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1

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large-diameter reactors. Washington University's work during the reporting period involved the implementation of the automated calibration device, which will provide an advanced method of determining liquid and slurry velocities at high pressures. This new calibration device is intended to replace the original calibration setup, which depended on fishing lines and hooks to position the radioactive particle. The report submitted by Washington University contains a complete description of the new calibration device and its operation. Improvements to the calibration program are also discussed. Iowa State University utilized air-water bubble column simulations in an effort to determine the domain size needed to represent all of the flow scales in a gas-liquid column at a high superficial velocity. Ohio State's report summarizes conclusions drawn from the completion of gas injection phenomena studies, specifically with respect to the characteristics of bubbling-jetting at submerged single orifices in liquid-solid suspensions.

Bernard A. Toseland

2000-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

2

Design of Slurry Bubble Column Reactors: Novel Technique for Optimum Catalyst Size Selection  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Slurry Bubble Column Reactors: Novel Technique Slurry Bubble Column Reactors: Novel Technique for Optimum Catalyst Size Selection Opportunity The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is seeking licensing partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 7,619,011 entitled "Design of Slurry Bubble Column Reactors: Novel Technique for Optimum Catalyst Size Selection." Disclosed in this patent is a method to determine the optimum catalyst particle size for application in a fluidized bed reactor, such as a slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR), to convert synthesis gas into liquid fuels. The reactor can be gas-solid, liquid- solid, or gas-liquid-solid. The method considers the complete granular temperature balance based on the kinetic theory of

3

Prediction of formation of gas-phase bubbles correlated by vortices in the fuel reactor of chemical looping combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Chemical looping combustion (CLC) as a potential CO2 capture technology has been considered as a promising and likely alternative to traditional combustion technology to mitigate the CO2 emission due to its prosecution of CO2 sequestration at a low cost. Although a number of studies on the hydrodynamic behaviours of the CLC process in fuel reactor have been documented in the open literature, there have been rare studies on the correlation between the bubble formation and the local particulate volume fraction. This paper aims to investigate the CLC process in a fuel reactor using the CFD modelling, coupled with the heterogeneous reactions, the hydrodynamics and reaction kinetics occurring in the fuel reactor. A parameter correlating the occurrence of bubble and dynamic properties is proposed. The parameter may be acted as an indicator of time-dependent bubble evolution with a potential to be adopted in the CLC for controlling the bubbling phenomena since the occurrence of the bubbles at specific positions is highly correlated with the local large eddies embedded in the flow. The results obtained clearly indicate that the CFD model developed in the current study reasonably forecasts the hydrodynamic behaviours and important phenomena observed in the fuel reactor.

Luming Chen; Xiaogang Yang; Xia Li; Guang Li; Colin Snape

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

CFD analysis of bubble hydrodynamics in a fuel reactor for a hydrogen-fueled chemical looping combustion system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study investigates the temporal development of bubble hydrodynamics in the fuel reactor of a hydrogen-fueled chemical looping combustion (CLC) system by using a computational model. The model also investigates the molar fraction of products in gas and solid phases. The study assists in developing a better understanding of the CLC process, which has many advantages such as being a potentially promising candidate for an efficient carbon dioxide capture technology. The study employs the kinetic theory of granular flow. The reactive fluid dynamic system of the fuel reactor is customized by incorporating the kinetics of an oxygen carrier reduction into a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. An Eulerian multiphase treatment is used to describe the continuum two-fluid model for both gas and solid phases. CaSO4 and H2 are used as an oxygen carrier and a fuel, respectively. The computational results are validated with the experimental and numerical results available in the open literature. The CFD simulations are found to capture the features of the bubble formation, rise and burst in unsteady and quasi-steady states very well. The results show a significant increase in the conversion rate with higher dense bed height, lower bed width, higher free board height and smaller oxygen carrier particles which upsurge an overall performance of the CLC plant.

Atal Bihari Harichandan; Tariq Shamim

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Dynamic Modeling and Control Studies of a Two-Stage Bubbling Fluidized Bed Adsorber-Reactor for Solid-Sorbent CO{sub 2} Capture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A one-dimensional, non-isothermal, pressure-driven dynamic model has been developed for a two-stage bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) adsorber-reactor for solid-sorbent carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture using Aspen Custom Modeler® (ACM). The BFB model for the flow of gas through a continuous phase of downward moving solids considers three regions: emulsion, bubble, and cloud-wake. Both the upper and lower reactor stages are of overflow-type configuration, i.e., the solids leave from the top of each stage. In addition, dynamic models have been developed for the downcomer that transfers solids between the stages and the exit hopper that removes solids from the bottom of the bed. The models of all auxiliary equipment such as valves and gas distributor have been integrated with the main model of the two-stage adsorber reactor. Using the developed dynamic model, the transient responses of various process variables such as CO{sub 2} capture rate and flue gas outlet temperatures have been studied by simulating typical disturbances such as change in the temperature, flowrate, and composition of the incoming flue gas from pulverized coal-fired power plants. In control studies, the performance of a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, feedback-augmented feedforward controller, and linear model predictive controller (LMPC) are evaluated for maintaining the overall CO{sub 2} capture rate at a desired level in the face of typical disturbances.

Modekurti, Srinivasarao; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu; Zitney, Stephen E.

2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

6

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

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7

CD  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a a o O c- (D 3 m cn o 5- sl) < cn . ft, =. 0. CD --o O O (.0 RESPONSIVE TO THE NEEDS OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 0 0 0 -1 0 CD 13 < 0 tl) 5' CD cn 51" INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION Tritium Migration and Hydrogeological Studies in the Vicinity of Plot M Palos Forest Preserve * * INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION Table of Contents List of Tables iii List of Figures iv 1.0 Introduction 1-1 1.1 History of the Site 1-1 1.2 Description of Radioactive Wastes 1-4 1.3 Radiological Characteristics of Tritium 1-5 1.4 Objectives and Scope of This Study 1-7 2.0 Description of the Area 2-1 2.1 Location 2-1 2.2 Physiography 2-1 2.3 Surface Drainage 2-2 2.4 Vegetation 2-3 3.0 Previous Investigations and Monitoring Programs

8

Bubbling bed catalytic hydropyrolysis process utilizing larger catalyst particles and smaller biomass particles featuring an anti-slugging reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This invention relates to a process for thermochemically transforming biomass or other oxygenated feedstocks into high quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. In particular, a catalytic hydropyrolysis reactor, containing a deep bed of fluidized catalyst particles is utilized to accept particles of biomass or other oxygenated feedstocks that are significantly smaller than the particles of catalyst in the fluidized bed. The reactor features an insert or other structure disposed within the reactor vessel that inhibits slugging of the bed and thereby minimizes attrition of the catalyst. Within the bed, the biomass feedstock is converted into a vapor-phase product, containing hydrocarbon molecules and other process vapors, and an entrained solid char product, which is separated from the vapor stream after the vapor stream has been exhausted from the top of the reactor. When the product vapor stream is cooled to ambient temperatures, a significant proportion of the hydrocarbons in the product vapor stream can be recovered as a liquid stream of hydrophobic hydrocarbons, with properties consistent with those of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel. Separate streams of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel may also be obtained, either via selective condensation of each type of fuel, or via later distillation of the combined hydrocarbon liquid.

Marker, Terry L; Felix, Larry G; Linck, Martin B; Roberts, Michael J

2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

9

Bubblesort 1 Bubble Sort  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bubblesort 1 Bubble Sort An Archaelogical Algorithmic Analysis Owen Astrachan ola@cs.duke.edu http://www.cs.duke.edu/~ola NSF CAREER 9702550 CRCD 0088078 #12;Bubblesort 2 Bubble sort: what can we study? What is bubble sort and what are its origins? When did it appear, when was it named? Why is bubble sort studied and why

Astrachan, Owen

10

Nora Nortmann From Bubble to Bubble: Task Dependent Selection of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nora Nortmann From Bubble to Bubble: Task Dependent Selection of Image Content by Overt Visual: Thorsten Hinrichs © Institute of Cognitive Science #12;From Bubble to Bubble: Task Dependent Selection: Prof. Dr. Peter König Submitted: March 22, 2007 #12;From Bubble to Bubble: Task Dependent Selection

Kallenrode, May-Britt

11

Single-bubble sonoluminescence.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??To gain insight into the mechanism by which nonvolatile species enter a cavitating bubble???s core and emit light, sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and a surfactant sodium… (more)

Campbell, Rachel K.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Bubble Manipulation by Self Organization of Bubbles inside Ultrasonic Wave  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Microbubble manipulation using ultrasonic waves is a promising technology in the fields of future medicine and biotechnology. For example, it is considered that bubble trapping using ultrasonic waves may play an important role in drug or gene delivery systems in order to trap the drugs or genes in the diseased tissue. Usually, when bubbles are designed so that they carry payloads, such as drug or gene, they tend to be harder than free bubbles. These hard bubbles receive a small acoustic radiation force, which is not sufficient for bubble manipulation. In this paper, a novel method of microbubble manipulation using ultrasonic waves is proposed. This method uses seed bubbles in order to manipulate target bubbles. When the seed bubbles are introduced into the ultrasonic wave field, they start to oscillate to produce a bubble aggregation of a certain size. Then the target bubbles are introduced, the target bubbles attach around the seed bubbles producing a bubble mass with bilayers (inner layer: seed bubbles, outer layer: target bubbles). The target bubbles are manipulated as a bilayered bubble mass. Basic experiments are carried out using polyvinyl chloride (PVC) shell bubbles. No target bubbles are trapped when only the target bubbles are introduced. However, they are trapped if the seed bubbles are introduced in advance.

Yoshiki Yamakoshi; Masato Koganezawa

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Bubble Colloidal AFM Probes Formed from Ultrasonically Generated Bubbles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Letters Bubble Colloidal AFM Probes Formed from Ultrasonically Generated Bubbles Ivan U. Vakarelski forces between two small bubbles (80-140 µm) in aqueous solution during controlled collisions) was extended to measure interaction forces between a cantilever-attached bubble and surface-attached bubbles

Chan, Derek Y C

14

Breaking down the bubbly | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

down the bubbly Breaking down the bubbly Micromodels redefine how bubbles characterize CO2 gas flow No, it's not a Lego: This Lab-on-a-Chip micromodel (left) was designed to...

15

A study of flow patterns and dissolution kinetics in bubble columns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research objectives were to: study liquid and gas phase flow patterns in a bubble column reactor by comparing observations made with reported observations and hydrodynamic models; study mixing of two miscible liquid solutions with and without solid suspension in a bubble column reactor; study the kinetics of dissolution of a reactive solid phase suspended in the liquid phase in a bubble column reactor; and calculate mass transfer coefficients and apparent reaction rate from suitable mathematical models. Observations and conclusions are summarized in a series of viewgraphs.

Long, R.; Holbrook, S.; Chang, T. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Viscosity Destabilizes Sonoluminescing Bubbles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) microbubbles are trapped in a standing sound wave, typically in water or water-glycerol mixtures. However, in viscous liquids such as glycol, methylformamide, or sulphuric acid it is not possible to trap the bubble in a stable position. This is very peculiar as larger viscosity normally stabilizes the dynamics. Suslick and co-workers call this new mysterious state of SBSL “moving-SBSL.” We identify the history force (a force nonlocal in time) as the origin of this destabilization and show that the instability is parametric. A force balance model quantitatively accounts for the observed quasiperiodic bubble trajectories.

Ruediger Toegel; Stefan Luther; Detlef Lohse

2006-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

17

Charged Vacuum Bubble Stability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A type of scenario is considered where electrically charged vacuum bubbles, formed from degenerate or nearly degenerate vacuua separated by a thin domain wall, are cosmologically produced due to the breaking of a discrete symmetry, with the bubble charge arising from fermions residing within the domain wall. Stability issues associated with wall tension, fermion gas, and Coulombic effects for such configurations are examined. The stability of a bubble depends upon parameters such as the symmetry breaking scale and the fermion coupling. A dominance of either the Fermi gas or the Coulomb contribution may be realized under certain conditions, depending upon parameter values.

J. R. Morris

1998-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

18

Bubbles spawn tiny twisters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... After years of careful experimentation, physicists have finally created a tempest in a teapot-sized vessel. By heating a container topped with a soap bubble, a team of ...

Geoff Brumfiel

2008-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

19

Effect of bubble interactions on mass transfer in bubbly flow  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The effect of bubble interactions on mass transfer in a multi-bubble system is examined by numerical simulations. Since mass transfer in the liquid phase of gas–liquid multiphase flows usually takes place at a considerably slower rate than the transfer of momentum, the mass flux boundary layers are much thinner than the momentum boundary layers. In direct numerical simulations the resolution requirements for flows with mass transfer are therefore considerably higher than for flows without mass transfer. Here, we use a multiscale approach for the computations of the mass transfer near the bubble surface, in order to reduce the cost, and examine the effect of void fraction and bubble Reynolds number on the mass transfer from bubbles in periodic domains. Specifically, we compare results for a single bubble in a periodic domain with results for several bubbles in a larger domain with the same void fraction. It is shown that even though the average Reynolds number of freely moving bubbles drops after a while, in most cases the mass transfer from the bubbles increases slightly. When the bubbles start to wobble, in most cases the increase in bubble–bubble interactions compensate for the reduction in Reynolds number.

B. Aboulhasanzadeh; G. Tryggvason

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Domain walls and double bubbles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...5, which are never double bubbles, that is, none is the global...transverse cylinder, torus bubble, inner tube and double hydrant...transverse cylinder and the stability of the cylinder cross. The...three-dimensional double bubbles and show that the method can...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bubbling reactor cd" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Quantum Subcritical Bubbles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We quantize subcritical bubbles which are formed in the weakly first order phase transition. We find that the typical size of the thermal fluctuation reduces in the quantum-statistical physics. We estimate the typical size and the amplitude of thermal fluctuations near the critical temperature in the electroweak phase transition using quantum statistical average. Furthermore based on our study, we give implication on the dynamics of phase transition.

Tomoko Uesugi; Masahiro Morikawa; Tetsuya Shiromizu

1996-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

22

Microfluidic Actuation Using Electrochemically Generated Bubbles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microfluidic Actuation Using Electrochemically Generated Bubbles Susan Z. Hua,*, Frederick Sachs, Buffalo, New York 14260 Bubble-based actuation in microfluidic applications is attractive owing closing) rate increases with applied voltage, small microfluidic dimensions accelerate bubble deflation

Sachs, Frederick

23

Bioinspired bubble design for particle generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Reports 1004 18 23 131 Bioinspired bubble design for particle generation Oguzhan...generate homogeneous particles from a bubble suspension, with the capability to control loading and the structure of bubbles. Ideally, a process such as this...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Inertial cavitation and single–bubble sonoluminescence  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...there exist regions for bubble stability at higher pressure amplitudes...resonance may affect the bubble's position and stability signifi- cantly. (Note...well as the jitter in the bubble's stability) is measured in picoseconds...

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Energy focusing in bubbly flows  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sonoluminescence cavitation damage at surfaces and cavitation in accelerating flows are realizations of spectacular levels of energy focusing in nature. In a resonant sound field a single trapped bubble of gas can focus the ambient sound energy by 12 orders of magnitude to generate a clocklike string of picosecond flashes of ultraviolet light. [Barber et al. ‘‘Defining the unknowns of sonoluminescence ’’ Phys. Rep. 281 65 (1977)]. In more complicated geometries a high level of sound leads to the formation of hemispherical bubbles attached to an exposed surface. These bubbles also emit light and in addition damage the surface. Measurements show that the pulsation of these bubbles maintains the hemispherical symmetry [Weninger et al. ‘‘Sonoluminescence from an isolated bubble on a solid surface ’’ Phys. Rev. E 56 6745 (1997)] thus raising the question as to whether cavitation damage is due to (micro)jets or imploding (hemispherical) shock waves. Finally flow through a Venturi tube generates a stream of bubbles which also emit subnanosecond flashes of light [F. B. Peterson and T. P. Anderson Phys. Fluids 10 874 (1967)]. Luminescence from an isolated trapped bubble in water seems to work well with any noble gas whereas luminescence from cavitating flows and surface bubbles is quite dependent on xenon [argon bubbles appear to give no light at all]. The width of the SL flash [Gompf et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 79 1405 (1997) Hiller et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 1090 (1998)] has been found to be independent of wavelength suggesting that light is emitted from a new high energy phase of matter?probably a cold dense nano?plasma. The key unknowns of SL are the size and temperature of the hot spot from which the light is emitted. Experiments aimed at measuring these quantities will be discussed. [Research supported by the NSF.] a)Present address: CMS Los Alamos National Laboratories Los Alamos NM. b)Present address: Lucent Technologies Murray Hill NJ.

Seth Putterman; Keith Weninger; Robert A. Hiller; Bradley P. Barber

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Sonoluminescing air bubbles rectify argon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The dynamics of single bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) strongly depends on the percentage of inert gas within the bubble. We propose a theory for this dependence, based on a combination of principles from sonochemistry and hydrodynamic stability. The nitrogen and oxygen dissociation and subsequent reaction to water soluble gases implies that strongly forced air bubbles eventually consist of pure argon. Thus it is the partial argon (or any other inert gas) pressure which is relevant for stability. The theory provides quantitative explanations for many aspects of SBSL.

Detlef Lohse; Michael P. Brenner; Todd F. Dupont; Sascha Hilgenfeldt; Blaine Johnston

1996-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

27

Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Bubble entrainment and liquid-bubble  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Bubble entrainment and liquid-bubble ?; accepted ?.) Liquid-bubble interaction, especially in complex two-phase bubbly flow under breaking waves-Stokes solver extended to incorporate entrained bubble populations, using an Eulerian-Eulerian formulation

Kirby, James T.

28

Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Bubble entrainment and liquid-bubble  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Bubble entrainment and liquid-bubble surface layer. It entrains a large volume of air in bubbles that rapidly evolves into a dis- tribution of bubble sizes which interacts with liquid turbulence and organized motions. The liquid-bubble interaction

Kirby, James T.

29

Active microuidic mixer and gas bubble lter driven by thermal bubble micropump$  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Active micro¯uidic mixer and gas bubble ®lter driven by thermal bubble micropump$ Jr-Hung Tsaia Abstract A micro¯uidic mixer with a gas bubble ®lter activated by a thermal bubble actuated nozzle/min. The optimal mixing result is found when the actuating frequency of thermal bubble reaches 200 Hz. Normalized

Lin, Liwei

30

Modeling bubble-vortex interactions Modeling and simulation of multiple bubble entrainment and interactions with two  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling bubble-vortex interactions Modeling and simulation of multiple bubble entrainment, OR 97331. (Dated: 5 November 2010) 1 #12;Modeling bubble-vortex interactions Simulations of bubble direct numerical simulation whereas motion of subgrid bubbles is modeled using Lagrangian track- ing

Apte, Sourabh V.

31

Passage of a Bubble?Detonation Wave into a Chemically Inactive Bubble Medium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Passage of detonation waves from a chemically active bubble medium into a chemically inactive bubble medium is studied experimentally. The structure of ... pressures of these waves for different parameters of bubble

A. I. Sychev

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Analysis of energies of stationary bubbles at liquid pool surfaces and the subsequent droplet release due to bubble burst based on RESUS code calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In case of a hypothetical nuclear reactor accident involving a failure of the primary system, a liquid coolant pool may frequently be formed, which may be contaminated by suspended or solved fuel particles and fission products. For many accident sequences, in which gas is injected into the liquid domain or bubbles are generated by means of heating, pressure transients or chemical reactions, the release of low volatile species from liquid surfaces into a gas atmosphere due to bubble burst is identified as a decisive release mechanism. Generally, resuspension of radioactive species is caused by droplets ejected from the pool surface into the atmosphere, either dominated by direct momentum exchange mechanisms between gas flow and liquid for high gas fluxes or by bursting of single bubbles in case of low gas fluxes. In the latter case, the release of droplets containing radionuclides is governed by two mechanisms, namely micro-droplet generation due to bubble film cap collapse and formation and subsequent disintegration of liquid jets producing so-called jet droplets. Jet and jet droplet formation is modeled in the code system RESUS.MOD2 which contains models for the growth of the bubble in the pool, its shape while resting at the liquid surface, and jet and jet-droplet generation after bubble cap rupture. Using the module BUBSHAPE (BUBbleSHAPE) of the RESUS code, the characteristic profile of a bubble resting at the liquid surface as well as the mechanical energies available for droplet formation and consequently droplet- and particle release can be determined. The governing resuspension energies are identified to be the surface energy, the energy stored in the gas within the bubble due to its excess pressure, and the potential energy due to the displacement of liquid.

