe. The data are from the PLASTIC and IMPACT instrument suites. By 'small' we mean a duration from {approx}1 to 12 hours. The parameters we search for to identify STs are (i) the total field strength, (ii) the rotation of the magnetic field vector, (iii) its smoothness, (iv) proton temperature, (v) proton beta, and (vi) Alfven Mach number. We find 45 examples. The STs have an average duration of {approx}4 hours. Ensemble averages of key quantities are: (i) maximum B = 7.01 nT; (ii) proton {beta}= 0.18; (iii) proton thermal speed = 20.8 km s{sup -1}; and (iv) Alfven Mach number = 6.13. No distinctive feature is found in the pitch angle distributions of suprathermal electrons. Our statistical results are compared with those of STs observed near Earth by Wind during 2009.

  4. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Hydropower Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acker, T.; Pete, C.

    2012-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) study of 20% Wind Energy by 2030 was conducted to consider the benefits, challenges, and costs associated with sourcing 20% of U.S. energy consumption from wind power by 2030. This study found that with proactive measures, no insurmountable barriers were identified to meet the 20% goal. Following this study, DOE and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted two more studies: the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS) covering the eastern portion of the U.S., and the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) covering the western portion of the United States. The WWSIS was conducted by NREL and research partner General Electric (GE) in order to provide insight into the costs, technical or physical barriers, and operational impacts caused by the variability and uncertainty of wind, photovoltaic, and concentrated solar power when employed to serve up to 35% of the load energy in the WestConnect region (Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Wyoming). WestConnect is composed of several utility companies working collaboratively to assess stakeholder and market needs to and develop cost-effective improvements to the western wholesale electricity market. Participants include the Arizona Public Service, El Paso Electric Company, NV Energy, Public Service of New Mexico, Salt River Project, Tri-State Generation and Transmission Cooperative, Tucson Electric Power, Xcel Energy and the Western Area Power Administration.

  5. NREL Launches Initiative to Build Solar Performance Database - News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Releases | NREL Launches Initiative to Build Solar Performance Database April 9, 2013 The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has launched an initiative to build an open-source database of real-world performance from solar facilities across the country. As part of DOE's SunShot Initiative, the Open Solar Performance and Reliability Clearinghouse (O-SPaRC) will give the private market tools to develop investment vehicles to tap low-cost public

  6. Solar Energy Potential | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Sources Home Fossil Nuclear Renewable Energy Renewable Energy Home Biomass Geothermal Solar Water Wind Energy Efficiency Energy Efficiency Home Building Design Building Design...

  7. Evaluating the performance of passive-solar-heated buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Methods of evaluating the thermal performance of passive-solar buildings are reviewed. Instrumentation and data logging requirements are outlined. Various methodologies that have been used to develop an energy balance for the building and various performance measures are discussed. Methods for quantifying comfort are described. Subsystem and other special-purpose monitoring are briefly reviewed. Summary results are given for 38 buildings that have been monitored.

  8. Tucson Public Building Solar Arrays Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce Plenk

    2002-12-17

    The City of Tucson installed photovoltaic panels on parking structures at a library/police substation and developed a county-wide solar education program based in the public library system, including numerous new solar resources for the libraries and training for library staff.

  9. Development of thermal performance criteria for residential passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabatiuk, P.A.; Cassel, D.E.; McCabe, M.; Scarbrough, C.

    1980-01-01

    In support of the development of thermal performance criteria for residential passive solar buildings, thermal design characteristics and anticipated performance for 266 projects in the HUD Passive Residential Design Competition and the HUD Cycle 5 Demonstration Program were analyzed. These passive residences are located in all regions of the United States requiring space heating, and they represent a variety of passive solar system types including direct gain, indirect gain, and solarium (isolated gain) systems. The results of this statistical analysis are being used to develop proposed minimum acceptable levels of thermal performance for passive solar buildings for the residential performance criteria. A number of performance measures were examined, including net solar contribution, solar fraction, and auxiliary energy use. These and other design and climate-related parameters were statistically correlated using the DATAPLOT computer program and standard statistical analysis techniques.

  10. Counterstreaming solar wind halo electron events on open field lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gosling, J.T.; McComas, D.J.; Phillips, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Counterstreaming solar wind halo electron events have been identified as a common 1 AU signature of coronal mass ejection events, and have generally been interpreted as indicative of closed magnetic field topologies, i.e., magnetic loops or flux ropes rooted at both ends in the Sun, or detached plasmoids. In this paper we examine the possibility that these events may instead occur preferentially on open field lines, and that counterstreaming results from reflection or injection behind interplanetary shocks or from mirroring from regions of compressed magnetic field farther out in the heliosphere. We conclude the neither of these suggested sources of counterstreaming electron beams is viable and that the best interpretation of observed counterstreaming electron events in the solar wind remains that of passage of closed field structures. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Petascale Simulations of Inhomogeneous Alfven Turbulence in the Solar Wind

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Petascale Simulations of Inhomogeneous Alfven Turbulence in the Solar Wind PI Name: Jean C Perez PI Email: jeanc.perez@unh.edu Institution: University of New Hampshire Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation Hours at ALCF: 10,000,000 Year: 2012 Research Domain: Physics This project's large-scale numerical simulations of Alfvén wave (AW) turbulence in the outermost atmosphere of the sun will lead to new insights into the basic properties of inhomogeneous

