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Sample records for building life cycle

  1. Building Life Cycle Cost Programs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building Life Cycle Cost Programs Building Life Cycle Cost Programs The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) developed the Building Life Cycle Cost (BLCC) Programs to provide computational support for the analysis of capital investments in buildings. They include BLCC5, the Energy Escalation Rate Calculator, Handbook 135, and the Annual Supplement to Handbook 135. BLCC5 Program Register and download. BLCC 5.3-15 (for Windows or Mac OS X). BLCC version 5.3-15 contains the

  2. Building Life Cycle Cost Programs Software Installation Troubleshooting |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Software Installation Troubleshooting Building Life Cycle Cost Programs Software Installation Troubleshooting Having trouble downloading the Building Life Cycle Cost (BLCC) Programs software? Macintosh Operating Systems If you are receiving the "Download.app is damaged and can't be opened" error message when you attempt to install the BLCC software on your Macintosh operating system, visit the Tech Recipes website for instruction on how to change your security

  3. Commissioning tools for life-cycle building performance assurance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, M.A.

    1996-05-01

    This paper discusses information systems for building life-cycle performance analysis and the use of computer-based commissioning tools within this context. There are many reasons why buildings do not perform in practice as well as intended at the design stage. One reason is the lack of commissioning. A second reason is that design intent is not well documented, and performance targets for building components and systems are not well specified. Thus, criteria for defining verification and functional tests is unclear. A third reason is that critical information is often lost throughout the building life-cycle, which causes problems such as misunderstanding of operational characteristics and sequences and reduced overall performance. The life-cycle building performance analysis tools project discussed in this paper are focused on chillers and cooling systems.

  4. Building Life Cycle Cost Programs File Saving Troubleshooting | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy File Saving Troubleshooting Building Life Cycle Cost Programs File Saving Troubleshooting Some users have experienced difficulties saving BLCC projects. The primary issue causing the issue is that the user is not an "Administrator," and lacks the "permission" to save to that location. In this case, a user can save the BLCC project file anywhere else on the computer, such as "My Documents" or "Desktop". Below are instructions and a screen shot

  5. Building Life-Cycle Cost (BLCC) Program | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    useful for evaluating the costs and benefits of energy and water conservation and renewable energy projects. The life-cycle cost (LCC) of two or more alternative designs are...

  6. Performance metrics and life-cycle information management for building performance assurance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hitchcock, R.J.; Piette, M.A.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1998-06-01

    Commercial buildings account for over $85 billion per year in energy costs, which is far more energy than technically necessary. One of the primary reasons buildings do not perform as well as intended is that critical information is lost, through ineffective documentation and communication, leading to building systems that are often improperly installed and operated. A life-cycle perspective on the management of building information provides a framework for improving commercial building energy performance. This paper describes a project to develop strategies and techniques to provide decision-makers with information needed to assure the desired building performance across the complete life cycle of a building project. A key element in this effort is the development of explicit performance metrics that quantitatively represent performance objectives of interest to various building stakeholders. The paper begins with a discussion of key problems identified in current building industry practice, and ongoing work to address these problems. The paper then focuses on the concept of performance metrics and their use in improving building performance during design, commissioning, and on-going operations. The design of a Building Life-cycle Information System (BLISS) is presented. BLISS is intended to provide an information infrastructure capable of integrating a variety of building information technologies that support performance assurance. The use of performance metrics in case study building projects is explored to illustrate current best practice. The application of integrated information technology for improving current practice is discussed.

  7. Life-Cycle Evaluation of Concrete Building Construction as a Strategy for Sustainable Cities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadel, Alexander; Gursel, Petek; Masanet, Eric

    2012-01-18

    Structural materials in commercial buildings in the United States account for a significant fraction of national energy use, resource consumption, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Robust decisions for balancing and minimizing these various environmental effects require that structural materials selections follow a life-cycle, systems modeling approach. This report provides a concise overview of the development and use of a new life-cycle assessment (LCA) model for structural materials in U.S. commercial buildings-the Berkeley Lab Building Materials Pathways (B-PATH) model. B-PATH aims to enhance environmental decision-making in the commercial building LCA, design, and planning communities through the following key features: (1) Modeling of discrete technology options in the production, transportation, construction, and end of life processes associated U.S. structural building materials; (2) Modeling of energy supply options for electricity provision and directly combusted fuels across the building life cycle; (3) Comprehensiveness of relevant building mass and energy flows and environmental indicators; (4) Ability to estimate modeling uncertainties through easy creation of different life-cycle technology and energy supply pathways for structural materials; and (5) Encapsulation of the above features in a transparent public use model. The report summarizes literature review findings, methods development, model use, and recommendations for future work in the area of LCA for commercial buildings.

  8. Life Cycle Analysis and Energy Conservation Standards for State Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In January 2007, Ohio enacted HB 251 and Governor Ted Strickland issued Executive Order 2007-02S. Both initiatives amend state policy pertaining to energy efficiency in state buildings. H.B. 251...

  9. Life Cycle Inventory Database

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) Database serves as a central repository for information about the total energy and resource impacts of developing and using various commercial building materials...

  10. Global warming implications of facade parameters: A life cycle assessment of residential buildings in Bahrain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radhi, Hassan; Sharples, Stephen

    2013-01-15

    On a global scale, the Gulf Corporation Council Countries (GCCC), including Bahrain, are amongst the top countries in terms of carbon dioxide emissions per capita. Building authority in Bahrain has set a target of 40% reduction of electricity consumption and associated CO{sub 2} emissions to be achieved by using facade parameters. This work evaluates how the life cycle CO{sub 2} emissions of buildings are affected by facade parameters. The main focus is placed on direct and indirect CO{sub 2} emissions from three contributors, namely, chemical reactions during production processes (Pco{sub 2}), embodied energy (Eco{sub 2}) and operational energy (OPco{sub 2}). By means of the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, it has been possible to show that the greatest environmental impact occurs during the operational phase (80-90%). However, embodied CO{sub 2} emissions are an important factor that needs to be brought into the systems used for appraisal of projects, and hence into the design decisions made in developing projects. The assessment shows that masonry blocks are responsible for 70-90% of the total CO{sub 2} emissions of facade construction, mainly due to their physical characteristics. The highest Pco{sub 2} emissions factors are those of window elements, particularly aluminium frames. However, their contribution of CO{sub 2} emissions depends largely on the number and size of windows. Each square metre of glazing is able to increase the total CO{sub 2} emissions by almost 30% when compared with the same areas of opaque walls. The use of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) walls reduces the total life cycle CO{sub 2} emissions by almost 5.2% when compared with ordinary walls, while the use of thermal insulation with concrete wall reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by 1.2%. The outcome of this work offers to the building industry a reliable indicator of the environmental impact of residential facade parameters. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Life cycle carbon assessment of facade parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Greatest environmental impact occurs during the operational phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Masonry blocks are responsible for 70-90% of the total CO2 emissions of facade construction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Window contribution of CO2 emissions depends on the number and size of windows. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Without insulation, AAC walls offer more savings in CO2 emissions.

  11. Specification and implementation of IFC based performance metrics to support building life cycle assessment of hybrid energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrissey, Elmer; O'Donnell, James; Keane, Marcus; Bazjanac, Vladimir

    2004-03-29

    Minimizing building life cycle energy consumption is becoming of paramount importance. Performance metrics tracking offers a clear and concise manner of relating design intent in a quantitative form. A methodology is discussed for storage and utilization of these performance metrics through an Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) instantiated Building Information Model (BIM). The paper focuses on storage of three sets of performance data from three distinct sources. An example of a performance metrics programming hierarchy is displayed for a heat pump and a solar array. Utilizing the sets of performance data, two discrete performance effectiveness ratios may be computed, thus offering an accurate method of quantitatively assessing building performance.

  12. Life Cycle Cost Estimate

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Life-cycle costs (LCCs) are all the anticipated costs associated with a project or program alternative throughout its life. This includes costs from pre-operations through operations or to the end of the alternative.This chapter discusses life cycle costs and the role they play in planning.

  13. GREET Bioenergy Life Cycle Analysis and Key Issues for Woody...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GREET Bioenergy Life Cycle Analysis and Key Issues for Woody Feedstocks GREET Bioenergy Life Cycle Analysis and Key Issues for Woody Feedstocks Breakout Session 2D-Building Market ...

  14. Geothermal Life Cycle Calculator

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sullivan, John

    This calculator is a handy tool for interested parties to estimate two key life cycle metrics, fossil energy consumption (Etot) and greenhouse gas emission (ghgtot) ratios, for geothermal electric power production. It is based solely on data developed by Argonne National Laboratory for DOEs Geothermal Technologies office. The calculator permits the user to explore the impact of a range of key geothermal power production parameters, including plant capacity, lifetime, capacity factor, geothermal technology, well numbers and depths, field exploration, and others on the two metrics just mentioned. Estimates of variations in the results are also available to the user.

  15. Geothermal Life Cycle Calculator

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sullivan, John

    2014-03-11

    This calculator is a handy tool for interested parties to estimate two key life cycle metrics, fossil energy consumption (Etot) and greenhouse gas emission (ghgtot) ratios, for geothermal electric power production. It is based solely on data developed by Argonne National Laboratory for DOEs Geothermal Technologies office. The calculator permits the user to explore the impact of a range of key geothermal power production parameters, including plant capacity, lifetime, capacity factor, geothermal technology, well numbers and depths, field exploration, and others on the two metrics just mentioned. Estimates of variations in the results are also available to the user.

  16. Geothermal Life Cycle Calculator

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sullivan, John

    2014-03-11

    This calculator is a handy tool for interested parties to estimate two key life cycle metrics, fossil energy consumption (Etot) and greenhouse gas emission (ghgtot) ratios, for geothermal electric power production. It is based solely on data developed by Argonne National Laboratory for DOE’s Geothermal Technologies office. The calculator permits the user to explore the impact of a range of key geothermal power production parameters, including plant capacity, lifetime, capacity factor, geothermal technology, well numbers and depths, field exploration, and others on the two metrics just mentioned. Estimates of variations in the results are also available to the user.

  17. Life Cycle Asset Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1998-10-14

    (The following directives are deleted or consolidated into this Order and shall be phased out as noted in Paragraph 2: DOE 1332.1A; DOE 4010.1A; DOE 4300.1C; DOE 4320.1B; DOE 4320.2A; DOE 4330.4B; DOE 4330.5; DOE 4540.1C; DOE 4700.1). This Order supersedes specific project management provisions within DOE O 430.1A, LIFE CYCLE ASSET MANAGEMENT. The specific paragraphs canceled by this Order are 6e(7); 7a(3); 7b(11) and (14); 7c(4),(6),(7),(11), and (16); 7d(4) and (8); 7e(3),(10), and (17); Attachment 1, Definitions (item 30 - Line Item Project, item 42 - Project, item 48 - Strategic System); and Attachment 2, Contractor Requirements Document (paragraph 1d regarding a project management system). The remainder of DOE O 430.1A remains in effect. Cancels DOE O 430.1. Canceled by DOE O 413.3.

  18. Photovoltaics: Life-cycle Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fthenakis V. M.; Kim, H.C.

    2009-10-02

    Life-cycle analysis is an invaluable tool for investigating the environmental profile of a product or technology from cradle to grave. Such life-cycle analyses of energy technologies are essential, especially as material and energy flows are often interwoven, and divergent emissions into the environment may occur at different life-cycle-stages. This approach is well exemplified by our description of material and energy flows in four commercial PV technologies, i.e., mono-crystalline silicon, multi-crystalline silicon, ribbon-silicon, and cadmium telluride. The same life-cycle approach is applied to the balance of system that supports flat, fixed PV modules during operation. We also discuss the life-cycle environmental metrics for a concentration PV system with a tracker and lenses to capture more sunlight per cell area than the flat, fixed system but requires large auxiliary components. Select life-cycle risk indicators for PV, i.e., fatalities, injures, and maximum consequences are evaluated in a comparative context with other electricity-generation pathways.

  19. NREL: U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database Home Page

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U.S. Life-Cycle Inventory Database Buildings Research Photo of a green field with an ocean in the background. U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database NREL and its partners created the U.S. Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) Database to help life cycle assessment (LCA) practitioners answer questions about environmental impact. This database provides individual gate-to-gate, cradle-to-gate and cradle-to-grave accounting of the energy and material flows into and out of the environment that are associated with

  20. Title: The Life-cycle

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Life-cycle of Operons Authors: Morgan N. Price, Adam P. Arkin, and Eric J. Alm Author affiliation: Lawrence Berkeley Lab, Berkeley CA, USA and the Virtual Institute for Microbial Stress and Survival. A.P.A. is also affiliated with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the UC Berkeley Dept. of Bioengineering. Corresponding author: Eric Alm, ejalm@lbl.gov, phone 510-486-6899, fax 510-486-6219, address Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Road, Mailstop 977-152, Berkeley, CA 94720

  1. Technology development life cycle processes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, David Franklin

    2013-05-01

    This report and set of appendices are a collection of memoranda originally drafted in 2009 for the purpose of providing motivation and the necessary background material to support the definition and integration of engineering and management processes related to technology development. At the time there was interest and support to move from Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level One (ad hoc processes) to Level Three. As presented herein, the material begins with a survey of open literature perspectives on technology development life cycles, including published data on %E2%80%9Cwhat went wrong.%E2%80%9D The main thrust of the material presents a rational expose%CC%81 of a structured technology development life cycle that uses the scientific method as a framework, with further rigor added from adapting relevant portions of the systems engineering process. The material concludes with a discussion on the use of multiple measures to assess technology maturity, including consideration of the viewpoint of potential users.

  2. Technical Cost Modeling - Life Cycle Analysis Basis for Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Technical Cost Modeling - Life Cycle Analysis Basis for Program Focus Technical Cost Modeling - Life Cycle Analysis Basis for Program Focus Life Cycle ...

  3. GREET Life-Cycle Analysis of Biofuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... and data to Billion Ton Study Sustainability Chapter in collaboration with other ... and academia use to assess life-cycle energy and environmental metrics of biofuels. ...

  4. Life Cycle Modeling of Propulsion Materials | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The U.S. Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) Database serves as a central repository for information about the total energy and resource impacts of developing and using various commercial building materials, components, and assemblies. The database helps manufacturers, building designers, and developers select energy-efficient and environmentally friendly materials, products, and processes for their projects based on the environmental impact of an item over its entire lifespan. The U.S. Department of

  5. Updating the LED Life Cycle Assessment

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Part 2: LED Manufacturing and Performance 7 Goal of the New Study Review new literature on the life- cycle assessment of LED products. Determine if newer A-19 products...

  6. Techno-Economics & Life Cycle Assessment (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, A.; Davis, R.

    2011-12-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the techno-economic analysis (TEA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) capabilities at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and describes the value of working with NREL on TEA and LCA.

  7. Life-Cycle Analysis of Geothermal Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The results and tools from this project will help GTP and stakeholders determine and communicate GT energy and GHG benefits and water impacts. The life-cycle analysis (LCA) approach is taken to address these effects.

  8. Closing the Lithium-ion Battery Life Cycle: Poster handout |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Closing the Lithium-ion Battery Life Cycle: Poster handout Title Closing the Lithium-ion Battery Life Cycle: Poster handout Publication Type Miscellaneous Year of Publication 2014...

  9. Technical Cost Modeling - Life Cycle Analysis Basis for Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Technical Cost Modeling - Life Cycle Analysis Basis for Program Focus Technical Cost Modeling - Life Cycle Analysis Basis for Program Focus Polymer ...

  10. Technical Cost Modeling - Life Cycle Analysis Basis for Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Technical Cost Modeling - Life Cycle Analysis Basis for Program Focus Technical Cost Modeling - Life Cycle Analysis Basis for Program Focus ...

  11. Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Production via Natural Gas...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Production via Natural Gas Steam Reforming Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Production via Natural Gas Steam Reforming A life cycle assessment of hydrogen production via ...

  12. Bioproduct Life Cycle Analysis with the GREETTM Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bioproduct Life Cycle Analysis with the GREET TM Model Jennifer B. Dunn Biofuel Life Cycle Analysis Team Lead Systems Assessment Group Argonne National Laboratory Biomass 2014 July ...

  13. Bioproduct Life Cycle Analysis with the GREET Model | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bioeconomy Bioproduct Life Cycle Analysis with the GREETTM Model Jennifer B. Dunn, Biofuel Life Cycle Analysis Team Lead, Argonne National Laboratory PDF icon ...

  14. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products PDF icon ...

  15. GREET Bioenergy Life Cycle Analysis and Key Issues for Woody Feedstocks |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy GREET Bioenergy Life Cycle Analysis and Key Issues for Woody Feedstocks GREET Bioenergy Life Cycle Analysis and Key Issues for Woody Feedstocks Breakout Session 2D-Building Market Confidence and Understanding II: Carbon Accounting and Woody Biofuels GREET Bioenergy Life Cycle Analysis and Key Issues for Woody Feedstocks Michael Wang, Senior Scientist, Energy Systems, Argonne National Laboratory PDF icon wang_biomass_2014.pdf More Documents & Publications Resource

  16. GREET Development and Applications for Life-Cycle Analysis of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development and Applications for Life-Cycle Analysis of VehicleFuel Systems Michael Wang, ... (a.k.a. vehicle cycle) for a complete life-cycle analysis (LCA) Establish a ...

  17. Tropical Cloud Life Cycle and Overlap Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tropical Cloud Life Cycle and Overlap Structure Vogelmann, Andrew Brookhaven National Laboratory Jensen, Michael Brookhaven National Laboratory Kollias, Pavlos Brookhaven National Laboratory Luke, Edward Brookhaven National Laboratory Boer, Erwin LUEBEC Category: Cloud Properties The profile of cloud microphysical properties and how the clouds are overlapped within a vertical column have a profound impact on the radiative transfer and subsequent general circulation model simulations. We will

  18. Life Cycle Assessment of Renewable Hydrogen Production viaWind...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Hydrogen Production via WindElectrolysis: Milestone Completion Report Life ... Analysis Activities at National Renewable Energy Laboratory Life Cycle Assessment of ...

  19. U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database Roadmap (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deru, M.

    2009-08-01

    Life cycle inventory data are the primary inputs for conducting life cycle assessment studies. Studies based on high-quality data that are consistent, accurate, and relevant allow for robust, defensible, and meaningful results.

  20. U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-08-01

    Life cycle inventory data are the primary inputs for conducting life cycle assessment studies. Studies based on high-quality data that are consistent, accurate, and relevant allow for robust, defensible, and meaningful results.

  1. Day4 Energy Certus Life Cycle JV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Day4 Energy Certus Life Cycle JV Jump to: navigation, search Name: Day4 Energy & Certus Life Cycle JV Place: Italy Product: JV company will develop photovoltaic power projects in...

  2. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products Part 2: LED Manufacturing and Performance Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Life-Cycle ...

  3. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products This March 28, ...

  4. Life-Cycle Analysis Results of Geothermal Systems in Comparison...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Life-Cycle Analysis Results of Geothermal Systems in Comparison to Other Power Systems A life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions analysis has been conducted with Argonne ...

  5. Bioproduct Life Cycle Analysis with the GREET Model

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 2B—Integration of Supply Chains II: Bioproducts—Enabling Biofuels and Growing the Bioeconomy Bioproduct Life Cycle Analysis with the GREET Model Jennifer B. Dunn, Biofuel Life Cycle Analysis Team Lead, Argonne National Laboratory

  6. Life-Cycle Analysis Results of Geothermal Systems in Comparison...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Life-Cycle Analysis Results of Geothermal Systems in Comparison to Other Power Systems Life-Cycle Analysis Results of Geothermal Systems in Comparison to Other Power Systems A ...

  7. GREET Development and Applications for Life-Cycle Analysis of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GREET Development and Applications for Life-Cycle Analysis of VehicleFuel Systems GREET Development and Applications for Life-Cycle Analysis of VehicleFuel Systems 2013 DOE ...

  8. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products Part I: Review of the Life-Cycle Energy Consumption of Incandescent, Compact Fluorescent, and LED ...

  9. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Solar Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that helps to clarify inconsistent and conflicting life cycle GHG emission estimates in the published literature and provide more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from PV systems.

  10. Life Cycle Nitrogen Trifluoride Emissions from Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fthenakis, V.

    2010-10-25

    Amorphous- and nanocrystalline-silicon thin-film photovoltaic modules are made in high-throughput manufacturing lines that necessitate quickly cleaning the reactor. Using NF{sub 3}, a potent greenhouse gas, as the cleaning agent triggered concerns as recent reports reveal that the atmospheric concentrations of this gas have increased significantly. We quantified the life-cycle emissions of NF{sub 3} in photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing, on the basis of actual measurements at the facilities of a major producer of NF{sub 3} and of a manufacturer of PV end-use equipment. From these, we defined the best practices and technologies that are the most likely to keep worldwide atmospheric concentrations of NF{sub 3} at very low radiative forcing levels. For the average U.S. insolation and electricity-grid conditions, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from manufacturing and using NF{sub 3} in current PV a-Si and tandem a-Si/nc-Si facilities add 2 and 7 g CO{sub 2eq}/kWh, which can be displaced within the first 1-4 months of the PV system life.

  11. Life-cycle environmental analysis--A three dimensional view

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutherlin, K.L.; Black, R.E. )

    1993-01-01

    Both the US Air Force and the US Army have recently increased their emphasis on life-cycles of weapons systems. Along with that emphasis, there has also been an increase in emphasis in life-cycle National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation. Conflicts and inefficiencies arise when a weapon system is fielded and prompts the need for a site-specific environmental analysis. In their research and experience, the authors found no real link between life-cycle environmental analysis and site-specific environmental analyses required at various points within the life-cycle of a weapon. This other look at the relation between life-cycle and site-specific environmental analyses has the potential to increase efficiency in NEPA compliance actions and save tax dollars in the process. The authors present a three-dimensional model that relates life-cycle analyses to site-specific analyses.

  12. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied Natural Gas

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    from the United States | Department of Energy Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied Natural Gas from the United States Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied Natural Gas from the United States This analysis calculates the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for regional coal and imported natural gas power in Europe and Asia. The primary research questions are as follows: *How does exported liquefied natural gas (LNG) from the U.S. compare

  13. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied Natural Gas

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from the United States | Department of Energy Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied Natural Gas from the United States Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied Natural Gas from the United States On May 29, 2014, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy announced the availability for public review and comment the report Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied Natural Gas from the United States (LCA GHG Report).

  14. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS; LIFE CYCLE; ...

  15. NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis 2005 Baseline Model AgencyCompany Organization: National Energy Technology...

  16. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Part 2: LED Manufacturing and Performance Scholand, Michael; Dillon, Heather E. 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS; LIFE CYCLE;...

  17. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... life-cycle environmental impact of the LED lamps is favorable when compared to CFLs and incandescent lamps, recycling will likely gain importance as consumer adoption increases. ...

  18. Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in Hot and Humid Climate Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on...

  19. GREET Bioenergy Life Cycle Analysis and Key Issues for Woody...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bioenergy Life Cycle Analysis and Key Issues for Woody Feedstocks Michael Wang Systems Assessment Section Energy Systems Division Argonne National Laboratory Biomass 2014 ...

  20. Lithium / Sulfur Cells with Long Cycle Life and High Specific...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Sulfur Cells with Long Cycle Life and High Specific Energy Lawrence Berkeley ... Song, M-K., Zhang, Y., Cairns, E.J., "A long-life, high-rate lithiumsulfur cell: a ...

  1. End-of-life flows of multiple cycle consumer products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsiliyannis, C.A.

    2011-11-15

    Explicit expressions for the end-of-life flows (EOL) of single and multiple cycle products (MCPs) are presented, including deterministic and stochastic EOL exit. The expressions are given in terms of the physical parameters (maximum lifetime, T, annual cycling frequency, f, number of cycles, N, and early discard or usage loss). EOL flows are also obtained for hi-tech products, which are rapidly renewed and thus may not attain steady state (e.g. electronic products, passenger cars). A ten-step recursive procedure for obtaining the dynamic EOL flow evolution is proposed. Applications of the EOL expressions and the ten-step procedure are given for electric household appliances, industrial machinery, tyres, vehicles and buildings, both for deterministic and stochastic EOL exit, (normal, Weibull and uniform exit distributions). The effect of the physical parameters and the stochastic characteristics on the EOL flow is investigated in the examples: it is shown that the EOL flow profile is determined primarily by the early discard dynamics; it also depends strongly on longevity and cycling frequency: higher lifetime or early discard/loss imply lower dynamic and steady state EOL flows. The stochastic exit shapes the overall EOL dynamic profile: Under symmetric EOL exit distribution, as the variance of the distribution increases (uniform to normal to deterministic) the initial EOL flow rise becomes steeper but the steady state or maximum EOL flow level is lower. The steepest EOL flow profile, featuring the highest steady state or maximum level, as well, corresponds to skew, earlier shifted EOL exit (e.g. Weibull). Since the EOL flow of returned products consists the sink of the reuse/remanufacturing cycle (sink to recycle) the results may be used in closed loop product lifecycle management operations for scheduling and sizing reverse manufacturing and for planning recycle logistics. Decoupling and quantification of both the full age EOL and of the early discard flows is useful, the latter being the target of enacted legislation aiming at increasing reuse.

  2. Delaware Company Breathes New Life into Old Post Office Building |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Company Breathes New Life into Old Post Office Building Delaware Company Breathes New Life into Old Post Office Building November 26, 2013 - 12:51pm Addthis Thanks to the Energy Department, Delaware-based Brandywine CAD Design was able to breathe new life into a local historic building while saving on its energy costs. | Photo courtesy of Brandywine CAD Design. Thanks to the Energy Department, Delaware-based Brandywine CAD Design was able to breathe new life into a local

  3. LIFE vs. LWR: End of the Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J C; Blink, J A; Shaw, H F

    2008-10-02

    The worldwide energy consumption in 2003 was 421 quadrillion Btu (Quads), and included 162 quads for oil, 99 quads for natural gas, 100 quads for coal, 27 quads for nuclear energy, and 33 quads for renewable sources. The projected worldwide energy consumption for 2030 is 722 quads, corresponding to an increase of 71% over the consumption in 2003. The projected consumption for 2030 includes 239 quads for oil, 190 quads for natural gas, 196 quads for coal, 35 quads for nuclear energy, and 62 quads for renewable sources [International Energy Outlook, DOE/EIA-0484, Table D1 (2006) p. 133]. The current fleet of light water reactors (LRWs) provides about 20% of current U.S. electricity, and about 16% of current world electricity. The demand for electricity is expected to grow steeply in this century, as the developing world increases its standard of living. With the increasing price for oil and gasoline within the United States, as well as fear that our CO2 production may be driving intolerable global warming, there is growing pressure to move away from oil, natural gas, and coal towards nuclear energy. Although there is a clear need for nuclear energy, issues facing waste disposal have not been adequately dealt with, either domestically or internationally. Better technological approaches, with better public acceptance, are needed. Nuclear power has been criticized on both safety and waste disposal bases. The safety issues are based on the potential for plant damage and environmental effects due to either nuclear criticality excursions or loss of cooling. Redundant safety systems are used to reduce the probability and consequences of these risks for LWRs. LIFE engines are inherently subcritical, reducing the need for systems to control the fission reactivity. LIFE engines also have a fuel type that tolerates much higher temperatures than LWR fuel, and has two safety systems to remove decay heat in the event of loss of coolant or loss of coolant flow. These features of LIFE are expected to result in a more straightforward licensing process and are also expected to improve the public perception of risk from nuclear power generation, transportation of nuclear materials, and nuclear waste disposal. Waste disposal is an ongoing issue for LWRs. The conventional (once-through) LWR fuel cycle treats unburned fuel as waste, and results in the current fleet of LWRs producing about twice as much waste in their 60 years of operation as is legally permitted to be disposed of in Yucca Mountain. Advanced LWR fuel cycles would recycle the unused fuel, such that each GWe-yr of electricity generation would produce only a small waste volume compared to the conventional fuel cycle. However, the advanced LWR fuel cycle requires chemical reprocessing plants for the fuel, multiple handling of radioactive materials, and an extensive transportation network for the fuel and waste. In contrast, the LIFE engine requires only one fueling for the plant lifetime, has no chemical reprocessing, and has a single shipment of a small amount of waste per GWe-yr of electricity generation. Public perception of the nuclear option will be improved by the reduction, for LIFE engines, of the number of shipments of radioactive material per GWe-yr and the need to build multiple repositories. In addition, LIFE fuel requires neither enrichment nor reprocessing, eliminating the two most significant pathways to proliferation from commercial nuclear fuel to weapons programs.

  4. Program Evaluation: Program Life Cycle | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    parts of a program's life cycle (e.g., Creating a program, Program is underway, ... If major changes are occurring in external factors that may affect program outcomes (e.g., ...

  5. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The LCA GHG Report compares life cycle GHG emissions from U.S. LNG exports to regional coal and other imported natural gas for electric power generation in Europe and Asia. The LCA ...

  6. Improving the Cycling Life of Aluminum and Germanium Thin Films...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Li-Ion Batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Improving the Cycling Life of Aluminum and Germanium Thin Films for use as Anodic Materials in Li-Ion Batteries. You ...

  7. Life-Cycle Analysis Results of Geothermal Systems in Comparison...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... J. Han, and M. Wang ABSTRACT A life-cycle energy and ... metric tons - tonnes; first four are modeling results; ... This result is, of course, expected as no commercial process ...

  8. Beyond pollution prevention: Managing life-cycle costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohan, D.; Gess, D. )

    1993-01-01

    Companies that purchases and use chemicals and materials in their everyday operation are finding that disposing of these products is becoming increasingly expensive. These disposal and liability costs have been the motivating factor behind recent efforts at pollution prevention. This paper suggests an alternative approach: considering the full life-cycle costs of chemicals and materials at the time purchase decisions are made. Life-cycle cost is the sum of all the costs that a product is expected to incur from the time of its purchase, during its use, until the disposal of any wastes or by-products and beyond as long as liabilities may remain. It represents the product's real cost to the company, and as such is a better basis for making cost-effective decisions. By using life-cycle costs to make decisions, companies can prevent uneconomical decisions on potentially hazardous materials and more effectively minimize overall costs. Life-cycle cost management can also help in the formulation of pollution prevention plans by identifying cost-effective waste-reduction alternatives. Although the concepts of life-cycle cost management are straightforward and intuitive, applying these concepts to real decisions may be challenging. This paper presents an overview of life-cycle cost management, discusses some of the challenges companies face applying this approach to real decisions, and provides solutions that meet these challenges.

  9. GREET Model Expanded to Better Address Biofuel Life-Cycle Analysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GREET Model Expanded to Better Address Biofuel Life-Cycle Analysis Research Questions GREET Model Expanded to Better Address Biofuel Life-Cycle Analysis Research Questions November ...

  10. LIFE Materials: Fuel Cycle and Repository Volume 11

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, H; Blink, J A

    2008-12-12

    The fusion-fission LIFE engine concept provides a path to a sustainable energy future based on safe, carbon-free nuclear power with minimal nuclear waste. The LIFE design ultimately offers many advantages over current and proposed nuclear energy technologies, and could well lead to a true worldwide nuclear energy renaissance. When compared with existing and other proposed future nuclear reactor designs, the LIFE engine exceeds alternatives in the most important measures of proliferation resistance and waste minimization. The engine needs no refueling during its lifetime. It requires no removal of fuel or fissile material generated in the LIFE engine. It leaves no weapons-attractive material at the end of life. Although there is certainly a need for additional work, all indications are that the 'back end' of the fuel cycle does not to raise any 'showstopper' issues for LIFE. Indeed, the LIFE concept has numerous benefits: (1) Per unit of electricity generated, LIFE engines would generate 20-30 times less waste (in terms of mass of heavy metal) requiring disposal in a HLW repository than does the current once-through fuel cycle. (2) Although there may be advanced fuel cycles that can compete with LIFE's low mass flow of heavy metal, all such systems require reprocessing, with attendant proliferation concerns; LIFE engines can do this without enrichment or reprocessing. Moreover, none of the advanced fuel cycles can match the low transuranic content of LIFE waste. (3) The specific thermal power of LIFE waste is initially higher than that of spent LWR fuel. Nevertheless, this higher thermal load can be managed using appropriate engineering features during an interim storage period, and could be accommodated in a Yucca-Mountain-like repository by appropriate 'staging' of the emplacement of waste packages during the operational period of the repository. The planned ventilation rates for Yucca Mountain would be sufficient for LIFE waste to meet the thermal constraints of the repository design. (4) A simple, but arguably conservative, estimate for the dose from a repository containing 63,000 MT of spent LIFE fuel would have similar performance to the currently planned Yucca Mountain Repository. This indicates that a properly designed 'LIFE Repository' would almost certainly meet the proposed Nuclear Regulatory Commission standards for dose to individuals, even though the waste in such a repository would have produced 20-30 times more generated electricity than the reference case for Yucca Mountain. The societal risk/benefit ratio for a LIFE repository would therefore be significantly better than for currently planned repositories for LWR fuel.

  11. Using Life Cycle Energy Analysis for More Sustainable Manufacturing |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Using Life Cycle Energy Analysis for More Sustainable Manufacturing Using Life Cycle Energy Analysis for More Sustainable Manufacturing April 22, 2016 - 10:58am Addthis Earth Day is a great reminder of the importance of caring for the environment, but in addition to April 22, the Department of Energy (DOE) works year round to address climate change issues and ensure energy security for the U.S. While conscientious energy use is critical to addressing threats from climate

  12. Monitored Geologic Repository Life Cycle Cost Estimate Assumptions Document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Sweeney

    2000-03-08

    The purpose of this assumptions document is to provide general scope, strategy, technical basis, schedule and cost assumptions for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) life cycle cost estimate and schedule update incorporating information from the Viability Assessment (VA), License Application Design Selection (LADS), 1999 Update to the Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) estimate and from other related and updated information. This document is intended to generally follow the assumptions outlined in the previous MGR cost estimates and as further prescribed by DOE guidance.