Starflinger, J.; Koch, M.K.; Brockmeier, U.; Unger, H. [Ruhr Univ., Bochum (Germany). Dept. for Nuclear and New Energy Systems; Schuetz, W. [Inst. for Reactor Safety, Karlsruhe (Germany)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Collapse of Kaluza-Klein bubbles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Kaluza-Klein theory admits ‘‘bubble’’ configurations, in which the circumference of the fifth dimension shrinks to zero on some compact surface. A three parameter family of such bubble initial data at a moment of time symmetry (some including a magnetic field) has been found by Brill and Horowitz, generalizing the (zero-energy) ‘‘Witten bubble’’ solution. Some of these data have negative total energy. We show here that all the negative energy bubble solutions start out expanding away from the moment of time symmetry, while the positive energy bubbles can start out either expanding or contracting. Thus it is unlikely that the negative energy bubbles would collapse and produce a naked singularity.

Steven Corley and Ted Jacobson

1994-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

34

Asymmetric responses, risk seeking and internet bubble  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We measure internet bubbles to verify the existence and evaporation of the internet bubble in early 2000. Then, we compare investor responses to internet stocks with those to traditional stocks to find how the internet bubble formed. Empirical results confirm that the internet bubble existed between 1998 and 1999, but began to evaporate in early 2000. Further, we find that the internet bubble formed due to investors' irrational overreaction to internet firms' positive outlooks and underreaction to internet firms' negative outlooks relative to their reactions to traditional firms. This finding supports our hypotheses that asset bubbles formed due to investors' extreme risk-seeking asymmetric responses to good and bad information.

Jaehan Koh; Bin Wang; Lai C. Liu; Kai S. Koong

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Acoustic cavitation: the fluid dynamics of non–spherical bubbles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...penetrating the bubble interior. 4. Bubble behaviour near an oscillating...clean jet penetrating a cavitation bubble in the direction of the oscillating...ent. First, the remarkable stability of the bubble motion--the presumably toroidal...

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Impact of nuclear irradiation on helium bubble nucleation at interfaces in liquid metals coupled to permeation through stainless steels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The impact of nucleating gas bubbles in the form of a dispersed gas phase on hydrogen isotope permeation at interfaces between liquid metals, like LLE, and structural materials, like stainless steel, has been studied. Liquid metal to structural material interfaces involving surfaces, may lower the nucleation barrier promoting bubble nucleation at active sites. Hence, hydrogen isotope absorption into gas bubbles modelling and control at interfaces may have a capital importance regarding design, operation and safety. He bubbles as a permeation barrier principle is analysed showing a significant impact on hydrogen isotope permeation, which may have a significant effect on liquid metal systems, e.g., tritium extraction systems. Liquid metals like LLE under nuclear irradiation in, e.g., breeding blankets of a nuclear fusion reactor would generate tritium which is to be extracted and recirculated as fuel. At the same time that tritium is bred, helium is also generated and may precipitate in the form of nano bubbles...

Fradera, Jorge

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Argonne starts huilding huge bubble chamber  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Argonne starts huilding huge bubble chamber ... Construction has started on the $10 million bubble chamber to be built at Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, 111. ... Claimed by Argonne to be the world's largest chamber, it will be completed in 1969. ...

1967-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

38

Gas content effect on bubble motion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The gas content is one of the important bubble parameters. In this article, the gas content effect on the bubble motion is investigated by numerical simulation based on the...

Yang, Bo; Chen, Xiao; Xu, Rongqing; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiaowu

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Diffusion stability of bubbles in a cluster  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The diffusion stability of gas bubbles in one-fraction and two-fraction clusters ... gas concentrations in the liquid at which the bubble tends to one of two equilibrium states because of diffusion processes betw...

É. Sh. Nasibullaeva; I. Sh. Akhatov

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Studies on bubble films of molten slags  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Al2O3 slags can increase the stability of bubble films. For instance, the...increase in the lifetime/stability of the slag bubble films. important criterion when determining the stability of slag foams. For instance...

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bubbling reactor cd" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

The impact of bubble diffusivity on confined oscillated bubbly liquid Sergey Shklyaev1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The impact of bubble diffusivity on confined oscillated bubbly liquid Sergey Shklyaev1 and Arthur V the dynamics of monodisperse bubbly liquid confined by two plane solid walls and subject to small with typical relaxation times for a single bubble but comparable with the period of volume eigenoscillations

Straube, Arthur V.

42

The growth of vapor bubble and relaxation between two-phase bubble flow  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents the behavior of the bubble growth and relaxation between vapor and superheated...

S. Mohammadein; Rama Subba Reddy Gorla

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Beating the Bubble: Using Kinematic Triggering in the Bubble Lens for Acquiring Small, Dense Targets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Beating the Bubble: Using Kinematic Triggering in the Bubble Lens for Acquiring Small, Dense Seattle, WA 98195 USA {memott, wobbrock}@uw.edu ABSTRACT We present the Bubble Lens, a new target acquisition technique that remedies the limitations of the Bubble Cursor to increase the speed and accuracy

Wobbrock, Jacob O.

44

PHYSICAL REVIEW E 89, 013011 (2014) Unorthodox bubbles when boiling in cold water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that stirs the water, followed by several conventional bubbles. This large dataset is analyzed and discussed and reliable performance of nuclear reactors and microchip systems. Engineers have a long tradition dataset has been analyzed statistically. We conclude that while the naive scenario of boil

Granick, Steve

45

Bubble formation in Rangely Field, Colorado  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tc Determine the Effect of Times Of. Standing on Time &equired for Bubble Formation at 67 psi Supersaturaticns. Page 20 Tests to Determine Bubble Frequency. Average Bubble Frequency Data. 23 27 The data reported in this thesis deal... if present, or would tend to form one. However, as the pressure on the saturated oil declines, the oil becomes supersatur- ated, except as bubbles may form and diffusion take place tc eliminate the supersaturation. This research is devoted to a study...

Wood, J. W

1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

THE BACTERIOLOGY OF THE BUBBLE FOUNTAIN  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article Articles THE BACTERIOLOGY OF THE BUBBLE FOUNTAIN 1 Dorothy F. Pettibone Franklin...December 29, 1915. The Bacteriology of the Bubble Fountain. | Laboratory of Medical Bacteriology...Journal Article THE BACTERIOLOGY OF THE BUBBLE FOUNTAIN' DOROTHY F. PETTIBONE, FRANKLIN...

Dorothy F. Pettibone; Franklin B. Bogart; Paul F. Clark

1916-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

LRL 25-inch Bubble Chamber  

DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

The recently completed 25-inch hydrogen bubble chamber combines excellent picture quality with a fast operating cycle. The chamber has a unique optical system and is designed to take several pictures each Bevatron pulse, in conjunction with the Bevatron rapid beam ejection system.

Alvarez, L. W.; Gow, J. D.; Barrera, F.; Eckman, G.; Shand, J.; Watt, R.; Norgren, D.; Hernandez, H. P.

1964-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

48

Bubble Universe Dynamics After Free Passage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider bubble collisions in single scalar field theories with multiple vacua. Recent work has argued that at sufficiently high impact velocities, collisions between such bubble vacua are governed by 'free passage' dynamics in which field interactions can be ignored during the collision, providing a systematic process for populating local minima without quantum nucleation. We focus on the time period that follows the bubble collision and provide evidence that, for certain potentials, interactions can drive significant deviations from the free-passage bubble profile, thwarting the production of bubbles with different field values.

Pontus Ahlqvist; Kate Eckerle; Brian Greene

2014-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

49

Nuclear Reactor (atomic reactor)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A nuclear reactor splits Uranium or Plutonium nuclei, and the...235 is fissionable but more than 99% of the naturally occurring Uranium is U238 that makes enrichment mandatory. In some reactors U238 and Thorium23...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Experiment and Numerical Simulation of Bubble Behaviors in Argon Gas Injection Into Lead-Bismuth Pool  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a lead-bismuth alloy (45%Pb-55%Bi) cooled direct contact boiling water fast reactor (PBWFR), steam can be produced by direct contact of feed water with primary Pb-Bi coolant in the upper core plenum, and Pb-Bi coolant can be circulated by buoyancy forces of steam bubbles. As a basic study to investigate the two-phase flow characteristics in the chimneys of PBWFR, a two-dimensional two-phase flow was simulated by injecting argon gas into Pb-Bi pool in a rectangular vessel (400 mm in length, 1500 mm in height, 50 mm in width), and bubble behaviors were investigated experimentally. Bubble sizes, bubble rising velocities and void fractions were measured using void probes. Argon gas was injected through five nozzles of 4 mm in diameter into Pb-Bi at two locations. The experimental conditions are the pressure of atmospheric pressure, Pb-Bi temperatures of 443 K, and the flow rate of injection Ar gas is 10, 20, and 30 NL/min. The measured bubble rising velocities were distributed in the range from 1 to 3 m/s. The average velocity was about 0.6 m/s. The measured bubble chord lengths were distributed from 1 mm up to 30 mm. The average chord length was about 7 mm. An analysis was performed by two-dimensional and two-fluid model. The experimental results were compared with the analytical results to evaluate the validity of the analytical model. Although large diameter bubbles were observed in the experiment, the drag force model for spherical bubbles performed better for simulation of the experimental result because of high surface tension force of Pb-Bi. (authors)

Yumi Yamada [Advanced Reactor Technology Company, Ltd. (Japan); Toyou Akashi; Minoru Takahashi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Bifurcation structure of bubble oscillators  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Methods from chaos physics are applied to a model of a driven spherical gas bubble in water to determine its dynamic properties especially its resonance behavior and bifurcation structure. The dynamic properties are described in a growing level of abstraction by radius?time curves trajectories in state space strange attractors in the Poincaré plane basins of attraction bifurcation diagrams winding number diagrams and phase diagrams. A sequence of bifurcation diagrams is given exemplifying the recurrent pattern in the bifurcation set and its relation to the resonances of the system. Period?doubling cascades to chaos and back (‘‘period bubbling’’) are a prominent recurring feature connected with each resonance (demonstrated for period?1 period?2 and period?3 resonances and observed for some higher?order resonances). The recurrent nature of the bifurcation set is most easily seen in the phase diagrams given. A similar structure of the bifurcation set has also been found for other nonlinear oscillators (Duffing Toda laser and Morse).

U. Parlitz; V. Englisch; C. Scheffczyk; W. Lauterborn

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Bubble Number in a Caviting Flow Henri Gouin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bubble Number in a Caviting Flow Henri Gouin C.N.R.S. U.M.R. 6181 & Universit´e d of bubbles (a number of bubbles per unit of volume in the flow). The maximum intensity of cavitation; Bubble formation; Bubble dynamics; Cavitation. PACS: 47.55.Ca; 47.55.db; 47.55.dd; 47.55.dp 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

53

Collapse of Kaluza-Klein Bubbles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kaluza-Klein theory admits ``bubble" configurations, in which the circumference of the fifth dimension shrinks to zero on some compact surface. A three parameter family of such bubble initial data at a moment of time-symmetry (some including a magnetic field) has been found by Brill and Horowitz, generalizing the (zero-energy) ``Witten bubble" solution. Some of these data have negative total energy. We show here that all the negative energy bubble solutions start out expanding away from the moment of time symmetry, while the positive energy bubbles can start out either expanding or contracting. Thus it is unlikely that the negative energy bubbles would collapse and produce a naked singularity.

Steven Corley; Ted Jacobson

1994-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

54

Femtosecond laser pulse control of collapsing bubble jets and bubble ejection streams  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study cavitation dynamics when focusing high angle Bessel beams in water. We observe remarkable bubble dynamics with jets directed along the laser axis, bubble break-up and ejection...

Faccio, Daniele; Tamosauskas, Gintaras; Rubino, Eleonora; Darginavicius, Julius; Papazoglou, Dimitris; Tzortzakis, Stelios; Couairon, Arnaud; Dubietis, Audrius

55

Influence of bubble diameter and solids concentration on bubble stability: Development of a novel analytical approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The properties and thickness of the bubbles in the froth control the flotation process. ... There is no work showing how to measure bubble film composition and thickness by a straightforward ... work, a novel app...

Hong-Jun Liu ???; Wei Zhang ??; Chun-Bao Sun ???

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

SCIENCE AT THE CROSSROADS The Transhumanism Bubble*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SCIENCE AT THE CROSSROADS The Transhumanism Bubble* Stuart A. Newman Contemporary proposals to use biotechnology to modify human beings, an initiative with both academic and ``movement'' (Transhumanism

Newman, Stuart A.

57

Bubble size effect on effervescent atomization.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This paper presents the results from a number of studies conducted in an effort to gain insight into how to control bubble size during gas… (more)

Shepard, Thomas G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

An acoustic technique for measurement of bubble solids mass loading (a) Fundamental study of single bubble  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An acoustic technique for measurement of bubble solids mass loading ­ (a) Fundamental study of single bubble Wen Zhang , Steven J. Spencer, Peter Coghill Lucas Heights Research Laboratory, CSIRO i n f o Article history: Available online 6 March 2012 Keywords: Flotation bubbles On-line analysis

Zhang, Wen

59

Modeling the influence of bubble pressure on grain boundary separation and fission gas release  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Grain boundary (GB) separation as a mechanism for fission gas release (FGR), complementary to gas bubble interlinkage, has been experimentally observed in irradiated light water reactor fuel. However there has been limited effort to develop physics-based models incorporating this mechanism for the analysis of FGR. In this work, a computational study is carried out to investigate GB separation in UO2 fuel under the effect of gas bubble pressure and hydrostatic stress. A non-dimensional stress intensity factor formula is obtained through 2D axisymmetric analyses considering lenticular bubbles and Mode-I crack growth. The obtained functional form can be used in higher length-scale models to estimate the contribution of GB separation to FGR.

Pritam Chakraborty; Michael R. Tonks; Giovanni Pastore

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Fluid mechanics of bubble capture by the diving bell spider  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The water spider, a unique member of its species, is used as inspiration for a bubble capture mechanism. Bubble mechanics are studied in the pursuit of a biomimetic solution for transporting air bubbles underwater. Careful ...

Brooks, Alice (Alice P.)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bubbling reactor cd" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

The incorporation of bubbles into a computer graphics fluid simulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present methods for incorporating bubbles into a photorealistc fluid simulation. Previous methods of fluid simulation in computer graphics do not include bubbles. Our system automatically creates bubbles, which are simulated on top of the fluid...

Greenwood, Shannon Thomas

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

62

Artificial Bubble Cloud Targets for Underwater Acoustic Remote Sensing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article describes a technique that uses polymer additives to suspend air bubbles to form stable artificial bubble clouds. The results presented include the range of polymer concentrations for an effective bubble suspension; the void fraction,...

Paul A. Hwang; Ronald A. Roy; Lawrence A. Crum

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Bubbles in Insulating Liquids: Stability in an Electric Field  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...July 1964 research-article Bubbles in Insulating Liquids: Stability in an Electric Field C. G...Krasucki It is shown that a bubble of gas or liquid, immersed...of incompressible (liquid) bubbles immersed in an insulating liquid...

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

A new damping mechanism in strongly collapsing bubbles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...predictions of the limits of stability of sonoluminescing bubbles as well as theoretical...predictions of the limits of stability of sonoluminescing bubbles (Hilgenfeldt et al...the theory of the stability of sonolu- minescing bubbles (Hilgenfeldt et al...

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Modelling of spherical gas bubble oscillations and sonoluminescence  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...for the other aspects of bubble dynamics (stability, rectified diffusion...qualitatively similar. For the stability of the bubble against mass diffusion...effects on the spherical stability of bubbles. Phys. Fluids. (In the...

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Propagation through nonlinear time-dependent bubble clouds and the estimation of bubble populations from measured acoustic characteristics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...not only because of the number of bubbles involved, but also because of the...R. White waves to entrain large bubbles which greatly affect the stability of the inversion (see below). The bubble populations generated in the surf...

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

International Conference on Mathematics, Computational Methods & Reactor Physics (M&C 2009) Saratoga Springs, New York, May 3-7, 2009, on CD-ROM, American Nuclear Society, LaGrange Park, IL (2009)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

International Conference on Mathematics, Computational Methods & Reactor Physics (M&C 2009 reactor core simulation system aims to meet this need. As a convenient trade- off between accuracy operator such as EDF, the time required to compute nuclear reactor core simulations is rather critical

Vialle, Stéphane

68

Hydrogen Bubbles and Formation of Nanoporous Silicon during Electroche...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Bubbles and Formation of Nanoporous Silicon during Electrochemical Etching. Hydrogen Bubbles and Formation of Nanoporous Silicon during Electrochemical Etching. Abstract: Many...

69

GERSHEY, ROBERT M. A bubble adsorption device for the isolation ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Apr 21, 1982 ... A bubble adsorption device for the isolation of surface-active organic matter in seawater1. Abstract-A new sampling device uses a bubble ...

2000-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

70

Bubbling Reactor Technology for Rapid Synthesis of Uniform, Small...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

an important family of materials used in today’s industries as catalysts and adsorbents. Preparation of this type of zeolite material as uniform and pure crystals of sizes...

71

Hydrodynamic solutions for a sonoluminescing gas bubble  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Analytic solutions for a sonoluminescing gas bubble have been obtained which provide density pressure and temperature distributions for the gas inside a bubble oscillating under the ultrasonic field. The solutions have revealed that sonoluminescence should occur just prior to the bubble collapse and its duration is less than 300 ps and that increase and subsequent decrease in the bubble wall acceleration induces the quenching of gas followed by the substantial temperature rise up to 100?000 K which can be regarded as a thermal spike. The gas temperature inside the bubble near collapse is determined primarily by the amount of radiation heat loss. Shock formation during the bubble collapse is questionable because gas density as well as pressure at the bubble center are much greater than those at the bubble wall during this stage. It also turns out that the number of electrons ionized the ion species and the kinetic energy of electrons affect the spectrum of light emission crucially. The spectralradiance calculated is in good agreement with the observed data qualitatively which suggests that the origin of sonoluminescences is bremsstrahlung rather than thermal blackbody radiation. [Work supported by Korea Science and Engineering Foundation.

Ho?Young Kwak; Jung?Hee Na

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Bubble dynamics, shock waves and sonoluminescence  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...The bubble has still not reached its mini- mum volume; the bubble content is compressed...coordinates with finite differences on a static grid, where the shape of the jet is extracted...right to the left. Small values on the grid represent the liquid and large values the...

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Bubble growth and rise in soft sediments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...predict rates of bubble rise as a result...model the unstable gas accumulations...measured the fracture strength, K 1c, of sediments...M., 2002, Gas production and...in artificial sludge deposits: Waste...containing large gas bubbles: Geotechnique...

74

Math of Popping Bubbles in a Foam  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Math of Popping Math of Popping Bubbles in a Foam Math of Popping Bubbles in a Foam Berkeley Lab researchers mathematically describe the complex evolution and disappearance of foamy bubbles May 9, 2013 | Tags: Hopper, Math & Computer Science Media Contacts: UC Berkeley: Robert Sanders, rsanders@berkeley.edu, (510) 643-6998 Berkeley Lab: Linda Vu, lvu@lbl.gov, (510) 495-2404 Written By Robert Sanders Bubble baths and soapy dishwater, the refreshing head on a beer and the luscious froth on a cappuccino. All are foams, beautiful yet ephemeral as the bubbles pop one by one. Now, two researchers from the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and the University of California, Berkeley have described mathematically the successive stages in the complex evolution and disappearance of foamy

77

Dynamics of laser?induced cavitation bubbles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Bubbles in liquids can be formed in a variety of ways. A convenient method to produce a single bubble in a liquid is to focus a short pulse of laser light into the liquid. A bright light?emitting plasma of obviously high pressure expands forming a gas?vapor bubble. After some time bubble expansion stops at some maximum radius. From thereon the bubble starts to shrink driven by the ambient pressure and leading to a violent collapse possibly followed by rebounds. A mathematical model that describes the evolution of such a laser?induced cavitation bubble is presented. The model takes into account heat conduction of the liquid and gas phases evaporation and condensation processes of the liquid phase gas diffusion from the liquid into the bubble and compressibility of the liquid. A reasonable comparison of theoretical results with experimental data is obtained. [Work partially supported by Internationales Büro des BMBF (Contract RUS?133?1997) and European Commission (INCO?Copernicus Contract ERBIC15CT980141).

