National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for building wind solar

  1. Clark County- Solar and Wind Building Permit Guides

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Clark County, Nevada has established guides for obtaining building permits for wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) systems for both residential and commercial purposes. The guides outline applicable...

  2. Solar Wind | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wind Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Wind Place: Krasnodar, Romania Zip: 350000 Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product: Russia-based PV product manufacturer. Solar Wind...

  3. Solar and Wind Rights | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Photovoltaics Wind (All) Wind (Small) Program Info Sector Name State State...

  4. Atlantic Wind Solar Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Atlantic Wind & Solar Inc. Place: Coconut Groove, Florida Zip: 33133 Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product: Florida-based installer of distributed wind and solar systems...

  5. Passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1992-10-01

    Developments in passive solar buildings that took place from the early 1970`s through 1989 are described. Much of the work covered was federally sponsored during the period 1975 through 1986. About half the volume is devoted to quantitative methods for modeling, simulation, and design analysis of passive buildings; the other half summarizes the quantitative results of testing and monitoring of models and buildings. The following are covered: building solar gain modeling, simulation analysis, simplified methods, materials and components, analytical results for specific systems, test modules, building integration, performance monitoring and results, and design tools. (MHR)

  6. Passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D. )

    1992-01-01

    Developments in passive solar buildings that took place from the early 1970's through 1989 are described. Much of the work covered was federally sponsored during the period 1975 through 1986. About half the volume is devoted to quantitative methods for modeling, simulation, and design analysis of passive buildings; the other half summarizes the quantitative results of testing and monitoring of models and buildings. The following are covered: building solar gain modeling, simulation analysis, simplified methods, materials and components, analytical results for specific systems, test modules, building integration, performance monitoring and results, and design tools. (MHR)

  7. Solar and wind power advancing

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Solar and wind power advancing U.S. electricity generation from wind and solar energy show no signs of slowing down. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information ...

  8. Edison Solar & Wind Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wind Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Edison Solar & Wind Ltd Address: 11 E. Church St, 57 Place: Milan, Ohio Zip: 44846 Sector: Geothermal energy, Solar, Wind energy...

  9. Nebraska Wind and Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Nebraska Wind and Solar Name: Nebraska Wind and Solar Address: 2026 East 29th Street Place: Scottsbluff, Nebraska Zip: 69361 Region: Rockies...

  10. Passive solar buildings research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1992-12-31

    This chapter covers research advances in passive solar buildings research during the time span from 1982 through 1991. These advances fall within the following categories: (1) short-term energy monitoring, (2) heat transport by natural convection within buildings, and (3) design guidelines and design tools. In short-term energy monitoring, a simulation model of the building is calibrated, based on data taken in a 3-day test. The method accurately predicts performance over an extended period. Heat transport through doorways is characterized for complex situations that arise in passive solar buildings. Simple concepts and models adequately describe the energy transport in many situations of interest. In a new approach, design guidelines are automatically generated for any specific locality. Worksheets or an accompanying computer program allow the designer to quickly and accurately evaluate performance and investigate design alternatives. 29 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Solar Ready Buildings Planning Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisell, L.; Tetreault, T.; Watson, A.

    2009-12-01

    This guide offers a checklist for building design and construction to enable installation of solar photovoltaic and heating systems at some time after the building is constructed.

  12. Denver Solar and Wind | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar and Wind Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Denver Solar and Wind Name: Denver Solar and Wind Address: 12445 E. 39th Ave, Suite 310 Denver, Colorado 80239 Place: Denver,...

  13. Supercomputers Capture Turbulence in the Solar Wind

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Turbulence in the Solar Wind Supercomputers Capture Turbulence in the Solar Wind Berkeley Lab visualizations could help scientists forecast destructive space weather December...

  14. SciTech Connect: "solar plasma wind"

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    solar plasma wind" Find + Advanced Search Term Search Semantic Search Advanced Search All Fields: "solar plasma wind" Semantic Semantic Term Title: Full Text: Bibliographic...

  15. Solar, Wind, Hydropower: Home Renewable Energy Installations...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar, Wind, Hydropower: Home Renewable Energy Installations Solar, Wind, Hydropower: Home Renewable Energy Installations April 17, 2013 - 1:44pm Addthis This Lakewood, Colorado ...

  16. Solar and Wind Easements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In April 2011, the provisions related to wind easements were repealed by House Bill 295 (2011) and replaced with more extensive wind easements provisions.  This legislation defines wind energy ri...

  17. Wind and Solar Curtailment: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Bird, L.; Milligan, M.; Speer, B.; Wang, X.; Carlini, E. M.; Estanqueiro, A.; Flynn, D.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Menemenlis, N.; Orths, A.; Pineda, I.; Smith, J. C.; Soder, L.; Sorensen, P.; Altiparmakis, A.; Yoh, Y.

    2013-09-01

    High penetrations of wind and solar generation on power systems are resulting in increasing curtailment. Wind and solar integration studies predict increased curtailment as penetration levels grow. This paper examines experiences with curtailment on bulk power systems internationally. It discusses how much curtailment is occurring, how it is occurring, why it is occurring, and what is being done to reduce curtailment. This summary is produced as part of the International Energy Agency Wind Task 25 on Design and Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power.

  18. STATIONARITY IN SOLAR WIND FLOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perri, S.; Balogh, A. E-mail: a.balogh@imperial.ac.u

    2010-05-01

    By using single-point measurements in space physics it is possible to study a phenomenon only as a function of time. This means that we cannot have direct access to information about spatial variations of a measured quantity. However, the investigation of the properties of turbulence and of related phenomena in the solar wind widely makes use of an approximation frequently adopted in hydrodynamics under certain conditions, the so-called Taylor hypothesis; indeed, the solar wind flow has a bulk velocity along the radial direction which is much higher than the velocity of a single turbulent eddy embedded in the main flow. This implies that the time of evolution of the turbulent features is longer than the transit time of the flow through the spacecraft position, so that the turbulent field can be considered frozen into the solar wind flow. This assumption allows one to easily associate time variations with spatial variations and stationarity to homogeneity. We have investigated, applying criteria for weak stationarity to Ulysses magnetic field data in different solar wind regimes, at which timescale and under which conditions the hypothesis of stationarity, and then of homogeneity, of turbulence in the solar wind is well justified. We extend the conclusions of previous studies by Matthaeus and Goldstein to different parameter ranges in the solar wind. We conclude that the stationarity assumption in the inertial range of turbulence on timescales of 10 minutes to 1 day is reasonably satisfied in fast and uniform solar wind flows, but that in mixed, interacting fast, and slow solar wind streams the assumption is frequently only marginally valid.

  19. Solar & Wind Equipment Certification

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With the exception of solar energy systems designed or installed by the final owner, systems sold or installed in Arizona must be installed by licensed solar contractors and must comply with any...

  20. Fact Sheet: Multilateral Solar and Wind Working Group | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Multilateral Solar and Wind Working Group Fact Sheet: Multilateral Solar and Wind Working Group A fact sheet detailling the development of a Multilateral Solar and Wind Working ...

  1. Hybrid Wind and Solar Electric Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Buying & Making Electricity Hybrid Wind and Solar Electric Systems Hybrid Wind and Solar Electric Systems Because the peak operating times for wind and solar systems occur at...

  2. Solar and Wind Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The law stipulates that associations must adopt an energy policy statement specifying details such as location, design, and architectural requirements of the solar energy systems within 120 days...

  3. Solar and Wind Contractor Licensing | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    < Back Eligibility InstallersContractors Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Photovoltaics Wind (All) Wind (Small) Program Info Sector Name...

  4. ASYMMETRIC SOLAR WIND ELECTRON DISTRIBUTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Peter H.; Kim, Sunjung; Lee, Junggi; Lee, Junhyun; Park, Jongsun; Park, Kyungsun; Seough, Jungjoon [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jinhy [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-20

    The present paper provides a possible explanation for the solar wind electron velocity distribution functions possessing asymmetric energetic tails. By numerically solving the electrostatic weak turbulence equations that involve nonlinear interactions among electrons, Langmuir waves, and ion-sound waves, it is shown that different ratios of ion-to-electron temperatures lead to the generation of varying degrees of asymmetric tails. The present finding may be applicable to observations in the solar wind near 1 AU and in other regions of the heliosphere and interplanetary space.

  5. Solar Wind Europe SL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Europe SL Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Wind Europe SL Place: Madrid, Spain Zip: 28028 Product: Spain-based distributor of Russia-made PV modules. References: Solar Wind...

  6. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GE Energy

    2010-05-01

    This report provides a full description of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) and its findings.

  7. Solar and Wind Easements | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Easements Solar and Wind Easements < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Industrial Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Federal Government...

  8. Chaninik Wind Group: Harnessing Wind, Building Capacity

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Chaninik Wind Group Villages Kongiganak pop.359 Kwigillingok pop. 388 Kipnuk pop.644 Tuntutuliak pop. 370 On average, 24% of families are below the poverty line. ...

  9. Guidelines for Solar and Wind Local Ordinances | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar Photovoltaics Wind (All) Wind (Small) Program Info Sector Name State State Virginia Program Type SolarWind Permitting Standards Summary In March 2011, the Virginia...

  10. Hybrid Wind and Solar Electric Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Electricity & Fuel Buying & Making Electricity Hybrid Wind and Solar Electric Systems Hybrid Wind and Solar Electric Systems Because the peak operating times for wind and...

  11. Solar, Wind, and Energy Efficiency Easements and Rights Laws...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar, Wind, and Energy Efficiency Easements and Rights Laws Solar, Wind, and Energy Efficiency Easements and Rights Laws < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Solar -...

  12. Power House Solar and Wind | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar and Wind Jump to: navigation, search Name: Power House Solar and Wind Address: 1504 Woodlawn Ave Place: Canon City, Colorado Zip: 81212 Region: Rockies Area Sector: Solar...

  13. Solar/Wind Access Policy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SolarWind Access Policy < Solar Jump to: navigation, search Solar and wind access laws are designed to establish a right to install and operate a solar or wind energy system at a...

  14. Physics of passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Primary emphasis in the paper is on methods of characterizing and analyzing passive solar buildings. Simplifying assumptions are described which make this analysis tractable without compromising significant accuracy or loss of insight into the basic physics of the situation. The overall nature of the mathematical simulation approach is described. Validation procedures based on data from test rooms and monitored buildings are outlined. Issues of thermal comfort are discussed. Simplified methods of analysis based on correlation procedures are reported and the nature of the economic conservation-solar optimization process is explored. Future trends are predicted.

  15. Supercomputers Capture Turbulence in the Solar Wind

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capture Turbulence in the Solar Wind Supercomputers Capture Turbulence in the Solar Wind Berkeley Lab visualizations could help scientists forecast destructive space weather December 16, 2013 Linda Vu, +1 510 495 2402, lvu@lbl.gov eddies1.jpg This visualization zooms in on current sheets revealing the "cascade of turbulence" in the solar wind occurring down to electron scales. This is a phenomenon common in fluid dynamics-turbulent energy injected at large eddies is transported to

  16. Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA)

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wiki Page Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment A United Nations Environment Programme facilitated effort. Getting Started Data Sets Analysis Tools About SWERA Loading.....

  17. Large Distributed Solar and Wind Grant Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Illinois Department of Commerce and Economic Opportunity (DCEO) is offering grants for community-scale solar and wind projects located in Illinois.

  18. Passive Solar Building Design and Solar Thermal Space Heating Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Webinar of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Senior Engineer Andy Walker's presentation about passive solar building design and solar thermal space heating technologies and applications.

  19. Gold SolarWind GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SolarWind GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: Gold SolarWind GmbH Place: Aiterhofen, Germany Zip: 94330 Sector: Wind energy Product: German project developer of PV and wind...

  20. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Hodge, B.-M.; King, J.

    2012-09-01

    The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) investigates the impacts of high penetrations of wind and solar power into the Western Interconnection of the United States. WWSIS2 builds on the Phase 1 study but with far greater refinement in the level of data inputs and production simulation. It considers the differences between wind and solar power on systems operations. It considers mitigation options to accommodate wind and solar when full costs of wear-and-tear and full impacts of emissions rates are taken into account. It determines wear-and-tear costs and emissions impacts. New data sets were created for WWSIS2, and WWSIS1 data sets were refined to improve realism of plant output and forecasts. Four scenarios were defined for WWSIS2 that examine the differences between wind and solar and penetration level. Transmission was built out to bring resources to load. Statistical analysis was conducted to investigate wind and solar impacts at timescales ranging from seasonal down to 5 minutes.

  1. Biogas, Solar, and Wind Energy Equipment Exemption | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biogas, Solar, and Wind Energy Equipment Exemption Biogas, Solar, and Wind Energy Equipment Exemption < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Residential Agricultural Multifamily...

  2. Global Atlas for Solar and Wind Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Atlas for Solar and Wind Energy Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Global Atlas for Solar and Wind Energy AgencyCompany Organization: International Renewable Energy...

  3. Solar and Wind Permitting Standards | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Residential Residential Schools State Government Wind Yes City and County of Denver - Solar Panel Permitting (Colorado) SolarWind Permitting Standards Colorado Commercial...

  4. Solar/Wind Permitting Standards | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Residential Residential Schools State Government Wind Yes City and County of Denver - Solar Panel Permitting (Colorado) SolarWind Permitting Standards Colorado Commercial...

  5. New England Breeze Solar and Wind Installers | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Greater Boston Area Sector: Renewable energy, Services, Solar, Wind energy Product: Solar Panel and Wind Turbine Installation Year Founded: 2006 Phone Number: 978-567-9463...

  6. Solar energy system with wind vane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grip, Robert E

    2015-11-03

    A solar energy system including a pedestal defining a longitudinal axis, a frame that is supported by the pedestal and that is rotateable relative to the pedestal about the longitudinal axis, the frame including at least one solar device, and a wind vane operatively connected to the frame to urge the frame relative to the pedestal about the longitudinal axis in response to wind acting on the wind vane.

  7. Solar wind samples give insight into birth of solar system

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar and wind power advancing U.S. electricity generation from wind and solar energy show no signs of slowing down. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration expects wind-powered generation to grow by 19 percent this year and rise another 8 percent in 2014. Congress's extension in January of a tax credit for electricity producers that use renewables is behind the wind power boost. Solar generation in the electric power sector is expected to grow even more, rising

  8. How do Wind and Solar Power Affect Grid Operations: The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Milligan, M.; Jordan, G.; Freeman, L.; Miller, N.; Clark, K.; Piwko, R.

    2009-09-01

    This paper reviews the scope of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study, the development of wind and solar datasets, and the results to date on three scenarios.

  9. Wind and Solar Energy Curtailment Practices (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Cochran, J.; Wang, X.

    2014-10-01

    This presentation to the fall 2014 technical meeting of the Utility Variable-Generation Integration Group summarizes experience with curtailment of wind and solar in the U.S.

  10. Solar and Wind Energy Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department is no longer accepting applications for the FY 2015 Solar and Wind Rebate Program. The anticipated opening of the FY 2016 program is late this Summer. See website for highlights of...

  11. Solar and Wind Easements & Rights Laws

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Solar and wind systems are also protected from siting restrictions that would "significantly decrease the efficiency or performance of the system and not allow for the use of an alternative system...

  12. Solar and Wind Easements & Rights Laws & Local Option Solar Rights Law |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy and Wind Easements & Rights Laws & Local Option Solar Rights Law Solar and Wind Easements & Rights Laws & Local Option Solar Rights Law < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Federal Government Agricultural Institutional Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Photovoltaics Wind (All) Solar Pool Heating

  13. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Executive Summary | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Executive Summary Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Executive Summary This study investigates the operational impact of up to 35% energy penetration of wind, photovoltaics (PVs), and concentrating solar power (CSP) on the power system operated by the WestConnect group of utilities in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Wyoming. PDF icon western_wind_solar_integration More Documents & Publications Eastern Wind Integration and

  14. Transport of transient solar wind particles in Earth's cusps (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Transport of transient solar wind particles in Earth's cusps Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Transport of transient solar wind particles in Earth's cusps An important problem in space physics still not understood well is how the solar wind enters the Earth's magnetosphere. Evidence is presented that transient solar wind particles produced by solar disturbances can appear in the Earth's mid-altitude ({approx}5 R{sub E} geocentric) cusps with densities

  15. Wind Issues in Solar Thermal Performance Ratings: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Casey, R.

    2009-04-01

    We suggest that wind bias against unglazed solar water heaters be mitigated by using a calibrated collector model to derive a wind correction to the measured efficiency curve.

  16. Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems June 24, 2012 - 1:50pm Addthis Photo Credit:...

  17. NREL: Wind Research - Building 251 and High Bay

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Building 251 and High Bay Photo of an aerial shot of a large blue and grey building with parking lot and cars in the foreground. Building 251 at the NWTC houses administrative and research support offices and well as a high bay for testing wind turbine components. Building 251 is the hub of the National Wind Technology Center. In addition to housing administrative and research support offices, the facility's conference rooms enable NREL to host international wind power specialists, conferences,

  18. COLLOQUIUM: On Tracing the Origins of the Solar Wind | Princeton...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the two suggest different sources for the fast and slow solar wind. Using state of the art models and observations I find that the solar wind observations used to distinguish...

  19. Excise Tax Exemption for Solar or Wind Powered Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Massachusetts law exempts any "solar or wind powered climatic control unit and any solar or wind powered water heating unit or any other type unit or system powered thereby," that qualifies for the...

  20. Solar and Wind Technologies for Hydrogen Production Report to Congress

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    DOE's Solar and Wind Technologies for Hydrogen Production Report to Congress summarizes the technology roadmaps for solar- and wind-based hydrogen production. Published in December 2005, it fulfills t

  1. City of Austin - Residential and Commercial Green Building Requirement...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Savings Category Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Photovoltaics Wind (All) Biomass Geothermal Heat Pumps Daylighting Comprehensive MeasuresWhole Building Wind (Small)...

  2. Solar and Wind Contractor Licensing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In June of 2014, SB 447 mandated that the Louisiana State Licencsing Board for Contractors develop new rules for solar contractors no later than January 1, 2015. Licensed contractors must be in c...

  3. NREL: Transmission Grid Integration - Western Wind and Solar Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Study Western Wind and Solar Integration Study The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study, one of the largest regional solar and wind integration studies to date, explores the question: Can we integrate large amounts of wind and solar energy into the electric power system of the West? Released December 2014-Phase 3 Research Report Says Western Grid Can Weather Disturbances Under High Renewable Penetrations With good system planning, sound engineering practices, and commercially available

  4. Identifying Wind and Solar Ramping Events: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Florita, A.; Hodge, B. M.; Orwig, K.

    2013-01-01

    Wind and solar power are playing an increasing role in the electrical grid, but their inherent power variability can augment uncertainties in power system operations. One solution to help mitigate the impacts and provide more flexibility is enhanced wind and solar power forecasting; however, its relative utility is also uncertain. Within the variability of solar and wind power, repercussions from large ramping events are of primary concern. At the same time, there is no clear definition of what constitutes a ramping event, with various criteria used in different operational areas. Here the Swinging Door Algorithm, originally used for data compression in trend logging, is applied to identify variable generation ramping events from historic operational data. The identification of ramps in a simple and automated fashion is a critical task that feeds into a larger work of 1) defining novel metrics for wind and solar power forecasting that attempt to capture the true impact of forecast errors on system operations and economics, and 2) informing various power system models in a data-driven manner for superior exploratory simulation research. Both allow inference on sensitivities and meaningful correlations, as well as the ability to quantify the value of probabilistic approaches for future use in practice.

  5. Solar Design Standards for State Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    From 2010 to 2012, solar photovoltaic systems have been installed at seven state government facilities, providing an estimated 650 kW of power. In one building, a 50 kW system has reduced energy ...

  6. The Genesis Mission: Solar Wind Conditions, and Implications for the FIP Fractionation of the Solar Wind.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reisenfeld, D. B.; Wiens, R. C.; Barraclough, B. L.; Steinberg, J. T; Dekoning, C. A.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Burnett, D. S.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Genesis mission collected solar wind on ultrapure materials between November 30, 2001 and April 1, 2004. The samples were returned to Earth September 8, 2004. Despite the hard landing that resulted from a failure of the avionics to deploy the parachute, many samples were returned in a condition that will permit analyses. Sample analyses of these samples should give a far better understanding of the solar elemental and isotopic composition (Burnett et al. 2003). Further, the photospheric composition is thought to be representative of the solar nebula, so that the Genesis mission will provide a new baseline for the average solar nebula composition with which to compare present-day compositions of planets, meteorites, and asteroids. Sample analysis is currently underway. The Genesis samples must be placed in the context of the solar and solar wind conditions under which they were collected. Solar wind is fractionated from the photosphere by the forces that accelerate the ions off of the Sun. This fractionation appears to be ordered by the first ionization potential (FIP) of the elements, with the tendency for low-FIP elements to be over-abundant in the solar wind relative to the photosphere, and high-FIP elements to be under-abundant (e.g. Geiss, 1982; von Steiger et al., 2000). In addition, the extent of elemental fractionation differs across different solarwind regimes. Therefore, Genesis collected solar wind samples sorted into three regimes: 'fast wind' or 'coronal hole' (CH), 'slow wind' or 'interstream' (IS), and 'coronal mass ejection' (CME). To carry this out, plasma ion and electron spectrometers (Barraclough et al., 2003) continuously monitored the solar wind proton density, velocity, temperature, the alpha/proton ratio, and angular distribution of suprathermal electrons, and those parameters were in turn used in a rule-based algorithm that assigned the most probable solar wind regime (Neugebauer et al., 2003). At any given time, only one of three regime-specific collectors (CH, IS, or CME) was exposed to the solar wind. Here we report on the regime-specific solar wind conditions from in-situ instruments over the course of the collection period. Further, we use composition data from the SWICS (Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer) instrument on ACE (McComas et al., 1998) to examine the FIP fractionation between solar wind regimes, and make a preliminary comparison of these to the FIP analysis of Ulysses/SWICS composition data (von Steiger et al. 2000). Our elemental fractionation study includes a reevaluation of the Ulysses FIP analysis in light of newly reported photospheric abundance data (Asplund, Grevesse & Sauval, 2005). The new abundance data indicate a metallicity (Z/X) for the Sun almost a factor of two lower than that reported in the widely used compilation of Anders & Grevesse (1989). The new photospheric abundances suggest a lower degree of solar wind fractionation than previously reported by von Steiger et al. (2000) for the first Ulysses polar orbit (1991-1998).

  7. Mesquite Solar Plan - build out next to existing FF plants Solar...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mesquite Solar Plan - build out next to existing FF plants Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Mesquite Solar Plan - build out next to existing FF plants Solar Power...

  8. Building design guidelines for solar energy technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Givoni, B.

    1989-01-01

    There are two main objectives to this publication. The first is to find out the communalities in the experience gained in previous studies and in actual applications of solar technologies in buildings, residential as well as nonresidential. The second objective is to review innovative concepts and products which may have an impact on future developments and applications of solar technologies in buildings. The available information and common lessons were collated and presented in a form which, hopefully, is useful for architects and solar engineers, as well as for teachers of solar architecture'' and students in Architectural Schools. The publication is based mainly on the collection and analysis of relevant information. The information included previous studies in which the performance of solar buildings was evaluated, as well as the personal experience of the Author and the research consultants. The state of the art, as indicated by these studies and personal experience, was summarized and has served as basis for the development of the Design Guidelines. In addition to the summary of the state of the art, as was already applied in solar buildings, an account was given of innovative concepts and products. Such innovations have occurred in the areas of thermal storage by Phase Change Materials (PCM) and in glazing with specialized or changeable properties. Interesting concepts were also developed for light transfer, which may enable to transfer sunlight to the core areas of large multi story nonresidential buildings. These innovations may have a significant impact on future developments of solar technologies and their applications in buildings. 15 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    Initiated in 2007 to examine the operational impact of up to 35% penetration of wind, photovoltaic (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) energy on the electric power system, the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) is one of the largest regional wind and solar integration studies to date. The goal is to understand the effects of variability and uncertainty of wind, PV, and CSP on the grid. In the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 1, solar penetration was limited to 5%. Utility-scale PV was not included because of limited capability to model sub-hourly, utility-scale PV output . New techniques allow the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 to include high penetrations of solar - not only CSP and rooftop PV but also utility-scale PV plants.

  10. Passive solar concepts for multistory buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Multistory buildings long in the east-west direction and short in the north-south direction offer good opportunity for passive solar application. If each unit within the building is designed so that the Solar Savings Fraction is the same, each will respond to the weather the same way and no unit-to-unit heat distribution is needed. A numerical example for Denver is given indicating excellent thermal performance and a several-day thermal response time. Solutions involving distribution of heat from unit to unit are also discussed as well as top-floor and south-wall variations.

  11. Passive solar concepts for multistory buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Multistory buildings long in the east-west direction and short in the north-south direction offer good opportunity for passive solar application. If each unit within the building is designed so that the solar Savings Fraction is the same, each will respond to the weather the same way and no unit-to-unit heat distribution is needed. A numerical example for Denver is given indicating excellent thermal performance and a several-day thermal response time. Solutions involving distribution of heat from unit to unit are also discussed as well as top-floor and south-wall variations.

  12. ISOTOPIC MASS FRACTIONATION OF SOLAR WIND: EVIDENCE FROM FAST AND SLOW SOLAR WIND COLLECTED BY THE GENESIS MISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heber, Veronika S.; Baur, Heinrich; Wieler, Rainer; Bochsler, Peter; McKeegan, Kevin D.; Neugebauer, Marcia; Reisenfeld, Daniel B.; Wiens, Roger C.

    2012-11-10

    NASA's Genesis space mission returned samples of solar wind collected over {approx}2.3 years. We present elemental and isotopic compositions of He, Ne, and Ar analyzed in diamond-like carbon targets from the slow and fast solar wind collectors to investigate isotopic fractionation processes during solar wind formation. The solar wind provides information on the isotopic composition for most volatile elements for the solar atmosphere, the bulk Sun and hence, on the solar nebula from which it formed 4.6 Ga ago. Our data reveal a heavy isotope depletion in the slow solar wind compared to the fast wind composition by 63.1 {+-} 2.1 per mille for He, 4.2 {+-} 0.5 per mille amu{sup -1} for Ne and 2.6 {+-} 0.5 per mille amu{sup -1} for Ar. The three Ne isotopes suggest that isotopic fractionation processes between fast and slow solar wind are mass dependent. The He/H ratios of the collected slow and fast solar wind samples are 0.0344 and 0.0406, respectively. The inefficient Coulomb drag model reproduces the measured isotopic fractionation between fast and slow wind. Therefore, we apply this model to infer the photospheric isotopic composition of He, Ne, and Ar from our solar wind data. We also compare the isotopic composition of oxygen and nitrogen measured in the solar wind with values of early solar system condensates, probably representing solar nebula composition. We interpret the differences between these samples as being due to isotopic fractionation during solar wind formation. For both elements, the magnitude and sign of the observed differences are in good agreement with the values predicted by the inefficient Coulomb drag model.

  13. Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    on solar reflectance Part I: Analysis of roofing product databases Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar ...

  14. Procuring and Implementing Solar Projects on Public Buildings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Procuring and Implementing Solar Projects on Public Buildings: How to Avoid Common Pitfalls This webinar covered good practices for photovoltaic and solar water heating request for ...

  15. Research & Development Needs for Building-Integrated Solar Technologie...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and cooling, water heating, hybrid photovoltaic-thermal systems (PVT), active solar ... Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 Building America ...

  16. DOE Announces Webinars on Top Solar Tools, Building Energy Optimizatio...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Top Solar Tools, Building Energy Optimization Tool Training, and More DOE Announces ... like JEDI, and solar data aggregators such as OpenPV. Register to attend the webinar. ...

  17. Building America Case Study: Indirect Solar Water Heating Systems...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Indirect Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Homes Greenfield, Massachusetts ... Building Component: Solar water heating Application: Single-family Years Tested: 2010-2013 ...

  18. Solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    acceleration: A superposed epoch analysis (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration: A superposed epoch analysis Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on September 7, 2016 Title: Solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration: A superposed epoch analysis In this study by determining preferential solar wind conditions leading to efficient

  19. NREL: Transmission Grid Integration - Western Wind and Solar Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Study Phase 1 Research 1 Research The first phase of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study investigated the benefits and challenges of integrating up to 35% wind and solar energy in the WestConnect subregion and, more broadly, the Western Interconnection, in 2017. The study showed it is operationally possible to accommodate 30% wind and 5% solar energy if utilities substantially increase their coordination of operations over wider geographic areas and schedule their generation and

  20. REINTERPRETATION OF SLOWDOWN OF SOLAR WIND MEAN VELOCITY IN NONLINEAR

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    STRUCTURES OBSERVED UPSTREAM OF EARTH'S BOW SHOCK (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect REINTERPRETATION OF SLOWDOWN OF SOLAR WIND MEAN VELOCITY IN NONLINEAR STRUCTURES OBSERVED UPSTREAM OF EARTH'S BOW SHOCK Citation Details In-Document Search Title: REINTERPRETATION OF SLOWDOWN OF SOLAR WIND MEAN VELOCITY IN NONLINEAR STRUCTURES OBSERVED UPSTREAM OF EARTH'S BOW SHOCK Two of the many features associated with nonlinear upstream structures are (1) the solar wind (SW) mean flow slows down and

  1. Property Tax Exemption for Wind, Solar, and Geothermal Energy Producers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under these policies, commercial wind, solar, and geothermal energy producers, excluding those regulated by the Idaho Public Utilities Commission, are exempt from paying taxes on real estate,...

  2. Solar/Wind Construction Permitting Standards | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to wind turbines in the code) 10 kilowatts or less: Licensing Requirements Any person bidding or contracting for the installation of a solar collector system must possess a...

  3. Nonlinear Development of Shocklike Structure in the Solar Wind...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    steepening of compressional pulses in the solar wind upstream of Earth's bow shock. ... magnetic fields (currents) and ions are different in the early phase of shock development. ...

  4. REINTERPRETATION OF SLOWDOWN OF SOLAR WIND MEAN VELOCITY IN NONLINEAR...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    BOW SHOCK Citation Details In-Document Search Title: REINTERPRETATION OF SLOWDOWN OF SOLAR WIND MEAN VELOCITY IN NONLINEAR STRUCTURES OBSERVED UPSTREAM OF EARTH'S BOW SHOCK Two ...

  5. Hybrid Wind and Solar Electric Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Buying & Making Electricity » Hybrid Wind and Solar Electric Systems Hybrid Wind and Solar Electric Systems Because the peak operating times for wind and solar systems occur at different times of the day and year, hybrid systems are more likely to produce power when you need it. Because the peak operating times for wind and solar systems occur at different times of the day and year, hybrid systems are more likely to produce power when you need it. According to many renewable energy experts,

  6. Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Web Application Link: en.openei.orgappsSWERA OpenEI Keyword(s): Featured Language: English The Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) initiative brings together...

  7. Solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    By directly comparing efficient and inefficient acceleration events, we clearly show that prolonged southward Bz, high solar wind speed, and low dynamic pressure are critical for ...

  8. BLM - Solar and Wind Energy Applications - Pre-Application and...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar and Wind Energy Applications - Pre-Application and Screening Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: BLM - Solar and...

  9. Wind and Solar-Electric (PV) Systems Exemption | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    taxation, but the real property (i.e., the land on which the solar energy generating system is located) is still subject to property tax. Wind and solar energy production...

  10. Building the Basic PVC Wind Turbine | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building the Basic PVC Wind Turbine Building the Basic PVC Wind Turbine Below is information about the student activity/lesson plan from your search. Grades 5-8, 9-12 Subject Wind Energy Summary This plan shows how to make a rugged and inexpensive classroom wind turbine that can be used for lab bench-based blade design experiments. While a few specialized parts are needed (a hub and DC motor), the rest of the components are easily found at most hardware stores. Curriculum Technology, Science

  11. ELECTRON TRANSPORT IN THE FAST SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, H. M.; Marsch, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Sonnensystemforschung, Max-Planck-Strasse 2, 37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Helander, P., E-mail: hakan.smith@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The electron velocity distribution function is studied in the extended solar corona above coronal holes (i.e., the inner part of the fast solar wind) from the highly collisional corona close to the Sun to the weakly collisional regions farther out. The electron kinetic equation is solved with a finite-element method in velocity space using a linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. The ion density and temperature profiles are assumed to be known and the electric field and electron temperature are determined self-consistently. The results show quantitatively how much lower the electron heat flux and the thermal force are than predicted by high-collisionality theory. The sensitivity of the particle and heat fluxes to the assumed ion temperature profile and the applied boundary condition at the boundary far from the Sun is also studied.

  12. "Building the Dye-Sensitized Solar Fuel Device" Conference |...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Building the Dye-Sensitized Solar Fuel Device" Conference Energy Frontier Research Centers ... Publications History Contact BES Home 10.23.15 "Building the Dye-Sensitized Solar Fuel ...

  13. Solar Decathlon 2013: Let the Building Begin | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building Begin Solar Decathlon 2013: Let the Building Begin Addthis Day 7 Construction 1 of 22 Day 7 Construction During the 7th day of construction, the Solar Decathlon village ...

  14. Passive Solar Building Design Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Homes & Buildings » Passive Solar Building Design Basics Passive Solar Building Design Basics July 30, 2013 - 3:20pm Addthis The difference between a passive solar home and a conventional home is design. Passive solar homes and other buildings are designed to take advantage of the local climate. Passive solar design-also known as climatic design-involves using a building's windows, walls, and floors to collect, store, and distribute solar energy in the form of heat in the winter and reject

  15. Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems Photo Credit: iStockphoto Photo Credit: iStockphoto Before installing a solar water heating system, you should investigate local building codes, zoning ordinances, and subdivision covenants, as well as any special regulations pertaining to the site. You will probably need a building permit to install a solar energy system onto an existing building. Not every

  16. NREL: Innovation Impact - Wind

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind Energy Menu Home Home Solar Solar Wind Wind Analysis Analysis Bioenergy Bioenergy Buildings Buildings Transportation Transportation Manufacturing Manufacturing Energy Systems Integration Energy Systems Integration Wind turbines must withstand powerful aerodynamic forces unlike any other propeller-drive machines. Close NREL's work with industry has improved the efficiency and durability of turbine blades and gearboxes. Innovations include: Specialized airfoils Variable-speed turbines

  17. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 3: Technical Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-11-01

    Technical fact sheet outlining the key findings of Phase 3 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-3). NREL and GE find that with good system planning, sound engineering practices, and commercially available technologies, the Western grid can maintain reliability and stability during the crucial first minute after grid disturbances with high penetrations of wind and solar power.

  18. Solar and Wind Technologies for Hydrogen Production Report to Congress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2005-12-01

    DOE's Solar and Wind Technologies for Hydrogen Production Report to Congress summarizes the technology roadmaps for solar- and wind-based hydrogen production. Published in December 2005, it fulfills the requirement under section 812 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

  19. Assessment of Wind/Solar Co-located Generation in Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven M. Wiese

    2009-07-20

    This paper evaluates the opportunity to load co-located wind and solar generation capacity onto a constrained transmission system while engendering only minimal losses. It quantifies the economic and energy opportunities and costs associated with pursuing this strategy in two Texas locations ?¢???? one in west Texas and the other in south Texas. The study builds upon previous work published by the American Solar Energy Society (ASES) which illuminated the potential benefits of negative correlation of wind and solar generation in some locations by quantifying the economic and energy losses which would arise from deployment of solar generation in areas with existing wind generation and constrained transmission capacity. Clean Energy Associates (CEA) obtained and incorporated wind and solar resource data and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT)) load and price data into a model which evaluates varying levels of solar thermal, solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind capacity against an assumed transmission capacity limit at each of the two locations.

  20. Research & Development Needs for Building-Integrated Solar Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Building Integrated Solar Technologies (BIST) can help achieve the Building Technologies Office goal of reducing energy consumption in residential and commercial buildings by 50% by the year 2030. BIST include technologies for space heating and cooling, water heating, hybrid photovoltaic-thermal systems (PV/T), active solar lighting, and building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV).

  1. Pierre’s Prototype for Wind and Solar- Capitol Lake Plaza

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Capitol Lake Plaza sits centrally on Pierre, S.D.’s government plaza. Originally built in 1974, the building has been undergoing major energy renovations since being purchased by the state two years ago. Two major components of the renovation are about to appear at the building’s highest point: solar panels and wind turbines are being installed on the roof.

  2. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Hodge, B. M.; Hummon, M.; Florita, A.; Heaney, M.

    2013-09-01

    The electric grid is a highly complex, interconnected machine, and changing one part of the grid can have consequences elsewhere. Adding wind and solar affects the operation of the other power plants and adding high penetrations can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) evaluated these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This built on Phase 1, one of the largest wind and solar integration studies ever conducted, which examined operational impacts of high wind and solar penetrations in the West.