  13. MONITORED GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY LIFE CYCLE COST ESTIMATE ASSUMPTIONS DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.E. Sweeney

    2001-02-08

    The purpose of this assumptions document is to provide general scope, strategy, technical basis, schedule and cost assumptions for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) life cycle cost (LCC) estimate and schedule update incorporating information from the Viability Assessment (VA) , License Application Design Selection (LADS), 1999 Update to the Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) estimate and from other related and updated information. This document is intended to generally follow the assumptions outlined in the previous MGR cost estimates and as further prescribed by DOE guidance.

  14. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation Fact Sheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As clean energy increasingly becomes part of the national dialogue, lenders, utilities, and lawmakers need the most comprehensive and accurate information on GHG emissions from various sources of energy to inform policy, planning, and investment decisions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that gives decision makers and investors more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for renewable and conventional generation, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature, and reducing uncertainty.

  15. Life Cycle Modeling of Propulsion Materials | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    0 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon pm034_das_2010_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Life Cycle Modeling of Propulsion Materials Materials for Advanced Turbocharger Designs CF8C PLus: A New Cast Stainless Steel for High-Temperature Diesel Exhaust Components

  16. U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database Roadmap (Brochure) | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Life Cycle Inventory Database Roadmap (Brochure) U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database Roadmap (Brochure) Life cycle inventory data are the primary inputs for conducting life cycle assessment studies. Studies based on high-quality data that are consistent, accurate, and relevant allow for robust, defensible, and meaningful results. PDF icon 45153.pdf More Documents & Publications Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products Vehicle Technologies

  17. Impact of the 3Cs of Batteries on PHEV Value Proposition: Cost, Calendar Life, and Cycle Life (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Smith, K.; Markel, T.

    2009-06-01

    Battery cost, calendar life, and cycle life are three important challenges for those commercializing plug-in hybrid electric vehicles; battery life is sensitive to temperature and solar loading.

  18. Process integrated modelling for steelmaking Life Cycle Inventory analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iosif, Ana-Maria Hanrot, Francois Ablitzer, Denis

    2008-10-15

    During recent years, strict environmental regulations have been implemented by governments for the steelmaking industry in order to reduce their environmental impact. In the frame of the ULCOS project, we have developed a new methodological framework which combines the process integrated modelling approach with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method in order to carry out the Life Cycle Inventory of steelmaking. In the current paper, this new concept has been applied to the sinter plant which is the most polluting steelmaking process. It has been shown that this approach is a powerful tool to make the collection of data easier, to save time and to provide reliable information concerning the environmental diagnostic of the steelmaking processes.

  19. Life-cycle analysis of shale gas and natural gas.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M.

    2012-01-27

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  20. Design study of long-life PWR using thorium cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subkhi, Moh. Nurul; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul

    2012-06-06

    Design study of long-life Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) using thorium cycle has been performed. Thorium cycle in general has higher conversion ratio in the thermal spectrum domain than uranium cycle. Cell calculation, Burn-up and multigroup diffusion calculation was performed by PIJ-CITATION-SRAC code using libraries based on JENDL 3.2. The neutronic analysis result of infinite cell calculation shows that {sup 231}Pa better than {sup 237}Np as burnable poisons in thorium fuel system. Thorium oxide system with 8%{sup 233}U enrichment and 7.6{approx} 8%{sup 231}Pa is the most suitable fuel for small-long life PWR core because it gives reactivity swing less than 1%{Delta}k/k and longer burn up period (more than 20 year). By using this result, small long-life PWR core can be designed for long time operation with reduced excess reactivity as low as 0.53%{Delta}k/k and reduced power peaking during its operation.

  1. Energy Standards for Public Buildings | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Comprehensive MeasuresWhole Building CHPCogeneration Yes Life-Cycle Analysis and Energy Efficiency in State Buildings (Missouri) Energy Standards for Public Buildings Missouri...

  2. ARM - Field Campaign - Aerosol Life Cycle: UV-APS and Nano-SMPS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsAerosol Life Cycle: UV-APS and Nano-SMPS ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Aerosol Life Cycle IOP at BNL 2011.06.01, Sedlacek, OSC Comments? We would...

  3. Pump Life Cycle Costs: A Guide to LCC Analysis for Pumping Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Life Cycle Costs: A Guide to LCC Analysis for Pumping Systems - Executive Summary Pump ... PDF icon Pump Life Cycle Costs: A Guide to LCC Analysis for Pumping Systems - Executive ...

  4. Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Handbook Final Version 9-30-14

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This handbook provides procedures, information, examples, and tools to develop consistent and defensible life-cycle cost estimates (LCCE) and perform appropriate life-cycle cost analyses (LCCA) for capital projects. LCC Handbook – Final, September 2014

  5. Guidance on Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Required by Executive Order...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis - 2015 Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Handbook Final Version 9-30-14 High Impact ...

  6. Development of a Long-Life-Cycle, Highly Water-Resistant Solar...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of a Long-Life-Cycle, Highly Water-Resistant Solar Reflective Retrofit Roof Coating Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of a Long-Life-Cycle, Highly ...

  7. Assessment of Projected Life-Cycle Costs for Wave, Tidal, Ocean...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Assessment of Projected Life-Cycle Costs for Wave, Tidal, Ocean Current, and In-Stream Hydrokinetic Power Assessment of Projected Life-Cycle Costs for Wave, Tidal, Ocean Current, ...

  8. Guidance on Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Required by Executive Order 13123

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Guide describes the clarification of how agencies determine the life-cycle cost for investments required by Executive Order 13123.

  9. Life Cycle Assessments Confirm the Need for Hydropower and Nuclear Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gagnon, L.

    2004-10-03

    This paper discusses the use of life cycle assessments to confirm the need for hydropower and nuclear energy.

  10. Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K.

    1998-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

  11. Background and Reflections on the Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Despite the ever-growing body of life cycle assessment literature on electricity generation technologies, inconsistent methods and assumptions hamper comparison across studies and pooling of published results. Synthesis of the body of previous research is necessary to generate robust results to assess and compare environmental performance of different energy technologies for the benefit of policy makers, managers, investors, and citizens. With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory initiated the LCA Harmonization Project in an effort to rigorously leverage the numerous individual studies to develop collective insights.

  12. Life cycle assessment of bagasse waste management options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiatkittipong, Worapon; Wongsuchoto, Porntip; Pavasant, Prasert

    2009-05-15

    Bagasse is mostly utilized for steam and power production for domestic sugar mills. There have been a number of alternatives that could well be applied to manage bagasse, such as pulp production, conversion to biogas and electricity production. The selection of proper alternatives depends significantly on the appropriateness of the technology both from the technical and the environmental points of view. This work proposes a simple model based on the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental impacts of various alternatives for dealing with bagasse waste. The environmental aspects of concern included global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential and photochemical oxidant creation. Four waste management scenarios for bagasse were evaluated: landfilling with utilization of landfill gas, anaerobic digestion with biogas production, incineration for power generation, and pulp production. In landfills, environmental impacts depended significantly on the biogas collection efficiency, whereas incineration of bagasse to electricity in the power plant showed better environmental performance than that of conventional low biogas collection efficiency landfills. Anaerobic digestion of bagasse in a control biogas reactor was superior to the other two energy generation options in all environmental aspects. Although the use of bagasse in pulp mills created relatively high environmental burdens, the results from the LCA revealed that other stages of the life cycle produced relatively small impacts and that this option might be the most environmentally benign alternative.

  13. Life-Cycle Assessment of Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Production*

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steele, Philip; Puettmann, Maureen E.; Penmetsa, Venkata Kanthi; Cooper, Jerome E.

    2012-07-01

    As part ofthe Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials' Phase I life-cycle assessments ofbiofuels, lifecycle inventory burdens from the production of bio-oil were developed and compared with measures for residual fuel oil. Bio-oil feedstock was produced using whole southern pine (Pinus taeda) trees, chipped, and converted into bio-oil by fast pyrolysis. Input parameters and mass and energy balances were derived with Aspen. Mass and energy balances were input to SimaPro to determine the environmental performance of bio-oil compared with residual fuel oil as a heating fuel. Equivalent functional units of 1 MJ were used for demonstrating environmental preference in impact categories, such as fossil fuel use and global warming potential. Results showed near carbon neutrality of the bio-oil. Substituting bio-oil for residual fuel oil, based on the relative carbon emissions of the two fuels, estimated a reduction in CO2 emissions by 0.075 kg CO2 per MJ of fuel combustion or a 70 percent reduction in emission over residual fuel oil. The bio-oil production life-cycle stage consumed 92 percent of the total cradle-to-grave energy requirements, while feedstock collection, preparation, and transportation consumed 4 percent each. This model provides a framework to better understand the major factors affecting greenhouse gas emissions related to bio-oil production and conversion to boiler fuel during fast pyrolysis.

  14. Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power L-CAT).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andruski, Joel; Drennen, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    The Power Systems L-CAT is a high-level dynamic model that calculates levelized production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies: natural gas combined cycle (using either imported (LNGCC) or domestic natural gas (NGCC)), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC), existing pulverized coal (EXPC), nuclear, and wind. All of the fossil fuel technologies also include an option for including carbon capture and sequestration technologies (CCS). The model allows for quick sensitivity analysis on key technical and financial assumptions, such as: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; taxes; depreciation; and capacity factors. The fossil fuel options are based on detailed life cycle analysis reports conducted by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). For each of these technologies, NETL's detailed LCAs include consideration of five stages associated with energy production: raw material acquisition (RMA), raw material transport (RMT), energy conversion facility (ECF), product transportation and distribution (PT&D), and end user electricity consumption. The goal of the NETL studies is to compare existing and future fossil fuel technology options using a cradle-to-grave analysis. The NETL reports consider constant dollar levelized cost of delivered electricity, total plant costs, greenhouse gas emissions, criteria air pollutants, mercury (Hg) and ammonia (NH3) emissions, water withdrawal and consumption, and land use (acreage).

  15. Going with the flow: Life cycle costing for industrial pumpingsystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tutterow, Vestal; Hovstadius, Gunnar; McKane, Aimee

    2002-07-08

    Industries worldwide depend upon pumping systems for theirdaily operation. These systems account for nearly 20 percent of theworld's industrial electrical energy demand and range from 25-50 percentof the energy usage in certain industrial plant operations. Purchasedecisions for a pump and its related system components are typicallybased upon a low bid, rather than the cost to operate the system over itslifetime. Additionally, plant facilities personnel are typically focussedon maintaining existing pumping system reliability rather than optimizingthe systems for best energy efficiency. To ensure the lowest energy andmaintenance costs, equipment life, and other benefits, the systemcomponents must be carefully matched to each other, and remain sothroughout their working lives. Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis is a toolthat can help companies minimize costs and maximize energy efficiency formany types of systems, including pumping systems. Increasing industryawareness of the total cost of pumping system ownership through lifecycle cost analysis is a goal of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Thispaper will discuss what DOE and its industry partners are doing to createthis awareness. A guide book, Pump Life Cycle Costs: A Guide to LCCAnalysis for Pumping Systems, developed by the Hydraulic Institute (HI)and Europump (two pump manufacturer trade associations) with DOEinvolvement, will be overviewed. This guide book is the result of thediligent efforts of many members of both associations, and has beenreviewed by a group of industrial end-users. The HI/Europump Guideprovides detailed guidance on the design and maintenance of pumpingsystems to minimize the cost of ownership, as well as LCC analysis. DOE,Hydraulic Institute, and other organizations' efforts to promote LCCanalysis, such as pump manufacturers adopting LCC analysis as a marketingstrategy, will be highlighted and a relevant case studyprovided.

  16. Building Life Cycle Cost Programs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ratio, adjusted internal rate of return, and years to payback. BLCC is programmed in Java with an XML file format. The user's guide is part of the BLCC Help system. If you are...

  17. Extended Life Program asks 'How do you make your buildings last?' |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Y-12 National Security Complex Extended Life Program asks ... Extended Life Program asks 'How do you make your buildings last?' Posted: March 24, 2016 - 9:39am Building 9204-2E is one of the Y-12 buildings that the Extended Life Program would help. Y-12 is developing an Extended Life Program, or ELP, for Buildings 9215 and 9204-2E, two key processing facilities at the site. These two facilities will house all material processing activities not incorporated into the Uranium Processing

  18. Copper-tin Electrodes Improve Capacity and Cycle Life for Lithium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cycle Life for Lithium Batteries Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology TEM and XRD of a Copper-Tin Material Used in Li Batteries (left), and cycling ...

  19. GREET Model Expanded to Better Address Biofuel Life-Cycle Analysis Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Questions | Department of Energy GREET Model Expanded to Better Address Biofuel Life-Cycle Analysis Research Questions GREET Model Expanded to Better Address Biofuel Life-Cycle Analysis Research Questions November 23, 2015 - 2:57pm Addthis GREET Model Expanded to Better Address Biofuel Life-Cycle Analysis Research Questions The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model allows researchers and analysts to fully evaluate the energy and emission

  20. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Products, Part 3: LED Environmental Testing (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products, Part 3: LED Environmental Testing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products, Part 3: LED Environmental Testing This report covers the third part of a larger U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project to assess the life-cycle

  1. FY 2007 Total System Life Cycle Cost, Pub 2008 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FY 2007 Total System Life Cycle Cost, Pub 2008 FY 2007 Total System Life Cycle Cost, Pub 2008 The Analysis of the Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program presents the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management's (OCRWM) May 2007 total system cost estimate for the disposal of the Nation's spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The TSLCC analysis provides a basis for assessing the adequacy of the Nuclear Waste Fund

  2. Life-Cycle Analysis Results of Geothermal Systems in Comparison to Other

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power Systems | Department of Energy Life-Cycle Analysis Results of Geothermal Systems in Comparison to Other Power Systems Life-Cycle Analysis Results of Geothermal Systems in Comparison to Other Power Systems A life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions analysis has been conducted with Argonne National Laboratory's GREET model for geothermal power-generating technologies, including enhanced geothermal, hydrothermal flash, and hydrothermal binary technologies. PDF icon

  3. Pump Life Cycle Costs: A Guide to LCC Analysis for Pumping Systems -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Executive Summary | Department of Energy Life Cycle Costs: A Guide to LCC Analysis for Pumping Systems - Executive Summary Pump Life Cycle Costs: A Guide to LCC Analysis for Pumping Systems - Executive Summary This brochure is a management tool that can help companies minimize waste and maximize energy efficiency for pumping systems. PDF icon Pump Life Cycle Costs: A Guide to LCC Analysis for Pumping Systems - Executive Summary (January 2001) More Documents & Publications Variable Speed

  4. Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2015 | Department of Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis - 2015 Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis - 2015 Handbook describes the annual supplements to the NIST Handbook 135 and NBS Special Publication 709. PDF icon Download the handbook. More Documents & Publications Guidance on Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Required by Executive Order 13123 Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate

  5. The Life-cycle of Operons (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Life-cycle of Operons Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Life-cycle of Operons Operons are a major feature of all prokaryotic genomes, buthow and why operon structures vary is not well understood. To elucidatethe life-cycle of operons, we compared gene order between Escherichiacoli K12 and its relatives and identified the recently formed anddestroyed operons in E. coli. This allowed us to determine how operonsform, how they become closely spaced, and how they die. Our

  6. Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Handbook Final Version 9-30-14 | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Final Version 9-30-14 This handbook provides procedures, information, examples, and tools to develop consistent and defensible life-cycle cost estimates (LCCE) and perform...

  7. Waste-To-Energy Techno-Economic Analysis and Life-Cycle Analysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Statement * Conduct the techno-economic analysis (TEA) and life-cycle analysis (LCA) of ... 3 | Bioenergy Technologies Office Quad Chart Overview * Started: January 2014 * End: ...

  8. Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Guidance on Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Required by Executive Order 13123 Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions ...

  9. Development of a Long-Life-Cycle, Highly Water-Resistant Solar...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Highly Water-Resistant Solar Reflective Retrofit Roof Coating Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of a Long-Life-Cycle, Highly Water-Resistant Solar ...

  10. Text Alternative Version: Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text-alternative version of the "Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products" webcast, held March 28, 2013.

  11. Life cycle assessment of a biomass gasification combined-cycle power system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.

    1997-12-01

    The potential environmental benefits from biomass power are numerous. However, biomass power may also have some negative effects on the environment. Although the environmental benefits and drawbacks of biomass power have been debated for some time, the total significance has not been assessed. This study serves to answer some of the questions most often raised in regard to biomass power: What are the net CO{sub 2} emissions? What is the energy balance of the integrated system? Which substances are emitted at the highest rates? What parts of the system are responsible for these emissions? To provide answers to these questions, a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a hypothetical biomass power plant located in the Midwest United States was performed. LCA is an analytical tool for quantifying the emissions, resource consumption, and energy use, collectively known as environmental stressors, that are associated with converting a raw material to a final product. Performed in conjunction with a technoeconomic feasibility study, the total economic and environmental benefits and drawbacks of a process can be quantified. This study complements a technoeconomic analysis of the same process, reported in Craig and Mann (1996) and updated here. The process studied is based on the concept of power Generation in a biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) plant. Broadly speaking, the overall system consists of biomass production, its transportation to the power plant, electricity generation, and any upstream processes required for system operation. The biomass is assumed to be supplied to the plant as wood chips from a biomass plantation, which would produce energy crops in a manner similar to the way food and fiber crops are produced today. Transportation of the biomass and other materials is by both rail and truck. The IGCC plant is sized at 113 MW, and integrates an indirectly-heated gasifier with an industrial gas turbine and steam cycle. 63 refs., 34 figs., 32 tabs.

  12. Life-cycle analysis of alternative aviation fuels in GREET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Carter, N.; Stratton, R.; Hileman, J.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S.

    2012-07-23

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1{_}2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or (2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55-85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources - such as natural gas and coal - could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet fuel production unless carbon management practices, such as carbon capture and storage, are used.

  13. Applying Human Factors during the SIS Life Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avery, K.

    2010-05-05

    Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) are widely used in U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nonreactor nuclear facilities for safety-critical applications. Although use of the SIS technology and computer-based digital controls, can improve performance and safety, it potentially introduces additional complexities, such as failure modes that are not readily detectable. Either automated actions or manual (operator) actions may be required to complete the safety instrumented function to place the process in a safe state or mitigate a hazard in response to an alarm or indication. DOE will issue a new standard, Application of Safety Instrumented Systems Used at DOE Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities, to provide guidance for the design, procurement, installation, testing, maintenance, operation, and quality assurance of SIS used in safety significant functions at DOE nonreactor nuclear facilities. The DOE standard focuses on utilizing the process industry consensus standard, American National Standards Institute/ International Society of Automation (ANSI/ISA) 84.00.01, Functional Safety: Safety Instrumented Systems for the Process Industry Sector, to support reliable SIS design throughout the DOE complex. SIS design must take into account human-machine interfaces and their limitations and follow good human factors engineering (HFE) practices. HFE encompasses many diverse areas (e.g., information display, user-system interaction, alarm management, operator response, control room design, and system maintainability), which affect all aspects of system development and modification. This paper presents how the HFE processes and principles apply throughout the SIS life cycle to support the design and use of SIS at DOE nonreactor nuclear facilities.

  14. A Review of Battery Life-Cycle Analysis. State of Knowledge and Critical Needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, J. L.; Gaines, L.

    2010-10-01

    This report examines battery life-cycle assessments with a focus on cradle-to-gate (CTG) energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) and criteria emissions. This includes battery manufacturing and as the production of materials that make up batteries. The report covers both what is known about battery life cycles, as well as what needs to be established for better environmental evaluations.

  15. Pump Life Cycle Costs: A Guide to LCC Analysis for Pumping Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PUMP LIFE CYCLE COSTS: PUMP LIFE CYCLE COSTS: A GUIDE TO LCC ANALYSIS FOR PUMPING SYSTEMS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY T O F E N E R G Y DE P A R T M EN U E N I T E D S T A T S O F A E R IC A ...

  16. Extended Life Program asks 'How do you make your buildings last?' |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration Extended Life Program asks 'How do you make your buildings last?' Tuesday, April 26, 2016 - 10:31am Building 9204-2E is one of the Y¬12 buildings that the Extended Life Program would help. The challenge is this: Preserve two key processing facilities at Y-12 National Security Complex. These two facilities will house all nuclear material processing activities not incorporated into the Uranium Processing Facility design. To better understand what it

  17. Conceptual design study of small long-life PWR based on thorium cycle fuel

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Conceptual design study of small long-life PWR based on thorium cycle fuel Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Conceptual design study of small long-life PWR based on thorium cycle fuel A neutronic performance of small long-life Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) using thorium cycle based fuel has been investigated. Thorium cycle which has higher conversion ratio in thermal region compared to uranium

  18. Life Cycle GHG Emissions from Conventional Natural Gas Power Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G.; O'Donoughue, P.; Whitaker, M.

    2012-12-01

    This research provides a systematic review and harmonization of the life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of electricity generated from conventionally produced natural gas. We focus on estimates of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted in the life cycle of electricity generation from conventionally produced natural gas in combustion turbines (NGCT) and combined-cycle (NGCC) systems. A process we term "harmonization" was employed to align several common system performance parameters and assumptions to better allow for cross-study comparisons, with the goal of clarifying central tendency and reducing variability in estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. This presentation summarizes preliminary results.

  19. Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    2014-06-10

    This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

  20. Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

  1. Life-cycle analysis results for geothermal systems in comparison to other power systems: Part II.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, J.L.; Clark, C.E.; Yuan, L.; Han, J.; Wang, M.

    2012-02-08

    A study has been conducted on the material demand and life-cycle energy and emissions performance of power-generating technologies in addition to those reported in Part I of this series. The additional technologies included concentrated solar power, integrated gasification combined cycle, and a fossil/renewable (termed hybrid) geothermal technology, more specifically, co-produced gas and electric power plants from geo-pressured gas and electric (GPGE) sites. For the latter, two cases were considered: gas and electricity export and electricity-only export. Also modeled were cement, steel and diesel fuel requirements for drilling geothermal wells as a function of well depth. The impact of the construction activities in the building of plants was also estimated. The results of this study are consistent with previously reported trends found in Part I of this series. Among all the technologies considered, fossil combustion-based power plants have the lowest material demand for their construction and composition. On the other hand, conventional fossil-based power technologies have the highest greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, followed by the hybrid and then two of the renewable power systems, namely hydrothermal flash power and biomass-based combustion power. GHG emissions from U.S. geothermal flash plants were also discussed, estimates provided, and data needs identified. Of the GPGE scenarios modeled, the all-electric scenario had the highest GHG emissions. Similar trends were found for other combustion emissions.

  2. U.S. Department of Energy Releases Revised Total System Life Cycle Cost

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Estimate and Fee Adequacy Report for Yucca Mountain Project | Department of Energy Revised Total System Life Cycle Cost Estimate and Fee Adequacy Report for Yucca Mountain Project U.S. Department of Energy Releases Revised Total System Life Cycle Cost Estimate and Fee Adequacy Report for Yucca Mountain Project August 5, 2008 - 2:40pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC -The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today released a revised estimate of the total system life cycle cost for a repository at Yucca

  3. The Life-cycle of Operons (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Life-cycle of Operons Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Life-cycle of Operons Operons are a major feature of all prokaryotic genomes, but how and why operon structures vary is not well understood. To elucidate the life-cycle of operons, we compared gene order between Escherichia coli K12 and its relatives and identified the recently formed and destroyed operons in E. coli. This allowed us to determine how operons form, how they become closely spaced, and how they die. Our

  4. Life cycle assessment of base-load heat sources for district heating system options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghafghazi, Saeed; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Melin, Staffan

    2011-03-01

    Purpose There has been an increased interest in utilizing renewable energy sources in district heating systems. District heating systems are centralized systems that provide heat for residential and commercial buildings in a community. While various renewable and conventional energy sources can be used in such systems, many stakeholders are interested in choosing the feasible option with the least environmental impacts. This paper evaluates and compares environmental burdens of alternative energy source options for the base load of a district heating center in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC) using the life cycle assessment method. The considered energy sources include natural gas, wood pellet, sewer heat, and ground heat. Methods The life cycle stages considered in the LCA model cover all stages from fuel production, fuel transmission/transportation, construction, operation, and finally demolition of the district heating system. The impact categories were analyzed based on the IMPACT 2002+ method. Results and discussion On a life-cycle basis, the global warming effect of renewable energy options were at least 200 kgeqCO2 less than that of the natural gas option per MWh of heat produced by the base load system. It was concluded that less than 25% of the upstream global warming impact associated with the wood pellet energy source option was due to transportation activities and about 50% of that was resulted from wood pellet production processes. In comparison with other energy options, the wood pellets option has higher impacts on respiratory of inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, acidification, and nutrification categories. Among renewable options, the global warming impact of heat pump options in the studied case in Vancouver, BC, were lower than the wood pellet option due to BC's low carbon electricity generation profile. Ozone layer depletion and mineral extraction were the highest for the heat pump options due to extensive construction required for these options. Conclusions Natural gas utilization as the primary heat source for district heat production implies environmental complications beyond just the global warming impacts. Diffusing renewable energy sources for generating the base load district heat would reduce human toxicity, ecosystem quality degradation, global warming, and resource depletion compared to the case of natural gas. Reducing fossil fuel dependency in various stages of wood pellet production can remarkably reduce the upstream global warming impact of using wood pellets for district heat generation.

  5. Assessment of Projected Life-Cycle Costs for Wave, Tidal, Ocean Current, and In-Stream Hydrokinetic Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Assessment of Projected Life-Cycle Costs for Wave, Tidal, Ocean Current, and In-Stream Hydrokinetic Power

  6. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This March 28, 2013 webcast reviewed DOE's recently completed three-part study of the life-cycle energy and environmental impacts of LED lighting products relative to incandescent and CFL...

  7. Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Highlights Hydrogen's Potential for Electrical Energy Storage (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-11-01

    This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in analyzing life-cycle costs for hydrogen storage in comparison with other energy storage technologies. Work was performed by the Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

  8. Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Production via Natural Gas Steam Reforming

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A life cycle assessment of hydrogen production via natural gas steam reforming was performed to examine the net emissions of greenhouse gases as well as other major environmental consequences.

  9. Draft Final Phase II Report: Review of Life Cycle and Technology...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    and contribute to lower life-cycle costs due to the chemical complexity of the waste. ... Equipment, Paragraph 3.3.4.1, describes chemical addition as follows: This scope provides ...

  10. DOE Brochure Highlights Ethanol Life-Cycle Results Obtained with GREET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-18

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently published a brochure highlighting the efficacy of Argonne National Laboratory's GREET model in evaluating the complete energy life cycle for ethanol.

  11. Life-Cycle Analysis Results of Geothermal Systems in Comparison to Other Power Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions analysis has been conducted with Argonne National Laboratory's GREET model for geothermal power-generating technologies, including enhanced geothermal, hydrothermal flash, and hydrothermal binary technologies.

  12. Systematic Review and Harmonization of Life Cycle GHG Emission Estimates for Electricity Generation Technologies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G.

    2012-06-01

    This powerpoint presentation to be presented at the World Renewable Energy Forum on May 14, 2012, in Denver, CO, discusses systematic review and harmonization of life cycle GHG emission estimates for electricity generation technologies.

  13. Improving the Cycling Life of Aluminum and Germanium Thin Films for use as

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Anodic Materials in Li-Ion Batteries. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Improving the Cycling Life of Aluminum and Germanium Thin Films for use as Anodic Materials in Li-Ion Batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Improving the Cycling Life of Aluminum and Germanium Thin Films for use as Anodic Materials in Li-Ion Batteries. Abstract not provided. Authors: Hudak, Nicholas ; Huber, Dale L. ; Gulley, Gerald Publication Date: 2014-09-01 OSTI Identifier:

  14. Improved Cycle Life and Stability of Lithium Metal Anodes through Ultrathin

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALD Surface Treatments - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research September 11, 2015, Research Highlights Improved Cycle Life and Stability of Lithium Metal Anodes through Ultrathin ALD Surface Treatments Improved cycle life of Li metal anodes: control (black) vs. ALD (blue). Voltage in the upper graph represents overpotential in Li-Li symmetric cells and demonstrates how ALD can improve electrochemical lifetime. Micrographs show the improved resistance to dendrite growth after ALD

  15. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Products Part 2: LED Manufacturing and Performance (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products Part 2: LED Manufacturing and Performance Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products Part 2: LED Manufacturing and Performance Part 2 of the project (this report) uses the conclusions from Part 1 as a point of departure to focus on two

  16. Tribal Renewable Energy Webinar: The Life Cycle of Tribal Clean Energy |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy The Life Cycle of Tribal Clean Energy Tribal Renewable Energy Webinar: The Life Cycle of Tribal Clean Energy June 29, 2016 11:00AM to 12:30PM MDT According to DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory, most of the hundreds of lifecycle assessments published on electricity generation technologies over the last 30 years only assemble lifecycle inventories, quantifying the emissions to the environment or the use of resources rather than reporting effects on environmental

  17. A Life-Cycle Assessment Comparing Select Gas-to-Liquid Fuels with

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conventional Fuels in the Transportation Sector | Department of Energy A Life-Cycle Assessment Comparing Select Gas-to-Liquid Fuels with Conventional Fuels in the Transportation Sector A Life-Cycle Assessment Comparing Select Gas-to-Liquid Fuels with Conventional Fuels in the Transportation Sector 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: ConocoPhillips and Nexant Corporatin PDF icon 2004_deer_abbott.pdf More Documents & Publications Shell Gas to Liquids in

  18. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Nuclear Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, E. S.; Heath, G. A.

    2012-04-01

    A systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of nuclear electricity generation technologies was performed to determine causes of and, where possible, reduce variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to clarify the state of knowledge and inform decision making. LCA literature indicates that life cycle GHG emissions from nuclear power are a fraction of traditional fossil sources, but the conditions and assumptions under which nuclear power are deployed can have a significant impact on the magnitude of life cycle GHG emissions relative to renewable technologies. Screening 274 references yielded 27 that reported 99 independent estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from light water reactors (LWRs). The published median, interquartile range (IQR), and range for the pool of LWR life cycle GHG emission estimates were 13, 23, and 220 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh), respectively. After harmonizing methods to use consistent gross system boundaries and values for several important system parameters, the same statistics were 12, 17, and 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh, respectively. Harmonization (especially of performance characteristics) clarifies the estimation of central tendency and variability. To explain the remaining variability, several additional, highly influential consequential factors were examined using other methods. These factors included the primary source energy mix, uranium ore grade, and the selected LCA method. For example, a scenario analysis of future global nuclear development examined the effects of a decreasing global uranium market-average ore grade on life cycle GHG emissions. Depending on conditions, median life cycle GHG emissions could be 9 to 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh by 2050.

  19. Impacts of Vehicle Weight Reduction via Material Substitution on Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Jarod C.; Sullivan, John L.; Burnham, Andrew; Elgowainy, Amgad

    2015-10-20

    This study examines the vehicle-cycle impacts associated with substituting lightweight materials for those currently found in light-duty passenger vehicles. We determine part-based energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission ratios by collecting material substitution data from both the literature and automotive experts and evaluating that alongside known mass-based energy use and GHG emission ratios associated with material pair substitutions. Several vehicle parts, along with full vehicle systems, are examined for lightweighting via material substitution to observe the associated impact on GHG emissions. Results are contextualized by additionally examining fuel-cycle GHG reductions associated with mass reductions relative to the baseline vehicle during the use phase and also determining material pair breakeven driving distances for GHG emissions. The findings show that, while material substitution is useful in reducing vehicle weight, it often increases vehicle-cycle GHGs depending upon the material substitution pair. However, for a vehicles total life cycle, fuel economy benefits are greater than the increased burdens associated with the vehicle manufacturing cycle, resulting in a net total life-cycle GHG benefit. The vehicle cycle will become increasingly important in total vehicle life-cycle GHGs, since fuel-cycle GHGs will be gradually reduced as automakers ramp up vehicle efficiency to meet fuel economy standards.

  20. Novel pathways for fuels and lubricants from biomass optimized using life-cycle greenhouse gas assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balakrishnan, Madhesan; Sacia, Eric R.; Sreekumar, Sanil; Gunbas, Gorkem; Gokhale, Amit A.; Scown, Corinne D.; Toste, F. Dean; Bell, Alexis T.

    2015-06-08

    Decarbonizing the transportation sector is critical to achieving global climate change mitigation. Although biofuels will play an important role in conventional gasoline and diesel applications, bioderived solutions are particularly important in jet fuels and lubricants, for which no other viable renewable alternatives exist. Producing compounds for jet fuel and lubricant base oil applications often requires upgrading fermentation products, such as alcohols and ketones, to reach the appropriate molecular-weight range. Ketones possess both electrophilic and nucleophilic functionality, which allows them to be used as building blocks similar to alkenes and aromatics in a petroleum refining complex. Here, we develop a method for selectively upgrading biomass-derived alkyl methyl ketones with >95% yields into trimer condensates, which can then be hydrodeoxygenated in near-quantitative yields to give a new class of cycloalkane compounds. The basic chemistry developed here can be tailored for aviation fuels as well as lubricants by changing the production strategy. We demonstrate that a sugarcane biorefinery could use natural synergies between various routes to produce a mixture of lubricant base oils and jet fuels that achieve net life-cycle greenhouse gas savings of up to 80%.

  1. Novel pathways for fuels and lubricants from biomass optimized using life-cycle greenhouse gas assessment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Balakrishnan, Madhesan; Sacia, Eric R.; Sreekumar, Sanil; Gunbas, Gorkem; Gokhale, Amit A.; Scown, Corinne D.; Toste, F. Dean; Bell, Alexis T.