Iskander Akhatov; Nailya Vakhitova; Kamil Zakirov; Robert Mettin; Olgert Lindau; Werner Lauterborn

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Gas bubble dynamics in soft materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Epstein and Plesset's seminal work on the rate of gas bubble dissolution and growth in a simple liquid is generalized to render it applicable to a gas bubble embedded in a soft elastic medium. Both the underlying diffusion equation and the expression for the gas bubble pressure were modified to allow for the non-zero shear modulus of the elastic medium. The extension of the diffusion equation results in a trivial shift (by an additive constant) in the value of the diffusion coefficient, and does not change the form of the rate equations. But the use of a Generalized Young-Laplace equation for the bubble pressure resulted in significant differences on the dynamics of bubble dissolution and growth, relative to a simple liquid medium. Depending on whether the salient parameters (solute concentration, initial bubble radius, surface tension, and shear modulus) lead to bubble growth or dissolution, the effect of allowing for a non-zero shear modulus in the Generalized Young-Laplace equation is to speed up the rate ...

Solano-Altamirano, J M; Goldman, Saul

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Progress in the Development of Compressible, Multiphase Flow Modeling Capability for Nuclear Reactor Flow Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In nuclear reactor safety and optimization there are key issues that rely on in-depth understanding of basic two-phase flow phenomena with heat and mass transfer. Within the context of multiphase flows, two bubble-dynamic phenomena – boiling (heterogeneous) and flashing or cavitation (homogeneous boiling), with bubble collapse, are technologically very important to nuclear reactor systems. The main difference between boiling and flashing is that bubble growth (and collapse) in boiling is inhibited by limitations on the heat transfer at the interface, whereas bubble growth (and collapse) in flashing is limited primarily by inertial effects in the surrounding liquid. The flashing process tends to be far more explosive (and implosive), and is more violent and damaging (at least in the near term) than the bubble dynamics of boiling. However, other problematic phenomena, such as crud deposition, appear to be intimately connecting with the boiling process. In reality, these two processes share many details.

R. A. Berry; R. Saurel; F. Petitpas; E. Daniel; O. Le Metayer; S. Gavrilyuk; N. Dovetta

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

MAGNETIC TOPOLOGY OF BUBBLES IN QUIESCENT PROMINENCES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study a polar-crown prominence with a bubble and its plume observed in several coronal filters by the SDO/AIA and in H{alpha} by the MSDP spectrograph in Bialkow (Poland) to address the following questions: what is the brightness of prominence bubbles in EUV with respect to the corona outside of the prominence and the prominence coronal cavity? What is the geometry and topology of the magnetic field in the bubble? What is the nature of the vertical threads seen within prominences? We find that the brightness of the bubble and plume is lower than the brightness of the corona outside of the prominence, and is similar to that of the coronal cavity. We constructed linear force-free models of prominences with bubbles, where the flux rope is perturbed by inclusion of parasitic bipoles. The arcade field lines of the bipole create the bubble, which is thus devoid of magnetic dips. Shearing the bipole or adding a second one can lead to cusp-shaped prominences with bubbles similar to the observed ones. The bubbles have complex magnetic topology, with a pair of coronal magnetic null points linked by a separator outlining the boundary between the bubble and the prominence body. We conjecture that plume formation involves magnetic reconnection at the separator. Depending on the viewing angle, the prominence can appear either anvil-shaped with predominantly horizontal structures, or cusp-shaped with predominantly vertical structuring. The latter is an artifact of the alignment of magnetic dips with respect to the prominence axis and the line of sight.

Dudik, J. [DAPEM, Faculty of Mathematics Physics and Computer Science, Comenius University, Mlynska Dolina F2, 84248 Bratislava (Slovakia); Aulanier, G.; Schmieder, B. [Observatoire de Paris, LESIA, UMR 8109 (CNRS), F-92195 Meudon Principal Cedex (France); Zapior, M. [Astronomical Institute, University of Wroclaw, Kopernika 11, 51622 Wroclaw (Poland); Heinzel, P., E-mail: dudik@fmph.uniba.sk [Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Fricova 298, 25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic)

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bubbling reactor cd" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Microfluidics Formation of Bubbles in a Multisection Flow-Focusing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microfluidics Formation of Bubbles in a Multisection Flow-Focusing Junction Michinao Hashimoto the stable formation of trains of mono-, bi-, and tri-disperse bubbles in microfluidic flow- focusing (FF-assembly through the patterns of flow created by the bubbles. 1.1 Bubbles and Droplets in Microfluidics

Prentiss, Mara

82

Asymmetric bubble disconnection: persistent vibration evolves into smooth contact  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Asymmetric bubble disconnection: persistent vibration evolves into smooth contact Konstantin S bubble provides a simple example of this process. An initial asymmetry in the shape of the bubble neck that subsequently break-up into many pieces [1]. Bubble disconnection is a simpler ver- sion of the same collapse

Zhang, Wendy

83

Spatio–temporal dynamics of acoustic cavitation bubble clouds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...bubble velocity and the bubble density. A more detailed...1996). A linear stability analysis based on this...monodisperse distribution of bubbles is unstable in the presence...during the process of bubble generation with lim...A2 = N/N0. (d) Stability analysis An analytic...

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Diffusive Accumulation of Methane Bubbles in Seabed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider seabed bearing methane bubbles. In the absence of fractures the bubbles are immovably trapped in a porous matrix by surface tension forces; therefore the dominant mechanism of transfer of gas mass becomes the diffusion of gas molecules through the liquid. The adequate description of this process requires accounting "other-than-normal" (non-Fickian) diffusion effects, thermodiffusion and gravity action. We evaluate the diffusive flux of aqueous methane and predict the possibility of existence of bubble mass accumulation zones (which can appear independently from the presence/absence of hydrate stability zone) and effect of non-Fickian drift on the capacity of shallow and deep methane-hydrate deposits.

Goldobin, D S; Levesley, J; Lovell, M A; Rochelle, C A; Jackson, P; Haywood, A; Hunter, S; Rees, J

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Synergism between creep ductility and grain boundary bubbles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The marked decrease in creep ductility that can be caused by internal pressure in grain boundary pores is modelled to treat the interaction between boundary diffusion, power law creep, and bubble pressure. The application to 2.25 Cr?1 Mo steel in high pressure hydrogen is treated numerically using a computer program since here the internal methane pressure in pores is known, and kinetic data exists. Reasonable agreement is obtained between the predictions and the observed loss in ductility in the presence of 21 \\{MPa\\} of hydrogen. With methane pressurized bubbles, the model suggests intergranular fracture is powerlaw creep limited at essentially all temperatures and stresses. Thus one predicts the hydrogen attack resistance in service to be strongly influenced by the creep strength of the alloy. In the absence of hydrogen (methane), intergranular fracture should be limited by diffusion creep and thus much more sensitive to pore density and boundary diffusion rate than strength. Possible application to recent high temperature steamline failures in welded pipe and to helium effects in nuclear reactor materials are also indicated.

P. Shewmon

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Bubble Trouble: Off-Line De-Anonymization of Bubble Forms Joseph A. Calandrino, William Clarkson and Edward W. Felten  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bubble Trouble: Off-Line De-Anonymization of Bubble Forms Joseph A. Calandrino, William Clarkson and Edward W. Felten Department of Computer Science Princeton University Abstract Fill-in-the-bubble forms of the forms comes with an implicit assumption that individuals' bubble markings them- selves

Felten, Edward W.

87

Source mergers and bubble growth during reionization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......have enhanced photon production due to star formation...a change in photon production over time for any given...extending previous methods, photon production histories, bubble...historical event when hydrogen in the universe transformed......

J. D. Cohn; Tzu-Ching Chang

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Stability of magnetic equilibria in radio bubbles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......chamber, driving a magnetic bubble expansion. Laboratory electrostatic helicity injection has been used in applications from spheromak formation to non-inductive current drive in spherical tori. Much analysis has gone into the shock at the astrophysical......

Gregory Benford

2006-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

89

Are there really bubbles in oil prices?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The aim of this paper is to identify bubbles in oil prices by using the “exponential fitting” methodology proposed by Watanabe et al. (2007)  [28,29]. We use the daily US dollar closing crude oil prices of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) covering the 1986:01:02–2013:07:09 and the Brent for the 1987:05:20–2013:07:09 periods. The distinguishing feature of this study from the previous studies is that this is the first study in the literature showing the existence of bubbles in crude oil prices. We found that there are four distinct periods of persistent bubbles in the crude oil prices since 1986. Two of these persistent bubbles are before 2000 and two of them are after 2000. We conclude that further research is needed to understand better how futures markets may impact the oil price formation.

Mehmet Balcilar; Zeynel Abidin Ozdemir; Hakan Yetkiner

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

aBubbleTree? Thomas H. Parker  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on Rn \\ {0}. That limit loses energy. A bubble tree is a way of recovering the lost energy by keepingaBubbleTree? Thomas H. Parker 666 NOTICES OF THE AMS VOLUME 50, NUMBER 6 Some of the most important for functions u on a domain in R2, which arises as the variational equation of the energy (2) E(u) = |du|2 dvol

Parker, Thomas H.

91

Acoustic Energy Storage in Single Bubble Sonoluminescence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Single bubble sonoluminescence is understood in terms of a shock focusing towards the bubble center. We present a mechanism for significantly enhancing the effect of shock focusing, arising from the storage of energy in the acoustic modes of the gas. The modes with strongest coupling are not spherically symmetric. The storage of acoustic energy gives a framework for understanding how light intensities depend so strongly on ambient gases and liquids and suggests that the light intensities of successive flashes are highly correlated.

Michael P. Brenner; Sascha Hilgenfeldt; Detlef Lohse; Rodolfo R. Rosales

1996-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

92

DIMUON PRODUCTION BY HIGH ENERGY NEUTRINOS AND ANTINEUTRINOS IN THE FERMILAB FIFTEEN-FOOT BUBBLE CHAMBER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ANTINEUTRINOS IN THE FERMILAB FIFTEEN-FOOT BUBBLE CHAMBERANTINEUTRINOS IN THE FERMILAB FIFTEEN-FOOT BUBBLE CHAMBER*ANTINEUTRINOS IN THE FERMILAB FIFTEEN-FOOT BUBBLE CHAMBER

Orthel, John L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

The "Mortgage Consensus” and the Housing Bubble: Revisiting the Post-Fordism Debate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Consensus” and the Housing Bubble Wyly, Elvin, and JasonConsensus” and the Housing Bubble References Amin, Ash.Consensus” and the Housing Bubble Jones-Correa, Michael.

Flores Jr., Luis

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Rising Jet-Inflated Bubbles in Clusters of Galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We conduct three-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamical numerical simulations of bubble evolution in clusters of galaxies. We inflate bubbles using slow, massive jets with a wide opening angle, and follow their evolution as they rise through the intra-cluster medium (ICM). We find that these jet-inflated bubbles are quite stable, and can reach large distances in the cluster while still maintaining their basic structure. The stability of the jet-inflated bubble comes mainly from the dense shell that forms around it during it's inflation stage, and from the outward momentum of the bubble and the shell. On the contrary, bubbles that are inserted by hand onto the grid and not inflated by a jet, i.e., an artificial bubble, lack these stabilizing factors, therefore, they are rapidly destroyed. The stability of the jet-inflated bubble removes the demand for stabilizing magnetic fields in the bubble.

Sternberg, Assaf

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Rising Jet-Inflated Bubbles in Clusters of Galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We conduct two-dimensional axisymmetric (referred to as 2.5D) hydrodynamical numerical simulations of bubble evolution in clusters of galaxies. We inflate bubbles using slow, massive jets with a wide opening angle, and follow their evolution as they rise through the intra-cluster medium (ICM). We find that these jet-inflated bubbles are quite stable, and can reach large distances in the cluster while still maintaining their basic structure. The stability of the jet-inflated bubble comes mainly from the dense shell that forms around it during it's inflation stage, and from the outward momentum of the bubble and the shell. On the contrary, bubbles that are inserted by hand onto the grid and not inflated by a jet, i.e., an artificial bubble, lack these stabilizing factors, therefore, they are rapidly destroyed. The stability of the jet-inflated bubble removes the demand for stabilizing magnetic fields in the bubble.

Assaf Sternberg; Noam Soker

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

96

Nonlinear dynamics of bubbles with surfactants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hugh Flynn pioneered many aspects of cavitational phenomena. He even got a patent on the idea that large bubble collapse could be used for inertially induced thermonuclear fusion. Some researchers currently working in the area of sonoluminescence are asking the same questions. One of the key requirements for confining the energy in the collapse of a bubble is maintaining spherical symmetry. Instabilities such as Rayleigh–Taylor and Kelvin–Helmholtz can compromise this requirement. Therefore it is useful to examine the role of surfactants in conferring stability on the collapse of bubbles. Codes that have recently permitted the description of superoscillations of liquid drops with surfactants in air [e.g. Apfel et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 78 1912–1915 (1997)] can be applied to the case of a bubble in a liquid. Of particular interest are insoluble surfactants such as bovine serum albumin which do not reduce the surface tension that much but which greatly increase the surface damping. The role of damping in discouraging or delaying instability of collapsing bubbles in an acoustic field will be presented. [Work supported in part by NASA through Contract No. 958722 managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.] ?

Robert Apfel; Xiaohui Chen; Jeffrey Ketterling

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Free energy of spherical QCD bubbles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We discuss the free energy of spherical bubbles of hadronic (quark-gluon plasma) matter in metastable equilibrium in a quark-gluon plasma (hadronic matter) at a fixed temperature TTc). We derive an expression for the effective interface tension written in terms of the bubble's radius R, namely, ?(R)=?(?)[1+2dR], where d is a parameter related to the surface entropy of a planar interface. We argue that this formula should be valid in the case of expanding macroscopic bubbles as well. We also estimate the value of the contribution of curvature to the free energy and explore the consequences of such a radius dependence on the dynamics of the cosmological phase transition.

K. Kajantie; J. Potvin; K. Rummukainen

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Gravitational waves from cosmic bubble collisions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cosmic bubbles are nucleated through the quantum tunneling process. After nucleation they would expand and undergo collisions with each other. In this paper, we focus in particular on collisions of two equal-sized bubbles and compute gravitational waves emitted from the collisions. First, we study the mechanism of the collisions by means of a real scalar field and a quartic potential of the field. Then, using this scalar field model, we compute gravitational waves from the collisions in a straightforward manner. In the quadrupole approximation, time-domain gravitational waveforms are directly obtained by integrating the energy-momentum tensors over the volume of the wave sources, where the energy-momentum tensors are expressed in terms of the scalar field, the local geometry and the potential; therefore, containing all information about the bubble collisions. We present gravitational waveforms emitted during (i) the initial-to-intermediate stage of strong collisions and (ii) the final stage of weak collisions...

Kim, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo; Yang, Jongmann; Yeom, Dong-han

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Mass of Cd104  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A quadrupole-dipole-dipole-dipole spectrograph has been used with a 34.6 MeV proton beam to observe the Cd106(p, t)Cd104 reaction. The Q value is measured and a mass excess of -83 963(14) keV is inferred for Cd104.NUCLEAR REACTIONS Cd106(p, t)Cd104, E=34.6 MeV; Q value measured; mass excess inferred.

R. A. Dewberry; R. T. Kouzes; R. A. Naumann

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

On acoustic cavitation of slightly subcritical bubbles Anthony Harkin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On acoustic cavitation of slightly subcritical bubbles Anthony Harkin Department of Mathematics, such as submicron air bubbles in water, where the natural oscilla- tion frequencies are high. In contrast, when

Kaper, Tasso J.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bubbling reactor cd" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Electrical capacitance volume tomography (ECVT) applied to bubbling fluid beds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

These presentation visuals illustrate the apparatus and method for applying Electrical Capacitance Volume Tomography (ECVT) to bubbling fluid beds to their solid fraction and bubble properties. Results are compared to estimated values.

Weber, J., Mei, J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

An Inversion of Acoustical Attenuation Measurements to Deduce Bubble Populations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Measurement of natural bubble populations is required for many areas of ocean science. Acoustical methods have considerable potential for achieving this goal because bubbles scatter sound strongly close to their natural frequency, which depends ...

H. Czerski

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Stability of an overheated liquid containing vapor-gas bubbles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The problem of the stability of an overheated liquid containing bubbles of an insoluble gas is considered. The critical conditions for the masses of gas bubbles, their radii, and volume concentrations are ... sys...

V. Sh. Shagapov; V. V. Koledin…

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Stability of an expanding bubble in the Rayleigh model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A bubble expands adiabatically in an incompressible, inviscid liquid. The variation of its radiusR with time is given by the Rayleigh’s equation. We find that the bubble is stable at the equilibrium point in this...

B. B. Chakraborty; Dinesh Khattar

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Stability of a class of neutral vacuum bubbles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A model that gives rise to vacuum bubbles is considered where the domain wall field interacts with another real scalar field, resulting in the formation of domain ribbons within the host domain wall. Ribbon-antiribbon annihilations produce elementary bosons whose mass inside the wall is different from the mass in vacuum. Two cases are considered, where the bosons get trapped either within the bubble wall or the bosons get trapped within the vacuum enclosed by the bubble. The bosonic (meta)stabilization effect on the bubble is examined in each case. It is found that when the bosons become trapped within the bubble wall, the stabilization mechanism lasts for only a limited amount of time, and then the bubble undergoes unchecked collapse. However, when the bosons become trapped within the bubble's interior volume, the bubble can be long-lived, provided that it has a sufficiently thin wall.

J. R. Morris

2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

106

Stabilization of bubble-liquid processes by an electric field  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The stability of bubble-liquid and sedimentation processes in the presence ... processes in the case of polarizable particles or bubbles in a dielectric liquid in the presence ... In the present paper, a criterio...

V. A. Naletova

107

Stability of a class of neutral vacuum bubbles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A model that gives rise to vacuum bubbles is considered where the domain wall field interacts with another real scalar field, resulting in the formation of domain ribbons within the host domain wall. Ribbon-antiribbon annihilations produce elementary bosons whose mass inside the wall is different from the mass in vacuum. Two cases are considered, where the bosons get trapped either within the bubble wall or the bosons get trapped within the vacuum enclosed by the bubble. The bosonic (meta)stabilization effect on the bubble is examined in each case. It is found that when the bosons become trapped within the bubble wall, the stabilization mechanism lasts for only a limited amount of time, and then the bubble undergoes unchecked collapse. However, when the bosons become trapped within the bubble's interior volume, the bubble can be long-lived, provided that it has a sufficiently thin wall.

Morris, J R

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Three-dimensional reconstruction of bubble distribution in two-phase bubbly flows with the dynamic programming method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A three-dimensional bubble reconstruction method is proposed in this thesis to analyze two-phase bubbly flows. Gas/liquid two-phase flows have important roles in the nuclear and chemical industries and other engineering fields...

Furukawa, Toru

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Heart-shaped bubbles rising in anisotropic liquids Chunfeng Zhou  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heart-shaped bubbles rising in anisotropic liquids Chunfeng Zhou Department of Chemical of an unusual inverted-heart shape for bubbles rising in an anisotropic micellar solution. We explain the bubble heart or a spade a . The upper sur- face has sloped shoulders that join in a point. The bottom

Feng, James J.