  3. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, Debra; Brinkman, Greg; Ibanez, E.; Florita, A.; Heaney, M.; Hodge, B. -M.; Hummon, M.; Stark, G.; King, J.; Lefton, S. A.; Kumar, N.; Agan, D.; Jordan, G.; Venkataraman, S.

    2013-09-01

    The electric grid is a highly complex, interconnected machine, and changing one part of the grid can have consequences elsewhere. Adding wind and solar affects the operation of the other power plants and adding high penetrations can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) evaluated these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This built on Phase 1, one of the largest wind and solar integration studies ever conducted, which examined operational impacts of high wind and solar penetrations in the West(GE Energy 2010).

  4. OBSERVATION OF FLUX-TUBE CROSSINGS IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, L.; Li, G.; Li, X.; Yan, Y.

    2013-03-20

    Current sheets are ubiquitous in the solar wind. They are a major source of the solar wind MHD turbulence intermittency. They may result from nonlinear interactions of the solar wind MHD turbulence or are the boundaries of flux tubes that originate from the solar surface. Some current sheets appear in pairs and are the boundaries of transient structures such as magnetic holes and reconnection exhausts or the edges of pulsed Alfven waves. For an individual current sheet, discerning whether it is a flux-tube boundary or due to nonlinear interactions or the boundary of a transient structure is difficult. In this work, using data from the Wind spacecraft, we identify two three-current-sheet events. Detailed examination of these two events suggests that they are best explained by the flux-tube-crossing scenario. Our study provides convincing evidence supporting the scenario that the solar wind consists of flux tubes where distinct plasmas reside.

  5. Solar Decathlon 2013: Building Skills for Future Careers | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building Skills for Future Careers Solar Decathlon 2013: Building Skills for Future Careers September 16, 2013 - 3:03pm Addthis It took six months and nearly 60 students to build...

  6. Solar energetic particle events in different types of solar wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahler, S. W.; Vourlidas, A.

    2014-08-10

    We examine statistically some properties of 96 20 MeV gradual solar energetic proton (SEP) events as a function of three different types of solar wind (SW) as classified by Richardson and Cane. Gradual SEP (E > 10 MeV) events are produced in shocks driven by fast (V ≳ 900 km s{sup –1}) and wide (W > 60°) coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We find no differences among the transient, fast, and slow SW streams for SEP 20 MeV proton event timescales. It has recently been found that the peak intensities Ip of these SEP events scale with the ∼2 MeV proton background intensities, which may be a proxy for the near-Sun shock seed particles. Both the intensities Ip and their 2 MeV backgrounds are significantly enhanced in transient SW compared to those of fast and slow SW streams, and the values of Ip normalized to the 2 MeV backgrounds only weakly correlate with CME V for all SW types. This result implies that forecasts of SEP events could be improved by monitoring both the Sun and the local SW stream properties and that the well known power-law size distributions of Ip may differ between transient and long-lived SW streams. We interpret an observed correlation between CME V and the 2 MeV background for SEP events in transient SW as a manifestation of enhanced solar activity.

  7. RELAXATION PROCESSES IN SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Servidio, S.; Carbone, V.; Gurgiolo, C.; Goldstein, M. L.

    2014-07-10

    Based on global conservation principles, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) relaxation theory predicts the existence of several equilibria, such as the Taylor state or global dynamic alignment. These states are generally viewed as very long-time and large-scale equilibria, which emerge only after the termination of the turbulent cascade. As suggested by hydrodynamics and by recent MHD numerical simulations, relaxation processes can occur during the turbulent cascade that will manifest themselves as local patches of equilibrium-like configurations. Using multi-spacecraft analysis techniques in conjunction with Cluster data, we compute the current density and flow vorticity and for the first time demonstrate that these localized relaxation events are observed in the solar wind. Such events have important consequences for the statistics of plasma turbulence.

  8. Innovations in Wind and Solar PV Financing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cory, K.; Coughlin, J.; Jenkin, T.; Pater, J.; Swezey, B.

    2008-02-01

    There is growing national interest in renewable energy development based on the economic, environmental, and security benefits that these resources provide. Historically, greater development of our domestic renewable energy resources has faced a number of hurdles, primarily related to cost, regulation, and financing. With the recent sustained increase in the costs and associated volatility of fossil fuels, the economics of renewable energy technologies have become increasingly attractive to investors, both large and small. As a result, new entrants are investing in renewable energy and new business models are emerging. This study surveys some of the current issues related to wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) energy project financing in the electric power industry, and identifies both barriers to and opportunities for increased investment.

  9. ASYMMETRIC ELECTRON DISTRIBUTIONS IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rha, Kicheol; Ryu, Chang-Mo [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Peter H. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)] [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    A plausible mechanism responsible for producing asymmetric electron velocity distribution functions in the solar wind is investigated by means of one-dimensional electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. A recent paper suggests that the variation in the ion-to-electron temperature ratio influences the nonlinear wave-particle dynamics such that it results in the formation of asymmetric distributions. The present PIC code simulation largely confirms this finding, but quantitative differences between the weak turbulence formalism and the present PIC simulation are also found, suggesting the limitation of the analytical method. The inter-relationship between the asymmetric electron distribution and the ion-to-electron temperature ratio may be a new useful concept for the observation.

  10. COMPOSITION OF THE SOLAR CORONA, SOLAR WIND, AND SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmelz, J. T.; Reames, D. V.; Von Steiger, R.; Basu, S.

    2012-08-10

    Along with temperature and density, the elemental abundance is a basic parameter required by astronomers to understand and model any physical system. The abundances of the solar corona are known to differ from those of the solar photosphere via a mechanism related to the first ionization potential of the element, but the normalization of these values with respect to hydrogen is challenging. Here, we show that the values used by solar physicists for over a decade and currently referred to as the 'coronal abundances' do not agree with the data themselves. As a result, recent analysis and interpretation of solar data involving coronal abundances may need to be revised. We use observations from coronal spectroscopy, the solar wind, and solar energetic particles as well as the latest abundances of the solar photosphere to establish a new set of abundances that reflect our current understanding of the coronal plasma.

  11. Optimisation of buildings' solar irradiation availability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaempf, Jerome Henri; Montavon, Marylene; Bunyesc, Josep; Robinson, Darren; Bolliger, Raffaele

    2010-04-15

    In order to improve the sustainability of new and existing urban settlements it is desirable to maximise the utilisation of the solar energy incident on the building envelope, whether by passive or active means. To this end we have coupled a multi-objective optimisation algorithm with the backwards ray tracing program RADIANCE which itself uses a cumulative sky model for the computation of incident irradiation (W h/m{sup 2}) in a single simulation. The parameters to optimise are geometric (the height of buildings up to their facade and the height and orientation of roofs), but with the constraint of maintaining an overall built volume, and the objective function is heating season solar irradiation offset by envelope heat losses. This methodology has been applied to a range of urban typologies and produces readily interpretable results. The focus of this work is on the design of new urban forms but the method could equally be applied to examine the relative efficiency of existing urban settlements, by comparison of existing forms with the calculated optima derived from relevant specifications of the building envelope. (author)

  12. Solar Applications to Multiple County Buildings Feasibility Study

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This study was requested by Salt Lake County in an effort to obtain a cursory overview of solar electric and solar thermal application possibilities on the rooftops of existing county buildings. The subject buildings represent various County Divisions: Aging Services, Community Services, County Health, County Library, Parks & Recreation, Public Works, County Sheriff and Youth Services. There are fifty two buildings included in the study.

  13. Wind loading on solar concentrators: some general considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roschke, E. J.

    1984-05-01

    A survey has been completed to examine the problems and complications arising from wind loading on solar concentrators. Wind loading is site specific and has an important bearing on the design, cost, performance, operation and maintenance, safety, survival, and replacement of solar collecting systems. Emphasis herein is on paraboloidal, two-axis tracking systems. Thermal receiver problems also are discussed. Wind characteristics are discussed from a general point of view; current methods for determining design wind speed are reviewed. Aerodynamic coefficients are defined and illustrative examples are presented. Wind tunnel testing is discussed, and environmental wind tunnels are reviewed; recent results on heliostat arrays are reviewed as well. Aeroelasticity in relation to structural design is discussed briefly. Wind loads, i.e., forces and moments, are proportional to the square of the mean wind velocity. Forces are proportional to the square of concentrator diameter, and moments are proportional to the cube of diameter. Thus, wind loads have an important bearing on size selection from both cost and performance standpoints. It is concluded that sufficient information exists so that reasonably accurate predictions of wind loading are possible for a given paraboloidal concentrator configuration, provided that reliable and relevant wind conditions are specified. Such predictions will be useful to the design engineer and to the systems engineer as well. Information is lacking, however, on wind effects in field arrays of paraboloidal concentrators. Wind tunnel tests have been performed on model heliostat arrays, but there are important aerodynamic differences between heliostats and paraboloidal dishes.

  14. New Report: Integrating More Wind and Solar Reduces Utilities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Addthis The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) released Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2), a follow-up to the initial WWSIS released in May ...

  15. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Phase 2 (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Lefton, S.; Kumar, N.; Venkataraman, S.; Jordan, G.

    2013-09-01

    This presentation summarizes the scope and results of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2, which examined operational impacts of high penetrations of variable renewable generation in the West.

  16. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-09-01

    This is one-page, two-sided fact sheet presents high-level summary results of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2, which examined operational impacts of high penetrations of variable renewable generation in the West.

  17. Local Option- Solar, Wind & Biomass Energy Systems Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Section 487 of the New York State Real Property Tax Law provides a 15-year real property tax exemption for solar, wind energy, and farm-waste energy systems constructed in New York State. As curr...

  18. Wind and Solar Energy Curtailment: Experience and Practices in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind and Solar Energy Curtailment: Experience and Practices in the United States Lori Bird, Jaquelin Cochran, and Xi Wang Technical Report NRELTP-6A20-60983 March 2014 NREL is a...

  19. Solar and Wind Powering Wyoming Home | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    energy, but when faced with a 100,000 price tag to get connected to the grid, he had ... 12 solar panels on his front lawn and a wind turbine in the backyard."I had no involvement ...

  20. 10 Questions for a Wind & Solar Integration Analyst: Kirsten Orwig

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Kirsten Orwig shares how her experiences in storm chasing led her to this position at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and why understanding meteorology is important for advancing reliable solar and wind energy.

  1. EECBG Success Story: Hybrid Solar-Wind Generates Savings for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hybrid Solar-Wind Generates Savings for South Dakota City EECBG Success Story: Hybrid ... Addthis Related Articles EECBG Success Story: Out with the Old, In with the New: New ...

  2. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2: Executive...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... This study fnds that up to 33% wind and solar energy penetration in the United States' portion of the Western grid (which is equivalent to 24%-26% throughout the western grid) ...

  3. Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search SWERA logo.png Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) Interactive Web PortalPowered by OpenEI Getting Started Data Sets Analysis Tools About SWERA Tool...

  4. Excise Tax Deduction for Solar or Wind Powered Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In Massachusetts, businesses may deduct from net income, for state excise tax purposes, expenditures paid or incurred from the installation of any "solar or wind powered climatic control unit and...

  5. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Greg Brinkman will present the results of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS), Phase 2. This study, which follows the first phase of WWSIS, focuses on potential emissions and wear...

  6. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Executive Summary,...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... WWSIS was conducted over two and a half years by a team of researchers in wind power, solar power, and utility operations, with oversight from technical experts in these fields. ...

  7. Model Car Race, Building Competition Illuminate Solar Energy - News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Releases | NREL Model Car Race, Building Competition Illuminate Solar Energy Golden, CO. - Media Advisory Attention: Photo Editors / Assignment Editors May 7, 2003 Tapping the power of the sun will be the theme of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Junior Solar Sprint Solarbrate event on May 10. Visitors will see participating students race solar cars and build solar models using K'NEX construction toys. Sponsored by NREL, Kaiser-Hill, BP America,

  8. Solar and Wind Equipment Sales Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To take advantage of these exemptions from tax, a solar energy retailer or a solar energy contractor must register with the Arizona Department of Revenue prior to selling or installing solar...

  9. DOE Announces Webinars on Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems, Wind

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Turbine Recycling and Repowering, and More | Department of Energy Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems, Wind Turbine Recycling and Repowering, and More DOE Announces Webinars on Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems, Wind Turbine Recycling and Repowering, and More January 8, 2015 - 8:41am Addthis EERE offers webinars to the public on a range of subjects, from adopting the latest energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies, to training for the clean energy workforce. Webinars are

  10. Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Photo Credit: iStockphoto Photo Credit: iStockphoto Before installing a solar water heating system, you should investigate local building codes, zoning ordinances, and subdivision...

  11. DOE Announces Webinars on Adding Solar to Your Building Portfolio...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    DOE Announces Webinars on Adding Solar to Your Building ... from adopting the latest energy efficiency and renewable ... January 28: How to Utilize the National Geothermal Data ...

  12. Florida Solar Energy Center (Building America Partnership for...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for Improved Residential Construction Jump to: navigation, search Name: Florida Solar Energy Center (Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction Place:...

  13. NREL Launches Initiative to Build Solar Performance Database...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    working group and detailed analysis of the opportunities and barriers to finance solar energy development with public capital. NREL contracted with SunSpec Alliance to build the ...

  14. Nationwide Analysis of U.S. Commercial Building Solar Photovoltaic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of breakeven prices than is variation in building load or solar generation profiles. vi This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory...

  15. The dynamic character of the polar solar wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, B. V.; Yu, H.-S.; Buffington, A.; Hick, P. P. E-mail: hsyu@ucsd.edu E-mail: pphick@ucsd.edu

    2014-09-20

    The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph C2 and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) COR2A coronagraph images, when analyzed using correlation tracking techniques, show a surprising result in places ordinarily thought of as 'quiet' solar wind above the poles in coronal hole regions. Instead of the static well-ordered flow and gradual acceleration normally expected, coronagraph images show outflow in polar coronal holes consisting of a mixture of intermittent slow and fast patches of material. We compare measurements of this highly variable solar wind from C2 and COR2A images and show that both coronagraphs measure essentially the same structures. Measurements of the mean velocity as a function of height of these structures are compared with mass flux determinations of the solar wind outflow in the large polar coronal hole regions and give similar results.

  16. Potential for Development of Solar and Wind Resource in Bhutan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilman, P.; Cowlin, S.; Heimiller, D.

    2009-09-01

    With support from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) produced maps and data of the wind and solar resources in Bhutan. The solar resource data show that Bhutan has an adequate resource for flat-plate collectors, with annual average values of global horizontal solar radiation ranging from 4.0 to 5.5 kWh/m2-day (4.0 to 5.5 peak sun hours per day). The information provided in this report may be of use to energy planners in Bhutan involved in developing energy policy or planning wind and solar projects, and to energy analysts around the world interested in gaining an understanding of Bhutan's wind and solar energy potential.

  17. Heat storage and distribution inside passive-solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-05-01

    Passive solar buildings are investigated from the viewpoint of the storage of solar heat in materials of the building: walls, floors, ceilings, and furniture. The effects of the location, material, thickness, and orientation of each internal building surface are investigated. The concept of diurnal heat capacity is introduced and a method of using this parameter to estimate clear-day temperature swings is developed. Convective coupling to remote rooms within a building is discussed. Design guidelines are given.

  18. How Do High Levels of Wind and Solar Impact the Grid? The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Piwko, D.; Miller, N.; Jordan, G.; Clark, K.; Freeman, L.

    2010-12-01

    This paper is a brief introduction to the scope of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS), inputs and scenario development, and the key findings of the study.

  19. Dovetail Solar and Wind | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wind energy Product: Consulting; Engineeringarchitecturaldesign;Installation; Maintenance and repair; Retail product sales and distribution;Trainining and education Phone...

  20. Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Below is information about the student activity/lesson plan from your search. Grades K-4, 5-8, 9-12 Subject Solar Summary Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. Curriculum Science, Visual Arts, Language Arts Plan Time One class period Materials One pizza box from a local pizza delivery store, tape, scissors, black construction paper, clear plastic wrap, aluminum foil,

  1. Role of Concentrating Solar Power in Integrating Solar and Wind Energy: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Mehos, M.

    2015-06-03

    As wind and solar photovoltaics (PV) increase in penetration it is increasingly important to examine enabling technologies that can help integrate these resources at large scale. Concentrating solar power (CSP) when deployed with thermal energy storage (TES) can provide multiple services that can help integrate variable generation (VG) resources such as wind and PV. CSP with TES can provide firm, highly flexible capacity, reducing minimum generation constraints which limit penetration and results in curtailment. By acting as an enabling technology, CSP can complement PV and wind, substantially increasing their penetration in locations with adequate solar resource.

  2. THE TURBULENT CASCADE AND PROTON HEATING IN THE SOLAR WIND DURING SOLAR MINIMUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coburn, Jesse T.; Smith, Charles W.; Vasquez, Bernard J.; Stawarz, Joshua E.; Forman, Miriam A. E-mail: Charles.Smith@unh.edu E-mail: Joshua.Stawarz@Colorado.edu

    2012-08-01

    The recently protracted solar minimum provided years of interplanetary data that were largely absent in any association with observed large-scale transient behavior on the Sun. With large-scale shear at 1 AU generally isolated to corotating interaction regions, it is reasonable to ask whether the solar wind is significantly turbulent at this time. We perform a series of third-moment analyses using data from the Advanced Composition Explorer. We show that the solar wind at 1 AU is just as turbulent as at any other time in the solar cycle. Specifically, the turbulent cascade of energy scales in the same manner proportional to the product of wind speed and temperature. Energy cascade rates during solar minimum average a factor of 2-4 higher than during solar maximum, but we contend that this is likely the result of having a different admixture of high-latitude sources.

  3. Weakest solar wind of the space age and the current 'MINI' solar maximum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McComas, D. J.; Angold, N.; Elliott, H. A.; Livadiotis, G.; Schwadron, N. A.; Smith, C. W.; Skoug, R. M.

    2013-12-10

    The last solar minimum, which extended into 2009, was especially deep and prolonged. Since then, sunspot activity has gone through a very small peak while the heliospheric current sheet achieved large tilt angles similar to prior solar maxima. The solar wind fluid properties and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) have declined through the prolonged solar minimum and continued to be low through the current mini solar maximum. Compared to values typically observed from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s, the following proton parameters are lower on average from 2009 through day 79 of 2013: solar wind speed and beta (?11%), temperature (?40%), thermal pressure (?55%), mass flux (?34%), momentum flux or dynamic pressure (?41%), energy flux (?48%), IMF magnitude (?31%), and radial component of the IMF (?38%). These results have important implications for the solar wind's interaction with planetary magnetospheres and the heliosphere's interaction with the local interstellar medium, with the proton dynamic pressure remaining near the lowest values observed in the space age: ?1.4 nPa, compared to ?2.4 nPa typically observed from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s. The combination of lower magnetic flux emergence from the Sun (carried out in the solar wind as the IMF) and associated low power in the solar wind points to the causal relationship between them. Our results indicate that the low solar wind output is driven by an internal trend in the Sun that is longer than the ?11 yr solar cycle, and they suggest that this current weak solar maximum is driven by the same trend.

  4. Junior Solar Sprint - So.. You Want To Build A Model Solar Car

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 Revised 8/23/01 So... You Want To Build A Model Solar Car 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS TOPIC PAGE SOLAR ENERGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Teacher Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Activity One . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Activity Two . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  5. Economic analysis of wind-powered farmhouse and farm building heating systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stafford, R.W.; Greeb, F.J.; Smith, M.F.; Des Chenes, C.; Weaver, N.L.

    1981-01-01

    The study evaluated the break-even values of wind energy for selected farmhouses and farm buildings focusing on the effects of thermal storage on the use of WECS production and value. Farmhouse structural models include three types derived from a national survey - an older, a more modern, and a passive solar structure. The eight farm building applications that were analyzed include: poultry-layers, poultry-brooding/layers, poultry-broilers, poultry-turkeys, swine-farrowing, swine-growing/finishing, dairy, and lambing. These farm buildings represent the spectrum of animal types, heating energy use, and major contributions to national agricultural economic values. All energy analyses were based on hour-by-hour computations which allowed for growth of animals, sensible and latent heat production, and ventilation requirements. Hourly or three-hourly weather data obtained from the National Climatic Center was used for the nine chosen analysis sites, located throughout the United States and corresponding to regional agricultural production centers.

  6. THE ORIGIN OF NON-MAXWELLIAN SOLAR WIND ELECTRON VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    FUNCTION: CONNECTION TO NANOFLARES IN THE SOLAR CORONA (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect THE ORIGIN OF NON-MAXWELLIAN SOLAR WIND ELECTRON VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION: CONNECTION TO NANOFLARES IN THE SOLAR CORONA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: THE ORIGIN OF NON-MAXWELLIAN SOLAR WIND ELECTRON VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION: CONNECTION TO NANOFLARES IN THE SOLAR CORONA The formation of the observed core-halo feature in the solar wind electron velocity distribution function is a

  7. Agua Caliente Wind/Solar Project at Whitewater Ranch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooks, Todd; Stewart, Royce

    2014-12-16

    Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians (ACBCI) was awarded a grant by the Department of Energy (DOE) to study the feasibility of a wind and/or solar renewable energy project at the Whitewater Ranch (WWR) property of ACBCI. Red Mountain Energy Partners (RMEP) was engaged to conduct the study. The ACBCI tribal lands in the Coachella Valley have very rich renewable energy resources. The tribe has undertaken several studies to more fully understand the options available to them if they were to move forward with one or more renewable energy projects. With respect to the resources, the WWR property clearly has excellent wind and solar resources. The DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has continued to upgrade and refine their library of resource maps. The newer, more precise maps quantify the resources as among the best in the world. The wind and solar technology available for deployment is also being improved. Both are reducing their costs to the point of being at or below the costs of fossil fuels. Technologies for energy storage and microgrids are also improving quickly and present additional ways to increase the wind and/or solar energy retained for later use with the network management flexibility to provide power to the appropriate locations when needed. As a result, renewable resources continue to gain more market share. The transitioning to renewables as the major resources for power will take some time as the conversion is complex and can have negative impacts if not managed well. While the economics for wind and solar systems continue to improve, the robustness of the WWR site was validated by the repeated queries of developers to place wind and/or solar there. The robust resources and improving technologies portends toward WWR land as a renewable energy site. The business case, however, is not so clear, especially when the potential investment portfolio for ACBCI has several very beneficial and profitable alternatives.

  8. Solar and Wind Energy Credit (Corporate)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Originally enacted in 1976, the Hawaii Energy Tax Credits allow individuals or corporations to claim an income tax credit of 20% of the cost of equipment and installation of a wind system and 35%...

  9. Solar and Wind Energy Credit (Personal)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Originally enacted in 1976, the Hawaii Energy Tax Credits allow individuals or corporations to claim an income tax credit of 20% of the cost of equipment and installation of a wind system and 35%...

  10. The turbulent cascade and proton heating in the solar wind during solar minimum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coburn, Jesse T.; Smith, Charles W.; Vasquez, Bernard J.; Stawarz, Joshua E.; Forman, Miriam A.

    2013-06-13

    Solar wind measurements at 1 AU during the recent solar minimum and previous studies of solar maximum provide an opportunity to study the effects of the changing solar cycle on in situ heating. Our interest is to compare the levels of activity associated with turbulence and proton heating. Large-scale shears in the flow caused by transient activity are a source that drives turbulence that heats the solar wind, but as the solar cycle progresses the dynamics that drive the turbulence and heat the medium are likely to change. The application of third-moment theory to Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) data gives the turbulent energy cascade rate which is not seen to vary with the solar cycle. Likewise, an empirical heating rate shows no significan changes in proton heating over the cycle.

  11. Understanding of solar wind structure might be wrong

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar wind structure misunderstood Understanding of solar wind structure might be wrong The plasma particles flowing from the Sun and blasting past the Earth might be configured more as a network of tubes than a river-like stream. September 7, 2010 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new

  12. NREL: Transmission Grid Integration - Western Wind and Solar Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Study Phase 2 Research 2 Research Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) was initiated to determine the wear-and-tear costs and emissions impacts of cycling and to simulate grid operations to investigate the detailed impacts of wind and solar power on the fossil-fueled fleet in the West. Key Findings The negative impact of cycling on overall plant emissions is relatively small. The increase in plant emissions from cycling to accommodate variable renewables are more

  13. CORE ELECTRON HEATING IN SOLAR WIND RECONNECTION EXHAUSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pulupa, M. P.; Salem, C.; Phan, T. D.; Bale, S. D.; Gosling, J. T.

    2014-08-10

    We present observational evidence of core electron heating in solar wind reconnection exhausts. We show two example events, one which shows clear heating of the core electrons within the exhaust, and one which demonstrates no heating. The event with heating occurred during a period of high inflow Alfvn speed (V {sub AL}), while the event with no heating had a low V {sub AL}. This agrees with the results of a recent study of magnetopause exhausts, and suggests that similar core electron heating can occur in both symmetric (solar wind) and asymmetric (magnetopause) exhausts.

  14. NREL Hosts Free Workshops on Solar and Wind Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Workshops on Solar and Wind Energy For more information contact: e:mail: Public Affairs Golden, Colo., Dec. 15, 1999 - Engineers from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) next month will host three workshops on "Solar and Wind Power for Farms and Ranches" at the National Western Stock Show in Denver. The workshops will feature hands-on displays of clean, renewable energy systems that farmers and ranchers can use today. The consumer-oriented

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF TRANSITIONS IN THE SOLAR WIND PARAMETERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perri, S.; Balogh, A. E-mail: a.balogh@imperial.ac.u

    2010-02-20

    The distinction between fast and slow solar wind streams and the dynamically evolved interaction regions is reflected in the characteristic fluctuations of both the solar wind and the embedded magnetic field. High-resolution magnetic field data from the Ulysses spacecraft have been analyzed. The observations show rapid variations in the magnetic field components and in the magnetic field strength, suggesting a structured nature of the solar wind at small scales. The typical sizes of fluctuations cover a broad range. If translated to the solar surface, the scales span from the size of granules ({approx}10{sup 3} km) and supergranules ({approx}10{sup 4} km) on the Sun down to {approx}10{sup 2} km and less. The properties of the short time structures change in the different types of solar wind. While fluctuations in fast streams are more homogeneous, slow streams present a bursty behavior in the magnetic field variances, and the regions of transition are characterized by high levels of power in narrow structures around the transitions. The probability density functions of the magnetic field increments at several scales reveal a higher level of intermittency in the mixed streams, which is related to the presence of well localized features. It is concluded that, apart from the differences in the nature of fluctuations in flows of different coronal origin, there is a small-scale structuring that depends on the origin of streams themselves but it is also related to a bursty generation of the fluctuations.

  16. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2: Preprint

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 Preprint D. Lew, G. Brinkman, E. Ibanez, and B.-M. Hodge National Renewable Energy Laboratory J. King RePPAE To be presented at the 11th Annual International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as Well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Power Plants Conference Lisbon, Portugal November 13-15, 2012 Conference Paper NREL/CP-5500-56217 September 2012 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an

  17. U.S. Virgin Islands- Solar and Wind Easements & Rights Laws

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In the U.S. Virgin Islands, the owner of a solar or wind-energy system is permitted to negotiate for assurance of continued access to the system’s energy source. "Solar or wind-energy system" is...

  18. Modeling and Analysis of Solar Radiation Potentials on Building Rooftops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Kodysh, Jeffrey B; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2012-01-01

    The active application of photovoltaic for electricity generation could effectively transform neighborhoods and commercial districts into small, localized power plants. This application, however, relies heavily on an accurate estimation of the amount of solar radiation that is available on individual building rooftops. While many solar energy maps exist at higher spatial resolution for concentrated solar energy applications, the data from these maps are not suitable for roof-mounted photovoltaic for several reasons, including lack of data at the appropriate spatial resolution and lack of integration of building-specific characteristics into the models used to generate the maps. To address this problem, we have developed a modeling framework for estimating solar radiation potentials on individual building rooftops that is suitable for utility-scale applications as well as building-specific applications. The framework uses light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data at approximately 1-meter horizontal resolution and 0.3-meter vertical resolution as input for modeling a large number of buildings quickly. One of the strengths of this framework is the ability to parallelize its implementation. Furthermore, the framework accounts for building specific characteristics, such as roof slope, roof aspect, and shadowing effects, that are critical to roof-mounted photovoltaic systems. The resulting data has helped us to identify the so-called solar panel sweet spots on individual building rooftops and obtain accurate statistics of the variation in solar radiation as a function of time of year and geographical location.

  19. Heat storage and distribution inside passive-solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Passive-solar buildings are investigated from the viewpoint of the storage of solar heat in materials of the building: walls, floors, ceilings, and furniture. The effects of the location, material, thickness, and orientation of each internal building surface are investigated. The concept of diurnal heat capacity is introduced and a method of using this parameter to estimate clear-day temperature swings is developed. Convective coupling to remote rooms within a building is discussed, including both convection through single doorways and convective loops that may exist involving a sunspace. Design guidelines are given.

  20. Research and Development Needs for Building-Integrated Solar Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-01-01

    The Building Technologies Office (BTO) has identified Building Integrated Solar Technologies (BIST) as a potentially valuable piece of the comprehensive pathway to help achieve its goal of reducing energy consumption in residential and commercial buildings by 50% by the year 2030. This report helps to identify the key research and development (R&D) needs that will be required for BIST to make a substantial contribution toward that goal. BIST include technologies for space heating and cooling, water heating, hybrid photovoltaic-thermal systems (PV/T), active solar lighting, and building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV).

  1. Enabling Technologies for High Penetration of Wind and Solar Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.

    2011-01-01

    High penetration of variable wind and solar electricity generation will require modifications to the electric power system. This work examines the impacts of variable generation, including uncertainty, ramp rate, ramp range, and potentially excess generation. Time-series simulations were performed in the Texas (ERCOT) grid where different mixes of wind, solar photovoltaic and concentrating solar power provide up to 80% of the electric demand. Different enabling technologies were examined, including conventional generator flexibility, demand response, load shifting, and energy storage. A variety of combinations of these technologies enabled low levels of surplus or curtailed wind and solar generation depending on the desired penetration of renewable sources. At lower levels of penetration (up to about 30% on an energy basis) increasing flexible generation, combined with demand response may be sufficient to accommodate variability and uncertainty. Introduction of load-shifting through real-time pricing or other market mechanisms further increases the penetration of variable generation. The limited time coincidence of wind and solar generation presents increasing challenges as these sources provide greater than 50% of total demand. System flexibility must be increased to the point of virtually eliminating must-run baseload generators during periods of high wind and solar generation. Energy storage also becomes increasingly important as lower cost flexibility options are exhausted. The study examines three classes of energy storage - electricity storage, including batteries and pumped hydro, hybrid storage (compressed-air energy storage), and thermal energy storage. Ignoring long-distance transmission options, a combination of load shifting and storage equal to about 12 hours of average demand may keep renewable energy curtailment below 10% in the simulated system.

  2. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Executive Summary, (WWSIS) May 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Piwko; K. Clark; L. Freeman; G. Jordan; N. Miller

    2010-05-01

    This report provides a summary of background, approach, and findings of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS).

  3. Final Solar and Wind H2 Report EPAct 812.doc | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar and Wind H2 Report EPAct 812.doc Final Solar and Wind H2 Report EPAct 812.doc Report to Congress (ESECS EE-3060) in response to section 812(e) of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 summarizing technology roadmaps for solar- and wind-based hydrogen production. PDF icon Solar and Wind Technologies for Hydrogen Production: Report to Congress More Documents & Publications Technoeconomic Boundary Analysis of Biological Pathways to Hydrogen Production Analysis Activities at National Renewable

  4. Do You Wonder How Much Energy Your Home Could Get from Solar or Wind?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Have you ever thought about installing wind or solar energy on your property? Learn more about it in this post.

  5. Grand Traverse Band Renewable Energy Feasibility Study in Wind, Biomass and Solar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzanne McSawby, Project Director Steve Smiley, Principle Investigator Grand Traverse Resort, Cost Sharing Partner

    2008-12-31

    Renewable Energy Feasibility Study for wind, biomass, solar on the Grand Traverse Band tribal lands from 2005 - 2008

  6. City of Grand Rapids Building Solar Roof Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeClercq, Mark; Martinez, Imelda

    2012-08-31

    Grand Rapids, Michigan is striving to reduce it environmental footprint. The municipal government organization has established environmental sustainability policies with the goal of securing 100% of its energy from renewable sources by 2020. This report describes the process by which the City of Grand Rapids evaluated, selected and installed solar panels on the Water/Environmental Services Building. The solar panels are the first to be placed on a municipal building. Its new power monitoring system provides output data to assess energy efficiency and utilization. It is expected to generate enough clean solar energy to power 25 percent of the building. The benefit to the public includes the economic savings from reduced operational costs for the building; an improved environmentally sustainable area in which to live and work; and increased knowledge about the use of solar energy. It will serve as a model for future energy saving applications.

  7. The genesis solar-wind sample return mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiens, Roger C

    2009-01-01

    The compositions of the Earth's crust and mantle, and those of the Moon and Mars, are relatively well known both isotopically and elementally. The same is true of our knowledge of the asteroid belt composition, based on meteorite analyses. Remote measurements of Venus, the Jovian atmosphere, and the outer planet moons, have provided some estimates of their compositions. The Sun constitutes a large majority, > 99%, of all the matter in the solar system. The elemental composition of the photosphere, the visible 'surface' of the Sun, is constrained by absorption lines produced by particles above the surface. Abundances for many elements are reported to the {+-}10 or 20% accuracy level. However, the abundances of other important elements, such as neon, cannot be determined in this way due to a relative lack of atomic states at low excitation energies. Additionally and most importantly, the isotopic composition of the Sun cannot be determined astronomically except for a few species which form molecules above sunspots, and estimates derived from these sources lack the accuracy desired for comparison with meteoritic and planetary surface samples measured on the Earth. The solar wind spreads a sample of solar particles throughout the heliosphere, though the sample is very rarified: collecting a nanogram of oxygen, the third most abundant element, in a square centimeter cross section at the Earth's distance from the Sun takes five years. Nevertheless, foil collectors exposed to the solar wind for periods of hours on the surface of the Moon during the Apollo missions were used to determine the helium and neon solar-wind compositions sufficiently to show that the Earth's atmospheric neon was significantly evolved relative to the Sun. Spacecraft instruments developed subsequently have provided many insights into the composition of the solar wind, mostly in terms of elemental composition. These instruments have the advantage of observing a number of parameters simultaneously, including charge state distributions, velocities, and densities, all of which have been instrumental in characterizing the nature of the solar wind. However, these instruments have lacked the ability to make large dynamic range measurements of adjacent isotopes (i.e., {sup 17}O/{sup 16}O {approx} 2500) or provide the permil (tenths of percent) accuracy desirable for comparison with geochemical isotopic measurements. An accurate knowledge of the solar and solar-wind compositions helps to answer important questions across a number of disciplines. It aids in understanding the acceleration mechanisms of the solar wind, gives an improved picture of the charged particle environment near the photosphere, it constrains processes within the Sun over its history, and it provides a database by which to compare differences among planetary systems with the solar system's starting composition, providing key information on planetary evolution. For example, precise knowledge of solar isotopic and elemental compositions of volatile species in the Sun provides a baseline for models of atmospheric evolution over time for Earth, Venus, and Mars. Additionally, volatile and chemically active elements such as C, H, O, N, and S can tell us about processes active during the evolution of the solar nebula. A classic example of this is the oxygen isotope system. In the 1970s it was determined that the oxygen isotopic ratio in refractory inclusions in primitive meteorites was enriched {approx}4% in {sup 16}O relative to the average terrestrial, lunar, and thermally processed meteorite materials. In addition, all processed solar-system materials appeared to each have a unique oxygen isotopic composition (except the Moon and Earth, which are thought to be formed from the same materials), though differences are in the fraction of a percent range, much smaller than the refractory material {sup 16}O enrichment. Several theories were developed over the years to account for the oxygen isotope heterogeneity, each theory predicting a different solar isotopic composition and each invoking a differ

  8. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2010-05-01

    This Study investigates the operational impact of up to 35% energy penetration of wind, photovoltaics (PVs), and concentrating solar power (CSP) on the power system operated by the WestConnect group of utilities in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Wyoming.

  9. Large Scale Wind and Solar Integration in Germany

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernst, Bernhard; Schreirer, Uwe; Berster, Frank; Pease, John; Scholz, Cristian; Erbring, Hans-Peter; Schlunke, Stephan; Makarov, Yuri V.