  12. VIDEO: How to Build a Wind Turbine in less than 20 Minutes | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy VIDEO: How to Build a Wind Turbine in less than 20 Minutes VIDEO: How to Build a Wind Turbine in less than 20 Minutes June 14, 2016 - 9:58am Addthis Hoyt Battey of the Wind and Water Power Technologies Office provides a simple step-by-step project on building a wind turbine that can be completed in less than 20 minutes. Mike Mueller Senior Digital Content Strategist, EERE Communications Did You Know? Wind generates enough electricity to power 17.5 million homes annually. EERE

  13. How To Build a Wind Turbine in Less Than 20 Minutes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    To Build a Wind Turbine in Less Than 20 Minutes How To Build a Wind Turbine in Less Than 20 Minutes Looking for a fun project to do with the family? Why not explore the gift that keeps on giving-clean energy. This project takes less than 20 minutes to complete and builds awareness of wind energy--the fastest growing source of power in the United States. Download the materials and instructions below. Paper Wind Turbine template.pdf (27.35 KB) Paper Wind Turbine template instructions.docx (1.16

  14. Building and using the solar greenhouse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1983-01-01

    Thorough directions are given for planning, constructing and using a solar greenhouse attached to a house. Included is a method of calculating the savings accruing from the use of the greenhouse. (LEW)

  15. Compressional instability in the solar wind driven by wave dissipation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dougherty, M.K. ); McKenzie, J.F. )

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine the stability of a steady solar wind dissipatively heated by Alfven waves whose relative amplitude is saturated at a given level by nonlinear processes. It is shown that long-wavelength compressional modes can be driven unstable by dissipative heating arising from short-wavelength saturated Alfven waves. Analytic expressions are derived for the marginal stability condition and the growth rates in the unstable region for the case of a moderate to low {beta} plasma. These are supplemented by a numerical solution of the full MHD dispersion equation, including dissipative Alfvenic effects, which confirms the approximate analysis. It is shown that the growth time of the instability can be of the order of 7 times the characteristic period of an Alfven wave for a wide range of parameters appropriate to the solar wind. The implication is that the compressional instability driven by dissipative Alfven waves could play a significant role in the large-scale heating and dynamics of the solar wind, particularly in the supersonic region.

  16. GIZ-Best Practices in Capacity Building Approaches | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Building Approaches: Recommendations for the Design of a Long -Term Capacity Building Strategy for the Wind and Solar Sectors by the MEF Working Group AgencyCompany Organization:...

  17. Guam- Solar-Ready Residential Building Requirement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Guam Energy Code, which became effective in October of 2000, requires that piping stub outs be provided for water heaters installed in low-rise residential buildings to enable the future inst...

  18. EPRI conference proceedings: solar and wind power - 1982 status and outlook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeMeo, E.A.

    1983-02-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 18 papers in this proceedings. Not separately abstracted are speeches and presentations covering: past progress and future directions in solar and wind power research and development, new directions in Federal solar electric programs, Solar Energy Research Institute status and outlook, ARCO Solar Industries' involvement in the production of potential solar electric technologies, wind power status and outlook, utility requirements, roles and rewards, and a panel discussion on solar and wind power status and outlook as viewed from industrial, utility, financial, and government perspectives. (LEW)

  19. Junior Solar Sprint - An Introduction to Building a Model Solar Car

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 Revised 8/23/01 An Introduction to Building a Model Solar Car Student Guide for the Junior Solar Sprint Competition Produced by: Krisztina Holly and Akhil Madhani 2 Introduction Welcome to Junior Solar Sprint! By competing in Junior Solar Sprint, you will learn how to make your own model solar car that will run entirely from the power of the sun. Design You will experience first-hand the process of design. When you design your car, you will start with some ideas in your head and turn then into

  20. Value of Wind Power Forecasting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Milligan, M.; Jordan, G.; Piwko, R.

    2011-04-01

    This study, building on the extensive models developed for the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS), uses these WECC models to evaluate the operating cost impacts of improved day-ahead wind forecasts.

  1. NREL: Innovation Impact - Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Energy Menu Home Home Solar Solar Wind Wind Analysis Analysis Bioenergy Bioenergy Buildings Buildings Transportation Transportation Manufacturing Manufacturing Energy Systems Integration Energy Systems Integration What is a quantum dot? Close Quantum dots are tiny spheres of semiconductor material measuring only about 2-10 billionths of a meter in diameter. Quantum dots are a leading candidate for a third generation of solar-cell technologies. Close Achieving significant gains in solar

  2. Visual-SOLAR: Modeling and Visualization of Solar Radiation Potential on Individual Building Rooftops

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-05-01

    We have developed a modeling framework for estimating solar radiation potentials on individual building rooftops that is suitable for utility-scale applications as well as building-specific applications. The framework uses light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data at approximately 1-meter horizontal resolution and 0.3-meter vertical resolution as input for modeling a large number of buildings quickly. One of the strengths of this framework is the ability to parallelize its implementation. Furthermore, the framework accounts for building specificmore » characteristics, such as roof slope, roof aspect, and shadowing effects, that are critical to roof-mounted photovoltaic system. The resulting data has helped us to identify the so-called "solar panel sweet spots" on individual building rooftops and obtain accurate statistics of the variation in solar radiation as a function of time of year and geographical location.« less

  3. Visual-SOLAR: Modeling and Visualization of Solar Radiation Potential on Individual Building Rooftops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-05-01

    We have developed a modeling framework for estimating solar radiation potentials on individual building rooftops that is suitable for utility-scale applications as well as building-specific applications. The framework uses light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data at approximately 1-meter horizontal resolution and 0.3-meter vertical resolution as input for modeling a large number of buildings quickly. One of the strengths of this framework is the ability to parallelize its implementation. Furthermore, the framework accounts for building specific characteristics, such as roof slope, roof aspect, and shadowing effects, that are critical to roof-mounted photovoltaic system. The resulting data has helped us to identify the so-called "solar panel sweet spots" on individual building rooftops and obtain accurate statistics of the variation in solar radiation as a function of time of year and geographical location.