110

Bubble growth during decompression of magma: experimental and theoretical investigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bubble growth during decompression of magma: experimental and theoretical investigation N.G. Lensky, Israel Abstract A model of bubble growth during decompression of supersaturated melt was developed in order to explore the conditions for preservation of gas overpressure in bubbles or for maintaining

Lyakhovsky, Vladimir

111

BUBBLE RECOGNITION FROM IMAGE SEQUENCES Dachuan Cheng and Hans Burkhardt  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BUBBLE RECOGNITION FROM IMAGE SEQUENCES Da­chuan Cheng and Hans Burkhardt Institute for Pattern In this paper, we present an algorithm which can automatically recognize vapor bubbles in a seething liquid from and the bubble recognition. In the first step, the technique for auto­focus was applied for the determination

112

AUTOMATIC BUBBLE NUCLEATION SITES IDENTIFICATION IN AN IMAGE SEQUENCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AUTOMATIC BUBBLE NUCLEATION SITES IDENTIFICATION IN AN IMAGE SEQUENCE Da-chuan CHENG*, Hans an algorithm which can identify the nucleation sites of vapour bubbles in an image sequence based on a template which is a bubble sub-image extracted by the user. These images are taken with a speed of one thousand

113

Bubble Coalescence DOI: 10.1002/anie.201006552  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bubble Coalescence DOI: 10.1002/anie.201006552 Anomalous Stability of Carbon Dioxide in pH-Controlled Bubble Coalescence** Rico F. Tabor, Derek Y. C. Chan, Franz Grieser, and Raymond R. Dagastine* Gas bubbles are formed as cavities in liquids, their pressure, shape, and deformability determined

Chan, Derek Y C

114

Homogeneous bubble nucleation in rhyolitic melt: Experiments and nonclassical theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Homogeneous bubble nucleation in rhyolitic melt: Experiments and nonclassical theory H. M eruptions. The first and most critical step in degassing is the nucleation of gas bubbles, which requires inferred from bubble nucleation experiments in silicate melts are, however, lower than direct macroscopic

Gonnermann, Helge

115

Bubble growth in rhyolitic melt Yang Liu, Youxue Zhang *  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bubble growth in rhyolitic melt Yang Liu, Youxue Zhang * The Department of Geological Sciences June 2000; accepted 8 June 2000 Abstract We report experimental data of bubble growth in natural rhyolitic melt with 1.4^2.0 wt% initial total H2O at 0.1 MPa and 500^600ÂłC. Growth of many bubbles

Zhang, Youxue

116

AUTOMATIC BUBBLE NUCLEATION SITES IDENTIFICATION IN AN IMAGE SEQUENCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AUTOMATIC BUBBLE NUCLEATION SITES IDENTIFICATION IN AN IMAGE SEQUENCE Da­chuan CHENG*, Hans an algorithm which can identify the nucleation sites of vapour bubbles in an image sequence based on a template which is a bubble sub­image extracted by the user. These images are taken with a speed of one thousand

117

Bubble Sort: An Archaeological Algorithmic Analysis Owen Astrachan 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bubble Sort: An Archaeological Algorithmic Analysis Owen Astrachan 1 Computer Science Department- variably mention bubble sort in discussions of elemen- tary sorting algorithms. We trace the history of bub of bubble sort from books and courses. However, sentiments for exclusion are sup- ported by Knuth [17], "In

Astrachan, Owen

118

Experiments on a two–dimensional laminar separation bubble  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...disturbances in the bubble was found to be exponen...simulation and linear stability calculations), where...two-dimensional laminar separation bubble 3205 This work was supported...transitional separation bubbles. TRITA-MEK tech...1993 Experiments on the stability of Tollmien{Schlichting...

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

On Steady-State Bubbles Generated by Taylor Instability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...steady motion of a long bubble rising through an infinite...that the speed U of the bubble can also be prescribed. However, a criterion of stability singles out the unique physically...maximizes the velocity of the bubble. With the aid of a difference-differential...

1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

The evolution of an axisymmetric Stokes bubble with volumetric change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is the unit outward normal at the bubble boundary and ø is the surface tension. The interfacial kinematic volume is changed. Linear stability analysis shows that an expanding spherical bubble is stable, while are identified. We present the equations of the bubble motion in Section 2, and perform a linear stability

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bubbling reactor cd" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Final Topical Report, ''Multi-Dimensional Analysis of the Forced Bubble Dynamics Associated with Bubble Fusion Phenomena''  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new adaptive grid, 3-D FEM hydrodynamic shock (ie, HYDRO )code called PHASTA-2C has been developed and used to investigate bubble implosion phenomena leading to ultra-high temperatures and pressures. In particular, it was shown that nearly spherical bubble compressions occur during bubble implosions and the predicted conditions associated with a recent ORNL Bubble Fusion experiment [Taleyarkhan et al, Science, March, 2002] are consistent with the occurrence of D/D fusion.

Richard T. Lahey, Jr. - PI Kenneth E. Jansen - COPI Sunitha Nagrath - Graduate Student

2002-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

122

Nonlinear Acoustic Phenomena in Subsurface Bubble Layers and its Usage for Bubble Measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper contains a brief review of our recent theoretical and experimental investigations of nonlinear acoustic phenomena in sub-surface bubble layers produced by breaking waves and results concerning linear a...

A. M. Sutin

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Hydrodynamic simulations of an imploding bubble  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Numerical solutions of the hydrodynamicequations of motion for a collapsing bubble have shown that shock waves can be generated during the collapse. It has been shown that these shock waves can supply and remove energy from the center of the bubble rapidly enough to account for the picosecond duration flashes that are observed experimentally. However these solutions have not included energy loss mechanisms so the calculated temperatures are excessively high. More accurate numerical simulations are discussed that (i) model the shocked gas as a plasma with distinct ion electron and radiation temperatures and (ii) include energy losses by ion conduction electron conduction and radiant energy transport. As an example a sonoluminescing bubble of deuterium is considered whose sinusoidal driving amplitude is enhanced by a small pressure spike. Although the calculated radiation and electron temperatures are only tens of eV the calculated peak ion temperatures are a couple hundred eV (?2?000?000 K) which may be sufficient to initiate a very small number of thermonuclear reactions at the center of the bubble. [Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W?7405?Eng?48.

William C. Moss; Douglas B. Clarke; John W. White; David A. Young

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Electromagnetic bubbles: subcycle near-femtosecond  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-femtosecond or even sub- femtosecond) subcycle (nonoscillating) electromagnetic solitons [EM bubbles (EMB's)] in a gas electromagnetic pulses of a nonoscillating nature, i.e., subcycle (almost unipolar) half-cycle pulses (HCP) and stron- ger (up to 1016 W/cm2 ) pulses. One of these principles is based on stimulated cascade Raman

Kaplan, Alexander

125

Inertial cavitation and single–bubble sonoluminescence  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...drive-pressure amplitude increases (from the bottom to...SBSL in CokeTM glasses, wine glasses, and other...The importance of a quality three- dimensional standing...bubble is offset by the increase in the drive-pressure...experimental conditions; the quality of the resonance may...

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

The cone and the lazy bubble: two efficient alternatives between the point cursor and the bubble cursor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We evaluated two cursor designs in the continuum between the traditional point cursor and the bubble cursor by Grossman and Balakrishnan. The lazy bubble cursor expanded to envelop the closest target when the ratio of the distances to the closest and ... Keywords: bubble cursor, dynamic cursor, target acquisition

Joona Laukkanen; Poika Isokoski; Kari-Jouko Räihä

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Cap Bubble Drift Velocity in a Confined Test Section  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the two-group interfacial area transport equation, bubbles are categorized into two groups, i.e., spherical/distorted bubbles as group 1 and cap/slug/churn-turbulent bubbles as group 2. The bubble rise velocities for both groups of bubbles may be estimated by the drift flux model by applying different distribution parameters and drift velocities for both groups. However, the drift velocity for group 2 bubbles is not always applicable (when the wall effect becomes important) as in the current test loop of interest where the flow channel is confined by two parallel flat walls, with a dimension of 200-mm in width and 10-mm in gap. The previous experiments indicated that no stable slug flow existed in this test section, which was designed to permit visualization of the flow patterns and bubble characteristics without the distortion associated with curved surfaces. In fact, distorted cap bubbly and churn-turbulent flow was observed. Therefore, it is essential to developed a correlation for cap bubble drift velocity in this confined flow channel. Since the rise velocity of a cap bubble depends on its size, a high-speed movie camera is used to capture images of cap bubbles to obtain the bubble size information. Meanwhile, the rise velocity of cap and elongated bubbles (called cap bubbles hereafter) is investigated by examining the captured images frame by frame. As a result, the conventional correlation of drift velocity for slug bubbles is modified and acceptable agreements between the measurements and correlation estimation are achieved.

Xiaodong Sun; Seungjin Kim; Mamoru Ishii; Frank W. Lincoln; Stephen G. Beus

2002-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

128

Do subcritical bubbles hinder first order phase transition?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the role played by subcritical bubbles during the electroweak phase transition, estimate their average size, amplitude and formation rate taking into account the crucial role played by thermalization. We also study the influence of subcritical bubbles on the formation of critical bubbles in the thin wall regime and show that, contrary to some recent claims, subcritical bubbles do not affect the nucleation of critical bubbles in an appreciable way. From this fact we conclude that the electroweak baryogenesis scenarios associated with a first order electroweak phase transition still remain an attractive possibility.

K. Enqvist; A. Riotto; I. Vilja

1995-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

129

Bubble formation in reservoir fluids at low supersaturations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

af Standing on Bubble Formation at R psi Supersaturation Average Bubble Frequency Curves . . ~, . . . 26 Table Title Gas Composition . 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Tests fox Bubble Frequency for Group A Tests for Bubble Frequency fox Group B Tests... fox Bubble Frequency for Gra?y C 3P 33 35 Tho ob)cot cf the ~ rcport'. " in this thesis v. to detcssdne the emerge ~e nqnire6 for She initicl gas babble te fern in . ". crude oi1~ore system~ and to det. caine ~~t sunerssturcticn could bo rec...

Wieland, Denton R

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

130

Simulation of Syngas Production from Municipal Solid Waste Gasification in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed Using Aspen Plus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Simulation of Syngas Production from Municipal Solid Waste Gasification in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed Using Aspen Plus ... When the reaction kinetics is not known, a rigorous reactor and multiphase equilibrium based on the minimization of the total Gibbs free energy of the product mixture (an RGibbs block) is preferred to predict the equilibrium composition of the produced syngas. ... Catalytic steam gasification of municipal solid waste (MSW) to produce hydrogen-rich gas or syngas (H2 + CO) with calcined dolomite as a catalyst in a bench-scale downstream fixed bed reactor was investigated. ...

Miaomiao Niu; Yaji Huang; Baosheng Jin; Xinye Wang

2013-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

131

Transient simulation for large scale flow in bubble columns  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The transient simulation of large scale bubbly flow in bubble columns using the unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes (URANS) equations is investigated in the present paper. An extensive set of bubble forces is used with different models for the bubble induced turbulence. Criteria are given to assess the independence of the simulation time and the time step length. Using these criteria it is shown that a simulation time, time step length and mesh independent solution can be obtained for complex bubbly flows using URANS equations under certain requirements. With the obtained setup the contribution of the resolved turbulence to the total turbulence and the influence of the bubble induced turbulence modeling on the resolved turbulence is investigated. Further, it is pointed out that the virtual mass force is not negligible. The simulations are compared to data from the literature at two different superficial velocities, which cover monodisperse and polydisperse bubbly flows.

T. Ziegenhein; R. Rzehak; D. Lucas

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Bubble Evolution and Properties in Homogeneous Nucleation Simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We analyze the properties of naturally formed nano-bubbles in Lennard-Jones molecular dynamics simulations of liquid-to-vapor nucleation in the boiling and the cavitation regimes. The large computational volumes provide a realistic environment at unchanging average temperature and liquid pressure, which allows us to accurately measure properties of bubbles from their inception as stable, critically sized bubbles, to their continued growth into the constant speed regime. Bubble gas densities are up to 50$\\%$ lower than the equilibrium vapor densities at the liquid temperature, yet quite close to the gas equilibrium density at the lower gas temperatures measured in the simulations: The latent heat of transformation results in bubble gas temperatures up to 25$\\%$ below those of the surrounding bulk liquid. In the case of rapid bubble growth - typical for the cavitation regime - compression of the liquid outside the bubble leads to local temperature increases of up to 5$\\%$, likely significant enough to alter the...

Angélil, Raymond; Tanaka, Kyoko; Tanaka, Hidekazu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Measurements of fast neutrons by bubble detectors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Neutron bubble detectors have been studied using Am-Be and D-D neuron sources, which give limited energy information. The Bubble Detector Spectrometer (BDS) have six different energy thresholds ranging from 10 KeV to 10 Mev. The number of bubbles obtained in each measurement is related to the dose (standardized response R) equivalent neutrons through sensitivity (b / {mu}Sv) and also with the neutron flux (neutrons per unit area) through a relationship that provided by the manufacturer. Bubble detectors were used with six different answers (0.11 b/ {mu}Sv, 0093 b/{mu}Sv, 0.14 b/{mu}Sv, 0.17 b/{mu}Sv, 0051 b/{mu}Sv). To test the response of the detectors (BDS) radiate a set of six of them with different energy threshold, with a source of Am-Be, placing them at a distance of one meter from it for a few minutes. Also, exposed to dense plasma focus Fuego Nuevo II (FN-II FPD) of ICN-UNAM, apparatus which produces fusion plasma, generating neutrons by nuclear reactions of neutrons whose energy emitting is 2.45 MeV. In this case the detectors were placed at a distance of 50 cm from the pinch at 90 Degree-Sign this was done for a certain number of shots. In both cases, the standard response is reported (Dose in {mu}Sv) for each of the six detectors representing an energy range, this response is given by the expression R{sub i}= B{sub i} / S{sub i} where B{sub i} is the number of bubbles formed in each and the detector sensitivity (S{sub i}) is given for each detector in (b / {mu}Sv). Also, reported for both cases, the detected neutron flux (n cm{sup -2}), by a given ratio and the response involves both standardized R, as the average cross section sigma. The results obtained have been compared with the spectrum of Am-Be source. From these measurements it can be concluded that with a combination of bubble detectors, with different responses is possible to measure the equivalent dose in a range of 10 to 100 {mu}Sv fields mixed neutron and gamma, and pulsed generated fusion devices.

Castillo, F.; Martinez, H. [Laboratorio de Espectroscopia, Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 48-3, 62251, Cuernavaca Morelos (Mexico); Leal, B. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-543, 04510, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Rangel, J. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-543, 04510, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico D. F (Mexico); Reyes, P. G. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Instituto Literario 100, Col. Centro, 50000, Toluca Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

2013-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

134

NUCLEAR REACTORS.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Nuclear reactors are devices containing fissionable material in sufficient quantity and so arranged as to be capable of maintaining a controlled, self-sustaining NUCLEAR FISSION chain… (more)

Belachew, Dessalegn

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

BUBBLE CHARACTERISTICS AND CONVECTIVE EFFECTS IN THE FLOW BOILING HEAT TRANSFER OF BINARY MIXTURES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BUBBLE CHARACTERISTICS AND CONVECTIVE EFFECTS IN THE FLOW BOILING HEAT TRANSFER OF BINARY MIXTURES on the bubble growth and associated heat transfer phenomena. The present work focuses on obtaining the bubble. The bubble growth is observed using a high speed camera (1000 fps) under a magnification of 290X. The bubble

Kandlikar, Satish

136

Bubble-induced dissipation under unsteady breaking waves M. Derakhti1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bubble-induced dissipation under unsteady breaking waves M. Derakhti1,2 and J. T. Kirby1 1 Center in bubbles that rapidly evolves into a distribution of bubble sizes, which interacts with fluid turbulence and organized motions. The liquid-bubble interaction, especially in the complex two-phase bubbly flow under

Kirby, James T.

137

Evaluation of prompt nucleation of bubbles in annular fuel elements during the initial depressurization transient of a DEGB LOCA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the first moments following the pipe break, of a DEGB LOCA, the depressurization wave is postulated to propagate rapidly through the system, in the manner of an acoustic or water hammer wave. this is immediately followed by a (reflected) repressurization wave, as the flow of coolant through the break is established. The pressure history is then dictated by the flow from the break and the ability of the pressurizer, pumps and accumulators to supply coolant. The initial sudden drop in pressure may result in the system pressure falling below the saturation pressure of the coolant. This could, in turn, result in bubble formation. Such immediate vapor formation (prompt nucleation of bubbles), in the period before the repressurization wave restores the system pressure to a level above the saturation pressure might initiate flow instability. Such an interruption in flow would allow the fuel tube clad temperature to increase rapidly. Depending on the duration of the flow interruption, the reactor might not be able to survive the initial moments of DEGB LOCA. It has generally been that this phenomenon would not actually occur in an operating reactor. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the possibility of occurrence of bubble formation as a result of initial depressurization. 7 refs., 6 figs.

Smith, A.C.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Critical angle refractometry and sizing of bubble clouds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The principle of the critical angle refractometry and sizing technique is extended to characterize the size distribution and the mean refractive index of clouds of bubbles. For a...

Onofri, Fabrice; Krysiek, Mariusz; Mroczka, Janusz

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Bubble rise phenomena in various non-Newtonian fluids.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??"The bubble rise characteristic is very important for the design of heat and masss transfer operations in chemical, biochemical, environmental, and food processing industries. The… (more)

Hassan, N. M. S.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Bubble Migration in Pore Networks of Uniform Geometry.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The behavior of bubbles migrating in porous media is a critical factor in several soil remediation operations such as in situ air sparging, supersaturated water… (more)

Ghasemian, Saloumeh

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bubbling reactor cd" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Gas-vapor bubble dynamics in therapeutic ultrasound.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In applications of therapeutic ultrasound such as shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), cavitation and the associated bubble dynamics play an important… (more)

Kreider, Wayne, 1971-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Single Bubble SonoLuminescence of Particles model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Single Bubble SonoLuminescence is a phenomenon where the vapor bubble trapped in a liquid collapse by emitting of a light. It is very known that the temperature inside the bubble depends on the radius, during the collapse, the temperature can reach thousands of Kelvins and that the light would be emitted by radiation of the ionized gas inside the bubble. So, studies show that in certain cases neither an imploding shock nor a plasma has been observed and the temperature is not high enough to explain the spectrum observed. The Single Bubble SonoLuminescence remains a subject of study. For this study we consider the bubble as a box where the free particles (particularly electrons) stemming from the molecules dissociation, are are trapped and confined within the bubble. The confinement allows the particles to acquire some energy during the collapse which they lose in the form of light and also to be considered to bind to the bubble as an electron is bound to the nucleus in an atom. So, with regard to the bubble the energy of the particles can be considered to quantify, and with the quantum theory, by putting some hypotheses, their energy is determined well. The energy is physically acceptable that if the bubble is spherical. This necessary condition of a spherical bubble of the model is observed experimentally in the collapse phase but not in the afterbounce phase of the bubble, explain why the bubble emits of light in the collapse but not in the phase of the afterbounces where she can be smaller, and constitute a validation of the Single Bubble SonoLuminescence of particles model. For the application of the Single Bubble SonoLuminescence of particles model we consider a electron free particle of mass . We note that the interval of time between and energy (who can be considered as the duration when the bubble emits some light) is of the order of picoseconds, the same order that the shortest pulses observed experimentally.

Mahamadou Adama Maiga

2012-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

143

Thermal bubble behaviour in liquid nitrogen under electric fields.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis describes thermally induced bubble behaviour changes in liquid nitrogen (LN2) under electric fields. Cryogenic liquids such as LN2 have been used not only… (more)

Wang, Ping

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Visualizing Buoyant Burning Bubbles in Type Ia Supernovae at...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

simulation was conducted using a specialized low Mach number hydrodynamics code for thermonuclear flames. Adaptive mesh refinement was used to focus resolution on the bubble,...

145

Thermonuclear Supernovae: Is Deflagration Triggered by Floating Bubbles?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In recent years, it has become clear from multidimensional simulations that the outcome of deflagrations depends strongly on the initial configuration of the flame. We have studied under which conditions this configuration could consist of a number of scattered, isolated, hot bubbles. Afterwards, we have calculated the evolution of deflagrations starting from different numbers of bubbles. We have found that starting from 30 bubbles a mild explosion is produced M(Ni56)=0.56 solar masses, while starting from 10 bubbles the star becomes only marginally unbound (K = 0.05 foes).