    2010-02-28

    This report provides key information concerning the German experience with integrating of 25 gigawatts of wind and 7 gigawatts of solar power capacity and mitigating its impacts on the electric power system. The report has been prepared based on information provided by the Amprion GmbH and 50Hertz Transmission GmbH managers and engineers to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory representatives during their visit to Germany in October 2009. The trip and this report have been sponsored by the BPA Technology Innovation office. Learning from the German experience could help the Bonneville Power Administration engineers to compare and evaluate potential new solutions for managing higher penetrations of wind energy resources in their control area. A broader dissemination of this experience will benefit wind and solar resource integration efforts in the United States.

  10. Optimum mix of conservation and solar energy in buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    A methodology is developed for optimally allocating resources between conservation and solar strategies in building design. Formulas are presented for a constrained optimum in which the initial investment is limited. The procedure is amenable to hand analysis if tables are available which give the Solar Savings Fraction as a function of the Load Collector Ratio for the locality. A numerical example is given.

  11. Sustainable Buildings. Using Active Solar Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, M. Keith; Barnett, Russell

    2015-04-20

    The objective of this project is to promote awareness and knowledge of active solar energy technologies by installing and monitoring the following demonstration systems in Kentucky: 1) Pool heating system, Churchill Park School, 2) Water heating and daylighting systems, Middletown and Aiken Road Elementary Schools, 3) Photovoltaic street light comparison, Louisville Metro, 4) up to 25 domestic water heating systems across Kentucky. These tasks will be supported by outreach activities, including a solar energy installer training workshop and a Kentucky Solar Energy Conference.

  12. Simple procedure for schematic design of passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wray, W.O.; Kosiewicz, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    A simple procedure for use during the schematic phase of passive solar building design is presented in this article. The procedure is quantitative and accurate enough to insure that designs based on the provided starting point values of the primary building parameters will be cost effective.

  13. Small Business Harnessing Solar Energy with Building Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Business partners Jeff Szczepanski and Rob Lyndall imagine a world where many of the buildings have walls, windows and other materials that are integrated with photovoltaic technology — that is, buildings that generate solar energy without necessarily adding panels to the roof. And because of new funding opportunities, that vision might not be too far into the future.

  14. Solar Decathlon 2013: Let the Building Begin

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Last week, teams began reassembling their houses on the Solar Decathlon competition site. See photo updates from the first week of construction.

  15. Better Buildings Alliance Solar Decision Guide

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Businesses considering implementing solar PV may encounter widespread geographic differences regarding utility incentive structures (buy-down incentives, performance based incentives, feed-in tariffs, etc.), utility policies (net metering, interconnection requirements), regulatory structures, and permitting requirements. They might also have uncertainty about how to assess the different ownership structures (PPA, lease, own, etc.). The Solar Decision Guide can help companies navigate this complex environment to determine if investing in solar makes financial sense and to identify the regions that offer the most promising returns on solar investment.

  16. Breakout Session: Solar in the Connected Building

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This session will explore the technologies, processes, and policies needed for interconnection and integrated operation of solar power at any penetration level. Panelists will discuss the...

  17. Evaluating the performance of passive-solar-heated buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Methods of evaluating the thermal performance of passive-solar buildings are reviewed. Instrumentation and data logging requirements are outlined. Various methodologies that have been used to develop an energy balance for the building and various performance measures are discussed. Methods for quantifying comfort are described. Subsystem and other special-purpose monitoring are briefly reviewed. Summary results are given for 38 buildings that have been monitored.

  18. Small solar wind transients: Stereo-A observations in 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, W.; Farrugia, C. J.; Galvin, A. B.; Simunac, K. D. C.; Popecki, M. A.; Lugaz, N.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Moestl, C.; Luhmann, J. G.; Opitz, A.; Sauvaud, J.-A.

    2013-06-13

    Year 2009 was the last year of a long and pronounced solar activity minimum. In this year the solar wind in the inner heliosphere was for 90% of the time slow (< 450 km s{sup -1}) and with a weaker magnetic field strength compared to the previous solar minimum 1995-1996. We choose this year to present the results of a systematic search for small solar wind transients (STs) observed by the STEREO-Ahead (ST-A) probe. The data are from the PLASTIC and IMPACT instrument suites. By 'small' we mean a duration from {approx}1 to 12 hours. The parameters we search for to identify STs are (i) the total field strength, (ii) the rotation of the magnetic field vector, (iii) its smoothness, (iv) proton temperature, (v) proton beta, and (vi) Alfven Mach number. We find 45 examples. The STs have an average duration of {approx}4 hours. Ensemble averages of key quantities are: (i) maximum B = 7.01 nT; (ii) proton {beta}= 0.18; (iii) proton thermal speed = 20.8 km s{sup -1}; and (iv) Alfven Mach number = 6.13. No distinctive feature is found in the pitch angle distributions of suprathermal electrons. Our statistical results are compared with those of STs observed near Earth by Wind during 2009.

  19. Solar Energy Potential | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Sources Home Fossil Nuclear Renewable Energy Renewable Energy Home Biomass Geothermal Solar Water Wind Energy Efficiency Energy Efficiency Home Building Design Building Design...

  20. Development of thermal performance criteria for residential passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabatiuk, P.A.; Cassel, D.E.; McCabe, M.; Scarbrough, C.

    1980-01-01

    In support of the development of thermal performance criteria for residential passive solar buildings, thermal design characteristics and anticipated performance for 266 projects in the HUD Passive Residential Design Competition and the HUD Cycle 5 Demonstration Program were analyzed. These passive residences are located in all regions of the United States requiring space heating, and they represent a variety of passive solar system types including direct gain, indirect gain, and solarium (isolated gain) systems. The results of this statistical analysis are being used to develop proposed minimum acceptable levels of thermal performance for passive solar buildings for the residential performance criteria. A number of performance measures were examined, including net solar contribution, solar fraction, and auxiliary energy use. These and other design and climate-related parameters were statistically correlated using the DATAPLOT computer program and standard statistical analysis techniques.

  1. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Hydropower Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acker, T.; Pete, C.

    2012-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) study of 20% Wind Energy by 2030 was conducted to consider the benefits, challenges, and costs associated with sourcing 20% of U.S. energy consumption from wind power by 2030. This study found that with proactive measures, no insurmountable barriers were identified to meet the 20% goal. Following this study, DOE and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted two more studies: the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS) covering the eastern portion of the U.S., and the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) covering the western portion of the United States. The WWSIS was conducted by NREL and research partner General Electric (GE) in order to provide insight into the costs, technical or physical barriers, and operational impacts caused by the variability and uncertainty of wind, photovoltaic, and concentrated solar power when employed to serve up to 35% of the load energy in the WestConnect region (Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Wyoming). WestConnect is composed of several utility companies working collaboratively to assess stakeholder and market needs to and develop cost-effective improvements to the western wholesale electricity market. Participants include the Arizona Public Service, El Paso Electric Company, NV Energy, Public Service of New Mexico, Salt River Project, Tri-State Generation and Transmission Cooperative, Tucson Electric Power, Xcel Energy and the Western Area Power Administration.

  2. Hunting Hurricanes...and Data to Help Build Better Offshore Wind Turbines |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Hunting Hurricanes...and Data to Help Build Better Offshore Wind Turbines Hunting Hurricanes...and Data to Help Build Better Offshore Wind Turbines June 2, 2014 - 12:21pm Addthis Flying high 1 of 4 Flying high P-3 aircraft are used by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to track the strength, temperature, pressure, and wind speed and direction of hurricanes. This information could be used to develop stronger offshore wind turbines and components,

  3. Building and using the solar greenhouse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1983-01-01

    Thorough directions are given for planning, constructing and using a solar greenhouse attached to a house. Included is a method of calculating the savings accruing from the use of the greenhouse. (LEW)

  4. GIZ-Best Practices in Capacity Building Approaches | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Building Approaches: Recommendations for the Design of a Long -Term Capacity Building Strategy for the Wind and Solar Sectors by the MEF Working Group AgencyCompany Organization:...

  5. Guam- Solar-Ready Residential Building Requirement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Guam Energy Code, which became effective in October of 2000, requires that piping stub outs be provided for water heaters installed in low-rise residential buildings to enable the future inst...

  6. Junior Solar Sprint - An Introduction to Building a Model Solar Car

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 Revised 8/23/01 An Introduction to Building a Model Solar Car Student Guide for the Junior Solar Sprint Competition Produced by: Krisztina Holly and Akhil Madhani 2 Introduction Welcome to Junior Solar Sprint! By competing in Junior Solar Sprint, you will learn how to make your own model solar car that will run entirely from the power of the sun. Design You will experience first-hand the process of design. When you design your car, you will start with some ideas in your head and turn then into

  7. Visual-SOLAR: Modeling and Visualization of Solar Radiation Potential on Individual Building Rooftops

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-05-01

    We have developed a modeling framework for estimating solar radiation potentials on individual building rooftops that is suitable for utility-scale applications as well as building-specific applications. The framework uses light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data at approximately 1-meter horizontal resolution and 0.3-meter vertical resolution as input for modeling a large number of buildings quickly. One of the strengths of this framework is the ability to parallelize its implementation. Furthermore, the framework accounts for building specificmore » characteristics, such as roof slope, roof aspect, and shadowing effects, that are critical to roof-mounted photovoltaic system. The resulting data has helped us to identify the so-called "solar panel sweet spots" on individual building rooftops and obtain accurate statistics of the variation in solar radiation as a function of time of year and geographical location.« less

  8. Visual-SOLAR: Modeling and Visualization of Solar Radiation Potential on Individual Building Rooftops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-05-01

    We have developed a modeling framework for estimating solar radiation potentials on individual building rooftops that is suitable for utility-scale applications as well as building-specific applications. The framework uses light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data at approximately 1-meter horizontal resolution and 0.3-meter vertical resolution as input for modeling a large number of buildings quickly. One of the strengths of this framework is the ability to parallelize its implementation. Furthermore, the framework accounts for building specific characteristics, such as roof slope, roof aspect, and shadowing effects, that are critical to roof-mounted photovoltaic system. The resulting data has helped us to identify the so-called "solar panel sweet spots" on individual building rooftops and obtain accurate statistics of the variation in solar radiation as a function of time of year and geographical location.

  9. EPRI conference proceedings: solar and wind power - 1982 status and outlook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeMeo, E.A.

    1983-02-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 18 papers in this proceedings. Not separately abstracted are speeches and presentations covering: past progress and future directions in solar and wind power research and development, new directions in Federal solar electric programs, Solar Energy Research Institute status and outlook, ARCO Solar Industries' involvement in the production of potential solar electric technologies, wind power status and outlook, utility requirements, roles and rewards, and a panel discussion on solar and wind power status and outlook as viewed from industrial, utility, financial, and government perspectives. (LEW)

  10. Value of Wind Power Forecasting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Milligan, M.; Jordan, G.; Piwko, R.

    2011-04-01

    This study, building on the extensive models developed for the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS), uses these WECC models to evaluate the operating cost impacts of improved day-ahead wind forecasts.

  11. NREL: Innovation Impact - Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Energy Menu Home Home Solar Solar Wind Wind Analysis Analysis Bioenergy Bioenergy Buildings Buildings Transportation Transportation Manufacturing Manufacturing Energy Systems Integration Energy Systems Integration What is a quantum dot? Close Quantum dots are tiny spheres of semiconductor material measuring only about 2-10 billionths of a meter in diameter. Quantum dots are a leading candidate for a third generation of solar-cell technologies. Close Achieving significant gains in solar

  12. Wind Tunnel Tests of Parabolic Trough Solar Collectors: March 2001--August 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosoya, N.; Peterka, J. A.; Gee, R. C.; Kearney, D.

    2008-05-01

    Conducted extensive wind-tunnel tests on parabolic trough solar collectors to determine practical wind loads applicable to structural design for stress and deformation, and local component design for concentrator reflectors.

  13. Utility-Scale Wind & Solar Power in the U.S.: Where it stands...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Utility-Scale Wind & Solar Power in the U.S.: Where it stands in 2014 and its future going ... renewable generation - Over 10,000 MW of wind capacity * Nearly 20,000 MW in operation ...

  14. Using Solar Business Models to Expand the Distributed Wind Market (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savage, S.

    2013-05-01

    This presentation to attendees at Wind Powering America's All-States Summit in Chicago describes business models that were responsible for rapid growth in the solar industry and that may be applicable to the distributed wind industry as well.

  15. Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ... comprehensively recording solar irradiance data to accompany its outdoor PV testing. ...

  16. Solar and Wind Easements, Local Options, and Severability | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Federal Government Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal...

  17. Investigating the Correlation Between Wind and Solar Power Forecast Errors in the Western Interconnection: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, J.; Hodge, B. M.; Florita, A.

    2013-05-01

    Wind and solar power generations differ from conventional energy generation because of the variable and uncertain nature of their power output. This variability and uncertainty can have significant impacts on grid operations. Thus, short-term forecasting of wind and solar generation is uniquely helpful for power system operations to balance supply and demand in an electricity system. This paper investigates the correlation between wind and solar power forecasting errors.

  18. TWISTED MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz V.; Vörös, Zoltán; Narita, Yasuhito; Bruno, Roberto

    2014-03-01

    Magnetic flux tubes in the solar wind can be twisted as they are transported from the solar surface, where the tubes are twisted due to photospheric motions. It is suggested that the twisted magnetic tubes can be detected as the variation of total (thermal+magnetic) pressure during their passage through the observing satellite. We show that the total pressure of several observed twisted tubes resembles the theoretically expected profile. The twist of the isolated magnetic tube may explain the observed abrupt changes of magnetic field direction at tube walls. We have also found some evidence that the flux tube walls can be associated with local heating of the plasma and elevated proton and electron temperatures. For the tubes aligned with the Parker spiral, the twist angle can be estimated from the change of magnetic field direction. Stability analysis of twisted tubes shows that the critical twist angle of the tube with a homogeneous twist is 70°, but the angle can further decrease due to the motion of the tube with respect to the solar wind stream. The tubes with a stronger twist are unstable to the kink instability, therefore they probably cannot reach 1 AU.

  19. Look to the Right, Kids: Five Solar/Wind Hybrids | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Look to the Right, Kids: Five Solar/Wind Hybrids Look to the Right, Kids: Five Solar/Wind Hybrids September 1, 2010 - 2:16pm Addthis Genoa Township, Mich., installed five wind/solar hybrid units that will supply up to 20 percent of the township hall’s electrical needs. | Photo Courtesy of Genoa Township Genoa Township, Mich., installed five wind/solar hybrid units that will supply up to 20 percent of the township hall's electrical needs. | Photo Courtesy of Genoa Township Stephen Graff

  20. Wind and Solar Data Projections from the U.S. Energy Information...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Full report Wind and Solar Data Projections from the U.S. Energy Information Administration: Past Performance and Planned Enhancements Release date: March 22, 2016 Summary EIA's ...

  1. Convective heat transfer inside passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, R.W.; Balcomb, J.D.; Yamaguchi, K.

    1983-11-01

    Natural convection between spaces in a building which play a major role in energy transfer are discussed. Two situations are investigated: Convection through a single doorway into a remote room, and a convective loop in a two story house with a south sunspace where a north stairway serves as the return path. A doorway sizing equation is given for the single door case. Data from airflow monitoring in one two-story house and summary data for five others are presented. The nature of the airflow and design guidelines are presented.

  2. Convective heat transfer inside passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, R.W.; Balcomb, J.D.; Yamaguchi, K.

    1983-01-01

    Natural convection between spaces in a building can play a major role in energy transfer. Two situations are investigated: convection through a single doorway into a remote room, and a convective loop in a two-story house with a south sunspace where a north stairway serves as the return path. A doorway-sizing equation is given for the single-door case. Detailed data are given from the monitoring of airflow in one two-story house and summary data are given for five others. Observations on the nature of the airflow and design guidelines are presented.

  3. Operation of Concentrating Solar Power Plants in the Western Wind and Solar Integration Phase 2 Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Brinkman, G.; Lew, D.; Hummon, M.

    2014-05-01

    The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) explores various aspects of the challenges and impacts of integrating large amounts of wind and solar energy into the electric power system of the West. The phase 2 study (WWSIS-2) is one of the first to include dispatchable concentrating solar power (CSP) with thermal energy storage (TES) in multiple scenarios of renewable penetration and mix. As a result, it provides unique insights into CSP plant operation, grid benefits, and how CSP operation and configuration may need to change under scenarios of increased renewable penetration. Examination of the WWSIS-2 results indicates that in all scenarios, CSP plants with TES provides firm system capacity, reducing the net demand and the need for conventional thermal capacity. The plants also reduced demand during periods of short-duration, high ramping requirements that often require use of lower efficiency peaking units. Changes in CSP operation are driven largely by the presence of other solar generation, particularly PV. Use of storage by the CSP plants increases in the higher solar scenarios, with operation of the plant often shifted to later in the day. CSP operation also becomes more variable, including more frequent starts. Finally, CSP output is often very low during the day in scenarios with significant PV, which helps decrease overall renewable curtailment (over-generation). However, the configuration studied is likely not optimal for High Solar Scenario implying further analysis of CSP plant configuration is needed to understand its role in enabling high renewable scenarios in the Western United States.

  4. Solar and Wind Resource Assessments for Afghanistan and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renne, D. S.; Kelly, M.; Elliott, D.; George, R.; Scott, G.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; Milbrandt, A.; Cowlin, S.; Gilman, P.; Perez, R.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has recently completed the production of high-resolution wind and solar energy resource maps and related data products for Afghanistan and Pakistan. The resource data have been incorporated into a geospatial toolkit (GsT), which allows the user to manipulate the resource information along with country-specific geospatial information such as highway networks, power facilities, transmission corridors, protected land areas, etc. The toolkit allows users to then transfer resource data for specific locations into NREL's micropower optimization model known as HOMER.

  5. A study of density modulation index in the inner heliospheric solar wind during solar cycle 23

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bisoi, Susanta Kumar; Janardhan, P.; Ingale, M.; Subramanian, P.; Ananthakrishnan, S.; Tokumaru, M.; Fujiki, K. E-mail: jerry@prl.res.in E-mail: p.subramanian@iiserpune.ac.in E-mail: tokumaru@stelab.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2014-11-01

    The ratio of the rms electron density fluctuations to the background density in the solar wind (density modulation index, ? {sub N} ? ?N/N) is of vital importance for understanding several problems in heliospheric physics related to solar wind turbulence. In this paper, we have investigated the behavior of ? {sub N} in the inner heliosphere from 0.26 to 0.82 AU. The density fluctuations ?N have been deduced using extensive ground-based observations of interplanetary scintillation at 327 MHz, which probe spatial scales of a few hundred kilometers. The background densities (N) have been derived using near-Earth observations from the Advanced Composition Explorer. Our analysis reveals that 0.001 ? ? {sub N} ? 0.02 and does not vary appreciably with heliocentric distance. We also find that ? {sub N} declines by 8% from 1998 to 2008. We discuss the impact of these findings on problems ranging from our understanding of Forbush decreases to the behavior of the solar wind dynamic pressure over the recent peculiar solar minimum at the end of cycle 23.

  6. Procuring and Implementing Solar Projects on Public Buildings: How to Avoid Common Pitfalls (Text Version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Transcript of the webinar, "Procuring and Implementing Solar Projects on Public Buildings: How to Avoid Common Pitfalls."

  7. SCALE DEPENDENCE OF MAGNETIC HELICITY IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenburg, Axel; Subramanian, Kandaswamy; Balogh, Andre; Goldstein, Melvyn L. E-mail: kandu@iucaa.ernet.in E-mail: melvyn.l.goldstein@nasa.gov

    2011-06-10

    We determine the magnetic helicity, along with the magnetic energy, at high latitudes using data from the Ulysses mission. The data set spans the time period from 1993 to 1996. The basic assumption of the analysis is that the solar wind is homogeneous. Because the solar wind speed is high, we follow the approach first pioneered by Matthaeus et al. by which, under the assumption of spatial homogeneity, one can use Fourier transforms of the magnetic field time series to construct one-dimensional spectra of the magnetic energy and magnetic helicity under the assumption that the Taylor frozen-in-flow hypothesis is valid. That is a well-satisfied assumption for the data used in this study. The magnetic helicity derives from the skew-symmetric terms of the three-dimensional magnetic correlation tensor, while the symmetric terms of the tensor are used to determine the magnetic energy spectrum. Our results show a sign change of magnetic helicity at wavenumber k {approx} 2 AU{sup -1} (or frequency {nu} {approx} 2 {mu}Hz) at distances below 2.8 AU and at k {approx} 30 AU{sup -1} (or {nu} {approx} 25 {mu}Hz) at larger distances. At small scales the magnetic helicity is positive at northern heliographic latitudes and negative at southern latitudes. The positive magnetic helicity at small scales is argued to be the result of turbulent diffusion reversing the sign relative to what is seen at small scales at the solar surface. Furthermore, the magnetic helicity declines toward solar minimum in 1996. The magnetic helicity flux integrated separately over one hemisphere amounts to about 10{sup 45} Mx{sup 2} cycle{sup -1} at large scales and to a three times lower value at smaller scales.

  8. NATURAL CONVECTION IN PASSIVE SOLAR BUILDINGS: EXPERIMENTS, ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gadgil, A.; Bauman, F.; Kammerud, R.

    1981-04-01

    Computer programs have been developed to numerically simulate natural convection in two- and three-dimensional room geometries. The programs have been validated using published data from the literature, results from a full-scale experiment performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and results from a small-scale experiment performed at LBL. One of the computer programs has been used to study the influence of natural convection on the thermal performance of a single zone in a direct-gain passive solar building. It is found that the convective heat transfer coefficients between the air and the enclosure surfaces can be substantially different from the values assumed in the standard building energy analysis methods, and can exhibit significant variations across a given surface. This study implies that the building heating loads calculated by standard building energy analysis methods may have substantial errors as a result of their use of common assumptions regarding the convection processes which occur in an enclosure.

  9. Integrating High Penetrations of Solar in the Western United States: Results of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Lew, D.

    2013-10-01

    This poster presents a summary of the results of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2.

  10. Depth profiling analysis of solar wind helium collected in diamond-like carbon film from Genesis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bajo, Ken-ichi; Olinger, Chad T.; Jurewicz, Amy J.G.; Burnett, Donald S.; Sakaguchi, Isao; Suzuki, Taku; Itose, Satoru; Ishihara, Morio; Uchino, Kiichiro; Wieler, Rainer; et al

    2015-10-01

    The distribution of solar-wind ions in Genesis mission collectors, as determined by depth profiling analysis, constrains the physics of ion solid interactions involving the solar wind. Thus, they provide an experimental basis for revealing ancient solar activities represented by solar-wind implants in natural samples. We measured the first depth profile of ⁴He in a collector; the shallow implantation (peaking at <20 nm) required us to use sputtered neutral mass spectrometry with post-photoionization by a strong field. The solar wind He fluence calculated using depth profiling is ~8.5 x 10¹⁴ cm⁻². The shape of the solar wind ⁴He depth profile ismore » consistent with TRIM simulations using the observed ⁴He velocity distribution during the Genesis mission. It is therefore likely that all solar-wind elements heavier than H are completely intact in this Genesis collector and, consequently, the solar particle energy distributions for each element can be calculated from their depth profiles. Ancient solar activities and space weathering of solar system objects could be quantitatively reproduced by solar particle implantation profiles.« less

  11. Wind Power Today: Building a New Energy Future, Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program 2009 (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    Wind Power Today is an annual publication that provides an overview of the wind energy research conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program.

  12. The solar wind neon abundance observed with ACE/SWICS and ULYSSES/SWICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shearer, Paul; Raines, Jim M.; Lepri, Susan T.; Thomas, Jonathan W.; Gilbert, Jason A.; Landi, Enrico; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Von Steiger, Rudolf

    2014-07-01

    Using in situ ion spectrometry data from ACE/SWICS, we determine the solar wind Ne/O elemental abundance ratio and examine its dependence on wind speed and evolution with the solar cycle. We find that Ne/O is inversely correlated with wind speed, is nearly constant in the fast wind, and correlates strongly with solar activity in the slow wind. In fast wind streams with speeds above 600 km s{sup 1}, we find Ne/O = 0.10 0.02, in good agreement with the extensive polar observations by Ulysses/SWICS. In slow wind streams with speeds below 400 km s{sup 1}, Ne/O ranges from a low of 0.12 0.02 at solar maximum to a high of 0.17 0.03 at solar minimum. These measurements place new and significant empirical constraints on the fractionation mechanisms governing solar wind composition and have implications for the coronal and photospheric abundances of neon and oxygen. The results are made possible by a new data analysis method that robustly identifies rare elements in the measured ion spectra. The method is also applied to Ulysses/SWICS data, which confirms the ACE observations and extends our view of solar wind neon into the three-dimensional heliosphere.

  13. NASA Building 12 Wind Turbines | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in December 2014, the NASA Building 12 installation consists of four Urban Green Energy Eddy GT turbines. The project was constructed as part of a larger Building 12...

  14. New Report: Integrating More Wind and Solar Reduces Utilities' Carbon Emissions and Fuel Costs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) released Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2), a follow-up to the initial WWSIS released in May 2010, which examined the viability, benefits, and challenges of integrating as much as 33% wind and solar power into the electricity grid of the western United States.

  15. Could Building Energy Codes Mandate Rooftop Solar in the Future?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, Heather E.; Antonopoulos, Chrissi A.; Solana, Amy E.; Russo, Bryan J.; Williams, Jeremiah

    2012-08-01

    This paper explores existing requirements and compliance options for both commercial and residential code structures. Common alternative compliance options are discussed including Renewable Energy Credits (RECs), green-power purchasing programs, shared solar programs and other community-based renewable energy investments. Compliance options are analyzed to consider building lifespan, cost-effectiveness, energy trade-offs, enforcement concerns and future code development. Existing onsite renewable energy codes are highlighted as case studies for the code development process.

  16. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 (Executive Summary)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, Debra; Brinkman, Greg

    2013-09-01

    The electric grid is a highly complex, interconnected machine, and changing one part of the grid can have consequences elsewhere. Adding wind and solar affects the operation of the other power plants and adding high penetrations can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) evaluated these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This built on Phase 1, one of the largest wind and solar integration studies ever conducted, which examined operational impacts of high wind and solar penetrations in the West(GE Energy 2010).

  17. Three-fluid, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic solar wind model with eddy viscosity and turbulent resistivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Usmanov, Arcadi V.; Matthaeus, William H.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.

    2014-06-10

    We have developed a three-fluid, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic solar wind model that incorporates turbulence transport, eddy viscosity, turbulent resistivity, and turbulent heating. The solar wind plasma is described as a system of co-moving solar wind protons, electrons, and interstellar pickup protons, with separate energy equations for each species. Numerical steady-state solutions of Reynolds-averaged solar wind equations coupled with turbulence transport equations for turbulence energy, cross helicity, and correlation length are obtained by the time relaxation method in the corotating with the Sun frame of reference in the region from 0.3 to 100 AU (but still inside the termination shock). The model equations include the effects of electron heat conduction, Coulomb collisions, photoionization of interstellar hydrogen atoms and their charge exchange with the solar wind protons, turbulence energy generation by pickup protons, and turbulent heating of solar wind protons and electrons. The turbulence transport model is based on the Reynolds decomposition and turbulence phenomenologies that describe the conversion of fluctuation energy into heat due to a turbulent cascade. In addition to using separate energy equations for the solar wind protons and electrons, a significant improvement over our previous work is that the turbulence model now uses an eddy viscosity approximation for the Reynolds stress tensor and the mean turbulent electric field. The approximation allows the turbulence model to account for driving of turbulence by large-scale velocity gradients. Using either a dipole approximation for the solar magnetic field or synoptic solar magnetograms from the Wilcox Solar Observatory for assigning boundary conditions at the coronal base, we apply the model to study the global structure of the solar wind and its three-dimensional properties, including embedded turbulence, heating, and acceleration throughout the heliosphere. The model results are compared with plasma and magnetic field observations on WIND, Ulysses, and Voyager 2 spacecraft.

  18. Building Toward a Small Wind Turbine Site Assessor Credential (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinclair, K.

    2013-09-01

    Proper site assessment is integral to the development of a successful small wind project. Without a small wind site assessor certification program, consumers, including state incentive program managers, lack a benchmark for differentiating between qualified and nonqualified site assessors. A small wind site assessor best practice manual is being developed as a resource for consumers until a credential program becomes available. This presentation describes the purpose, proposed content, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's approach to the development of such a manual.

  19. RECONNECTION OUTFLOW GENERATED TURBULENCE IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrs, Z.; Sasunov, Y. L.; Zaqarashvili, T. V.; Khodachenko, M.; Semenov, V. S.; Bruno, R.

    2014-12-10

    Petschek-type time-dependent reconnection (TDR) and quasi-stationary reconnection (QSR) models are considered to understand reconnection outflow structures and the generation of local turbulence in the solar wind. Comparing TDR/QSR model predictions of the outflow structures with actual measurements shows that both models can explain the data equally well. It is demonstrated that the outflows can often generate more or less spatially extended turbulent boundary layers. The structure of a unique extended reconnection outflow is investigated in detail. The analysis of spectral scalings and spectral break locations shows that reconnection can change the local field and plasma conditions which may support different local turbulent dissipation mechanisms at their characteristic wavenumbers.

  20. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Kumar, N.; Lefton, S.; Jordan, G.; Venkataraman, S.; King, J.

    2013-06-01

    This presentation accompanies Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study, a follow-on to Phase 1, which examined the operational impacts of high penetrations of variable renewable generation on the electric power system in the West and was one of the largest variable generation studies to date. High penetrations of variable generation can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 calculated these costs and emissions, and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of variable generation on the fossil-fueled fleet. The presentation highlights the scope of the study and results.

  1. CHARGE STATE EVOLUTION IN THE SOLAR WIND. II. PLASMA CHARGE STATE COMPOSITION IN THE INNER CORONA AND ACCELERATING FAST SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landi, E.; Gruesbeck, J. R.; Lepri, S. T.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Fisk, L. A. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2012-12-10

    In the present work, we calculate the evolution of the charge state distribution within the fast solar wind. We use the temperature, density, and velocity profiles predicted by Cranmer et al. to calculate the ionization history of the most important heavy elements in the solar corona and solar wind: C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe. The evolution of each charge state is calculated from the source region in the lower chromosphere to the final freeze-in point. We show that the solar wind velocity causes the plasma to experience significant departures from equilibrium at very low heights, well inside the field of view (within 0.6 R{sub sun} from the solar limb) of nearly all the available remote-sensing instrumentation, significantly affecting observed spectral line intensities. We also study the evolution of charge state ratios with distance from the source region, and the temperature they indicate if ionization equilibrium is assumed. We find that virtually every charge state from every element freezes in at a different height, so that the definition of freeze-in height is ambiguous. We also find that calculated freeze-in temperatures indicated by charge state ratios from in situ measurements have little relation to the local coronal temperature of the wind source region, and stop evolving much earlier than their correspondent charge state ratio. We discuss the implication of our results on plasma diagnostics of coronal holes from spectroscopic measurements as well as on theoretical solar wind models relying on coronal temperatures.

  2. Solar/Wind Contractor Licensing | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Licensing Louisiana InstallerContractor Photovoltaics Solar Water Heat Yes Tennessee Solar Panel Installation Specialty and Solar Thermal-Geothermal Licensing (Tennessee)...

  3. Residential Solar and Wind Energy Systems Tax Credit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Qualifying technologies include solar domestic water heating systems, solar swimming pool and spa heating systems, photovoltaic systems, photovoltaic phones and street lights, passive solar...

  4. Transmission Benefits of Co-Locating Concentrating Solar Power and Wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2012-03-01

    In some areas of the U.S. transmission constraints are a limiting factor in deploying new wind and concentrating solar power (CSP) plants. Texas is an example of one such location, where the best wind and solar resources are in the western part of the state, while major demand centers are in the east. The low capacity factor of wind is a compounding factor, increasing the relative cost of new transmission per unit of energy actually delivered. A possible method of increasing the utilization of new transmission is to co-locate both wind and concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage. In this work we examine the benefits and limits of using the dispatachability of thermal storage to increase the capacity factor of new transmission developed to access high quality solar and wind resources in remote locations.

  5. Comparative study of different solar cooling systems for buildings in subtropical city

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fong, K.F.; Chow, T.T.; Lee, C.K.; Lin, Z.; Chan, L.S.

    2010-02-15

    In recent years, more and more attention has been paid on the application potential of solar cooling for buildings. Due to the fact that the efficiency of solar collectors is generally low at the time being, the effectiveness of solar cooling would be closely related to the availability of solar irradiation, climatic conditions and geographical location of a place. In this paper, five types of solar cooling systems were involved in a comparative study for subtropical city, which is commonly featured with long hot and humid summer. The solar cooling systems included the solar electric compression refrigeration, solar mechanical compression refrigeration, solar absorption refrigeration, solar adsorption refrigeration and solar solid desiccant cooling. Component-based simulation models of these systems were developed, and their performances were evaluated throughout a year. The key performance indicators are solar fraction, coefficient of performance, solar thermal gain, and primary energy consumption. In addition, different installation strategies and types of solar collectors were compared for each kind of solar cooling system. Through this comparative study, it was found that solar electric compression refrigeration and solar absorption refrigeration had the highest energy saving potential in the subtropical Hong Kong. The former is to make use of the solar electric gain, while the latter is to adopt the solar thermal gain. These two solar cooling systems would have even better performances through the continual advancement of the solar collectors. It will provide a promising application potential of solar cooling for buildings in the subtropical region. (author)

  6. Correlation studies between solar wind parameters and the decimetric radio emission from Jupiter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolton, S.J.; Gulkis, S.; Klein, M.J.; De Pater, I.; Thompson, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    Results of a study comparing long-term time variations (years) in Jupiter's synchrotron radio emission with a variety of solar wind parameters and the 10.7-cm solar flux are reported. Data from 1963 through 1985 were analyzed, and the results suggest that many solar wind parameters are correlated with the intensity of the synchrotron emission produced by the relativistic electrons in the Jovian Van Allen radiation belts. Significant nonzero correlation coefficients appear to be associated with solar wind ion density, ram pressure, thermal pressure, flow velocity, momentum, and ion temperature. The highest correlation coefficients are obtained for solar wind ram pressure (NV/sup 2/) and thermal pressure (NT). The correlation analysis suggests that the delay time between fluctuations in the solar wind and changes in the Jovian synchrotron emission is typically about 2 years. The delay time of the correlation places important constraints on the theoretical models describing the radiation belts. The implication of these results, if the correlations are real, is that the solar wind is influencing the supply and/or loss of electrons to Jupiter's inner magnetosphere. We note that the data for this work spans only about two periods of the solar activity cycle, and because of the long time scales of the observed variations, it is important to confirm these results with additional observations. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  7. Rhode Island to Build First Offshore Wind Farm

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Block Island, a small town with only 1,000 full-time, residents, is the site for a big project, when it will become home to Rhode Island’s first offshore wind farm.

  8. New Battery Design Could Help Solar and Wind Power the Grid | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Battery Design Could Help Solar and Wind Power the Grid New Battery Design Could Help Solar and Wind Power the Grid April 24, 2013 - 4:20pm Addthis NEWS MEDIA CONTACT (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - Researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University have designed a low-cost, long-life "flow" battery that could enable solar and wind energy to become major suppliers to the electrical grid. The research, led by Yi

  9. New Study Reveals Multiple Pathways to 30% Penetration of Wind and Solar |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy New Study Reveals Multiple Pathways to 30% Penetration of Wind and Solar New Study Reveals Multiple Pathways to 30% Penetration of Wind and Solar September 16, 2015 - 6:36pm Addthis A new study published by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) found that the U.S. Eastern Interconnection-one of the largest power systems in the world-can reliably support up to a 30% penetration of wind and solar power. Using high-performance

  10. The Impact of Wind and Solar on the Value of Energy Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this analysis is to examine how the value proposition for energy storage changes as a function of wind and solar power penetration. It uses a grid modeling approach comparing the operational costs of an electric power system both with and without added storage. It creates a series of scenarios with increasing wind and solar power penetration and examines how the value of storage changes. It also explores the mechanisms behind this change in value, including the change in on-peak and off-peak price differentials and the cost of operating reserves created by increased penetration of wind and solar energy.

  11. City of Santa Monica- Building Permit Fee Waiver for Solar Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In early 2002, the City of Santa Monica began waiving building permit fees for solar energy systems. In December 2008, after months of working with industry trainers, solar contractors and staff...

  12. Making Cents Out of Solar: Put More Power Into Your Building Plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-01-01

    This is a brochure developed specifically for residential home builders. It provides information on basic solar facts, selling tips, and important resources when incorporating solar technologies into building plans.

  13. Making Cents Out of Solar: Put More Power Into Your Building Plans (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-01-01

    This is a brochure developed specifically for residential home builders. It provides information on basic solar facts, selling tips, and important resources when incorporating solar technologies into building plans.