    2015-06-08

    Decarbonizing the transportation sector is critical to achieving global climate change mitigation. Although biofuels will play an important role in conventional gasoline and diesel applications, bioderived solutions are particularly important in jet fuels and lubricants, for which no other viable renewable alternatives exist. Producing compounds for jet fuel and lubricant base oil applications often requires upgrading fermentation products, such as alcohols and ketones, to reach the appropriate molecular-weight range. Ketones possess both electrophilic and nucleophilic functionality, which allows them to be used as building blocks similar to alkenes and aromatics in a petroleum refining complex. Here, we develop a methodmore » for selectively upgrading biomass-derived alkyl methyl ketones with >95% yields into trimer condensates, which can then be hydrodeoxygenated in near-quantitative yields to give a new class of cycloalkane compounds. The basic chemistry developed here can be tailored for aviation fuels as well as lubricants by changing the production strategy. We demonstrate that a sugarcane biorefinery could use natural synergies between various routes to produce a mixture of lubricant base oils and jet fuels that achieve net life-cycle greenhouse gas savings of up to 80%.« less

  2. Maximizing the life cycle of plastics. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawkins, W. L.

    1980-02-01

    The Plastics Research Institute has conducted a coordinated research program designed to extend the useful life of plastics. Since feedstock for practically all synthetic plastics is derived from fossil fuel, every effort should be made to obtain the maximum useful life from these materials. Eventually, plastic scrap may be used as a fuel supplement, but this disposal route should be followed only after the scrap is no longer reusable in its polymeric form. The extent to which plastic scrap will be recovered and reused will be affected by the economic situation as well as the available supply of fossil fuel. The Institute's program was conducted at five major universities. Dedicated faculty members were assembled into a research team and met frequently with members of the Institute's Board of Trustees to review progress of the program. The research was conducted by graduate students in partial fulfillment of degree requirements. Summaries are presented of the following research projects: Improved Stabilization; Separation of Mixed Plastic Scrap; Compatibilizing Agents for Mixed Plastic Scrap; Controlled Degradation of Plastic Scrap; and Determination of Compatibility.

  3. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Coal-Fired Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitaker, M.; Heath, G. A.; O'Donoughue, P.; Vorum, M.

    2012-04-01

    This systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessments (LCAs) of utility-scale coal-fired electricity generation systems focuses on reducing variability and clarifying central tendencies in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening 270 references for quality LCA methods, transparency, and completeness yielded 53 that reported 164 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. These estimates for subcritical pulverized, integrated gasification combined cycle, fluidized bed, and supercritical pulverized coal combustion technologies vary from 675 to 1,689 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh) (interquartile range [IQR]= 890-1,130 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh; median = 1,001) leading to confusion over reasonable estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from coal-fired electricity generation. By adjusting published estimates to common gross system boundaries and consistent values for key operational input parameters (most importantly, combustion carbon dioxide emission factor [CEF]), the meta-analytical process called harmonization clarifies the existing literature in ways useful for decision makers and analysts by significantly reducing the variability of estimates ({approx}53% in IQR magnitude) while maintaining a nearly constant central tendency ({approx}2.2% in median). Life cycle GHG emissions of a specific power plant depend on many factors and can differ from the generic estimates generated by the harmonization approach, but the tightness of distribution of harmonized estimates across several key coal combustion technologies implies, for some purposes, first-order estimates of life cycle GHG emissions could be based on knowledge of the technology type, coal mine emissions, thermal efficiency, and CEF alone without requiring full LCAs. Areas where new research is necessary to ensure accuracy are also discussed.

  4. Switchgrass Biofuel Research: Carbon Sequestration and Life Cycle Analysis; Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liska, Adam J; Suyker, Andrew E; Arkebauer, Timothy J; Pelton, Matthew; Fang, Xiao Xue

    2013-12-20

    Soil emissions have been inadequately characterized in life cycle assessment of biofuels (see section 3.2.3). This project measures the net differences in field‐level greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, N2O, and CH4) due to corn residue removal for cellulosic ethanol production. Gas measurements are then incorporated into life cycle assessment of the final biofuel product to determine whether it is in compliance with federal greenhouse gas emissions standards for biofuels (Renewable Fuel Standard 2, RFS2). The field measurements have been conducted over three years on two, quarter‐section, production‐scale, irrigated corn fields (both roughly 50 hectares, as this size of field is necessary for reproducible eddy covariance flux measurements of CO2; chamber measurements are used to determine N2O and CH4 emissions). Due to a large hail storm in 2010, estimates of the emission from residue could not be separated from the total CO2 flux in 2011. This led us to develop soil organic carbon (SOC) modeling techniques to estimate changes in CO2 emissions from residue removal. Modeling has predicted emissions of CO2 from oxidation of SOC that are consistent (<12%) with 9 years of CO2 flux measurements at the two production field sites, and modeling is also consistent with other field measurements (Liska et al., submitted). The model was then used to estimate the average change in SOC and CO2 emissions from nine years of simulated residue removal (6 Mg biomass per hectare per year) at the sites; a loss of 0.43 Mg C ha‐1 yr‐1 resulted. The model was then used to estimate SOC changes over 10 years across Nebraska using supercomputing, based on 61 million, 30 x 30 meter, grid cells to account for regional variability in initial SOC, crop yield, and temperature; an average loss of 0.47 Mg C ha‐1 yr‐1 resulted. When these CO2 emissions are included in simple life cycle assessment calculations, emissions from cellulosic ethanol from crop residue are above mandated levels of 60% reduction compared to gasoline (Liska, in press). These approaches are both technically effective and economically feasible. This work has been extensively peer reviewed. The useful focused data provided for biofuel producers is the relative change in SOC and CO2 emission rates that can be incorporated into LCA models, with the unit of gCO2‐equivalent per megajoule of biofuel; this information can be used directly by the EPA in RFS2 standards. All Final Report, DOE DE‐EE0003149, December 20, 2013 5 ecosystem models are based on limited selected data. The model that we use is supported by the research at our field sites; these large production‐scale field sites, covering nearly a square mile, have also resulted in over 50 research publications over the last 10 years. To extend the model across the larger region, direct field measurements of soil, crop yields (annually), and temperature (monthly averages) are used via geospatial databases. Such dedicated field sites are the basis of advanced scientific understanding of greenhouse gas fluxes in modern agriculture, which is why they have been extensively supported by the USDA, NASA, and many other government agencies (nearly $10 million in research support over the last 12 years for these field sites); we plan to further validate the SOC model with data from other regional field sites, contingent on funding. Continuation of this research would increase confidence in the understanding of residue removal and net CO2 emissions by quantifying these changes for building accurate models (more information can reduce the uncertainty in these processes); we believe these are unique experiments. This work quantifies primarily one factor in the lifecycle (CO2 emissions from soil carbon), but the results in section 3 below address other factors.

  5. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Life Cycle Cost Assessment, Final Technical Report, 30 May 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martel, Laura; Smith, Paul; Rizea, Steven; Van Ryzin, Joe; Morgan, Charles; Noland, Gary; Pavlosky, Rick; Thomas, Michael

    2012-06-30

    The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Life Cycle Cost Assessment (OLCCA) is a study performed by members of the Lockheed Martin (LM) OTEC Team under funding from the Department of Energy (DOE), Award No. DE-EE0002663, dated 01/01/2010. OLCCA objectives are to estimate procurement, operations and maintenance, and overhaul costs for two types of OTEC plants: -Plants moored to the sea floor where the electricity produced by the OTEC plant is directly connected to the grid ashore via a marine power cable (Grid Connected OTEC plants) -Open-ocean grazing OTEC plant-ships producing an energy carrier that is transported to designated ports (Energy Carrier OTEC plants) Costs are developed using the concept of levelized cost of energy established by DOE for use in comparing electricity costs from various generating systems. One area of system costs that had not been developed in detail prior to this analysis was the operations and sustainment (O&S) cost for both types of OTEC plants. Procurement costs, generally referred to as capital expense and O&S costs (operations and maintenance (O&M) costs plus overhaul and replacement costs), are assessed over the 30 year operational life of the plants and an annual annuity calculated to achieve a levelized cost (constant across entire plant life). Dividing this levelized cost by the average annual energy production results in a levelized cost of electricity, or LCOE, for the OTEC plants. Technical and production efficiency enhancements that could result in a lower value of the OTEC LCOE were also explored. The thermal OTEC resource for Oahu, Hawai’i and projected build out plan were developed. The estimate of the OTEC resource and LCOE values for the planned OTEC systems enable this information to be displayed as energy supplied versus levelized cost of the supplied energy; this curve is referred to as an Energy Supply Curve. The Oahu Energy Supply Curve represents initial OTEC deployment starting in 2018 and demonstrates the predicted economies of scale as technology and efficiency improvements are realized and larger more economical plants deployed. Utilizing global high resolution OTEC resource assessment from the Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project (an independent DOE project), Global Energy Supply Curves were generated for Grid Connected and Energy Carrier OTEC plants deployed in 2045 when the predicted technology and efficiencies improvements are fully realized. The Global Energy Supply Curves present the LCOE versus capacity in ascending order with the richest, lowest cost resource locations being harvested first. These curves demonstrate the vast ocean thermal resource and potential OTEC capacity that can be harvested with little change in LCOE.

  6. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Thin-film Photovoltaic Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As clean energy increasingly becomes part of the national dialogue, lenders, utilities, and lawmakers need the most comprehensive and accurate information on GHG emissions from various sources of energy to inform policy, planning, and investment decisions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that gives decision makers and investors more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for renewable and conventional generation, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature, and reducing uncertainty.

  7. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Coal-Fired Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As clean energy increasingly becomes part of the national dialogue, lenders, utilities, and lawmakers need the most comprehensive and accurate information on GHG emissions from various sources of energy to inform policy, planning, and investment decisions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that gives decision makers and investors more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for renewable and conventional generation, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature, and reducing uncertainty.

  8. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Utility-Scale Wind Power: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As clean energy increasingly becomes part of the national dialogue, lenders, utilities, and lawmakers need the most comprehensive and accurate information on GHG emissions from various sources of energy to inform policy, planning, and investment decisions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that gives decision makers and investors more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for renewable and conventional generation, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature, and reducing uncertainty.

  9. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Nuclear Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As clean energy increasingly becomes part of the national dialogue, lenders, utilities, and lawmakers need the most comprehensive and accurate information on GHG emissions from various sources of energy to inform policy, planning, and investment decisions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that gives decision makers and investors more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for renewable and conventional generation, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature, and reducing uncertainty.

  10. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As clean energy increasingly becomes part of the national dialogue, lenders, utilities, and lawmakers need the most comprehensive and accurate information on GHG emissions from various sources of energy to inform policy, planning, and investment decisions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that gives decision makers and investors more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for renewable and conventional generation, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature, and reducing uncertainty.

  11. Comparison of Battery Life Across Real-World Automotive Drive-Cycles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Earleywine, M.; Wood, E.; Pesaran, A.

    2011-11-01

    Laboratories run around-the-clock aging tests to try to understand as quickly as possible how long new Li-ion battery designs will last under certain duty cycles. These tests may include factors such as duty cycles, climate, battery power profiles, and battery stress statistics. Such tests are generally accelerated and do not consider possible dwell time at high temperatures and states-of-charge. Battery life-predictive models provide guidance as to how long Li-ion batteries may last under real-world electric-drive vehicle applications. Worst-case aging scenarios are extracted from hundreds of real-world duty cycles developed from vehicle travel surveys. Vehicles examined included PHEV10 and PHEV40 EDVs under fixed (28 degrees C), limited cooling (forced ambient temperature), and aggressive cooling (20 degrees C chilled liquid) scenarios using either nightly charging or opportunity charging. The results show that battery life expectancy is 7.8 - 13.2 years for the PHEV10 using a nightly charge in Phoenix, AZ (hot climate), and that the 'aggressive' cooling scenario can extend battery life by 1-3 years, while the 'limited' cooling scenario shortens battery life by 1-2 years. Frequent (opportunity) charging can reduce battery life by 1 year for the PHEV10, while frequent charging can extend battery life by one-half year.

  12. Building America Case Study: Marketing Zero Energy Homes: LifeStyle Homes, Melbourne, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    LifeStyle Homes Melbourne, Florida PARTNER INFORMATION Builder: LifeStyle Homes Location: Melbourne, FL Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, ba-pirc.org Partner Products: SunSmart, solar- powered homes, and zero energy homes Application: New, single-family Partnership Period: 2009-present Climate Zone: Hot-humid PERFORMANCE DATA SunSmart HERS Index Score: ≤ 60 Example Home: Size: 2,313 ft 2 Value of SunSmart package (included in all LifeStyle Homes and including

  13. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that makes great strides in clarifying inconsistent and conflicting GHG emission estimates in the published literature while providing more precise estimates of GHG emissions from utility-scale CSP systems.

  14. Life Cycle Inventory of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel for Use in an Urban Bus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheehan, John; Camobreco, Vince; Duffield, James; Graboski, Michael; Graboski, Michael; Shapouri, Housein

    1998-05-01

    This report presents the findings from a study of the life cycle inventories (LCIs) for petroleum diesel and biodiesel. An LCI is a comprehensive quantification of all the energy and environmental flows associated with a product from “cradle to grave.” It provides information on raw materials extracted from the environment; energy resources consumed; air, water, and solid waste emissions generated.

  15. Conceptual design study of small long-life PWR based on thorium cycle fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subkhi, M. Nurul; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Permana, Sidik

    2014-09-30

    A neutronic performance of small long-life Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) using thorium cycle based fuel has been investigated. Thorium cycle which has higher conversion ratio in thermal region compared to uranium cycle produce some significant of {sup 233}U during burn up time. The cell-burn up calculations were performed by PIJ SRAC code using nuclear data library based on JENDL 3.3, while the multi-energy-group diffusion calculations were optimized in whole core cylindrical two-dimension R-Z geometry by SRAC-CITATION. this study would be introduced thorium nitride fuel system which ZIRLO is the cladding material. The optimization of 350 MWt small long life PWR result small excess reactivity and reduced power peaking during its operation.

  16. Design and life-cycle considerations for unconventional-reservoir wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miskimins, J.L.

    2009-05-15

    This paper provides an overview of design and life-cycle considerations for certain unconventional-reservoir wells. An overview of unconventional-reservoir definitions is provided. Well design and life-cycle considerations are addressed from three aspects: upfront reservoir development, initial well completion, and well-life and long-term considerations. Upfront-reservoir-development issues discussed include well spacing, well orientation, reservoir stress orientations, and tubular metallurgy. Initial-well-completion issues include maximum treatment pressures and rates, treatment diversion, treatment staging, flowback and cleanup, and dewatering needs. Well-life and long-term discussions include liquid loading, corrosion, refracturing and associated fracture reorientation, and the cost of abandonment. These design considerations are evaluated with case studies for five unconventional-reservoir types: shale gas (Barnett shale), tight gas (Jonah feld), tight oil (Bakken play), coalbed methane (CBM) (San Juan basin), and tight heavy oil (Lost Hills field). In evaluating the life cycle and design of unconventional-reservoir wells, 'one size' does not fit all and valuable knowledge and a shortening of the learning curve can be achieved for new developments by studying similar, more-mature fields.

  17. Product Life-Cycle Management: The future of product and packaging design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, L.B. )

    1993-01-01

    Product Life-Cycle Management (PLCM) is the control of environmental impacts associated with all the life phases of a product, from design through manufacture, packaging and disposal. PLCM dictates that products be manufactured using less harmful chemicals and fewer resources. Product packaging must be minimal and made of renewable and recyclable resources. Both the product and the package must contain recycled material. Packaging and products must also be collected for recycle at the end of their intended use, requiring infrastructure to collect, transport and process these materials. European legislation now requires the return and recycle of packaging materials by the end of 1993. Requirements are also being imposed on manufacturers of automobile related products; automotive batteries, tires and even automobiles themselves must now be accepted back and recycled. Increasing public concerns and awareness of environmental impacts plus the decreasing availability of natural resources will continue to push product life-cycle legislation forward.

  18. Comparison of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Life Across Geographies and Drive-Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Warleywine, M.; Wood, E.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2012-06-01

    In a laboratory environment, it is cost prohibitive to run automotive battery aging experiments across a wide range of possible ambient environment, drive cycle and charging scenarios. Since worst-case scenarios drive the conservative sizing of electric-drive vehicle batteries, it is useful to understand how and why those scenarios arise and what design or control actions might be taken to mitigate them. In an effort to explore this problem, this paper applies a semi-empirical life model of the graphite/nickel-cobalt-aluminum lithium-ion chemistry to investigate impacts of geographic environments under storage and simplified cycling conditions. The model is then applied to analyze complex cycling conditions, using battery charge/discharge profiles generated from simulations of PHEV10 and PHEV40 vehicles across 782 single-day driving cycles taken from Texas travel survey data.

  19. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    2013-08-31

    This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges.

  20. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges.

  1. Life Cycle Energy and Environmental Assessment of Aluminum-Intensive Vehicle Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Sujit

    2014-01-01

    Advanced lightweight materials are increasingly being incorporated into new vehicle designs by automakers to enhance performance and assist in complying with increasing requirements of corporate average fuel economy standards. To assess the primary energy and carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) implications of vehicle designs utilizing these materials, this study examines the potential life cycle impacts of two lightweight material alternative vehicle designs, i.e., steel and aluminum of a typical passenger vehicle operated today in North America. LCA for three common alternative lightweight vehicle designs are evaluated: current production ( Baseline ), an advanced high strength steel and aluminum design ( LWSV ), and an aluminum-intensive design (AIV). This study focuses on body-in-white and closures since these are the largest automotive systems by weight accounting for approximately 40% of total curb weight of a typical passenger vehicle. Secondary mass savings resulting from body lightweighting are considered for the vehicles engine, driveline and suspension. A cradle-to-cradle life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for these three vehicle material alternatives. LCA methodology for this study included material production, mill semi-fabrication, vehicle use phase operation, and end-of-life recycling. This study followed international standards ISO 14040:2006 [1] and ISO 14044:2006 [2], consistent with the automotive LCA guidance document currently being developed [3]. Vehicle use phase mass reduction was found to account for over 90% of total vehicle life cycle energy and CO2e emissions. The AIV design achieved mass reduction of 25% (versus baseline) resulting in reductions in total life cycle primary energy consumption by 20% and CO2e emissions by 17%. Overall, the AIV design showed the best breakeven vehicle mileage from both primary energy consumption and climate change perspectives.

  2. LIFE CYCLE INVENTORY ANALYSIS IN THE PRODUCTION OF METALS USED IN PHOTOVOLTAICS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FTHENAKIS,V.M.; KIM, H.C.; WANG, W.

    2007-03-30

    Material flows and emissions in all the stages of production of zinc, copper, aluminum, cadmium, indium, germanium, gallium, selenium, tellurium, and molybdenum were investigated. These metals are used selectively in the manufacture of solar cells, and emission and energy factors in their production are used in the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of photovoltaics. Significant changes have occurred in the production and associated emissions for these metals over the last 10 years, which are not described in the LCA databases. Furthermore, emission and energy factors for several of the by-products of the base metal production were lacking. This report aims in updating the life-cycle inventories associated with the production of the base metals (Zn, Cu, Al, Mo) and in defining the emission and energy allocations for the minor metals (Cd, In, Ge, Se, Te and Ga) used in photovoltaics.

  3. Life Cycle Analysis for Treatment and Disposal of PCB Waste at Ashtabula and Fernald

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, M.I.

    2001-01-11

    This report presents the use of the life cycle analysis (LCA) system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assist two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites in Ohio--the Ashtabula Environmental Management Project near Cleveland and the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati--in assessing treatment and disposal options for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed waste. We will examine, first, how the LCA process works, then look briefly at the LCA system's ''toolbox,'' and finally, see how the process was applied in analyzing the options available in Ohio. As DOE nuclear weapons facilities carry out planned decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities for site closure and progressively package waste streams, remove buildings, and clean up other structures that have served as temporary waste storage locations, it becomes paramount for each waste stream to have a prescribed and proven outlet for disposition. Some of the most problematic waste streams throughout the DOE complex are PCB low-level radioactive wastes (liquid and solid) and PCB low-level Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) liquid and solid wastes. Several DOE Ohio Field Office (OH) sites have PCB disposition needs that could have an impact on the critical path of the decommissioning work of these closure sites. The Ashtabula Environmental Management Project (AEMP), an OH closure site, has an urgent problem with disposition of soils contaminated by PCB and low-level waste at the edge of the site. The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), another OH closure site, has difficulties in timely disposition of its PCB-low-level sludges and its PCB low-level RCRA sludges in order to avoid impacting the critical path of its D&D activities. Evaluation of options for these waste streams is the subject of this report. In the past a few alternatives for disposition of PCB low-level waste and PCB low-level RCRA waste had seemed achievable, but these options did not materialize. Recently, however, new PCB waste treatment alternatives have appeared, and some regulatory requirements for treatment and disposal of PCBs have been relaxed. This LCA evaluation has been performed to assess new and existing PCB waste opportunities that are available for the treatment and disposal of wastes at AEMP and FEMP.

  4. Development of a Life Cycle Inventory of Water Consumption Associated with the Production of Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lampert, David J.; Cai, Hao; Wang, Zhichao; Keisman, Jennifer; Wu, May; Han, Jeongwoo; Dunn, Jennifer; Sullivan, John L.; Elgowainy, Amgad; Wang, Michael; Keisman, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    The production of all forms of energy consumes water. To meet increased energy demands, it is essential to quantify the amount of water consumed in the production of different forms of energy. By analyzing the water consumed in different technologies, it is possible to identify areas for improvement in water conservation and reduce water stress in energy-producing regions. The transportation sector is a major consumer of energy in the United States. Because of the relationships between water and energy, the sustainability of transportation is tied to management of water resources. Assessment of water consumption throughout the life cycle of a fuel is necessary to understand its water resource implications. To perform a comparative life cycle assessment of transportation fuels, it is necessary first to develop an inventory of the water consumed in each process in each production supply chain. The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model is an analytical tool that can used to estimate the full life-cycle environmental impacts of various transportation fuel pathways from wells to wheels. GREET is currently being expanded to include water consumption as a sustainability metric. The purpose of this report was to document data sources and methodologies to estimate water consumption factors (WCF) for the various transportation fuel pathways in GREET. WCFs reflect the quantity of freshwater directly consumed per unit production for various production processes in GREET. These factors do not include consumption of precipitation or low-quality water (e.g., seawater) and reflect only water that is consumed (i.e., not returned to the source from which it was withdrawn). The data in the report can be combined with GREET to compare the life cycle water consumption for different transportation fuels.

  5. Understanding Side Reactions in K-O2 Batteries for Improved Cycle Life: a

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combined DFT and Experimental Study - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research November 12, 2014, Research Highlights Understanding Side Reactions in K-O2 Batteries for Improved Cycle Life: a Combined DFT and Experimental Study Combined experimental and DFT study have identified the main side reactions in a K-O2 battery, which are likely driven by the interaction of potassium with ether molecules and the crossover of O2 from the cathode. Scientific Achievement First comprehensive study of

  6. Using life-cycle cost management to cut costs and reduce waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gess, D.; Cohan, D.; McLearn, M.

    1995-12-01

    Increasing competition is forcing electric utility companies to reduce costs and improve efficiency. At the same time, increasing costs for waste disposal and emissions control and growing environmental regulatory pressure are providing powerful incentives for firms in virtually every industry to investigate opportunities to reduce or even eliminate the adverse environmental impacts associated with their operations. companies are also striving toward environmental stewardship to realize the potential benefits to the firms`s public image, employees, an shareholders. Motivated by these cost and environmental concerns, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Decision Focus Inc. (DFI), and a consortium of electric utility companies have developed techniques and tools to help electric utility companies to make purchase and operating decisions based on their full life-cycle costs, which explicitly include environmental, health, and safety costs. The process, called Life-Cycle Cost Management (LCCM), helps utilities to efficiently assemble the appropriate life-cycle information and bring it to bear on their business decisions. To date, several utilities have used LCCM to evaluate a range of product substitution and process improvement decisions and to implement cost-savings actions. This paper summarizes some of these applications.

  7. A review of battery life-cycle analysis : state of knowledge and critical needs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, J. L.; Gaines, L.; Energy Systems

    2010-12-22

    A literature review and evaluation has been conducted on cradle-to-gate life-cycle inventory studies of lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, sodium-sulfur, and lithium-ion battery technologies. Data were sought that represent the production of battery constituent materials and battery manufacture and assembly. Life-cycle production data for many battery materials are available and usable, though some need updating. For the remaining battery materials, lifecycle data either are nonexistent or, in some cases, in need of updating. Although battery manufacturing processes have occasionally been well described, detailed quantitative information on energy and material flows is missing. For all but the lithium-ion batteries, enough constituent material production energy data are available to approximate material production energies for the batteries, though improved input data for some materials are needed. Due to the potential benefit of battery recycling and a scarcity of associated data, there is a critical need for life-cycle data on battery material recycling. Either on a per kilogram or per watt-hour capacity basis, lead-acid batteries have the lowest production energy, carbon dioxide emissions, and criteria pollutant emissions. Some process-related emissions are also reviewed in this report.

  8. Life cycle assessment of a packaging waste recycling system in Portugal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferreira, S.; Cabral, M.; Cruz, N.F. da; Simões, P.; Marques, R.C.

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We modeled a real packaging waste recycling system. • The analysis was performed using the life cycle assessment methodology. • The 2010 situation was compared with scenarios where the materials were not recycled. • The “Baseline” scenario seems to be more beneficial to the environment. - Abstract: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been used to assess the environmental impacts associated with an activity or product life cycle. It has also been applied to assess the environmental performance related to waste management activities. This study analyses the packaging waste management system of a local public authority in Portugal. The operations of selective and refuse collection, sorting, recycling, landfilling and incineration of packaging waste were considered. The packaging waste management system in operation in 2010, which we called “Baseline” scenario, was compared with two hypothetical scenarios where all the packaging waste that was selectively collected in 2010 would undergo the refuse collection system and would be sent directly to incineration (called “Incineration” scenario) or to landfill (“Landfill” scenario). Overall, the results show that the “Baseline” scenario is more environmentally sound than the hypothetical scenarios.

  9. Life cycle impact assessment of ammonia production in Algeria: A comparison with previous studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makhlouf, Ali Serradj, Tayeb; Cheniti, Hamza

    2015-01-15

    In this paper, a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) from “cradle to gate” of one anhydrous ton of ammonia with a purity of 99% was achieved. Particularly, the energy and environmental performance of the product (ammonia) were evaluated. The eco-profile of the product and the share of each stage of the Life Cycle on the whole environmental impacts have been evaluated. The flows of material and energy for each phase of the life cycle were counted and the associated environmental problems were identified. Evaluation of the impact was achieved using GEMIS 4.7 software. The primary data collection was executed at the production installations located in Algeria (Annaba locality). The analysis was conducted according to the LCA standards ISO 14040 series. The results show that Cumulative Energy Requirement (CER) is of 51.945 × 10{sup 3} MJ/t of ammonia, which is higher than the global average. Global Warming Potential (GWP) is of 1.44 t CO{sub 2} eq/t of ammonia; this value is lower than the world average. Tropospheric ozone precursor and Acidification are also studied in this article, their values are: 549.3 × 10{sup −6} t NMVOC eq and 259.3 × 10{sup −6} t SO{sub 2} eq respectively.

  10. A Cumulative Energy Demand indicator (CED), life cycle based, for industrial waste management decision making

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puig, Rita, E-mail: rita.puig@eei.upc.edu [Escola dEnginyeria dIgualada (EEI), Universitat Politcnica de Catalunya (UPC), Plaa del Rei, 15, 08700 Igualada (Spain); Fullana-i-Palmer, Pere [UNESCO Chair in Life Cycle and Climate Change, Escola Superior de Comer Internacional, Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), c/Passeig Pujades, 1, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Baquero, Grau; Riba, Jordi-Roger [Escola dEnginyeria dIgualada (EEI), Universitat Politcnica de Catalunya (UPC), Plaa del Rei, 15, 08700 Igualada (Spain); Bala, Alba [UNESCO Chair in Life Cycle and Climate Change, Escola Superior de Comer Internacional, Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), c/Passeig Pujades, 1, 08003 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: We developed a methodology useful to environmentally compare industrial waste management options. The methodology uses a Net Energy Demand indicator which is life cycle based. The method was simplified to be widely used, thus avoiding cost driven decisions. This methodology is useful for governments to promote the best environmental options. This methodology can be widely used by other countries or regions around the world. - Abstract: Life cycle thinking is a good approach to be used for environmental decision-support, although the complexity of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies sometimes prevents their wide use. The purpose of this paper is to show how LCA methodology can be simplified to be more useful for certain applications. In order to improve waste management in Catalonia (Spain), a Cumulative Energy Demand indicator (LCA-based) has been used to obtain four mathematical models to help the government in the decision of preventing or allowing a specific waste from going out of the borders. The conceptual equations and all the subsequent developments and assumptions made to obtain the simplified models are presented. One of the four models is discussed in detail, presenting the final simplified equation to be subsequently used by the government in decision making. The resulting model has been found to be scientifically robust, simple to implement and, above all, fulfilling its purpose: the limitation of waste transport out of Catalonia unless the waste recovery operations are significantly better and justify this transport.

  11. Buildings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    is allowing Commercial Buildings (ISO 50003 - Buildings and Building Complexes) ... SEP program, including associated standards, protocols, and application may be used ...

  12. Waste tire derived carbon-polymer composite paper as pseudocapacitive electrode with long cycle life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boota, M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Naskar, Amit K.; Gogotsi, Yury; Li, Yunchao; Akato, Kokouvi

    2015-09-25

    Recycling hazardous wastes to produce value-added products is becoming essential for the sustainable progress of our society. Herein, highly porous carbon (1625 m2/g–1) is synthesized using waste tires as the precursor and used as supercapacitor electrode. The narrow pore size distribution (PSD) and high surface area led to a good charge storage capacity, especially when used as a three-dimensional nanoscaffold to polymerize polyaniline (PANI/TC). The composite film was highly flexible, conductive and exhibited a capacitance of 480 F/g–1 at 1 mV/s–1 with excellent capacitance retention up to 98% after 10,000 charge/discharge cycles. The high capacitance and long cycle life were ascribed to the short diffusional paths, uniform PANI coating and tight confinement of the PANI in the inner pores of the tire-derived carbon via - interactions, which minimized the degradation of the PANI upon cycling. Here, we anticipate that the same strategy can be applied to deposit other pseudocapacitive materials with low-cost TC to achieve even higher electrochemical performance and longer cycle life, a key challenge for redox active polymers.

  13. Waste tire derived carbon-polymer composite paper as pseudocapacitive electrode with long cycle life

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Boota, M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Naskar, Amit K.; Gogotsi, Yury; Li, Yunchao; Akato, Kokouvi

    2015-09-25

    Recycling hazardous wastes to produce value-added products is becoming essential for the sustainable progress of our society. Herein, highly porous carbon (1625 m2/g–1) is synthesized using waste tires as the precursor and used as supercapacitor electrode. The narrow pore size distribution (PSD) and high surface area led to a good charge storage capacity, especially when used as a three-dimensional nanoscaffold to polymerize polyaniline (PANI/TC). The composite film was highly flexible, conductive and exhibited a capacitance of 480 F/g–1 at 1 mV/s–1 with excellent capacitance retention up to 98% after 10,000 charge/discharge cycles. The high capacitance and long cycle life weremore » ascribed to the short diffusional paths, uniform PANI coating and tight confinement of the PANI in the inner pores of the tire-derived carbon via - interactions, which minimized the degradation of the PANI upon cycling. Here, we anticipate that the same strategy can be applied to deposit other pseudocapacitive materials with low-cost TC to achieve even higher electrochemical performance and longer cycle life, a key challenge for redox active polymers.« less

  14. FY 1996 solid waste integrated life-cycle forecast characteristics summary. Volumes 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Templeton, K.J.

    1996-05-23

    For the past six years, a waste volume forecast has been collected annually from onsite and offsite generators that currently ship or are planning to ship solid waste to the Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Central Waste Complex (CWC). This document provides a description of the physical waste forms, hazardous waste constituents, and radionuclides of the waste expected to be shipped to the CWC from 1996 through the remaining life cycle of the Hanford Site (assumed to extend to 2070). In previous years, forecast data has been reported for a 30-year time period; however, the life-cycle approach was adopted this year to maintain consistency with FY 1996 Multi-Year Program Plans. This document is a companion report to two previous reports: the more detailed report on waste volumes, WHC-EP-0900, FY1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Volume Summary and the report on expected containers, WHC-EP-0903, FY1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Container Summary. All three documents are based on data gathered during the FY 1995 data call and verified as of January, 1996. These documents are intended to be used in conjunction with other solid waste planning documents as references for short and long-term planning of the WHC Solid Waste Disposal Division`s treatment, storage, and disposal activities over the next several decades. This document focuses on two main characteristics: the physical waste forms and hazardous waste constituents of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic waste (both non-mixed and mixed) (TRU(M)). The major generators for each waste category and waste characteristic are also discussed. The characteristics of low-level waste (LLW) are described in Appendix A. In addition, information on radionuclides present in the waste is provided in Appendix B. The FY 1996 forecast data indicate that about 100,900 cubic meters of LLMW and TRU(M) waste is expected to be received at the CWC over the remaining life cycle of the site. Based on ranges provided by the waste generators, this baseline volume could fluctuate between a minimum of about 59,720 cubic meters and a maximum of about 152,170 cubic meters. The range is primarily due to uncertainties associated with the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program, including uncertainties regarding retrieval of long-length equipment, scheduling, and tank retrieval technologies.

  15. Life Cycle Assessment of a Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Power Plant and Impacts of Key Design Alternatives: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G. A.; Burkhardt, J. J.; Turchi, C. S.