Eduardo Bravo; Domingo Garcia-Senz

2002-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

146

Fluid-bubble interaction and dissipation mechanisms under unsteady breaking waves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fluid-bubble interaction and dissipation mechanisms under unsteady breaking waves of air in bubbles that are believed to suppress liquid phase turbulence to incorporate entrained bubble populations using an Eulerian-Eulerian formulation

Kirby, James T.

147

Modelling the thermal evolution of enzyme-created bubbles in DNA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...dependence of these oscillating bubbles. To this aim, the underlying...attention is paid to the stability of the oscillating bubbles under the imposed thermal...attention is paid to the stability of the oscillating bubbles under the imposed thermal...

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Stability of a bubble expanding and translating through an inviscid liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A bubble expands adiabatically and translates in an incompressible ... investigate the number of equilibrium points of the bubble and the nature of stability of the bubble at these points. We find that there is o...

Dinesh Khattar; B. B. Chakraborty

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Acoustic energy radiated by nonlinear spherical oscillations of strongly driven bubbles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...considerations of surface stability. With the quasi-acoustic...acoustic energies of bubbles driven at 23.5kHz...universal boundary of bubble stability at the upper threshold...harmonic modes on bubble levitation, stability and SLJ. Acoust...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Stability of gas-bubble equilibrium shape in uniform flow of an ideal fluid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Steady-state motion of a bubble in the shape of an ellipsoid of ... this paper, possible equilibrium shapes of a bubble in the form of a triaxial ellipsoid ... at the stagnation point and within the gas bubble on...

A. G. Petrov

151

Solution of bubble number density with breakage and coalescence in a bubble column by Least-Squares Method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A steady-state model has been built for an air-water bubble column. The bubble number density constitutive equation has been formulated through integrating the bubble transport equation. Proper kernels for bubble breakage and coalescence rate have been chosen. The momentum balance of the gas phase is included in the model which leads to a set of non-linear differential equations. The model has been successfully solved by using the Least-Squares Method (LSM) with high accuracy and fast convergence. The successive iteration has been applied to the linearised equation set. The model shows excellent agreements with experimental data.

Zhengjie Zhu; Carlos A. Dorao; Hugo A. Jakobsen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

naval reactors  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

After operating for 34 years and training over 14,000 sailors, the Department of Energy S1C Prototype Reactor Site in Windsor, Connecticut, was returned to "green field"...

153

acoustic cavitation of slightly subcritical bubbles of Mathematics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On acoustic cavitation of slightly subcritical bubbles Anthony ¡ Harkin Department in liquids when surface tension is the dominant effect, such as submicron air bubbles in water, where

Harkin, Anthony

154

E-Print Network 3.0 - acoustic cavitation bubble Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Collection: Physics 62 Acoustic saturation in bubbly cavitating flow adjacent to an oscillating wall T. Colonius,a) Summary: Acoustic saturation in bubbly cavitating flow...

155

E-Print Network 3.0 - ads vacuum bubbles Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Department of Applied Physics, TU... October 2000 A new type of apparatus for the production of single bubbles of adjustable size is presented... . A single bubble is generated...

156

On the capillary vibration and stability of a charged bubble in a dielectric liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The capillary vibration and stability of a charged bubble against infinitesimal volume and shape perturbations when the bubble is immersed in a viscous incompressible dielectric ... noncentrosymmetric radial and ...

A. N. Zharov; A. I. Grigor’ev

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Bubble path in the wake of a cavitating propeller  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Propellers that operate underwater at high rpm's cavitate at the tip. The tip cavitation creates air bubbles that are then swept downstream by the motion of the surrounding fluid. In this paper a theory is presented to predict the local velocity and the path of the bubble. The bubble motion is assumed to be governed by a group of terms due to the acceleration of the displaced fluid the convective term and the drag due to the cross?sectional area of the bubble. At very low and very high Reynolds numbers the equations have been solved in closed form. Results are presented for the bubble velocity and path for the following flow fields: (a) uniform axial flow field and (b) uniform flow field with an axially decaying swirling component. In all cases presented the bubble axial velocity component asymptotes to the free stream velocity; the manner in which it asymptotes is exponential at very low Reynolds numbers and algebraic at high Reynolds numbers. Bubble helical paths and velocity patterns are shown for different bubble sizes.

Mauro Picrucci

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

CP-Violating Bubble Wall and Electroweak Baryogenesis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...August 1997 research-article Articles CP-Violating Bubble Wall and Electroweak...baryogenesis depends on the profile of the CP-violating bubble wall created at the first...point out that a sufficiently small explicit CP violation gives nonperturbative effects......

Koichi Funakubo; Akira Kakuto; Shoichiro Otsuki; Fumihiko Toyoda

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

CP-Violating Profile of the Electroweak Bubble Wall  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......November 1995 research-article Articles CP-Violating Profile of the Electroweak Bubble...electroweak baryogenesis, the profile of the CP violating bubble wall, created at the first-order...solutions. Two of them smoothly connect the CP-violating broken phase and the symmetric......

Koichi Funakubo; Akira Kakuto; Shoichiro Otsuki; Kazunori Takenaga; Fumihiko Toyoda

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

MICRO-BUBBLE SPARGING OF ANCHORAGE DEPENDENT ANIMAL CELL CULTURES  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ABSTRACT We have recently demonstrated that micro-bubble sparging can be successfully applied for bubble oxygenation of suspended animal cell cultures. The success of micro-bubble sparging requires the use of surfactants (such as Pluronic F-68 and silicone based antifoams) which minimize foaming and bubble damaging effects and, at the same time improve the oxygen transfer capabilities across bubbles. For anchored animal cells the use of surfactants and micro-bubble sparging requires a careful evaluation of the choice of substrates which will enable maximum cell adhesion and growth in the presence of the appropriate surfactant. Results will be presented which show that cell culture polystyrene is an excellent substrate for the growth of anchored cells in surfactant-based media formulations. These fundamental studies were extrapolated to large-scale perfusion cultures of anchored BHK cells, cultivated in a polystyrene CellCube” (Costar, U.K.), using micro-bubble sparging for medium oxygenation in a 2L stirred tank bioreactor (LH Fermentation Ltd). High yields of anchored cells (in excess of 1010 cells) with viabilities greater than 95% were obtained within 7–10 days post-inoculation. Keywords Micro-bubble oxygenation; anchored cells; Pluronic; adhesion; perfusion; foaming.

A. Handa-Corrigan; S. Nikolay; R. Brydges

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bubbling reactor cd" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Research reactors - an overview  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A broad overview of different types of research and type reactors is provided in this paper. Reactor designs and operating conditions are briefly described for four reactors. The reactor types described include swimming pool reactors, the High Flux Isotope Reactor, the Mark I TRIGA reactor, and the Advanced Neutron Source reactor. Emphasis in the descriptions is placed on safety-related features of the reactors. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

West, C.D.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Light Water Reactor Sustainability  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4 Light Water Reactor Sustainability ACCOMPLISHMENTS REPORT 2014 Accomplishments Report | Light Water Reactor Sustainability 2 T he mission of the Light Water Reactor...

163

CdSxTe1-x Alloying in CdS/CdTe Solar Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A CdS{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} layer forms by interdiffusion of CdS and CdTe during the fabrication of thin film CdTe photovoltaic (PV) devices. The CdS{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} layer is thought to be important because it relieves strain at the CdS/CdTe interface that would otherwise exist due to the 10% lattice mismatch between these two materials. Our previous work has indicated that the electrical junction is located in this interdiffused CdS{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} region. Further understanding, however, is essential to predict the role of this CdS{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} layer in the operation of CdS/CdTe devices. In this study, CdS{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} alloy films were deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and coevaporation from CdTe and CdS sources. Both radio-frequency-magnetron-sputtered and coevaporated CdS{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} films of lower S content (x < 0.3) have a cubic zincblende (ZB) structure akin to CdTe, whereas those of higher S content have a hexagonal wurtzite (WZ) structure like that of CdS. Films become less preferentially oriented as a result of a CdCl{sub 2} heat treatment at {approx}400 C for 5 min. Films sputtered in a 1% O{sub 2}/Ar ambient are amorphous as deposited, but show CdTe ZB, CdS WZ, and CdTe oxide phases after a CdCl{sub 2} heat treatment. Films sputtered in O{sub 2} partial pressure have a much wider bandgap than expected. This may be explained by nanocrystalline size effects seen previously for sputtered oxygenated CdS (CdS:O) films.

Duenow, J. N.; Dhere, R. G.; Moutinho, H. R.; To, B.; Pankow, J. W.; Kuciauskas, D.; Gessert, T. A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Catalytic reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalytic reactor is provided with one or more reaction zones each formed of set(s) of reaction tubes containing a catalyst to promote chemical reaction within a feed stream. The reaction tubes are of helical configuration and are arranged in a substantially coaxial relationship to form a coil-like structure. Heat exchangers and steam generators can be formed by similar tube arrangements. In such manner, the reaction zone(s) and hence, the reactor is compact and the pressure drop through components is minimized. The resultant compact form has improved heat transfer characteristics and is far easier to thermally insulate than prior art compact reactor designs. Various chemical reactions are contemplated within such coil-like structures such that as steam methane reforming followed by water-gas shift. The coil-like structures can be housed within annular chambers of a cylindrical housing that also provide flow paths for various heat exchange fluids to heat and cool components.

Aaron, Timothy Mark (East Amherst, NY); Shah, Minish Mahendra (East Amherst, NY); Jibb, Richard John (Amherst, NY)

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

165

Fragmentation Barriers of Toroidal and Bubble Nuclei  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

those estimated recently from liquid-drop models [24,25]. We simulate the dynamics of nucleus-nucleus collisions with the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck equation [27] Bt " (27r)s dB+ v V?f~ ?V?U V'zfq ? d k2dO ""v12[fsf4(l ?f1)(1?f2) ?f~f2(1 ?fs)(1 ?f4.../49(4)/1778(5)/$06. 00 R1778 1994 The American Physical Society 49 FRAGMENTATION BARRIERS OF TOROIDAL AND BUBBLE NUCLEI R1779 TOP VIEW FRONT VIEW and 2 for 2Mo+ 2Mo collisions at E/A =75 MeV and b=0, for both the stifF (Fig. 1) and the soft (Fig. 2) equa- tions...

Xu, HM; Gagliardi, Carl A.; Tribble, Robert E.; Wong, C. Y.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

The temperatures of single?bubble sonoluminescence  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We observe extraordinarily intense single?bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) from concentrated sulfuric acid (H2SO4) containing noble gases. Strong atomic Ar emission and extensive vibronic progressions from sulfur monoxide (SO) are also present in the SBSL spectra. The Ar atom excited states observed are too high in energy to be thermally populated and must be excited by high energy particle impact consistent with Ar atom SBSL from an emissive shell surrounding an optically opaque plasma core just as in a star or thermonuclear explosion. From relative intensities of Ar lines we find that the observed effective emission temperature during SBSL is 15200±1900?K. SBSL emission temperatures can be systematically controlled over the range from ?1500 to ?20000?K by changing the applied acoustic pressure or the thermal conductivity of the dissolved gas.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Bubble Chambers for Experiments in Nuclear Astrophysics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A bubble chamber has been developed to be used as an active target system for low energy nuclear astrophysics experiments. Adopting ideas from dark matter detection with superheated liquids, a detector system compatible with gamma-ray beams has been developed. This detector alleviates some of the limitations encountered in standard measurements of the minute cross sections of interest to stellar environments. While the astrophysically relevant nuclear reaction processes at hydrostatic burning temperatures are dominated by radiative captures, in this experimental scheme we measure the time-reversed processes. Such photodisintegrations allow us to compute the radiative capture cross sections when transitions to excited states of the reaction products are negligible. Due to the transformation of phase space, the photodisintegration cross sections are up to two orders of magnitude higher. The main advantage of the new target-detector system is a density several orders of magnitude higher than conventional gas tar...

DiGiovine, B; Holt, R J; Rehm, K E; Raut, R; Robinson, A; Sonnenschein, A; Rusev, G; Tonchev, A P; Ugalde, C

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Acoustic scattering by bubbles in naturally occurring mud sediments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Naturally occurring sediment mud contains bubbles created by decaying vegetable matter. Work reported by Preston Wilson etal. (ca. 2007) has determined via x-ray tomography systems that mud bubbles are not spherical in shape but resemble oblate spheroids and are “inhomogeneously distributed.” These features are explained in terms of the card-house structure of mud with an adaptation of the fracture mechanics ideas of Boudreau etal. (ca. 2002). The scattering of sound at low frequencies by such nonspherical bubbles has both monopole and dipole components. The scatteredwave associated with the monopole term is proportional to the bubble volume. The dipole term involves an effective entrained mass tensor which is found by a solution of Laplace's equation. All bubbles regardless of shape have a smallest resonance frequency and the scattered radiation near the resonance frequency is monopole in character. Example solutions for the resonance frequencies and the scattering near resonance are given for oblate spheroidal bubbles and a suggested interpolation from low frequencies to resonance frequencies is given. A discussion is also given of how one can make use of the range-evolving form of compact-source generated pulses to infer information about the bubbles near the propagation path.

Allan D. Pierce; Willam M. Carey

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Methane emission by bubbling from Gatun Lake, Panama  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We studied methane emission by bubbling from Gatun Lake, Panama, at water depths of less than 1 m to about 10 m. Gas bubbles were collected in floating traps deployed during 12- to 60-hour observation periods. Comparison of floating traps and floating chambers showed that about 98% of methane emission occurred by bubbling and only 2% occurred by diffusion. Average methane concentration of bubbles at our sites varied from 67% to 77%. Methane emission by bubbling occurred episodically, with greatest rates primarily between the hours of 0800 and 1400 LT. Events appear to be triggered by wind. The flux of methane associated with bubbling was strongly anticorrelated with water depth. Seasonal changes in water depth caused seasonal variation of methane emission. Bubble methane fluxes through the lake surface into the atmosphere measured during 24-hour intervals were least (10-200 mg m{sup -2} d{sup -1}) at deeper sites (>7 m) and greatest (300-2000 mg m{sup -2} d{sup -1}) at shallow sites (<2 m). 37 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

Keller, M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)] [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Stallard, R.F. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)] [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

1994-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

170

Inertial confinement fusion based on the ion-bubble trigger  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Triggering the ion-bubble in an inertial confinement fusion, we have developed a novel scheme for the fast ignition. This scheme relies on the plasma cavitation by the wake of an intense laser pulse to generate an ion-bubble. The bubble acts both as an intense electron accelerator and as an electron wiggler. Consequently, the accelerated electrons trapped in the bubble can emit an intense tunable laser light. This light can be absorbed by an ablation layer on the outside surface of the ignition capsule, which subsequently drills it and thereby produces a guide channel in the pellet. Finally, the relativistic electron beam created in the bubble is guided through the channel to the high density core igniting the fusion fuel. The normalized beam intensity and beam energy required for triggering the ignition have been calculated when core is heated by the e-beam. In addition, through solving the momentum transfer, continuity and wave equations, a dispersion relation for the electromagnetic and space-charge waves has been analytically derived. The variations of growth rate with the ion-bubble density and electron beam energy have been illustrated. It is found that the growth rates of instability are significantly controlled by the ions concentration and the e-beam energy in the bubble.

Jafari, S., E-mail: SJafari@guilan.ac.ir; Nilkar, M.; Ghasemizad, A. [Department of Physics, University of Guilan, Rasht 41335-1914 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mehdian, H. [Department of Physics and Institute for Plasma Research, Tarbiat Moallem University, Tehran 15614 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

171

Role of Air Bubbles Overlooked in the Adsorption of Perfluorooctanesulfonate on Hydrophobic Carbonaceous Adsorbents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Role of Air Bubbles Overlooked in the Adsorption of Perfluorooctanesulfonate on Hydrophobic Carbonaceous Adsorbents ... † School

Pingping Meng; Shubo Deng; Xinyu Lu; Ziwen Du; Bin Wang; Jun Huang; Yujue Wang; Gang Yu; Baoshan Xing

2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

172

The singularity at the tip of the rising plane bubble: The case of nonzero surface tension  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The singularity at the tip of the rising plane bubble: The case of nonzero surface tension Prabir pointed bubble in the presenceof surface tension. These bubbles have been recently obtained by Vanden to find the apexangle as a function of the speedof the bubbles for a fixed value of surface tension

Daripa, Prabir

173

Bubble Prints Main Concept: Tension...but it's mostly just fun  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bubble Prints Main Concept: Tension...but it's mostly just fun Materials Glasses/Jars .25 cup glasses or bowls to have a selection of bubble print colors. 3. Cover the top of the jars or glasses and shake until the bubble mix and paint are well mixed together. 4. Dump out about 1/2 inch of the bubble

Benitez-Nelson, Claudia

174

Anomalous bubble propagation in elastic tubes Alexandra Heap and Anne Juela  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anomalous bubble propagation in elastic tubes Alexandra Heap and Anne Juela Manchester Centre of bubble with a characteristic rounded tip, our experiments reveal a surprising selection of novel bubbles with counterintuitive shapes that reopen strongly collapsed, liquid-filled elastic tubes. Our multiple bubbles

175

Reanalysis of bubble chamber measurements of muon-neutrino induced single pion production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

There exists a longstanding disagreement between bubble chamber measurements of the single pion production channel $\

Callum Wilkinson; Philip Rodrigues; Susan Cartwright; Lee Thompson; Kevin McFarland

2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

176

Single Bubble SonoLuminescence of Particles model M. ADAMA MAIGA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Single Bubble SonoLuminescence of Particles model M. ADAMA MAIGA LML laboratory (Laboratoire de Bubble SonoLuminescence is a phenomenon where the vapor bubble trapped in a liquid collapse by emitting of a light. It is very known that the temperature inside the bubble depends on the radius, during

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

177

Reanalysis of bubble chamber measurements of muon-neutrino induced single pion production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

There exists a longstanding disagreement between bubble chamber measurements of the single pion production channel $\

Wilkinson, Callum; Cartwright, Susan; Thompson, Lee; McFarland, Kevin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

10.1098/rspa.2002.1063 Acoustic resonances in the bubble plume  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

10.1098/rspa.2002.1063 Acoustic resonances in the bubble plume formed by a plunging water jet to investigate the near-field sound from an axisym- metric conical bubble plume formed by a continuous vertical to coherent collective oscillations of the bubbles within the plume, that is to say, the biphasic bubbly

Buckingham, Michael

179

Response of a bubble bearing viscoelastic fluid to rapid decompression: Implications for explosive volcanic eruptions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Response of a bubble bearing viscoelastic fluid to rapid decompression: Implications for explosive Abstract We conducted rapid decompression experiments using bubble-bearing viscoelastic fluid in a vertical of the bubbles, DP=Pg Ă?Po, to understand the behavior of bubbly-magmas under rapid decompression. We find

Manga, Michael

180

modeling in physiology Stabilized bubbles in the body: pressure-radius  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

modeling in physiology Stabilized bubbles in the body: pressure-radius relationships and the limits bubbles in the body: pressure-radius relationships and the limits to stabilization. J. Appl. Physiol. 82 for comparison of bubbles stabilized by different mechanisms. Gases diffuse in or out of stabilized bubbles

Raychaudhuri, Soumya

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bubbling reactor cd" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Dynamics of Subcritical Bubbles in First Order Phase Transition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We derivate the Langevin and the Fokker-Planck equations for the radius of $O(3)$-symmetric subcritical bubbles as a phenomenological model to treat thermal fluctuation. The effect of thermal noise on subcritical bubbles is examined. We find that the fluctuation-dissipation relation holds and that in the high temperature phase the system settles down rapidly to the thermal equilibrium state even if it was in a nonequilibrium state initially. We then estimate the typical size of subcritical bubbles as well as the amplitude of fluctuations on that scale. We also discuss their implication to the electroweak phase transition.

Tetsuya Shiromizu; Masahiro Morikawa; Jun'ichi Yokoyama

1995-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

182

SUBCRITICAL BUBBLES NEAR THE PHASE SPACE DOMAIN WALL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the subcritical bubble formation near the phase space domain wall. We take into account that the phase of the scalar field can vary using complex U(1) symmetric field and a phenomenological potential with cubic term responsible to symmetry breaking. We show that the presence of the domain wall induces subcritical bubbles so that their formation rate near the wall is considerably larger than far of it. The allowed deviations of the phases of new bubbles are so large that they prevent the system from induced nucleation.