  14. MUNI Ways and Structures Building Integrated Solar Membrane Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Randall

    2014-07-03

    The initial goal of the MUNI Ways and Structures Building Integrated Solar Membrane Installation Project was for the City and County of San Francisco (CCSF) to gain experience using the integrated higher efficiency solar photovoltaic (PV) single-ply membrane product, as it differs from the conventional, low efficiency, thin-film PV products, to determine the feasibility of success of larger deployment. As several of CCSF’s municipal rooftops are constrained with respect to weight restrictions, staff of the Energy Generation Group of the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) proposed to install a solar PV system using single-ply membrane The installation of the 100 kW (DC-STC) lightweight photo voltaic (PV) system at the MUNI Ways and Structures Center (700 Pennsylvania Ave., San Francisco) is a continuation of the commitment of the City and County of San Francisco (CCSF) to increase the pace of municipal solar development, and serve its municipal facilities with clean renewable energy. The fourteen (14) solar photovoltaic systems that have already been installed at CCSF municipal facilities are assisting in the reduction of fossil-fuel use, and reduction of greenhouse gases from fossil combustion. The MUNI Ways & Structures Center roof has a relatively low weight-bearing capacity (3.25 pounds per square foot) and use of traditional crystalline panels was therefore rejected. Consequently it was decided to use the best available highest efficiency Building-Integrated PV (BIPV) technology, with consideration for reliability and experience of the manufacturer which can meet the low weight-bearing capacity criteria. The original goal of the project was to provide an opportunity to monitor the results of the BIPV technology and compare these results to other City and County of San Francisco installed PV systems. The MUNI Ways and Structures Center was acquired from the Cookson Doors Company, which had run the Center for many decades. The building was renovated in 1998, but the existing roof had not been designed to carry a large load. Due to this fact, a complete roofing and structural analysis had to be performed to match the available roof loading to the existing and/or new solar PV technology, and BIPV was considered an excellent solution for this structure with the roof weight limitations. The solar BIPV system on the large roof area was estimated to provide about 25% of the total facility load with an average of 52,560 kWh per month. In order to accomplish the goals of the project, the following steps were performed: 1. SFPUC and consultants evaluated the structural capability of the facility roof, with recommendations for improvements necessary to accommodate the solar PV system and determine the suitable size of the system in kilowatts. The electrical room and switchgear were evaluated for any improvements necessary and to identify any constraints that might impede the installation of necessary inverters, transformers or meters. 2. Development of a design-build Request for Proposal (RFP) to identify the specifications for the solar PV system, and to include SFPUC technical specifications, equipment warranties and performance warranties. Due to potential labor issues in the local solar industry, SFPUC adjusted the terms of the RFP to more clearly define scope of work between electricians, roofers and laborers. 3. Design phase of project included electrical design drawings, calculations and other construction documents to support three submittals: 50% (preliminary design), 90% (detailed design) and 100% (Department of Building Inspection permit approved). 4. Installation of solar photovoltaic panels, completion of conduit and wiring work, connection of inverters, isolation switches, meters and Data Acquisition System by Contractor (Department of Public Works). 5. Commissioning of system, including all necessary tests to make the PV system fully functional and operational at its rated capacity of 100 kW (DC-STC). Following completion of these steps, the solar PV system was installed and fully integrated by late October 2013. The interconnection with PG&E utility grid was completed and the system began generating power on November 21, 2013. The projected annual energy generation for the system is estimated at 127,120 kWh/year.

  15. Particle acceleration via reconnection processes in the supersonic solar wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zank, G. P.; Le Roux, J. A.; Webb, G. M.; Dosch, A.; Khabarova, O.

    2014-12-10

    An emerging paradigm for the dissipation of magnetic turbulence in the supersonic solar wind is via localized small-scale reconnection processes, essentially between quasi-2D interacting magnetic islands. Charged particles trapped in merging magnetic islands can be accelerated by the electric field generated by magnetic island merging and the contraction of magnetic islands. We derive a gyrophase-averaged transport equation for particles experiencing pitch-angle scattering and energization in a super-Alfvénic flowing plasma experiencing multiple small-scale reconnection events. A simpler advection-diffusion transport equation for a nearly isotropic particle distribution is derived. The dominant charged particle energization processes are (1) the electric field induced by quasi-2D magnetic island merging and (2) magnetic island contraction. The magnetic island topology ensures that charged particles are trapped in regions where they experience repeated interactions with the induced electric field or contracting magnetic islands. Steady-state solutions of the isotropic transport equation with only the induced electric field and a fixed source yield a power-law spectrum for the accelerated particles with index α = –(3 + M{sub A} )/2, where M{sub A} is the Alfvén Mach number. Considering only magnetic island contraction yields power-law-like solutions with index –3(1 + τ {sub c}/(8τ{sub diff})), where τ {sub c}/τ{sub diff} is the ratio of timescales between magnetic island contraction and charged particle diffusion. The general solution is a power-law-like solution with an index that depends on the Alfvén Mach number and the timescale ratio τ{sub diff}/τ {sub c}. Observed power-law distributions of energetic particles observed in the quiet supersonic solar wind at 1 AU may be a consequence of particle acceleration associated with dissipative small-scale reconnection processes in a turbulent plasma, including the widely reported c {sup –5} (c particle speed) spectra observed by Fisk and Gloeckler and Mewaldt et al.

  16. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This is one-page, two-sided fact sheet presents high-level summary results of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2, which examined operational impacts of high penetrations of variable renewable generation in the West.

  17. THE ORIGIN OF NON-MAXWELLIAN SOLAR WIND ELECTRON VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CORONA The formation of the observed core-halo feature in the solar wind electron ... We further show that the core-halo feature produced during the origin of kinetic ...

  18. New Report Says Western Grid Can Weather Disturbances with High Wind, Solar Penetrations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A new report finds that with high penetrations of wind and solar on the grid, together with good system planning, sound engineering practices, and commercially available technologies, the Western Interconnection can withstand the crucial first minute after large grid disturbances.

  19. Building America Top Innovations 2012: High-Performance with Solar Electric Reduced Peak Demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America solar home research that has demonstrated the ability to reduce peak demand by 75%. Numerous field studies have monitored power production and system effectiveness.

  20. Wind and Solar Data Projections from the Energy Information Administration: Past Performance and Planned Enhancements

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wind and Solar Data and Projections from the U.S. Energy Information Administration: Past Performance and Ongoing Enhancements March 2016 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Wind and Solar Projections from the U.S. Energy Information Administration: Past Performance and Planned Enhancements 1 This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and

  1. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-09-01

    This fact sheet is a basic overview of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study, Phase 2. The electric grid is a highly complex, interconnected machine, and changing one part of the grid can have consequences elsewhere. Adding wind and solar affects the operation of the other power plants and adding high penetrations can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions.

  2. THE ORIGIN OF NON-MAXWELLIAN SOLAR WIND ELECTRON VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION: CONNECTION TO NANOFLARES IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Che, H.; Goldstein, M. L.

    2014-11-10

    The formation of the observed core-halo feature in the solar wind electron velocity distribution function is a long-time puzzle. In this Letter, based on the current knowledge of nanoflares, we show that the nanoflare-accelerated electron beams are likely to trigger a strong electron two-stream instability that generates kinetic Alfvn wave and whistler wave turbulence, as we demonstrated in a previous paper. We further show that the core-halo feature produced during the origin of kinetic turbulence is likely to originate in the inner corona and can be preserved as the solar wind escapes to space along open field lines. We formulate a set of equations to describe the heating processes observed in the simulation and show that the core-halo temperature ratio of the solar wind is insensitive to the initial conditions in the corona and is related to the core-halo density ratio of the solar wind and to the quasi-saturation property of the two-stream instability at the time when the exponential decay ends. This relation can be extended to the more general core-halo-strahl feature in the solar wind. The temperature ratio between the core and hot components is nearly independent of the heliospheric distance to the Sun. We show that the core-halo relative drift previously reported is a relic of the fully saturated two-stream instability. Our theoretical results are consistent with the observations while new tests for this model are provided.

  3. Coherent structures and turbulent spectrum in solar wind plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, R. P.; Yadav, N.; Kumari, Anju

    2013-08-15

    The present paper investigates the localization of a uniform plane kinetic Alfvn wave (KAW) due to the coupling with the density/magnetic field fluctuations associated with a magnetosonic wave propagating in the transverse direction, i.e., perpendicular to the background magnetic field. To gain the physical insight into this evolution, a simplified analytical model based on the Mathieu equation has also been studied. Numerical method has also been used to analyse the evolution of KAW. The magnetic fluctuation spectrum follows Kolmogorovian scaling above the proton gyroradius scalelength, which is regarded as the inertial range. Below this scale, a steepened spectrum has been obtained in the dispersive range with power law index ??2.5, which continues up to the dissipation range. Our results reveal that the proposed mechanism may be an interesting physical mechanism for transferring the energy from larger lengthscales to smaller lengthscales in the solar wind plasmas. Relevance of the present study with Cluster spacecraft observations has also been discussed.

  4. Turbulence-driven coronal heating and improvements to empirical forecasting of the solar wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woolsey, Lauren N.; Cranmer, Steven R.

    2014-06-01

    Forecasting models of the solar wind often rely on simple parameterizations of the magnetic field that ignore the effects of the full magnetic field geometry. In this paper, we present the results of two solar wind prediction models that consider the full magnetic field profile and include the effects of Alfvn waves on coronal heating and wind acceleration. The one-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic code ZEPHYR self-consistently finds solar wind solutions without the need for empirical heating functions. Another one-dimensional code, introduced in this paper (The Efficient Modified-Parker-Equation-Solving Tool, TEMPEST), can act as a smaller, stand-alone code for use in forecasting pipelines. TEMPEST is written in Python and will become a publicly available library of functions that is easy to adapt and expand. We discuss important relations between the magnetic field profile and properties of the solar wind that can be used to independently validate prediction models. ZEPHYR provides the foundation and calibration for TEMPEST, and ultimately we will use these models to predict observations and explain space weather created by the bulk solar wind. We are able to reproduce with both models the general anticorrelation seen in comparisons of observed wind speed at 1 AU and the flux tube expansion factor. There is significantly less spread than comparing the results of the two models than between ZEPHYR and a traditional flux tube expansion relation. We suggest that the new code, TEMPEST, will become a valuable tool in the forecasting of space weather.

  5. Wind and solar power electric generation to see strong growth...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Outlook says the increase in wind power will be due to the new wind turbines coming online thanks to the federal production tax credit that was recently extended by Congress. ...

  6. Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment Programme's Renewable...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentsolar-and-wind-energy-resource-assess Language: English Policies: Deployment Programs DeploymentPrograms: Technical Assistance The...

  7. Farmer owned multi-use solar buildings for drying hay, grain, or heating shop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeBusk, K.E.

    1983-06-01

    Identical multi-use solar buildings were built and tested on two farms in 1982. Actual (not simple) pay back periods are given for the two buildings for hay and for grain drying. Comparisons between solar and computed propane gas costs are reported.

  8. Community-Scale High-Performance with Solar: Pulte Homes, Tucson, AZ- Building America Top Innovation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Building America Innovations profile describes Pulte Homes of Tucson’s work with Building America to apply a suite of energy-efficiency measures integrated with passive solar design and solar water heating that reduced energy use more than 50% for a community of more than 1,000 homes.

  9. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Community Scale High Performance with Solar - Pulte Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Pulte Homes of Tucson’s work with Building America to apply a suite of energy-efficiency measures integrated with passive solar design and solar water heating that reduced energy use more than 50% for a community of more than 1,000 homes.

  10. Hybrid Solar-Wind Generates Savings for South Dakota City | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Hybrid Solar-Wind Generates Savings for South Dakota City Hybrid Solar-Wind Generates Savings for South Dakota City July 19, 2010 - 4:05pm Addthis What does this project do? The projects will reduce the city's natural gas and electric bills by an estimated $2,700. An array of six solar panels, similar to the ones shown, will be installed at Colton, S.D.'s city hall. | Photo courtesy of Colton. The city of Colton, South Dakota. is a small, agriculturally-based community. So small that

  11. Charge state evolution in the solar wind. III. Model comparison with observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landi, E.; Oran, R.; Lepri, S. T.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Fisk, L. A.; Van der Holst, B.

    2014-08-01

    We test three theoretical models of the fast solar wind with a set of remote sensing observations and in-situ measurements taken during the minimum of solar cycle 23. First, the model electron density and temperature are compared to SOHO/SUMER spectroscopic measurements. Second, the model electron density, temperature, and wind speed are used to predict the charge state evolution of the wind plasma from the source regions to the freeze-in point. Frozen-in charge states are compared with Ulysses/SWICS measurements at 1 AU, while charge states close to the Sun are combined with the CHIANTI spectral code to calculate the intensities of selected spectral lines, to be compared with SOHO/SUMER observations in the north polar coronal hole. We find that none of the theoretical models are able to completely reproduce all observations; namely, all of them underestimate the charge state distribution of the solar wind everywhere, although the levels of disagreement vary from model to model. We discuss possible causes of the disagreement, namely, uncertainties in the calculation of the charge state evolution and of line intensities, in the atomic data, and in the assumptions on the wind plasma conditions. Last, we discuss the scenario where the wind is accelerated from a region located in the solar corona rather than in the chromosphere as assumed in the three theoretical models, and find that a wind originating from the corona is in much closer agreement with observations.

  12. Solar/Wind Feasibility Study at Whitewater Ranch

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and Energy Efficiency Justice Solar and Energy Efficiency Justice June 24, 2010 - 3:00pm Addthis The roof of the justice center where a solar panel array will be installed to power a solar thermal water-heating system | Photo courtesy of Blount County, Tenn. The roof of the justice center where a solar panel array will be installed to power a solar thermal water-heating system | Photo courtesy of Blount County, Tenn. A solar thermal water-heating system at the justice center in Maryville, Tenn.,

  13. Solar heating and cooling of residential buildings: sizing, installation and operation of systems. 1980 edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-09-01

    This manual was prepared as a text for a training course on solar heating and cooling of residential buildings. The course and text are directed toward sizing, installation, operation, and maintenance of solar systems for space heating and hot water supply, and solar cooling is treated only briefly. (MHR)

  14. Decision process for the retrofit of municipal buildings with solar energy systems: a technical guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Licciardello, Michael R.; Wood, Brian; Dozier, Warner; Braly, Mark; Yates, Alan

    1980-11-01

    As a background for solar applications, the following topics are covered: solar systems and components for retrofit installations; cost, performance, and quality considerations; and financing alternatives for local government. The retrofit decision process is discussed as follows: pre-screening of buildings, building data requirements, the energy conservation audit, solar system sizing and economics, comparison of alternatives, and implementation. Sample studies are presented for the West Valley Animal Shelter and the Hollywood Police Station. (MHR)

  15. Missing Money--Will the Current Electricity Market Structure Support High (~50%) Wind/Solar?; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, Michael

    2015-05-15

    This presentation summarizes the missing money problem and whether the current electricity market structure will support high penetration levels of wind and solar.

  16. Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    surfaces and its effect on solar reflectance - Part II: ... Highly reflective roofs can decrease the energy required for ... of solar reflectance and thermal emittance attained after 3 ...

  17. EVIDENCE FOR POLAR X-RAY JETS AS SOURCES OF MICROSTREAM PEAKS IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neugebauer, Marcia

    2012-05-01

    It is proposed that the interplanetary manifestations of X-ray jets observed in solar polar coronal holes during periods of low solar activity are the peaks of the so-called microstreams observed in the fast polar solar wind. These microstreams exhibit velocity fluctuations of {+-}35 km s{sup -1}, higher kinetic temperatures, slightly higher proton fluxes, and slightly higher abundances of the low-first-ionization-potential element iron relative to oxygen ions than the average polar wind. Those properties can all be explained if the fast microstreams result from the magnetic reconnection of bright-point loops, which leads to X-ray jets which, in turn, result in solar polar plumes. Because most of the microstream peaks are bounded by discontinuities of solar origin, jets are favored over plumes for the majority of the microstream peaks.

  18. THE SOLAR WIND AS A POSSIBLE SOURCE OF FAST TEMPORAL VARIATIONS OF THE HELIOSPHERIC RIBBON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kucharek, H.; Lee, M. A.; Moebius, E.; Schwadron, N.; Fuselier, S. A.; McComas, D.; Wurz, P.; Pogorelov, N.; Borovikov, S.; Reisenfeld, D.; Funsten, H.

    2013-10-20

    We present a possible source of pickup ions (PUIs) the ribbon observed by the Interstellar Boundary EXplorer (IBEX). We suggest that a gyrating solar wind and PUIs in the ramp and in the near downstream region of the termination shock (TS) could provide a significant source of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) in the ribbon. A fraction of the solar wind and PUIs are reflected and energized during the first contact with the TS. Some of the solar wind may be reflected propagating toward the Sun but most of the solar wind ions form a gyrating beam-like distribution that persists until it is fully thermalized further downstream. Depending on the strength of the shock, these gyrating distributions can exist for many gyration periods until they are scattered/thermalized due to wave-particle interactions at the TS and downstream in the heliosheath. During this time, ENAs can be produced by charge exchange of interstellar neutral atoms with the gyrating ions. In order to determine the flux of energetic ions, we estimate the solar wind flux at the TS using pressure estimates inferred from in situ measurements. Assuming an average path length in the radial direction of the order of a few AU before the distribution of gyrating ions is thermalized, one can explain a significant fraction of the intensity of ENAs in the ribbon observed by IBEX. With a localized source and such a short integration path, this model would also allow fast time variations of the ENA flux.

  19. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.8 Active Solar Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    4 Thermal Solar Collector Manufacturer Statistics - Number of Manufacturers in 2008: 88 - Companies with 90% of their revenue coming from solar collector sales: 56 - Percentage of shipped solar collectors produced by top 5 manufacturers: 79% Source(s): EIA, Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities 2009, Dec. 2010, p. 2, Table 2.17, p. 24, Table 2.20, p. 27.

  20. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 3A: Low Levels of Synchronous Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Nicholas W.; Leonardi, Bruno; D'Aquila, Robert; Clark, Kara

    2015-11-17

    The stability of the North American electric power grids under conditions of high penetrations of wind and solar is a significant concern and possible impediment to reaching renewable energy goals. The 33% wind and solar annual energy penetration considered in this study results in substantial changes to the characteristics of the bulk power system. This includes different power flow patterns, different commitment and dispatch of existing synchronous generation, and different dynamic behavior from wind and solar generation. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, is one of the largest regional solar and wind integration studies to date. In multiple phases, it has explored different aspects of the question: Can we integrate large amounts of wind and solar energy into the electric power system of the West? The work reported here focused on the impact of low levels of synchronous generation on the transient stability performance in one part of the region in which wind generation has displaced synchronous thermal generation under highly stressed, weak system conditions. It is essentially an extension of WWSIS-3. Transient stability, the ability of the power system to maintain synchronism among all elements following disturbances, is a major constraint on operations in many grids, including the western U.S. and Texas systems. These constraints primarily concern the performance of the large-scale bulk power system. But grid-wide stability concerns with high penetrations of wind and solar are still not thoroughly understood. This work focuses on 'traditional' fundamental frequency stability issues, such as maintaining synchronism, frequency, and voltage. The objectives of this study are to better understand the implications of low levels of synchronous generation and a weak grid on overall system performance by: 1) Investigating the Western Interconnection under conditions of both high renewable generation (e.g., wind and solar) and low synchronous generation (e.g., significant coal power plant decommitment or retirement); and 2) Analyzing both the large-scale stability of the Western Interconnection and regional stability issues driven by more geographically dispersed renewable generation interacting with a transmission grid that evolved with large, central station plants at key nodes. As noted above, the work reported here is an extension of the research performed in WWSIS-3.

  1. Solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration: A superposed epoch analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, W.; Thorne, R. M.; Bortnik, J.; Baker, D. N.; Reeves, G. D.; Kanekal, S. G.; Spence, H. E.; Green, J. C.

    2015-09-07

    In this study by determining preferential solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration is crucial for predicting radiation belt electron dynamics. Using Van Allen Probes electron observations (>1 MeV) from 2012 to 2015, we identify a number of efficient and inefficient acceleration events separately to perform a superposed epoch analysis of the corresponding solar wind parameters and geomagnetic indices. By directly comparing efficient and inefficient acceleration events, we clearly show that prolonged southward Bz, high solar wind speed, and low dynamic pressure are critical for electron acceleration to >1 MeV energies in the heart of the outer radiation belt. We also evaluate chorus wave evolution using the superposed epoch analysis for the identified efficient and inefficient acceleration events and find that chorus wave intensity is much stronger and lasts longer during efficient electron acceleration events, supporting the scenario that chorus waves play a key role in MeV electron acceleration.

  2. Nonlinear interaction of proton whistler with kinetic Alfvn wave to study solar wind turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goyal, R.; Sharma, R. P.; Goldstein, M. L.; Dwivedi, N. K.

    2013-12-15

    This paper presents the nonlinear interaction between small but finite amplitude kinetic Alfvn wave (KAW) and proton whistler wave using two-fluid model in intermediate beta plasma, applicable to solar wind. The nonlinearity is introduced by modification in the background density. This change in density is attributed to the nonlinear ponderomotive force due to KAW. The solutions of the model equations, governing the nonlinear interaction (and its effect on the formation of localized structures), have been obtained using semi-analytical method in solar wind at 1AU. It is concluded that the KAW properties significantly affect the threshold field required for the filament formation and their critical size (for proton whistler). The magnetic and electric field power spectra have been obtained and their relevance with the recent observations of solar wind turbulence by Cluster spacecraft has been pointed out.

  3. THIRD MOMENTS AND THE ROLE OF ANISOTROPY FROM VELOCITY SHEAR IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stawarz, Joshua E.; Vasquez, Bernard J.; Smith, Charles W.; Forman, Miriam A.; Klewicki, Joseph E-mail: Bernie.Vasquez@unh.edu E-mail: Miriam.Forman@sunysb.edu

    2011-07-20

    We have extended the recent analyses of magnetohydrodynamic third moments as they relate to the turbulent energy cascade in the solar wind to consider the effects of large-scale shear flows. Moments from a large set of Advanced Composition Explorer data have been taken, and chosen data intervals are characterized by the rate of change in the solar wind speed. Mean dissipation rates are obtained in accordance with the predictions of homogeneous shear-driven turbulence. Agreement with predictions is best made for rarefaction intervals where the solar wind speed is decreasing with time. For decreasing speed intervals, we find that the dissipation rates increase with increasing shear magnitude and that the shear-induced fluctuation anisotropy is consistent with a relatively small amount.

  4. Feasibility Study for Photovoltaics, Wind, solar Hot Water and Hybrid Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooks, Ronald; Montoya, Valerie

    2008-03-26

    Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute (SIPI) located in Albuquerque New Mexico is a community college that serves American Indians and Alaska Natives. SIPIs student body represents over 100 Native American Tribes. SIPI completed a renewable energy feasibility study program and established renewable energy hardware on the SIPI campus, which supplements and creates an educational resource to teach renewable energy courses. The SIPI campus is located, and has as student origins, areas, in which power is an issue in remote reservations. The following hardware was installed and integrated into the campus facilities: small wind turbine, large photovoltaic array that is grid-connected, two photovoltaic arrays, one thin film type, and one polycrystalline type, one dual-axis active tracker and one passive tracker, a hot air system for heating a small building, a portable hybrid photovoltaic system for remote power, and a hot water system to preheat water used in the SIPI Child Care facility. Educational curriculum has been developed for two renewable energy courses one being the study of energy production and use, and especially the roles renewable energy forms like solar, wind, geothermal, hydro, and biomass plays, and the second course being a more advanced in-depth study of renewable energy system design, maintenance, installation, and applications. Both courses rely heavily on experiential learning techniques so that installed renewable energy hardware is continuously utilized in hand-on laboratory activities and are part of the Electronics program of studies. Renewable energy technologies and science has also been included in other SIPI programs of study such as Environmental Science, Natural Resources, Agriculture, Engineering, Network Management, and Geospatial Technology.

  5. GSA Awards Contract to Bring 3 Megawatts of Solar to Federal Buildings in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Washington, D.C. | Department of Energy Awards Contract to Bring 3 Megawatts of Solar to Federal Buildings in Washington, D.C. GSA Awards Contract to Bring 3 Megawatts of Solar to Federal Buildings in Washington, D.C. December 17, 2015 - 10:26am Addthis The U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) awarded a contract to WGL for the construction of rooftop photovoltaic arrays that will bring approximately 3 megawatts of solar energy across 18 federal buildings in Washington, D.C. The

  6. Property Tax Exemption for Solar and Wind Energy Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In May 2009 the exemption was amended yet again by H.B. 1171 to add "residential wind energy equipment" as an eligible technology. In order to qualify, equipment must be sited on residential...

  7. Jasper Wind | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wind Jump to: navigation, search Name: Jasper Wind Place: Athens, Greece Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product: Athens-based wind and solar project developer. Coordinates: 37.97615,...

  8. Depth profiling analysis of solar wind helium collected in diamond-like carbon film from Genesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bajo, Ken-ichi; Olinger, Chad T.; Jurewicz, Amy J.G.; Burnett, Donald S.; Sakaguchi, Isao; Suzuki, Taku; Itose, Satoru; Ishihara, Morio; Uchino, Kiichiro; Wieler, Rainer; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi

    2015-10-01

    The distribution of solar-wind ions in Genesis mission collectors, as determined by depth profiling analysis, constrains the physics of ion solid interactions involving the solar wind. Thus, they provide an experimental basis for revealing ancient solar activities represented by solar-wind implants in natural samples. We measured the first depth profile of ⁴He in a collector; the shallow implantation (peaking at <20 nm) required us to use sputtered neutral mass spectrometry with post-photoionization by a strong field. The solar wind He fluence calculated using depth profiling is ~8.5 x 10¹⁴ cm⁻². The shape of the solar wind ⁴He depth profile is consistent with TRIM simulations using the observed ⁴He velocity distribution during the Genesis mission. It is therefore likely that all solar-wind elements heavier than H are completely intact in this Genesis collector and, consequently, the solar particle energy distributions for each element can be calculated from their depth profiles. Ancient solar activities and space weathering of solar system objects could be quantitatively reproduced by solar particle implantation profiles.

  9. INTERMITTENCY OF SOLAR WIND DENSITY FLUCTUATIONS FROM ION TO ELECTRON SCALES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, C. H. K.; Sorriso-Valvo, L.; afrnkov, J.; N?me?ek, Z.

    2014-07-01

    The intermittency of density fluctuations in the solar wind at kinetic scales has been examined using high time resolution Faraday cup measurements from the Spektr-R spacecraft. It was found that the probability density functions (PDFs) of the fluctuations are highly non-Gaussian over this range, but do not show large changes in shape with scale. These properties are statistically similar to those of the magnetic fluctuations and are important to understanding the dynamics of small scale turbulence in the solar wind. Possible explanations for the behavior of the density and magnetic fluctuations are discussed.

  10. Fluidic: Grid-Scale Batteries for Wind and Solar | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fluidic: Grid-Scale Batteries for Wind and Solar Fluidic: Grid-Scale Batteries for Wind and Solar February 27, 2013 - 5:42pm Addthis Andrew Gumbiner Contractor, Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged from DOE ARPA-E on Vimeo. Our nation's modern electric grid is limited in its ability to store excess energy for on-demand power. As a result, electricity must be generated on a constant basis to perfectly match demand. Grid-scale storage technologies have the

  11. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 3 -- Frequency Response and Transient Stability (Report and Executive Summary)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N. W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D'Aquila, R.

    2014-12-01

    The primary objectives of Phase 3 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-3) were to examine the large-scale transient stability and frequency response of the Western Interconnection with high wind and solar penetration, and to identify means to mitigate any adverse performance impacts via transmission reinforcements, storage, advanced control capabilities, or other alternatives.

  12. Integration Costs: Are They Unique to Wind and Solar Energy? Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Hodge, B.; Kirby, B.; Clark, C.

    2012-05-01

    Over the past several years, there has been considerable interest in assessing wind integration costs. This is understandable because wind energy does increase the variability and uncertainty that must be managed on a power system. However, there are other sources of variability and uncertainty that also must be managed in the power system. This paper describes some of these sources and shows that even the introduction of base-load generation can cause additional ramping and cycling. The paper concludes by demonstrating that integration costs are not unique to wind and solar, and should perhaps instead be assessed by power plant and load performance instead of technology type.

  13. Observation and modeling of geocoronal charge exchange X-ray emission during solar wind gusts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wargelin, B. J.; Kornbleuth, M.; Juda, M.; Martin, P. L.

    2014-11-20

    Solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) X-rays are emitted when highly charged solar wind ions such as O{sup 7{sup +}} collide with neutral gas, including the Earth's tenuous outer atmosphere (exosphere or geocorona) and hydrogen and helium from the local interstellar medium drifting through the heliosphere. This geocoronal and heliospheric emission comprises a significant and varying fraction of the soft X-ray background (SXRB) and is seen in every X-ray observation, with the intensity dependent on solar wind conditions and observation geometry. Under the right conditions, geocoronal emission can increase the apparent SXRB by roughly an order of magnitude for an hour or more. In this work, we study a dozen occasions when the near-Earth solar wind flux was exceptionally high. These gusts of wind lead to abrupt changes in SWCX X-ray emission around Earth, which may or may not be seen by X-ray observatories depending on their line of sight. Using detailed three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulations of the solar wind's interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere, and element abundances and ionization states measured by ACE, we model the time-dependent brightness of major geocoronal SWCX emission lines during those gusts and compare with changes in the X-ray background measured by the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We find reasonably good agreement between model and observation, with measured geocoronal line brightnesses averaged over 1 hr of up to 136 photons s{sup 1} cm{sup 2} sr{sup 1} in the O VII K? triplet around 564 eV.

  14. Non-Residential Solar & Wind Tax Credit (Corporate)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The tax credit, which may be applied against corporate or personal taxes, is equal to 10% of the installed cost of qualified “solar energy devices” and applies to systems installed between Januar...

  15. Solar and Wind Energy Business Franchise Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For the purposes of this exemption, a solar energy device means "a system or series of mechanisms designed primarily to provide heating or cooling or to produce electrical or mechanical power by...

  16. Non-Residential Solar & Wind Tax Credit (Personal)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The tax credit, which may be applied against corporate or personal taxes, is equal to 10% of the installed cost of qualified “solar energy devices” and applies to taxable years beginning January 1...

  17. Using Solar Hot Water to Address Piping Heat Losses in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, David; Seitzler, Matt; Backman, Christine; Weitzel, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    Solar thermal water heating is most cost effective when applied to multifamily buildings and some states offer incentives or other inducements to install them. However, typical solar water heating designs do not allow the solar generated heat to be applied to recirculation losses, only to reduce the amount of gas or electric energy needed for hot water that is delivered to the fixtures. For good reasons, hot water that is recirculated through the building is returned to the water heater, not to the solar storage tank. The project described in this report investigated the effectiveness of using automatic valves to divert water that is normally returned through the recirculation piping to the gas or electric water heater instead to the solar storage tank. The valves can be controlled so that the flow is only diverted when the returning water is cooler than the water in the solar storage tank.

  18. Energy Department Launches Virtual Hackathon to Build the Next Big Solar Software Solutions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Last week, the Energy Department's SunShot Initiative launched the largest-of-its-kind, 60-day online hackathon to quickly build prototype solutions and products that address barriers to greater solar energy deployment and drive down the costs of solar energy.

  19. Whistler mode waves and the electron heat flux in the solar wind: cluster observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacombe, C.; Alexandrova, O.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Mangeney, A.; De Conchy, Y.; Maksimovic, M.; Matteini, L.; Santolík, O.

    2014-11-20

    The nature of the magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind between the ion and electron scales is still under debate. Using the Cluster/STAFF instrument, we make a survey of the power spectral density and of the polarization of these fluctuations at frequencies f in [1, 400] Hz, during five years (2001-2005), when Cluster was in the free solar wind. In ∼10% of the selected data, we observe narrowband, right-handed, circularly polarized fluctuations, with wave vectors quasi-parallel to the mean magnetic field, superimposed on the spectrum of the permanent background turbulence. We interpret these coherent fluctuations as whistler mode waves. The lifetime of these waves varies between a few seconds and several hours. Here, we present, for the first time, an analysis of long-lived whistler waves, i.e., lasting more than five minutes. We find several necessary (but not sufficient) conditions for the observation of whistler waves, mainly a low level of background turbulence, a slow wind, a relatively large electron heat flux, and a low electron collision frequency. When the electron parallel beta factor β {sub e∥} is larger than 3, the whistler waves are seen along the heat flux threshold of the whistler heat flux instability. The presence of such whistler waves confirms that the whistler heat flux instability contributes to the regulation of the solar wind heat flux, at least for β {sub e∥} ≥ 3, in slow wind at 1 AU.

  20. Value of Geographic Diversity of Wind and Solar: Stochastic Geometry Approach; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diakov, V.

    2012-08-01

    Based on the available geographically dispersed data for the continental U.S. (excluding Alaska), we analyze to what extent the geographic diversity of these resources can offset their variability. A geometric model provides a convenient measure for resource variability, shows the synergy between wind and solar resources.

  1. New Battery Design Could Help Solar and Wind Power the Grid

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University have designed a low-cost, long-life “flow” battery that could enable solar and wind energy to become major suppliers to the electrical grid.

  2. Impacts of Wind and Solar on Fossil-Fueled Generators: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Agan, D.; Lefton, S.

    2012-08-01

    High penetrations of wind and solar power will impact the operations of the remaining generators on the power system. Regional integration studies have shown that wind and solar may cause fossil-fueled generators to cycle on and off and ramp down to part load more frequently and potentially more rapidly. Increased cycling, deeper load following, and rapid ramping may result in wear-and-tear impacts on fossil-fueled generators that lead to increased capital and maintenance costs, increased equivalent forced outage rates, and degraded performance over time. Heat rates and emissions from fossil-fueled generators may be higher during cycling and ramping than during steady-state operation. Many wind and solar integration studies have not taken these increased cost and emissions impacts into account because data have not been available. This analysis considers the cost and emissions impacts of cycling and ramping of fossil-fueled generation to refine assessments of wind and solar impacts on the power system.

  3. NREL Energy Models Examine the Potential for Wind and Solar Grid Integration (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    As renewable energy generating sources, such as wind turbines and solar power systems, reach high levels of penetration in parts of the United States, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is helping the utility industry to peer into the future. Using software modeling tools that the lab developed, NREL is examining the future operation of the electrical grid as renewable energy continues to grow.

  4. Geek-Up[3.25.2011]: Idaho Wind and Chlorosome-Inspired Solar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Idaho National Laboratory wind power researchers watch the weather in order to improve high-voltage transmission lines and Oak Ridge National Laboratory researches study how chlorosomes function in nature – with hopes to mimic chlorosomes’ efficiency to create biohybrid and bio-inspired solar cells -- all in this week's Geek-Up.

  5. Wind-induced contaminant transport in near-surface soils with application to radon entry into buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, W J

    1996-05-01

    Indoor air exposures to gaseous contaminants originating in soil can cause large human health risks. To predict and control these exposures, the mechanisms that affect vapor transport in near-surface soils need to be understood. In particular, radon exposure is a concern since average indoor radon concentrations lead to much higher risks than are generally accepted for exposure to other environmental contaminants. This dissertation examines an important component of the indoor radon problem: the impacts of wind on soil-gas and radon transport and entry into buildings. The research includes experimental and modeling studies of wind`s interactions with a building`s superstructure and the resulting soil-gas and radon flows in the surrounding soil. In addition to exploring the effects of steady winds, a novel modeling technique is developed to examine the impacts of fluctuating winds on soil-gas and radon transport.

  6. Control of solar radiation in buildings: a selected bibliography. [Over 70 references on fenestration design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harmon, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    Fenestration design synthesizes many factors, including solar radiation control, daylight illumination, direct and reflected glare, the view out of the building, services, and the structure and fabric of the building in terms of energy conservation and costs. This bibliography includes books and articles related to these aspects of fenestration design in various types of structures.

  7. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.8 Active Solar Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    Solar Collector Shipments, by Type and Market (Thousand SF, unless noted) (1) Type 1980 1990 2000 2009 Solar Thermal Collectors (2) Residential N.A. Commercial N.A. Industrial N.A. Utility N.A. Other N.A. (4) Photovoltaics (kW) (5) Note(s): Source(s): (6) 6,897 13,837 88,221 1,282,560 1) Shipments for 1980-2000 include imports and exports; 2008 shipments are domestic only. 2) Solar thermal collectors: receive solar radiation, convert it to thermal energy, and are typically used forspace

  8. Research and Development Needs for Building-Integrated Solar...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Rankine Cycle PCM Phase Change Material PV Photovoltaics ... and Demonstration SAM System Advisor Model SAHP Solar ... targets than best-in-class- efficiency technologies at ...