  4. Using Solar Business Models to Expand the Distributed Wind Market (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savage, S.

    2013-05-01

    This presentation to attendees at Wind Powering America's All-States Summit in Chicago describes business models that were responsible for rapid growth in the solar industry and that may be applicable to the distributed wind industry as well.

  5. Wind Tunnel Tests of Parabolic Trough Solar Collectors: March 2001--August 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosoya, N.; Peterka, J. A.; Gee, R. C.; Kearney, D.

    2008-05-01

    Conducted extensive wind-tunnel tests on parabolic trough solar collectors to determine practical wind loads applicable to structural design for stress and deformation, and local component design for concentrator reflectors.

  6. Geek-Up[3.25.2011]: Idaho Wind and Chlorosome-Inspired Solar...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Idaho Wind and Chlorosome-Inspired Solar Geek-Up3.25.2011: Idaho Wind and ... In the continental United States, around 500 power companies operate a massive, complex ...

  7. Solar and Wind Easements, Local Options, and Severability | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Federal Government Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal...

  8. New Report Says Western Grid Can Weather Disturbances with High Wind, Solar

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Penetrations | Department of Energy Says Western Grid Can Weather Disturbances with High Wind, Solar Penetrations New Report Says Western Grid Can Weather Disturbances with High Wind, Solar Penetrations May 18, 2015 - 4:05pm Addthis A new report finds that with high penetrations of wind and solar on the grid, together with good system planning, sound engineering practices, and commercially available technologies, the Western Interconnection can withstand the crucial first minute after large

  9. Investigating the Correlation Between Wind and Solar Power Forecast Errors in the Western Interconnection: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, J.; Hodge, B. M.; Florita, A.

    2013-05-01

    Wind and solar power generations differ from conventional energy generation because of the variable and uncertain nature of their power output. This variability and uncertainty can have significant impacts on grid operations. Thus, short-term forecasting of wind and solar generation is uniquely helpful for power system operations to balance supply and demand in an electricity system. This paper investigates the correlation between wind and solar power forecasting errors.

  10. TWISTED MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz V.; Vörös, Zoltán; Narita, Yasuhito; Bruno, Roberto

    2014-03-01

    Magnetic flux tubes in the solar wind can be twisted as they are transported from the solar surface, where the tubes are twisted due to photospheric motions. It is suggested that the twisted magnetic tubes can be detected as the variation of total (thermal+magnetic) pressure during their passage through the observing satellite. We show that the total pressure of several observed twisted tubes resembles the theoretically expected profile. The twist of the isolated magnetic tube may explain the observed abrupt changes of magnetic field direction at tube walls. We have also found some evidence that the flux tube walls can be associated with local heating of the plasma and elevated proton and electron temperatures. For the tubes aligned with the Parker spiral, the twist angle can be estimated from the change of magnetic field direction. Stability analysis of twisted tubes shows that the critical twist angle of the tube with a homogeneous twist is 70°, but the angle can further decrease due to the motion of the tube with respect to the solar wind stream. The tubes with a stronger twist are unstable to the kink instability, therefore they probably cannot reach 1 AU.

  11. The AMPTE program's contribution to studies of the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sibeck, D.G. )

    1990-12-01

    The Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers (AMPTE) program provided important information on the behavior of clouds of plasma artificially injected into the solar wind and the earth's magnetosphere. Now that the releases are over, data from the satellites are being analyzed to investigate the processes by which the ambient solar wind mass, momentum, and energy are transferred to the magnetosphere. Work in progress at APL indicates that the solar wind is much more inhomogeneous than previously believed, that the solar wind constantly buffets the magnetosphere, and that ground observers may remotely sense these interactions as geomagnetic pulsations. 8 refs.

  12. New Battery Design Could Help Solar and Wind Power the Grid ...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    New Battery Design Could Help Solar and Wind Power the Grid Argonne scientists Ira Bloom (front) and Javier Bareo prepare a sample of battery materials for Raman spectroscopy, ...

  13. THE ORIGIN OF NON-MAXWELLIAN SOLAR WIND ELECTRON VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    corona and can be preserved as the solar wind escapes to space along open field lines. ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 79 ASTROPHYSICS, ...

  14. Ener-Gee Whiz Answers Your Questions: Wind vs. Solar | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Wind vs. Solar Ener-Gee Whiz Answers Your Questions: Wind vs. Solar August 11, 2009 - 12:48pm Addthis Amy Foster Parish Costa writes: Do you think using wind is better than using solar to generate electricity? Ener-Gee Whiz: If you're considering installing a renewable energy system and are having a hard time deciding between the wind turbines and solar panels, you might find that the right renewable energy system for you depends on a number of factors. The first and most obvious consideration

  15. Operation of Concentrating Solar Power Plants in the Western Wind and Solar Integration Phase 2 Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Brinkman, G.; Lew, D.; Hummon, M.