J. Sirkka; I. Vilja

1995-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

183

Behavioural aspects of price bubbles - case of real estate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Price bubbles are created by investors and customers. An analysis of price bubbles requires especially critical identification and assessment of the impact of various factors on this phenomenon. The analyses of crises primarily examine economic reasons and macroeconomic feedback and interaction, however, they devote little space to the role of customers (investors) as subjects of a crisis, a role which can be and usually is active. The purpose of this paper is to show that the role of behavioural factors in the creation of a price bubble is important and are able to analyse their force of impact.

Piotr Masiukiewicz; Pawel Dec

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Analysis of bubble cavitation in ultrasound therapy by wavelet technique  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Bubble cavitation is one of the major mechanisms for ultrasound treatment. To understand its characteristics, cavitation signals were picked up using passive cavitation detection and then analysed by wavelet transform. Although the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) has been used widely in signal analysis, the absence of temporal information is one of its limitations. The inertial cavitation strength detected by wavelet method was ?60 folds higher than that using FFT. Furthermore, the relationship of waveform profile and acoustic pressure with the corresponding bubble cavitation were investigated. All together, wavelet approach could be new tool for studying bubble cavitation.

Yufeng Zhou

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Are We in a Medical Education Bubble Market?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of that value. Recent examples include the U.S. housing bubble, in which home prices rapidly rose until 2007 and then just as rapidly fell, and the dot-com bubble, in which prices of Internet stocks rose until 2000 and then plummeted. Bubbles burst when some new sense of lower intrinsic value appears... Debt-to-income ratios for new physicians reveal the connection between what physicians can charge patients and what medical schools can charge students. If we aim to reduce the costs of health care, we need to reduce the costs of medical education.

Asch D.A.Nicholson S.Vujicic M.

2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

186

Fuel Performance Experiments and Modeling: Fission Gas Bubble Nucleation and Growth in Alloy Nuclear Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Advanced fast reactor systems being developed under the DOE's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative are designed to destroy TRU isotopes generated in existing and future nuclear energy systems. Over the past 40 years, multiple experiments and demonstrations have been completed using U-Zr, U-Pu-Zr, U-Mo and other metal alloys. As a result, multiple empirical and semi-empirical relationships have been established to develop empirical performance modeling codes. many mechamistic questions about fission as mobility, bubble coalescience, and gas release have been answered through industrial experience, reearch, and empirical understanding. The advent of modern computational materials science, however, opens new doors of development such that physics-based multi-scale models may be developed to enable a new generation of predictive fuel performance codes that are not limited by empiricism.

McDeavitt, Sean; Shao, Lin; Tsvetkov, Pavel; Wirth, Brian; Kennedy, Rory

2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

187

Experimental simulation of the bubble membrane radiator using a rotating flat plate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Bubble Membrane Radiator (BMR), to be used in space reactor systems, uses artificial gravity imposed on the working fluid by means of the centrifugal force to pump the fluid from the radiator. Experimental and analytical studies have been initiated to understand the nature of fluid and heat transport under the conditions of rotation. An experiment is described which measures the condensation of vapor on a rotating flat plate which is oriented normal to the earth's gravity vector to simulate the BMR physics. The relationship between vapor flow rates and rotation speed of the flat plate and a number of physical parameters including amount of condensate, overall heat transfer coefficient, and condensate film thickness are studied experimentally.

Al-Baroudi, H.; Klein, A.C. (Department of Nuclear Engineering, Oregon State University, Radiation Center, C116 Corvallis, OR (USA)); Pauley, K.A. (Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Battelle Boulevard, Richland, WA (USA))

1991-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

188

Fission gas bubble nucleated cavitational swelling of the alpha-uranium phase of irradiated U-Pu-Zr fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cavitational swelling has been identified as a potential swelling mechanism for the alpha uranium phase of irradiated U-Pu-Zr metal fuels for the Integral Fast Reactor being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The trends of U-Pu-Zr swelling data prior to fuel cladding contact can be interpreted in terms of unrestrained cavitational driven swelling. It is theorized that the swelling mechanisms at work in the alpha uranium phase can be modeled by single vacancy and single interstitial kinetics with intergranular gas bubbles providing the void nuclei, avoiding the use of complicated defect interaction terms required for the calculation of void nucleation. The focus of the kinetics of fission gas evolution as it relates to cavitational swelling is prior to the formation of a significant amount of interconnected porosity and is on the development of small intergranular gas bubbles which can act as void nuclei. Calculations for the evolution of intergranular fission gas bubbles show that they provide critical cavity sizes (i.e., the size above which the cavity will grow by bias-driven vacancy flux) consistent with the observed incubation dose for the onset of rapid swelling and gas release.

Rest, J.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Bubble tube: Apparatus for determining rate of collection of bacteria ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Jul 9, 1973 ... the vertical, we lift it out of the water. The ... must rise through sterile water nearly four times as far .... wish to point out that by use of the bubble.

1999-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

190

The transition from two phase bubble flow to slug flow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The process of transition from bubble to slug flow in a vertical pipe has been studied analytically and experimentally. An equation is presented which gives the agglomeration time as a function of void fraction, channel ...

Radovcich, Nick A.

1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Bubble Production Mechanism in a Microfluidic Foam Generator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present the design and characterization of a microfluidic bubble generator that has the potential of producing monodisperse bubbles in 256 production channels that can operate in parallel. For a single production channel we demonstrate a production rate of up to 4 kHz with a coefficient of variation of less than 1%. We observe a two-stage bubble production mechanism: initially the gas spreads onto a shallow terrace, and then overflows into a larger foam collection channel; pinning of the liquid-gas meniscus is observed at the terrace edge, the result being an asymmetric pinch-off. A semiempirical physical model predicts the scaling of bubble size with fluid viscosity and gas pressure from measurements of the pinned meniscus width.

M. Stoffel; S. Wahl; E. Lorenceau; R. Höhler; B. Mercier; D. E. Angelescu

2012-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

192

The Measurement of Bubble-Size Distributions by Acoustical Backscatter  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A multifrequency acoustical-backscatter technique is described for determining the size distribution of bubbles with radii between 8 and 130 µm. The method makes use of the resonance in the microbubbles and operates at six frequencies ranging ...

Svein Vagle; David M. Farmer

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

non living organic particle formation from bubble dissolution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Jul 8, 1975 ... 446. iVOteS. Table 1. Particulate organic carbon retained by 0.8-p Flotronics silver filters before and after many small bubbles were dissolved in ...

2000-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

194

Patterns of Bubble Clouds organized by Langmuir Circulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A commonly observed property of near-surface bubble distributions is their collective organization into long rows aligned with the wind under the influence of Langmuir circulation. Time series observations with sonars having fixed orientation ...

David Farmer; Ming Li

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Low-Frequency Resonant Scattering of Bubble Clouds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The acoustic properties of water can be drastically modified by a small amount of air content in the fluid. The dynamics of bubble clouds and their collected oscillation mechanisms are among topics of active research in underwater acoustics. In ...

Paul A. Hwang; William J. Teague

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Modelling of bubble behaviour in aluminium reduction cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A phenomenological model for the creation and transport of anodic gas bubbles in aluminium reduction cells is presented. The proposed model is a multiscale approach in which molecular species are produced and transported through a supersaturated electrolyte. Sub-grid bubbles are allowed to form through nucleation and the resulting bubble population evolves through mass transfer and coalescence. As sub-grid bubbles reach a certain size, they are transferred to a macroscopic phase, which evolution is governed by a volume of fluid method. The current work describes the underlying theory and motivation for the proposed model and it is used to describe a laboratory-scale electrolysis cell, showing the potential of the suggested approach. The influence of selected properties of the model is identified by means of a factorial analysis.

Kristian Etienne Einarsrud; Stein Tore Johansen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Bubble Stabilization of Spectral Methods: The Multidimensional Case  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A spectral Legendre method for the advection-diffusion equation is stabilized with the addition of locally supported bubble functions. It is shown that the spectral ... accuracy of the scheme is preserved and its...

Gabriella Puppo

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Bubble stabilized discontinuous Galerkin method for parabolic and elliptic problems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper we give an analysis of a bubble stabilized discontinuous Galerkin method for elliptic and parabolic problems. The method consists of stabilizing the numerical scheme by enriching the discontinuou...

Erik Burman; Benjamin Stamm

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Quantum Decoherence of Subcritical Bubble in Electroweak Phase Transition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In a weakly first order phase transition the typical scale of a subcritical bubble calculated in our previous papers turned out to be too small. At this scale quantum fluctuations may dominate and our previous classical result may be altered. So we examine the critical size of a subcritical bubble where quantum-to-classical transition occurs through quantum decoherence. We show that this critical size is almost equal to the typical scale which we previously obtained.

Tetsuya Shiromizu

1995-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

200

The formation of gas bubbles at submerged orifices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. For values of Nc greater than 0.85, the formation and release of the bubbles appeared to occur almost simul? taneously. For the formation of bubbles at zero chamber volume and at low flow rates, the following equation was developed. (2) Ve * equilibrium... experimentally. The d determined for water (benzene (

Hayes, William Bell

2013-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bubbling reactor cd" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Behaviour of bubble clusters in a turbulent flotation cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The rate of capture of particles decreases as the particle size increases in froth flotation. It has been postulated that the upper size range of particles that can be recovered in conventional machines could be extended by the use of bubble clusters [1]. This study is concerned with the behaviour of bubble clusters in turbulent flotation cell. The breakup and re-formation of clusters and the effect of bubble size and impeller speed on the behaviour of clusters have been investigated. The apparatus used was essentially a laboratory flotation cell, agitated by a Rushton turbine. The cell was modified to allow pre-formed clusters to rise out of a fluidized bed and into the path of the rotating impeller. The events were captured using a digital camera, and the images were analysed to give the sizes of the bubbles and clusters. In the first part of the investigation, a collector was used but no frother. Under these conditions, the bubble diameter was effectively controlled by the collector concentration, and it varied considerably. It was found that the sizes of clusters decrease with increasing shear rate at low impeller speeds, and at higher speeds the clusters are broken up into bubbles and particles. In the second part, frother was used at a concentration above the critical coalescence concentration, to control the bubble size, which remained essentially constant at this concentration. The bubbles were too small to be broken by the action of the impeller, so they always remained at the same size. In this case it was found that when the impeller speed was increased, two stages of formation were observed, the fragmentation and equilibrium stages. In the fragmentation stage, at low impeller speeds, the clusters were loose and filamentous, and as the energy input increases, they rupture and re-form. In the second stage, above a critical impeller speed, dense clusters formed whose size was relatively insensitive to the energy input.

Zhihao Chen; Seher Ata; Graeme J. Jameson

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Light Water Reactors Technology Development - Nuclear Reactors  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Light Water Reactors Light Water Reactors About Director's Welcome Organization Achievements Highlights Fact Sheets, Brochures & Other Documents Multimedia Library Visit Argonne Work with Argonne Contact us Nuclear Energy Why Nuclear Energy? Why are some people afraid of Nuclear Energy? How do nuclear reactors work? Cheaper & Safer Nuclear Energy Helping to Solve the Nuclear Waste Problem Nuclear Reactors Nuclear Reactors Early Exploration Training Reactors Basic and Applied Science Research LWR Technology Development BORAX-III lighting Arco, Idaho (Press Release) Heavy Water and Graphite Reactors Fast Reactor Technology Integral Fast Reactor Argonne Reactor Tree CP-1 70th Anniversary CP-1 70th Anniversary Argonne's Nuclear Science and Technology Legacy Argonne's Nuclear Science and Technology Legacy

203

Analysis of Rayleigh-Plesset dynamics for sonoluminescing bubbles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent work on single bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) has shown that many features of this phenomenon, especially the dependence of SBSL intensity and stability on experimental parameters, can be explained within a hydrodynamic approach. More specifically, many important properties can already be derived from an analysis of bubble wall dynamics. This dynamics is conveniently described by the Rayleigh-Plesset (RP) equation. In this work we derive analytical approximations for RP dynamics and subsequent analytical laws for parameter dependences. These results include (i) an expression for the onset threshold of SL, (ii) an analytical explanation of the transition from diffusively unstable to stable equilibria for the bubble ambient radius (unstable and stable sonoluminescence), and (iii) a detailed understanding of the resonance structure of the RP equation. It is found that the threshold for SL emission is shifted to larger bubble radii and larger driving pressures if surface tension is enlarged, whereas even a considerable change in liquid viscosity leaves this threshold virtually unaltered. As an enhanced viscosity stabilizes the bubbles against surface oscillations, we conclude that the ideal liquid for violently collapsing, surface stable SL bubbles should have small surface tension and large viscosity, although too large viscosity (>40 times the viscosity of water) will again preclude collapses.

Sascha Hilgenfeldt; Michael P. Brenner; Siegfried Grossmann; Detlef Lohse

1998-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

204

The Environmental Guidebook Companion CD-ROM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Guidebook Companion CD-ROM By Jeff Staudinger Reviewed bywith Companion CD- ROM. Menlo Park, CA: Environmentaldocument collections on CD-ROM is gathering speed.

Stirling, Dale

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

CdTe/CdZnTe pixellated radiation detector.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The work in this thesis is focused on the study of CdTe/CdZnTe pixellated detectors. During this research, three main aspects have been covered in the… (more)

Mohd Zain, Rasif

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Bubble Dynamics, Shock Waves and Sonoluminescence Author(s): Claus-Dieter Ohl, Thomas Kurz, Reinhard Geisler, Olgert Lindau, Werner  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bubble Dynamics, Shock Waves and Sonoluminescence Author(s): Claus-Dieter Ohl, Thomas Kurz, Physical and Engineering Sciences. http://www.jstor.org #12;THE ROYAL SOCIETY Bubble dynamics, shock waves emission by bubbles is studied experimentally. Single bubbles kept in a bubble trap and single laser

Ohl, Claus-Dieter

207

The effect of a micro bubble dispersed gas phase on hydrogen isotope transport in liquid metals under nuclear irradiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The present work intend to be a first step towards the understanding and quantification of the hydrogen isotope complex phenomena in liquid metals for nuclear technology. Liquid metals under nuclear irradiation in,e.g., breeding blankets of a nuclear fusion reactor would generate tritium which is to be extracted and recirculated as fuel. At the same time that tritium is bred, helium is also generated and may precipitate in the form of nano bubbles. Other liquid metal systems of a nuclear reactor involve hydrogen isotope absorption processes, e.g., tritium extraction system. Hence, hydrogen isotope absorption into gas bubbles modelling and control may have a capital importance regarding design, operation and safety. Here general models for hydrogen isotopes transport in liquid metal and absorption into gas phase, that do not depend on the mass transfer limiting regime, are exposed and implemented in OpenFOAMR CFD tool for 0D to 3D simulations. Results for a 0D case show the impact of a He dispersed phase of na...

Fradera, Jorge

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Photocatalytic reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A photocatalytic reactor is described for processing selected reactants from a fluid medium comprising at least one permeable photocatalytic membrane having a photocatalytic material. The material forms an area of chemically active sites when illuminated by light at selected wavelengths. When the fluid medium is passed through the illuminated membrane, the reactants are processed at these sites separating the processed fluid from the unprocessed fluid. A light source is provided and a light transmitting means, including an optical fiber, for transmitting light from the light source to the membrane. 4 figs.

Bischoff, B.L.; Fain, D.E.; Stockdale, J.A.D.

1999-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

209

Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Huntington Beach, CA); Sahimi, Muhammad (Altadena, CA); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Richmond, CA); Harale, Aadesh (Los Angeles, CA); Park, Byoung-Gi (Yeosu, KR); Liu, Paul K. T. (Lafayette Hill, PA)

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Electrical breakdown of a bubble in a water-filled capillary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this Communication, the electrical breakdown of a static bubble in a water-filled capillary generated in a dc electrical field is studied. We present experimental results which indicate that the liquid layer between capillary and bubble wall can have an important influence on the breakdown mechanism of the bubble. The breakdown electrical field (atmospheric pressure) without a liquid layer in a (vapor) bubble is 18 kV/cm. When a liquid layer is present, the electrical breakdown of an air bubble is observed at electrical fields typically two times smaller. Local plasma formation is observed in this case possibly due to bubble deformation.

Bruggeman, P.J.; Leys, C.A.; Vierendeels, J. A. [Department of Applied Physics, Research Unit Plasma Technology (RUPT), Faculty of Engineering, Ghent University, Rozier 44, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Department of Flow, Heat and Combustion Mechanics, Faculty of Engineering, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Synthetic DNA Replication Bubbles Bound and Unwound with Twofold Symmetry by a Simian Virus 40 T-Antigen Double Hexamer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ARTICLE ANIMAL VIRUSES Synthetic DNA Replication Bubbles Bound and...examined the binding of TAgDH to synthetic DNA replication bubbles. Tests of...characterized the binding and unwinding of synthetic DNA replication bubbles by the TAgDH...

Natalia V. Smelkova; James A. Borowiec

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

GEN-IV Reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Generation-IV reactors are a set of nuclear reactors currently being developed under international collaborations targeting ... economics, proliferation resistance, and physical protection of nuclear energy. Nuclear

Taek K. Kim

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

The Netherlands Reactor Centre  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Two illustrated brochures in English have recently J. been issued by the Netherlands Reactor Centre ( ... Centre (Reactor Centrum Nederland). The first* gives a general survey of the ...

S. WEINTROUB

1964-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

214

Micro Bubble Technologies Inc MBT | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Micro Bubble Technologies Inc MBT Micro Bubble Technologies Inc MBT Jump to: navigation, search Name Micro Bubble Technologies, Inc (MBT) Place Barrington, Illinois Sector Carbon Product US-Korean maker of cleaner burning fuel and carbon nanotube batteries. Coordinates 41.740155°, -71.308294° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.740155,"lon":-71.308294,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

215

Tiny Glass Bubbles With Big Potential | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Tiny Glass Bubbles With Big Potential Tiny Glass Bubbles With Big Potential Tiny Glass Bubbles With Big Potential August 19, 2011 - 12:32pm Addthis SRNL's Porous Walled Hollow Glass Microspheres (which are about half the width of a human hair in diameter) have a network of interconnected pores that enable them to be filled with, hold and release gases and other materials. | Image courtesy of SRNL SRNL's Porous Walled Hollow Glass Microspheres (which are about half the width of a human hair in diameter) have a network of interconnected pores that enable them to be filled with, hold and release gases and other materials. | Image courtesy of SRNL Liisa O'Neill Liisa O'Neill Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts? SRNL's porous walled glass microspheres allow the potential for

216

Magnetic Charge Can Locally Stabilize Kaluza-Klein Bubbles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We construct a new 2-parameter family of static topological solitons in 5D minimal supergravity which are endowed with magnetic charge and mass. The solitons are asymptotically ${\\mathbb R}^4\\times S^1$, where the radius of the $S^1$ has a lower bound $R_s\\ge R_{min}$. Setting up initial data on a Cauchy slice at a moment of time symmetry, we demonstrate that if $R_s>R_{min}$ these solitons correspond to a perturbatively stable "small" static bubble as well as an unstable "large" static bubble, whereas if $R_sbubbles. The energetics and thermodynamics of the magnetic black string are then discussed and it is shown that the locally stable bubble is the end point of a phase transition for an appropriate range of black string parameters.

Sean Stotyn; Robert B. Mann

2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

217

Magnetic Charge Can Locally Stabilize Kaluza-Klein Bubbles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We construct a new 2-parameter family of static topological solitons in 5D minimal supergravity which are endowed with magnetic charge and mass. The solitons are asymptotically ${\\mathbb R}^4\\times S^1$, where the radius of the $S^1$ has a lower bound $R_s\\ge R_{min}$. Setting up initial data on a Cauchy slice at a moment of time symmetry, we demonstrate that if $R_s>R_{min}$ these solitons correspond to a perturbatively stable "small" static bubble as well as an unstable "large" static bubble, whereas if $R_sbubbles. The energetics of the magnetic black string are then discussed and it is shown that the locally stable bubble is the end point of a phase transition for an appropriate range of black string parameters.