    2011-09-01

    Climate change and water scarcity are important issues for today's power sector. To inform capacity expansion decisions, hybrid life cycle assessment is used to evaluate a reference design of a parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) facility located in Daggett, California, along four sustainability metrics: life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, cumulative energy demand (CED), and energy payback time (EPBT). This wet-cooled, 103 MW plant utilizes mined nitrate salts in its two-tank, thermal energy storage (TES) system. Design alternatives of dry-cooling, a thermocline TES, and synthetically-derived nitrate salt are evaluated. During its life cycle, the reference CSP plant is estimated to emit 26 g CO2eq per kWh, consume 4.7 L/kWh of water, and demand 0.40 MJeq/kWh of energy, resulting in an EPBT of approximately 1 year. The dry-cooled alternative is estimated to reduce life cycle water consumption by 77% but increase life cycle GHG emissions and CED by 8%. Synthetic nitrate salts may increase life cycle GHG emissions by 52% compared to mined. Switching from two-tank to thermocline TES configuration reduces life cycle GHG emissions, most significantly for plants using synthetically-derived nitrate salts. CSP can significantly reduce GHG emissions compared to fossil-fueled generation; however, dry-cooling may be required in many locations to minimize water consumption.

  16. Life-cycle analysis results of geothermal systems in comparison to other power systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, J. L.; Clark, C. E.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Energy Systems

    2010-10-11

    A life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions analysis has been conducted with Argonne National Laboratory's expanded Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model for geothermal power-generating technologies, including enhanced geothermal, hydrothermal flash, and hydrothermal binary technologies. As a basis of comparison, a similar analysis has been conducted for other power-generating systems, including coal, natural gas combined cycle, nuclear, hydroelectric, wind, photovoltaic, and biomass by expanding the GREET model to include power plant construction for these latter systems with literature data. In this way, the GREET model has been expanded to include plant construction, as well as the usual fuel production and consumption stages of power plant life cycles. For the plant construction phase, on a per-megawatt (MW) output basis, conventional power plants in general are found to require less steel and concrete than renewable power systems. With the exception of the concrete requirements for gravity dam hydroelectric, enhanced geothermal and hydrothermal binary used more of these materials per MW than other renewable power-generation systems. Energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) ratios for the infrastructure and other life-cycle stages have also been developed in this study per kilowatt-hour (kWh) of electricity output by taking into account both plant capacity and plant lifetime. Generally, energy burdens per energy output associated with plant infrastructure are higher for renewable systems than conventional ones. GHG emissions per kWh of electricity output for plant construction follow a similar trend. Although some of the renewable systems have GHG emissions during plant operation, they are much smaller than those emitted by fossil fuel thermoelectric systems. Binary geothermal systems have virtually insignificant GHG emissions compared to fossil systems. Taking into account plant construction and operation, the GREET model shows that fossil thermal plants have fossil energy use and GHG emissions per kWh of electricity output about one order of magnitude higher than renewable power systems, including geothermal power.

  17. Development of Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerant Solutions for Commercial Refrigeration Systems using a Life Cycle Climate Performance Design Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Fricke, Brian A; Vineyard, Edward Allan

    2012-01-01

    Commercial refrigeration systems are known to be prone to high leak rates and to consume large amounts of electricity. As such, direct emissions related to refrigerant leakage and indirect emissions resulting from primary energy consumption contribute greatly to their Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP). In this paper, an LCCP design tool is used to evaluate the performance of a typical commercial refrigeration system with alternative refrigerants and minor system modifications to provide lower Global Warming Potential (GWP) refrigerant solutions with improved LCCP compared to baseline systems. The LCCP design tool accounts for system performance, ambient temperature, and system load; system performance is evaluated using a validated vapor compression system simulation tool while ambient temperature and system load are devised from a widely used building energy modeling tool (EnergyPlus). The LCCP design tool also accounts for the change in hourly electricity emission rate to yield an accurate prediction of indirect emissions. The analysis shows that conventional commercial refrigeration system life cycle emissions are largely due to direct emissions associated with refrigerant leaks and that system efficiency plays a smaller role in the LCCP. However, as a transition occurs to low GWP refrigerants, the indirect emissions become more relevant. Low GWP refrigerants may not be suitable for drop-in replacements in conventional commercial refrigeration systems; however some mixtures may be introduced as transitional drop-in replacements. These transitional refrigerants have a significantly lower GWP than baseline refrigerants and as such, improved LCCP. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the tradeoffs between refrigerant GWP, efficiency and capacity.

  18. USA National Phenology Network: Plant and Animal Life-Cycle Data Related to Climate Change

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Phenology refers to recurring plant and animal life cycle stages, such as leafing and flowering, maturation of agricultural plants, emergence of insects, and migration of birds. It is also the study of these recurring plant and animal life cycle stages, especially their timing and relationships with weather and climate. Phenology affects nearly all aspects of the environment, including the abundance and diversity of organisms, their interactions with one another, their functions in food webs, and their seasonable behavior, and global-scale cycles of water, carbon, and other chemical elements. Phenology records can help us understand plant and animal responses to climate change; it is a key indicator. The USA-NPN brings together citizen scientists, government agencies, non-profit groups, educators, and students of all ages to monitor the impacts of climate change on plants and animals in the United States. The network harnesses the power of people and the Internet to collect and share information, providing researchers with far more data than they could collect alone.[Extracts copied from the USA-NPN home page and from http://www.usanpn.org/about].

  19. Updated Life-Cycle Assessment of Aluminum Production and Semi-fabrication for the GREET Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Qiang; Kelly, Jarod C.; Burnham, Andrew; Elgowainy, Amgad

    2015-09-01

    This report serves as an update for the life-cycle analysis (LCA) of aluminum production based on the most recent data representing the state-of-the-art of the industry in North America. The 2013 Aluminum Association (AA) LCA report on the environmental footprint of semifinished aluminum products in North America provides the basis for the update (The Aluminum Association, 2013). The scope of this study covers primary aluminum production, secondary aluminum production, as well as aluminum semi-fabrication processes including hot rolling, cold rolling, extrusion and shape casting. This report focuses on energy consumptions, material inputs and criteria air pollutant emissions for each process from the cradle-to-gate of aluminum, which starts from bauxite extraction, and ends with manufacturing of semi-fabricated aluminum products. The life-cycle inventory (LCI) tables compiled are to be incorporated into the vehicle cycle model of Argonne National Laboratory’s Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) Model for the release of its 2015 version.

  20. The role of Life Cycle Assessment in identifying and reducing environmental impacts of CCS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathre, Roger; Masanet, Eric; Cain, Jennifer; Chester, Mikhail

    2011-04-20

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) should be used to assist carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) planners to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and avoid unintended environmental trade-offs. LCA is an analytical framework for determining environmental impacts resulting from processes, products, and services. All life cycle stages are evaluated including raw material sourcing, processing, operation, maintenance, and component end-of-life, as well as intermediate stages such as transportation. In recent years a growing number of LCA studies have analyzed CCS systems. We reviewed 50+ LCA studies, and selected 11 studies that compared the environmental performance of 23 electric power plants with and without CCS. Here we summarize and interpret the findings of these studies. Regarding overall climatemitigation effectiveness of CCS, we distinguish between the capture percentage of carbon in the fuels, the net carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction, and the net GHG emission reduction. We also identify trade-offs between the climate benefits and the potential increased non-climate impacts of CCS. Emissions of non-CO2 flue gases such as NOx may increase due to the greater throughput of fuel, and toxicity issues may arise due to the use of monoethanolamine (MEA) capture solvent, resulting in ecological and human health impacts. We discuss areas where improvements in LCA data or methods are needed. The decision to implement CCS should be based on knowledge of the overall environmental impacts of the technologies, not just their carbon capture effectiveness. LCA will be an important tool in providing that knowledge.

  1. Understanding Low-cycle Fatigue Life Improvement Mechanisms in a Pre-twinned Magnesium Alloy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wu, Wei; An, Ke

    2015-10-03

    The mechanisms of fatigue life improvement by pre-twinning process in a commercial rolled magnesium (Mg) alloy have been investigated using real-time in situ neutron diffraction under a continuous-loading condition. It is found that by introducing the excess twinned grains through pre-compression along the rolling direction the fatigue life was enhanced approximately 50%, mainly resulting from the prolonged detwinning process and inhibited dislocation slip during reverse tension. Moreover, after pre-twinning process, the removal of the rapid strain hardening during reverse tension leads to a compressive mean stress value and more symmetric shape of stress-strain hysteresis loop. The pre-twinning has significant impactsmore » on the twinning-detwinning characteristics and deformation modes during cyclic loading and greatly facilitates the twinning-detwinning activities in plastic deformation. The cyclic straining leads to the increase of contribution of tensile twinning deformation in overall plastic deformation in both the as-received and pre-deformed sample. The mechanisms of load partitioning in different groups of grains are closely related to the deformation modes in each deformation stage, while the fatigue cycling has little influence on the load sharing. The pre-twinning process provides an easy and cost-effective route to improve the low-cycle fatigue life through manufacturing and processing, which would advance the wide application of light-weight wrought Mg alloys as structural materials.« less

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Giga Life Cycle: Manufacture of Cells from Recycled EV Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by OnTo Technology at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Giga Life Cycle: manufacture...

  3. Federal Register Notice for Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied Natural Gas from the United States

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Fossil Energy of the Department of Energy gives notice of the availability of the report Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied Natural Gas from the United...

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy, Long Cycle Life Lithium-ion Batteries for EV Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Penn State at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy, long cycle life...

  5. Life-cycle assessment of corn-based butanol as a potential transportation fuel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Liu, J.; Huo, H.; Energy Systems

    2007-12-31

    Butanol produced from bio-sources (such as corn) could have attractive properties as a transportation fuel. Production of butanol through a fermentation process called acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) has been the focus of increasing research and development efforts. Advances in ABE process development in recent years have led to drastic increases in ABE productivity and yields, making butanol production worthy of evaluation for use in motor vehicles. Consequently, chemical/fuel industries have announced their intention to produce butanol from bio-based materials. The purpose of this study is to estimate the potential life-cycle energy and emission effects associated with using bio-butanol as a transportation fuel. The study employs a well-to-wheels analysis tool--the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory--and the Aspen Plus{reg_sign} model developed by AspenTech. The study describes the butanol production from corn, including grain processing, fermentation, gas stripping, distillation, and adsorption for products separation. The Aspen{reg_sign} results that we obtained for the corn-to-butanol production process provide the basis for GREET modeling to estimate life-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. The GREET model was expanded to simulate the bio-butanol life cycle, from agricultural chemical production to butanol use in motor vehicles. We then compared the results for bio-butanol with those of conventional gasoline. We also analyzed the bio-acetone that is coproduced with bio-butanol as an alternative to petroleum-based acetone. Our study shows that, while the use of corn-based butanol achieves energy benefits and reduces greenhouse gas emissions, the results are affected by the methods used to treat the acetone that is co-produced in butanol plants.

  6. Life-cycle cost and impacts: alternatives for managing KE basin sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alderman, C.J.

    1997-06-27

    This document presents the results of a life-cycle cost and impacts evaluation of alternatives for managing sludge that will be removed from the K Basins. The two basins are located in the 100-K Area of the Hanford Site. This evaluation was conducted by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) and its subcontractors to support decisions regarding the ultimate disposition of the sludge. The long-range plan for the Hanford Site calls for spent nuclear fuel (SNF), sludge, debris, and water to be removed from the K East (KE) and K West (KW) Basins. This activity will be conducted as a removal action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). The scope of the CERCLA action will be limited to removing the SNF, sludge, debris, and water from the basins and transferring them to authorized facilities for interim storage and/or treatment and disposal. The scope includes treating the sludge and water in the 100-K Area prior to the transfer. Alternatives for the removal action are evaluated in a CERCLA engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) and include different methods for managing sludge from the KE Basins. The scope of the removal action does not include storing, treating, or disposing of the sludge once it is transferred to the receiving facility and the EE/CA does not evaluate those downstream activities. This life-cycle evaluation goes beyond the EE/CA and considers the full life-cycle costs and impacts of dispositioning sludge.

  7. Life Cycle analysis data and results for geothermal and other electricity generation technologies

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sullivan, John

    2013-06-04

    Life cycle analysis (LCA) is an environmental assessment method that quantifies the environmental performance of a product system over its entire lifetime, from cradle to grave. Based on a set of relevant metrics, the method is aptly suited for comparing the environmental performance of competing products systems. This file contains LCA data and results for electric power production including geothermal power. The LCA for electric power has been broken down into two life cycle stages, namely plant and fuel cycles. Relevant metrics include the energy ratio and greenhouse gas (GHG) ratios, where the former is the ratio of system input energy to total lifetime electrical energy out and the latter is the ratio of the sum of all incurred greenhouse gases (in CO2 equivalents) divided by the same energy output. Specific information included herein are material to power (MPR) ratios for a range of power technologies for conventional thermoelectric, renewables (including three geothermal power technologies), and coproduced natural gas/geothermal power. For the geothermal power scenarios, the MPRs include the casing, cement, diesel, and water requirements for drilling wells and topside piping. Also included herein are energy and GHG ratios for plant and fuel cycle stages for the range of considered electricity generating technologies. Some of this information are MPR data extracted directly from the literature or from models (eg. ICARUS a subset of ASPEN models) and others (energy and GHG ratios) are results calculated using GREET models and MPR data. MPR data for wells included herein were based on the Argonne well materials model and GETEM well count results.

  8. Life Cycle analysis data and results for geothermal and other electricity generation technologies

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sullivan, John

    Life cycle analysis (LCA) is an environmental assessment method that quantifies the environmental performance of a product system over its entire lifetime, from cradle to grave. Based on a set of relevant metrics, the method is aptly suited for comparing the environmental performance of competing products systems. This file contains LCA data and results for electric power production including geothermal power. The LCA for electric power has been broken down into two life cycle stages, namely plant and fuel cycles. Relevant metrics include the energy ratio and greenhouse gas (GHG) ratios, where the former is the ratio of system input energy to total lifetime electrical energy out and the latter is the ratio of the sum of all incurred greenhouse gases (in CO2 equivalents) divided by the same energy output. Specific information included herein are material to power (MPR) ratios for a range of power technologies for conventional thermoelectric, renewables (including three geothermal power technologies), and coproduced natural gas/geothermal power. For the geothermal power scenarios, the MPRs include the casing, cement, diesel, and water requirements for drilling wells and topside piping. Also included herein are energy and GHG ratios for plant and fuel cycle stages for the range of considered electricity generating technologies. Some of this information are MPR data extracted directly from the literature or from models (eg. ICARUS a subset of ASPEN models) and others (energy and GHG ratios) are results calculated using GREET models and MPR data. MPR data for wells included herein were based on the Argonne well materials model and GETEM well count results.

  9. Life Cycle analysis data and results for geothermal and other electricity generation technologies

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sullivan, John

    2013-06-04

    Life cycle analysis (LCA) is an environmental assessment method that quantifies the environmental performance of a product system over its entire lifetime, from cradle to grave. Based on a set of relevant metrics, the method is aptly suited for comparing the environmental performance of competing products systems. This file contains LCA data and results for electric power production including geothermal power. The LCA for electric power has been broken down into two life cycle stages, namely plant and fuel cycles. Relevant metrics include the energy ratio and greenhouse gas (GHG) ratios, where the former is the ratio of system input energy to total lifetime electrical energy out and the latter is the ratio of the sum of all incurred greenhouse gases (in CO2 equivalents) divided by the same energy output. Specific information included herein are material to power (MPR) ratios for a range of power technologies for conventional thermoelectric, renewables (including three geothermal power technologies), and coproduced natural gas/geothermal power. For the geothermal power scenarios, the MPRs include the casing, cement, diesel, and water requirements for drilling wells and topside piping. Also included herein are energy and GHG ratios for plant and fuel cycle stages for the range of considered electricity generating technologies. Some of this information are MPR data extracted directly from the literature or from models (eg. ICARUS – a subset of ASPEN models) and others (energy and GHG ratios) are results calculated using GREET models and MPR data. MPR data for wells included herein were based on the Argonne well materials model and GETEM well count results.

  10. FY 1996 solid waste integrated life-cycle forecast container summary volume 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valero, O.J.

    1996-04-23

    For the past six years, a waste volume forecast has been collected annually from onsite and offsite generators that currently ship or are planning to ship solid waste to the Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Central Waste Complex (CWC). This document provides a description of the containers expected to be used for these waste shipments from 1996 through the remaining life cycle of the Hanford Site. In previous years, forecast data have been reported for a 30-year time period; however, the life-cycle approach was adopted this year to maintain consistency with FY 1996 Multi-Year Program Plans. This document is a companion report to the more detailed report on waste volumes: WHC-EP0900, FY 1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Volume Summary. Both of these documents are based on data gathered during the FY 1995 data call and verified as of January, 1996. These documents are intended to be used in conjunction with other solid waste planning documents as references for short and long-term planning of the WHC Solid Waste Disposal Division`s treatment, storage, and disposal activities over the next several decades. This document focuses on the types of containers that will be used for packaging low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic waste (both non-mixed and mixed) (TRU(M)). The major waste generators for each waste category and container type are also discussed. Containers used for low-level waste (LLW) are described in Appendix A, since LLW requires minimal treatment and storage prior to onsite disposal in the LLW burial grounds. The FY 1996 forecast data indicate that about 100,900 cubic meters of LLMW and TRU(M) waste are expected to be received at the CWC over the remaining life cycle of the site. Based on ranges provided by the waste generators, this baseline volume could fluctuate between a minimum of about 59,720 cubic meters and a maximum of about 152,170 cubic meters.

  11. Microsoft Word - HABAdv#223_Life Cycle&TPA Modifications.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Subject: Life Cycle Cost & Schedule Report of the Proposed Consent Decree & TPA Modifications Adopted: November 6, 2009 Page 1 November 6, 2009 Dave Brockman, Manager U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations P.O. Box 550 (A7-50) Richland, WA 99352 Shirley Olinger, Manager U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection P.O. Box 450 (H6-60) Richland, WA 99352 Polly Zehm, Director Washington State Department of Ecology P.O. Box 47600 Olympia, WA 98504-7600 Michelle Pirzadeh,

  12. Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 3.0:Life-Cycle Database for Wind Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janet M Twomey, PhD

    2010-04-30

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The benefits of wind energy had previously been captured in the literature at an overview level with relatively low transparency or ability to understand the basis for that information. This has limited improvement and decision-making to larger questions such as wind versus other electrical sources (such as coal-fired plants). This research project has established a substantially different approach which is to add modular, high granularity life cycle inventory (lci) information that can be used by a wide range of decision-makers, seeking environmental improvement. Results from this project have expanded the understanding and evaluation of the underlying factors that can improve both manufacturing processes and specifically wind generators. The use of life cycle inventory techniques has provided a uniform framework to understand and compare the full range of environmental improvement in manufacturing, hence the concept of green manufacturing. In this project, the focus is on 1. the manufacturing steps that transform materials and chemicals into functioning products 2. the supply chain and end-of-life influences of materials and chemicals used in industry Results have been applied to wind generators, but also impact the larger U.S. product manufacturing base. For chemicals and materials, this project has provided a standard format for each lci that contains an overview and description, a process flow diagram, detailed mass balances, detailed energy of unit processes, and an executive summary. This is suitable for integration into other life cycle databases (such as that at NREL), so that broad use can be achieved. The use of representative processes allows unrestricted use of project results. With the framework refined in this project, information gathering was initiated for chemicals and materials in wind generation. Since manufacturing is one of the most significant parts of the environmental domain for wind generation improvement, this project research has developed a fundamental approach. The emphasis was place on individual unit processes as an organizing framework to understand the life cycle of manufactured products. The rearrangement of unit processes provides an efficient and versatile means of understanding improved manufactured products such as wind generators. The taxonomy and structure of unit process lci were developed in this project. A series of ten unit process lci were developed to sample the major segments of the manufacturing unit process taxonomy. Technical and economic effectiveness has been a focus of the project research in Task three. The use of repeatable modules for the organization of information on environmental improvement has a long term impact. The information developed can be used and reused in a variety of manufacturing plants and for a range of wind generator sizes and designs. Such a modular approach will lower the cost of life cycle analysis, that is often asked questions of carbon footprint, environmental impact, and sustainability. The use of a website for dissemination, linked to NREL, adds to the economic benefit as more users have access to the lci information. Benefit to the public has been achieved by a well-attended WSU conference, as well as presentations for the Kansas Wind Energy Commission. Attendees represented public interests, land owners, wind farm developers, those interested in green jobs, and industry. Another benefit to the public is the start of information flow from manufacturers that can inform individuals about products.

  13. Integrating Human Indoor Air Pollutant Exposure within Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hellweg, Stefanie; Demou, Evangelia; Bruzzi, Raffaella; Meijer, Arjen; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; McKone, Thomas E.

    2008-12-21

    Neglecting health effects from indoor pollutant emissions and exposure, as currently done in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), may result in product or process optimizations at the expense of workers? or consumers? health. To close this gap, methods for considering indoor exposure to chemicals are needed to complement the methods for outdoor human exposure assessment already in use. This paper summarizes the work of an international expert group on the integration of human indoor and outdoor exposure in LCA, within the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative. A new methodological framework is proposed for a general procedure to include human-health effects from indoor exposure in LCA. Exposure models from occupational hygiene and household indoor air quality studies and practices are critically reviewed and recommendations are provided on the appropriateness of various model alternatives in the context of LCA. A single-compartment box model is recommended for use as a default in LCA, enabling one to screen occupational and household exposures consistent with the existing models to assess outdoor emission in a multimedia environment. An initial set of model parameter values was collected. The comparison between indoor and outdoor human exposure per unit of emission shows that for many pollutants, intake per unit of indoor emission may be several orders of magnitude higher than for outdoor emissions. It is concluded that indoor exposure should be routinely addressed within LCA.

  14. Life-cycle cost analysis 200-West Weather Enclosure: Multi-function Waste Tank Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umphrey, M.R.

    1995-01-16

    The Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF)will provide environmentally safe and acceptable storage capacity for handling wastes resulting from the remediation of existing single-shell and double-shell tanks on the Hanford Site. The MWTF will construct two tank farm facilities at two separate locations. A four-tank complex will be constructed in the 200-East Area of the Hanford Site; a two-tank complex will be constructed in the 200-West Area. This report documents the results of a life-cycle cost analysis performed by ICF Kaiser Hanford Company (ICF KH) for the Weather Enclosure proposed to be constructed over the 200-West tanks. Currently, all tank farm operations on the Hanford Site are conducted in an open environment, with weather often affecting tank farm maintenance activities. The Weather Enclosure is being proposed to allow year-round tank farm operation and maintenance activities unconstrained by weather conditions. Elimination of weather-related delays at the MWTF and associated facilities will reduce operational costs. The life-cycle cost analysis contained in this report analyzes potential cost savings based on historical weather information, operational and maintenance costs, construction cost estimates, and other various assumptions.

  15. Meta-Analysis of Estimates of Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G. A.; Burkhardt, J. J.

    2011-09-01

    In reviewing life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale CSP systems, this analysis focuses on clarifying central tendency and reducing variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a meta-analytical process called harmonization. From 125 references reviewed, 10 produced 36 independent GHG emission estimates passing screens for quality and relevance: 19 for parabolic trough technology and 17 for power tower technology. The interquartile range (IQR) of published GHG emission estimates was 83 and 20 g CO2eq/kWh for trough and tower, respectively, with medians of 26 and 38 g CO2eq/kWh. Two levels of harmonization were applied. Light harmonization reduced variability in published estimates by using consistent values for key parameters pertaining to plant design and performance. Compared to the published estimates, IQR was reduced by 69% and median increased by 76% for troughs. IQR was reduced by 26% for towers, and median was reduced by 34%. A second level of harmonization was applied to five well-documented trough LC GHG emission estimates, harmonizing to consistent values for GHG emissions embodied in materials and from construction activities. As a result, their median was further reduced by 5%, while the range increased by 6%. In sum, harmonization clarified previous results.

  16. Uncertainties in Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Advanced Biomass Feedstock Logistics Supply Chains in Kansas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cafferty, Kara G.; Searcy, Erin M.; Nguyen, Long; Spatari, Sabrina

    2014-11-01

    To meet Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) cellulosic biofuel mandates, the United States will require an annual domestic supply of about 242 million Mg of biomass by 2022. To improve the feedstock logistics of lignocellulosic biofuels and access available biomass resources from areas with varying yields, commodity systems have been proposed and designed to deliver on-spec biomass feedstocks at preprocessing “depots”, which densify and stabilize the biomass prior to long-distance transport and delivery to centralized biorefineries. The harvesting, preprocessing, and logistics (HPL) of biomass commodity supply chains thus could introduce spatially variable environmental impacts into the biofuel life cycle due to needing to harvest, move, and preprocess biomass from multiple distances that have variable spatial density. This study examines the uncertainty in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn stover logisticsHPL within a bio-ethanol supply chain in the state of Kansas, where sustainable biomass supply varies spatially. Two scenarios were evaluated each having a different number of depots of varying capacity and location within Kansas relative to a central commodity-receiving biorefinery to test GHG emissions uncertainty. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate the spatial uncertainty in the HPL gate-to-gate sequence. The results show that the transport of densified biomass introduces the highest variability and contribution to the carbon footprint of the logistics HPL supply chain (0.2-13 g CO2e/MJ). Moreover, depending upon the biomass availability and its spatial density and surrounding transportation infrastructure (road and rail), logistics HPL processes can increase the variability in life cycle environmental impacts for lignocellulosic biofuels. Within Kansas, life cycle GHG emissions could range from 24 to 41 g CO2e/MJ depending upon the location, size and number of preprocessing depots constructed. However, this range can be minimized through optimizing the siting of preprocessing depots where ample rail infrastructure exists to supply biomass commodity to a regional biorefinery supply system

  17. Reducing Demand through Efficiency and Services: Impacts and Opportunities in Buildings Sector (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann [Director, Demand Response Research Center

    2011-06-08

    Mary Ann Piette, Deputy of LBNL's Building Technologies Department and Director of the Demand Response Research Center, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  18. Reducing Demand through Efficiency and Services: Impacts and Opportunities in Buildings Sector (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann

    2010-02-02

    Mary Ann Piette, Deputy of LBNL's Building Technologies Department and Director of the Demand Response Research Center, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  19. Life-Cycle Assessment of the Use of Jatropha Biodiesel in Indian Locomotives (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitaker, M.; Heath, G.

    2009-03-01

    With India's transportation sector relying heavily on imported petroleum-based fuels, the Planning Commission of India and the Indian government recommended the increased use of blended biodiesel in transportation fleets, identifying Jatropha as a potentially important biomass feedstock. The Indian Oil Corporation and Indian Railways are collaborating to increase the use of biodiesel blends in Indian locomotives with blends of up to B20, aiming to reduce GHG emissions and decrease petroleum consumption. To help evaluate the potential for Jatropha-based biodiesel in achieving sustainability and energy security goals, this study examines the life cycle, net GHG emission, net energy ratio, and petroleum displacement impacts of integrating Jatropha-based biodiesel into locomotive operations in India. In addition, this study identifies the parameters that have the greatest impact on the sustainability of the system.

  20. Integrating a life-cycle assessment with NEPA: Does it make sense?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ECCLESTON, C.H.

    1998-09-03

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 provides the basic national charter for protection of the environment in the US. Today NEPA has provided an environmental policy model which has been emulated by nations around the world. Recently, questions have been raised regarding the appropriateness and under what conditions it makes sense to combine the preparation of a NEPA analysis with the International Organization for Stnadardization (ISO) - 14000 Standards for Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA). This paper advantages a decision making tool consisting of six discrete criteria which can be employed by a user in reaching a decision regarding the integration of NEPA analysis and LCA. Properly applied, this tool should reduce the risk that a LCA may be inappropriately prepared and integrated with a NEPA analysis.

  1. Build-

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Cooling Equipment, Number of Buildings for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Build- ings*","Cooled Build- ings","Cooling Equipment (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Resid- ential- Type Central Air Condi- tioners","Heat Pumps","Indiv- idual Air Condi- tioners","District Chilled Water","Central Chillers","Pack- aged Air Condi- tioning Units","Swamp

  2. MARVEL: A PC-based interactive software package for life-cycle evaluations of hybrid/electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marr, W.W.; He, J.

    1995-07-01

    As a life-cycle analysis tool, MARVEL has been developed for the evaluation of hybrid/electric vehicle systems. It can identify the optimal combination of battery and heat engine characteristics for different vehicle types and performance requirements, on the basis of either life-cycle cost or fuel efficiency. Battery models that allow trade-offs between specific power and specific energy, between cycle life and depth of discharge, between peak power and depth of discharge, and between other parameters, are included in the software. A parallel hybrid configuration, using an internal combustion engine and a battery as the power sources, can be simulated with a user-specified energy management strategy. The PC-based software package can also be used for cost or fuel efficiency comparisons among conventional, electric, and hybrid vehicles.

  3. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Trough and Tower Concentrating Solar Power Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As clean energy increasingly becomes part of the national dialogue, lenders, utilities, and lawmakers need the most comprehensive and accurate information on GHG emissions from various sources of energy to inform policy, planning, and investment decisions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that gives decision makers and investors more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for renewable and conventional generation, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature, and reducing uncertainty.

  4. Building

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    DIV. Electricity Consumption and Expenditure Intensities by Census Division, 1999" ,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity Expenditures" ,"per Building (thousand kWh)","per...

  5. Analysis of material recovery facilities for use in life-cycle assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pressley, Phillip N.; Levis, James W.; Damgaard, Anders; Barlaz, Morton A.; DeCarolis, Joseph F.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Life-cycle assessment of solid waste management relies on accurate process models. • Material recovery facility (MRF) processes were modeled with new primary data. • Single stream, dual stream, pre-sorted, and mixed waste MRFs were considered. • MRF electricity consumption ranges from 4.7 to 7.8 kW h per Mg input. • Total cost ranges from $19.8 to $24.9 per Mg input. - Abstract: Insights derived from life-cycle assessment of solid waste management strategies depend critically on assumptions, data, and modeling at the unit process level. Based on new primary data, a process model was developed to estimate the cost and energy use associated with material recovery facilities (MRFs), which are responsible for sorting recyclables into saleable streams and as such represent a key piece of recycling infrastructure. The model includes four modules, each with a different process flow, for separation of single-stream, dual-stream, pre-sorted recyclables, and mixed-waste. Each MRF type has a distinct combination of equipment and default input waste composition. Model results for total amortized costs from each MRF type ranged from $19.8 to $24.9 per Mg (1 Mg = 1 metric ton) of waste input. Electricity use ranged from 4.7 to 7.8 kW h per Mg of waste input. In a single-stream MRF, equipment required for glass separation consumes 28% of total facility electricity consumption, while all other pieces of material recovery equipment consume less than 10% of total electricity. The dual-stream and mixed-waste MRFs have similar electricity consumption to a single-stream MRF. Glass separation contributes a much larger fraction of electricity consumption in a pre-sorted MRF, due to lower overall facility electricity consumption. Parametric analysis revealed that reducing separation efficiency for each piece of equipment by 25% altered total facility electricity consumption by less than 4% in each case. When model results were compared with actual data for an existing single-stream MRF, the model estimated the facility’s electricity consumption within 2%. The results from this study can be integrated into LCAs of solid waste management with system boundaries that extend from the curb through final disposal.

  6. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: Overview, calculation principles and case studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Kromann, Mikkel A.

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • We propose a comprehensive model for cost assessment of waste management systems. • The model includes three types of LCC: Conventional, Environmental and Societal LCCs. • The applicability of the proposed model is tested with two case studies. - Abstract: This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within modern waste systems. All technologies were defined per tonne of waste input, and each cost item within a technology was characterised by both a technical and an economic parameter (for example amount and cost of fuel related to waste collection), to ensure transparency, applicability and reproducibility. Cost items were classified as: (1) budget costs, (2) transfers (for example taxes, subsidies and fees) and (3) externality costs (for example damage or abatement costs related to emissions and disamenities). Technology costs were obtained as the sum of all cost items (of the same type) within a specific technology, while scenario costs were the sum of all technologies involved in a scenario. The cost model allows for the completion of three types of LCC: a Conventional LCC, for the assessment of financial costs, an Environmental LCC, for the assessment of financial costs whose results are complemented by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the same system, and a Societal LCC, for socio-economic assessments. Conventional and Environmental LCCs includes budget costs and transfers, while Societal LCCs includes budget and externality costs. Critical aspects were found in the existing literature regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental impacts and the coverage of shadow prices, and there was also significant confusion regarding terminology. The presented cost model was implemented in two case study scenarios assessing the costs involved in the source segregation of organic waste from 100,000 Danish households and the subsequent co-digestion of organic waste with animal manure. Overall, source segregation resulted in higher financial costs than the alternative of incinerating the organic waste with the residual waste: 1.6 M€/year, of which 0.9 M€/year was costs for extra bins and bags used by the households, 1.0 M€/year for extra collections and −0.3 M€/year saved on incineration.

  7. FEMP Offers New eTraining Core Course on Fundamentals of Life...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    metrics and tools for energy-efficient and sustainable buildings and implementing life cycle costing methods and procedures. He is also responsible for the software tool ...