    2014-05-01

    The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) explores various aspects of the challenges and impacts of integrating large amounts of wind and solar energy into the electric power system of the West. The phase 2 study (WWSIS-2) is one of the first to include dispatchable concentrating solar power (CSP) with thermal energy storage (TES) in multiple scenarios of renewable penetration and mix. As a result, it provides unique insights into CSP plant operation, grid benefits, and how CSP operation and configuration may need to change under scenarios of increased renewable penetration. Examination of the WWSIS-2 results indicates that in all scenarios, CSP plants with TES provides firm system capacity, reducing the net demand and the need for conventional thermal capacity. The plants also reduced demand during periods of short-duration, high ramping requirements that often require use of lower efficiency peaking units. Changes in CSP operation are driven largely by the presence of other solar generation, particularly PV. Use of storage by the CSP plants increases in the higher solar scenarios, with operation of the plant often shifted to later in the day. CSP operation also becomes more variable, including more frequent starts. Finally, CSP output is often very low during the day in scenarios with significant PV, which helps decrease overall renewable curtailment (over-generation). However, the configuration studied is likely not optimal for High Solar Scenario implying further analysis of CSP plant configuration is needed to understand its role in enabling high renewable scenarios in the Western United States.

  16. Solar and Wind Resource Assessments for Afghanistan and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renne, D. S.; Kelly, M.; Elliott, D.; George, R.; Scott, G.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; Milbrandt, A.; Cowlin, S.; Gilman, P.; Perez, R.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has recently completed the production of high-resolution wind and solar energy resource maps and related data products for Afghanistan and Pakistan. The resource data have been incorporated into a geospatial toolkit (GsT), which allows the user to manipulate the resource information along with country-specific geospatial information such as highway networks, power facilities, transmission corridors, protected land areas, etc. The toolkit allows users to then transfer resource data for specific locations into NREL's micropower optimization model known as HOMER.

  17. A study of density modulation index in the inner heliospheric solar wind during solar cycle 23

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bisoi, Susanta Kumar; Janardhan, P.; Ingale, M.; Subramanian, P.; Ananthakrishnan, S.; Tokumaru, M.; Fujiki, K. E-mail: jerry@prl.res.in E-mail: p.subramanian@iiserpune.ac.in E-mail: tokumaru@stelab.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2014-11-01

    The ratio of the rms electron density fluctuations to the background density in the solar wind (density modulation index, ? {sub N} ? ?N/N) is of vital importance for understanding several problems in heliospheric physics related to solar wind turbulence. In this paper, we have investigated the behavior of ? {sub N} in the inner heliosphere from 0.26 to 0.82 AU. The density fluctuations ?N have been deduced using extensive ground-based observations of interplanetary scintillation at 327 MHz, which probe spatial scales of a few hundred kilometers. The background densities (N) have been derived using near-Earth observations from the Advanced Composition Explorer. Our analysis reveals that 0.001 ? ? {sub N} ? 0.02 and does not vary appreciably with heliocentric distance. We also find that ? {sub N} declines by 8% from 1998 to 2008. We discuss the impact of these findings on problems ranging from our understanding of Forbush decreases to the behavior of the solar wind dynamic pressure over the recent peculiar solar minimum at the end of cycle 23.

  18. SCALE DEPENDENCE OF MAGNETIC HELICITY IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenburg, Axel; Subramanian, Kandaswamy; Balogh, Andre; Goldstein, Melvyn L. E-mail: kandu@iucaa.ernet.in E-mail: melvyn.l.goldstein@nasa.gov

    2011-06-10

    We determine the magnetic helicity, along with the magnetic energy, at high latitudes using data from the Ulysses mission. The data set spans the time period from 1993 to 1996. The basic assumption of the analysis is that the solar wind is homogeneous. Because the solar wind speed is high, we follow the approach first pioneered by Matthaeus et al. by which, under the assumption of spatial homogeneity, one can use Fourier transforms of the magnetic field time series to construct one-dimensional spectra of the magnetic energy and magnetic helicity under the assumption that the Taylor frozen-in-flow hypothesis is valid. That is a well-satisfied assumption for the data used in this study. The magnetic helicity derives from the skew-symmetric terms of the three-dimensional magnetic correlation tensor, while the symmetric terms of the tensor are used to determine the magnetic energy spectrum. Our results show a sign change of magnetic helicity at wavenumber k {approx} 2 AU{sup -1} (or frequency {nu} {approx} 2 {mu}Hz) at distances below 2.8 AU and at k {approx} 30 AU{sup -1} (or {nu} {approx} 25 {mu}Hz) at larger distances. At small scales the magnetic helicity is positive at northern heliographic latitudes and negative at southern latitudes. The positive magnetic helicity at small scales is argued to be the result of turbulent diffusion reversing the sign relative to what is seen at small scales at the solar surface. Furthermore, the magnetic helicity declines toward solar minimum in 1996. The magnetic helicity flux integrated separately over one hemisphere amounts to about 10{sup 45} Mx{sup 2} cycle{sup -1} at large scales and to a three times lower value at smaller scales.