Stotyn, Sean

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Neutrino events at IceCube and the Fermi bubbles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We discuss the possibility that the IceCube neutrino telescope might be observing the Fermi bubbles. If the bubbles discovered in gamma rays originate from accelerated protons, they should be strong emitters of high energy (?GeV) neutrinos. These neutrinos are detectable as showerlike or tracklike events at a Km3 neutrino observatory. For a primary cosmic ray flux with spectrum ?E?2.1 and cutoff energy at or above 10 PeV, the Fermi bubble flux substantially exceeds the atmospheric background, and could account for up to ?4–5 of the 28 events detected above ?30??TeV at IceCube. Running the detector for ?5–7 more years should be sufficient to discover this flux at high significance. For a primary cosmic ray flux with steeper spectrum, and/or lower cutoff energy, longer running times will be required to overcome the background.

Cecilia Lunardini; Soebur Razzaque; Kristopher T. Theodoseau; Lili Yang

2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

219

Fermi Gamma-Ray “Bubbles” from Stochastic Acceleration of Electrons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gamma-ray data from Fermi Large Area Telescope reveal a bilobular structure extending up to ?50° above and below the Galactic Center. It has been argued that the gamma rays arise from hadronic interactions of high-energy cosmic rays which are advected out by a strong wind, or from inverse-Compton scattering of relativistic electrons accelerated at plasma shocks present in the bubbles. We explore the alternative possibility that the relativistic electrons are undergoing stochastic 2nd-order Fermi acceleration by plasma wave turbulence through the entire volume of the bubbles. The observed gamma-ray spectral shape is then explained naturally by the resulting hard electron spectrum modulated by inverse-Compton energy losses. Rather than a constant volume emissivity as in other models, we predict a nearly constant surface brightness, and reproduce the observed sharp edges of the bubbles.

Philipp Mertsch and Subir Sarkar

2011-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

220

The rheology of three-phase suspensions at low bubble capillary number  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...results demonstrate that adding bubbles to a dilute particle suspension at low capillarity...increases its viscosity, while adding bubbles to a concentrated particle suspension decreases...particle anisometry and is easily extended to account for variable capillarity, but has...

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bubbling reactor cd" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Lattice Boltzmann simulations of bubble formation in a microfluidic T-junction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Sauro Succi and Stefano Ubertini Lattice Boltzmann simulations of bubble formation...York, New York, NY 10031USA A lattice Boltzmann equation method based on the...from 30. multi-phase flow|lattice Boltzmann method|bubble formation...

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Lattice Boltzmann simulation to study multiple bubble dynamics Amit Gupta, Ranganathan Kumar *  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lattice Boltzmann simulation to study multiple bubble dynamics Amit Gupta, Ranganathan Kumar Keywords: Lattice Boltzmann Bubble Two-phase Coalescence a b s t r a c t Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) has

Gupta, Amit

223

Heat and mass transfer in bubble column dehumidifiers for HDH desalination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heat and mass transfer processes governing the performance of bubble dehumidifier trays are studied in order to develop a predictive model and design rules for efficient and economical design of bubble column dehumidifiers ...

Tow, Emily W

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

-The Bubble Chamber -http://thebubblechamber.org -Review: Cold War Social Science  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

[1] - The Bubble Chamber - http://thebubblechamber.org - Review: Cold War Social Science Posted assume that all developments in the social sciences during the Cold War period can be The Bubble Chamber

Solovey, Mark

225

Stability of the equilibrium states of a charged bubble in a dielectric liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The stability of equilibrium states of a charged spherical bubble in dielectric fluid with respect to centrally ... a nonlinear equation describing radial oscillations of the bubble in the neighborhoods of its si...

A. I. Grigor’ev; A. N. Zharov

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Bubble Evolution in Liquid-Gas Solutions, Viewed as an Elementary Catastrophe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The stability of gas micro-bubbles in liquid-gas solutions is of importance ... which include propagation and damping of sound, bubble removal during glassmaking, fermentation, initiation of ... the role of nucle...

J. L. Achard; E. Canot

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Uniqueness, stability and Hessian eigenvalues for two-dimensional bubble clusters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A recent conjecture on two-dimensional foams suggested that for fixed topology with given bubble areas there is a unique state of ... counter-examples, consisting of a ring of bubbles around a central one, which ...

D. Weaire; S.J. Cox; F. Graner

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Phase Transition to an Opaque Plasma in a Sonoluminescing Bubble  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Time-resolved spectrum measurements of a sonoluminescing Xe bubble reveal a transition from transparency to an opaque Planck blackbody. As the temperature is <10?000??K and the density is below liquid density, the photon scattering length is 10?000 times too large to explain its opacity. We resolve this issue with a model that reduces the ionization potential. According to this model, sonoluminescence originates in a new phase of matter with high ionization. Analysis of line emission from Xe* also yields evidence of phase segregation for this first-order transition inside a bubble.

Brian Kappus; Shahzad Khalid; Avik Chakravarty; Seth Putterman

2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

229

Viscous effects on the linear stability of a pulsanting bubble in acoustic fields  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A linear stability theory of the harmonic motion of cavitation bubbles subject to an acoustic field with respect... $$\\sqrt {2\

Paolo Blondeaux

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

SRS Small Modular Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The small modular reactor program at the Savannah River Site and the Savannah River National Laboratory.

None

2012-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

231

SRS Small Modular Reactors  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

The small modular reactor program at the Savannah River Site and the Savannah River National Laboratory.

None

2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

232

Viscosity of magmas containing highly deformable bubbles M. Mangaa,*, M. Loewenbergb  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Viscosity of magmas containing highly deformable bubbles M. Mangaa,*, M. Loewenbergb a Department The shear viscosity of a suspension of deformable bubbles dispersed within a Newtonian ¯uid is calculated. For small Ca, bubbles remain nearly spherical, and for suf®ciently large strains the viscosity of suspension

Manga, Michael

233

An Experimental Study of Bubble Formation in Asset Markets Using the Ttonnement Trading Institution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Introduction Price bubbles are not a rare phenomenon. Indeed, there are many historical examples of commodity historical and contemporary relevance. The results show that bubbles are significantly reduced, suggesting Markets, Price Bubbles, Trading Institutions, Tâtonnement * Corresponding author. Address: Department

234

Bubble tree convergence for the harmonic sequence of harmonic surfaces in CPn  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

] and there are no necks [15], i.e. the energy of the bubble tree map is the limit of the energies of the sequenceBubble tree convergence for the harmonic sequence of harmonic surfaces in CPn Mo Xiaohuan and Sun holomorphic (or anti- holomorphic) map from M to CPn , or a "bubble tree limit" consisting of a har- monic map

Lu, Tiao

235

Correlation of black oil properties at pressures below the bubble-point  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

correlations: Bubble-point pressure, Pb *Solution gas-oil-ratio at pressures below the bubble-point, Rs łOil formation volume factor at pressures below the bubble-point, B0 In this work we provide a detailed analysis of the most popular correlations...

Velarde, Jorge Javier

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

236

Bubble transport in three-dimensional laminar gravity-driven flow numerical results  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bubble transport in three-dimensional laminar gravity-driven flow ­ numerical results Laurent Pilon is the second part of a study on bubble transport, growth and shrinkage in three-dimensional gravity driven flow equation is solved for the bubble density function using the backward method of characteristics. The zeroth

Pilon, Laurent

237

Bubble Clusters: An Interface for Manipulating Spatial Aggregation of Graphical Objects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bubble Clusters: An Interface for Manipulating Spatial Aggregation of Graphical Objects Nayuko recognized as a group, and the group structure is visualized as a two-dimensional bubble surface that surrounds the objects. Users can drag, copy, or delete a group by operat- ing on the bubble. Furthermore

Igarashi, Takeo

238

Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Volume Displacement Effects During Bubble  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Volume Displacement Effects During Bubble bubbles are entrained in a traveling vortex ring, it has been shown that even at extremely low volume the bubbles are assumed subgrid and momentum point-sources are used to model their effect on the flow

Apte, Sourabh V.

239

Bubble suspension rheology and implications for conduit flow E.W. Llewellina,T, M. Mangab  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bubble suspension rheology and implications for conduit flow E.W. Llewellina,T, M. Mangab 94720-4760, USA Received 5 February 2004; accepted 1 September 2004 Abstract Bubbles are ubiquitous in magma during eruption and influence the rheology of the suspension. Despite this, bubble- suspension

Manga, Michael

240

Applied Numerical Mathematics 34 (2000) 373379 The fastest smooth Taylor bubble  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Applied Numerical Mathematics 34 (2000) 373­379 The fastest smooth Taylor bubble Prabir Daripa nature of singularities associated with topological transition in the plane Taylor-bubble problem is briefly discussed in the context of estimating the speed of the fastest smooth Taylor-bubble

Daripa, Prabir

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bubbling reactor cd" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Monitoring bubble growth in supersaturated blood and tissue ex vivo and the relevance to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Monitoring bubble growth in supersaturated blood and tissue ex vivo and the relevance to marine as a means to induce bubble nucleation and growth in supersatu- rated ex vivo bovine liver and kidney tissues, and blood. Bubble detection was achieved with a diagnostic ultrasound scanner. Under the conditions

242

Bubble Pinch-Off in a Rotating Flow Raymond Bergmann,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bubble Pinch-Off in a Rotating Flow Raymond Bergmann,1 Anders Andersen,1 Devaraj van der Meer,2 December 2008; revised manuscript received 12 March 2009; published 22 May 2009) We create air bubbles of the needlelike surface dip is unstable at high rotation rates and releases bubbles which are carried down

243

Bubble dynamics atop an oscillating substrate: Interplay of compressibility and contact angle hysteresis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bubble dynamics atop an oscillating substrate: Interplay of compressibility and contact angle online 19 October 2011) We consider a sessile hemispherical bubble sitting on the transversally oscillating bottom of a deep liquid layer and focus on the interplay of the compressibility of the bubble

Straube, Arthur V.

244

Photosensitive, Bubble-free, Bromate-1,4-Cyclohexanedione Oscillating Reactions. Illumination Control of Pattern Formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ARTICLES Photosensitive, Bubble-free, Bromate-1,4-Cyclohexanedione Oscillating Reactions,4-cyclohexanedione bubble-free oscillating reaction with added Ru(bpy)3 2+, ferroin, or diphenylamine as the third as the reductant. The combination of photosensitivity and absence of bubbles makes these reactions convenient tools

Epstein, Irving R.

245

Emergent Behavior in a Low-Order Fluidized-Bed Bubble Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emergent Behavior in a Low-Order Fluidized-Bed Bubble Model John S. Halow National Energy of this type of model to describe the dynamics of voids in bubbling fluidized beds. The model considers vertical interactions between neighboring bubbles in fluidized beds. Emergent collective behavior is shown

Tennessee, University of

246

Bubble and droplet motion in binary mixtures: Evaporation-condensation mechanism and Marangoni effect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bubble and droplet motion in binary mixtures: Evaporation-condensation mechanism and Marangoni 2009; published 14 April 2009 Bubble and droplet motion in binary mixtures is studied in weak heat a crossover concentration c inversely proportional to the radius R of the bubble or droplet. Here c is usually

247

The thickness of the falling film of liquid around a Taylor bubble  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...falling film of liquid around a Taylor bubble E. W. Llewellin 1 * E. Del Bello 2...falling film of liquid around a Taylor bubble, when liquid-gas interfacial tension...down a plane surface and around a Taylor bubble, and develop a theoretical model for...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Supra-bubble regime for laser acceleration of cold electron beams in tenuous plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Supra-bubble regime for laser acceleration of cold electron beams in tenuous plasma V. I. Geyko,1 I 2010 Relativistic electrons can be accelerated by an ultraintense laser pulse in the "supra-bubble" regime, that is, in the blow-out regime ahead of the plasma bubble as opposed to the conventional method

249

Bubble tracking in image sequences Da-chuan Cheng and Hans Burkhardt  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bubble tracking in image sequences Da-chuan Cheng and Hans Burkhardt Institute of Pattern-(0)761-2038272 Fax: +49-(0)761-2038262 #12;1 Bubble tracking in image sequences Da-chuan Cheng and Hans Burkhardt of Freiburg,79110, Germany Abstract In this paper, we develop a system which can track bubbles in image

250

Bubble nucleation as a trigger for xenolith entrapment in mantle melts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bubble nucleation as a trigger for xenolith entrapment in mantle melts Nadav G. Lensky a,b,, Ron W to partial crystallization. Following nucleation, the bubbles grow and, if magma volume is confined, the surrounding rock may fracture. We performed experiments on the nucleation of CO2 bubbles in mafic alkaline

Lyakhovsky, Vladimir

251

Single bubble rising dynamics for moderate Reynolds number using Lattice Boltzmann Method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Single bubble rising dynamics for moderate Reynolds number using Lattice Boltzmann Method Luz Amaya November 2009 Accepted 4 March 2010 Available online 18 March 2010 Keywords: Bubble rising Lattice Boltzmann Method Large viscosity ratio a b s t r a c t Dynamics of a single rising gas bubble is studied

Frey, Pascal

252

Controlling bubble motion over heated surface through evaporation momentum force to enhance pool boiling heat transfer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Controlling bubble motion over heated surface through evaporation momentum force to enhance pool/APPLAB/v102/i5 Published by the American Institute of Physics. Related Articles Dynamics of micro-bubble sonication inside a phantom vessel Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 013702 (2013) Bubble-driven inertial micropump Phys

Kandlikar, Satish

253

Bubble entrainment by breaking waves and their influence on optical scattering in the upper ocean  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bubble entrainment by breaking waves and their influence on optical scattering in the upper ocean's surface inject bubbles and turbulence into the water column. During periods of rough weather the scales and the turbulent transport of bubbles to depth. Depending on their concentrations and size distribution

Stramski, Dariusz

254

BUBBLE STABILIZATION OF DISCONTINUOUS GALERKIN PAOLA ANTONIETTI, FRANCO BREZZI, AND L. DONATELLA MARINI  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BUBBLE STABILIZATION OF DISCONTINUOUS GALERKIN METHODS PAOLA ANTONIETTI, FRANCO BREZZI, AND L. DONATELLA MARINI Abstract. We analyze the stabilizing effect of the introduction of suitable bubble, can be used if suitable bubbles are added to the local spaces ( 1. Introduction Most commonly used DG

Brezzi, Franco

255

Simulation of bubble migration in a turbulent boundary layer M. Mattson and K. Mahesha  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Simulation of bubble migration in a turbulent boundary layer M. Mattson and K. Mahesha Aerospace of bubbles injected into a turbulent boundary layer. The Reynolds number of the turbulent boundary layer varies from 420 Re 1800, and the bubble Reynolds number Reb 1. Simulation parameters were chosen to match

Mahesh, Krishnan

256

Bubble Contact Angle Method for Evaluating Substratum Interfacial Characteristics and Its Relevance to Bacterial Attachment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article General Microbial Ecology Bubble Contact Angle Method for Evaluating Substratum...New South Wales 2033, Australia. A bubble contact angle method was used to determine...hydrophilic, giving an angle of 29 or less. Bubble contact angles at the surfaces exposed...

Madilyn Fletcher; K. C. Marshall

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Modelling bubble rise and interaction with a glass Rogerio Manica1*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modelling bubble rise and interaction with a glass surface Rogerio Manica1* , Maurice H. W. Hendrix A theoretical model has been developed to analyse experimental data of millimetre- size bubbles rising under for bubble deformations on the micrometre scale in the interaction zone with quantitative precision

Chan, Derek Y C

258

Bubble transport in three-dimensional laminar gravity-driven flow mathematical formulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bubble transport in three-dimensional laminar gravity-driven flow ­ mathematical formulation This paper presents a complete set of coupled equations that govern the bubble transport in three-dimensional gravity-driven flow. The model accounts for bubble growth or shrinkage due to pressure and temperature

Pilon, Laurent

259

The effect of soluble surfactant on the transient motion of a buoyancy-driven bubble  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The effect of soluble surfactant on the transient motion of a buoyancy-driven bubble Savas Tasoglu of a bubble rising in an otherwise quiescent liquid contained in an axisymmetric tube is computationally. The nearly spherical, ellipsoidal, and dimpled ellipsoidal-cap regimes of bubble motion are examined

Demirci, Utkan

260

Permanent Bubble Arrays from a Cross-Linked Poly(para-phenyleneethynylene): Picoliter Holes without Microfabrication  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Permanent Bubble Arrays from a Cross-Linked Poly(para-phenyleneethynylene): Picoliter Holes without). The holes are formed by heating self-assembled bubble arrays (from 4) to 300 °C. They will be useful evaporating solvents generate hexagonally ordered bubble arrays when moist air is used to evaporate

Srinivasarao, Mohan

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bubbling reactor cd" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

The Connection between Bubble Size Spectra and Energy Dissipation Rates in the Upper Ocean  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A formula for the maximum size of a bubble for which surface tension forces can prevent bubble breakup by inertial forces, combined with the observed sizes of air bubbles in breaking waves, implies an energy dissipation rate. One dataset from the ...

Chris Garrett; Ming Li; David Farmer

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Pattern formation on the surface of a bubble driven by an acoustic field  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the laboratory, including bubble sizing (Leighton et al. 1996...of the shape chosen by the bubble in steady state, there is...the eigenvalues of the linear stability problem is small, causing...observations of patterns on the bubble wall have been reported in...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Acoustic resonances in the bubble plume formed by a plunging water jet  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...low-frequency acoustic signature of the bubble plume in the tank. pressure...sound-pressure field from the bubble plume at frequencies up to...the plume. As a check on the stability of the peaks in the spectrum...hydrophone was moved relative to the bubble plume, and the eigenfrequencies...

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Development of bubble chambers with sensitivity to WIMPs , J. I. Collarb*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of high- stability bubble chambers containing heavy liquids as an alternative to SDDs. The use of a stableDevelopment of bubble chambers with sensitivity to WIMPs L. Bonda , J. I. Collarb* , J. Elya , M@uchicago.edu We constructed a small bubble chamber, with special features needed to search for WIMPs: long

Collar, Juan I.

265

Lattice Boltzmann simulations of bubble formation in a microfluidic T-junction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...factors that affect the bubble formation process...based on accuracy and stability. This study uses D...Kreutzer2009Flows around confined bubbles and their importance...Kumar2009Droplet formation and stability of flows in a microfluidic...and T. Lee2010Single bubble rising dynamics for...

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

BUBBLE STABILIZATION OF DISCONTINUOUS GALERKIN PAOLA F. ANTONIETTI, FRANCO BREZZI, AND L. DONATELLA MARINI  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BUBBLE STABILIZATION OF DISCONTINUOUS GALERKIN METHODS PAOLA F. ANTONIETTI, FRANCO BREZZI, AND L. DONATELLA MARINI Abstract. We analyze the stabilizing effect of the introduction of suitable bubble, by definition, a function whose support is contained in a single element. The bubble stabilization, in its turn

Marini, Donatella

267

On the origins of unsteadiness and three-dimensionality in a laminar separation bubble  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...instabilities in separation bubbles. Aero. J. 99, 439...Linear and nonlinear stability of the Blasius boundary...of laminar separation bubbles caused by natural transition...dimensional laminar separation bubbles as result of linear...Th. 1997 Parabolized stability equations. A. Rev...

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Critical strength of an electric field whereby a bubble can adopt a steady shape  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...revisit the problem of the stability of a gas bubble in a liquid, without requiring...predicts one solution branch and bubble stability for all values of W considered...and S. O. Shiryaeva 1999 Stability of a bubble in a dielectric liquid in...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Steady axisymmetric motion of a small bubble in a tube with flowing liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...axisymmetric motion of a small bubble in a tube with flowing liquid...behaviour of a relatively small bubble moving with a flowing liquid...method to the problem of elastic stability. J. Appl. Mech. 39, 1060-1065...Kiss 1986 On the motion of bubbles in capillary tubes. J. Fluid...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Formation and stability of oxygen-rich bubbles that shape photosynthetic mats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Formation and stability of oxygen-rich bubbles that shape photosynthetic mats T. BOSAK,1 J. W. M and stability of oxygen-rich bubbles enmeshed by filamentous cyanobacteria. Sub-millimetric and millimetric bubbles can be stable for weeks and even months. During this time, lithifying organic-rich lami- nae

Bush, John W.M.