  9. City of Portland- Streamlined Building Permits for Residential Solar Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The City of Portland's Bureau of Development Services (BDS) developed a streamlined permitting process for residential solar energy system installations. The City of Portland has staff at the...

  10. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.8 Active Solar Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    3 2009 Top Five Destinations of Thermal Solar Collector Shipments Percent of Domestic State U.S. Shipments Thousand SF Florida 27% California 26% Arizona 5% Hawaii 4% Oregon 3% Note(s): Source(s): EIA, Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities 2009, Dec. 2010, Table 2.4, p. 10. 3771 3537 745 520 387

  11. Designing and Building Houses that are Solar Ready

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Builders considering adding photovoltaic (PV) systems to new houses after initial construction is completed can save time and money by following new house Solar Ready design guidelines. Solar Ready houses are designed and built with integrated electrical and mechanical features that streamline the integration of PV systems.

  12. Solar Decathlon 2013: Building Skills for Future Careers | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... stepped outside of the classroom and began building their competition houses this spring. ... innovations -- like the smart energy management system that monitors weather patterns, ...

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF INTERMITTENCY ON THE SPECTRAL ANISOTROPY OF SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xin; Tu, Chuanyi; He, Jiansen; Wang, Linghua; Marsch, Eckart

    2014-03-01

    The relation between the intermittency and the anisotropy of the power spectrum in the solar wind turbulence is studied by applying the wavelet technique to the magnetic field and flow velocity data measured by the WIND spacecraft. It is found that when the intermittency is removed from the turbulence, the spectral indices of the power spectra of the field and velocity turn out to be independent of the angle ?{sub RB} between the direction of the local scale-dependent background magnetic field and the heliocentric direction. The spectral index becomes 1.63 0.02 for magnetic field fluctuations and 1.56 0.02 for velocity fluctuations. These results may suggest that the recently found spectral anisotropy of solar wind power spectra in the inertial range could result from turbulence intermittency. As a consequence, a new concept is here proposed of an intermittency-associated sub-range of the inertial domain adjacent to the dissipation range. Since spectral anisotropy was previously explained as evidence for the presence of a ''critical balance'' type turbulent cascade, and also for the existence of kinetic Alfvn waves, this new finding may stimulate fresh thoughts on how to analyze and interpret solar wind turbulence and the associated heating.

  14. Solar wind suprathermal electron Stahl widths across high-speed stream structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skoug, Ruth M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steinberg, John T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goodrich, Katherine A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, Brett R [DARTMUTH UNIV.

    2011-01-03

    Suprathermal electrons (100-1500 eV) observed in the solar wind typically show a strahl distribution, that is, a beam directed away from the Sun along the magnetic field direction. The strahl width observed at 1 AU is highly variable, ranging from 10-70 degrees. The obsenred finite width of the strahl results from the competition between beam focusing as the interplanetary magnetic field strength drops with distance from the Sun, and pitch-angle scattering as the beam interacts with the solar wind plasma in transit from the sun. Here we examine strahl width, observed with ACE SWEPAM across high-speed stream structures to investigate variations in electron scattering as a function of local plasma characteristics. We find that narrow strahls (less than 20 degrees wide), indicating reduced scattering, are observed within high-speed streams. Narrow strahls are also observed in both very low temperature solar wind, in association with ICMEs. Case studies of high-speed streams typically show the strahl narrowing at the leading edge of the stream. In some cases, the strahl narrows at the reverse shock or pressure wave, in other cases at the stream interface. The narrowing can either occur discontinuously or gradually over a period of hours. Within the high-speed wind, the strahl remains narrow for a period of hours to days, and then gradually broadens. The strahl width is roughly constant at all energies across these structures. For some fraction of high-speed streams, counterstreaming is associated with passage of the corotating interaction region. In these cases, we find the widths of the two counterstreaming beams frequently differ by more than 40 degrees. This dramatic difference in strahl width contrasts with observations in the solar wind as a whole, in which counterstreaming strahls typically differ in width by less than 20 degrees.

  15. Validity of the Taylor hypothesis for linear kinetic waves in the weakly collisional solar wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howes, G. G.; Klein, K. G.; TenBarge, J. M.

    2014-07-10

    The interpretation of single-point spacecraft measurements of solar wind turbulence is complicated by the fact that the measurements are made in a frame of reference in relative motion with respect to the turbulent plasma. The Taylor hypothesisthat temporal fluctuations measured by a stationary probe in a rapidly flowing fluid are dominated by the advection of spatial structures in the fluid rest frameis often assumed to simplify the analysis. But measurements of turbulence in upcoming missions, such as Solar Probe Plus, threaten to violate the Taylor hypothesis, either due to slow flow of the plasma with respect to the spacecraft or to the dispersive nature of the plasma fluctuations at small scales. Assuming that the frequency of the turbulent fluctuations is characterized by the frequency of the linear waves supported by the plasma, we evaluate the validity of the Taylor hypothesis for the linear kinetic wave modes in the weakly collisional solar wind. The analysis predicts that a dissipation range of solar wind turbulence supported by whistler waves is likely to violate the Taylor hypothesis, while one supported by kinetic Alfvn waves is not.

  16. Pueblo of Laguna - Solar, Wind and Biomass Feasibility Study

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Laguna Utility Authority Renewable Energy Feasibility Study DOE Tribal Energy Program Review October 2007 Pueblo of Laguna Reservation Pueblo of Laguna lands in West Central New Mexico cover more than 533,000 acres Pueblo of Laguna reservation location Six villages in Laguna with varying interests and needs have significant impact on Laguna decisions Seama Encinal Mesita Paguate Paraje Laguna Feasibility project focused heavily on Capacity Building and Community Outreach to ensure Laguna has

  17. ION HEATING IN INHOMOGENEOUS EXPANDING SOLAR WIND PLASMA: THE ROLE OF PARALLEL AND OBLIQUE ION-CYCLOTRON WAVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozak, N.; Ofman, L.; Viñas, A.-F.

    2015-01-20

    Remote sensing observations of coronal holes show that heavy ions are hotter than protons and their temperature is anisotropic. In-situ observations of fast solar wind streams provide direct evidence for turbulent Alfvén wave spectrum, left-hand polarized ion-cyclotron waves, and He{sup ++} - proton drift in the solar wind plasma, which can produce temperature anisotropies by resonant absorption and perpendicular heating of the ions. Furthermore, the solar wind is expected to be inhomogeneous on decreasing scales approaching the Sun. We study the heating of solar wind ions in inhomogeneous plasma with a 2.5D hybrid code. We include the expansion of the solar wind in an inhomogeneous plasma background, combined with the effects of a turbulent wave spectrum of Alfvénic fluctuations and initial ion-proton drifts. We study the influence of these effects on the perpendicular ion heating and cooling and on the spectrum of the magnetic fluctuations in the inhomogeneous background wind. We find that inhomogeneities in the plasma lead to enhanced heating compared to the homogenous solar wind, and the generation of significant power of oblique waves in the solar wind plasma. The cooling effect due to the expansion is not significant for super-Alfvénic drifts, and is diminished further when we include an inhomogeneous background density. We reproduce the ion temperature anisotropy seen in observations and previous models, which is present regardless of the perpendicular cooling due to solar wind expansion. We conclude that small scale inhomogeneities in the inner heliosphere can significantly affect resonant wave ion heating.

  18. wind turbines

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ... Laboratory PV Regional Test Centers Scaled Wind Farm Technology Facility Climate & Earth ...

  19. Wind Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ... Laboratory PV Regional Test Centers Scaled Wind Farm Technology Facility Climate & Earth ...

  20. Wind News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ... Laboratory PV Regional Test Centers Scaled Wind Farm Technology Facility Climate & Earth ...

  1. Offshore Wind

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ... Laboratory PV Regional Test Centers Scaled Wind Farm Technology Facility Climate & Earth ...

  2. Puerto Rico- Building Energy Code with Mandatory Solar Water Heating

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2009, the Governor of Puerto Rico provided assurance that Puerto Rico would update its building energy codes as part of the state's application for State Energy Program funds from the American...

  3. Solar Energy Windows and Smart IR Switchable Building Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarny, James; Kornish, Brian

    2011-09-30

    The three building envelope functions with the largest impact on the energy usage are illumination, energy flux and energy production. In general, these three functions are addressed separately in the building design. A step change toward a zero-energy building can be achieved with a glazing system that combines these three functions and their control into a single unit. In particular, significant value could be realized if illumination into the building is dynamically controlled such that it occurs during periods of low load on the grid (e.g., morning) to augment illumination supplied by interior lights and then to have that same light diverted to PV energy production and the thermal energy rejected during periods of high load on the grid. The objective of this project is to investigate the feasibility of a glazing unit design that integrates these three key functions (illumination and energy flux control, and power production) into a single module.

  4. Solar electric buildings: An overview of today`s applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-02-01

    This brochure presents a broad look at photovoltaic-powered buildings. It includes residential and commercial systems, both stand-alone and connected to utility power, that are located in urban, near-urban, and rural settings around the world. As photovoltaic (PV) technology continues to improve and costs drop, opportunities for PV will multiply. PV systems for buildings, such as those shown here, represent one of the strongest near-term markets.

  5. Energy Department Report Calculates Emissions and Costs of Power Plant Cycling Necessary for Increased Wind and Solar in the West

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A new report released today by the Energy Department’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) examines the potential impacts of increasing wind and solar power generation on the operators of coal and gas plants in the West.

  6. Transient Stability and Frequency Response of the US Western Interconnection under conditions of High Wind and Solar Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, Kara; Miller, Nicholas W.; Shao, Miaolei; Pajic, Slobodan; D'Aquila, Robert

    2015-04-15

    Adding large amounts of wind and solar generation to bulk power systems that are traditionally subject to operating constraints set by transient stability and frequency response limitations is the subject of considerable concern in the industry. The US Western Interconnection (WI) is expected to experience substantial additional growth in both wind and solar generation. These plants will, to some extent, displace large central station thermal generation, both coal and gas-fired, which have traditionally helped maintain stability. Our paper reports the results of a study that investigated the transient stability and frequency response of the WI with high penetrations of wind and solar generation. Moreover, the main goals of this work were to (1) create a realistic, baseline model of the WI, (2) test selected transient stability and frequency events, (3) investigate the impact of large amounts of wind and solar generation, and (4) examine means to improve performance.

  7. Building America Best Practices Series, Volume 6: High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Ruiz, Kathleen A.; Steward, Heidi E.; Love, Pat M.

    2007-06-04

    This guide is was written by PNNL for the US Department of Energy's Building America program to provide information for residential production builders interested in building near zero energy homes. The guide provides indepth descriptions of various roof-top photovoltaic power generating systems for homes. The guide also provides extensive information on various designs of solar thermal water heating systems for homes. The guide also provides construction company owners and managers with an understanding of how solar technologies can be added to their homes in a way that is cost effective, practical, and marketable. Twelve case studies provide examples of production builders across the United States who are building energy-efficient homes with photovoltaic or solar water heating systems.

  8. THE GENESIS SOLAR WIND CONCENTRATOR TARGET: MASS FRACTIONATION CHARACTERISED BY NE ISOTOPES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WIENS, ROGER C.; OLINGER, C.; HEBER, V.S.; REISENFELD, D.B.; BURNETT, D.S.; ALLTON, J.H.; BAUR, H.; WIECHERT, U.; WIELER, R.

    2007-01-02

    The concentrator on Genesis provides samples of increased fluences of solar wind ions for precise determination of the oxygen isotopic composition of the solar wind. The concentration process caused mass fractionation as function of the radial target position. They measured the fractionation using Ne released by UV laser ablation along two arms of the gold cross from the concentrator target to compare measured Ne with modeled Ne. The latter is based on simulations using actual conditions of the solar wind during Genesis operation. Measured Ne abundances and isotopic composition of both arms agree within uncertainties indicating a radial symmetric concentration process. Ne data reveal a maximum concentration factor of {approx} 30% at the target center and a target-wide fractionation of Ne isotopes of 3.8%/amu with monotonously decreasing {sup 20}Ne/{sup 22}Ne ratios towards the center. The experimentally determined data, in particular the isotopic fractionation, differ from the modeled data. They discuss potential reasons and propose future attempts to overcome these disagreements.

  9. The global morphology of the solar wind interaction with comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendis, D. A.; Hornyi, M.

    2014-10-10

    The forthcoming Rosetta-Philae mission to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko provides a novel opportunity to observe the variable nature of the solar wind interaction with a comet over an extended range of heliocentric distance. We use a simple analytical one-dimensional MHD model to estimate the sizes of the two most prominent features in the global structure of the solar wind interaction with a comet. When the heliocentric distance of the comet reaches d ? 1.51 AU, we expect a sharp shock to be observed, whose size would increase monotonically as the comet approaches the Sun, reaching a value ? 15, 000 km at perihelion (d ? 1.29 AU). Upstream of the shock, we expect the velocity-space distribution of the picked up cometary ions to be essentially gyrotropic. A well-defined ionopause is predicted when d ?1.61 AU, though its size is expected to be only ?25 km at perihelion, and it is expected to be susceptible to the 'flute' instability due to its small size. Consequently, we expect the magnetic field to penetrate all the way to the surface of the nucleus. We conclude with a brief discussion of the response of the comet's plasma environment to fast temporal variations in the solar wind.

  10. THE NONLINEAR AND NONLOCAL LINK BETWEEN MACROSCOPIC ALFVNIC AND MICROSCOPIC ELECTROSTATIC SCALES IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valentini, F.; Vecchio, A.; Donato, S.; Carbone, V.; Veltri, P.; Briand, C.; Bougeret, J.

    2014-06-10

    The local heating of the solar-wind gas during its expansion represents one of the most intriguing problems in space plasma physics and is at present the subject of a relevant scientific effort. The possible mechanisms that could account for local heat production in the interplanetary medium are most likely related to the turbulent character of the solar-wind plasma. Nowadays, many observational and numerical analyses are devoted to the identification of fluctuation channels along which energy is carried from large to short wavelengths during the development of the turbulent cascade; these fluctuation channels establish the link between macroscopic and microscopic scales. In this Letter, by means of a quantitative comparison between in situ measurements in the solar wind from the STEREO spacecraft and numerical results from kinetic simulations, we identify an electrostatic channel of fluctuations that develops along the turbulent cascade in a direction parallel to the ambient magnetic field. This channel appears to be efficient in transferring the energy from large Alfvnic to short electrostatic acoustic-like scales up to a range of wavelengths where it can finally be turned into heat, even when the electron to proton temperature ratio is of the order of unity.

  11. Solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration: A superposed epoch analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, W.; Thorne, R. M.; Bortnik, J.; Baker, D. N.; Reeves, G. D.; Kanekal, S. G.; Spence, H. E.; Green, J. C.

    2015-09-07

    In this study by determining preferential solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration is crucial for predicting radiation belt electron dynamics. Using Van Allen Probes electron observations (>1 MeV) from 2012 to 2015, we identify a number of efficient and inefficient acceleration events separately to perform a superposed epoch analysis of the corresponding solar wind parameters and geomagnetic indices. By directly comparing efficient and inefficient acceleration events, we clearly show that prolonged southward Bz, high solar wind speed, and low dynamic pressure are critical for electron acceleration to >1 MeV energies in the heart of the outermore » radiation belt. We also evaluate chorus wave evolution using the superposed epoch analysis for the identified efficient and inefficient acceleration events and find that chorus wave intensity is much stronger and lasts longer during efficient electron acceleration events, supporting the scenario that chorus waves play a key role in MeV electron acceleration.« less

  12. KINETIC PLASMA TURBULENCE IN THE FAST SOLAR WIND MEASURED BY CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, O. W.; Li, X.; Li, B.

    2013-05-20

    The k-filtering technique and wave polarization analysis are applied to Cluster magnetic field data to study plasma turbulence at the scale of the ion gyroradius in the fast solar wind. Waves are found propagating in directions nearly perpendicular to the background magnetic field at such scales. The frequencies of these waves in the solar wind frame are much smaller than the proton gyrofrequency. After the wavevector k is determined at each spacecraft frequency f{sub sc}, wave polarization property is analyzed in the plane perpendicular to k. Magnetic fluctuations have {delta}B > {delta}B{sub Parallel-To} (here the Parallel-To and refer to the background magnetic field B{sub 0}). The wave magnetic field has right-handed polarization at propagation angles {theta}{sub kB} < 90 Degree-Sign and >90 Degree-Sign . The magnetic field in the plane perpendicular to B{sub 0}, however, has no clear sense of a dominant polarization but local rotations. We discuss the merits and limitations of linear kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs) and coherent Alfven vortices in the interpretation of the data. We suggest that the fast solar wind turbulence may be populated with KAWs, small-scale current sheets, and Alfven vortices at ion kinetic scales.

  13. Solar wind-magnetosphere coupling during intense magnetic storms (1978--1979)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, W.D. ); Tsurutani, B.T.; Gonzalez, A.L.C.; Smith, E.J.; Tang, F.; Akasofu, S.

    1989-07-01

    The solar wind-magnetosphere coupling problem is investigated for the ten intense magnetic storms (Dst {lt}{minus}100 nT) that occurred during the 500 days (August 16, 1978 to December 28, 1979) studied by Gonzalez and Tsurutani (1987). This investigation concentrates on the ring current energization in terms of solar wind parameters, in order to explain the {vert bar} {minus}Dst {vert bar} growth observed during these storms. Thus several coupling functions are tested as energy input and several sets of the ring current decay time-constant {tau} are searched to find best correlations with the Dst response. From the fairly large correlation coefficients found in this study, there is strong evidence that large scale magnetopause reconnection operates during such intense storm events and that the solar wind ram pressure plays an important role in the ring current energization. Thus a ram pressure correction factor is suggested for expressions concerning the reconnection power during time intervals with large ram pressure variations.

  14. SELF-CONSISTENT ION CYCLOTRON ANISOTROPY-BETA RELATION FOR SOLAR WIND PROTONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isenberg, Philip A.; Maruca, Bennett A.; Kasper, Justin C. E-mail: bmaruca@ssl.berkeley.edu

    2013-08-20

    We derive a set of self-consistent marginally stable states for a system of ion-cyclotron waves propagating parallel to the large-scale magnetic field through a homogeneous proton-electron plasma. The proton distributions and the wave dispersions are related through the condition that no further ion-cyclotron resonant particle scattering or wave growth/damping may take place. The thermal anisotropy of the protons in these states therefore defines the threshold value for triggering the proton-cyclotron anisotropy instability. A number of recent papers have noted that the anisotropy of solar wind protons at 1 AU does not seem to be limited by the proton-cyclotron anisotropy threshold, even at low plasma beta. However, this puzzle seems to be due solely to the estimation of this anisotropy threshold under the assumption that the protons have a bi-Maxwellian distribution. We note that bi-Maxwellian distributions are never marginally stable to the resonant cyclotron interaction, so these estimates do not represent physically valid thresholds. The threshold anisotropies obtained from our marginally stable states are much larger, as a function of proton parallel beta, than the bi-Maxwellian estimates, and we show that the measured data remains below these more rigorous thresholds. Thus, the results of this paper resolve the apparent contradiction presented by the solar wind anisotropy observations at 1 AU: the bi-Maxwellian anisotropies are not rigorous thresholds, and so do not limit the proton distributions in the solar wind.

  15. Variable cascade dynamics and intermittency in the solar wind at 1 AU

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coburn, Jesse T.; Smith, Charles W.; Vasquez, Bernard J.; Forman, Miriam A.; Stawarz, Julia E. E-mail: Charles.Smith@unh.edu E-mail: Miriam.Forman@sunysb.edu

    2014-05-01

    In recent studies by ourselves and others of third-moment expressions for the rate of energy cascade in the solar wind, it has been shown that relatively large volumes of data are needed to produce convergent averages. These averages are in good agreement with independently obtained estimates for the average heating rate for a solar wind plasma under those conditions. The unanswered question has been whether the convergence issue is the result of intermittent dynamics or simple measurement uncertainties. In other words, is the difficulty in obtaining a single result that characterizes many similarly prepared samples due to in situ dynamics that create physically real variations or simple statistics? There have been publications showing evidence of intermittent dynamics in the solar wind. Here we show that the third-moment expressions and the computed energy cascade for relatively small samples of data comparable to the correlation length are generally well-formed estimates of the local dynamics. This leads us to conclude that intermittency and not simple measurement uncertainties are responsible for the slow convergence to expected heating rates. We partially characterize the scale size of the intermittency to be comparable to or smaller than the correlation length of the turbulence and we attempt to rephrase the discussion of third moments in terms of intermittent dynamics.

  16. ON THE LOW-FREQUENCY BOUNDARY OF SUN-GENERATED MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE IN THE SLOW SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shergelashvili, Bidzina M.; Fichtner, Horst

    2012-06-20

    New aspects of the slow solar wind turbulent heating and acceleration are investigated. A physical meaning of the lower boundary of the Alfven wave turbulent spectra in the solar atmosphere and the solar wind is studied and the significance of this natural parameter is demonstrated. Via an analytical and quantitative treatment of the problem we show that a truncation of the wave spectra from the lower frequency side, which is a consequence of the solar magnetic field structure and its cyclic changes, results in a significant reduction of the heat production and acceleration rates. An appropriate analysis is presented regarding the link of the considered problem with existing observational data and slow solar wind initiation scenarios.

  17. Statistical study of reconnection exhausts in the solar wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enl, J.; P?ech, L.; afrnkov, J.; N?me?ek, Z.

    2014-11-20

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental process that changes magnetic field configuration and converts a magnetic energy to flow energy and plasma heating. This paper presents a survey of the plasma and magnetic field parameters inside 418 reconnection exhausts identified in the WIND data from 1995-2012. The statistical analysis is oriented on the re-distribution of the magnetic energy released due to reconnection between a plasma acceleration and its heating. The results show that both the portion of the energy deposited into heat as well as the energy spent on the acceleration of the exhaust plasma rise with the magnetic shear angle in accord with the increase of the magnetic flux available for reconnection. The decrease of the normalized exhaust speed with the increasing magnetic shear suggests a decreasing efficiency of the acceleration and/or the increasing efficiency of heating in high-shear events. However, we have found that the already suggested relation between the exhaust speed and temperature enhancement would be rather considered as an upper limit of the plasma heating during reconnection regardless of the shear angle.

  18. Implementing Solar PV Projects on Historic Buildings and in Historic Districts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kandt, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Walker, A.; Buddenborg, J; Lindberg, J.

    2011-09-01

    Many municipalities, particularly in older communities of the United States, have a large amount of historic buildings and districts. In addition to preserving these historic assets, many municipalities have goals or legislative requirements to procure a certain amount of energy from renewable sources and to become more efficient in their energy use; often, these requirements do not exempt historic buildings. This paper details findings from a workshop held in Denver, Colorado, in June 2010 that brought together stakeholders from both the solar and historic preservation industries. Based on these findings, this paper identifies challenges and recommends solutions for developing solar photovoltaic (PV) projects on historic buildings and in historic districts in such a way as to not affect the characteristics that make a building eligible for historic status.

  19. Request for Information: Request for Information for Solar on Leased Commercial Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In order to promote adoption of photovoltaics and other advanced cost-effective technologies for commercial buildings, the U.S. Department of Energy’s SunShot Initiative and the Better Buildings Alliance (BBA) are exploring best strategies to support, expand, and streamline efforts to deploy solar photovoltaics on and for commercial buildings in the U.S. real estate market. Understanding the benefits and most prominent challenges for building owners, tenants and other stakeholders is essential for developing resources and solutions to promote solar installations in this market. Areas of key interest center on technical, economic, administrative, and legal barriers and opportunities to reduce costs of capital, lower operational risks, protect consumers, and increase efficient market activities.

  20. Four Corners Wind Resource Center Webinar: Building Utility-Scale Wind: Permitting and Regulation Lessons for County Decision-Makers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Four Corners Wind Resource Center will host this webinar exploring lessons learned in the permitting of utility-scale wind projects and the development of ordinances and regulations for...

  1. Integrated Modeling of Building Energy Requirements IncorporatingSolar Assisted Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris; Wang, Juan

    2005-08-10

    This paper expands on prior Berkeley Lab work on integrated simulation of building energy systems by the addition of active solar thermal collecting devices, technology options not previously considered (Siddiqui et al 2005). Collectors can be used as an alternative or additional source of hot water to heat recovery from reciprocating engines or microturbines. An example study is presented that evaluates the operation of solar assisted cooling at a large mail sorting facility in southern California with negligible heat loads and year-round cooling loads. Under current conditions solar thermal energy collection proves an unattractive option, but is a viable carbon emission control strategy.

  2. The evolution of 1 AU equatorial solar wind and its association with the morphology of the heliospheric current sheet from solar cycles 23 to 24

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, L.; Landi, E.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Fisk, L. A.; Lepri, S. T.

    2014-09-20

    The solar wind can be categorized into three types based on its 'freeze-in' temperature (T {sub freeze-in}) in the coronal source: low T {sub freeze-in} wind mostly from coronal holes, high T {sub freeze-in} wind mostly from regions outside of coronal holes, including streamers (helmet streamer and pseudostreamer), active regions, etc., and transient interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) usually possessing the hottest T {sub freeze-in}. The global distribution of these three types of wind has been investigated by examining the most effective T {sub freeze-in} indicator, the O{sup 7+}/O{sup 6+} ratio, as measured by the Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer on board the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) during 1998-2008 by Zhao et al. In this study, we extend the previous investigation to 2011 June, covering the unusual solar minimum between solar cycles 23 and 24 (2007-2010) and the beginning of solar cycle 24. We find that during the entire solar cycle, from the ascending phase of cycle 23 in 1998 to the ascending phase of cycle 24 in 2011, the average fractions of the low O{sup 7+}/O{sup 6+} ratio (LOR) wind, the high O{sup 7+}/O{sup 6+} ratio (HOR) wind, and ICMEs at 1 AU are 50.3%, 39.4%, and 10.3%, respectively; the contributions of the three types of wind evolve with time in very different ways. In addition, we compare the evolution of the HOR wind with two heliospheric current sheet (HCS) parameters, which indicate the latitudinal standard deviation (SD) and the slope (SL) of the HCS on the synoptic Carrington maps at 2.5 solar radii surface. We find that the fraction of HOR wind correlates with SD and SL very well (slightly better with SL than with SD), especially after 2005. This result verifies the link between the production of HOR wind and the morphology of the HCS, implying that at least one of the major sources of the HOR wind must be associated with the HCS.

  3. Corotating solar wind structures and recurrent trains of enhanced diurnal variation in galactic cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeeram, T.; Ruffolo, D.; Siz, A.; Kamyan, N.; Nutaro, T. E-mail: david.ruf@mahidol.ac.th E-mail: p_chang24@hotmail.com

    2014-04-01

    Data from the Princess Sirindhorn Neutron Monitor at Doi Inthanon, Thailand, with a vertical cutoff rigidity of 16.8 GV, were utilized to determine the diurnal anisotropy (DA) of Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) near Earth during solar minimum conditions between 2007 November and 2010 November. We identified trains of enhanced DA over several days, which often recur after a solar rotation period (?27 days). By investigating solar coronal holes as identified from synoptic maps and solar wind parameters, we found that the intensity and anisotropy of cosmic rays are associated with the high-speed streams (HSSs) in the solar wind, which are in turn related to the structure and evolution of coronal holes. An enhanced DA was observed after the onset of some, but not all, HSSs. During time periods of recurrent trains, the DA was often enhanced or suppressed according to the sign of the interplanetary magnetic field B, which suggests a contribution from a mechanism involving a southward gradient in the GCR density, n, and a gradient anisotropy along B ?n. In one non-recurrent and one recurrent sequence, an HSS from an equatorial coronal hole was merged with that from a trailing mid-latitude extension of a polar coronal hole, and the slanted HSS structure in space with suppressed GCR density can account for the southward GCR gradient. We conclude that the gradient anisotropy is a source of temporary changes in the GCR DA under solar minimum conditions, and that the latitudinal GCR gradient can sometimes be explained by the coronal hole morphology.

  4. Solar Newsletter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ... Sciences Applications National Solar Thermal Test Facility Nuclear Energy ...

  5. Evolution of turbulence in the expanding solar wind, a numerical study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Yue; Grappin, Roland; Verdini, Andrea E-mail: verdini@arcetri.astro.it

    2014-10-01

    We study the evolution of turbulence in the solar wind by solving numerically the full three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations embedded in a radial mean wind. The corresponding equations (expanding box model or EBM) have been considered earlier but never integrated in 3D simulations. Here, we follow the development of turbulence from 0.2 AU up to about 1.5 AU. Starting with isotropic spectra scaling as k {sup –1}, we observe a steepening toward a k {sup –5/3} scaling in the middle of the wave number range and formation of spectral anisotropies. The advection of a plasma volume by the expanding solar wind causes a non-trivial stretching of the volume in directions transverse to radial and the selective decay of the components of velocity and magnetic fluctuations. These two effects combine to yield the following results. (1) Spectral anisotropy: gyrotropy is broken, and the radial wave vectors have most of the power. (2) Coherent structures: radial streams emerge that resemble the observed microjets. (3) Energy spectra per component: they show an ordering in good agreement with the one observed in the solar wind at 1 AU. The latter point includes a global dominance of the magnetic energy over kinetic energy in the inertial and f {sup –1} range and a dominance of the perpendicular-to-the-radial components over the radial components in the inertial range. We conclude that many of the above properties are the result of evolution during transport in the heliosphere, and not just the remnant of the initial turbulence close to the Sun.

  6. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.8 Active Solar Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    2 Thermal Solar Collector Shipments, by End Use (Thousand SF) (1) Type 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Pool Heating 7863 8934 Hot Water 367 640 1136 1393 1978 1992 Space Heating 99 228 330 189 186 150 Space Cooling 0 2 3 13 18 10 Combined Space/Water Heating 2 16 66 73 148 137 Process Heating 20 0 0 27 50 608 Electricity Generation 3 114 (2) 3847 6 361 389 Total 8354 Note(s): Source(s): 13798 1) Total shipments include imports and exports for all years.For 2007 to 2009, end-use values only include

  7. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.8 Active Solar Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    7 2009 Top 10 Destinations of U.S. Photovoltaic Cell and Module Export Shipments, by Country Peak Percent of Country U.S. Exports Germany Italy France Canada Belgium Spain China India South Korea Australia Total U.S. Exports Note(s): Source(s): 8,368 1% 681,427 100% Total U.S. exports of photovoltaic cells and modules increased by 47% from 2008 to 2009. EIA, Solar Photovoltaic Cell/Module Manufacturing Activities, Dec. 2010, Table 3.14. 18,297 3% 14,806 2% 12,581 2% 43,458 6% 27,247 4% 23,460 3%

  8. A NEW THREE-DIMENSIONAL SOLAR WIND MODEL IN SPHERICAL COORDINATES WITH A SIX-COMPONENT GRID

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Xueshang; Zhang, Man; Zhou, Yufen

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics numerical model to simulate the steady state ambient solar wind from the solar surface to 215 R {sub s} or beyond, and the model adopts a splitting finite-volume scheme based on a six-component grid system in spherical coordinates. By splitting the magnetohydrodynamics equations into a fluid part and a magnetic part, a finite volume method can be used for the fluid part and a constrained-transport method able to maintain the divergence-free constraint on the magnetic field can be used for the magnetic induction part. This new second-order model in space and time is validated when modeling the large-scale structure of the solar wind. The numerical results for Carrington rotation 2064 show its ability to produce structured solar wind in agreement with observations.

  9. Radial evolution of the intermittency of density fluctuations in the fast solar wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruno, R.; D'Amicis, R.; Telloni, D.; Primavera, L.; Sorriso-Valvo, L.; Carbone, V.; Malara, F.; Veltri, P.

    2014-05-01

    We study the radial evolution of the intermittency of density fluctuations in the fast solar wind. The study is performed by analyzing the plasma density measurements provided by Helios 2 in the inner heliosphere between 0.3 and 0.9 AU. The analysis is carried out by means of a complete set of diagnostic tools, including the flatness factor at different timescales to estimate intermittency, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to estimate the degree of intermittency, and the Fourier transform to estimate the power spectral densities of these fluctuations. Density fluctuations within the fast wind are rather intermittent and their level of intermittency, together with the amplitude of intermittent events, decreases with the distance from the Sun, at odds with the intermittency of both magnetic field and all other plasma parameters. Furthermore, the intermittent events are strongly correlated, exhibiting temporal clustering. This indicates that the mechanism underlying their generation departs from a time-varying Poisson process. A remarkable, qualitative similarity with the behavior of plasma density fluctuations obtained from a numerical study of the nonlinear evolution of parametric instability in the solar wind supports the idea that this mechanism has an important role in governing density fluctuations in the inner heliosphere.

  10. STOCHASTIC HEATING, DIFFERENTIAL FLOW, AND THE ALPHA-TO-PROTON TEMPERATURE RATIO IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandran, B. D. G.; Verscharen, D.; Isenberg, P. A.; Bourouaine, S.; Quataert, E.; Kasper, J. C. E-mail: s.bourouaine@unh.edu E-mail: daniel.verscharen@unh.edu E-mail: jkasper@cfa.harvard.edu

    2013-10-10

    We extend previous theories of stochastic ion heating to account for the motion of ions along the magnetic field B . We derive an analytic expression for the temperature ratio T{sub i}/T{sub p} in the solar wind assuming that stochastic heating is the dominant ion heating mechanism, where T{sub i} is the perpendicular temperature of species i and T{sub p} is the perpendicular proton temperature. This expression describes how T{sub i}/T{sub p} depends upon U{sub i} and ?{sub ?p}, where U{sub i} is the average velocity along B of species i in the proton frame and ?{sub ?p} is the ratio of the parallel proton pressure to the magnetic pressure, which we take to be ?< 1. We compare our model with previously published measurements of alpha particles and protons from the Wind spacecraft. We find that stochastic heating offers a promising explanation for the dependence of T{sub ?}/T{sub p} on U{sub ?} and ?{sub ?p} when the fractional cross helicity and Alfvn ratio at the proton-gyroradius scale have values that are broadly consistent with solar-wind measurements. We also predict how the temperatures of other ion species depend on their drift speeds.

  11. Nationwide Analysis of U.S. Commercial Building Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Breakeven Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Carolyn; Gagnon, Pieter; Denholm, Paul; Margolis, Robert

    2015-10-01

    The commercial sector offers strong potential for solar photovoltaics (PV) owing to abundant available roof space suitable for PV and the opportunity to offset the sector's substantial retail electricity purchases. This report evaluated the breakeven price of PV for 15 different building types and various financing options by calculating electricity savings based on detailed rate structures for most U.S. utility territories (representing approximately two thirds of U.S. commercial customers). We find that at current capital costs, an estimated 1/3 of U.S. commercial customers break even in the cash scenario and approximately 2/3 break even in the loan scenario. Variation in retail rates is a stronger driver of breakeven prices than is variation in building load or solar generation profiles. At the building level, variation in the average breakeven price is largely driven by the ability for a PV system to reduce demand charges.

  12. Solar Tour 2008

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Suzanne L. Singer Graduate Student Intern University of California, Berkeley DOE Program Review Meeting November 19, 2008 Heat Management for Energy Conversion * Heat to electricity: thermoelectrics * Sunlight to electricity: concentrated PV Solar/Wind hybrid - Kayenta, AZ with NTUA Systems power rural areas Navajo Tribe Wind Potential - Aubrey Cliffs, AZ with NTUA Met towers test wind potential Navajo Tribe Sustainable Building Materials in Peach Springs, AZ Earthship flexcrete Recyclable

  13. Solar heating and cooling of residential buildings: design of systems, 1980 edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-09-01

    This manual was prepared primarily for use in conducting a practical training course on the design of solar heating and cooling systems for residential and small office buildings, but may also be useful as a general reference text. The content level is appropriate for persons with different and varied backgrounds, although it is assumed that readers possess a basic understanding of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems of conventional (non-solar) types. This edition is a revision of the manual with the same title, first printed and distributed by the US Government Printing Office in October 1977. The manual has been reorganized, new material has been added, and outdated information has been deleted. Only active solar systems are described. Liquid and air-heating solar systems for combined space and service water heating or service water heating are included. Furthermore, only systems with proven experience are discussed to any extent.

  14. THE SLOW-MODE NATURE OF COMPRESSIBLE WAVE POWER IN SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howes, G. G.; Klein, K. G.; TenBarge, J. M.; Bale, S. D.; Chen, C. H. K.; Salem, C. S.