  8. Comparative life-cycle air emissions of coal, domestic natural gas, LNG, and SNG for electricity generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews

    2007-09-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that in the coming decades the United States' natural gas (NG) demand for electricity generation will increase. Estimates also suggest that NG supply will increasingly come from imported liquefied natural gas (LNG). Additional supplies of NG could come domestically from the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) via coal gasification-methanation. The objective of this study is to compare greenhouse gas (GHG), SOx, and NOx life-cycle emissions of electricity generated with NG/LNG/SNG and coal. This life-cycle comparison of air emissions from different fuels can help us better understand the advantages and disadvantages of using coal versus globally sourced NG for electricity generation. Our estimates suggest that with the current fleet of power plants, a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have lower GHG emissions than coal. If advanced technologies with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) are used, however, coal and a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have very similar life-cycle GHG emissions. For SOx and NOx we find there are significant emissions in the upstream stages of the NG/LNG life-cycles, which contribute to a larger range in SOx and NOx emissions for NG/LNG than for coal and SNG. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Build-

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Cooling Equipment, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Build- ings*","Cooled Build- ings","Cooling Equipment (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Resid- ential- Type Central Air Condi- tioners","Heat Pumps","Indiv- idual Air Condi- tioners","District Chilled Water","Central Chillers","Pack- aged Air Condi- tioning Units","Swamp

  10. Life Cycle Assessment of Thermal Energy Storage: Two-Tank Indirect and Thermocline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G.; Turchi, C.; Burkhardt, J.; Kutscher, C.; Decker, T.

    2009-07-01

    In the United States, concentrating solar power (CSP) is one of the most promising renewable energy (RE) technologies for reduction of electric sector greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and for rapid capacity expansion. It is also one of the most price-competitive RE technologies, thanks in large measure to decades of field experience and consistent improvements in design. One of the key design features that makes CSP more attractive than many other RE technologies, like solar photovoltaics and wind, is the potential for including relatively low-cost and efficient thermal energy storage (TES), which can smooth the daily fluctuation of electricity production and extend its duration into the evening peak hours or longer. Because operational environmental burdens are typically small for RE technologies, life cycle assessment (LCA) is recognized as the most appropriate analytical approach for determining their environmental impacts of these technologies, including CSP. An LCA accounts for impacts from all stages in the development, operation, and decommissioning of a CSP plant, including such upstream stages as the extraction of raw materials used in system components, manufacturing of those components, and construction of the plant. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is undertaking an LCA of modern CSP plants, starting with those of parabolic trough design.

  11. A Tool for Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) Based Design of Residential Air Source Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beshr, Mohamed [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Radermacher, Reinhard [University of Maryland, College Park

    2014-01-01

    A tool for the design of air source heat pumps (ASHP) based on their life cycle climate performance (LCCP) analysis is presented. The LCCP model includes direct and indirect emissions of the ASHP. The annual energy consumption of the ASHP is determined based on AHRI Standard 210/240. The tool can be used as an evaluation tool when the user inputs the required performance data based on the ASHP type selected. In addition, this tool has system design capability where the user inputs the design parameters of the different components of the heat pump and the tool runs the system simulation software to calculate the performance data. Additional features available in the tool include the capability to perform parametric analysis and sensitivity study on the system. The tool has 14 refrigerants, and 47 cities built-in with the option for the user to add more refrigerants, based on NIST REFPROP, and cities, using TMY-3 database. The underlying LCCP calculation framework is open source and can be easily customized for various applications. The tool can be used with any system simulation software, load calculation tool, and weather and emissions data type.

  12. Life cycle assessment of four municipal solid waste management scenarios in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong Jinglan; Li Xiangzhi; Zhaojie Cui

    2010-11-15

    A life cycle assessment was carried out to estimate the environmental impact of municipal solid waste. Four scenarios mostly used in China were compared to assess the influence of various technologies on environment: (1) landfill, (2) incineration, (3) composting plus landfill, and (4) composting plus incineration. In all scenarios, the technologies significantly contribute to global warming and increase the adverse impact of non-carcinogens on the environment. The technologies played only a small role in the impact of carcinogens, respiratory inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, and non-renewable energy. Similarly, the influence of the technologies on the way other elements affect the environment was ignorable. Specifically, the direct emissions from the operation processes involved played an important role in most scenarios except for incineration, while potential impact generated from transport, infrastructure and energy consumption were quite small. In addition, in the global warming category, highest potential impact was observed in landfill because of the direct methane gas emissions. Electricity recovery from methane gas was the key factor for reducing the potential impact of global warming. Therefore, increasing the use of methane gas to recover electricity is highly recommended to reduce the adverse impact of landfills on the environment.

  13. Life Cycle Assessment Comparing the Use of Jatropha Biodiesel in the Indian Road and Rail Sectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitaker, M.; Heath, G.

    2010-05-01

    This life cycle assessment of Jatropha biodiesel production and use evaluates the net greenhouse gas (GHG) emission (not considering land-use change), net energy value (NEV), and net petroleum consumption impacts of substituting Jatropha biodiesel for conventional petroleum diesel in India. Several blends of biodiesel with petroleum diesel are evaluated for the rail freight, rail passenger, road freight, and road-passenger transport sectors that currently rely heavily on petroleum diesel. For the base case, Jatropha cultivation, processing, and use conditions that were analyzed, the use of B20 results in a net reduction in GHG emissions and petroleum consumption of 14% and 17%, respectively, and a NEV increase of 58% compared with the use of 100% petroleum diesel. While the road-passenger transport sector provides the greatest sustainability benefits per 1000 gross tonne kilometers, the road freight sector eventually provides the greatest absolute benefits owing to substantially higher projected utilization by year 2020. Nevertheless, introduction of biodiesel to the rail sector might present the fewest logistic and capital expenditure challenges in the near term. Sensitivity analyses confirmed that the sustainability benefits are maintained under multiple plausible cultivation, processing, and distribution scenarios. However, the sustainability of any individual Jatropha plantation will depend on site-specific conditions.

  14. Life-cycle energy savings potential from aluminum-intensive vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stodolsky, F.; Vyas, A.; Cuenca, R.; Gaines, L.

    1995-07-01

    The life-cycle energy and fuel-use impacts of US-produced aluminum-intensive passenger cars and passenger trucks are assessed. The energy analysis includes vehicle fuel consumption, material production energy, and recycling energy. A model that stimulates market dynamics was used to project aluminum-intensive vehicle market shares and national energy savings potential for the period between 2005 and 2030. We conclude that there is a net energy savings with the use of aluminum-intensive vehicles. Manufacturing costs must be reduced to achieve significant market penetration of aluminum-intensive vehicles. The petroleum energy saved from improved fuel efficiency offsets the additional energy needed to manufacture aluminum compared to steel. The energy needed to make aluminum can be reduced further if wrought aluminum is recycled back to wrought aluminum. We find that oil use is displaced by additional use of natural gas and nonfossil energy, but use of coal is lower. Many of the results are not necessarily applicable to vehicles built outside of the United States, but others could be used with caution.

  15. Evaluation of Life-Cycle Assessment Studies of Chinese Cement Production: Challenges and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Hongyou; Masanet, Eric; Price, Lynn

    2009-05-29

    The use of life-cycle assessment (LCA) to understand the embodied energy, environmental impacts, and potential energy-savings of manufactured products has become more widespread among researchers in recent years. This paper reviews recent LCA studies in the cement industry in China and in other countries and provides an assessment of the methodology used by the researchers compared to ISO LCA standards (ISO 14040:2006, ISO 14044:2006, and ISO/TR 14048:2002). We evaluate whether the authors provide information on the intended application, targeted audience, functional unit, system boundary, data sources, data quality assessment, data disaggregation and other elements, and draw conclusions regarding the level of adherence to ISO standards for the papers reviewed. We found that China researchers have gained much experience during last decade, but still have room for improvement in establishing boundaries, assessing data quality, identifying data sources, and explaining limitations. The paper concludes with a discussion of directions for future LCA research in China.

  16. A methodology to estimate greenhouse gases emissions in Life Cycle Inventories of wastewater treatment plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez-Garcia, G.; Moreira, M.T.

    2012-11-15

    The main objective of this paper is to present the Direct Emissions Estimation Model (DEEM), a model for the estimation of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emissions from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). This model is consistent with non-specific but widely used models such as AS/AD and ASM no. 1 and presents the benefits of simplicity and application over a common WWTP simulation platform, BioWin Registered-Sign , making it suitable for Life Cycle Assessment and Carbon Footprint studies. Its application in a Spanish WWTP indicates direct N{sub 2}O emissions to be 8 times larger than those associated with electricity use and thus relevant for LCA. CO{sub 2} emissions can be of similar importance to electricity-associated ones provided that 20% of them are of non-biogenic origin. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A model has been developed for the estimation of GHG emissions in WWTP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Model was consistent with both ASM no. 1 and AS/AD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sub 2}O emissions are 8 times more relevant than the one associated with electricity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} emissions are as important as electricity if 20% of it is non-biogenic.

  17. Life Cycle Assessment of Gasoline and Diesel Produced via Fast Pyrolysis and Hydroprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, D. D.

    2011-03-01

    In this work, a life cycle assessment (LCA) estimating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and net energy value (NEV) of the production of gasoline and diesel from forest residues via fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing, from production of the feedstock to end use of the fuel in a vehicle, is performed. The fast pyrolysis and hydrotreating and hydrocracking processes are based on a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) design report. The LCA results show GHG emissions of 0.142 kg CO2-equiv. per km traveled and NEV of 1.00 MJ per km traveled for a process using grid electricity. Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis shows a range of results, with all values better than those of conventional gasoline in 2005. Results for GHG emissions and NEV of gasoline and diesel from pyrolysis are also reported on a per MJ fuel basis for comparison with ethanol produced via gasification. Although pyrolysis-derived gasoline and diesel have lower GHG emissions and higher NEV than conventional gasoline does in 2005, they underperform ethanol produced via gasification from the same feedstock. GHG emissions for pyrolysis could be lowered further if electricity and hydrogen are produced from biomass instead of from fossil sources.

  18. Life cycle costs for the domestic reactor-based plutonium disposition option

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, K.A.

    1999-10-01

    Projected constant dollar life cycle cost (LCC) estimates are presented for the domestic reactor-based plutonium disposition program being managed by the US Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE/MD). The scope of the LCC estimate includes: design, construction, licensing, operation, and deactivation of a mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility (FFF) that will be used to purify and convert weapons-derived plutonium oxides to MOX fuel pellets and fabricate MOX fuel bundles for use in commercial pressurized-water reactors (PWRs); fuel qualification activities and modification of facilities required for manufacture of lead assemblies that will be used to qualify and license this MOX fuel; and modification, licensing, and operation of commercial PWRs to allow irradiation of a partial core of MOX fuel in combination with low-enriched uranium fuel. The baseline cost elements used for this document are the same as those used for examination of the preferred sites described in the site-specific final environmental impact statement and in the DOE Record of Decision that will follow in late 1999. Cost data are separated by facilities, government accounting categories, contract phases, and expenditures anticipated by the various organizations who will participate in the program over a 20-year period. Total LCCs to DOE/MD are projected at approximately $1.4 billion for a 33-MT plutonium disposition mission.

  19. Life Cycle Assessment of Switchgrass Cellulosic Ethanol Production in the Wisconsin and Michigan Agricultural Contexts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinistore, Julie C.; Reinemann, D. J.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Cronin, Keith R.; Meier, Paul J.; Runge, Troy M.; Zhang, Xuesong

    2015-04-25

    Spatial variability in yields and greenhouse gas emissions from soils has been identified as a key source of variability in life cycle assessments (LCAs) of agricultural products such as cellulosic ethanol. This study aims to conduct an LCA of cellulosic ethanol production from switchgrass in a way that captures this spatial variability and tests results for sensitivity to using spatially averaged results. The Environment Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was used to calculate switchgrass yields, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and nitrogen and phosphorus emissions from crop production in southern Wisconsin and Michigan at the watershed scale. These data were combined with cellulosic ethanol production data via ammonia fiber expansion and dilute acid pretreatment methods and region-specific electricity production data into an LCA model of eight ethanol production scenarios. Standard deviations from the spatial mean yields and soil emissions were used to test the sensitivity of net energy ratio, global warming potential intensity, and eutrophication and acidification potential metrics to spatial variability. Substantial variation in the eutrophication potential was also observed when nitrogen and phosphorus emissions from soils were varied. This work illustrates the need for spatially explicit agricultural production data in the LCA of biofuels and other agricultural products.

  20. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Mary Ann Piette: Impact of efficient buildings

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Mary Ann Piette

    2010-09-01

    Mary Ann Piette speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  1. A life-cycle model approach to multimedia waste reduction measuring performance for environmental cleanup projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phifer, B.E. Jr.; George, S.M.

    1993-07-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), Environmental Restoration (ER) Program adopted a Pollution Prevention Program in March 1991. The program`s mission is to minimize waste and prevent pollution in remedial investigations (RIs), feasibility studies, decontamination and decommissioning, and surveillance and maintenance site program activities. Mission success will result in volume and/or toxicity reduction of generated waste. The ER Program waste generation rates are projected to steadily increase through the year 2005 for all waste categories. Standard production units utilized to measure waste minimization apply to production/manufacturing facilities. Since ER inherited contaminated waste from previous production processes, no historical production data can be applied. Therefore, a more accurate measure for pollution prevention was identified as a need for the ER Program. The Energy Systems ER Program adopted a life-cycle model approach and implemented the concept of numerically scoring their waste generators to measure the effectiveness of pollution prevention/waste minimization programs and elected to develop a numerical scoring system (NSS) to accomplish these measurements. The prototype NSS, a computerized, user-friendly information management database system, was designed to be utilized in each phase of the ER Program. The NSS was designed to measure a generator`s success in incorporating pollution prevention in their work plans and reducing investigation-derived waste (IDW) during RIs. Energy Systems is producing a fully developed NSS and actually scoring the generators of IDW at six ER Program sites. Once RI waste generators are scored utilizing the NSS, the numerical scores are distributed into six performance categories: training, self-assessment, field implementation, documentation, technology transfer, and planning.

  2. Life Cycle Assessment of the MBT plant in Ano Liossia, Athens, Greece

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abeliotis, Konstadinos; Kalogeropoulos, Alexandros; Lasaridi, Katia

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model the operation of an MBT plant in Greece based on LCA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We compare four different MBT operating scenarios (among them and with landfilling). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Even the current operation of the MBT plant is preferable to landfilling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Utilization of the MBT compost and metals generates the most environmental gains. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal exploitation of RDF improves further the environmental performance of the plant. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is the application of Life Cycle Assessment to the operation of the MBT facility of Ano Liossia in the region of Attica in Greece. The region of Attica is home to almost half the population of Greece and the management of its waste is a major issue. In order to explicitly analyze the operation of the MBT plant, five scenarios were generated. Actual operation data of the MBT plant for the year 2008 were provided by the region of Attica and the LCA modeling was performed via the SimaPro 5.1 software while impact assessment was performed utilizing the Eco-indicator'99 method. The results of our analysis indicate that even the current operation of the MBT plant is preferable to landfilling. Among the scenarios of MBT operation, the one with complete utilization of the MBT outputs, i.e. compost, RDF, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, is the one that generates the most environmental gains. Our analysis indicates that the exploitation of RDF via incineration is the key factor towards improving the environmental performance of the MBT plant. Our findings provide a quantitative understanding of the MBT plant. Interpretation of results showed that proper operation of the modern waste management systems can lead to substantial reduction of environmental impacts and savings of resources.

  3. 90 MW build/own/operate gas turbine combined cycle cogeneration project with sludge drying plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroppe, J.T.

    1986-04-01

    This paper will discuss some of the unique aspects of a build/own/operate cogeneration project for an oil refinery in which Foster Wheeler is involved. The organization is constructing a 90 MW plant that will supply 55 MW and 160,000 lb/hr of 600 psi, 700F steam to the Tosco Corporation's 130,000 bd Avon Oil Refinery in Martinez, California. (The refinery is located about 45 miles northeast of San Francisco.) Surplus power production will be sold to the local utility, Pacific Gas and Electric Co. (PG and E). Many of the aspects of this project took on a different perspective, since the contractor would build, own and operate the plant.

  4. What Can Meta-Analyses Tell Us About the Reliability of Life Cycle Assessment for Decision Support?

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The body of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature is vast and has grown over the last decade at a dauntingly rapid rate. Many LCAs have been published on the same or very similar technologies or products, in some cases leading to hundreds of publications. One result is the impression among decision makers that LCAs are inconclusive, owing to perceived and real variability in published estimates of life cycle impacts. Despite the extensive available literature and policy need for more conclusive assessments, only modest attempts have been made to synthesize previous research. A significant challenge to doing so are differences in characteristics of the considered technologies and inconsistencies in methodological choices (e.g., system boundaries, coproduct allocation, and impact assessment methods) among the studies that hamper easy comparisons and related decision support.

  5. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Trough and Tower Concentrating Solar Power Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burkhardt, J. J.; Heath, G.; Cohen, E.

    2012-04-01

    In reviewing life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) systems, this analysis focuses on reducing variability and clarifying the central tendency of published estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a meta-analytical process called harmonization. From 125 references reviewed, 10 produced 36 independent GHG emissions estimates passing screens for quality and relevance: 19 for parabolic trough (trough) technology and 17 for power tower (tower) technology. The interquartile range (IQR) of published estimates for troughs and towers were 83 and 20 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO2-eq/kWh),1 respectively; median estimates were 26 and 38 g CO2-eq/kWh for trough and tower, respectively. Two levels of harmonization were applied. Light harmonization reduced variability in published estimates by using consistent values for key parameters pertaining to plant design and performance. The IQR and median were reduced by 87% and 17%, respectively, for troughs. For towers, the IQR and median decreased by 33% and 38%, respectively. Next, five trough LCAs reporting detailed life cycle inventories were identified. The variability and central tendency of their estimates are reduced by 91% and 81%, respectively, after light harmonization. By harmonizing these five estimates to consistent values for global warming intensities of materials and expanding system boundaries to consistently include electricity and auxiliary natural gas combustion, variability is reduced by an additional 32% while central tendency increases by 8%. These harmonized values provide useful starting points for policy makers in evaluating life cycle GHG emissions from CSP projects without the requirement to conduct a full LCA for each new project.

  6. Levelized life-cycle costs for four residue-collection systems and four gas-production systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thayer, G.R.; Rood, P.L.; Williamson, K.D. Jr.; Rollett, H.

    1983-01-01

    Technology characterizations and life-cycle costs were obtained for four residue-collection systems and four gas-production systems. All costs are in constant 1981 dollars. The residue-collection systems were cornstover collection, wheat-straw collection, soybean-residue collection, and wood chips from forest residue. The life-cycle costs ranged from $19/ton for cornstover collection to $56/ton for wood chips from forest residues. The gas-production systems were low-Btu gas from a farm-size gasifier, solar flash pyrolysis of biomass, methane from seaweed farms, and hydrogen production from bacteria. Life-cycle costs ranged from $3.3/10/sup 6/ Btu for solar flash pyrolysis of biomass to $9.6/10/sup 6/ Btu for hydrogen from bacteria. Sensitivity studies were also performed for each system. The sensitivity studies indicated that fertilizer replacement costs were the dominate costs for the farm-residue collection, while residue yield was most important for the wood residue. Feedstock costs were most important for the flash pyrolysis. Yields and capital costs are most important for the seaweed farm and the hydrogen from bacteria system.

  7. Developing A New High Capacity Anode With Long Cycle Life | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon es020_amine_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Developing High Capacity, Long Life Anodes Developing High Capacity, Long Life Anodes FY 2011 Annual Progress Report for Energy Storage R&D

  8. A low cost, high energy density and long cycle life potassium-sulfur battery for grid-scale energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Bowden, Mark E.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun

    2015-08-15

    Alkali metal-sulfur batteries are attractive for energy storage applications because of their high energy density. Among the batteries, lithium-sulfur batteries typically use liquid in the battery electrolyte, which causes problems in both performance and safety. Sodium-sulfur batteries can use a solid electrolyte such as beta alumina but this requires a high operating temperature. Here we report a novel potassium-sulfur battery with K+-conducting beta-alumina as the electrolyte. Our studies indicate that liquid potassium exhibits much better wettability on the surface of beta-alumina compared to liquid sodium at lower temperatures. Based on this observation, we develop a potassium-sulfur battery that can operate at as low as 150°C with excellent performance. In particular, the battery shows excellent cycle life with negligible capacity fade in 1000 cycles because of the dense ceramic membrane. This study demonstrates a new battery with a high energy density, long cycle life, low cost and high safety, which is ideal for grid-scale energy storage.

  9. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, Corrie E.; Harto, Christopher B.; Schroeder, Jenna N.; Martino, Louis E.; Horner, Robert M.

    2013-11-05

    This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges. This report is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 gives the background of the project and its purpose, which is to assess the water consumption of geothermal technologies and identify areas where water availability may present a challenge to utility-scale geothermal development. Water consumption refers to the water that is withdrawn from a resource such as a river, lake, or nongeothermal aquifer that is not returned to that resource. The geothermal electricity generation technologies evaluated in this study include conventional hydrothermal flash and binary systems, as well as EGSs that rely on engineering a productive reservoir where heat exists, but where water availability or permeability may be limited. Chapter 2 describes the approach and methods for this work and identifies the four power plant scenarios evaluated: a 20-MW EGS binary plant, a 50-MW EGS binary plant, a 10-MW hydrothermal binary plant, and a 50-MW hydrothermal flash plant. The methods focus on (1) the collection of data to improve estimation of EGS stimulation volumes, aboveground operational consumption for all geothermal technologies, and belowground operational consumption for EGS; and (2) the mapping of the geothermal and water resources of the western United States to assist in the identification of potential water challenges to geothermal growth. Chapters 3 and 4 present the water requirements for the power plant life cycle. Chapter 3 presents the results of the current data collection effort, and Chapter 4 presents the normalized volume of fresh water consumed at each life cycle stage per lifetime energy output for the power plant scenarios evaluated. Over the life cycle of a geothermal power plant, from construction through 30 years of operation, the majority of water is consumed by plant operations. For the EGS binary scenarios, where dry cooling was assumed, belowground operational water loss is the greatest contributor depending upon the physical and operational conditions of the reservoir. Total life cycle water consumption requirements for air-cooled EGS binary scenarios vary between 0.22 and 1.85 gal/kWh, depending upon the extent of belowground operational water consumption. The air-cooled hydrothermal binary and flash plants experience far less fresh water consumption over the life cycle, at 0.04 gal/kWh. Fresh water requirements associated with air- cooled binary operations are primarily from aboveground water needs, including dust control, maintenance, and domestic use. Although wet-cooled hydrothermal flash systems require water for cooling, these plants generally rely upon the geofluid, fluid from the geothermal reservoir, which typically has high salinity and total dissolved solids concentration and is much warmer than normal groundwater sources, for their cooling water needs; thus, while there is considerable geofluid loss at 2.7 gal/kWh, fresh water consumption during operations is similar to that of aircooled binary systems. Chapter 5 presents the assessment of water demand for future growth in deployment of utility-scale geothermal power generation. The approach combines the life cycle analysis of geothermal water consumption with a geothermal supply curve according to resource type, levelized cost of electricity (LCOE), and potential growth scenarios. A total of 17 growth scenarios were evaluated. In general, the scenarios that assumed lower costs for EGSs as a result of learning and technological improvements resulted in greater geothermal potential, but also significantly greater water demand due to the higher water consumption by EGSs. It was shown, however, that this effect could be largely mitigated if nonpotable water sources were used for belowground operational water demands. The geographical areas that showed the highest water demand for most growth scenarios were southern and northern California, as well as most of Nevada. In addition to water demand by geothermal power production, Chapter 5 includes data on water availability for geothermal development areas. A qualitative analysis is included that identifies some of the basins where the limited availability of water is most likely to affect the development of geothermal resources. The data indicate that water availability is fairly limited, especially under drought conditions, in most of the areas with significant near- and medium-term geothermal potential. Southern California was found to have the greatest potential for water-related challenges with its combination of high geothermal potential and limited water availability. The results of this work are summarized in Chapter 6. Overall, this work highlights the importance of utilizing dry cooling systems for binary and EGS systems and minimizing fresh water consumption throughout the life cycle of geothermal power development. The large resource base for EGSs represents a major opportunity for the geothermal industry; however, depending upon geology, these systems can require large quantities of makeup water due to belowground reservoir losses. Identifying potential sources of compatible degraded or low-quality water for use for makeup injection for EGS and flash systems represents an important opportunity to reduce the impacts of geothermal development on fresh water resources. The importance of identifying alternative water sources for geothermal systems is heightened by the fact that a large fraction of the geothermal resource is located in areas already experiencing water stress. Chapter 7 is a glossary of the technical terms used in the report, and Chapters 8 and 9 provide references and a bibliography, respectively.

  10. Li-Ion polymer cells thermal property changes as a function of cycle-life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maleki, Hossein; Wang, Hsin; Porter, Wallace D; Hallmark, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    The impact of elevated temperature chargeedischarge cycling on thermal conductivity (K-value) of Lithium Ion Polymer (LIP) cells of various chemistries from three different manufacturers was investigated. These included high voltage (Graphite/LiCoO2:3.0e4.35 V), wide voltage (Si:C/LiCoO2:2.7e4.35 V) and conventional (Graphite/LiCoO2:3.0e4.2 V) chemistries. Investigation results show limited variability within the in-plane and through-plane K-values for the fresh cells with graphite-based anodes from all three suppliers. After 500 cycles at 45 C, in-plane and through-plane K-values of the high voltage cells reduced less vs. those for the wide voltage cells. Such results suggest that high temperature cycling could have a greater impact on thermal properties of Si:C cells than on the LIP cells with graphite (Gr) anode cells we tested. This difference is due to the excess swelling of Si:C-anode based cells vs. Gr-anode cells during cycling, especially at elevated temperatures. Thermal modeling is used to evaluate the impact of K-value changes, due to cycles at 45 C, on the cells internal heat propagation under internal short circuit condition that leads to localized meltdown of the separator.

  11. High rate, long cycle life battery electrode materials with an open framework structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wessells, Colin; Huggins, Robert; Cui, Yi; Pasta, Mauro

    2015-02-10

    A battery includes a cathode, an anode, and an aqueous electrolyte disposed between the cathode and the anode and including a cation A. At least one of the cathode and the anode includes an electrode material having an open framework crystal structure into which the cation A is reversibly inserted during operation of the battery. The battery has a reference specific capacity when cycled at a reference rate, and at least 75% of the reference specific capacity is retained when the battery is cycled at 10 times the reference rate.

  12. Cycle Life Studies of Advanced Technology Development Program Gen 1 Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Randy Ben; Motloch, Chester George

    2001-03-01

    This report presents the test results of a special calendar-life test conducted on 18650-size, prototype, lithium-ion battery cells developed to establish a baseline chemistry and performance for the Advanced Technology Development Program. As part of electrical performance testing, a new calendar-life test protocol was used. The test consisted of a once-per-day discharge and charge pulse designed to have minimal impact on the cell yet establish the performance of the cell over a period of time such that the calendar life of the cell could be determined. The calendar life test matrix included two states of charge (i.e., 60 and 80%) and four temperatures (40, 50, 60, and 70°C). Discharge and regen resistances were calculated from the test data. Results indicate that both discharge and regen resistance increased nonlinearly as a function of the test time. The magnitude of the discharge and regen resistance depended on the temperature and state of charge at which the test was conducted. The calculated discharge and regen resistances were then used to develop empirical models that may be useful to predict the calendar life or the cells.

  13. Life Cycle Assessment of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007: Ethanol - Global Warming Potential and Environmental Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G. A.; Hsu, D. D.; Inman, D.; Aden, A.; Mann, M. K.

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study is to use life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the global warming potential (GWP), water use, and net energy value (NEV) associated with the EISA-mandated 16 bgy cellulosic biofuels target, which is assumed in this study to be met by cellulosic-based ethanol, and the EISA-mandated 15 bgy conventional corn ethanol target. Specifically, this study compares, on a per-kilometer-driven basis, the GWP, water use, and NEV for the year 2022 for several biomass feedstocks.

  14. Cost and code study of underground buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sterling, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    Various regulatory and financial implications for earth-sheltered houses and buildings are discussed. Earth-sheltered houses are covered in the most detail including discussions of building-code restrictions, HUD Minimum Property Standards, legal aspects, zoning restrictions, taxation, insurance, and home financing. Examples of the initial-cost elements in earth-sheltered houses together with projected life-cycle costs are given and compared to more-conventional energy-conserving houses. For larger-scale underground buildings, further information is given on building code, fire protection, and insurance provisions. Initial-cost information for five large underground buildings is presented together with energy-use information where available.

  15. Life-cycle assessment of municipal solid waste management alternatives with consideration of uncertainty: SIWMS development and application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El Hanandeh, Ali; El-Zein, Abbas

    2010-05-15

    This paper describes the development and application of the Stochastic Integrated Waste Management Simulator (SIWMS) model. SIWMS provides a detailed view of the environmental impacts and associated costs of municipal solid waste (MSW) management alternatives under conditions of uncertainty. The model follows a life-cycle inventory approach extended with compensatory systems to provide more equitable bases for comparing different alternatives. Economic performance is measured by the net present value. The model is verified against four publicly available models under deterministic conditions and then used to study the impact of uncertainty on Sydney's MSW management 'best practices'. Uncertainty has a significant effect on all impact categories. The greatest effect is observed in the global warming category where a reversal of impact direction is predicted. The reliability of the system is most sensitive to uncertainties in the waste processing and disposal. The results highlight the importance of incorporating uncertainty at all stages to better understand the behaviour of the MSW system.

  16. Reducing the Carbon Footprint of Commercial Refrigeration Systems Using Life Cycle Climate Performance Analysis: From System Design to Refrigerant Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, Brian A; Abdelaziz, Omar; Vineyard, Edward Allan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) analysis is used to estimate lifetime direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent gas emissions of various refrigerant options and commercial refrigeration system designs, including the multiplex DX system with various hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants, the HFC/R744 cascade system incorporating a medium-temperature R744 secondary loop, and the transcritical R744 booster system. The results of the LCCP analysis are presented, including the direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent emissions for each refrigeration system and refrigerant option. Based on the results of the LCCP analysis, recommendations are given for the selection of low GWP replacement refrigerants for use in existing commercial refrigeration systems, as well as for the selection of commercial refrigeration system designs with low carbon dioxide equivalent emissions, suitable for new installations.

  17. Proposed paper: Linking NDE to component life-cycle decisions for fossil power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tilley, R.

    1996-12-31

    In the changing US utility industry, competition for customers is placing ever increasing pressure to reduce operating and maintenance costs for generating facilities. A key challenge in this cost-cutting process is to obtain such reductions without compromising plant safety or reliability. To meet such a challenge will require a much tighter coupling of component inspection activities with decisions on component life. Past utility practices for fossil units have focused on performing periodic inspections and then reacting to any findings from such inspections. In the current environment, the process needs to provide a close integration of NDE activities with the component damage models to ensure an optimal program of where to inspect, how to inspect, and when to inspect. This paper will review current state-of-activities and provide recommendations on achieving such an integrated process. An example case will be developed for a typical, fossil plant, high temperature header. Visualization software is becoming an everyday tool in NDE. However, it has never been so difficult to find a package that fulfills the needs of a research laboratory. Issues such as price, availability for a given platform, learning curves make the choice even harder. This paper describes our experience at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory with various visualization packages. We will show how the problems encountered with large data sets led us to use popular scripting languages such as Tcl/Tk or Perl. By coupling these languages with standard toolkits as XLib and OpenGL, powerful, flexible, user-friendly and machine-independent tools can be designed rapidly. We will describe X-ray CT industrial and biomedical applications that made use of this approach, and show how their requirements were taken into account.

  18. Life safety and seismic hazards: Selecting buildings for review and questions still to answer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, M.D.

    1993-11-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is situated on the eastern flank of the Jemez Mountains in which lies the Valles Caldera, a volcanic center that erupted 1.1 to 1.5 million years ago. Los Alamos is also situated within the western margin of the Rio Grande Rift system, where there is a possibility for seismic activity. Within the Los Alamos area are numerous faults, some within a kilometer or two of LANL structures, some even closer. Many of the permanent structures within Los Alamos were designed and constructed in accordance with applicable building codes in the 1950s. These codes have now been determined to be deficient with respect to both forcing functions of seismic events and structure design. LANL, in response to a letter from the University of California dated October 29, 1990, began the Seismic Hazards Investigation Program to determine the characteristics of a probable seismic event at Los Alamos and to determine the ability of the existing structures to withstand the forces generated by such an event. In the Seismic Hazards Investigation Program, paleoseismic methods are used to determine seismic characterization and a systematic method is needed to investigate existing structures, systems, and components for the ability to resist seismic forces. This paper presents the methodology for determining seismic characterizations and structure prioritization and analysis at LANL for the Seismic Hazards Investigation Program.

  19. Impact of Charge Degradation on the Life Cycle Climate Performance of a Residential Air-Conditioning System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beshr, Mohamed; Aute, Vikrant; Abdelaziz, Omar; Fricke, Brian A; Radermacher, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Vapor compression systems continuously leak a small fraction of their refrigerant charge to the environment, whether during operation or servicing. As a result of the slow leak rate occurring during operation, the refrigerant charge decreases until the system is serviced and recharged. This charge degradation, after a certain limit, begins to have a detrimental effect on system capacity, energy consumption, and coefficient of performance (COP). This paper presents a literature review and a summary of previous experimental work on the effect of undercharging or charge degradation of different vapor compression systems, especially those without a receiver. These systems include residential air conditioning and heat pump systems utilizing different components and refrigerants, and water chiller systems. Most of these studies show similar trends for the effect of charge degradation on system performance. However, it is found that although much experimental work exists on the effect of charge degradation on system performance, no correlation or comparison between charge degradation and system performance yet exists. Thus, based on the literature review, three different correlations that characterize the effect of charge on system capacity and energy consumption are developed for different systems as follows: one for air-conditioning systems, one for vapor compression water-to-water chiller systems, and one for heat pumps. These correlations can be implemented in vapor compression cycle simulation tools to obtain a better prediction of the system performance throughout its lifetime. In this paper, these correlations are implemented in an open source tool for life cycle climate performance (LCCP) based design of vapor compression systems. The LCCP of a residential air-source heat pump is evaluated using the tool and the effect of charge degradation on the results is studied. The heat pump is simulated using a validated component-based vapor compression system model and the LCCP results obtained using the three charge degradation correlations are compared.