  19. Convective heat transfer inside passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, R.W.; Balcomb, J.D.; Yamaguchi, K.

    1983-11-01

    Natural convection between spaces in a building which play a major role in energy transfer are discussed. Two situations are investigated: Convection through a single doorway into a remote room, and a convective loop in a two story house with a south sunspace where a north stairway serves as the return path. A doorway sizing equation is given for the single door case. Data from airflow monitoring in one two-story house and summary data for five others are presented. The nature of the airflow and design guidelines are presented.

  20. Convective heat transfer inside passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, R.W.; Balcomb, J.D.; Yamaguchi, K.

    1983-01-01

    Natural convection between spaces in a building can play a major role in energy transfer. Two situations are investigated: convection through a single doorway into a remote room, and a convective loop in a two-story house with a south sunspace where a north stairway serves as the return path. A doorway-sizing equation is given for the single-door case. Detailed data are given from the monitoring of airflow in one two-story house and summary data are given for five others. Observations on the nature of the airflow and design guidelines are presented.

  1. Procuring and Implementing Solar Projects on Public Buildings: How to Avoid Common Pitfalls (Text Version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Transcript of the webinar, "Procuring and Implementing Solar Projects on Public Buildings: How to Avoid Common Pitfalls."

  2. Report on the solar assessment of non-federal public buildings in the Northeast Region. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pansey, A.W.

    1980-02-01

    The activities and results of the Non-Federal Public Buildings Assessment project are summarized. The purpose of the project was to stimulate and assist the states of the Northeast Region in planning for the conversion of non-federal (state, county and municipal) public buildings from conventional energy to solar. These buildings include office buildings, schools, universities, hospitals, courthouses, prisons, police and fire stations, city and town halls, animal pounds, fish hatcheries, game farms and agricultural facilities. All are major users of energy, most of it in the form of distillate or residual oil. The thrust of the project was solely on domestic hot water and space heating applications, with energy provided by active or passive solar thermal, wood, and, possibly, wind.

  3. Predicted impacts of proton temperature anisotropy on solar wind turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, K. G.; Howes, G. G.

    2015-03-15

    Particle velocity distributions measured in the weakly collisional solar wind are frequently found to be non-Maxwellian, but how these non-Maxwellian distributions impact the physics of plasma turbulence in the solar wind remains unanswered. Using numerical solutions of the linear dispersion relation for a collisionless plasma with a bi-Maxwellian proton velocity distribution, we present a unified framework for the four proton temperature anisotropy instabilities, identifying the associated stable eigenmodes, highlighting the unstable region of wavevector space and presenting the properties of the growing eigenfunctions. Based on physical intuition gained from this framework, we address how the proton temperature anisotropy impacts the nonlinear dynamics of the Alfvénic fluctuations underlying the dominant cascade of energy from large to small scales and how the fluctuations driven by proton temperature anisotropy instabilities interact nonlinearly with each other and with the fluctuations of the large-scale cascade. We find that the nonlinear dynamics of the large-scale cascade is insensitive to the proton temperature anisotropy and that the instability-driven fluctuations are unlikely to cause significant nonlinear evolution of either the instability-driven fluctuations or the turbulent fluctuations of the large-scale cascade.

  4. Integrating High Penetrations of Solar in the Western United States: Results of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Lew, D.

    2013-10-01

    This poster presents a summary of the results of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2.

  5. Depth profiling analysis of solar wind helium collected in diamond-like carbon film from Genesis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bajo, Ken-ichi; Olinger, Chad T.; Jurewicz, Amy J.G.; Burnett, Donald S.; Sakaguchi, Isao; Suzuki, Taku; Itose, Satoru; Ishihara, Morio; Uchino, Kiichiro; Wieler, Rainer; et al

    2015-10-01

    The distribution of solar-wind ions in Genesis mission collectors, as determined by depth profiling analysis, constrains the physics of ion solid interactions involving the solar wind. Thus, they provide an experimental basis for revealing ancient solar activities represented by solar-wind implants in natural samples. We measured the first depth profile of ⁴He in a collector; the shallow implantation (peaking at <20 nm) required us to use sputtered neutral mass spectrometry with post-photoionization by a strong field. The solar wind He fluence calculated using depth profiling is ~8.5 x 10¹⁴ cm⁻². The shape of the solar wind ⁴He depth profile ismore » consistent with TRIM simulations using the observed ⁴He velocity distribution during the Genesis mission. It is therefore likely that all solar-wind elements heavier than H are completely intact in this Genesis collector and, consequently, the solar particle energy distributions for each element can be calculated from their depth profiles. Ancient solar activities and space weathering of solar system objects could be quantitatively reproduced by solar particle implantation profiles.« less

  6. NATURAL CONVECTION IN PASSIVE SOLAR BUILDINGS: EXPERIMENTS, ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gadgil, A.; Bauman, F.; Kammerud, R.

    1981-04-01

    Computer programs have been developed to numerically simulate natural convection in two- and three-dimensional room geometries. The programs have been validated using published data from the literature, results from a full-scale experiment performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and results from a small-scale experiment performed at LBL. One of the computer programs has been used to study the influence of natural convection on the thermal performance of a single zone in a direct-gain passive solar building. It is found that the convective heat transfer coefficients between the air and the enclosure surfaces can be substantially different from the values assumed in the standard building energy analysis methods, and can exhibit significant variations across a given surface. This study implies that the building heating loads calculated by standard building energy analysis methods may have substantial errors as a result of their use of common assumptions regarding the convection processes which occur in an enclosure.