    2012-07-01

    We use a large, statistical set of measurements from the Wind spacecraft at 1 AU, and supporting synthetic spacecraft data based on kinetic plasma theory, to show that the compressible component of inertial range solar wind turbulence is primarily in the kinetic slow mode. The zero-lag cross-correlation C({delta}n, {delta}B{sub ||}) between proton density fluctuations {delta}n and the field-aligned (compressible) component of the magnetic field {delta}B{sub ||} is negative and close to -1. The typical dependence of C({delta}n, {delta}B{sub ||}) on the ion plasma beta {beta}{sub i} is consistent with a spectrum of compressible wave energy that is almost entirely in the kinetic slow mode. This has important implications for both the nature of the density fluctuation spectrum and for the cascade of kinetic turbulence to short wavelengths, favoring evolution to the kinetic Alfven wave mode rather than the (fast) whistler mode.

  15. Imaging the heliosphere using neutral atoms from solar wind energy down to 15 eV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galli, A.; Wurz, P.; Fuselier, S. A.; McComas, D. J.; Bzowski, M.; Sokół, J. M.; Kubiak, M. A.; Möbius, E.

    2014-11-20

    We study the spatial and temporal distribution of hydrogen energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) from the heliosheath observed with the IBEX-Lo sensor of the Interstellar Boundary EXplorer (IBEX) from solar wind energies down to the lowest available energy (15 eV). All available IBEX-Lo data from 2009 January until 2013 June were included. The sky regions imaged when the spacecraft was outside of Earth's magnetosphere and when the Earth was moving toward the direction of observation offer a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio even at very low energies. We find that the ENA ribbon—a 20° wide region of high ENA intensities—is most prominent at solar wind energies whereas it fades at lower energies. The maximum emission in the ribbon is located near the poles for 2 keV and closer to the ecliptic plane for energies below 1 keV. This shift is an evidence that the ENA ribbon originates from the solar wind. Below 0.1 keV, the ribbon can no longer be identified against the globally distributed ENA signal. The ENA measurements in the downwind direction are affected by magnetospheric contamination below 0.5 keV, but a region of very low ENA intensities can be identified from 0.1 keV to 2 keV. The energy spectra of heliospheric ENAs follow a uniform power law down to 0.1 keV. Below this energy, they seem to become flatter, which is consistent with predictions. Due to the subtraction of local background, the ENA intensities measured with IBEX agree with the upper limit derived from Lyα observations.

  16. Building a market for small wind: The break-even turnkey cost of residential wind systems in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, Jennifer L.; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Forsyth, Trudy

    2004-03-01

    Although small wind turbine technology and economics have improved in recent years, the small wind market in the United States continues to be driven in large part by state incentives, such as cash rebates, favorable loan programs, and tax credits. This paper examines the state-by-state economic attractiveness of small residential wind systems. Economic attractiveness is evaluated primarily using the break-even turnkey cost (BTC) of a residential wind system as the figure of merit. The BTC is defined here as the aggregate installed cost of a small wind system that could be supported such that the system owner would break even (and receive a specified return on investment) over the life of the turbine, taking into account current available incentives, the wind resource, and the retail electricity rate offset by on-site generation. Based on the analysis presented in this paper, we conclude that: (1) the economics of residential, grid-connected small wind systems is highly variable by state and wind resource class, (2) significant cost reductions will be necessary to stimulate widespread market acceptance absent significant changes in the level of policy support, and (3) a number of policies could help stimulate the market, but state cash incentives currently have the most significant impact, and will be a critical element of continued growth in this market.

  17. Building a New Energy Future with Wind Power (Revised) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-01-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind and Water Power Program's wind power research activities.

  18. How to Build a Small Wind Energy Business: Lessons from California; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinclair, K.

    2007-07-01

    This paper highlights the experience of one small wind turbine installer in California that installed more than 1 MW of small wind capacity in 6 years.

  19. Integrating Wind and Solar Energy in the U.S. Bulk Power System: Lessons from Regional Integration Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Lew, D.

    2012-09-01

    Two recent studies sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have examined the impacts of integrating high penetrations of wind and solar energy on the Eastern and Western electric grids. The Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS), initiated in 2007, examined the impact on power system operations of reaching 20% to 30% wind energy penetration in the Eastern Interconnection. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) examined the operational implications of adding up to 35% wind and solar energy penetration to the Western Interconnect. Both studies examined the costs of integrating variable renewable energy generation into the grid and transmission and operational changes that might be necessary to address higher penetrations of wind or solar generation. This paper identifies key insights from these regional studies for integrating high penetrations of renewables in the U.S. electric grid. The studies share a number of key findings, although in some instances the results vary due to differences in grid operations and markets, the geographic location of the renewables, and the need for transmission.

  20. The Impact of Wind and Solar on the Value of Energy Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Impact of Wind and Solar on the Value of Energy Storage Paul Denholm, Jennie Jorgenson, Marissa Hummon, and David Palchak National Renewable Energy Laboratory Brendan Kirby Consultant Ookie Ma U.S. Department of Energy Mark O'Malley University College Dublin Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-60568 November 2013 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is

  1. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 3A: Low Levels of Synchronous Generation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 3A: Low Levels of Synchronous Generation Nicholas W. Miller, Bruno Leonardi, and Robert D'Aquila GE Energy Management Kara Clark National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-5D00-64822 November 2015 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy

  2. Wind and Solar on the Power Grid: Myths and Misperceptions, Greening the Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katz, Jessica; Denholm, Paul; Pless, Jacquelyn

    2015-05-01

    Wind and solar are inherently more variable and uncertain than the traditional dispatchable thermal and hydro generators that have historically provided a majority of grid-supplied electricity. The unique characteristics of variable renewable energy (VRE) resources have resulted in many misperceptions regarding their contribution to a low-cost and reliable power grid. Common areas of concern include: 1) The potential need for increased operating reserves, 2) The impact of variability and uncertainty on operating costs and pollutant emissions of thermal plants, and 3) The technical limits of VRE penetration rates to maintain grid stability and reliability. This fact sheet corrects misperceptions in these areas.

  3. Analysis of Cycling Costs in Western Wind and Solar Integration Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, G.; Venkataraman, S.

    2012-06-01

    The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) examined the impact of up to 30% penetration of variable renewable generation on the Western Electricity Coordinating Council system. Although start-up costs and higher operating costs because of part-load operation of thermal generators were included in the analysis, further investigation of additional costs associated with thermal unit cycling was deemed worthwhile. These additional cycling costs can be attributed to increases in capital as well as operations and maintenance costs because of wear and tear associated with increased unit cycling. This analysis examines the additional cycling costs of the thermal fleet by leveraging the results of WWSIS Phase 1 study.

  4. NREL Confirms Large Potential for Grid Integration of Wind, Solar Power (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    To fully harvest the nation's bountiful wind and solar resources, it is critical to know how much electrical power from these renewable resources could be integrated reliably into the grid. To inform the discussion about the potential of such variable sources, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) launched two key regional studies, examining the east and west sections of the U.S. power grid. The studies show that it is technically possible for U.S. power systems to integrate 20%-35% renewable electricity if infrastructure and operational improvements can be made.

  5. WHITE-LIGHT OBSERVATIONS OF SOLAR WIND TRANSIENTS AND COMPARISON WITH AUXILIARY DATA SETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, T. A.; DeForest, C. E.; Reinard, A. A.

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents results utilizing a new data processing pipeline for STEREO/SECCHI. The pipeline is used to identify and track 24 large- and small-scale solar wind transients from the Sun out to 1 AU. This comparison was performed during a few weeks around the minimum at the end of Solar Cycle 23 and the start of Cycle 24 (2008 December to 2009 January). We use coronagraph data to identify features near the Sun, track them through HI-2A, and identify their signatures with in situ data at the Earth and STEREO-B. We provide measurements and preliminary analysis of the in situ signatures of these features near 1 AU. Along with the demonstration of the utility of heliospheric imagers for tracking even small-scale structures, we identify and discuss an important limitation in using geometric triangulation for determining three-dimensional properties.

  6. Searching for the Optimal Mix of Solar and Efficiency in Zero Net Energy Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horowitz, S.; Christensen, C.; Anderson, R.

    2008-01-01

    Zero net energy (ZNE) buildings employ efficiency to reduce energy consumption and solar technologies to produce as much energy on site as is consumed on an annual basis. Such buildings leverage utility grids and net-metering agreements to reduce solar system costs and maintenance requirements relative to off-grid photovoltaic (PV)-powered buildings with batteries. The BEopt software was developed to efficiently identify cost-optimal building designs using detailed hour-by-hour energy simulation programs to evaluate the user-selected options. A search technique identifies optimal and near-optimal building designs (based on energy-related costs) at various levels of energy savings along the path from a reference building to a ZNE design. In this paper, we describe results based on use of the BEopt software to develop cost-optimal paths to ZNE for various climates. Comparing the different cases shows optimal building design characteristics, percent energy savings and cash flows at key points along the path, including the point at which investments shift from building improvements to purchasing PV, and PV array sizes required to achieve ZNE. From optimizations using the BEopt software for a 2,000-ft{sup 2} house in 4 climates, we conclude that, relative to a code-compliant (IECC 2006) reference house, the following are achievable: (1) minimum cost point: 22 to 38% source energy savings and 15 to 24% annual cash flow savings; (2) PV start point: 40 to 49% source energy savings at 10 to 12% annual cash flow savings; (3) break-even point: 43 to 53% source energy savings at 0% annual cash flow savings; and (4) ZNE point: 100% source energy savings with 4.5 to 8.1 kW{sub DC} PV arrays and 76 to 169% increase in cash flow.

  7. Final Report. Solar Assist for Administration Building and Community Gym/Pool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Synder, Randy; Bresette, Joseph

    2015-06-23

    Tonto Apache Tribe applied to the Department of Energy’s “Tribal Energy Program” for the “Community Scale Clean Energy Projects” in Indian Country in 2013 to implement a solar project to reduce energy use in two tribal buildings. Total estimated project cost was $804,140, with the Department and Tribe each providing 50% of the project costs. Photovoltaic systems totaling 75 kW on the Administration Building and 192 kW on the Gymnasium were installed. We used roof tops and installed canopies in adjacent parking areas for mounting the systems. The installed systems were designed to offset 65% of the facilities electric load.

  8. Solar Webinar Text Version | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Text Version Solar Webinar Text Version Download the text version of the audio from the DOE Office of Indian Energy webinar on solar renewable energy. PDF icon DOE Office of Indian Energy Foundational Course on Solar: Text Version More Documents & Publications SERC Photovoltaics for Residential Buildings Webinar Transcript text_alternative_stat_webinar_2012_8_15.doc Wind Webinar Text Version

  9. WHERE DOES FLUID-LIKE TURBULENCE BREAK DOWN IN THE SOLAR WIND?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perri, S.; Carbone, V.; Veltri, P.

    2010-12-10

    Power spectra of the magnetic field in solar wind display a Kolmogorov law f {sup -5/3} at intermediate range of frequencies f, say within the inertial range. Two spectral breaks are also observed: one separating the inertial range from an f {sup -1} spectrum at lower frequencies, and another one between the inertial range and an f {sup -7/3} spectrum at higher frequencies. The breaking of fluid-like turbulence at high frequencies has been attributed to either the occurrence of kinetic Alfven wave fluctuations above the ion-cyclotron frequency or to whistler turbulence above the frequency corresponding to the proton gyroradius. Using solar wind data, we show that the observed high-frequency spectral break seems to be independent of the distance from the Sun, and then of both the ion-cyclotron frequency and the proton gyroradius. We suppose that the observed high-frequency break could be either caused by a combination of different physical processes or associated with a remnant signature of coronal turbulence.

  10. Use of Solar and Wind as a Physical Hedge against Price Variability within a Generation Portfolio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkin, T.; Diakov, V.; Drury, E.; Bush, B.; Denholm, P.; Milford, J.; Arent, D.; Margolis, R.; Byrne, R.

    2013-08-01

    This study provides a framework to explore the potential use and incremental value of small- to large-scale penetration of solar and wind technologies as a physical hedge against the risk and uncertainty of electricity cost on multi-year to multi-decade timescales. Earlier studies characterizing the impacts of adding renewable energy (RE) to portfolios of electricity generators often used a levelized cost of energy or simplified net cash flow approach. In this study, we expand on previous work by demonstrating the use of an 8760 hourly production cost model (PLEXOS) to analyze the incremental impact of solar and wind penetration under a wide range of penetration scenarios for a region in the Western U.S. We do not attempt to 'optimize' the portfolio in any of these cases. Rather we consider different RE penetration scenarios, that might for example result from the implementation of a Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) to explore the dynamics, risk mitigation characteristics and incremental value that RE might add to the system. We also compare the use of RE to alternative mechanisms, such as the use of financial or physical supply contracts to mitigate risk and uncertainty, including consideration of their effectiveness and availability over a variety of timeframes.

  11. INSTABILITIES DRIVEN BY THE DRIFT AND TEMPERATURE ANISOTROPY OF ALPHA PARTICLES IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verscharen, Daniel; Bourouaine, Sofiane; Chandran, Benjamin D. G. E-mail: s.bourouaine@unh.edu

    2013-08-20

    We investigate the conditions under which parallel-propagating Alfven/ion-cyclotron (A/IC) waves and fast-magnetosonic/whistler (FM/W) waves are driven unstable by the differential flow and temperature anisotropy of alpha particles in the solar wind. We focus on the limit in which w{sub Parallel-To {alpha}} {approx}> 0.25v{sub A}, where w{sub Parallel-To {alpha}} is the parallel alpha-particle thermal speed and v{sub A} is the Alfven speed. We derive analytic expressions for the instability thresholds of these waves, which show, e.g., how the minimum unstable alpha-particle beam speed depends upon w{sub Parallel-To {alpha}}/v{sub A}, the degree of alpha-particle temperature anisotropy, and the alpha-to-proton temperature ratio. We validate our analytical results using numerical solutions to the full hot-plasma dispersion relation. Consistent with previous work, we find that temperature anisotropy allows A/IC waves and FM/W waves to become unstable at significantly lower values of the alpha-particle beam speed U{sub {alpha}} than in the isotropic-temperature case. Likewise, differential flow lowers the minimum temperature anisotropy needed to excite A/IC or FM/W waves relative to the case in which U{sub {alpha}} = 0. We discuss the relevance of our results to alpha particles in the solar wind near 1 AU.

  12. Solar energy legal bibliography update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seeley, D.

    1980-06-01

    The Solar Energy Legal Bibliography Update is a compilation of approximately 100 solar publications abstracted for their legal and policy content (covering the period October 1978 to August 1979). Emphasis is on legal barriers and incentives to solar energy development. Abstracts are arranged under the following categories: Antitrust, Biomass, Building Codes, Consumer Protection, Environmental Aspects, Federal Legislation and Programs, Financing/Insurance, International Law, Labor, Land Use (Covenants, Easements, Nuisance, Zoning), Local Legislation and Programs, Ocean Energy, Patents and Licenses, Photovoltaics, Solar Access Rights, Solar Heating and Cooling, Solar Thermal Power Systems, Standards, State Legislation and Programs, Tax Law, Tort Liability, Utilities, Warranties, Wind Resources, and General Solar Law.

  13. Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study: Flexibility and High Penetrations of Wind and Solar; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloom, Aaron; Townsend, Aaron; Palchak, David

    2015-07-29

    Balancing wind and solar in a model is relatively easy. All you need to do is assume a very large system with infinite flexibility! But what if you don't have an infinitely flexible system? What if there are thousands of generators nestled in a handful of regions that are unlikely to change their operational practices? Would you still have enough flexibility to balance hundreds of gigawatts of wind and solar at a 5 minute level? At NREL, we think we can, and our industry partners agree. This presentation was presented at the IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting by Aaron Bloom, highlighting results of the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study.

  14. A PARALLEL-PROPAGATING ALFVENIC ION-BEAM INSTABILITY IN THE HIGH-BETA SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verscharen, Daniel; Bourouaine, Sofiane; Chandran, Benjamin D. G.; Maruca, Bennett A. E-mail: s.bourouaine@unh.edu E-mail: bmaruca@ssl.berkeley.edu

    2013-08-10

    We investigate the conditions under which parallel-propagating Alfven/ion-cyclotron waves are driven unstable by an isotropic (T{sub {alpha}} = T{sub Parallel-To {alpha}}) population of alpha particles drifting parallel to the magnetic field at an average speed U{sub {alpha}} with respect to the protons. We derive an approximate analytic condition for the minimum value of U{sub {alpha}} needed to excite this instability and refine this result using numerical solutions to the hot-plasma dispersion relation. When the alpha-particle number density is {approx_equal} 5% of the proton number density and the two species have similar thermal speeds, the instability requires that {beta}{sub p} {approx}> 1, where {beta}{sub p} is the ratio of the proton pressure to the magnetic pressure. For 1 {approx}< {beta}{sub p} {approx}< 12, the minimum U{sub {alpha}} needed to excite this instability ranges from 0.7v{sub A} to 0.9v{sub A}, where v{sub A} is the Alfven speed. This threshold is smaller than the threshold of {approx_equal} 1.2v{sub A} for the parallel magnetosonic instability, which was previously thought to have the lowest threshold of the alpha-particle beam instabilities at {beta}{sub p} {approx}> 0.5. We discuss the role of the parallel Alfvenic drift instability for the evolution of the alpha-particle drift speed in the solar wind. We also analyze measurements from the Wind spacecraft's Faraday cups and show that the U{sub {alpha}} values measured in solar-wind streams with T{sub {alpha}} Almost-Equal-To T{sub Parallel-To {alpha}} are approximately bounded from above by the threshold of the parallel Alfvenic instability.

  15. Markets to Facilitate Wind and Solar Energy Integration in the Bulk Power Supply: An IEA Task 25 Collaboration; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Soder, L.; Clark, C.; Pineda, I.

    2012-09-01

    Wind and solar power will give rise to challenges in electricity markets regarding flexibility, capacity adequacy, and the participation of wind and solar generators to markets. Large amounts of wind power will have impacts on bulk power system markets and electricity prices. If the markets respond to increased wind power by increasing investments in low-capital, high-cost or marginal-cost power, the average price may remain in the same range. However, experiences so far from Denmark, Germany, Spain, and Ireland are such that the average market prices have decreased because of wind power. This reduction may result in additional revenue insufficiency, which may be corrected with a capacity market, yet capacity markets are difficult to design. However, the flexibility attributes of the capacity also need to be considered. Markets facilitating wind and solar integration will include possibilities for trading close to delivery (either by shorter gate closure times or intraday markets). Time steps chosen for markets can enable more flexibility to be assessed. Experience from 5- and 10-minute markets has been encouraging.

  16. Implementing Solar Photovoltaic Projects on Historic Buildings and in Historic Districts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kandt, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Walker, A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite a global recession, the number of photovoltaic (PV) installations in the United States grew 30% from 2008 to 2009. A number of trends point toward continued growth of new PV installations. The efficiency of solar panels is increasing, while installation costs are going down. At the same time, federal, state, and local regulations are requiring that greater amounts of energy must come from renewable sources. Incentives for solar power technology implementation are being created and regulatory barriers removed. Corporations and governments are focusing on solar power to demonstrate leadership in environmental sustainability and resource conservation. Architects and builders are including PV arrays as a way to meet green building standards and property owners are seeking PV as a way to reduce their utility bills, as well as their carbon footprints. This publication focuses on the implementation of PV systems on historic properties. Many private property owners, as well as local, state, and national government entities, are seeking guidance on how best to integrate solar PV installations on historic buildings. Historic preservationists maintain that preserving, reusing, and maintaining historic structures is a key sustainable design strategy while also recognizing the importance of accommodating renewable energy technologies where they are appropriate. In some cases, however, conflicts have arisen over the installation of PV panels on historic properties. Addressing these conflicts and providing guidance regarding solutions and best practices is an important step toward resolving or eliminating barriers. Historic properties and districts in the United States provide tangible connections to the nation's past. Thousands of buildings, sites, districts, structures, and objects have been recognized for their historic and architectural significance. Local, state, and national designations of historic properties provide recognition, protection, and incentives that help to preserve those properties for future generations. At the national level, the National Register of Historic Places includes more than 86,000 listings, which encompass a total of more than 1.6 million historic resources. State registers of historic places also provide recognition and protection for historic sites and districts. Locally, more than 2,400 communities have established historic preservation ordinances. Typically implemented through zoning overlays, these local land use regulations manage changes to hundreds of thousands of historic properties. Over a period of 2 years (2007 and 2008) the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) designated 25 major U.S. cities as Solar America Cities. DOE provided financial and technical assistance to help the cities develop comprehensive approaches to accelerate the adoption of solar energy technologies. The Solar America Cities partnerships represent the foundation of DOE's larger Solar America Communities program. As a part of this program, DOE identified the implementation of solar projects on historic properties and in historic districts as one area to address. A workshop titled 'Implementing Solar Projects on Historic Buildings and in Historic Districts' was held in Denver, Colorado, in June of 2010. Participants included representatives from the solar industry as well as historic preservationists from nonprofit organizations and government agencies at the local, state, and national levels. The workshop provided an opportunity to gain a common understanding of solar technologies and historic preservation procedures and priorities. The workshop participants also discussed some of the challenges involved in locating PV systems on historic properties and identified potential solutions. This publication is based on the discussions that occurred at this workshop and the recommendations that were developed by participants. Ideas expressed by participants in the workshop, and included in this document, do not necessarily reflect the opinion of any government council, agency, or entity.

  17. Advanced phase change materials and systems for solar passive heating and cooling of residential buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salyer, I.O.; Sircar, A.K.; Dantiki, S.

    1988-01-01

    During the last three years under the sponsorship of the DOE Solar Passive Division, the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) has investigated four phase change material (PCM) systems for utility in thermal energy storage for solar passive heating and cooling applications. From this research on the basis of cost, performance, containment, and environmental acceptability, we have selected as our current and most promising series of candidate phase change materials, C-15 to C-24 linear crystalline alkyl hydrocarbons. The major part of the research during this contract period was directed toward the following three objectives. Find, test, and develop low-cost effective phase change materials (PCM) that melt and freeze sharply in the comfort temperature range of 73--77{degree}F for use in solar passive heating and cooling of buildings. Define practical materials and processes for fire retarding plasterboard/PCM building products. Develop cost-effective methods for incorporating PCM into building construction materials (concrete, plasterboard, etc.) which will lead to the commercial manufacture and sale of PCM-containing products resulting in significant energy conservation.

  18. Wind energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wind energy (Redirected from Wind power) Jump to: navigation, search Wind energy is a form of solar energy.1 Wind energy (or wind power) describes the process by which wind is...

  19. PROBING THE SOLAR WIND ACCELERATION REGION WITH THE SUN-GRAZING COMET C/2002 S2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giordano, S.; Raymond, J. C.; Lamy, P.; Uzzo, M.; Dobrzycka, D.

    2015-01-01

    Comet C/2002 S2, a member of the Kreutz family of sungrazing comets, was discovered in white-light images of the Large Angle and Spectromeric Coronagraph Experiment coronagraph on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) on 2002 September 18 and observed in H I Ly? emission by the SOHO Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) instrument at four different heights as it approached the Sun. The H I Ly? line profiles detected by UVCS are analyzed to determine the spectral parameters: line intensity, width, and Doppler shift with respect to the coronal background. Two-dimensional comet images of these parameters are reconstructed at the different heights. A novel aspect of the observations of this sungrazing comet data is that, whereas the emission from most of the tail is blueshifted, that along one edge of the tail is redshifted. We attribute these shifts to a combination of solar wind speed and interaction with the magnetic field. In order to use the comet to probe the density, temperature, and speed of the corona and solar wind through which it passes, as well as to determine the outgassing rate of the comet, we develop a Monte Carlo simulation of the H I Ly? emission of a comet moving through a coronal plasma. From the outgassing rate, we estimate a nucleus diameter of about 9 m. This rate steadily increases as the comet approaches the Sun, while the optical brightness decreases by more than a factor of 10 and suddenly recovers. This indicates that the optical brightness is determined by the lifetimes of the grains, sodium atoms, and molecules produced by the comet.

  20. The Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study: Flexibility and High Penetrations of Wind and Solar (Presentation), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study: Flexibility and High Penetrations of Wind and Solar Aaron Bloom, Aaron Townsend, and David Palchak The National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. NREL/PR-6A20-64795 IEEE PES General Meeting Denver, Colorado July 26-30, 2015 2 Simulated dispatch for high solar period in FRCC Simulated

  1. Discrimination and quantification of contamination and implanted solar wind in Genesis collector shards using grazing incidence synchrotron x-ray techniqies: Initial results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kitts, K.; Sutton, S.; Eng, P.; Ghose, S.; Burnett, D.

    2006-12-13

    Grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence is a non-destructive technique that can differentiate the embedded solar wind component from surface contamination and collector background in the Genesis shards. Initial solar Fe abundance in D30554 is 8 x 10{sup 12}/cm{sup 2}. Accurate knowledge of the composition of the Sun provides a baseline, which allows an understanding of how the solar system has evolved over time and how solar processes and solar wind mechanics behave. Unfortunately, the errors in photospheric abundances are too large for many planetary science problems and this hampers our understanding of these different processes. Analyses of solar wind implanted in meteorites or lunar soils have provided more precise data but alteration processes on these bodies may complicate such information. In response to this need for pristine solar wind samples, NASA developed and launched the Genesis Probe. Unfortunately, the probe smashed into the Utah desert shattering the 300 collector plates into 15,000+ pieces all of which are now coated in a both a fine terrestrial dust and Si and Ge powder from the disrupted collectors themselves. The solar wind penetration depth is 100-200 nm and the superposed contamination layers are typically 40-50 nm. Stringent cleaning regimes have the potential of removing the solar wind itself. The best solution is to have sufficient spatial resolution to separately analyze the surface contamination and penetrated solar wind. To that end, three Genesis collector array shards and their appropriate flight spares were characterized via grazing incidence x-ray fluorescence and x-ray reflectivity. The goals were (1) to evaluate the various cleaning methods used to eliminate contamination, (2) to identify the collector substrates most suited for this technique, (3) to determine whether the solar wind signature could be deconvolved from the collector background signature, and (4) to measure the relative abundances of Ca to Ge in the embedded solar wind.

  2. Buildings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    is allowing Commercial Buildings (ISO 50003 - Buildings and Building Complexes) ... SEP program, including associated standards, protocols, and application may be used ...

  3. Application of a solar wind model driven by turbulence dissipation to a 2D magnetic field configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lionello, Roberto; Downs, Cooper; Linker, Jon A.; Miki?, Zoran; Velli, Marco E-mail: cdowns@predsci.com E-mail: mikic@predsci.com

    2014-12-01

    Although it is widely accepted that photospheric motions provide the energy source and that the magnetic field must play a key role in the process, the detailed mechanisms responsible for heating the Sun's corona and accelerating the solar wind are still not fully understood. Cranmer et al. developed a sophisticated, one-dimensional (1D), time-steady model of the solar wind with turbulence dissipation. By varying the coronal magnetic field, they obtain, for a single choice of wave properties, a realistic range of slow and fast wind conditions with a sharp latitudinal transition between the two streams. Using a 1D, time-dependent model of the solar wind of Lionello et al., which incorporates turbulent dissipation of Alfvn waves to provide heating and acceleration of the plasma, we have explored a similar configuration, obtaining qualitatively equivalent results. However, our calculations suggest that the rapid transition between slow and fast wind suggested by this 1D model may be disrupted in multidimensional MHD simulations by the requirement of transverse force balance.

  4. Alternative Approaches to Calculate Benefits of an Energy Imbalance Market With Wind and Solar Energy: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, B.; King, J.; Milligan, M.

    2012-06-01

    The anticipated increase in variable generation in the Western Interconnection over the next several years has raised concerns about how to maintain system balance, especially in smaller Balancing Authority Areas (BAAs). Given renewable portfolio standards in the West, it is possible that more than 50 gigawatts of wind capacity will be installed by 2020. Significant quantities of solar generation are likely to be added as well. The consequent increase in variability and uncertainty that must be managed by the conventional generation fleet and responsive loads has resulted in a proposal for an Energy Imbalance Market (EIM). This paper extends prior work to estimate the reserve requirements for regulation, spinning, and non-spinning reserves with and without the EIM. We also discuss alternative approaches to allocating reserve requirements and show that some apparently attractive allocation methods have undesired consequences.

  5. Kinetic temperatures of iron ions in the solar wind observed with STEREO/PLASTIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bochsler, Peter; Lee, Martin A.; Popecki, Mark A.; Galvin, Antoinette B.; Kistler, Lynn M.; Moebius, Eberhard; Farrugia, Charles J.; Kucharek, Harald; Simunac, Kristin D. C.; Karrer, Reto; Blush, Lisa M.; Daoudi, Hagar; Wurz, Peter; Klecker, Berndt; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Thompson, Barbara; Luhmann, Janet G.; Jian, Lan K.; Russell, Christopher T.; Opitz, Andrea

    2010-03-25

    STEREO/PLASTIC provides detailed information on the three-dimensional velocity distributions of solar wind iron ions with a time resolution of 5 minutes. In general the distributions at 1 AU contain complicated structures showing persistence over several records, i.e., over intervals of up to 30 minutes, but no clear correlation of the properties of these distributions with the direction of the ambient magnetic field is evident. We have performed a statistical analysis using nearly 9000 observations. Iron ions follow the same trends as protons, alpha particles, and electrons: The ratio T{sub perpendicular}/T{sub ||} seems to be limited by the ion cyclotron instability, whereas T{sub ||} /T{sub perpendicular} is bounded by the firehose instability.

  6. Sign-Singularity of the Reduced Magnetic Helicity in the Solar Wind Plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbone, V.; Perri, S.; Yordanova, E.; Khotyaintsev, Y.; Andre, M.; Veltri, P.; Bruno, R.

    2010-05-07

    We investigate the scaling laws of a signed measure derived from the reduced magnetic helicity which has been determined from Cluster data in the solar wind. This quantifies the handedness of the magnetic field; namely, it can be related to the polarization of the magnetic field fluctuations (right or left hand). The measure results to be sign-singular; that is, we do not observe any scale-dependent effect at the ion- and at electron-cyclotron frequencies. Cancellations between right- and left-hand polarizations go on in the dispersive or dissipative range, beyond the electron-cyclotron frequency. This means that the mechanism responsible for the generation of the dispersive or dissipative range is rather insensitive to the polarization of the magnetic field fluctuations.

  7. Nonlinear and linear timescales near kinetic scales in solar wind turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthaeus, W. H.; Wan, M.; Shay, M. A.; Oughton, S.; Osman, K. T.; Chapman, S. C.; Servidio, S.; Valentini, F.; Gary, S. P.; Roytershteyn, V.; Karimabadi, H.

    2014-08-01

    The application of linear kinetic treatments to plasma waves, damping, and instability requires favorable inequalities between the associated linear timescales and timescales for nonlinear (e.g., turbulence) evolution. In the solar wind these two types of timescales may be directly compared using standard Kolmogorov-style analysis and observational data. The estimated local (in scale) nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic cascade times, evaluated as relevant kinetic scales are approached, remain slower than the cyclotron period, but comparable to or faster than the typical timescales of instabilities, anisotropic waves, and wave damping. The variation with length scale of the turbulence timescales is supported by observations and simulations. On this basis the use of linear theory—which assumes constant parameters to calculate the associated kinetic rates—may be questioned. It is suggested that the product of proton gyrofrequency and nonlinear time at the ion gyroscales provides a simple measure of turbulence influence on proton kinetic behavior.

  8. Plasma ? scaling of anisotropic magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind flux tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarkar, Aveek; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Ebrahimi, Fatima E-mail: amitava@princeton.edu

    2014-03-10

    Based on various observations, it has been suggested that at 1 AU, solar wind consists of 'spaghetti'-like magnetic field structures that have the magnetic topology of flux tubes. It is also observed that the plasma fluctuation spectra at 1 AU show a plasma ? dependence. Reconciling these two sets of observations and using the Invariance Principle, Bhattacharjee et al. suggested that the plasma inside every flux tube may become unstable with respect to pressure-driven instabilities and gives rise to fluctuation spectra that depend on the local plasma ?. The present work is the first direct numerical simulation of such a flux tube. We solve the full magnetohydrodynamic equations using the DEBS code and show that if the plasma inside the flux tube is driven unstable by spatial inhomogeneities in the background plasma pressure, the observed nature of the fluctuating power spectra agrees reasonably well with observations, as well as the analytical prediction of Bhattacharjee et al.

  9. ENSEMBLE SIMULATIONS OF PROTON HEATING IN THE SOLAR WIND VIA TURBULENCE AND ION CYCLOTRON RESONANCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cranmer, Steven R.

    2014-07-01

    Protons in the solar corona and heliosphere exhibit anisotropic velocity distributions, violation of magnetic moment conservation, and a general lack of thermal equilibrium with the other particle species. There is no agreement about the identity of the physical processes that energize non-Maxwellian protons in the solar wind, but a traditional favorite has been the dissipation of ion cyclotron resonant Alfvén waves. This paper presents kinetic models of how ion cyclotron waves heat protons on their journey from the corona to interplanetary space. It also derives a wide range of new solutions for the relevant dispersion relations, marginal stability boundaries, and nonresonant velocity-space diffusion rates. A phenomenological model containing both cyclotron damping and turbulent cascade is constructed to explain the suppression of proton heating at low alpha-proton differential flow speeds. These effects are implemented in a large-scale model of proton thermal evolution from the corona to 1 AU. A Monte Carlo ensemble of realistic wind speeds, densities, magnetic field strengths, and heating rates produces a filled region of parameter space (in a plane described by the parallel plasma beta and the proton temperature anisotropy ratio) similar to what is measured. The high-beta edges of this filled region are governed by plasma instabilities and strong heating rates. The low-beta edges correspond to weaker proton heating and a range of relative contributions from cyclotron resonance. On balance, the models are consistent with other studies that find only a small fraction of the turbulent power spectrum needs to consist of ion cyclotron waves.

  10. "Building the Dye-Sensitized Solar Fuel Device" Conference | U.S. DOE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Office of Science (SC) Building the Dye-Sensitized Solar Fuel Device" Conference Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News & Events EFRC News EFRC Events DOE Announcements Publications History Contact BES Home 10.23.15 "Building the Dye-Sensitized Solar Fuel Device" Conference Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page On October 15-16, 2015 the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Solar Energy Research

  11. LIMITS ON ALPHA PARTICLE TEMPERATURE ANISOTROPY AND DIFFERENTIAL FLOW FROM KINETIC INSTABILITIES: SOLAR WIND OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourouaine, Sofiane; Verscharen, Daniel; Chandran, Benjamin D. G.; Maruca, Bennett A.; Kasper, Justin C.

    2013-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that the observed temperature anisotropies of protons and alpha particles in the solar wind are constrained by theoretical thresholds for pressure and anisotropy driven instabilities such as the Alfvn/ion-cyclotron (A/IC) and fast-magnetosonic/whistler (FM/W) instabilities. In this Letter, we use a long period of in situ measurements provided by the Wind spacecraft's Faraday cups to investigate the combined constraint on the alpha proton differential flow velocity and the alpha particle temperature anisotropy due to A/IC and FM/W instabilities. We show that the majority of the data are constrained to lie within the region of parameter space in which A/IC and FM/W waves are either stable or have extremely low growth rates. In the minority of observed cases in which the growth rate of the A/IC (FM/W) instability is comparatively large, we find relatively higher values of T {sub ?}/T {sub p} (T {sub ??}/T {sub ?p}) when the alpha proton differential flow velocity is small, where T {sub ?} and T {sub p} (T {sub ??} and T {sub ?p}) are the perpendicular (parallel) temperatures of alpha particles and protons. We conjecture that this observed feature might arise from preferential alpha particle heating which can drive the alpha particles beyond the instability thresholds.

  12. Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  13. Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  14. Building and Calibration of a FAST Model of the SWAY Prototype Floating Wind Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koh, J. H.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Driscoll, F.; Ng, E. Y. K.

    2013-09-01

    Present efforts to verify and validate aero-hydro-servo-elastic numerical simulation tools that predict the dynamic response of a floating offshore wind turbine are primarily limited to code-to-code comparisons or code-to-data comparisons using data from wind-wave basin tests. In partnership with SWAY AS, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) installed scientific wind, wave, and motion measurement equipment on the 1/6.5th-scale prototype SWAY floating wind system to collect data to validate a FAST model of the SWAY design in an open-water condition. Nanyang Technological University (NTU), through a collaboration with NREL, assisted in this validation.

  15. Gross Receipts Tax Exemption for Sales of Wind and Solar Systems...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Photovoltaics Wind (All) Wind (Small) Program Info Sector Name State Administrator New Mexico Taxation & Revenue Department Website http:www.emnrd.state.nm.usECMD...

  16. Solar collection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, S.L.

    1984-08-01

    This report contains summaries and pictures of projects funded by the Appropriate Technology Small Grants Program which include the following solar technologies: solar dish; photovoltaics; passive solar building and solar hot water system; Trombe wall; hot air panel; hybrid solar heating system; solar grain dryer; solar greenhouse; solar hot water workshops; and solar workshops.