  20. Building technologies program. 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selkowitz, S.E.

    1996-05-01

    The 1995 annual report discusses laboratory activities in the Building Technology Program. The report is divided into four categories: windows and daylighting, lighting systems, building energy simulation, and advanced building systems. The objective of the Building Technologies program is to assist the U.S. building industry in achieving substantial reductions in building-sector energy use and associated greenhouse gas emissions while improving comfort, amenity, health, and productivity in the building sector. Past efforts have focused on windows and lighting, and on the simulation tools needed to integrate the full range of energy efficiency solutions into achievable, cost-effective design solutions for new and existing buildings. Current research is based on an integrated systems and life-cycle perspective to create cost-effective solutions for more energy-efficient, comfortable, and productive work and living environments. Sixteen subprograms are described in the report.

  1. Policy implications of allocation methods in the life cycle analysis of integrated corn and corn stover ethanol production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canter, Christina E.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo; Wang, Zhichao; Wang, Michael

    2015-08-18

    Here, a biorefinery may produce multiple fuels from more than one feedstock. The ability of these fuels to qualify as one of the four types of biofuels under the US Renewable Fuel Standard and to achieve a low carbon intensity score under California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard can be strongly influenced by the approach taken to their life cycle analysis (LCA). For example, in facilities that may co-produce corn grain and corn stover ethanol, the ethanol production processes can share the combined heat and power (CHP) that is produced from the lignin and liquid residues from stover ethanol production. We examine different LCA approaches to corn grain and stover ethanol production considering different approaches to CHP treatment. In the baseline scenario, CHP meets the energy demands of stover ethanol production first, with additional heat and electricity generated sent to grain ethanol production. The resulting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for grain and stover ethanol are 57 and 25 g-CO2eq/MJ, respectively, corresponding to a 40 and 74% reduction compared to the GHG emissions of gasoline. We illustrate that emissions depend on allocation of burdens of CHP production and corn farming, along with the facility capacities. Co-product handling techniques can strongly influence LCA results and should therefore be transparently documented.

  2. Life cycle assessment of urban waste management: Energy performances and environmental impacts. The case of Rome, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cherubini, Francesco Bargigli, Silvia; Ulgiati, Sergio

    2008-12-15

    Landfilling is nowadays the most common practice of waste management in Italy in spite of enforced regulations aimed at increasing waste pre-sorting as well as energy and material recovery. In this work we analyse selected alternative scenarios aimed at minimizing the unused material fraction to be delivered to the landfill. The methodological framework of the analysis is the life cycle assessment, in a multi-method form developed by our research team. The approach was applied to the case of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Rome, with a special focus on energy and material balance, including global and local scale airborne emissions. Results, provided in the form of indices and indicators of efficiency, effectiveness and environmental impacts, point out landfill activities as the worst waste management strategy at a global scale. On the other hand, the investigated waste treatments with energy and material recovery allow important benefits of greenhouse gas emission reduction (among others) but are still affected by non-negligible local emissions. Furthermore, waste treatments leading to energy recovery provide an energy output that, in the best case, is able to meet 15% of the Rome electricity consumption.

  3. Life cycle air quality impacts of conventional and alternative light-duty transportation in the United States

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tessum, Christopher W.; Hill, Jason D.; Marshall, Julian D.

    2014-12-30

    Commonly considered strategies for reducing the environmental impact of light-duty transportation include using alternative fuels and improving vehicle fuel economy. We evaluate the air quality-related human health impacts of 10 such options, including the use of liquid biofuels, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) in internal combustion engines; the use of electricity from a range of conventional and renewable sources to power electric vehicles (EVs); and the use of hybrid EV technology. Our approach combines spatially, temporally, and chemically detailed life cycle emission inventories; comprehensive, fine-scale state-of-the-science chemical transport modeling; and exposure, concentration–response, and economic health impact modeling for ozonemore » (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). We find that powering vehicles with corn ethanol or with coal-based or “grid average” electricity increases monetized environmental health impacts by 80% or more relative to using conventional gasoline. Conversely, EVs powered by low-emitting electricity from natural gas, wind, water, or solar power reduce environmental health impacts by 50% or more. Consideration of potential climate change impacts alongside the human health outcomes described here further reinforces the environmental preferability of EVs powered by low-emitting electricity relative to gasoline vehicles.« less

  4. Policy implications of allocation methods in the life cycle analysis of integrated corn and corn stover ethanol production

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Canter, Christina E.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo; Wang, Zhichao; Wang, Michael

    2015-08-18

    Here, a biorefinery may produce multiple fuels from more than one feedstock. The ability of these fuels to qualify as one of the four types of biofuels under the US Renewable Fuel Standard and to achieve a low carbon intensity score under California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard can be strongly influenced by the approach taken to their life cycle analysis (LCA). For example, in facilities that may co-produce corn grain and corn stover ethanol, the ethanol production processes can share the combined heat and power (CHP) that is produced from the lignin and liquid residues from stover ethanol production. Wemore » examine different LCA approaches to corn grain and stover ethanol production considering different approaches to CHP treatment. In the baseline scenario, CHP meets the energy demands of stover ethanol production first, with additional heat and electricity generated sent to grain ethanol production. The resulting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for grain and stover ethanol are 57 and 25 g-CO2eq/MJ, respectively, corresponding to a 40 and 74% reduction compared to the GHG emissions of gasoline. We illustrate that emissions depend on allocation of burdens of CHP production and corn farming, along with the facility capacities. Co-product handling techniques can strongly influence LCA results and should therefore be transparently documented.« less

  5. Life cycle air quality impacts of conventional and alternative light-duty transportation in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tessum, Christopher W.; Hill, Jason D.; Marshall, Julian D.

    2014-12-30

    Commonly considered strategies for reducing the environmental impact of light-duty transportation include using alternative fuels and improving vehicle fuel economy. We evaluate the air quality-related human health impacts of 10 such options, including the use of liquid biofuels, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) in internal combustion engines; the use of electricity from a range of conventional and renewable sources to power electric vehicles (EVs); and the use of hybrid EV technology. Our approach combines spatially, temporally, and chemically detailed life cycle emission inventories; comprehensive, fine-scale state-of-the-science chemical transport modeling; and exposure, concentration–response, and economic health impact modeling for ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). We find that powering vehicles with corn ethanol or with coal-based or “grid average” electricity increases monetized environmental health impacts by 80% or more relative to using conventional gasoline. Conversely, EVs powered by low-emitting electricity from natural gas, wind, water, or solar power reduce environmental health impacts by 50% or more. Consideration of potential climate change impacts alongside the human health outcomes described here further reinforces the environmental preferability of EVs powered by low-emitting electricity relative to gasoline vehicles.

  6. Life-cycle energy and GHG emissions of forest biomass harvest and transport for biofuel production in Michigan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Fengli; Johnson, Dana M.; Wang, Jinjiang

    2015-04-01

    High dependence on imported oil has increased U.S. strategic vulnerability and prompted more research in the area of renewable energy production. Ethanol production from renewable woody biomass, which could be a substitute for gasoline, has seen increased interest. This study analysed energy use and greenhouse gas emission impacts on the forest biomass supply chain activities within the State of Michigan. A life-cycle assessment of harvesting and transportation stages was completed utilizing peer-reviewed literature. Results for forest-delivered ethanol were compared with those for petroleum gasoline using data specific to the U.S. The analysis from a woody biomass feedstock supply perspective uncovered that ethanol production is more environmentally friendly (about 62% less greenhouse gas emissions) compared with petroleum based fossil fuel production. Sensitivity analysis was conducted with key inputs associated with harvesting and transportation operations. The results showed that research focused on improving biomass recovery efficiency and truck fuel economy further reduced GHG emissions and energy consumption.

  7. Life-cycle energy and GHG emissions of forest biomass harvest and transport for biofuel production in Michigan

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Fengli; Johnson, Dana M.; Wang, Jinjiang

    2015-04-01

    High dependence on imported oil has increased U.S. strategic vulnerability and prompted more research in the area of renewable energy production. Ethanol production from renewable woody biomass, which could be a substitute for gasoline, has seen increased interest. This study analysed energy use and greenhouse gas emission impacts on the forest biomass supply chain activities within the State of Michigan. A life-cycle assessment of harvesting and transportation stages was completed utilizing peer-reviewed literature. Results for forest-delivered ethanol were compared with those for petroleum gasoline using data specific to the U.S. The analysis from a woody biomass feedstock supply perspective uncoveredmore » that ethanol production is more environmentally friendly (about 62% less greenhouse gas emissions) compared with petroleum based fossil fuel production. Sensitivity analysis was conducted with key inputs associated with harvesting and transportation operations. The results showed that research focused on improving biomass recovery efficiency and truck fuel economy further reduced GHG emissions and energy consumption.« less

  8. Life Cycle Asset Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1995-10-26

    The order addresses stewardship of physical assets as valuable national resources in a cost-effective manner to meet the DOE mission using industry standards, a graded approach, and performance objective.

  9. Life Cycle Asset Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1996-07-09

    Cancels the following only after meeting implementation conditions: DOE 1332.1A; DOE 4010.1A; DOE 4300.1C; DOE 4320.1B, DOE 4320.2A; DOE 4330.4B; DOE 4330.5, DOE 4540.1, DOE 4700.1, DOE 4700.3, DOE 4700.4, DOE 5700.2D, DOE 6430.1A. Canceled by DOE O 430.1A.

  10. Environmental impacts of residual Municipal Solid Waste incineration: A comparison of 110 French incinerators using a life cycle approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beylot, Antoine Villeneuve, Jacques

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: 110 French incinerators are compared with LCA based on plant-specific data. Environmental impacts vary as a function of plants energy recovery and NO{sub x} emissions. E.g. climate change impact ranges from ?58 to 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq/tonne of residual MSW. Implications for LCA of waste management in a decision-making process are detailed. - Abstract: Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e. 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of ?58 kg CO{sub 2}-eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq, with 294 kg CO{sub 2}-eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NO{sub x} process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available.

  11. Comparative life-cycle energy payback analysis of multi-junction a-SiGe and nanocrystalline/a-Si modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fthenakis, V.; Kim, H.

    2010-07-15

    Despite the publicity of nanotechnologies in high tech industries including the photovoltaic sector, their life-cycle energy use and related environmental impacts are understood only to a limited degree as their production is mostly immature. We investigated the life-cycle energy implications of amorphous silicon (a-Si) PV designs using a nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) bottom layer in the context of a comparative, prospective life-cycle analysis framework. Three R and D options using nc-Si bottom layer were evaluated and compared to the current triple-junction a-Si design, i.e., a-Si/a-SiGe/a-SiGe. The life-cycle energy demand to deposit nc-Si was estimated from parametric analyses of film thickness, deposition rate, precursor gas usage, and power for generating gas plasma. We found that extended deposition time and increased gas usages associated to the relatively high thickness of nc-Si lead to a larger primary energy demand for the nc-Si bottom layer designs, than the current triple-junction a-Si. Assuming an 8% conversion efficiency, the energy payback time of those R and D designs will be 0.7-0.9 years, close to that of currently commercial triple-junction a-Si design, 0.8 years. Future scenario analyses show that if nc-Si film is deposited at a higher rate (i.e., 2-3 nm/s), and at the same time the conversion efficiency reaches 10%, the energy-payback time could drop by 30%.

  12. Analysis of environmental factors impacting the life cycle cost analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery-powered passenger vehicles. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-01-31

    This report presents the results of the further developments and testing of the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Model previously developed by Engineering Systems Management, Inc. (ESM) on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under contract No. DE-AC02-91CH10491. The Model incorporates specific analytical relationships and cost/performance data relevant to internal combustion engine (ICE) powered vehicles, battery powered electric vehicles (BPEVs), and fuel cell/battery-powered electric vehicles (FCEVs).

  13. Life Cycle Environmental Impacts Resulting from the Manufacture of the Heliostat Field for a Reference Power Tower Design in the United States: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G.; Burkhardt, J.; Turchi, C.

    2012-10-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is recognized as a useful analytical approach for quantifying environmental impacts of renewable energy technologies, including concentrating solar power (CSP). An LCA accounts for impacts from all stages in the development, operation, and decommissioning of a CSP plant, including such upstream stages as the extraction of raw materials used in system components, manufacturing of those components, and construction of the plant. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is conducting a series of LCA studies for various CSP technologies. This paper contributes to a thorough LCA of a 100 MWnet molten salt power tower CSP plant by estimating the environmental impacts resulting from the manufacture of heliostats. Three life cycle metrics are evaluated: greenhouse gas emissions, water consumption, and cumulative energy demand. The heliostat under consideration (the 148 m2 Advanced Thermal Systems heliostat) emits 5,300 kg CO2eq, consumes 274 m3 of water, and requires 159,000 MJeq during its manufacture. Future work will incorporate the results from this study into the LCA model used to estimate the life cycle impacts of the entire 100 MWnet power tower CSP plant.

  14. Laboratory Building.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrera, Joshua M.

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  15. Economic Energy Savings Potential in Federal Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Daryl R.; Dirks, James A.; Hunt, Diane M.

    2000-09-04

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the current life-cycle cost-effective (i.e., economic) energy savings potential in Federal buildings and the corresponding capital investment required to achieve these savings, with Federal financing. Estimates were developed for major categories of energy efficiency measures such as building envelope, heating system, cooling system, and lighting. The analysis was based on conditions (building stock and characteristics, retrofit technologies, interest rates, energy prices, etc.) existing in the late 1990s. The potential impact of changes to any of these factors in the future was not considered.

  16. Estimating Total Energy Consumption and Emissions of China's Commercial and Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fridley, David; Fridley, David G.; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan

    2008-03-01

    Buildings represent an increasingly important component of China's total energy consumption mix. However, accurately assessing the total volume of energy consumed in buildings is difficult owing to deficiencies in China's statistical collection system and a lack of national surveys. Official statistics suggest that buildings account for about 19% of China's total energy consumption, while others estimate the proportion at 23%, rising to 30% over the next few years. In addition to operational energy, buildings embody the energy used in the in the mining, extraction, harvesting, processing, manufacturing and transport of building materials as well as the energy used in the construction and decommissioning of buildings. This embodied energy, along with a building's operational energy, constitutes the building's life-cycle energy and emissions footprint. This report first provides a review of international studies on commercial building life-cycle energy use from which data are derived to develop an assessment of Chinese commercial building life-cycle energy use, then examines in detail two cases for the development of office building operational energy consumption to 2020. Finally, the energy and emissions implications of the two cases are presented.

  17. Incorporating Agricultural Management Practices into the Assessment of Soil Carbon Change and Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Corn Stover Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qin, Zhangcai; Canter, Christina E.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Mueller, Steffen; Kwon, Ho-young; Han, Jeongwoo; Wander, Michelle M.; Wang, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Land management practices such as cover crop adoption or manure application that can increase soil organic carbon (SOC) may provide a way to counter SOC loss upon removal of stover from corn fields for use as a biofuel feedstock. This report documents the data, methodology, and assumptions behind the incorporation of land management practices into corn-soybean systems that dominate U.S. grain production using varying levels of stover removal in the GREETTM (Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation) model and its CCLUB (Carbon Calculator for Land Use change from Biofuels production) module. Tillage (i.e., conventional, reduced and no tillage), corn stover removal (i.e., at 0, 30% and 60% removal rate), and organic matter input techniques (i.e., cover crop and manure application) are included in the analysis as major land management practices. Soil carbon changes associated with land management changes were modeled with a surrogate CENTURY model. The resulting SOC changes were incorporated into CCLUB while GREET was expanded to include energy and material consumption associated with cover crop adoption and manure application. Life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of stover ethanol were estimated using a marginal approach (all burdens and benefits assigned to corn stover ethanol) and an energy allocation approach (burdens and benefits divided between grain and stover ethanol). In the latter case, we considered corn grain and corn stover ethanol to be produced at an integrated facility. Life-cycle GHG emissions of corn stover ethanol are dependent upon the analysis approach selected (marginal versus allocation) and the land management techniques applied. The expansion of CCLUB and GREET to accommodate land management techniques can produce a wide range of results because users can select from multiple scenario options such as choosing tillage levels, stover removal rates, and whether crop yields increase annually or remain constant. In a scenario with conventional tillage and a 30% stover removal rate, life-cycle GHG emissions for a combined gallon of corn grain and stover ethanol without cover crop adoption or manure application are 49 g CO2eq MJ-1, in comparison with 91 g CO2eq MJ-1 for petroleum gasoline. Adopting a cover crop or applying manure reduces the former ethanol life-cycle GHG emissions by 8% and 10%, respectively. We considered two different life cycle analysis approaches to develop estimates of life-cycle GHG emissions for corn stover ethanol, marginal analysis and energy allocation. In the same scenario, this fuel has GHG emissions of 12 – 20 g CO2eq MJ-1 (for manure and cover crop application, respectively) and 45 – 48 g CO2eq MJ-1 with the marginal approach and the energy allocation approach, respectively.

  18. Development of an Online Toolkit for Measuring Commercial Building Energy Efficiency Performance -- Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Na

    2013-03-13

    This study analyzes the market needs for building performance evaluation tools. It identifies the existing gaps and provides a roadmap for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a toolkit with which to optimize energy performance of a commercial building over its life cycle.

  19. Conceptual design study on very small long-life gas cooled fast reactor using metallic natural Uranium-Zr as fuel cycle input

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monado, Fiber; Ariani, Menik; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Basar, Khairul; Permana, Sidik; Aziz, Ferhat; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2014-02-12

    A conceptual design study of very small 350 MWth Gas-cooled Fast Reactors with Helium coolant has been performed. In this study Modified CANDLE burn-up scheme was implemented to create small and long life fast reactors with natural Uranium as fuel cycle input. Such system can utilize natural Uranium resources efficiently without the necessity of enrichment plant or reprocessing plant. The core with metallic fuel based was subdivided into 10 regions with the same volume. The fresh Natural Uranium is initially put in region-1, after one cycle of 10 years of burn-up it is shifted to region-2 and the each region-1 is filled by fresh Natural Uranium fuel. This concept is basically applied to all axial regions. The reactor discharge burn-up is 31.8% HM. From the neutronic point of view, this design is in compliance with good performance.

  20. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Kentucky Building Code (KBC) is updated every three years on a cycle one year behind the publication year for the International Building Code. Any changes to the code by the state of Kentucky...

  1. The watershed-scale optimized and rearranged landscape design (WORLD) model and local biomass processing depots for sustainable biofuel production: Integrated life cycle assessments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eranki, Pragnya L.; Manowitz, David H.; Bals, Bryan D.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E.

    2013-07-23

    An array of feedstock is being evaluated as potential raw material for cellulosic biofuel production. Thorough assessments are required in regional landscape settings before these feedstocks can be cultivated and sustainable management practices can be implemented. On the processing side, a potential solution to the logistical challenges of large biorefi neries is provided by a network of distributed processing facilities called local biomass processing depots. A large-scale cellulosic ethanol industry is likely to emerge soon in the United States. We have the opportunity to influence the sustainability of this emerging industry. The watershed-scale optimized and rearranged landscape design (WORLD) model estimates land allocations for different cellulosic feedstocks at biorefinery scale without displacing current animal nutrition requirements. This model also incorporates a network of the aforementioned depots. An integrated life cycle assessment is then conducted over the unified system of optimized feedstock production, processing, and associated transport operations to evaluate net energy yields (NEYs) and environmental impacts.

  2. LIFE CYCLE COST HANDBOOK Guidance for Life Cycle Cost Estimation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the comparison of alternatives within an LCCA. Variations in the utility requirements and consumption rates of various alternatives, as well as sources of those utilities (e.g.,...

  3. Life-cycle cost comparisons of advanced storage batteries and fuel cells for utility, stand-alone, and electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humphreys, K.K.; Brown, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a comparison of battery and fuel cell economics for ten different technologies. To develop an equitable economic comparison, the technologies were evaluated on a life-cycle cost (LCC) basis. The LCC comparison involved normalizing source estimates to a standard set of assumptions and preparing a lifetime cost scenario for each technology, including the initial capital cost, replacement costs, operating and maintenance (O M) costs, auxiliary energy costs, costs due to system inefficiencies, the cost of energy stored, and salvage costs or credits. By considering all the costs associated with each technology over its respective lifetime, the technology that is most economical to operate over any given period of time can be determined. An analysis of this type indicates whether paying a high initial capital cost for a technology with low O M costs is more or less economical on a lifetime basis than purchasing a technology with a low initial capital cost and high O M costs. It is important to realize that while minimizing cost is important, the customer will not always purchase the least expensive technology. The customer may identify benefits associated with a more expensive option that make it the more attractive over all (e.g., reduced construction lead times, modularity, environmental benefits, spinning reserve, etc.). The LCC estimates presented in this report represent three end-use applications: utility load-leveling, stand-alone power systems, and electric vehicles.

  4. LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) of Parabolic Trough CSP: Materials Inventory and Embodied GHG Emissions from Two-Tank Indirect and Thermocline Thermal Storage (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G.; Burkhardt, J.; Turchi, C.; Decker, T.; Kutscher, C.

    2009-07-20

    In the United States, concentrating solar power (CSP) is one of the most promising renewable energy (RE) technologies for reduction of electric sector greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and for rapid capacity expansion. It is also one of the most price-competitive RE technologies, thanks in large measure to decades of field experience and consistent improvements in design. One of the key design features that makes CSP more attractive than many other RE technologies, like solar photovoltaics and wind, is the potential for including relatively low-cost and efficient thermal energy storage (TES), which can smooth the daily fluctuation of electricity production and extend its duration into the evening peak hours or longer. Because operational environmental burdens are typically small for RE technologies, life cycle assessment (LCA) is recognized as the most appropriate analytical approach for determining their environmental impacts of these technologies, including CSP. An LCA accounts for impacts from all stages in the development, operation, and decommissioning of a CSP plant, including such upstream stages as the extraction of raw materials used in system components, manufacturing of those components, and construction of the plant. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is undertaking an LCA of modern CSP plants, starting with those of parabolic trough design.

  5. Life cycle inventory analysis of regenerative thermal oxidation of air emissions from oriented strand board facilities in Minnesota - a perspective of global climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicholson, W.J.

    1997-12-31

    Life cycle inventory analysis has been applied to the prospective operation of regenerative thermal oxidation (RTO) technology at oriented strand board plants at Bemidji (Line 1) and Cook, Minnesota. The net system destruction of VOC`s and carbon monoxide, and at Cook a small quantity of particulate, has a very high environmental price in terms of energy and water use, global warming potential, sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions, solids discharged to water, and solid waste deposited in landfills. The benefit of VOC destruction is identified as minor in terms of ground level ozone at best and possibly slightly detrimental. Recognition of environmental tradeoffs associated with proposed system changes is critical to sound decision-making. There are more conventional ways to address carbon monoxide emissions than combustion in RTO`s. In an environment in which global warming is a concern, fuel supplemental combustion for environmental control does not appear warranted. Consideration of non-combustion approaches to address air emission issues at the two operations is recommended. 1 ref., 5 tabs.

  6. Comparative analysis of the production costs and life-cycle GHG emissions of FT liquid fuels from coal and natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews

    2008-10-15

    Liquid transportation fuels derived from coal and natural gas could help the United States reduce its dependence on petroleum. The fuels could be produced domestically or imported from fossil fuel-rich countries. The goal of this paper is to determine the life-cycle GHG emissions of coal- and natural gas-based Fischer-Tropsch (FT) liquids, as well as to compare production costs. The results show that the use of coal- or natural gas-based FT liquids will likely lead to significant increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to petroleum-based fuels. In a best-case scenario, coal- or natural gas-based FT-liquids have emissions only comparable to petroleum-based fuels. In addition, the economic advantages of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuels are not obvious: there is a narrow range of petroleum and natural gas prices at which GTL fuels would be competitive with petroleum-based fuels. CTL fuels are generally cheaper than petroleum-based fuels. However, recent reports suggest there is uncertainty about the availability of economically viable coal resources in the United States. If the U.S. has a goal of increasing its energy security, and at the same time significantly reducing its GHG emissions, neither CTL nor GTL consumption seem a reasonable path to follow. 28 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Life cycle assessment as an analytical tool in strategic environmental assessment. Lessons learned from a case study on municipal energy planning in Sweden

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bjoerklund, Anna

    2012-01-15

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is explored as an analytical tool in strategic environmental assessment (SEA), illustrated by case where a previously developed SEA process was applied to municipal energy planning in Sweden. The process integrated decision-making tools for scenario planning, public participation and environmental assessment. This article describes the use of LCA for environmental assessment in this context, with focus on methodology and practical experiences. While LCA provides a systematic framework for the environmental assessment and a wider systems perspective than what is required in SEA, LCA cannot address all aspects of environmental impact required, and therefore needs to be complemented by other tools. The integration of LCA with tools for public participation and scenario planning posed certain methodological challenges, but provided an innovative approach to designing the scope of the environmental assessment and defining and assessing alternatives. - Research highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LCA was explored as analytical tool in an SEA process of municipal energy planning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The process also integrated LCA with scenario planning and public participation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Benefits of using LCA were a systematic framework and wider systems perspective. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Integration of tools required some methodological challenges to be solved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This proved an innovative approach to define alternatives and scope of assessment.

  8. Building America Update - August 9, 2013

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hanley Wood's Home for Life website and virtual tour uses universal design principles to ... New Publications from Building America The Building America Publications Library offers an ...

  9. Life-Cycle Cost and Risk Analysis of Alternative Configurations for Shipping Low-Level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PM Daling; SB Ross; BM Biwer

    1999-12-17

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is a major receiver of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) for disposal. Currently, all LLW received at NTS is shipped by truck. The trucks use highway routes to NTS that pass through the Las Vegas Valley and over Hoover Dam, which is a concern of local stakeholder groups in the State of Nevada. Rail service offers the opportunity to reduce transportation risks and costs, according to the Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM-PEIS). However, NTS and some DOE LLW generator sites are not served with direct rail service so intermodal transport is under consideration. Intermodal transport involves transport via two modes, in this case truck and rail, from the generator sites to NTS. LLW shipping containers would be transferred between trucks and railcars at intermodal transfer points near the LLW generator sites, NTS, or both. An Environmental Assessment (EA)for Intermodal Transportation of Low-Level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site (referred to as the NTSIntermodal -M) has been prepared to determine whether there are environmental impacts to alterations to the current truck routing or use of intermodal facilities within the State of Nevada. However, an analysis of the potential impacts outside the State of Nevada are not addressed in the NTS Intermodal EA. This study examines the rest of the transportation network between LLW generator sites and the NTS and evaluates the costs, risks, and feasibility of integrating intermodal shipments into the LLW transportation system. This study evaluates alternative transportation system configurations for NTS approved and potential generators based on complex-wide LLW load information. Technical judgments relative to the availability of DOE LLW generators to ship from their sites by rail were developed. Public and worker risk and life-cycle cost components are quantified. The study identifies and evaluates alternative scenarios that increase the use of rail (intermodal where needed) to transport LLW from generator sites to NTS.

  10. Battery Life Predictive Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-12-31

    The Software consists of a model used to predict battery capacity fade and resistance growth for arbitrary cycling and temperature profiles. It allows the user to extrapolate from experimental data to predict actual life cycle.

  11. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Updating the Commercial Building Energy Code in North Dakota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Belzer, David B.; Winiarski, David W.; Richman, Eric E.

    2004-04-30

    The state of North Dakota is considering updating its commercial building energy code. This report evaluates the potential costs and benefits to North Dakota residents from updating and requiring compliance with ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits and costs are assessed in the analysis. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using the Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST simulation combined with a Life-cycle Cost (LCC) approach to assess correspodning economic costs and benefits.

  12. Buildings | Buildings | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Index for Commercial Buildings Welcome to the Energy Index for Commercial Buildings. Data for this tool comes from the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS). Select categories from the CBECS micro data allow users to search on common building characteristics that impact energy use. Users may select multiple criteria, however if the resulting sample size is too small, the data will be unreliable. If nothing is selected results

  13. Architecture earth-sheltered buildings. Design manual 1. 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    Design guidance is presented for use by experienced engineers and architects. The types of buildings within the scope of this manual include slab-on-grade, partially-buried (bermed) or fully-buried, and large (single-story or multistory) structures. New criteria unique to earth-sheltered design are included for the following disciplines: Planning, Landscape Design, Life-Cycle Analysis, Architectural, Structural, Mechanical (criteria include below-grade heat flux calculation procedures), and Electrical.

  14. Experimental and life cycle assessment analysis of gas emission from mechanicallybiologically pretreated waste in a landfill with energy recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di Maria, Francesco Sordi, Alessio; Micale, Caterina

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: Bio-methane landfill emissions from different period (0, 4, 8, 16 weeks) MTB waste have been evaluated. Electrical energy recoverable from landfill gas ranges from 11 to about 90 kW h/tonne. Correlation between oxygen uptake, energy recovery and anaerobic gas production shows R{sup 2} ranging from 0.78 to 0.98. LCA demonstrate that global impact related to gaseous emissions achieve minimum for 4 week of MBT. - Abstract: The global gaseous emissions produced by landfilling the Mechanically Sorted Organic Fraction (MSOF) with different weeks of Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) was evaluated for an existing waste management system. One MBT facility and a landfill with internal combustion engines fuelled by the landfill gas for electrical energy production operate in the waste management system considered. An experimental apparatus was used to simulate 0, 4, 8 and 16 weeks of aerobic stabilization and the consequent biogas potential (Nl/kg) of a large sample of MSOF withdrawn from the full-scale MBT. Stabilization achieved by the waste was evaluated by dynamic oxygen uptake and fermentation tests. Good correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}), ranging from 0.7668 to 0.9772, were found between oxygen uptake, fermentation and anaerobic test values. On the basis of the results of several anaerobic tests, the methane production rate k (year{sup ?1}) was evaluated. k ranged from 0.436 to 0.308 year{sup ?1} and the bio-methane potential from 37 to 12 N m{sup 3}/tonne, respectively, for the MSOF with 0 and 16 weeks of treatment. Energy recovery from landfill gas ranged from about 11 to 90 kW h per tonne of disposed MSOF depending on the different scenario investigated. Life cycle analysis showed that the scenario with 0 weeks of pre-treatment has the highest weighted global impact even if opposite results were obtained with respect to the single impact criteria. MSOF pre-treatment periods longer than 4 weeks showed rather negligible variation in the global impact of system emissions.

  15. Commercial Building Energy Assest Score Overall Building Score

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... additional information beyond score (recommendations, ... Assess End Uses for Asset Score Report (Current Thinking) ... opportunities * Applies life-cycle-cost analysis * Estimates ...

  16. Energy technologies evaluation for the EDD Los Angeles Building. Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of potential energy efficiency measures (EEM`s) for the proposed EDD office building located at 5401 Crenshaw in Los Angeles, CA. The 26,748 ft{sup 2} single-story building is currently in the final design phase. Key building energy features include uninsulated exterior concrete block walls, R19 insulated roof, glazing on north and east orientations only, multiple air source rooftop packaged heat pumps, and electric resistance water heaters. For this project, DEG evaluated seven potential EEM`s from both performance and 30 year life cycle cost (LCC) perspectives.

  17. Industrial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Industrial Manufacturing Buildings Industrialmanufacturing buildings are not considered commercial, but are covered by the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey...

  18. Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in Hot and Humid Climate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: Gather and analyze independently the available technical, cost, financial incentive data on installed GSHP/HGSHP applications in residential, commercial and schools in hot and humid climate regions, and develop a calibrated baseline and performance period model of new construction and retrofitted buildings in conjunction with the energy simulation program.

  19. Towards a Very Low Energy Building Stock: Modeling the U.S. Commercial Building Sector to Support Policy and Innovation Planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coffey, Brian; Borgeson, Sam; Selkowitz, Stephen; Apte, Josh; Mathew, Paul; Haves, Philip

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the origin, structure and continuing development of a model of time varying energy consumption in the US commercial building stock. The model is based on a flexible structure that disaggregates the stock into various categories (e.g. by building type, climate, vintage and life-cycle stage) and assigns attributes to each of these (e.g. floor area and energy use intensity by fuel type and end use), based on historical data and user-defined scenarios for future projections. In addition to supporting the interactive exploration of building stock dynamics, the model has been used to study the likely outcomes of specific policy and innovation scenarios targeting very low future energy consumption in the building stock. Model use has highlighted the scale of the challenge of meeting targets stated by various government and professional bodies, and the importance of considering both new construction and existing buildings.

  20. The feasibility study of small long-life gas cooled fast reactor with mixed natural Uranium/Thorium as fuel cycle input

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ariani, Menik; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Khairurrijal,; Monado, Fiber; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2012-06-06

    A conceptual design study of Gas Cooled Fast Reactors with Modified CANDLE burn-up scheme has been performed. In this study, design GCFR with Helium coolant which can be continuously operated by supplying mixed Natural Uranium/Thorium without fuel enrichment plant or fuel reprocessing plant. The active reactor cores are divided into two region, Thorium fuel region and Uranium fuel region. Each fuel core regions are subdivided into ten parts (region-1 until region-10) with the same volume in the axial direction. The fresh Natural Uranium and Thorium is initially put in region-1, after one cycle of 10 years of burn-up it is shifted to region-2 and the each region-1 is filled by fresh natural Uranium/Thorium fuel. This concept is basically applied to all regions in both cores area, i.e. shifted the core of i{sup th} region into i+1 region after the end of 10 years burn-up cycle. For the next cycles, we will add only Natural Uranium and Thorium on each region-1. The calculation results show the reactivity reached by mixed Natural Uranium/Thorium with volume ratio is 4.7:1. This reactor can results power thermal 550 MWth. After reactor start-up the operation, furthermore reactor only needs Natural Uranium/Thorium supply for continue operation along 100 years.