  7. The solar wind neon abundance observed with ACE/SWICS and ULYSSES/SWICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shearer, Paul; Raines, Jim M.; Lepri, Susan T.; Thomas, Jonathan W.; Gilbert, Jason A.; Landi, Enrico; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Von Steiger, Rudolf

    2014-07-01

    Using in situ ion spectrometry data from ACE/SWICS, we determine the solar wind Ne/O elemental abundance ratio and examine its dependence on wind speed and evolution with the solar cycle. We find that Ne/O is inversely correlated with wind speed, is nearly constant in the fast wind, and correlates strongly with solar activity in the slow wind. In fast wind streams with speeds above 600 km s{sup 1}, we find Ne/O = 0.10 0.02, in good agreement with the extensive polar observations by Ulysses/SWICS. In slow wind streams with speeds below 400 km s{sup 1}, Ne/O ranges from a low of 0.12 0.02 at solar maximum to a high of 0.17 0.03 at solar minimum. These measurements place new and significant empirical constraints on the fractionation mechanisms governing solar wind composition and have implications for the coronal and photospheric abundances of neon and oxygen. The results are made possible by a new data analysis method that robustly identifies rare elements in the measured ion spectra. The method is also applied to Ulysses/SWICS data, which confirms the ACE observations and extends our view of solar wind neon into the three-dimensional heliosphere.

  8. New Report: Integrating More Wind and Solar Reduces Utilities' Carbon Emissions and Fuel Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) released Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2), a follow-up to the initial WWSIS released in May 2010, which examined the viability, benefits, and challenges of integrating as much as 33% wind and solar power into the electricity grid of the western United States.

  9. Wind Power Today: Building a New Energy Future, Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program 2009 (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    Wind Power Today is an annual publication that provides an overview of the wind energy research conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program.

  10. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 (Executive Summary)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, Debra; Brinkman, Greg

    2013-09-01

    The electric grid is a highly complex, interconnected machine, and changing one part of the grid can have consequences elsewhere. Adding wind and solar affects the operation of the other power plants and adding high penetrations can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) evaluated these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This built on Phase 1, one of the largest wind and solar integration studies ever conducted, which examined operational impacts of high wind and solar penetrations in the West(GE Energy 2010).

  11. NREL: Wind Research - Building 251 and High Bay

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Building 251 and High Bay Photo of an aerial shot of a large blue and grey building with parking lot and cars in the foreground. Building 251 at the NWTC houses administrative and...

  12. NASA Building 12 Wind Turbines | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in December 2014, the NASA Building 12 installation consists of four Urban Green Energy Eddy GT turbines. The project was constructed as part of a larger Building 12...

  13. Building America Case Study: Investigating Solutions to Wind...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Partners: Florida Power & Light, fpl.com Building America Partnership for Improved ... In this project, the U.S. Department of Energy team Building America Partnership for ...

  14. Could Building Energy Codes Mandate Rooftop Solar in the Future?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, Heather E.; Antonopoulos, Chrissi A.; Solana, Amy E.; Russo, Bryan J.; Williams, Jeremiah

    2012-08-01

    This paper explores existing requirements and compliance options for both commercial and residential code structures. Common alternative compliance options are discussed including Renewable Energy Credits (RECs), green-power purchasing programs, shared solar programs and other community-based renewable energy investments. Compliance options are analyzed to consider building lifespan, cost-effectiveness, energy trade-offs, enforcement concerns and future code development. Existing onsite renewable energy codes are highlighted as case studies for the code development process.

  15. Research and Development Needs for Building-Integrated Solar Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Development Needs for Building-Integrated Solar Technologies January 2014 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government, nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information,

  16. Three-fluid, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic solar wind model with eddy viscosity and turbulent resistivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Usmanov, Arcadi V.; Matthaeus, William H.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.

    2014-06-10

    We have developed a three-fluid, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic solar wind model that incorporates turbulence transport, eddy viscosity, turbulent resistivity, and turbulent heating. The solar wind plasma is described as a system of co-moving solar wind protons, electrons, and interstellar pickup protons, with separate energy equations for each species. Numerical steady-state solutions of Reynolds-averaged solar wind equations coupled with turbulence transport equations for turbulence energy, cross helicity, and correlation length are obtained by the time relaxation method in the corotating with the Sun frame of reference in the region from 0.3 to 100 AU (but still inside the termination shock). The model equations include the effects of electron heat conduction, Coulomb collisions, photoionization of interstellar hydrogen atoms and their charge exchange with the solar wind protons, turbulence energy generation by pickup protons, and turbulent heating of solar wind protons and electrons. The turbulence transport model is based on the Reynolds decomposition and turbulence phenomenologies that describe the conversion of fluctuation energy into heat due to a turbulent cascade. In addition to using separate energy equations for the solar wind protons and electrons, a significant improvement over our previous work is that the turbulence model now uses an eddy viscosity approximation for the Reynolds stress tensor and the mean turbulent electric field. The approximation allows the turbulence model to account for driving of turbulence by large-scale velocity gradients. Using either a dipole approximation for the solar magnetic field or synoptic solar magnetograms from the Wilcox Solar Observatory for assigning boundary conditions at the coronal base, we apply the model to study the global structure of the solar wind and its three-dimensional properties, including embedded turbulence, heating, and acceleration throughout the heliosphere. The model results are

  17. RECONNECTION OUTFLOW GENERATED TURBULENCE IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrs, Z.; Sasunov, Y. L.; Zaqarashvili, T. V.; Khodachenko, M.; Semenov, V. S.; Bruno, R.