  17. VELOCITY-SHEAR-INDUCED MODE COUPLING IN THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE AND SOLAR WIND: IMPLICATIONS FOR PLASMA HEATING AND MHD TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollweg, Joseph V.; Chandran, Benjamin D. G.; Kaghashvili, Edisher Kh. E-mail: ekaghash@aer.com

    2013-06-01

    We analytically consider how velocity shear in the corona and solar wind can cause an initial Alfven wave to drive up other propagating signals. The process is similar to the familiar coupling into other modes induced by non-WKB refraction in an inhomogeneous plasma, except here the refraction is a consequence of velocity shear. We limit our discussion to a low-beta plasma, and ignore couplings into signals resembling the slow mode. If the initial Alfven wave is propagating nearly parallel to the background magnetic field, then the induced signals are mainly a forward-going (i.e., propagating in the same sense as the original Alfven wave) fast mode, and a driven signal propagating like a forward-going Alfven wave but polarized like the fast mode; both signals are compressive and subject to damping by the Landau resonance. For an initial Alfven wave propagating obliquely with respect to the magnetic field, the induced signals are mainly forward- and backward-going fast modes, and a driven signal propagating like a forward-going Alfven wave but polarized like the fast mode; these signals are all compressive and subject to damping by the Landau resonance. A backward-going Alfven wave, thought to be important in the development of MHD turbulence, is also produced, but it is very weak. However, we suggest that for oblique propagation of the initial Alfven wave the induced fast-polarized signal propagating like a forward-going Alfven wave may interact coherently with the initial Alfven wave and distort it at a strong-turbulence-like rate.

  18. A model for thermally driven heat and air transport in passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.F.; Balcomb, J.D.; Otis, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    A model for transient interzone heat and air flow transport in passive solar buildings is presented incorporating wall boundary layers in stratified zones, and with interzone transport via apertures (doors and windows). The model includes features that have been observed in measurements taken in more than a dozen passive solar buildings. The model includes integral formulations of the laminar and turbulent boundary layer equations for the vertical walls which are then coupled to a one-dimensional core model for each zone. The cores in each zone exchange mass and energy through apertures that are modeled by an orifice type equation. The procedure is transient in that time dependence is retained only in the core equations which are solved by an explicit method. The model predicts room stratification of about 2/sup 0/C/m (1.1/sup 0/F/ft) for a room-to-room temperature difference of 0.56/sup 0/C(1/sup 0/F) which is in general agreement with the data.

  19. Model for thermally driven heat and air transport in passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.F.; Balcomb, J.D.; Otis, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    A model for transient interzone heat and air flow transport in passive solar buildings is presented incorporating wall boundary layers in stratified zones, and with interzone transport via apertures (doors and windows). The model includes features that have been observed in measurements taken in more than a dozen passive solar buildings. The model includes integral formulations of the laminar and turbulent boundary layer equations for the vertical walls which are then coupled to a one-dimensional core model for each zone. The cores in each zone exchange mass and energy through apertures that are modeled by an orifice type equation. The procedure is transient in that time dependence is retained only in the core equations which are solved by an explicit method. The model predicts room stratification of about 2/sup 0/C/m (1.1/sup 0/F/ft) for a room-to-room temperature difference of 0.56/sup 0/C(1/sup 0/F) which is in general agreement with the data. 38 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  20. OBSERVATIONAL TEST OF STOCHASTIC HEATING IN LOW-{beta} FAST-SOLAR-WIND STREAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourouaine, Sofiane; Chandran, Benjamin D. G.

    2013-09-10

    Spacecraft measurements show that protons undergo substantial perpendicular heating during their transit from the Sun to the outer heliosphere. In this paper, we use Helios 2 measurements to investigate whether stochastic heating by low-frequency turbulence is capable of explaining this perpendicular heating. We analyze Helios 2 magnetic field measurements in low-{beta} fast-solar-wind streams between heliocentric distances r = 0.29 AU and r = 0.64 AU to determine the rms amplitude of the fluctuating magnetic field, {delta}B{sub p}, near the proton gyroradius scale {rho}{sub p}. We then evaluate the stochastic heating rate Q{sub stoch} using the measured value of {delta}B{sub p} and a previously published analytical formula for Q{sub stoch}. Using Helios measurements we estimate the ''empirical'' perpendicular heating rate Q{sub Up-Tack emp} = (k{sub B}/m{sub p}) BV (d/dr) (T{sub Up-Tack p}/B) that is needed to explain the T{sub p} profile. We find that Q{sub stoch} {approx} Q{sub emp}, but only if a key dimensionless constant appearing in the formula for Q{sub stoch} lies within a certain range of values. This range is approximately the same throughout the radial interval that we analyze and is consistent with the results of numerical simulations of the stochastic heating of test particles in reduced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. These results support the hypothesis that stochastic heating accounts for much of the perpendicular proton heating occurring in low-{beta} fast-wind streams.

  1. Building State-of-the-Art Wind Technology Testing Facilities (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    The new Wind Technology Test Center is the only facility in the nation capable of testing wind turbine blades up to 90 meters in length. A critical factor to wind turbine design and development is the ability to test new designs, components, and materials. In addition, wind turbine blade manufacturers are required to test their blades as part of the turbine certification process. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Program and the Massachusetts Clean Energy Center (MassCEC) to design, construct, and operate the Wind Technology Center (WTTC) in Boston, Massachusetts. The WTTC offers a full suite of certification tests for turbine blades up to 90 meters in length. NREL worked closely with MTS Systems Corporation to develop the novel large-scale test systems needed to conduct the static and fatigue tests required for certification. Static tests pull wind turbine blades horizontally and vertically to measure blade deflection and strains. Fatigue tests cycle the blades millions of times to simulate what a blade goes through in its lifetime on a wind turbine. For static testing, the WTTC is equipped with servo-hydraulic winches and cylinders that are connected to the blade through cables to apply up to an 84-mega Newton meter maximum static bending moment. For fatigue testing, MTS developed a commercial version of NREL's patented resonant excitation system with hydraulic cylinders that actuate linear moving masses on the blade at one or more locations. This system applies up to a 21-meter tip-to-tip fatigue test tip displacement to generate 20-plus years of cyclic field loads in a matter of months. NREL also developed and supplied the WTTC with an advanced data acquisition system capable of measuring and recording hundreds of data channels at very fast sampling rates while communicating with test control systems.

  2. Solar cyclical trend study of the mid-latitude, quiet-time, meridional, neutral winds at winter solstice conditions. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breninger, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    Located within the region of the thermosphere is the major portion of the ionosphere. Distribution of the ionospheric plasma within this region is a function of atmospheric mass and energy transport. For the current study, the component of the neutral wind along the magnetic meridian is derived from ground-based ionosonde measurements of the F2 peak layer height. Meridional wind variations with respect to location, universal time, and level of solar activity are the focal points on this investigation. The primary timescale of interest covers a period of one solar cycle, from 1977 to 1987. Data from one station have been extended to 1965 to study the repetitive nature of solar activity on the meridional winds. Results of this study indicate a definite variation of wind speed and direction, which correlates with changing levels of solar activity. It is hoped that the results of this study will aid current efforts to develop ionospheric models and enhance their forecasting capabilities.

  3. The Dependence of the Strength and Thickness of Field-Aligned Currents on Solar Wind and Ionospheric Parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Jay R.; Wing, Simon

    2014-08-01

    Sheared plasma flows at the low-latitude boundary layer correlate well with early afternoon auroral arcs and #12;eld-aligned currents [Sonnerup, 1980; Lundin and Evans, 1985]. We present a simple analytic model that relates solar wind and ionospheric parameters to the strength and thickness of field-aligned currents in a region of sheared velocity, such as the low latitude boundary layer. We compare the predictions of the model with DMSP observations and #12;nd remarkably good scaling of the currents with solar wind and ionospheric parameters. The sheared boundary layer thickness is inferred to be around 3000km consistent with observational studies. The analytic model provides a simple way to organize data and to infer boundary layer structures from ionospheric data.

  4. Collisionless damping of circularly polarized nonlinear Alfvn waves in solar wind plasmas with and without beam protons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nariyuki, Y.; Hada, T.; Tsubouchi, K.

    2014-10-01

    The damping process of field-aligned, low-frequency right-handed polarized nonlinear Alfvn waves (NAWs) in solar wind plasmas with and without proton beams is studied by using a two-dimensional ion hybrid code. The numerical results show that the obliquely propagating kinetic Alfvn waves (KAWs) excited by beam protons affect the damping of the low-frequency NAW in low beta plasmas, while the nonlinear wave-wave interaction between parallel propagating waves and nonlinear Landau damping due to the envelope modulation are the dominant damping process in high beta plasmas. The nonlinear interaction between the NAWs and KAWs does not cause effective energy transfer to the perpendicular direction. Numerical results suggest that while the collisionless damping due to the compressibility of the envelope-modulated NAW plays an important role in the damping of the field-aligned NAW, the effect of the beam instabilities may not be negligible in low beta solar wind plasmas.

  5. Strategies to Mitigate Declines in the Economic Value of Wind and Solar at High Penetration in California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This resource evaluates several options to reduce and eliminate the decline in the value of wind and solar PV technology, as a previous study had quantified the decline as penetration levels increased. Researchers found that largest increase in the value of PV at high penetration levels comes from assuming that low-cost bulk power storage is an investment option. Other attractive options, particularly at more modest penetration levels, include real-time pricing and technology diversity.

  6. Stochastic Methods for Planning and Operating Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind and Solar Power: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Donohoo, P.; O'Malley, M.

    2012-09-01

    Wind and solar generators differ in their generation characteristics than conventional generators. The variable output and imperfect predictability of these generators face a stochastic approach to plan and operate the power system without fundamentally changing the operation and planning problems. This paper overviews stochastic modeling challenges in operations, generation planning, and transmission planning, with references to current industry and academic work. Different stochastic problem formulations, including approximations, are also discussed.

  7. Wind Generator Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ... Laboratory PV Regional Test Centers Scaled Wind Farm Technology Facility Climate & Earth ...

  8. Nonlinear generation of kinetic-scale waves by magnetohydrodynamic Alfvn waves and nonlocal spectral transport in the solar wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, J. S.; Wu, D. J.; Voitenko, Y.; De Keyser, J.

    2014-04-20

    We study the nonlocal nonlinear coupling and generation of kinetic Alfvn waves (KAWs) and kinetic slow waves (KSWs) by magnetohydrodynamic Alfvn waves (MHD AWs) in conditions typical for the solar wind in the inner heliosphere. This cross-scale process provides an alternative to the turbulent energy cascade passing through many intermediate scales. The nonlinearities we study are proportional to the scalar products of wave vectors and hence are called 'scalar' ones. Despite the strong Landau damping of kinetic waves, we found fast growing KAWs and KSWs at perpendicular wavelengths close to the ion gyroradius. Using the parametric decay formalism, we investigate two independent decay channels for the pump AW: forward decay (involving co-propagating product waves) and backward decay (involving counter-propagating product waves). The growth rate of the forward decay is typically 0.05 but can exceed 0.1 of the pump wave frequency. The resulting spectral transport is nonlocal and anisotropic, sharply increasing perpendicular wavenumbers but not parallel ones. AWs and KAWs propagating against the pump AW grow with about the same rate and contribute to the sunward wave flux in the solar wind. Our results suggest that the nonlocal decay of MHD AWs into KAWs and KSWs is a robust mechanism for the cross-scale spectral transport of the wave energy from MHD to dissipative kinetic scales in the solar wind and similar media.

  9. ON QUIET-TIME SOLAR WIND ELECTRON DISTRIBUTIONS IN DYNAMICAL EQUILIBRIUM WITH LANGMUIR TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaheer, S.; Yoon, P. H.

    2013-10-01

    A recent series of papers put forth a self-consistent theory of an asymptotically steady-state electron distribution function and Langmuir turbulence intensity. The theory was developed in terms of the ? distribution which features Maxwellian low-energy electrons and a non-Maxwellian energetic power-law tail component. The present paper discusses a generalized ? distribution that features a Davydov-Druyvesteyn type of core component and an energetic power-law tail component. The physical motivation for such a generalization is so that the model may reflect the influence of low-energy electrons interacting with low-frequency kinetic Alfvnic turbulence as well as with high-frequency Langmuir turbulence. It is shown that such a solution and the accompanying Langmuir wave spectrum rigorously satisfy the balance requirement between the spontaneous and induced emission processes in both the particle and wave kinetic equations, and approximately satisfy the similar balance requirement between the spontaneous and induced scattering processes, which are nonlinear. In spite of the low velocity modification of the electron distribution function, it is shown that the resulting asymptotic velocity power-law index ?, where f{sub e} ? v {sup ?} is close to the average index observed during the quiet-time solar wind condition, i.e., ? ? O(6.5) whereas ?{sub average} ? 6.69, according to observation.

  10. A solar thermal cooling and heating system for a building: Experimental and model based performance analysis and design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, Ming; Yin, Hongxi; Archer, David H.

    2010-02-15

    A solar thermal cooling and heating system at Carnegie Mellon University was studied through its design, installation, modeling, and evaluation to deal with the question of how solar energy might most effectively be used in supplying energy for the operation of a building. This solar cooling and heating system incorporates 52 m{sup 2} of linear parabolic trough solar collectors; a 16 kW double effect, water-lithium bromide (LiBr) absorption chiller, and a heat recovery heat exchanger with their circulation pumps and control valves. It generates chilled and heated water, dependent on the season, for space cooling and heating. This system is the smallest high temperature solar cooling system in the world. Till now, only this system of the kind has been successfully operated for more than one year. Performance of the system has been tested and the measured data were used to verify system performance models developed in the TRaNsient SYstem Simulation program (TRNSYS). On the basis of the installed solar system, base case performance models were programmed; and then they were modified and extended to investigate measures for improving system performance. The measures included changes in the area and orientation of the solar collectors, the inclusion of thermal storage in the system, changes in the pipe diameter and length, and various system operational control strategies. It was found that this solar thermal system could potentially supply 39% of cooling and 20% of heating energy for this building space in Pittsburgh, PA, if it included a properly sized storage tank and short, low diameter connecting pipes. Guidelines for the design and operation of an efficient and effective solar cooling and heating system for a given building space have been provided. (author)

  11. Solar Photovoltaic Technologies - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Marketing Summaries Site Map Printable Version Share this resource About Search Categories (15) Advanced Materials Biomass and Biofuels Building Energy Efficiency Electricity Transmission Energy Analysis Energy Storage Geothermal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydropower, Wave and Tidal Industrial Technologies Solar Photovoltaic Marketing Summaries (125) Success Stories (5) Solar Thermal Startup America Vehicles and Fuels Wind Energy Partners (27) Visual Patent Search Success Stories Browse

  12. Solar Thermal Technologies - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Marketing Summaries Site Map Printable Version Share this resource About Search Categories (15) Advanced Materials Biomass and Biofuels Building Energy Efficiency Electricity Transmission Energy Analysis Energy Storage Geothermal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydropower, Wave and Tidal Industrial Technologies Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Marketing Summaries (41) Success Stories (1) Startup America Vehicles and Fuels Wind Energy Partners (27) Visual Patent Search Success Stories Browse

  13. Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ... Sciences Applications National Solar Thermal Test Facility Nuclear Energy ...

  14. CONNECTING THE SUN AND THE SOLAR WIND: THE FIRST 2.5-DIMENSIONAL SELF-CONSISTENT MHD SIMULATION UNDER THE ALFVEN WAVE SCENARIO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsumoto, Takuma; Suzuki, Takeru Ken

    2012-04-10

    The solar wind emanates from the hot and tenuous solar corona. Earlier studies using 1.5-dimensional simulations show that Alfven waves generated in the photosphere play an important role in coronal heating through the process of nonlinear mode conversion. In order to understand the physics of coronal heating and solar wind acceleration together, it is important to consider the regions from photosphere to interplanetary space as a single system. We performed 2.5-dimensional, self-consistent magnetohydrodynamic simulations, covering from the photosphere to the interplanetary space for the first time. We carefully set up the grid points with spherical coordinates to treat the Alfven waves in the atmosphere with huge density contrast and successfully simulate the solar wind streaming out from the hot solar corona as a result of the surface convective motion. The footpoint motion excites Alfven waves along an open magnetic flux tube, and these waves traveling upward in the non-uniform medium undergo wave reflection, nonlinear mode conversion from Alfven mode to slow mode, and turbulent cascade. These processes lead to the dissipation of Alfven waves and acceleration of the solar wind. It is found that the shock heating by the dissipation of the slow-mode wave plays a fundamental role in the coronal heating process, whereas the turbulent cascade and shock heating drive the solar wind.

  15. Re-Building Greensburg | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Re-Building Greensburg Re-Building Greensburg Addthis Description Greensburg, Kansas - A town that was devastated by a tornado in 2007, yet came back to be one of the Nation's most energy-efficient, sustainable communities. Civic leaders and entrepreneurs rallied residents behind the idea of "greening" Greensburg, inspiring the construction of energy-efficient buildings, some of which generate their own renewable power with solar panels and wind turbines. Greensburg has demonstrated

  16. U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon: Challenging Students to Build Energy Efficient, Cost-Effective, and Attractive Solar-Powered Houses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simon, J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon challenges collegiate teams to design, build, and operate solar-powered houses that are cost-effective, energy-efficient, and attractive. The winner of the competition is the team that best blends affordability, consumer appeal, and design excellence with optimal energy production and maximum efficiency. The paper discusses the solutions developed for the event. We believe that the solutions implemented for Solar Decathlon 2011 represent current trends and that by analyzing, critiquing, and exposing the solutions pursued, the industry can become better suited to address challenges of the future. Constructing a solar community using high-efficiency design and unique materials while remaining code compliant, safe, and effective results in solutions that are market relevant, important, and interesting to the industry as a whole.

  17. Build-

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Cooling Equipment, Number of Buildings for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Build- ings*","Cooled Build- ings","Cooling Equipment (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Resid- ential- Type Central Air Condi- tioners","Heat Pumps","Indiv- idual Air Condi- tioners","District Chilled Water","Central Chillers","Pack- aged Air Condi- tioning Units","Swamp

  18. Jeevandhara Wind Power Pvt Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wind Power Pvt.Ltd. Place: Satara, Maharashtra, India Zip: 415001 Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product: Satara-based wind and solar project developer. Coordinates: 17.68731,...

  19. Solarparc AG Former WindWelt AG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Solarparc AG (Former WindWelt AG) Place: Bonn, Germany Zip: 53115 Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product: Focused on planning, developing and operating wind and solar power...

  20. Magnetohydrodynamic slow mode with drifting He{sup ++}: Implications for coronal seismology and the solar wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollweg, Joseph V.; Verscharen, Daniel; Chandran, Benjamin D. G. E-mail: daniel.verscharen@unh.edu

    2014-06-10

    The MHD slow mode wave has application to coronal seismology, MHD turbulence, and the solar wind where it can be produced by parametric instabilities. We consider analytically how a drifting ion species (e.g. He{sup ++}) affects the linear slow mode wave in a mainly electron-proton plasma, with potential consequences for the aforementioned applications. Our main conclusions are as follows. 1. For wavevectors highly oblique to the magnetic field, we find solutions that are characterized by very small perturbations of total pressure. Thus, our results may help to distinguish the MHD slow mode from kinetic Alfvn waves and non-propagating pressure-balanced structures, which can also have very small total pressure perturbations. 2. For small ion concentrations, there are solutions that are similar to the usual slow mode in an electron-proton plasma, and solutions that are dominated by the drifting ions, but for small drifts the wave modes cannot be simply characterized. 3. Even with zero ion drift, the standard dispersion relation for the highly oblique slow mode cannot be used with the Alfvn speed computed using the summed proton and ion densities, and with the sound speed computed from the summed pressures and densities of all species. 4. The ions can drive a non-resonant instability under certain circumstances. For low plasma beta, the threshold drift can be less than that required to destabilize electromagnetic modes, but damping from the Landau resonance can eliminate this instability altogether, unless T{sub e} /T{sub p} >> 1.

  1. Building

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    DIV. Electricity Consumption and Expenditure Intensities by Census Division, 1999" ,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity Expenditures" ,"per Building (thousand kWh)","per...

  2. More Than 350 Now at Work Building CA Valley Solar Plant

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Progress on the California Valley Solar Ranch is in full swing as 350 skilled professionals work to construct the 250 MW solar facility.

  3. Lotus Solar Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search Name: Lotus Solar Technologies Place: Cairo, Egypt Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product: Solar and wind energy consultants and contractors. Coordinates:...

  4. Solar Energy Alliance | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alliance Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Energy Alliance Place: United Kingdom Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product: Grant approved installers of micro wind power and solar...

  5. Shanghai Solar Watt Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China Zip: 200040 Sector: Renewable Energy, Solar, Wind energy Product: Providing photovoltaic systems, solar air heating systems, solar water pumping systems, wind energy...

  6. Wind Program News | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Services Services Home Energy Basics States & Local Communities Technical Assistance Energy Analysis Jobs, Education, & Training Publications Funding Funding Home Small Business Program Efficiency Efficiency Home Buildings Homes Advanced Manufacturing Government Energy Management Renewables Renewables Home Solar Geothermal Wind Water Transportation Transportation Home Vehicles Bioenergy Hydrogen & Fuel Cells About Us About Us Home

  7. Wind and Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Wind and Power Place: Warszawa, Poland Zip: 04-320 Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product: The firm offers small-scale PV panels, inverters, accumulators, solar...

  8. ELECTRON HEAT FLUX IN THE SOLAR WIND: ARE WE OBSERVING THE COLLISIONAL LIMIT IN THE 1 AU DATA?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landi, S.; Matteini, L.; Pantellini, F.

    2014-07-20

    Using statistically significant data at 1AU, it has recently been shown (Bale et al.) that in the solar wind, when the Knudsen number K {sub T} (the ratio between the electron mean free path and the electron temperature scale height) drops below about 0.3, the electron heat flux q intensity rapidly approaches the classical collisional Spitzer-Hrm limit. Using a fully kinetic model including the effect of Coulomb collisions and the expansion of the solar wind with heliocentric distance, we observe that the heat flux strength does indeed approach the collisional value for Knudsen numbers smaller than about 0.3 in very good agreement with the observations. However, closer inspection of the heat flux properties, such as its variation with the heliocentric distance and its dependence on the plasma parameters, shows that for Knudsen numbers between 0.02 and 0.3 the heat flux is not conveniently described by the Spitzer-Hrm formula. We conclude that even though observations at 1 AU seem to indicate that the electron heat flux intensity approaches the collisional limit when the Knudsen drops below ?0.3, the collisional limit is not a generally valid closure for a Knudsen larger than 0.01. Moreover, the good agreement between the heat flux from our model and the heat flux from solar wind measurements in the high-Knudsen number regime seems to indicate that the heat flux at 1AU is not constrained by electromagnetic instabilities as both wave-particle and wave-wave interactions are neglected in our calculations.

  9. Re-Building Greensburg

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Hewitt, Steven; Wallach, Daniel; Peterson, Stephanie;

    2013-05-29

    Greensburg, KS - A town that was devastated by a tornado in 2007, yet came back to be one of the Nation's most energy-efficient, sustainable communities. Civic leaders and entrepreneurs helped rally residents behind the idea of "greening" Greensburg, inspiring the construction of numerous energy-efficient buildings, some of which generate their own renewable power with solar panels and wind turbines. Many of the town's government buildings use cutting edge energy-saving technologies, saving the local taxpayers' money. Greensburg has demonstrated to the world that any city can reach its energy efficiency and renewable energy goals today using widely available technologies.

  10. Historic Building Renovations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    When a Federal agency undertakes a renovation to an historic building, the renovation team must consider not only the uses and needs of the facility, but also a range of issues related to historic preservation. Integrating renewable energy such as solar and wind into an historic renovation has been accomplished successfully by agencies; the design and placement of any renewable energy system must be closely integrated with the overall design plans. Any renewable energy additions must maintain the integrity and defining characteristics of the building.

  11. The Pyramid Lake Solution--How to Grow the Economy, Jobs and Energy with Wind, Solar, and Geothermal

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Desert GeoCulture / Western Biofuels Development 890 Schellbourne Street Reno, Nevada 89511 775-843-2363, 775-848-5274 (phones) 775-852-1683 (Fax) hdg-nv@sbcglobal.net The Pyramid Lake Solution How to Grow the Economy, Jobs and Energy with Wind, Solar and Geothermal High Desert GeoCulture / Western Biofuels Development 890 Schellbourne Street Reno, Nevada 89511 775-843-2363, 775-848-5274 (phones) 775-852-1683 (Fax) hdg-nv@sbcglobal.net Nevada Challenges * Diversify Core Industries * Expand

  12. Drivers for the Value of Demand Response under Increased Levels of Wind and Solar Power; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hale, Elaine

    2015-07-30

    Demand response may be a valuable flexible resource for low-carbon electric power grids. However, there are as many types of possible demand response as there are ways to use electricity, making demand response difficult to study at scale in realistic settings. This talk reviews our state of knowledge regarding the potential value of demand response in several example systems as a function of increasing levels of wind and solar power, sometimes drawing on the analogy between demand response and storage. Overall, we find demand response to be promising, but its potential value is very system dependent. Furthermore, demand response, like storage, can easily saturate ancillary service markets.

  13. Build-

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Cooling Equipment, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Build- ings*","Cooled Build- ings","Cooling Equipment (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Resid- ential- Type Central Air Condi- tioners","Heat Pumps","Indiv- idual Air Condi- tioners","District Chilled Water","Central Chillers","Pack- aged Air Condi- tioning Units","Swamp

  14. A nuclear wind/solar oil-shale system for variable electricity and liquid fuels production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.

    2012-07-01

    The recoverable reserves of oil shale in the United States exceed the total quantity of oil produced to date worldwide. Oil shale contains no oil, rather it contains kerogen which when heated decomposes into oil, gases, and a carbon char. The energy required to heat the kerogen-containing rock to produce the oil is about a quarter of the energy value of the recovered products. If fossil fuels are burned to supply this energy, the greenhouse gas releases are large relative to producing gasoline and diesel from crude oil. The oil shale can be heated underground with steam from nuclear reactors leaving the carbon char underground - a form of carbon sequestration. Because the thermal conductivity of the oil shale is low, the heating process takes months to years. This process characteristic in a system where the reactor dominates the capital costs creates the option to operate the nuclear reactor at base load while providing variable electricity to meet peak electricity demand and heat for the shale oil at times of low electricity demand. This, in turn, may enable the large scale use of renewables such as wind and solar for electricity production because the base-load nuclear plants can provide lower-cost variable backup electricity. Nuclear shale oil may reduce the greenhouse gas releases from using gasoline and diesel in half relative to gasoline and diesel produced from conventional oil. The variable electricity replaces electricity that would have been produced by fossil plants. The carbon credits from replacing fossil fuels for variable electricity production, if assigned to shale oil production, results in a carbon footprint from burning gasoline or diesel from shale oil that may half that of conventional crude oil. The U.S. imports about 10 million barrels of oil per day at a cost of a billion dollars per day. It would require about 200 GW of high-temperature nuclear heat to recover this quantity of shale oil - about two-thirds the thermal output of existing nuclear reactors in the United States. With the added variable electricity production to enable renewables, additional nuclear capacity would be required. (authors)

  15. Geek-Up[4.29.2011]: Boosting the Efficiency of Wind and Solar Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    It’s a big month for the National Wind Technology Center.   Earlier this week, the Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) commemorated the successful installation and full capacity operation of a 3 megawatt Alstom ECO 100 wind turbine at the center. As part of a long-term collaboration between NREL and Alstom, engineers from the two institutions will perform a series of analyses and tests to evaluate Alstom’s unique drive train configuration technology.   After this initial testing is complete, the joint team will continue research and development on other advanced technologies including controls and offshore wind energy.   Researchers from the Department’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will also be hanging out at the National Wind Technology Center in the coming months. They’re launching a study to improve the efficiency of wind farms.  

  16. Solar Decathlon

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department's Solar Decathlon challenges collegiate teams to design, build and operate solar-powered houses that are cost effective, energy efficient and attractive.

  17. Powerworks Inc Pacific Winds | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pacific Winds Place: Tracy, California Zip: CA 95377 Sector: Renewable Energy, Solar, Wind energy Product: PowerWorks Inc. and its affiliate, Pacific Winds Inc., are...

  18. Roof aperture system for selective collection and control of solar energy for building heating, cooling and daylighting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanders, William J.; Snyder, Marvin K.; Harter, James W.

    1983-01-01

    The amount of building heating, cooling and daylighting is controlled by at least one pair of solar energy passing panels, with each panel of the pair of panels being exposed to a separate direction of sun incidence. A shutter-shade combination is associated with each pair of panels and the shutter is connected to the shade so that rectilinear movement of the shutter causes pivotal movement of the shade.

  19. Roof aperture system for selective collection and control of solar energy for building heating, cooling and daylighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanders, W.J.; Harter, J.W.; Snyder, M.K.

    1983-12-06

    The amount of building heating, cooling and daylighting is controlled by at least one pair of solar energy passing panels, with each panel of the pair of panels being exposed to a separate direction of sun incidence. A shutter-shade combination is associated with each pair of panels and the shutter is connected to the shade so that rectilinear movement of the shutter causes pivotal movement of the shade.

  20. MULTI-SPACECRAFT OBSERVATIONS OF LINEAR MODES AND SIDEBAND WAVES IN ION-SCALE SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perschke, Christopher; Motschmann, Uwe; Narita, Yasuhito; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz

    2014-10-01

    In the scenario of weak turbulence, energy is believed to be cascaded from smaller to larger wave numbers and frequencies due to weak wave-wave interactions. Based on its perturbative treatment one may regard plasma turbulence as a superposition of linear modes (or normal modes) and sideband waves (or nonlinear modes). In this study, we use magnetic field and plasma measurements of nine solar wind events obtained by the Cluster spacecraft and make extensive use of a high-resolution wave vector analysis method, the Multi-point Signal Resonator technique, to find frequencies and wave vectors of discrete modes on ion kinetic scales in the plasma rest frame. The primarily unstructured wave observations in the frequency-wave number diagram are classified into three distinct linear modes (proton Bernstein modes, helium-alpha Bernstein modes, and kinetic Alfvn waves) and the sideband waves by comparing with the dispersion relations derived theoretically from linear Vlasov theory using observational values of the plasma parameter beta and the propagation angle from the mean magnetic field. About 60% of the observed discrete modes can be explained by the linear modes, primarily as the proton Bernstein and the kinetic Alfvn waves, within the frequency uncertainties, while the rest of the population (about 40%) cannot be classified as linear modes due to the large deviation from dispersion relations. We conclude that both the linear modes and sideband wave components are needed to construct the wave picture of solar wind turbulence on ion-kinetic scales.

  1. Ener-Gee Whiz Answers Your Questions: Wind vs. Solar | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ener-Gee Whiz: If you're considering installing a renewable energy system and are having a ... While there is a tendency to think that the wind always blows and the sun always ...

  2. Roof-top solar energy potential under performance-based building energy codes: The case of Spain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izquierdo, Salvador; Montanes, Carlos; Dopazo, Cesar; Fueyo, Norberto

    2011-01-15

    The quantification at regional level of the amount of energy (for thermal uses and for electricity) that can be generated by using solar systems in buildings is hindered by the availability of data for roof area estimation. In this note, we build on an existing geo-referenced method for determining available roof area for solar facilities in Spain to produce a quantitative picture of the likely limits of roof-top solar energy. The installation of solar hot water systems (SHWS) and photovoltaic systems (PV) is considered. After satisfying up to 70% (if possible) of the service hot water demand in every municipality, PV systems are installed in the remaining roof area. Results show that, applying this performance-based criterion, SHWS would contribute up to 1662 ktoe/y of primary energy (or 68.5% of the total thermal-energy demand for service hot water), while PV systems would provide 10 T W h/y of electricity (or 4.0% of the total electricity demand). (author)

  3. Summary of Time Period-Based and Other Approximation Methods for Determining the Capacity Value of Wind and Solar in the United States: September 2010 - February 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2012-03-01

    This paper updates previous work that describes time period-based and other approximation methods for estimating the capacity value of wind power and extends it to include solar power. The paper summarizes various methods presented in utility integrated resource plans, regional transmission organization methodologies, regional stakeholder initiatives, regulatory proceedings, and academic and industry studies. Time period-based approximation methods typically measure the contribution of a wind or solar plant at the time of system peak - sometimes over a period of months or the average of multiple years.

  4. DOE Announces Webinars on Solar Forecasting Metrics, the DOE Wind Vision,

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Prize, and More | Department of Energy technologies, to training for the clean energy workforce. Webinars are free; however, advanced registration is typically required. You can also watch archived webinars and browse previously aired videos, slides, and transcripts. Upcoming Webinars July 14: Live Webinar on Rethinking Building Design Webinar Sponsor: Building Technologies Office The Energy Department will present a live webinar titled "Additive Technology: Rethinking of Building

  5. Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWIFT) Facility Wind Turbine Controller...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (SWIFT) Facility Wind Turbine Controller Ground Testing - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon ... Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ...

  6. Prediction of Solar Radiation on Building Rooftops: A Data-Mining Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Kodysh, Jeffrey B

    2012-01-01

    Solar energy technologies offer a clean, renewable, and domestic energy source, and are essential components of a sustainable energy future. The accurate measurement of solar radiation data is essential for optimum site selection of future distributed solar power plants as well as sizing photovoltaic systems. However, solar radiation data are not readily available because measured sequences of radiation values are obtained for a few locations in a country. When the data are available, they are usually at different time periods and spatial scale. The availability of solar radiation data at hourly or daily time scale will enhance the integration of solar energy into electricity generation and promote a sustainable energy future. The ability to generate approximate solar radiation values is often the only practical way to obtain radiation data at hourly or daily time scale. As a result, several models have been developed for estimating solar radiation values based on analytical, numerical simulation, and statistical approaches. However, these models have inherent challenges. We will discuss some of those challenges in this paper. To enhance the prediction of solar radiation values, a novel approach is presented for estimating solar radiation values using support vector machine technique. The approach accounts for unique characteristics that influence solar radiation values. The preliminary results obtained offer useful insights for model enhancements.

  7. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A solar energy system is defined as "a system affixed to a building or buildings that uses solar devices, which are thermally isolated from living space or any other area where the energy is used...

  8. wind energy R&D

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ... Laboratory PV Regional Test Centers Scaled Wind Farm Technology Facility Climate & Earth ...

  9. offshore wind research and development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    offshore wind research and development - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home ... Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ...

  10. Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind Turbine Loads Database - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations ... Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ...

  11. VISUAL-SOLAR

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    003661IBMPC00 Visual-SOLAR: Modeling and Visualization of Solar Radiation Potential on Individual Building Rooftops

  12. US Wind Farming Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector: Wind energy Product: A Chicago-based windfarm developer focused on building small wind cooperatives (up to 15 MW), based around agricultural users, using GE Wind Power...

  13. Procuring and Implementing Solar Projects on Public Buildings: How to Avoid Common Pitfalls

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This webinar covered good practices for photovoltaic and solar water heating request for proposal processes, pitfalls, and helpful tools and resources to support procurement and implementation.

  14. Power Flow Controller for Renewables: Transformer-less Unified Power Flow Controller for Wind and Solar Power Transmission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-02-08

    GENI Project: MSU is developing a power flow controller to improve the routing of electricity from renewable sources through existing power lines. The fast, innovative, and lightweight circuitry that MSU is incorporating into its controller will eliminate the need for a separate heavy and expensive transformer, as well as the construction of new transmission lines. MSU’s controller is better suited to control power flows from distributed and intermittent wind and solar power systems than traditional transformer-based controllers are, so it will help to integrate more renewable energy into the grid. MSU‘s power flow controller can be installed anywhere in the existing grid to optimize energy transmission and help reduce transmission congestion.

  15. Description and preliminary validation of a model for natural convection heat and air transport in passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.F.; Balcomb, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    We have proposed a transient, quasi-two-dimensional, numerical model for interzone heat flow and airflow in passive solar buildings. The paths for heat flow and airflow are through connecting apertures such as doorways, hallways, and stairways. The model includes the major features that influence interzone convection as determined from the results of our flow visualization tests and temperature and airflow measurements taken in more than a dozen passive solar buildings. The model includes laminar and turbulent quasi-steady boundary-layer equations at vertical heated or cooled walls which are coupled to a one-dimensional core model for each zone. The cores in each zone exchange air and energy through the aperture which is modelled by a Bernoulli equation. Preliminary results from the model are in general agreement with data obtained in full-scale buildings and laboratory experiments. The model predicts room-core temperature stratification of about 2/sup 0/C/m (1.1/sup 0/ F/ft) and maximum aperture velocities of 0.08 m/s (15 ft/min.) for a room-to-room temperature difference of 1/sup 0/F.