  1. Building the Agile Biomanufacturing Platform Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A consortium of nine national labs is excited to announce the Agile Biomanufacturing Industry Listening Workshop on March 15, 2016 in Berkeley, CA. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Ames National Lab, Argonne National Lab, Idaho National Lab, Los Alamos National Lab, the National Renewable Energy Lab, Oak Ridge National Lab, Pacific Northwest National Lab, and Sandia National Labs seek to build an agile biomanufacturing platform for biological approaches to produce advanced biofuels, renewable chemicals, and materials that represent low greenhouse gas alternatives to molecules currently derived from petroleum. The labs envision a distributed Agile Biomanufacturing consortium that includes a Foundry to productionize the design-build-test-learn cycle for engineering biology while incorporating process integration, predictable scaling, and techno-economic analyses and life cycle assessments for bioprocess design. The DOE National Laboratories have built deep and unique capabilities that can be brought to bear to build powerful infrastructure and scientific engineering activities that will render design and implementation of new bio-based products scalable, predictable, and more cost-effective. An agile biomanufacturing platform will enable companies, national labs, and universities to develop biological processes efficiently and with reduced risk to create products with better performance than their predecessors.

  2. Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in Hot and Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yong X. Tao; Yimin Zhu

    2012-04-26

    It has been widely recognized that the energy saving benefits of GSHP systems are best realized in the northern and central regions where heating needs are dominant or both heating and cooling loads are comparable. For hot and humid climate such as in the states of FL, LA, TX, southern AL, MS, GA, NC and SC, buildings have much larger cooling needs than heating needs. The Hybrid GSHP (HGSHP) systems therefore have been developed and installed in some locations of those states, which use additional heat sinks (such as cooling tower, domestic water heating systems) to reject excess heat. Despite the development of HGSHP the comprehensive analysis of their benefits and barriers for wide application has been limited and often yields non-conclusive results. In general, GSHP/HGSHP systems often have higher initial costs than conventional systems making short-term economics unattractive. Addressing these technical and financial barriers call for additional evaluation of innovative utility programs, incentives and delivery approaches. From scientific and technical point of view, the potential for wide applications of GSHP especially HGSHP in hot and humid climate is significant, especially towards building zero energy homes where the combined energy efficient GSHP and abundant solar energy production in hot climate can be an optimal solution. To address these challenges, this report presents gathering and analyzing data on the costs and benefits of GSHP/HGSHP systems utilized in southern states using a representative sample of building applications. The report outlines the detailed analysis to conclude that the application of GSHP in Florida (and hot and humid climate in general) shows a good potential.

  3. Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) - Analysis...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Release Date: July 12, 2012 | Revised Date: June 19, 2014 The Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) project cycle spans at least four years, beginning with ...

  4. Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) - How...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Energy Usage Information Collected in the 2012 CBECS? CBECS 2012 - Release date: March 18, 2016 The Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) project cycle spans at ...

  5. O3-type layered transition metal oxide Na(NiCoFeTi)1/4O2 as a high rate and long cycle life cathode material for sodium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yue, Ji -Li; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Zhou, Yong -Ning; Yu, Xiqian; Bak, Seong -Min; Fu, Zheng -Wen

    2015-10-09

    High rate capability and long cycle life are challenging goals for the development of room temperature sodium-ion batteries. Here we report a new single phase quaternary O3-type layer-structured transition metal oxide Na(NiCoFeTi)1/4O2 synthesized by a simple solid-state reaction as a new cathode material for sodium-ion batteries. It can deliver a reversible capacity of 90.6 mA h g–1 at a rate as high as 20C. At 5C, 75.0% of the initial specific capacity can be retained after 400 cycles with a capacity-decay rate of 0.07% per cycle, demonstrating a superior long-term cyclability at high current density. X-ray diffraction and absorption characterization revealed reversible phase transformations and electronic structural changes during the Na+ deintercalation/intercalation process. Ni, Co and Fe ions contribute to charge compensation during charge and discharge. Although Ti ions do not contribute to the charge transfer, they play a very important role in stabilizing the structure during charge and discharge by suppressing the Fe migration. Additionally, Ti substitution can also smooth the charge–discharge plateaus effectively, which provides a potential advantage for the commercialization of this material for room temperature sodium-ion batteries.

  6. O3-type layered transition metal oxide Na(NiCoFeTi)1/4O2 as a high rate and long cycle life cathode material for sodium ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yue, Ji -Li; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Zhou, Yong -Ning; Yu, Xiqian; Bak, Seong -Min; Fu, Zheng -Wen

    2015-10-09

    High rate capability and long cycle life are challenging goals for the development of room temperature sodium-ion batteries. Here we report a new single phase quaternary O3-type layer-structured transition metal oxide Na(NiCoFeTi)1/4O2 synthesized by a simple solid-state reaction as a new cathode material for sodium-ion batteries. It can deliver a reversible capacity of 90.6 mA h g–1 at a rate as high as 20C. At 5C, 75.0% of the initial specific capacity can be retained after 400 cycles with a capacity-decay rate of 0.07% per cycle, demonstrating a superior long-term cyclability at high current density. X-ray diffraction and absorption characterizationmore » revealed reversible phase transformations and electronic structural changes during the Na+ deintercalation/intercalation process. Ni, Co and Fe ions contribute to charge compensation during charge and discharge. Although Ti ions do not contribute to the charge transfer, they play a very important role in stabilizing the structure during charge and discharge by suppressing the Fe migration. Additionally, Ti substitution can also smooth the charge–discharge plateaus effectively, which provides a potential advantage for the commercialization of this material for room temperature sodium-ion batteries.« less

  7. Better Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Better Buildings Initiative aims to make commercial and industrial buildings 20% more energy efficient by 2020 and accelerate private sector investment in energy efficiency.

  8. Mercantile Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Mercantile Characteristics by Activity... Mercantile Mercantile buildings are those used for the sale and display of goods other than food (buildings used for the sales of food are...

  9. Education Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Education Characteristics by Activity... Education Education buildings are buildings used for academic or technical classroom instruction, such as elementary, middle, or high...

  10. LIFE Target Fabrication Research Plan Sept 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miles, R; Biener, J; Kucheyev, S; Montesanti, R; Satcher, J; Spadaccini, C; Rose, K; Wang, M; Hamza, A; Alexander, N; Brown, L; Hund, J; Petzoldt, R; Sweet, W; Goodin, D

    2008-11-10

    The target-system for the baseline LIFE fast-ignition target was analyzed to establish a preliminary estimate for the costs and complexities involved in demonstrating the technologies needed to build a prototype LIFE plant. The baseline fast-ignition target upon which this analysis was developed is shown in Figure 1.0-1 below. The LIFE target-system incorporates requirements for low-cost, high throughput manufacture, high-speed, high accuracy injection of the target into the chamber, production of sufficient energy from implosion and recovery and recycle of the imploded target material residue. None of these functions has been demonstrated to date. Existing target fabrication techniques which lead to current 'hot spot' target costs of {approx}$100,000 per target and at a production rate of 2/day are unacceptable for the LIFE program. Fabrication techniques normally used for low-cost, low accuracy consumer products such as toys must be adapted to the high-accuracy LIFE target. This will be challenge. A research program resulting is the demonstration of the target-cycle technologies needed for a prototype LIFE reactor is expected to cost {approx}$51M over the course of 5 years. The effort will result in targets which will cost an estimated $0.23/target at a rep-rate of 20 Hz or about 1.73M targets/day.

  11. Buildings*","Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8. Primary Space-Heating Energy Sources, Number of Buildings for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings*","Buildings with Space Heating","Primary Space-Heating Energy Source Used a" ,,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat" "All Buildings* ...............",4645,3982,1258,1999,282,63 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)"

  12. Buildings*","Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Water-Heating Energy Sources, Number of Buildings for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings*","Buildings with Water Heating","Water-Heating Energy Sources Used (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Elec- tricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat","Propane" "All Buildings* ...............",4645,3472,1910,1445,94,27,128 "Building Floorspace"

  13. NREL: News - New Design Tool Analyzes Cost of Operating a Building Over its

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lifetime Design Tool Analyzes Cost of Operating a Building Over its Lifetime Golden, Colo., August 2, 2002 Imagine being able to estimate the energy life-cycle costs of a new building by simply entering numbers into a software program. Thanks to the new Energy-10 design tool, this is now possible. The new software - Energy-10 Version 1.5 - is an upgrade to the original program developed at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The new Energy-10

  14. Building America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  15. Using Whole Building Performance Measurement to Develop a Business Case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.

    2006-09-15

    Since 1998 the U.S. Navy?s Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) has had a policy for incorporating sustainable design principles into new building construction. The policy also states it is the intent of NAVFAC to accomplish this within the given budget constraints and while meeting customer requirements. Programming a building using a first cost approach instead of a life cycle cost approach is one of the biggest challenges for integrating sustainable design into projects at the Navy. Due to this hurdle, an attempt to develop a Navy specific business case was undertaken. Through this process, it was discovered that consistent data were not being collected for all applicable Navy buildings. Therefore, the current business case information being used by the Navy is the conglomeration of existing business case analysis in the literature. Although this business case information is useful, there is still a need for collecting and analyzing the Navy business case. To develop the Navy specific business case, NAVFAC is developing program metrics to capture the status of buildings in the design and construction phase and they have started to collect whole building cost and performance data for 14 buildings (7 sustainably designed and 7 traditionally designed buildings) to capture data on their existing inventory of sustainably design buildings. Performance measurement data are being collected on water, energy, operations and maintenance, waste generation, purchasing, occupant satisfaction, and transportation. The building cost and performance data will be collected for a minimum of 12 months. Both of these data collection and analysis efforts have offered lessons learned that will be shared alongside the current Navy business case information.

  16. Building technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Roderick

    2014-07-14

    After growing up on construction sites, Roderick Jackson is now helping to make buildings nationwide far more energy efficient.

  17. Building technologies

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Jackson, Roderick

    2014-07-15

    After growing up on construction sites, Roderick Jackson is now helping to make buildings nationwide far more energy efficient.

  18. Buildings*","Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6. Space Heating Energy Sources, Number of Buildings for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings*","Buildings with Space Heating","Space-Heating Energy Sources Used (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Elec- tricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat","Propane","Other a" "All Buildings* ...............",4645,3982,1766,2165,360,65,372,113

  19. Beardmore Building

    High Performance Buildings Database

    Priest River, ID Originally built in 1922 by Charles Beardmore, the building housed offices, mercantile shops, a ballroom and a theater. After decades of neglect under outside ownership, Brian Runberg, an architect and great-grandson of Charles Beardmore, purchased the building in 2006 and began an extensive whole building historic restoration.

  20. Building America Update - August 2013 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    August 2013 Building America Update - August 2013 Here you can link to the August 2013 edition of the Building America Update, which features articles on: Building America supports Home for Life DOE Challenge Home Innovation Awards and Student Design Competition announcement EEBA conference and Building America sessions Solar Decathlon call for volunteers New publications PDF icon building_america_update_aug2013.pdf More Documents & Publications Building America Update - July 2013 Building

  1. A One-Year Study of the Diurnal Cycle of Meteorology, Clouds...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The meteorological analysis builds upon past studies of the diurnal cycle in the region by incorporating diurnal cycles of lower tropospheric wind profiles, thermodynamic profiles, ...

  2. Cycles in fossil diversity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohde, Robert A.; Muller, Richard A.

    2004-10-20

    It is well-known that the diversity of life appears to fluctuate during the course the Phanerozoic, the eon during which hard shells and skeletons left abundant fossils (0-542 Ma). Using Sepkoski's compendium of the first and last stratigraphic appearances of 36380 marine genera, we report a strong 62 {+-} 3 Myr cycle, which is particularly strong in the shorter-lived genera. The five great extinctions enumerated by Raup and Sepkoski may be an aspect of this cycle. Because of the high statistical significance, we also consider contributing environmental factors and possible causes.

  3. D-Cycle - 4-Differential -Stroke Cycle | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The D-Cycle offers the opportunity to use less fuel and gain more power while being able to be retrofit to an OEM and aftermarket engines PDF icon deer09_conti.pdf More Documents & Publications Improving Diesel Engine Sweet-spot Efficiency and Adapting it to Improve Duty-cycle MPG - plus Increasing Propulsion and Reducing Cost Two-Stroke Engines: New Frontier in Engine Efficiency Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Advanced Boiler Load Monitoring Controllers,

  4. Clean Anodic Lithium Films for Longer Life, Rechargeable Lithium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Clean Anodic Lithium Films for Longer Life, Rechargeable Lithium Ion Batteries Lawrence ... use in safe, stable lithium ion batteries with high energy densities and good cycle life. ...

  5. Buildings Database

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy EERE Home | Programs & Offices | Consumer Information Buildings Database Welcome Guest Log In | Register | Contact Us Home About All Projects...

  6. Vacant Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vacant Characteristics by Activity... Vacant Vacant buildings are those in which more floorspace was vacant than was used for any single commercial activity at the time of the...

  7. Service Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Service Characteristics by Activity... Service Service buildings are those in which some type of service is provided, other than food service or retail sales of goods. Basic...

  8. Other Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Other Characteristics by Activity... Other Other buildings are those that do not fit into any of the specifically named categories. Basic Characteristics See also: Equipment |...

  9. Next Generations Safeguards Initiative: The Life of a Cylinder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, James B; White-Horton, Jessica L

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Nonproliferation and International Security's Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) has begun a program based on a five-year plan to investigate the concept of a global monitoring scheme that uniquely identifies uranium hexafluoride (UF6) cylinders and their locations throughout the life cycle. A key initial activity in the NGSI program is to understand and document the 'life of a UF6 cylinder' from cradle to grave. This document describes the life of a UF6 cylinder and includes cylinder manufacture and procurement processes as well as cylinder-handling and operational practices at conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication, and depleted UF6 conversion facilities. The NGSI multiple-laboratory team is using this document as a building block for subsequent tasks in the five-year plan, including development of the functional requirements for cylinder-tagging and tracking devices.

  10. UGE Scheduler Cycle Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    UGE Scheduler Cycle Time UGE Scheduler Cycle Time Genepool Cycle Time Genepool Daily Genepool Weekly Phoebe Cycle Time Phoebe Daily Phoebe Weekly What is the Scheduler Cycle? The...

  11. NREL: Energy Analysis: Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    technologies, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature and reducing uncertainty. Highlights of Recent Studies Chart that compares published...

  12. Emissions Modeling: GREET Life Cycle Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... and Recycling Battery Assembly Material Acquisition and Production * Energy intensity of key materials (steel, aluminum, plastics) * Scrap Rates * Variability in composition ...

  13. Life cycle assessment and biomass carbon accounting

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Biomass feedstocks and the climate implications of bioenergy Steven Hamburg Environmental Defense Fund Slides adapted from Reid Miner NCASI On the landscape, the single-plot looks like this 75 Harvested and burned for energy In year zero, the plot is harvested and the wood is burned for energy 1.1 Year 1 After regeneration begins, the growing biomass sequesters small amounts of CO2 annually 2.1 Year 2 2.8 Year 3 ??? Year X, until next harvest Σ = . Over time, if carbon stocks are returned to

  14. Prospective Life Cycle and Technology Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    vehicle lightweighting, wide band gap materials, additive manufacturing, natural gas to ... to be > 30% CAGR through 2020 * Aircraft industry case study - key early adopter ...

  15. Cycling on the Rise: Public Bicycles and other European Experiences...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and the building of local partnerships, might increase the modal share of cycling. We had big expectations at the beginning of the project regarding cycling planning, but could not...

  16. Intelligent Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brambley, Michael R.; Armstrong, Peter R.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Pratt, Robert G.; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2001-01-01

    The topic of "intelligent buildings" (IBs) emerged in the early 1980s. Since, the term has been used to represent a variety of related, yet differing topics, each with a slightly different focus and purpose. Wiring and networking-infrastructure companies emphasize the cabling requirements for communication in intelligent buildings and the need to accommodate future needs for higher-speed broadband. Lucent (Lucent 2000) for example, defines an IB as "...one with a completely integrated wiring architecture. A single cabling system that handles all information traffic - voice, data, video, even the big building management systems."

  17. Office Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    page, please call 202-586-8800. There were enough buildings in the responding sample to report statistics for all of these types except for research and development, which has...

  18. Lodging Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    were then asked to place the building into the following more specific categories: a hotel a motel, inn, or resort a retirement home a shelter, orphanage, or children's home a...

  19. Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (327 Building)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kammenzind, D.E.

    1997-05-28

    A Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is the total list of the Environment, Safety and Health (ES and H) requirements to be implemented by a site, facility, or activity. These requirements are appropriate to the life cycle phase to achieve an adequate level of protection for worker and public health and safety, and the environment during design, construction, operation, decontamination and decommissioning, and environmental restoration. S/RlDs are living documents, to be revised appropriately based on change in the site`s or facility`s mission or configuration, a change in the facility`s life cycle phase, or a change to the applicable standards/requirements. S/RIDs encompass health and safety, environmental, and safety related safeguards and security (S and S) standards/requirements related to the functional areas listed in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health Configuration Guide. The Fluor Daniel Hanford (FDH) Contract S/RID contains standards/requirements, applicable to FDH and FDH subcontractors, necessary for safe operation of Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) facilities, that are not the direct responsibility of the facility manager (e.g., a site-wide fire department). Facility S/RIDs contain standards/requirements applicable to a specific facility that are the direct responsibility of the facility manager. S/RlDs are prepared by those responsible for managing the operation of facilities or the conduct of activities that present a potential threat to the health and safety of workers, public, or the environment, including: Hazard Category 1 and 2 nuclear facilities and activities, as defined in DOE 5480.23. Selected Hazard Category 3 nuclear, and Low Hazard non-nuclear facilities and activities, as agreed upon by RL. The Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PTL) S/RID contains standards/ requirements that are necessary for safe operation of the PTL facility, and other building/areas that are the direct responsibility of the specific facility manager. The specific DOE Orders, regulations, industry codes/standards, guidance documents and good industry practices that serve as the basis for each element/subelement are identified and aligned with each subelement.

  20. Building America Webinar: High Performance Building Enclosures...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Performance Building Enclosures: Part I, Existing Homes Building America Webinar: High Performance Building Enclosures: Part I, Existing Homes The webinar, presented on May ...

  1. System Configuration Management Implementation Procedure for the Canister Storage Building (CSB)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GARRISON, R.C.

    2000-09-22

    This document implements the procedure for providing configuration control for the monitoring and control systems associated with the operation of the Canister Storage Building (CSB). It identifies and defines the configuration items in the monitoring and control systems, provides configuration control of these items throughout the system life cycle, provides configuration status accounting, physical protection and control, and verifies the completeness and correctness of the items. It is written to comply with HNF-SD-SNF-CM-001, Spent Nuclear Fuel Configuration Management Plan (Forehand 1998), HNF-PRO-309, Computer Software Quality Assurance Requirements, HNF-PRO-2778, IRM Application Software System Life Cycle Standards, and applicable sections of administrative procedure AP-CM-6-037-00, SNF Project Process Automation Software and Equipment Configuration Management.

  2. Extend EnergyPlus to Support Evaluation, Design, and Operation of Low Energy Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Heejin; Wang, Weimin; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Yun, Kyung Tae; Glazer, Jason; Scheier, Larry; Srivastava, Viraj; Gowri, Krishnan

    2011-12-21

    During FY10-11, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in collaboration with the EnergyPlus development team implemented the following high priority enhancements to support the simulation of high performance buildings: (1) Improve Autosizing of Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Components; (2) Life-Cycle Costing to Evaluate Energy Efficiency Upgrades; (3) Develop New Model to Capture Transformer Losses; (4) Enhance the Model for Electric Battery Storage; and (5) Develop New Model for Chiller-Tower Optimization. This report summarizes the technical background, new feature development and implementation details, and testing and validation process for these enhancements. The autosizing, life-cycle costing and transformer model enhancements/developments were included in EnergyPlus release Version 6.0, and the electric battery model development will be included in Version 7.0. The model development of chiller-tower optimization will be included in a later version (after Version 7.0).

  3. Intelligent on-line system for cycle chemistry diagnostics in power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallanti, M.; Tomada, L. ); Tarli, R. )

    1990-01-01

    Knowledge base techniques have been exploited for building PROP, a diagnostic system devoted to on-line monitoring and diagnosis of cycle water pollution phenomena in thermal power plants. After a presentation of the motivations that led CISE and ENEL to the development of an expert system for cycle chemistry control, the paper outlines the hardware and software architecture of PROP, and the characteristics of the operator interface. Then the PROP performance in the field test phase and during the first period of operation at the Fusina power plant are presented. In this paper, the authors discuss the general problem of expert system life cycle. Finally the verification and validation approach adopted in the PROP project is described.

  4. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Warehouse

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  5. Fire Protection Program Assessment, Building 9116- Y12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This assessment is intended to evaluate the fire hazards, life safety and fire protection features inherent in Building 9116.

  6. Life Insurance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Life Insurance Life Insurance A comprehensive benefits package with plan options for health care and retirement to take care of our employees today and tomorrow. Contact Benefits...

  7. Residential Buildings Integration Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Residential Buildings Integration Program Presentation for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review

  8. Energy Efficient Buildings Hub

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-04-01

    Energy Efficient Buildings HUB Lunch Presentation for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review

  9. Building America System Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-04-01

    Residential Buildings Integration Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review

  10. Energy Efficient Buildings Hub

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Efficient Buildings HUB Lunch Presentation for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review

  11. Building Technologies Office Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-04-01

    Building Technologies Office Overview Presentation for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review

  12. Commercial Buildings Consortium

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Commercial Buildings Integration Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review

  13. Carbon Cycling, Environmental & Rural Economic Impacts from Collecting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Quad Chart Overview * May 1, 2015 * May 1, 2018 * Quantify sustainability (GHG, water, air ... forest residuals and SRWC * Life Cycle Analysis with allocation to non-energy products * ...

  14. Fuel Cycle Research and Development Advanced Fuels Campaign

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    near-term accident tolerant LWR fuel technology n Perform research and development of long-term transmutation options 2 ATF AFC Fuel Development Life Cycle Irradiation ...

  15. Hybrid LCA model for assessing the embodied environmental impacts of buildings in South Korea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jang, Minho; Hong, Taehoon; Ji, Changyoon

    2015-01-15

    The assessment of the embodied environmental impacts of buildings can help decision-makers plan environment-friendly buildings and reduce environmental impacts. For a more comprehensive assessment of the embodied environmental impacts of buildings, a hybrid life cycle assessment model was developed in this study. The developed model can assess the embodied environmental impacts (global warming, ozone layer depletion, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical ozone creation, abiotic depletion, and human toxicity) generated directly and indirectly in the material manufacturing, transportation, and construction phases. To demonstrate the application and validity of the developed model, the environmental impacts of an elementary school building were assessed using the developed model and compared with the results of a previous model used in a case study. The embodied environmental impacts from the previous model were lower than those from the developed model by 4.6–25.2%. Particularly, human toxicity potential (13 kg C{sub 6}H{sub 6} eq.) calculated by the previous model was much lower (1965 kg C{sub 6}H{sub 6} eq.) than what was calculated by the developed model. The results indicated that the developed model can quantify the embodied environmental impacts of buildings more comprehensively, and can be used by decision-makers as a tool for selecting environment-friendly buildings. - Highlights: • The model was developed to assess the embodied environmental impacts of buildings. • The model evaluates GWP, ODP, AP, EP, POCP, ADP, and HTP as environmental impacts. • The model presents more comprehensive results than the previous model by 4.6–100%. • The model can present the HTP of buildings, which the previous models cannot do. • Decision-makers can use the model for selecting environment-friendly buildings.

  16. Triple-effect absorption chiller cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVault, R.C. ); Grossman, G. )

    1992-01-01

    Gas-fired absorption chillers are widely used for air-conditioning buildings. Even the highest efficiency double-effect absorption chillers used more primary energy for air-conditioning buildings than the better electric chillers. Two different triple-effect absorption chiller cycles are capable of substantial performance improvement over equivalent double-effect cycles. One cycle uses two condensers and two absorbers to achieve the triple effect.'' A second cycle, the Double-Condenser Coupled Triple-Effect, uses three condensers as well as a third condenser subcooler (which exchanges heat with the lowest temperature first-effect generator). These triple-effect absorption cycles have the potential to be as energy efficient (on a primary fuel basis) as the best electric chillers. 19 refs.

  17. Triple-effect absorption chiller cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVault, R.C.; Grossman, G.

    1992-06-01

    Gas-fired absorption chillers are widely used for air-conditioning buildings. Even the highest efficiency double-effect absorption chillers used more primary energy for air-conditioning buildings than the better electric chillers. Two different triple-effect absorption chiller cycles are capable of substantial performance improvement over equivalent double-effect cycles. One cycle uses two condensers and two absorbers to achieve the ``triple effect.`` A second cycle, the Double-Condenser Coupled Triple-Effect, uses three condensers as well as a third condenser subcooler (which exchanges heat with the lowest temperature first-effect generator). These triple-effect absorption cycles have the potential to be as energy efficient (on a primary fuel basis) as the best electric chillers. 19 refs.

  18. System Configuration Management Implementation Procedure for the Canister Storage Building (CSB)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GARRISON, R.C.

    2000-11-28

    This document provides configuration management for the Distributed Control System (DCS), the Gaseous Effluent Monitoring System (GEMS-100) System, the Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), the Canister Receiving Crane (CRC) CRN-001 PLC, and both North and South vestibule door interlock system PLCs at the Canister Storage Building (CSB). This procedure identifies and defines software configuration items in the CSB control and monitoring systems, and defines configuration control throughout the system life cycle. Components of this control include: configuration status accounting; physical protection and control; and verification of the completeness and correctness of these items.

  19. Building Energy-Efficient Schools in New Orleans: Lessons Learned...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... * Recycle existing materials. * Healthy indoor ... Include goals beyond the design of the school facility, ... A balance between first-cost and life-cycle costs should be ...

  20. US India Joint Center for Building Energy Research and Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    be built; economic development demands increasing ... based - Cost effective efficient design of small unitary ... use leakage during the product life cycle * ...

  1. A protocol for lifetime energy and environmental impact assessment of building insulation materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrestha, Som S. Biswas, Kaushik; Desjarlais, Andre O.

    2014-04-01

    This article describes a proposed protocol that is intended to provide a comprehensive list of factors to be considered in evaluating the direct and indirect environmental impacts of building insulation materials, as well as detailed descriptions of standardized calculation methodologies to determine those impacts. The energy and environmental impacts of insulation materials can generally be divided into two categories: (1) direct impact due to the embodied energy of the insulation materials and other factors and (2) indirect or environmental impacts avoided as a result of reduced building energy use due to addition of insulation. Standards and product category rules exist, which provide guidelines about the life cycle assessment (LCA) of materials, including building insulation products. However, critical reviews have suggested that these standards fail to provide complete guidance to LCA studies and suffer from ambiguities regarding the determination of the environmental impacts of building insulation and other products. The focus of the assessment protocol described here is to identify all factors that contribute to the total energy and environmental impacts of different building insulation products and, more importantly, provide standardized determination methods that will allow comparison of different insulation material types. Further, the intent is not to replace current LCA standards but to provide a well-defined, easy-to-use comparison method for insulation materials using existing LCA guidelines. - Highlights: We proposed a protocol to evaluate the environmental impacts of insulation materials. The protocol considers all life cycle stages of an insulation material. Both the direct environmental impacts and the indirect impacts are defined. Standardized calculation methods for the avoided operational energy is defined. Standardized calculation methods for the avoided environmental impact is defined.

  2. Btu)","per Building

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)","Floorspace (million square feet)","Floorspace per Building (thousand square feet)","Total (trillion Btu)","per Building (million Btu)","per...

  3. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Rhode Island Building Code Standards Committee adopts, promulgates and administers the state building code. Compliance is determined through the building permit and inspection process by local...

  4. Residential Buildings Integration (RBI)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    David Lee Program Manager Residential Buildings Integration (RBI) April 22, 2014 Residential Buildings Integration (RBI) MissionVision The Residential Buildings ...

  5. Commercial Buildings Integration (CBI)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Arah Schuur Program Manager Commercial Buildings Integration (CBI) April 22, 2014 Commercial Buildings Integration (CBI) 2 Commercial Buildings Integration (CBI) Mission...

  6. 1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data Reports > 2003 Building Characteristics Overview 1999 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption SurveyCommercial Buildings Characteristics Released: May 2002 Topics: Energy...

  7. Building America Building Science Translator

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Building Science Translator February 2015 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, subcontractors, or affliated partners, make any warranty, express or implied, or assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represent that its use

  8. Buildings Interoperability Planning: Connected Buildings Interoperabil...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Vision Context Steve Widergren PNNL 11 March 2015 Topics Purpose of meeting Buildings automation in the transformative time of connectivity Interoperability - a connected buildings...

  9. Building America Expert Meeting: Transforming Existing Buildings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon exptmtgideaexchange.pdf More Documents & Publications Valuing Green in the Appraisal Process - Building America Top Innovation Building America Residential Energy ...

  10. Building America Building Science Education Roadmap

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This roadmap outlines steps that U.S. Department of Energy Building America program must take to develop a robust building science education curriculum in coming years.

  11. Office Buildings - Types of Office Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    administration building Insurance company headquarters building Local insurance agency Social services office Attorney's office Real estate sales office Government office State...

  12. 1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics--Building Size

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (202) 586-8800. Energy Information Administration Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey Top Return to: "1999 CBECS-Commercial Buildings Characteristics" Specific questions...

  13. Building Technologies Program: Building America Publications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and existing homes provided by the Building America Program.You may also visit the new Solution Center to find expert building science and energy efficiency resources. RSS...

  14. 1999 Commercial Building Characteristics--Building Activity Comparison

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Building Activity Comparison Percentage of Floorspace and Buildings by Principal Building Activity, 1999 Percentage of Floorspace and Buildings by Principal Building Activity,...

  15. BSC: Building America, Building Science Consortium - 2015 Peer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BSC: Building America, Building Science Consortium - 2015 Peer Review BSC: Building America, Building Science Consortium - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Joe Lstiburek, Building ...

  16. Building Envelope Stakeholder Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory is hosting a building envelope stakeholder workshop on behalf of the DOE Building Technologies Office.

  17. Residential Buildings Integration Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    April 2, 2013 Residential Buildings Integration Program Building Technologies Office ... Overview of the Residential Integration Program Research Implementation tools ...

  18. Buildings | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    influence a building, including incentives, utilities, weather, climate, and locationground temperature. Municipalities and Renewable Energy Opportunities Building...

  19. High Performance Builder Spotlight: LifeStyle Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-01-01

    LifeStyle Homes of Melbourne, Florida, is aiming for affordable net zero energy homes with help from Building America research partner Florida Solar Energy Center.

  20. Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey - Office Buildings

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    Provides an in-depth look at this building type as reported in the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey. Office buildings are the most common type of commercial building and they consumed more than 17% of all energy in the commercial buildings sector in 2003. This special report provides characteristics and energy consumption data by type of office building (e.g. administrative office, government office, medical office) and information on some of the types of equipment found in office buildings: heating and cooling equipment, computers, servers, printers, and photocopiers.

  1. Environmental Emissions from Energy Technology Systems: The Total Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    San Martin, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    This is a summary report that compares emissions during the entire project life cycle for a number of fossil-fueled and renewable electric power systems, including geothermal steam (probably modeled after The Geysers). The life cycle is broken into Fuel Extraction, Construction, and Operation. The only emission covered is carbon dioxide.

  2. Environmental Emissions From Energy Technology Systems: The Total Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    San Martin, Robert L.

    1989-04-01

    This is a summary report that compares emissions during the entire project life cycle for a number of fossil-fueled and renewable electric power systems, including geothermal steam (probably modeled after The Geysers). The life cycle is broken into Fuel Extraction, Construction, and Operation. The only emission covered is carbon dioxide. (DJE 2005)

  3. Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Short Cycling Losses Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses This tip sheet on minimizing boiler short cycling losses provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies. STEAM TIP SHEET #16 PDF icon Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses (January 2012) More Documents & Publications 2015-02-13 Issuance: Test Procedure for Furnaces and Boilers; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking Upgrade Boilers with Energy-Efficient Burners Building America

  4. Applying computationally efficient schemes for biogeochemical cycles

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (ACES4BGC) (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Applying computationally efficient schemes for biogeochemical cycles (ACES4BGC) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Applying computationally efficient schemes for biogeochemical cycles (ACES4BGC) NCAR contributed to the ACES4BGC project through software engineering work on aerosol model implementation, build system and script changes, coupler enhancements for biogeochemical tracers, improvements to the Community Land Model (CLM) code and

  5. Building energy analysis tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brackney, Larry; Parker, Andrew; Long, Nicholas; Metzger, Ian; Dean, Jesse; Lisell, Lars

    2016-04-12

    A building energy analysis system includes a building component library configured to store a plurality of building components, a modeling tool configured to access the building component library and create a building model of a building under analysis using building spatial data and using selected building components of the plurality of building components stored in the building component library, a building analysis engine configured to operate the building model and generate a baseline energy model of the building under analysis and further configured to apply one or more energy conservation measures to the baseline energy model in order to generate one or more corresponding optimized energy models, and a recommendation tool configured to assess the one or more optimized energy models against the baseline energy model and generate recommendations for substitute building components or modifications.