    2014-12-10

    Petschek-type time-dependent reconnection (TDR) and quasi-stationary reconnection (QSR) models are considered to understand reconnection outflow structures and the generation of local turbulence in the solar wind. Comparing TDR/QSR model predictions of the outflow structures with actual measurements shows that both models can explain the data equally well. It is demonstrated that the outflows can often generate more or less spatially extended turbulent boundary layers. The structure of a unique extended reconnection outflow is investigated in detail. The analysis of spectral scalings and spectral break locations shows that reconnection can change the local field and plasma conditions which may support different local turbulent dissipation mechanisms at their characteristic wavenumbers.

  18. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Kumar, N.; Lefton, S.; Jordan, G.; Venkataraman, S.; King, J.

    2013-06-01

    This presentation accompanies Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study, a follow-on to Phase 1, which examined the operational impacts of high penetrations of variable renewable generation on the electric power system in the West and was one of the largest variable generation studies to date. High penetrations of variable generation can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 calculated these costs and emissions, and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of variable generation on the fossil-fueled fleet. The presentation highlights the scope of the study and results.

  19. Building Toward a Small Wind Turbine Site Assessor Credential (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinclair, K.

    2013-09-01

    Proper site assessment is integral to the development of a successful small wind project. Without a small wind site assessor certification program, consumers, including state incentive program managers, lack a benchmark for differentiating between qualified and nonqualified site assessors. A small wind site assessor best practice manual is being developed as a resource for consumers until a credential program becomes available. This presentation describes the purpose, proposed content, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's approach to the development of such a manual.

  20. DOE Announces Webinars on Buildings of the Future, Overcoming Wind Siting

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Challenges, and More | Department of Energy Buildings of the Future, Overcoming Wind Siting Challenges, and More DOE Announces Webinars on Buildings of the Future, Overcoming Wind Siting Challenges, and More April 2, 2015 - 8:42am Addthis EERE offers webinars to the public on a range of subjects, from adopting the latest energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies, to training for the clean energy workforce. Webinars are free; however, advanced registration is typically required. You

  1. CHARGE STATE EVOLUTION IN THE SOLAR WIND. II. PLASMA CHARGE STATE COMPOSITION IN THE INNER CORONA AND ACCELERATING FAST SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landi, E.; Gruesbeck, J. R.; Lepri, S. T.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Fisk, L. A. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2012-12-10

    In the present work, we calculate the evolution of the charge state distribution within the fast solar wind. We use the temperature, density, and velocity profiles predicted by Cranmer et al. to calculate the ionization history of the most important heavy elements in the solar corona and solar wind: C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe. The evolution of each charge state is calculated from the source region in the lower chromosphere to the final freeze-in point. We show that the solar wind velocity causes the plasma to experience significant departures from equilibrium at very low heights, well inside the field of view (within 0.6 R{sub sun} from the solar limb) of nearly all the available remote-sensing instrumentation, significantly affecting observed spectral line intensities. We also study the evolution of charge state ratios with distance from the source region, and the temperature they indicate if ionization equilibrium is assumed. We find that virtually every charge state from every element freezes in at a different height, so that the definition of freeze-in height is ambiguous. We also find that calculated freeze-in temperatures indicated by charge state ratios from in situ measurements have little relation to the local coronal temperature of the wind source region, and stop evolving much earlier than their correspondent charge state ratio. We discuss the implication of our results on plasma diagnostics of coronal holes from spectroscopic measurements as well as on theoretical solar wind models relying on coronal temperatures.

  2. Solar/Wind Contractor Licensing | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Licensing Louisiana InstallerContractor Photovoltaics Solar Water Heat Yes Tennessee Solar Panel Installation Specialty and Solar Thermal-Geothermal Licensing (Tennessee)...

  3. Residential Solar and Wind Energy Systems Tax Credit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Qualifying technologies include solar domestic water heating systems, solar swimming pool and spa heating systems, photovoltaic systems, photovoltaic phones and street lights, passive solar...

  4. Transmission Benefits of Co-Locating Concentrating Solar Power and Wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2012-03-01

    In some areas of the U.S. transmission constraints are a limiting factor in deploying new wind and concentrating solar power (CSP) plants. Texas is an example of one such location, where the best wind and solar resources are in the western part of the state, while major demand centers are in the east. The low capacity factor of wind is a compounding factor, increasing the relative cost of new transmission per unit of energy actually delivered. A possible method of increasing the utilization of new transmission is to co-locate both wind and concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage. In this work we examine the benefits and limits of using the dispatachability of thermal storage to increase the capacity factor of new transmission developed to access high quality solar and wind resources in remote locations.