  16. PICKUP ION MEDIATED PLASMAS. I. BASIC MODEL AND LINEAR WAVES IN THE SOLAR WIND AND LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zank, G. P.; Hunana, P.; Mostafavi, P.; Goldstein, M. L.

    2014-12-20

    Pickup ions (PUIs) in the outer heliosphere and the local interstellar medium are created by charge exchange between protons and hydrogen (H) atoms, forming a thermodynamically dominant component. In the supersonic solar wind beyond >10 AU, in the inner heliosheath (IHS), and in the very local interstellar medium (VLISM), PUIs do not equilibrate collisionally with the background plasma. Using a collisionless form of Chapman-Enskog expansion, we derive a closed system of multi-fluid equations for a plasma comprised of thermal protons and electrons, and suprathermal PUIs. The PUIs contribute an isotropic scalar pressure to leading order, a collisionless heat flux at the next order, and a collisionless stress tensor at the second-order. The collisionless heat conduction and viscosity in the multi-fluid description results from a non-isotropic PUI distribution. A simpler one-fluid MHD-like system of equations with distinct equations of state for both the background plasma and the PUIs is derived. We investigate linear wave properties in a PUI-mediated three-fluid plasma model for parameters appropriate to the VLISM, the IHS, and the solar wind in the outer heliosphere. Five distinct wave modes are possible: Alfvn waves, thermal fast and slow magnetoacoustic waves, PUI fast and slow magnetoacoustic waves, and an entropy mode. The thermal and PUI acoustic modes propagate at approximately the combined thermal magnetoacoustic speed and the PUI sound speed respectively. All wave modes experience damping by the PUIs through the collisionless PUI heat flux. The PUI-mediated plasma model yields wave properties, including Alfvn waves, distinctly different from those of the standard two-fluid model.

  17. Cosmic ray transport in heliospheric magnetic structures. I. Modeling background solar wind using the CRONOS magnetohydrodynamic code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiengarten, T.; Kleimann, J.; Fichtner, H.; Kühl, P.; Kopp, A.; Heber, B.; Kissmann, R.

    2014-06-10

    The transport of energetic particles such as cosmic rays is governed by the properties of the plasma being traversed. While these properties are rather poorly known for galactic and interstellar plasmas due to the lack of in situ measurements, the heliospheric plasma environment has been probed by spacecraft for decades and provides a unique opportunity for testing transport theories. Of particular interest for the three-dimensional (3D) heliospheric transport of energetic particles are structures such as corotating interaction regions, which, due to strongly enhanced magnetic field strengths, turbulence, and associated shocks, can act as diffusion barriers on the one hand, but also as accelerators of low energy CRs on the other hand as well. In a two-fold series of papers, we investigate these effects by modeling inner-heliospheric solar wind conditions with a numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) setup (this paper), which will serve as an input to a transport code employing a stochastic differential equation approach (second paper). In this first paper, we present results from 3D MHD simulations with our code CRONOS: for validation purposes we use analytic boundary conditions and compare with similar work by Pizzo. For a more realistic modeling of solar wind conditions, boundary conditions derived from synoptic magnetograms via the Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) model are utilized, where the potential field modeling is performed with a finite-difference approach in contrast to the traditional spherical harmonics expansion often utilized in the WSA model. Our results are validated by comparing with multi-spacecraft data for ecliptical (STEREO-A/B) and out-of-ecliptic (Ulysses) regions.

  18. See-through amorphous silicon solar cells with selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal back reflectors for building integrated photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yang; OBrien, Paul G.; Materials Chemistry Research Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 ; Ozin, Geoffrey A. E-mail: kherani@ecf.utoronto.ca; Kherani, Nazir P. E-mail: kherani@ecf.utoronto.ca

    2013-11-25

    Thin semi-transparent hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells with selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal (STCPC) back-reflectors are demonstrated. Short circuit current density of a 135?nm thick a-Si:H cell with a given STCPC back-reflector is enhanced by as much as 23% in comparison to a reference cell with an ITO film functioning as its rear contact. Concurrently, solar irradiance of 295?W/m{sup 2} and illuminance of 3480 lux are transmitted through the cell with a given STCPC back reflector under AM1.5 Global tilt illumination, indicating its utility as a source of space heating and lighting, respectively, in building integrated photovoltaic applications.

  19. RADIAL DEPENDENCE OF THE FREQUENCY BREAK BETWEEN FLUID AND KINETIC SCALES IN THE SOLAR WIND FLUCTUATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruno, R.; Trenchi, L.

    2014-06-01

    We investigate the radial dependence of the spectral break separating the inertial from the dissipation range in power density spectra of interplanetary magnetic field fluctuations, between 0.42 and 5.3 AU, during radial alignments between MESSENGER and WIND for the inner heliosphere and between WIND and ULYSSES for the outer heliosphere. We found that the spectral break moves to higher and higher frequencies as the heliocentric distance decreases. The radial dependence of the corresponding wavenumber is of the kind κ {sub b} ∼ R {sup –1.08}, in good agreement with that of the wavenumber derived from the linear resonance condition for proton cyclotron damping. These results support conclusions from previous studies which suggest that a cyclotron-resonant dissipation mechanism must participate in the spectral cascade together with other possible kinetic noncyclotron-resonant mechanisms.

  20. Solar Newsletter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas ...

  1. Assessment of Wind/Solar Co-Located Generation in Texas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As part of the Solar America Cities program, Austin Energy proposed to perform an assessment of the rooftop area available for PV development within its service area. Austin Energy contracted with Clean Energy Associates (CEA) to perform the analysis. This report summarizes the project objectives, data sources and methodological approach employed, and results.

  2. Wind and Solar Energy Curtailment: Experience and Practices in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Cochran, J.; Wang, X.

    2014-03-01

    This report examines U.S. curtailment practices, with a particular emphasis on utilities in the Western states. The information presented here is based on a series of interviews conducted with utilities, system operators, wind energy developers, and non-governmental organizations. The report provides case studies of curtailment experience and examines the reasons for curtailment, curtailment procedures, compensation, and practices that can minimize curtailment.

  3. SPECTRAL SLOPE VARIATION AT PROTON SCALES FROM FAST TO SLOW SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruno, R.; Trenchi, L.; Telloni, D.

    2014-09-20

    We investigated the behavior of the spectral slope of interplanetary magnetic field fluctuations at proton scales for selected high-resolution time intervals from the WIND and MESSENGER spacecraft at 1 AU and 0.56 AU, respectively. The analysis was performed within the profile of high-speed streams, moving from fast to slow wind regions. The spectral slope showed a large variability between –3.75 and –1.75 and a robust tendency for this parameter to be steeper within the trailing edge, where the speed is higher, and to be flatter within the subsequent slower wind, following a gradual transition between these two states. The value of the spectral index seems to depend firmly on the power associated with the fluctuations within the inertial range; the higher the power, the steeper the slope. Our results support previous analyses suggesting that there must be some response of the dissipation mechanism to the level of the energy transfer rate along the inertial range.

  4. Solar Thermal Technologies Available for Licensing - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Thermal Site Map Printable Version Share this resource About Search Categories (15) Advanced Materials Biomass and Biofuels Building Energy Efficiency Electricity Transmission Energy Analysis Energy Storage Geothermal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydropower, Wave and Tidal Industrial Technologies Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Marketing Summaries (41) Success Stories (1) Startup America Vehicles and Fuels Wind Energy Partners (27) Visual Patent Search Success Stories Browse Solar Thermal

  5. METHODS AND SYSTEMS FOR CONCENTRATED SOLAR POWER - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7056 Site Map Printable Version Share this resource About Search Categories (15) Advanced Materials Biomass and Biofuels Building Energy Efficiency Electricity Transmission Energy Analysis Energy Storage Geothermal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydropower, Wave and Tidal Industrial Technologies Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Startup America Vehicles and Fuels Wind Energy Partners (27) Visual Patent Search Success Stories Find More Like This Return to Search METHODS AND SYSTEMS FOR CONCENTRATED SOLAR

  6. Wind energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Wind energy Jump to: navigation, search Wind energy is a form of solar energy.1 Wind energy (or...

  7. THE VIOLATION OF THE TAYLOR HYPOTHESIS IN MEASUREMENTS OF SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, K. G.; Howes, G. G.; TenBarge, J. M.

    2014-08-01

    Motivated by the upcoming Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus missions, qualitative and quantitative predictions are made for the effects of the violation of the Taylor hypothesis on the magnetic energy frequency spectrum measured in the near-Sun environment. The synthetic spacecraft data method is used to predict observational signatures of the violation for critically balanced Alfvnic turbulence or parallel fast/whistler turbulence. The violation of the Taylor hypothesis can occur in the slow flow regime, leading to a shift of the entire spectrum to higher frequencies, or in the dispersive regime, in which the dissipation range spectrum flattens at high frequencies. It is found that Alfvnic turbulence will not significantly violate the Taylor hypothesis, but whistler turbulence will. The flattening of the frequency spectrum is therefore a key observational signature for fast/whistler turbulence.

  8. Forecasting Wind and Solar Generation: Improving System Operations, Greening the Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian; Tian; Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    This document discusses improving system operations with forecasting and solar generation. By integrating variable renewable energy (VRE) forecasts into system operations, power system operators can anticipate up- and down-ramps in VRE generation in order to cost-effectively balance load and generation in intra-day and day-ahead scheduling. This leads to reduced fuel costs, improved system reliability, and maximum use of renewable resources.

  9. Building America Case Study: Investigating Solutions to Wind Washing Issues in Two-Story Florida Homes Phase 2, Southeastern United States (Fact Sheet), Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Investigating Solutions to Wind Washing Issues in Two-Story Florida Homes: Phase 2 Southeastern United States PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: Investigating Solutions to Wind Washing Issues in Two-Story Florida Homes: Phase 2 Location: Central and north Florida Partners: Florida Power & Light, fpl.com Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, ba-pirc.org Building Component: Attic-floor cavity intersections Application: Retrofit, single-family Years Tested:

  10. Wind Tunnel Specifications | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wind Tunnel Specifications Wind Tunnel Specifications This document shows the basic wind tunnel configuration. Please use these specifications when designing test turbines for the Collegiate Wind Competition. PDF icon Wind Tunnel Specifications More Documents & Publications Collegiate Wind Competition 2014 Rules and Regulations Collegiate Wind Competition Rules and Regulations Building the Basic PVC Wind Turbine

  11. Adaptive pitch control for variable speed wind turbines - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal 174,136 Site Map Printable Version Share this resource About Search Categories (15) Advanced Materials Biomass and Biofuels Building Energy Efficiency Electricity Transmission Energy Analysis Energy Storage Geothermal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydropower, Wave and Tidal Industrial Technologies Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Startup America Vehicles and Fuels Wind Energy Partners (27) Visual Patent Search Success Stories Find More Like This Return to Search Adaptive pitch control for

  12. InteliSolar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Santa Clara, California Zip: 95054 Region: Bay Area Sector: Efficiency, Renewable Energy, Services, Solar, Wind energy Product: Renewable Energy Systems using solar or wind...

  13. Solar Photovoltaic Success Stories - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Success Stories Site Map Printable Version Share this resource About Search Categories (15) Advanced Materials Biomass and Biofuels Building Energy Efficiency Electricity Transmission Energy Analysis Energy Storage Geothermal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydropower, Wave and Tidal Industrial Technologies Solar Photovoltaic Marketing Summaries (125) Success Stories (5) Solar Thermal Startup America Vehicles and Fuels Wind Energy Partners (27) Visual Patent Search Success Stories Graphic of a full-grown

  14. Development of Regional Wind Resource and Wind Plant Output Datasets. Final Subcontract Report, 15 October 2007 - 15 March 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, Debra

    2010-03-01

    This report describes the development of the necessary and needed wind and solar datasets used in the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS).

  15. Mode Conversion of Langmuir to Electromagnetic Waves with Parallel Inhomogeneity in the Solar Wind and the Corona

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Eun-Hwa; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, Peter A.

    2008-06-09

    Linear mode conversion of Langmuir waves to radiation near the plasma frequency at density gradients is potentially relevant to multiple solar radio emissions, ionospheric radar experiments, laboratory plasma devices, and pulsars. Here we study mode conversion in warm magnetized plasmas using a numerical electron fluid simulation code with the density gradient parallel to the ambient magnetic field B0 for a range of incident Langmuir wavevectors. Our results include: (1) Both o- and x-mode waves are produced for ? ? (?L)1/3(?c/?) somewhat less than 1, contrary to previous ideas. Only o mode is produced for ? and somewhat greater than 1.5. Here ?c is the (angular) electron cyclotron frequency, ? the angular wave frequency, and L the length scale of the (linear) density gradient. (2) In the unmagnetized limit, equal amounts of o- and x-mode radiation are produced. (3) The mode conversion window narrows as ? increases. (4) As ? increases the total electromagnetic field changes from linear to circular polarization, with the o- and x- mode signals remaining circularly polarized. (5) The conversion efficiency to the x mode decreases monotonically as ? increases while the o-mode conversion efficiency oscillates due to an interference phenomenon between incoming and reflected Langmuir/z modes. (6) The total conversion efficiency for wave energy from the Langmuir/z mode to radiation is typically less than 10%, but the corresponding power efficiencies differ by the ratio of the group speeds for each mode and are of order 50 70%. (7) The interference effect and the disappearance of the x mode at ? somewhat greater than 1 can be accounted for semiquantitatively using a WKB-like analysis. (8) Constraints on density turbulence are developed for the x mode to be generated and be able to propagate from the source. (9) Standard parameters for the corona and the solar wind near 1 AU suggest that linear mode conversion should produce both o- and x- mode radiation for solar and interplanetary radio bursts. It is therefore possible that linear mode conversion under these conditions might explain the weak total circular polarizations of type II and III solar radio bursts.

  16. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 Building America Best Practices Series

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The sixth volume of the Building America Best Practices Series presents information that is useful throughout the U.S. for enhancing the energy efficiency practices in the specific climate zones that are presented in each of the volumes.

  17. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 Building America Best Practices Series

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-06-01

    The sixth volume of the Building America Best Practices Series presents information that is useful throughout the U.S. for enhancing the energy efficiency practices in the specific climate zones that are presented in each of the volumes.

  18. Building with passive solar: an application guide for the southern homeowner and builder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-03-01

    This instructional material was prepared for training workshops for builders and home designers. It includes: fundamental definitions and equations, climate and site studies, building components, passive systems and techniques, and design tools. (MHR)

  19. NREL: Wind Research - Testing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Testing Photo of a large wind turbine blade sticking out of the structural testing laboratory; it is perpendicular to a building at the National Wind Technology Center. A multimegawatt wind turbine blade extends outside of the structural testing facility at the NWTC. PIX #19010 Testing capabilities at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) support the installation and testing of wind turbines that range in size from 400 watts to 5.0 megawatts. Engineers provide wind industry manufacturers,

  20. Transpired Solar Collector - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Thermal Solar Thermal Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search Transpired Solar Collector National Renewable Energy ...

  1. wind-turbine composites

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ...

  2. Wind & Water Power Newsletter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Water Power Newsletter - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact ... Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ...

  3. Solar Photovoltaic Economic Development: Building and Growing a Local PV Industry, August 2011 (Book)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. photovoltaic (PV) industry is forecast to grow, and it represents an opportunity for economic development and job creation in communities throughout the United States. This report helps U.S. cities evaluate economic opportunities in the PV industry. It serves as a guide for local economic development offices in evaluating their community?s competitiveness in the solar PV industry, assessing the viability of solar PV development goals, and developing strategies for recruiting and retaining PV companies to their areas.

  4. Clean Energy State Program Guide: Mainstreaming Solar Electricity Strategies for States to Build Local Markets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A PV mapping tool visually represents a specific site and calculates PV system size and projected electricity production. This report identifies the commercially available solar mapping tools and thoroughly summarizes the source data type and resolution, the visualization software program being used, user inputs, calculation methodology and algorithms, map outputs, and development costs for each map.

  5. EIA - Distributed Generation in Buildings

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Glossary FAQS Overview Projection Data Monthly ... Major Topics Most popular Annual Energy Outlook related ... Residential Commercial Renewable Solar photovoltaic Wind ...

  6. MHD waves detected by ice at distances > 28 x 10/sup 6/ km from Comet Halley: Cometary or solar wind origin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsurutani, B.T.; Brinca, A.L.; Smith, E.J.; Thorne, R.M.; Scarf, F.L.; Gosling, J.T.; Ipavich, F.M.

    1986-01-01

    Spectral analyses of the high resolution magnetic field data are employed to determine if there is evidence of cometary heavy ion pickup when ICE was closest to Halley, approx.28 x 10/sup 6/ km. No evidence is found for the presence of heavy ion cyclotron waves. However, from this search, two new wave modes are discovered in the solar wind: electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves and drift mirror mode waves. Both modes have scales of 10 to 60 s (1 to 6 T/sub p/) in the spacecraft frame. The possibility of wave generation by cometary hydrogen pickup is explored. Theoretical arguments and further experimental evidence indicates that cometary origin is improbable. The most likely source is plasma instabilities associated with solar wind stream-stream interactions. VLF electrostatic emissions are found to occur in field minima or at gradients of the drift mirror structures. Possible generation mechanisms of drift mirror mode waves, cyclotron waves and electrostatic waves are discussed.

  7. Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) Data from the National Renewable Energy Library and the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The SWERA Programme provides easy access to credible renewable energy data to stimulate investment in, and development of, renewable energy technologies. The Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) started in 2001 to advance the large-scale use of renewable energy technologies by increasing the availability and accessibility of high-quality solar and wind resource information. SWERA began as a pilot project with funding from the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and managed by the United Nations Environment Programme's (UNEP) Division of Technology, Industry and Economics (DTIE) in collaboration with more than 25 partners around the world. With the success of the project in 13 pilot countries SWERA expanded in 2006 into a full programme. Its expanded mission is to provide high quality information on renewable energy resources for countries and regions around the world, along with the tools needed to apply these data in ways that facilitate renewable energy policies and investments.[from the SWERA Guide at http://swera.unep.net/index.php?id=sweraguide_chp1] DOE and, in particular, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, has been a functioning partner from the beginning. NREL was part of the original technical team involved in mapping, database, and GIS activities. Solar, wind, and meteorological data for selected countries can be accessed through a variety of different tools and interfaces.

  8. Optimization of satellite coverage in observing cause and effect changes in the ionosphere, magnetosphere, and solar wind. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loveless, M.J.

    1993-06-01

    Disturbances in the ionosphere sometimes cause adverse effects to communications systems, power grids, etc. on the earth. Currently, very little, if any, lead time is given to warn of an impending problem. If a forecast could be made of ionospheric occurrences, some lead time may be given to appropriate agencies and equipment may be saved. Most changes that occur in the ionosphere are a result of interaction of energy, currents, etc. between the magnetosphere and/or solar wind. Before a forecast can be made, however, improvement of ionospheric models currently in use need to be made. The models currently depict features in various regions of the ionosphere but not always where these features are actually observed. So an improvement to the model is needed to create an accurate baseline condition, or in other words an accurate depiction of the current ionosphere. Models could be improved by inputting real-time data from the ionosphere into the model. This data would come from satellites and/or ground-based stations.

  9. Efficient Solutions for Existing Homes Case Study: Solar Water Heating in Multifamily Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In spring 2014, Olive Street Development completed a major renovation project—converting an old school building in Greenfield, Massachusetts, into 12 high-performance apartments. The developer installed SDHW to reduce fossil-fuel consumption, and CARB has been monitoring the system since its completion.

  10. Prediction of internal temperature swings in direct-gain passive-solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    The diurnal heat capacity method is presented for estimating inside-temperature swings attributable to direct winter solar gain. The procedures are simplified to be suitable for hand analysis, aided by tables of diurnal heat capacity for various materials. The method has been spot checked against computer simulation and has been used successfully by a group of 20 builders in New Mexico to analyze whether temperature swings would be excessive in their designs.

  11. WINDExchange: Wind Energy Market Sectors

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    Market Sectors Printable Version Bookmark and Share Utility-Scale Wind Distributed Wind Motivations for Buying Wind Power Buying Wind Power Selling Wind Power Wind Energy Market Sectors U.S. power plants generate electricity for homes, factories, and businesses from a variety of resources, including coal, hydro, natural gas, nuclear, petroleum, and (non-hydro) renewable resources such as wind and solar energy. This power generation mix varies significantly across the country depending on

  12. Diurnal heat storage in direct-gain passive-solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Neeper, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a simplified method for predicting temperature swings in direct-gain buildings. It is called the DHC method due to the use of a diurnal heat capacity (DHC). Diurnal heat capacity is a measure of the effective amount of heat stored during a sunny day and then released at night - the typical 24-hour diurnal cycle. This enables prediction of the maximum temperature swings experienced in the building and can be calculated using a single 24-hour harmonic. The advantage is that closed-form analytic solutions can be obtained for a variety of simple and layered-wall configurations. Higher harmonic components are accounted for by a correction factor. The method is suitable for us by hand or on a programmable calculator.

  13. Alaskan Wind Industries | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Highway Place: Nikiski, Alaska Zip: 99635 Sector: Wind energy Product: Wind Turbines & Solar Products. Installation and Procurement Website: www.akwindindustries.com Coordinates:...

  14. Sonne Wind Beteiligungen AG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sonne+Wind Beteiligungen AG Place: Berlin, Germany Zip: 10715 Sector: Efficiency, Solar, Wind energy Product: Berlin-based VC firm...

  15. Offshore Wind RD&D: Sediment Transport

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ... Laboratory PV Regional Test Centers Scaled Wind Farm Technology Facility Climate & Earth ...

  16. Characterizing Scaled Wind Farm Technology Facility Inflow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scaled Wind Farm Technology Facility Inflow - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home ... Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ...

  17. Building Technologies FY'14 Budget At-a-Glance | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FY'14 Budget At-a-Glance Building Technologies FY'14 Budget At-a-Glance Building Technologies FY'14 Budget At-a-Glance, a publication of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. PDF icon buildings_ataglance_2014.pdf More Documents & Publications Weatherization and Intergovernmental FY14 Budget At-a-Glance Solar Energy Technologies FY'14 Budget At-a-Glance Wind and Water Power

  18. Solar Mimizan | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mimizan Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Mimizan Place: PARIS, France Zip: 75002 Sector: Solar Product: Paris-based, building-integrated solar power plant developer....

  19. Passive solar commercial buildings: design assistance and demonstration program. Phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-01-26

    The final design of the Mount Airy Public Library is given. Incremental passive design costs are discussed. Performance and economic analyses are made and the results reported. The design process is thoroughly documented. Considerations discussed are: (1) building energy needs; (2) site energy potentials, (3) matching energy needs with site energy potentials, (4) design indicators for best strategies and concepts, (5) schematic design alternatives, (6) performance testing of the alternatives, (7) design selection, and (8) design development. Weather data and Duke Power electric rates are included. (LEW)

  20. Summary of: Simulating the Value of Concentrating Solar Power...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... wind and solar System Capacity (MW) Low RE Scenario High RE Scenario Wind Capacity (MW) 3,054 6,489 Wind Energy (GWh) 9,791 20,210 Solar Capacity (MW) 395 3,630 Solar Energy ...

  1. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ordinances, bylaws, or regulations may reasonably restrict the installation and use of solar energy devices to protect public health and safety, buildings from damage, historic/aesthetic values (...

  2. Solar energy legal bibliography: second update. [100 references

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiner, S.

    1981-05-01

    The Solar Energy Legal Bibliograhy Update is a compilation of approximately 100 solar publications abstracted for their legal and policy content (covering the period February 1980 to July 1980). Emphasis is on legal barriers and incentives to solar energy development. Abstracts are arranged under the following categories: Antitrust, Biomass, Building Codes, Consumer Protection, Environmental Aspects, Federal Leglislation and Programs, Financing/Insurance, Institutional Issues, International Law, Labor, Land Use (Covenants, Easements, Nuisance, Zoning), Local Legislation and Programs, Ocean Energy, Passive Solar Heating and Cooling, Patents and Licenses, Photovoltaics, Small-Scale Hydro, Solar Access Rights, Solar Heating and Cooling, Solar Thermal Power Systems, Standards, State Legislation and Programs, Tax Law, Tort Liability, Utilities, Warranties, Wind Resources, and General Solar Law.

  3. Sandia defines solar variability zones

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    defines solar variability zones - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations ... Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ...

  4. Coherent structure in solar wind C{sup 6+}/C{sup 4+} ionic composition data during the quiet-sun conditions of 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmondson, J. K.; Lepri, S. T.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Lynch, B. J.

    2013-11-20

    This analysis offers evidence of characteristic scale sizes in solar wind charge state data measured in situ for 13 quiet-Sun Carrington rotations in 2008. Using a previously established novel methodology, we analyze the wavelet power spectrum of the charge state ratio C{sup 6+}/C{sup 4+} measured in situ by ACE/SWICS for 2 hr and 12 minute cadence. We construct a statistical significance level in the wavelet power spectrum to quantify the interference effects arising from filling missing data in the time series, allowing extraction of significant power from the measured data to a resolution of 24 minutes. We analyze each wavelet power spectrum for transient coherency and global periodicities resulting from the superposition of repeating coherent structures. From the significant wavelet power spectra, we find evidence for a general upper limit on individual transient coherency of ?10 days. We find evidence for a set of global periodicities between 4-5 hr and 35-45 days. We find evidence for the distribution of individual transient coherency scales consisting of two distinct populations. Below the ?2 day timescale, the distribution is reasonably approximated by an inverse power law, whereas for scales ?2 days, the distribution levels off, showing discrete peaks at common coherency scales. In addition, by organizing the transient coherency scale distributions by wind type, we find that these larger, common coherency scales are more prevalent and well defined in coronal hole wind. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for current theories of solar wind generation and describe future work for determining the relationship between the coherent structures in our ionic composition data and the structure of the coronal magnetic field.

  5. Low cost supplemental, wind-heating for rural buildings. Final report, 1 October 1981-31 September 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-11-14

    To obtain the supplemental electric heat, a cheap electric generator or alternator is needed to provide the electricity. Used or rebuilt car alternators are plentiful and relatively cheap. A car alternator requires at least a thousand rpm to operate, but the windmill rotor turns much slower. To obtain the necessary rpm's a 26 inch bicycle wheel, as a pulley for a V-belt, was mounted to the bottom of the rotor. The wheel drove a 4 inch pulley mounted to an 8 inch pulley. The 8 inch then drove the alternator by a second V-belt for a net speed step up of 13:1. The dc for the alternator field came from a 12 V bicycle generator and a full wave bridge. When done right, the bicycle generator does not excite the field until there is sufficient wind (and not before, which would stall-out the rotor). A windmill and car alternator system is basically unstable. The system is always overshooting or undershooting that stable rpm which would match wind speed to rotor rpm to alternator rpm, so that wind energy input just matches electrical heat energy output. The first techniques used to gain stability is shown in Figure 3. It essentially used three separate stages of either type I or II to switch in resistive loads in successive stages. For example, at low wind speeds, the alternator voltage would be low and none of the stages would turn on. As wind speed increased the alternator voltage would increase with the result that the first stage would turn on providing heat. The most successful circuit is shown in Figure 4. It had the advantages of: identical stages using commonly and easily attainable parts; in the field it was very easy to determine and adjust the cut-in threshold of each stage; the diodes not only acted as a heating load themselves; but the diodes also provided automatic overspeed braking by ''short circuiting'' the alternator which causes a steep increase in alternator drag.

  6. solar

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    2%2A en Solar power purchase for DOE laboratories http:nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleasessolarpower

  7. SELF-CONSISTENT MODEL OF THE INTERSTELLAR PICKUP PROTONS, ALFVENIC TURBULENCE, AND CORE SOLAR WIND IN THE OUTER HELIOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamayunov, Konstantin V.; Zhang Ming; Rassoul, Hamid K.; Pogorelov, Nikolai V.; Heerikhuisen, Jacob

    2012-09-20

    A self-consistent model of the interstellar pickup protons, the slab component of the Alfvenic turbulence, and core solar wind (SW) protons is presented for r {>=} 1 along with the initial results of and comparison with the Voyager 2 (V2) observations. Two kinetic equations are used for the pickup proton distribution and Alfvenic power spectral density, and a third equation governs SW temperature including source due to the Alfven wave energy dissipation. A fraction of the pickup proton free energy, f{sub D} , which is actually released in the waveform during isotropization, is taken from the quasi-linear consideration without preexisting turbulence, whereas we use observations to specify the strength of the large-scale driving, C{sub sh}, for turbulence. The main conclusions of our study can be summarized as follows. (1) For C{sub sh} Almost-Equal-To 1-1.5 and f{sub D} Almost-Equal-To 0.7-1, the model slab component agrees well with the V2 observations of the total transverse magnetic fluctuations starting from {approx}8 AU. This indicates that the slab component at low-latitudes makes up a majority of the transverse magnetic fluctuations beyond 8-10 AU. (2) The model core SW temperature agrees well with the V2 observations for r {approx}> 20 AU if f{sub D} Almost-Equal-To 0.7-1. (3) A combined effect of the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin attenuation, large-scale driving, and pickup proton generated waves results in the energy sink in the region r {approx}< 10 AU, while wave energy is pumped in the turbulence beyond 10 AU. Without energy pumping, the nonlinear energy cascade is suppressed for r {approx}< 10 AU, supplying only a small energy fraction into the k-region of dissipation by the core SW protons. A similar situation takes place for the two-dimensional turbulence. (4) The energy source due to the resonant Alfven wave damping by the core SW protons is small at heliocentric distances r {approx}< 10 AU for both the slab and the two-dimensional turbulent components. As a result, adiabatic cooling mostly controls the model SW temperature in this region, and the model temperature disagrees with the V2 observations in the region r {approx}< 20 AU.

  8. Monthly average clear-sky broadband irradiance database for worldwide solar heat gain and building cooling load calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gueymard, Christian A.; Thevenard, Didier

    2009-11-15

    This paper establishes the formulation of a new clear-sky solar radiation model appropriate for algorithms calculating cooling loads in buildings. The aim is to replace the ASHRAE clear-sky model of 1967, whose limitations are well known and are reviewed. The new model is derived in two steps. The first step consists of obtaining a reference irradiance dataset from the REST2 model, which uses a high-performance, validated, two-band clear-sky algorithm. REST2 requires detailed inputs about atmospheric conditions such as aerosols, water vapor, ozone, and ground albedo. The development of global atmospheric datasets used as inputs to REST2 is reviewed. For the most part, these datasets are derived from space observations to guarantee universality and accuracy. In the case of aerosols, point-source terrestrial measurements were also used as ground truthing of the satellite data. The second step of the model consists of fits derived from a REST2-based reference irradiance dataset. These fits enable the derivation of compact, but relatively accurate expressions, for beam and diffuse clear-sky irradiance. The fitted expressions require the tabulation of only two pseudo-optical depths for each month of the year. The resulting model, and its tabulated data, are expected to be incorporated in the 2009 edition of the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals. (author)

  9. Solar energy education. Renewable energy activities for general science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy and Wind Easements & Rights Laws & Local Option Solar Rights Law Solar and Wind Easements & Rights Laws & Local Option Solar Rights Law < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Federal Government Agricultural Institutional Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Photovoltaics Wind (All) Solar Pool Heating

  10. EFRC Director's call | Solid State Solar Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Market Impacts EERE Market Impacts Addthis RENEWABLE ELECTRICITY GENERATION SUCCESS STORIES 1 of 3 RENEWABLE ELECTRICITY GENERATION SUCCESS STORIES EERE's investments in geothermal, solar, water, and wind energy translate into more efficient, affordable technologies and encourage more widespread use of clean energy in the United States. ENERGY-SAVING HOMES, BUILDINGS, AND MANUFACTURING SUCCESS STORIES 2 of 3 ENERGY-SAVING HOMES, BUILDINGS, AND MANUFACTURING SUCCESS STORIES EERE's investments in

  11. The National Wind Technology Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thresher, R.W.; Hock, S.M.; Loose, R.R.; Cadogon, J.B.

    1994-07-01

    Wind energy research began at the Rocky Flats test site in 1976 when Rockwell International subcontracted with the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). The Rocky Flats Plant was competitively selected from a number of ERDA facilities primarily because it experienced high instantaneous winds and provided a large, clear land area. By 1977, several small wind turbines were in place. During the facility`s peak of operation, in 1979-1980, researchers were testing as many as 23 small wind turbines of various configurations, including commercially available machines and prototype turbines developed under subcontract to Rocky Flats. Facilities also included 8-kW, 40-kW, and 225-kW dynamometers; a variable-speed test bed; a wind/hybrid test facility; a controlled velocity test facility (in Pueblo, Colorado); a modal test facility, and a multimegawatt switchgear facility. The main laboratory building was dedicated in July 1981 and was operated by the Rocky Flats Plant until 1984, when the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) and Rocky Flats wind energy programs were merged and transferred to SERI. SERI and now the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) continued to conduct wind turbine system component tests after 1987, when most program personnel were moved to the Denver WEst Office Park in Golden and site ownership was transferred back to Rocky Flats. The Combined Experiment test bed was installed and began operation in 1988, and the NREL structural test facility began operation in 1990. In 1993, the site`s operation was officially transferred to the DOE Golden Field Office that oversees NREL. This move was in anticipation of NREL`s renovation and reoccupation of the facility in 1994.

  12. advanced wind-farm research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, ... variable-pitch Vestas V27 turbines and two 60 m anemometer ...

  13. EERE Success Story-Wind Vision: Continuing the Success of Wind...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and social benefits of a robust wind energy future through 2050. Defining a Roadmap of targeted actions that the country can take to build upon wind energy's continued ...

  14. Wind Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  15. "EMM Region","PC","IGCC","PC","Conv. CT","Adv. CT","Conv. CC","Adv. CC","Adv. CC w/CCS","Fuel Cell","Nuclear","Biomass","MSW","On-shore Wind","Off-shore Wind","Solar Thermal","Solar PV"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Regional cost adjustments for technologies modeled by NEMS by Electric Market Modul (EMM) region 10,11" "EMM Region","PC","IGCC","PC","Conv. CT","Adv. CT","Conv. CC","Adv. CC","Adv. CC w/CCS","Fuel Cell","Nuclear","Biomass","MSW","On-shore Wind","Off-shore Wind","Solar Thermal","Solar PV" ,,,"w/CCS" "1

  16. The effect of broad-band Alfven-cyclotron waves spectra on the preferential heating and differential acceleration of He{sup ++} ions in the solar wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maneva, Y. G.; Ofman, L.; Vinas, A. F.

    2013-06-13

    In anticipation of results from inner heliospheric missions such as the Solar Orbiter and the Solar Probe we present the results from 1.5D hybrid simulations to study the role of magnetic fluctuations for the heating and differential acceleration of He{sup ++} ions in the solar wind. We consider the effects of nonlinear Alfven-cyclotron waves at different frequency regimes. Monochromatic nonlinear Alfven-alpha-cyclotron waves are known to preferentially heat and accelerate He{sup ++} ions in collisionless low beta plasma. In this study we demonstrate that these effects are preserved when higherfrequency monochromatic and broad-band spectra of Alfven-proton-cyclotron waves are considered. Comparison between several nonlinear monochromatic waves shows that the ion temperatures, anisotropies and relative drift are quantitatively affected by the shift in frequency. Including a broad-band wave-spectrum results in a significant reduction of both the parallel and the perpendicular temperature components for the He{sup ++} ions, whereas the proton heating is barely influenced, with the parallel proton temperature only slightly enhanced. The differential streaming is strongly affected by the available wave power in the resonant daughter ion-acoustic waves. Therefore for the same initial wave energy, the relative drift is significantly reduced in the case of initial wave-spectra in comparison to the simulations with monochromatic waves.

  17. Solar collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cassidy, V.M.

    1981-11-01

    Practical applications of solar energy in commercial, industrial and institutional buildings are considered. Two main types of solar collectors are described: flat plate collectors and concentrating collectors. Efficiency of air and hydronic collectors among the flat plate types are compared. Also several concentrators are described, including their sun tracking mechanisms. Descriptions of some recent solar installations are presented and a list representing the cross section of solar collector manufacturers is furnished.

  18. Qinghai Solar Energy Electric Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Energy Electric Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Qinghai Solar Energy Electric Co Ltd Place: Xining, Qinghai Province, China Zip: 810008 Sector: Solar, Wind energy...

  19. Tsinghua Solar New Energy Rizhao Techonology Incubation Centre...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Incubation Centre Place: Rizhao, Shandong Province, China Zip: 276800 Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product: The incubator set up by Beijing Tsinghua Solar with focus on solar,...

  20. Beijing Solar Fengli Technology Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Fengli Technology Ltd Place: Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100083 Sector: Efficiency, Solar, Wind energy Product: A company engaged in manufacturing Solar PV power,...