  6. Building America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    Builders generally use a 'spec and purchase' business management system (BMS) when implementing energy efficiency. A BMS is the overall operational and organizational systems and strategies that a builder uses to set up and run its company. This type of BMS treats building performance as a simple technology swap (e.g. a tank water heater to a tankless water heater) and typically compartmentalizes energy efficiency within one or two groups in the organization (e.g. purchasing and construction). While certain tools, such as details, checklists, and scopes of work, can assist builders in managing the quality of the construction of higher performance homes, they do nothing to address the underlying operational strategies and issues related to change management that builders face when they make high performance homes a core part of their mission. To achieve the systems integration necessary for attaining 40% + levels of energy efficiency, while capturing the cost tradeoffs, builders must use a 'systems approach' BMS, rather than a 'spec and purchase' BMS. The following attributes are inherent in a systems approach BMS; they are also generally seen in quality management systems (QMS), such as the National Housing Quality Certification program: Cultural and corporate alignment, Clear intent for quality and performance, Increased collaboration across internal and external teams, Better communication practices and systems, Disciplined approach to quality control, Measurement and verification of performance, Continuous feedback and improvement, and Whole house integrated design and specification.

  7. UGE Scheduler Cycle Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    UGE Scheduler Cycle Time UGE Scheduler Cycle Time Genepool Cycle Time Genepool Scheduler Cycle Time Genepool Jobs Dispatched / Hour What is the Scheduler Cycle? The Univa Grid Engine Scheduler cycle performs a number of important tasks, including: Prioritizing Jobs Reserving Resources for jobs requesting more resources (slots / memory) Dispatching jobs or tasks to the compute nodes Evaluating job dependencies The "cycle time" is the length of time it takes the scheduler to complete all

  8. Voluntary Green Building Standards for Public Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NOTE: The program described below is a voluntary program that encourages state agencies to consider using green building standard. The State of Alabama does not have mandatory Green Building...

  9. Building America Webinar: Ventilation in Multifamily Buildings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ventilation strategies for multifamily buildings, including how to successfully implement those strategies through smart design, specification, and construction techniques. ...

  10. Office Buildings: Consumption Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Type of Office Building Total (trillion Btu) per Building (million Btu) per Square Foot (thousand Btu) Dollars per Million Btu All Office Buildings 1,089 1,475 90.5 16.32...

  11. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2006 Iowa enacted H.F. 2361, requiring the State Building Commissioner to adopt energy conservation requirements based on a nationally recognized building energy code. The State Building Code...

  12. 324 Building - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    300 Area 324 Building 325 Building 400 AreaFast Flux Test Facility 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Grounds 700 Area B Plant B Reactor C Reactor Canister Storage Building and Interim ...

  13. 325 Building - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    300 Area 324 Building 325 Building 400 AreaFast Flux Test Facility 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Grounds 700 Area B Plant B Reactor C Reactor Canister Storage Building and Interim ...

  14. Types of Lighting in Commercial Buildings - Building Size and...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    commercial buildings. Note: Data are for non-mall buildings. Source: Energy Information Administration, 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey. Office buildings and...

  15. Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile - Building...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile - Building Energy Optimization Analysis Method (BEopt) Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile - Building Energy...

  16. SEP Success Story: Delaware Company Breathes New Life into Old Post Office

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building | Department of Energy Delaware Company Breathes New Life into Old Post Office Building SEP Success Story: Delaware Company Breathes New Life into Old Post Office Building November 26, 2013 - 10:00am Addthis Thanks to the Energy Department, Delaware-based Brandywine CAD Design was able to breathe new life into a local historic building while saving on its energy costs. | Photo courtesy of Brandywine CAD Design. Thanks to the Energy Department, Delaware-based Brandywine CAD Design

  17. Buildings Performance Database Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Overview Buildings.energy.gov/BPD BuildingsPerformanceDatabase@ee.doe.gov 2 * The BPD statistically analyzes trends in the energy performance and physical & operational characteristics of real commercial and residential buildings. The Buildings Performance Database 3 Design Principles * The BPD contains actual data on existing buildings - not modeled data or anecdotal evidence. * The BPD enables statistical analysis without revealing information about individual buildings. * The BPD cleanses

  18. Building Energy Modeling Library

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    eere.energy.gov Project Overview Building Energy Modeling (BEM) Library * Define and ... currently applied to potential energy efficiency measures by building owners when ...

  19. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The California Building Standards Commission (BSC) is responsible for administering California's building standards adoption, publication, and implementation. Since 1989, the BSC has published tr...

  20. NREL: Buildings Research - Facilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    building technologies and innovations that deliver significant energy savings in buildings, and the new facilities further extend those capabilities. In addition, the NREL...

  1. Office Buildings - Full Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    administration building Insurance company headquarters building Local insurance agency Social services office Attorney's office Real estate sales office Government office State...

  2. Building America Solution Center

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Android app - iOS app (Apple) * Building Science Publications feature fully populated ... * Building America review 2012 Design * Web tool platform built using Drupal * Taxonomy ...

  3. Commercial Building Partnership

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    goals: - show that 50% savings in new construction and 30% savings in existing buildings ... level of savings standard practice Brief History 3 | Building Technologies Office ...

  4. Model Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Efficiency Building Performance Standards (EEBPS) are statewide minimum requirements that all new construction and additions to existing buildings must satisfy. Exceptions include...

  5. Building-Level Intensities

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Electricity Consumption and Expenditure Intensities for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Electricity Consumption",,,,,,"Electricity Expenditures" ,"per Building (thousand kWh)","per...

  6. Buildings | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    work, live, learn, govern, heal, worship, and play in buildings-and they require enormous energy resources. Related Links Buildings Gateway Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  7. Commercial Buildings Integration Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Buildings Integration Program Arah Schuur Program Manager arah.schuur@ee.doe.gov April 2, ... Commercial Buildings Integration Program Mission Accelerate voluntary uptake of ...

  8. Better Buildings Workforce Activities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BETTER BUILDINGS WORKFORCE ACTIVITIES Benjamin Goldstein, Better Buildings Workforce Project Manager, U.S. Department of Energy April 24, 2014 Housekeeping and Overview 1) ...

  9. Building Energy Codes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ...Impacts * Priorities for FY15 and Beyond 2 Building Energy Codes - Mission Support the building energy code and standard development, adoption, implementation and enforcement ...

  10. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Public Act 093-0936 (Illinois Energy Conservation Code for Commercial Buildings) was signed into law in August, 2004. The Illinois Energy Conservation Code for Commercial Buildings became...

  11. Food Sales Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales Characteristics by Activity... Food Sales Food sales buildings are buildings that are used for retail or wholesale sale of food. Basic Characteristics See also: Equipment |...

  12. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Connecticut Office of the State Building Inspector establishes and enforces building, electrical, mechanical, plumbing and energy code requirements by reviewing, developing, adopting and...

  13. Office Buildings - Energy Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Consumption Office buildings consumed more than 17 percent of the total energy used by the commercial buildings sector (Table 4). At least half of total energy, electricity,...

  14. Buildings Performance Database

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    * Enable public access to general statistical information about buildings, without ... of real buildings. * The BPD enables statistical analysis without revealing information ...

  15. Building Technologies Program Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Energy Building Technologies Program Jerry Dion Acting Program Manager Building Technologies Program State Energy Advisory Board Meeting October 17, 2007 The investment ...

  16. 2013 Planning Cycle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Projects Expand Projects Skip navigation links Ancillary and Control Area Services (ACS) Practices Forum Attachment K 2015 Planning Cycle 2014 Planning Cycle 2013 Planning...

  17. 2014 Planning Cycle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Projects Expand Projects Skip navigation links Ancillary and Control Area Services (ACS) Practices Forum Attachment K 2015 Planning Cycle 2014 Planning Cycle 2013 Planning...

  18. 2015 Planning Cycle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Projects Expand Projects Skip navigation links Ancillary and Control Area Services (ACS) Practices Forum Attachment K 2015 Planning Cycle 2014 Planning Cycle 2013 Planning...

  19. Fuel Cycle Subcommittee

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2015 Fuel Cycle Subcommittee meeting is given below. The meeting provided members an overview of various research efforts funded by the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy's Fuel Cycle ...

  20. 1999 CBECS Principal Building Activities

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data Reports > 2003 Building Characteristics Overview A Look at Building Activities in the 1999 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey The Commercial Buildings Energy...

  1. Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey -- Overview

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Buildings The Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey 1993 provides building-level energy-related characteristics for a special sample of commercial buildings owned by the...

  2. Health Care Buildings: Equipment Table

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Equipment Table Buildings, Size and Age Data by Equipment Types for Health Care Buildings Number of Buildings (thousand) Percent of Buildings Floorspace (million square feet)...

  3. Organic Flash Cycles for Intermediate and High Temperature Waste

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reclamation - Energy Innovation Portal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Energy Storage Energy Storage Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search Organic Flash Cycles for Intermediate and High Temperature Waste Reclamation Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication LBNL Commercial Analysis Report (682 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Researchers at Berkeley Lab

  4. A Protocol for Lifetime Energy and Environmental Impact Assessment of Building Insulation Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrestha, Som S; Biswas, Kaushik; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a proposed protocol that is intended to provide a comprehensive list of factors to be considered in evaluating the direct and indirect environmental impacts of building insulation materials, as well as detailed descriptions of standardized calculation methodologies to determine those impacts. The energy and environmental impacts of insulation materials can generally be divided into two categories: (1) direct impact due to the embodied energy of the insulation materials and other factors, and (2) indirect or environmental impacts avoided as a result of reduced building energy use due to addition of insulation. Standards and product category rules exist that provide guidelines about the life cycle assessment (LCA) of materials, including building insulation products. However, critical reviews have suggested that these standards fail to provide complete guidance to LCA studies and suffer from ambiguities regarding the determination of the environmental impacts of building insulation and other products. The focus of the assessment protocol described here is to identify all factors that contribute to the total energy and environmental impacts of different insulation products and, more importantly, provide standardized determination methods that will allow comparison of different insulation material types. Further, the intent is not to replace current LCA standards but to provide a well-defined, easy-to-use comparison method for insulation materials using existing LCA guidelines.

  5. Events | Buildings | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Events Below are upcoming events related to buildings research. No current events have been scheduled

  6. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Department of Energy Better Buildings Neighborhood Program: Business Models Guide, October 27, 2011.

  7. Buildings Energy Data Book

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    Current and Past EditionsGlossaryPopular TablesQuery Tools Contact Us Search What Is the Buildings Energy Data Book? The Data Book includes statistics on residential and commercial building energy consumption. Data tables contain statistics related to construction, building technologies, energy consumption, and building characteristics. The Building Technologies Program within the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy developed this resource to provide a

  8. Buildings Energy Data Book

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    4.1 Federal Buildings Energy Consumption 4.2 Federal Buildings and Facilities Characteristics 4.3 Federal Buildings and Facilities Expenditures 4.4 Legislation Affecting Energy Consumption of Federal Buildings and Facilities 5Envelope and Equipment 6Energy Supply 7Laws, Energy Codes, and Standards 8Water 9Market Transformation Glossary Acronyms and Initialisms Technology Descriptions Building Descriptions Other Data Books Biomass Energy Transportation Energy Power Technologies Hydrogen Download

  9. Buildings Energy Data Book

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building Type Definition Includes These Sub-Categories from 2003 CBECS Questionnaire Education Buildings used for academic or technical classroom instruction, such as elementary, middle, or high schools, and classroom buildings on college or university campuses. Buildings on education campuses for which the main use is not classroom are included in the category relating to their use. For example, administration buildings are part of "Office", dormitories are "Lodging", and

  10. Building Awards | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Building Awards NREL's high-performance buildings are sustainability models for the use of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. Each building on NREL's South Table Mountain campus is designed to meet the Gold or Platinum standards of the U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED®) program. Find information about awards for NREL's exceptional buildings below. Energy Systems Integration Facility Energy Systems Integration Facility 2014

  11. Fire Protection Program Assessment, Building 9203 & 9203A Complex- Y12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This assessment is intended to evaluate the fire hazards, life safety and fire protection features inherent in the Building 9203 and 9203A complex.

  12. House Simulation Protocols (Building America Benchmark) - Building...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    House Simulation Protocols have helped ensure consistent and accurate energy-efficiency assessments for tens of thousands of new and retrofit homes supported by the Building ...

  13. Building America Building Science Education Roadmap

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... (district heating and cooling, landfill gas generation, etc.) 14. Putting it all ... building performance to financing and insurance: e.g. energy improvement mortgages ...

  14. 1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics--Principal Building...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    contact the National Energy Information Center at (202) 586-8800. Energy Information Administration Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey Differences between the...

  15. Building Green in Greensburg: City Hall Building

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This poster highlights energy efficiency, renewable energy, and sustainable features of the high-performing City Hall building in Greensburg, Kansas.

  16. Building Green in Greensburg: Business Incubator Building

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This poster highlights energy efficiency, renewable energy, and sustainable features of the high-performing SunChips Business Incubator building in Greensburg, Kansas.

  17. Building America: Bringing Building Innovations to Market | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy America: Bringing Building Innovations to Market Building America: Bringing Building Innovations to Market New Building America Fact Sheet Highlights Program New Building America Fact Sheet Highlights Program Read more Building America Research-to-Market Plan Released Building America Research-to-Market Plan Released Read the plan that will guide Building America's research and development activities over the coming years. Read more Building America Projects Focus on Building

  18. Building a More Competitive American Manufacturing Industry with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Zero to 60 in under five seconds. Concept to reality in just six weeks. Photo Gallery: 3D Printing Brings Classic Shelby Cobra to Life Building a More Competitive American ...

  19. Low-Cycle-Fatigue Behavior of Copper Materials and Their Use

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... In the region of low number of cycles to fracture (about 102 e Nf el@, where Nf is the number of cycles to failure), another fatigue-life curve, biked on the plastic-strain ...

  20. Joseph Vance Building, The

    High Performance Buildings Database

    Seattle, WA In 2006, the Rose Smart Growth Investment Fund acquired the historic Joseph Vance Building with the purpose of transforming it into "the leading green and historic class B" building in the marketplace. The terra cotta Vance Building was constructed in 1929 and has 14 floors - 13 floors of offices over ground-floor retail with a basement for mechanical equipment and storage. In 2009 the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) awarded the Vance Building LEED for Existing Buildings (EB) Gold certification.

  1. Building Performance Database

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Building Performance Database (BPD) unlocks the power of building data by providing access to the largest publicly-available dataset of information about the physical and operational characteristics of real buildings. The BPD enables users to perform statistical analysis on an anonymous dataset of hundreds of thousands of commercial and residential buildings from across the country. Users can examine specific building types and geographic areas, compare performance trends among similar buildings, identify and prioritize cost-saving energy efficiency improvements, and assess the range of likely savings from these improvements.

  2. BSC: Building America, Building Science Consortium - 2015 Peer Review |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy BSC: Building America, Building Science Consortium - 2015 Peer Review BSC: Building America, Building Science Consortium - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Joe Lstiburek, Building Science Corp. View the Presentation PDF icon BSC: Building America, Building Science Consortium - 2015 Peer Review More Documents & Publications Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes Case Study: Field Testing an Unvented Roof with Fibrous Insulation and Tiles Building

  3. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Much of the information presented in this summary is drawn from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program and the Building Codes Assistance Project (BCAP). For more...

  4. Buildings interoperability landscape - Draft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardin, Dave B.; Stephan, Eric G.; Wang, Weimin; Corbin, Charles D.; Widergren, Steven E.

    2015-02-01

    Buildings are an integral part of our nation’s energy economy. The advancement in information and communications technology (ICT) has revolutionized energy management in industrial facilities and large commercial buildings. As ICT costs decrease and capabilities increase, buildings automation and energy management features are transforming the small-medium commercial and residential buildings sectors. A vision of a connected world in which equipment and systems within buildings coordinate with each other to efficiently meet their owners’ and occupants’ needs, and where buildings regularly transact business with other buildings and service providers (such as gas and electric service providers) is emerging. However, while the technology to support this collaboration has been demonstrated at various degrees of maturity, the integration frameworks and ecosystems of products that support the ability to easily install, maintain, and evolve building systems and their equipment components are struggling to nurture the fledging business propositions of their proponents.

  5. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Virginia Uniform Statewide Building Code (USBC) is a statewide minimum requirement that local jurisdictions cannot amend. The code is applicable to all new buildings in the commonwealth. The...

  6. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Much of the information presented in this summary is drawn from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program and the Building Codes Assistance Project (BCAP). For more deta...

  7. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Prior to 1997, South Carolina's local governments adopted and enforced the building codes. In 1997, the law required statewide use of the most up-to-date building codes, which then required the...

  8. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Massachusetts Board of Building Regulations and Standards has authority to promulgate the Massachusetts State Building Code (MSBC). The energy provisions in the MSBC were developed by the Boa...

  9. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Florida Building Commission (FBC) is directed to adopt, revise, update, and maintain the Florida Building Code in accordance with Chapter 120 of the state statutes. The code is mandatory...

  10. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Much of the information presented in this summary is drawn from the U.S. Department of Energys (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program and the Building Codes Assistance Project (BCAP). For more...

  11. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: Much of the information presented in this summary is drawn from the U.S. Department of Energys (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program and the Building Codes Assistance Project (BCAP). For more...

  12. 2015 Better Buildings Summit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Summit is a national meeting where leading organizations across key sectors showcase solutions to cut energy intensity in their buildings portfolio...

  13. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 2012 IECC is in effect for all residential and commercial buildings, Idaho schools, and Idaho jurisdictions that adopt and enforce building codes, unless a local code exists that is more...

  14. Guam- Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Much of the information presented in this summary is drawn from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program and the Building Codes Assistance Project (BCAP). For more...

  15. Better Buildings Summit 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Better Buildings Summit is a national meeting where Better Buildings partners, including AMO’s Better Plants Program partners, and leading organizations can exchange best practices and showcase...

  16. Food Service Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    was a food service building were only asked whether the building was a restaurant, bar, fast food chain, or cafeteria (all the same category) or some other type of food service...

  17. Building Efficiency Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Buildings use 40% of total energy in the United States – more than either the industrial or transportation sectors. Technical improvements and cost reductions (see Appendix 3) in building materials...

  18. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Missouri does not have a statewide building or energy code for private residential and commercial buildings, and there currently is no state regulatory agency authorized to promulgate, adopt, or...

  19. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Board of Building Standards is the primary state agency that protects the public's safety by: adopting rules governing the construction, repair, and rehabilitation of buildings in the state;...

  20. Building Design & Construction - Sustainability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2003-11-01

    Offers a brief history of green building; presents the results of a specially commissioned survey; and analyzes the chief trends, issues, and published research, based on interviews with dozens of experts and participants in green building.

  1. Special Building Renovations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A number of building types have specific energy uses and needs, and as such the renewable opportunities may be different from a typical office building. This section briefly discusses the following...

  2. Building Materials Property Table

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-04-16

    This information sheet describes a table of some of the key technical properties of many of the most common building materials taken from ASHRAE Fundamentals - 2001, Moisture Control in Buildings, CMHC, NRC/IRC, IEA Annex 24, and manufacturer data.

  3. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: Much of the information presented in this summary is drawn from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program and the Building Codes Assistance Project (BCAP). For more...

  4. Health Care Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    also tended to be larger than those not on complexes. The average building on a complex was 79.9 thousand square feet, compared to 11.2 thousand square feet for buildings...

  5. ARM - The Hydrologic Cycle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrologic Cycle Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans The Hydrologic Cycle The hydrologic cycle is the cycle through which water passes from sea to land and from land to sea. Water vapor enters the air through the evaporation of water. Water vapor in the air eventually condenses

  6. 1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics--Building Shell and...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    & Practices > Building Shell & Lighting Conservation Features Building Shell and Lighting Conservation Features The 1999 CBECS collected information on two types of building shell...

  7. Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile - Building...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile - Building America's Top Innovations Propel the Home Building Industry toward Higher Performance Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame ...

  8. Building America Webinar: Building America: Research for Real...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building America Webinar: Building America: Research for Real-World Results This presentation was delivered on Dec. 17, 2014, by Eric Werling, Building America Research ...

  9. Trends in Commercial Buildings--Buildings and Floorspace

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    activity. Number of Commercial Buildings In 1979, the Nonresidential Buildings Energy Consumption Survey estimated that there were 3.8 million commercial buildings in the...

  10. Building America Solution Center - Building America Top Innovation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building America Solution Center - Building America Top Innovation SCimagemale.jpg The Building America Solution Center is a Web-based tool connecting users to fast, free, and ...

  11. Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile - Building America...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile - Building America Solution Center PNNL set up the framework for the Building America Solution Center, a web tool connecting users to ...

  12. Buildings Energy Data Book

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    1.1 Buildings Sector Energy Consumption 1.2 Building Sector Expenditures 1.3 Value of Construction and Research 1.4 Environmental Data 1.5 Generic Fuel Quad and Comparison 1.6 Embodied Energy of Building Assemblies 2The Residential Sector 3Commercial Sector 4Federal Sector 5Envelope and Equipment 6Energy Supply 7Laws, Energy Codes, and Standards 8Water 9Market Transformation Glossary Acronyms and Initialisms Technology Descriptions Building Descriptions Other Data Books Biomass Energy

  13. Buildings Energy Data Book

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    The Energy Index for Commercial Buildings Welcome to the Energy Index for Commercial Buildings. Data for this tool comes from the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS). Select categories from the CBECS micro data allow users to search on common building characteristics that impact energy use. Users may select multiple criteria, however if the resulting sample size is too small, the data will be unreliable. If nothing is selected

  14. Buildings Energy Databook

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    2 BUILDINGS ENERGY DATABOOK U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE ENERGY DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Buildings Energy Databook The United States Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy has developed this Buildings Energy Databook to provide a current and accurate set of comprehensive buildings-related data and to promote the use of such data for consistency throughout DOE programs. The Databook is considered

  15. BUILDING AMERICA PROGRAM EVALUATION

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Examples include changing local building codes, creating ... the program held monthly education classes for any ... errors including systematic and experimental ...

  16. Autotune Building Energy Models

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    quantification to determine importance of individual parameters * Suite of machine learning algorithms to generate calibration functions based on building dynamics * ...

  17. Kiowa County Commons Building

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This poster describes the energy efficiency features and sustainable materials used in the Kiowa County Commons Building in Greensburg, Kansas.

  18. High Performance Sustainable Buildings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Buildings Goal 3: High Performance Sustainable Buildings Maintaining the conditions of a building improves the health of not only the surrounding ecosystems, but also the well-being of its occupants. Energy Conservation» Efficient Water Use & Management» High Performance Sustainable Buildings» Greening Transportation» Green Purchasing & Green Technology» Pollution Prevention» Science Serving Sustainability» ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY GOALS at LANL The Radiological Laboratory

  19. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In March 2006, SB 459 was enacted to promote renewable energy and update the state's building energy codes.

  20. Building Technologies Office Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Office (BTO) Ecosystem Emerging Technologies ... Heat Flow + Air Flow + Water Flow Ventilation Thermal ... and related services 3. Enable buildings to ...

  1. Buildings | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Buildings > Posts by term Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds ancient building system (1) architect (1) biomimicry (1) building technology (1) cooling (1) cu (1) daylight...

  2. Commercial Building Energy Asset Score

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commercial Building Energy Asset Score 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Nora ... (MA DOER) and Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnership (NEEP) Building Owners...

  3. Sandia Energy - Building a Microgrid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Building a Microgrid Home Infrastructure Security Energy Surety Partnership News Customers & Partners Energy Assurance Microgrid Building a Microgrid Previous Next Building a...

  4. Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey 1993

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Energy Conservation Features in FBSS Building in Federal Region 3, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1993 Total Floorspace Number of Buildings (thousand square feet) Any Any...

  5. Principal Building Activities--1995 CBECS

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Detailed Tables > Principal Building Activities Table Number of Buildings, Total Floorspace, and Total Site and Primary Energy Consumption for All Principal Building Activities,...

  6. Honest Buildings | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Website: www.honestbuildings.com Web Application Link: www.honestbuildings.com Cost: Free Honest Buildings Screenshot References: Honest Buildings1 Logo: Honest Buildings...

  7. Health Care Buildings: Subcategories Table

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Subcategories Table Selected Data by Type of Health Care Building Number of Buildings (thousand) Percent of Buildings Floorspace (million square feet) Percent of Floorspace Square...

  8. Funding Opportunity Webinar - Buildings University Innovators...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Buildings University Innovators and Leaders Development (BUILD) Funding Opportunity Webinar - Buildings University Innovators and Leaders Development (BUILD) View the Funding ...

  9. Better Buildings Webinar: Better Buildings Alliance - Annual...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    5 2:00PM to 3:00PM EDT Online The Better Buildings Alliance is hosting a webinar on new energy efficiency resources and upcoming opportunities available this year through DOE's...

  10. Building America Residential Buildings Energy Efficiency Meeting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    On this page, you may link to the summary report and presentations for the Building America Energy Efficiency meeting in July 2011, held in Denver, Colorado. PDF icon Summary of ...

  11. Passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1992-10-01

    Developments in passive solar buildings that took place from the early 1970`s through 1989 are described. Much of the work covered was federally sponsored during the period 1975 through 1986. About half the volume is devoted to quantitative methods for modeling, simulation, and design analysis of passive buildings; the other half summarizes the quantitative results of testing and monitoring of models and buildings. The following are covered: building solar gain modeling, simulation analysis, simplified methods, materials and components, analytical results for specific systems, test modules, building integration, performance monitoring and results, and design tools. (MHR)

  12. Passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D. )

    1992-01-01

    Developments in passive solar buildings that took place from the early 1970's through 1989 are described. Much of the work covered was federally sponsored during the period 1975 through 1986. About half the volume is devoted to quantitative methods for modeling, simulation, and design analysis of passive buildings; the other half summarizes the quantitative results of testing and monitoring of models and buildings. The following are covered: building solar gain modeling, simulation analysis, simplified methods, materials and components, analytical results for specific systems, test modules, building integration, performance monitoring and results, and design tools. (MHR)

  13. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Primary school

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  14. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Small office

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  15. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Stand-alone retail

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  16. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Fast food

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  17. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Secondary school

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  18. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Strip mall

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  19. Operations building | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Operations building Operations building Chemical recycling columns in an operations building

  20. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  1. Building America Webinar: Ventilation in Multifamily Buildings | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Ventilation in Multifamily Buildings Building America Webinar: Ventilation in Multifamily Buildings This webinar was presented by research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), and discussed ventilation strategies for multifamily buildings, including how to successfully implement those strategies through smart design, specification, and construction techniques. File webinar_ventilation_multifamily_20111101.wmv More Documents & Publications Building America

  2. Building Your Message Map Worksheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Building Your Message Map Worksheet, as posted on the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Neighborhood Program website.

  3. Saving Energy in Multifamily Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation is for the Building Technologies program webinar titled Saving Energy in Multifamily Buildings delivered on July 25, 2011.

  4. Commercial Building Asset Rating Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Slides from a Commercial Building Initiative webinar outlining the Commercial Building Asset Rating Program on August 23, 2011.

  5. buildings technology | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    technology Home Buildings Description: This group is dedicated to discussions about green buildings, energy use in buildings, occupant comfort in buildings, and building...

  6. building reviews | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    reviews Home Buildings Description: This group is dedicated to discussions about green buildings, energy use in buildings, occupant comfort in buildings, and building...

  7. A Fresh Look at Weather Impact on Peak Electricity Demand and Energy Use of Buildings Using 30-Year Actual Weather Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Chang, Wen-Kuei; Lin, Hung-Wen

    2013-05-01

    Buildings consume more than one third of the world?s total primary energy. Weather plays a unique and significant role as it directly affects the thermal loads and thus energy performance of buildings. The traditional simulated energy performance using Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) weather data represents the building performance for a typical year, but not necessarily the average or typical long-term performance as buildings with different energy systems and designs respond differently to weather changes. Furthermore, the single-year TMY simulations do not provide a range of results that capture yearly variations due to changing weather, which is important for building energy management, and for performing risk assessments of energy efficiency investments. This paper employs large-scale building simulation (a total of 3162 runs) to study the weather impact on peak electricity demand and energy use with the 30-year (1980 to 2009) Actual Meteorological Year (AMY) weather data for three types of office buildings at two design efficiency levels, across all 17 ASHRAE climate zones. The simulated results using the AMY data are compared to those from the TMY3 data to determine and analyze the differences. Besides further demonstration, as done by other studies, that actual weather has a significant impact on both the peak electricity demand and energy use of buildings, the main findings from the current study include: 1) annual weather variation has a greater impact on the peak electricity demand than it does on energy use in buildings; 2) the simulated energy use using the TMY3 weather data is not necessarily representative of the average energy use over a long period, and the TMY3 results can be significantly higher or lower than those from the AMY data; 3) the weather impact is greater for buildings in colder climates than warmer climates; 4) the weather impact on the medium-sized office building was the greatest, followed by the large office and then the small office; and 5) simulated energy savings and peak demand reduction by energy conservation measures using the TMY3 weather data can be significantly underestimated or overestimated. It is crucial to run multi-decade simulations with AMY weather data to fully assess the impact of weather on the long-term performance of buildings, and to evaluate the energy savings potential of energy conservation measures for new and existing buildings from a life cycle perspective.

  8. Water Cycle Pilot Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Water Cycle Pilot Study To learn more about Earth's water cycle, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has established a multi-laboratory science team representing five DOE national laboratories: Argonne, Brookhaven, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos, and Oak Ridge. The science team will conduct a three- year Water Cycle Pilot Study within the ARM SGP CART site, primarily in the Walnut River Watershed east of Wichita, Kansas. The host facility in the Walnut River Watershed is the Atmospheric

  9. 10 MWe power cycle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MWe power cycle - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy ...

  10. Buildings Energy Data Book

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    8.1 Buildings Sector Water Consumption 8.2 Residential Sector Water Consumption 8.3 Commercial Sector Water Consumption 8.4 WaterSense 8.5 Federal Government Water Usage 9Market Transformation Glossary Acronyms and Initialisms Technology Descriptions Building Descriptions Other Data Books Biomass Energy Transportation Energy Power Technologies Hydrogen Download the Entire Book Skip down to the tables This chapter includes data on water use in commercial and residential buildings and the energy

  11. Buildings Energy Data Book

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    Explore Survey Data from the Energy Information Administration Follow the links below to two easy-to-use query tools, developed exclusively for this website. With these tools you can explore results from the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) and the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). Commercial Buildings Energy Index Use this custom query tool to analyze micro data from CBECS 2003. Residential Buildings Energy Index Use this custom Microsoft Excel pivot table to

  12. Buildings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Buildings Buildings EERE leads a robust network of researchers and other partners to continually develop cost-effective energy-saving solutions that help make our country run better through increased efficiency — promoting better plants, manufacturing processes, and products; more efficient new homes and improved older homes; and other solutions to enhance the buildings in which we work, shop, and lead our everyday lives. EERE leads a robust network of researchers and other partners to

  13. Integrative Genomics Building

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Integrative Genomics Building Community Berkeley Global Campus Environmental Documents Tours Community Programs Friends of Berkeley Lab ⇒ Navigate Section Community Berkeley Global Campus Environmental Documents Tours Community Programs Friends of Berkeley Lab Project Description The Integrative Genomics Building (IGB) is proposed to be an approximately 77,000 gsf, four-story research and office building constructed in the former Bevatron area - a fully developed site in the geographic

  14. ORISE: Capacity Building

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capacity Building Because public health agencies must maintain the resources to respond to public health challenges, critical situations and emergencies, the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) helps government agencies and organizations develop a solid infrastructure through capacity building. Capacity building refers to activities that improve an organization's ability to achieve its mission or a person's ability do his or her job more effectively. For organizations, capacity

  15. The Lovejoy Building

    High Performance Buildings Database

    Portland, Oregon Originally built in 1910 as the stables for the Marshall-Wells Hardware Company, the Lovejoy Building is the home of Opsis Architects. The owner/architects purchased and renovated the historic building to house their growing business and to provide ground-floor office lease space and second-floor offices for their firm. Opsis wanted to use the building to experience and demonstrate the technologies and practices it promotes with clients.

  16. 2012 News | Buildings | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 News Below are news stories related to Buildings. RSS Learn about RSS. November 20, 2012 NREL's Research Support Facility Garners Second LEED® Platinum The Research Support Facility (RSF) on the campus of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colo. has earned its second LEED® Platinum designation for new construction from the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), a non-profit organization dedicated to sustainable building design and

  17. 2013 News | Buildings | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 News Below are news stories related to Buildings. RSS Learn about RSS. November 6, 2013 NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility Garners LEED® Platinum The Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) on the campus of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colo., has earned a LEED® Platinum designation for new construction from the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), a non-profit organization dedicated to sustainable building design and

  18. Staff | Buildings | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Staff Photo of Daniel Beckley Daniel Beckley Laboratory Program Manager B.A. Business Administration, Westminster College M.A. International Environmental Policy, Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey Dan joined NREL in 2010. As the Buildings Technology Laboratory Program Manager, he fosters the relationship with the U.S. Department of Energy Buildings Technologies Office. In addition, he works with senior lab management to set the strategic agenda for NREL's buildings

  19. Soil metagenomics and carbon cycling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biosecurity, and Health Environmental Microbiology Soil metagenomics and carbon cycling Soil metagenomics and carbon cycling Establishing a foundational understanding...

  20. The Cost-Effectiveness of Investments to Meet the Guiding Principles for High-Performance Sustainable Buildings on the PNNL Campus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Judd, Kathleen S.

    2014-08-29

    As part its campus sustainability efforts, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has invested in eight new and existing buildings to ensure they meet the U.S. Department of Energy’s requirements for high performance sustainable buildings (HPSB) at DOE sites. These investments are expected to benefit PNNL by reducing the total life-cycle cost of facilities, improving energy efficiency and water conservation, and making buildings safer and healthier for the occupants. This study examines the cost-effectiveness of the implementing measures that meet the criteria for HPSBs in 3 different types of buildings on the PNNL campus: offices, scientific laboratories, and data centers. In each of the three case studies examined the investments made to achieve HPSB status demonstrated a high return on the HPSB investments that have taken place in these varied environments. Simple paybacks for total investments in the three case study buildings ranged from just 2 to 5 years; savings-to-investment ratios all exceeded the desirable threshold of 1; and the net present values associated with these investments were all positive.