  5. Correlation studies between solar wind parameters and the decimetric radio emission from Jupiter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolton, S.J.; Gulkis, S.; Klein, M.J.; De Pater, I.; Thompson, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    Results of a study comparing long-term time variations (years) in Jupiter's synchrotron radio emission with a variety of solar wind parameters and the 10.7-cm solar flux are reported. Data from 1963 through 1985 were analyzed, and the results suggest that many solar wind parameters are correlated with the intensity of the synchrotron emission produced by the relativistic electrons in the Jovian Van Allen radiation belts. Significant nonzero correlation coefficients appear to be associated with solar wind ion density, ram pressure, thermal pressure, flow velocity, momentum, and ion temperature. The highest correlation coefficients are obtained for solar wind ram pressure (NV/sup 2/) and thermal pressure (NT). The correlation analysis suggests that the delay time between fluctuations in the solar wind and changes in the Jovian synchrotron emission is typically about 2 years. The delay time of the correlation places important constraints on the theoretical models describing the radiation belts. The implication of these results, if the correlations are real, is that the solar wind is influencing the supply and/or loss of electrons to Jupiter's inner magnetosphere. We note that the data for this work spans only about two periods of the solar activity cycle, and because of the long time scales of the observed variations, it is important to confirm these results with additional observations. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  6. The Impact of Wind and Solar on the Value of Energy Storage

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The purpose of this analysis is to examine how the value proposition for energy storage changes as a function of wind and solar power penetration. It uses a grid modeling approach comparing the operational costs of an electric power system both with and without added storage. It creates a series of scenarios with increasing wind and solar power penetration and examines how the value of storage changes. It also explores the mechanisms behind this change in value, including the change in on-peak and off-peak price differentials and the cost of operating reserves created by increased penetration of wind and solar energy.

  7. New Study Reveals Multiple Pathways to 30% Penetration of Wind and Solar |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Study Reveals Multiple Pathways to 30% Penetration of Wind and Solar New Study Reveals Multiple Pathways to 30% Penetration of Wind and Solar September 16, 2015 - 6:36pm Addthis A new study published by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) found that the U.S. Eastern Interconnection-one of the largest power systems in the world-can reliably support up to a 30% penetration of wind and solar power. Using high-performance

  8. Comparative study of different solar cooling systems for buildings in subtropical city

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fong, K.F.; Chow, T.T.; Lee, C.K.; Lin, Z.; Chan, L.S.

    2010-02-15

    In recent years, more and more attention has been paid on the application potential of solar cooling for buildings. Due to the fact that the efficiency of solar collectors is generally low at the time being, the effectiveness of solar cooling would be closely related to the availability of solar irradiation, climatic conditions and geographical location of a place. In this paper, five types of solar cooling systems were involved in a comparative study for subtropical city, which is commonly featured with long hot and humid summer. The solar cooling systems included the solar electric compression refrigeration, solar mechanical compression refrigeration, solar absorption refrigeration, solar adsorption refrigeration and solar solid desiccant cooling. Component-based simulation models of these systems were developed, and their performances were evaluated throughout a year. The key performance indicators are solar fraction, coefficient of performance, solar thermal gain, and primary energy consumption. In addition, different installation strategies and types of solar collectors were compared for each kind of solar cooling system. Through this comparative study, it was found that solar electric compression refrigeration and solar absorption refrigeration had the highest energy saving potential in the subtropical Hong Kong. The former is to make use of the solar electric gain, while the latter is to adopt the solar thermal gain. These two solar cooling systems would have even better performances through the continual advancement of the solar collectors. It will provide a promising application potential of solar cooling for buildings in the subtropical region. (author)

  9. Rhode Island to Build First Offshore Wind Farm

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Block Island, a small town with only 1,000 full-time, residents, is the site for a big project, when it will become home to Rhode Island’s first offshore wind farm.

  10. Particle acceleration via reconnection processes in the supersonic solar wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zank, G. P.; Le Roux, J. A.; Webb, G. M.; Dosch, A.; Khabarova, O.

    2014-12-10

    An emerging paradigm for the dissipation of magnetic turbulence in the supersonic solar wind is via localized small-scale reconnection processes, essentially between quasi-2D interacting magnetic islands. Charged particles trapped in merging magnetic islands can be accelerated by the electric field generated by magnetic island merging and the contraction of magnetic islands. We derive a gyrophase-averaged transport equation for particles experiencing pitch-angle scattering and energization in a super-Alfvénic flowing plasma experiencing multiple small-scale reconnection events. A simpler advection-diffusion transport equation for a nearly isotropic particle distribution is derived. The dominant charged particle energization processes are (1) the electric field induced by quasi-2D magnetic island merging and (2) magnetic island contraction. The magnetic island topology ensures that charged particles are trapped in regions where they experience repeated interactions with the induced electric field or contracting magnetic islands. Steady-state solutions of the isotropic transport equation with only the induced electric field and a fixed source yield a power-law spectrum for the accelerated particles with index α = –(3 + M{sub A} )/2, where M{sub A} is the Alfvén Mach number. Considering only magnetic island contraction yields power-law-like solutions with index –3(1 + τ {sub c}/(8τ{sub diff})), where τ {sub c}/τ{sub diff} is the ratio of timescales between magnetic island contraction and charged particle diffusion. The general solution is a power-law-like solution with an index that depends on the Alfvén Mach number and the timescale ratio τ{sub diff}/τ {sub c}. Observed power-law distributions of energetic particles observed in the quiet supersonic solar wind at 1 AU may be a consequence of particle acceleration associated with dissipative small-scale reconnection processes in a turbulent plasma, including the widely reported c {sup –5} (c particle