271

Instabilities in two-dimensional flower and chain clusters of bubbles M. A. Fortes1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, clusters, Surface Evolver, bubbles, foams 1 #12;1.Introduction Considerable attention has been given multiplied by the film energy per unit length or film tension . We therefore identify cells with bubbles the stability of the equilibria of two types of 2D finite clusters of bubbles: 1) flower clusters with N shells

Cox, Simon

272

The evolution of an axi-symmetric Stokes bubble with volumetric change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at the bubble boundary and is the surface tension. The interfacial kinematic condition 4 #12;requires dx dt n volume is changed. Linear stability analysis shows that an expanding spherical bubble is stable, while. We present the equations of the bubble motion in Section 2, and perform a linear stability analysis

273

A model for large amplitude oscillations of coated bubbles accounting for buckling and rupture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

stabilizes the bubbles and prevents their coalescence. Pulmonary alveoli in the lungs have a li- pidic coating for the same reason.1 The coating modifies the effective surface tension. Since surface tension of the bubble surface: however, in practice, insonifying contrast agent bubbles produces oscillations with large

Marmottant, Philippe

274

Mechanism of mass transfer between a bubble initially composed of oxygen and molten glass1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanism of mass transfer between a bubble initially composed of oxygen and molten glass1 F ­ BP 135, 93303 Aubervilliers Cedex, France Abstract The bubble removal from molten glass is an important problem in glass melting process. In this paper, the mass transfer undergone by a bubble rising

Boyer, Edmond

275

Nuclear reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A nuclear reactor comprising a cylindrical pressure vessel, an elongated annular core centrally disposed within and spaced from the pressure vessel, and a plurality of ducts disposed longitudinally of the pressure vessel about the periphery thereof, said core comprising an annular active portion, an annular reflector just inside the active portion, and an annular reflector just outside the active a portion, said annular active portion comprising rectangular slab, porous fuel elements radially disposed around the inner reflector and extending the length of the active portion, wedge-shaped, porous moderator elements disposed adjacent one face of each fuel element and extending the length of the fuel element, the fuel and moderator elements being oriented so that the fuel elements face each other and the moderator elements do likewise, adjacent moderator elements being spaced to provide air inlet channels, and adjacent fuel elements being spaced to provide air outlet channels which communicate with the interior of the peripheral ducts, and means for introducing air into the air inlet channels which passes through the porous moderator elements and porous fuel elements to the outlet channel.

Thomson, Wallace B. (Severna Park, MD)

2004-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

276

Bubbles and drops in superheated and supercooled nuclear matter  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Equilibrium solutions of bubbles and drops in superheated and supercooled nuclear matter are studied. The existence of such objects is shown to depend on several factors including Coulomb energy, surface tension, hydrodynamic stability, and fissility. We suggest conditions under which such objects might be formed in the laboratory.

Bao-An Li; Scott Pratt; Philip J. Siemens

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Relativistic detonation waves and bubble growth in false vacuum decay  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

After reviewing the current understanding of relativistic shock waves, a detailed analysis of relativistic detonation waves is presented. It is proposed that the motion of a detonation wave is analogous to the growth of a bubble nucleated during false vacuum decay at finite temperatures. Some possible applications of these results to cosmology are discussed.

Paul Joseph Steinhardt

1982-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

278

Geometrical Arrangements of a Collection of Bubbles Roman urikovic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ G ­ slovenský casopis pre geometriu a grafiku, rocník 2 (2005), císlo 1, s. 7 - 16 7 #12;RomanGeometrical Arrangements of a Collection of Bubbles Roman urikovic Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics Comenius University, Slovakia email: roman.durikovic@fmph.uniba.sk Abstrakt V tomto clánku

Durikovic, Roman

279

Low?frequency sound radiation and scattering from bubble clouds.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recent experimental evidence has shown that when wave breaking occurs low?frequency (LF?200 Hz) sound is produced and LF scatter has a different characteristic than expected from rough sea surface scattering. These effects have been attributed to the bubbles produced during wave breaking which are convected to depth by the breaking turbulence vorticity and Langmuir circulation as observed by Thorpe [S. Thorpe Oceanic White Caps edited by E. Monahan and G. MacNiocaill (Reidel Boston 1986) pp. 57–58]. While the radiation and scatteringcharacteristics at frequencies greater than 1 kHz are explained by incoherent scatter from the observed bubble size and space distributions the lower frequency phenomena are not easily explained. However if bubble plumes and clouds produced in the wave breaking have appreciable volume fractions (?10?5) then LF sound radiation and scattering can be explained by classical theories. This paper reviews the scattering and radiation from bubbleclouds in water as a function of volume fraction. When the cloud is compact coherent and collective scatter are shown to occur. The natural frequency of radiation is shown to be described by a modified Minnaert result while the backscatter target strength is described by the first?order volume mode. These analytical results agree with experimental sound radiation and scatter measurements. Finally the collective radiation of bubble plumes and clouds is discussed as a possible explanation of the observed ocean low?frequency scattering and radiation phenomena. [Work sponsored by ONR 11250A and NUSC IR.

William M. Carey

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Direct Simulation of Argon Rectification in Single Bubble Sonoluminescence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

collapse when the bubble is hot. The gases will react with water vapor to form soluble species, which into the liquid. The flux of stable dissolved gas species from the liquid (such as argon, nitrogen, hydrogen, there is still an incomplete quantitative prediction of the phenomena. Recently, the importance of water vapor

Storey, Brian D.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bubbling reactor cd" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Kinetic Model of Gas Bubble Dissolution in Groundwater and Its  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that rely on the actual dissolved gas content of gases such as oxygen or nitrogen. To describe the bubble of this excess gas is controlled by the solubility and the molecular diffusivity of the gases considered to water in the pore space. In the case of noble gases in a through-flow system, solubility differences

Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner

282

The volume scattering function of natural bubble populations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

tion from high winds to low, with a view toward the use of these novel observations to ...... between bubble size spectra and energy dissipation rates in the upper ocean. ... Land-ocean interac- tions in the coastal zone: Implementation plan, 33.

2002-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

283

Aeration Due to Breaking Waves. Part I: Bubble Populations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The population of bubbles produced by breaking waves in (10 m) winds of up to 12 m s?1 is analyzed using calibrated images from a vertical pencil-beam sonar system placed on the seabed near the Dutch coast. The structure in the images is ...

A. Graham; D. K. Woolf; A. J. Hall

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Star formation around the mid-infrared bubble CN 148  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a multi-wavelength study to analyse the star formation process associated with the mid-infrared bubble CN 148 (H II region G10.3-0.1), which harbors an O5V-O6V star. The arc-shaped distribution of molecular CO(2-1) emission, the cold dust emission, and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon features trace a photodissociation region (PDR) around the H II region. We have identified 371 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the selected region and, interestingly, their spatial distribution correlates well with the PDR. 41% of these YSOs are present in 13 clusters, each having visual extinction larger than 16 mag. The clusters at the edges of the bubble (both northeast and southwest) are found to be relatively younger than the clusters located further away from the bubble. We also find that four 6.7 GHz methanol masers, two Extended Green Objects, an ultra-compact H II region, and a massive protostar candidate (as previously reported) are spatially positioned at the edges of the bubble. The existence of an appa...

Dewangan, L K; Grave, J M C; Mallick, K K

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Congenital Duodenal Obstruction and Double-Bubble Sign  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Figure 1. A 1080-g girl was born at a gestational age of 29 weeks because of premature rupture of membranes. Enteral feeding was not tolerated. The infant's condition deteriorated, with nonbilious vomiting and a lack of stools. Abdominal radiography showed the double-bubble sign.

Correia-Pinto J.; Ribeiro A.

2014-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

286

The oil price really is a speculative bubble  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The oil price really is a speculative bubble. Yet only recently has the U.S. Congress, for example, showed recognition that this might even be a possibility. In general there seems to be a preference for the claim that the ...

Eckaus, Richard S.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Acceleration of Preconditioned Krylov Solvers for Bubbly Flow Problems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

eigen- values in the spectrum of M-1 A, see also [13]. This phenomenon also holds if we use other, preconditioning, sym- metric positive semi-definite matrices, bubbly flow problems. 1 Introduction Recently of this method is solving the symmetric and positive semi-definite (SPSD) linear system on each time step, which

Vuik, Kees

288

Modeling of Sorption-Enhanced Steam Reforming in a Dual Fluidized Bubbling Bed Reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The kinetics of the steam methane reforming and water-gas shift reactions are based on literature values, whereas experimentally derived carbonation kinetics are used for the carbonation of a dolomite. ... An equilibrium H2 concentration of ?98% on a dry basis was reached at 600 °C and 1 atm, with Arctic dolomite (Franzefoss A/S) as the CO2-acceptor. ... loss?by?ignition ...

Kim Johnsen; John R. Grace; Said S. E. H. Elnashaie; Leiv Kolbeinsen; Dag Eriksen

2006-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

289

Hydrodynamic Stability Analysis of Burning Bubbles in Electroweak Theory and in QCD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assuming that the electroweak and QCD phase transitions are first order, upon supercooling, bubbles of the new phase appear. These bubbles grow to macroscopic sizes compared to the natural scales associated with the Compton wavelengths of particle excitations. They propagate by burning the old phase into the new phase at the surface of the bubble. We study the hydrodynamic stability of the burning and find that for the velocities of interest for cosmology in the electroweak phase transition, the shape of the bubble wall is stable under hydrodynamic perturbations. Bubbles formed in the cosmological QCD phase transition are found to be a borderline case between stability and instability.

P. Huet; K. Kajantie; R. G. Leigh; B. -H. Liu; L. McLerran

1992-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

290

Model of bubble velocity vector measurement in upward and downward bubbly two-phase flows using a four-sensor optical probe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The knowledge of bubble behaviors is of considerable significance for a proper understanding and modeling of two-phase flows. To obtain the information on the bubble motion, a novel model was developed, by which the bubble velocity vector can be directly calculated from six time intervals measured with a four-sensor probe. The measurements of local bubble velocity vector and void fraction were performed in both upward and downward bubbly flows by using a four-sensor optical probe. The area-averaged void fraction and bubble velocity obtained from the probe agree well with those measured by other cross-calibration methods, and the measurement errors are within 15% under various flow conditions. Experimental results of the bubble velocity vector reveal that the bubble lateral migration may be suppressed in upward flows, but be strengthened in downward flows as the liquid flow rate increases. Also, with an increase in gas flow rate, the bubble velocity distribution varies into the power–law profile in upward flows, but into an off-center peak profile in downward flows. In addition, the void fraction shows a core peak distribution at low void fraction for downward flows, but a wall peak distribution for upward flows. However, when the void fraction is relatively high, it displays an off-center peak distribution for downward flows but a core peak distribution for upward flows.

Daogui Tian; Changqi Yan; Licheng Sun

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

A model for nonlinear oscillations of a gas bubble in liquids.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is well known that the damped bubble oscillation due to finite heat exchange with surrounding liquid displays an available power loss where there is entropy production. However the nonlinear bubble analysis using a polytropic relation of the form PV n =const (P is the pressure inside the bubble V is the bubble volume and n is the polytropic exponent) fails to account for such thermal damping. In this study a self?consistent model for the dynamics of a spherical bubble driven into oscillation in a liquid by employing the energy equation and the equation of state for a vapor inside a bubble and the momentum and energy equations for the surrounding liquid is formulated. The heat transfer between vapor inside the bubble and the surrounding liquid is assumed to occur through the thin boundary layer adjacent to the bubble wall. The heat transfer due to an instantaneous temperature distribution inside the bubble is also considered in this analysis. The calculated frequency response curves for the forced oscillation of a bubble are quite different from the ones obtained by the analysis using the polytropic relation. Calculation results show that the amplitude peak corresponding to the fundamental resonance during a steady oscillation for a 10?25??m?diam bubble is 20% less than the value obtained by the polytropic model.

Jei?Cheong Ryu; Ho?Young Kwak

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Impurity and back contact effects on CdTe/CdS thin film solar cells.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??CdTe/CdS thin film solar cells are the most promising cost-effective solar cells. The goal of this project is to improve the performance for CdS/CdTe devices… (more)

Zhao, Hehong

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Luminescence Enhancement of CdTe Nanostructures in LaF3:Ce/CdTe...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Enhancement of CdTe Nanostructures in LaF3:CeCdTe Nanocomposites. Luminescence Enhancement of CdTe Nanostructures in LaF3:CeCdTe Nanocomposites. Abstract: Radiation detection...

294

Study of electron trapping by a transversely ellipsoidal bubble in the laser wake-field acceleration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present electron trapping in an ellipsoidal bubble which is not well explained by the spherical bubble model by [Kostyukov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 175003 (2009)]. The formation of an ellipsoidal bubble, which is elongated transversely, frequently occurs when the spot size of the laser pulse is large compared to the plasma wavelength. First, we introduce the relation between the bubble size and the field slope inside the bubble in longitudinal and transverse directions. Then, we provide an ellipsoidal model of the bubble potential and investigate the electron trapping condition by numerical integration of the equations of motion. We found that the ellipsoidal model gives a significantly less restrictive trapping condition than that of the spherical bubble model. The trapping condition is compared with three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations and the electron trajectory in test potential simulations.

Cho, Myung-Hoon [School of Natural Science, UNIST, BanYeon-Ri 100, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Natural Science, UNIST, BanYeon-Ri 100, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-Kuk; Hur, Min Sup [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, UNIST, BanYeon-Ri 100, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, UNIST, BanYeon-Ri 100, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

295

Heat transfer to a horizontal cylinder in a shallow bubble column  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Heat transfer coefficient correlations for tall bubble columns are unable to predict heat transfer in shallow bubble columns, which have unique geometry and fluid dynamics. In this work, the heat transfer coefficient is measured on the surface of a horizontal cylinder immersed in a shallow air–water bubble column. Superficial velocity, liquid depth, and cylinder height and horizontal position with respect to the sparger orifices are varied. The heat transfer coefficient is found to increase with height until reaching a critical height, and a dimensionless, semi-theoretical correlation is developed that incorporates superficial velocity, liquid properties, and height. Additionally, the more minor effects of flow regime, column region, and bubble impact are discussed. Notably, the heat transfer coefficient can be as high in the region of bubble coalescence as in the bulk of the column, but only if bubbles impact the cylinder. The correlation and discussion provide a framework for modeling and designing shallow, coil-cooled bubble columns.

Emily W. Tow; John H. Lienhard V

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Influence of CdTe thickness on structural and electrical properties of CdTe/CdS solar cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Influence of CdTe thickness on structural and electrical properties of CdTe/CdS solar cells A a b s t r a c ta r t i c l e i n f o Available online xxxx Keywords: Solar cells CdCl2 CdTe Thin absorbers Due to its high scalability and low production cost, CdTe solar cells have shown a very strong

Romeo, Alessandro

297

COMMUNICATIONS Cd doping at the CuInSe2 CdS heterojunction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COMMUNICATIONS Cd doping at the CuInSe2 �CdS heterojunction Dongxiang Liaoa) and Angus Rockett that CIGS could be doped with Cd during chemical bath deposition CBD of CdS.6 However, Cd doping of CIGS October 2002; accepted 7 March 2003 The chemical composition of the CuInSe2 /CdS heterojunction interface

Rockett, Angus

298

Rook's Textbook of Dermatology: CD-ROM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Blaschko. In summary, this CD-ROM is simply an electronicform is now available on CD-ROM. If you don't already ownedition of this text, the CD-ROM version priced at only $295

Haycox, Claire L. MD PhD

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Attrition reactor system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reactor vessel for reacting a solid particulate with a liquid reactant has a centrifugal pump in circulatory flow communication with the reactor vessel for providing particulate attrition, resulting in additional fresh surface where the reaction can occur. 2 figures.

Scott, C.D.; Davison, B.H.

1993-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

300

Elementary Reactor Physics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... THERE are few subjects which have developed at the rate at which reactor physics and ... physics and reactor theory have done. This, of course, is largely due to the circumstances in ...

J. F. HILL

1962-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bubbling reactor cd" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Colliding Beam Fusion Reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The recirculating power for virtually all types of fusion reactors has previously been calculated [1] with the Fokker–Planck equation. The reactors involve non-Maxwellian plasmas. The calculations are ... the rec...

Norman Rostoker; Artan Qerushi; Michl Binderbauer

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Prospects for spheromak fusion reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The reactor study of Hagenson and Krakowski demonstrated the attractiveness of the spheromak as a compact fusion reactor, based on...

T. K. Fowler; D. D. Hua

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Visualization study of bubble behavior in a subcooled flow boiling channel under rolling motion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Boiling heat transfer equipment in a vessel can be affected by the additional force which is generated by the rolling, swing and heaving motion of the vessel. Bubble behavior is very important for the research of boiling phenomenon. Bubble behavior under rolling motion condition is experimentally studied by using a high speed camera. The experiment is conducted in a subcooled flow boiling rectangular channel, and the cross section size of the channel is 2 mm × 40 mm. Two types of bubbles with large discrepancies in sliding and condensation behaviors can be observed in the captured images. The first type bubbles disappear quickly after generation and the slide distance is only a few times of bubble maximum diameter, while the second type bubbles can survive a longer time after leaving the nucleation site and slide for a long distance with the flowing fluid. Bubble characteristics under rolling motion are separately studied for different type bubbles based on the above reasons. The results show that the lifetime, maximum diameter, nucleation frequency and sliding velocity of the first type bubble are periodically fluctuated and the period is same with the rolling motion. The fluctuation intensity of the bubble lifetime and maximum diameter can be enhanced by the increase of the rolling amplitude. The peak value of bubble lifetime, maximum diameter, and nucleation frequency appears when the rolling platform plate rolls to the maximum positive angle, while opposite trend can be observed in the variation of bubble sliding velocity. In view of the characteristics of the second type bubbles, lifetime and maximum diameter are not measured. And the variation of nucleation frequency and sliding velocity of the second type bubbles under the effect of rolling motion is same with the first type bubbles. Furthermore, the effects of additional force, variation of local pressure and flow rate oscillation on bubble behavior are analyzed. The results indicate that the fluctuations of the bubble parameters can be generated by the variation of local pressure caused by rolling motion even no influential flow rate fluctuation occurs. The effect of the acceleration variation vertical to the heated surface on bubble behavior is unclear and need more researches in the future work.

Shaodan Li; Sichao Tan; Chao Xu; Puzhen Gao

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Cathodoluminescence of Cd4SiS6?, Cd4SiSe6?, and Si-Doped CdS, CdSe, and CdTe Crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CdS, CdSe, and CdTe single crystals were vapor-phase-doped with the corresponding silicon chalcogenides under nearly...4SiS6and Cd4SiSe6crystals were measured. Metastable, sphalerite CdS?Si? and CdSe?Si? films we...

I. N. Odin; M. V. Chukichev; V. A. Ivanov; M. E. Rubina

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Advanced Test Reactor Tour  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

Miley, Don

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Improved vortex reactor system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved vortex reactor system for affecting fast pyrolysis of biomass and Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) feed materials comprising: a vortex reactor having its axis vertically disposed in relation to a jet of a horizontally disposed steam ejector that impels feed materials from a feeder and solids from a recycle loop along with a motive gas into a top part of said reactor.

Diebold, James P. (Lakewood, CO); Scahill, John W. (Evergreen, CO)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Advanced Test Reactor Tour  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

Miley, Don

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

308

A Key to Pulsar Wind Bubble Morphologies: HD simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a model of a pulsar-driven supernova remnant, by using a hydrodynamics code, which simulates the evolution of a pulsar wind nebula when the pulsar is moving at a high velocity through its expanding supernova remnant. The simulation shows four different stages of the pulsar wind nebula: the supersonic expansion stage, the reverse shock interaction stage, the subsonic expansion stage and ultimately the bow shock stage. Due to the high velocity of the pulsar, the position of the pulsar is located at the head of the pulsar wind bubble, after the passage of the reverse shock. The resulting morphology of the pulsar wind bubble is therefore similar to the morphology of a bow shock pulsar wind nebula. We show how to distinguish these two different stages, and apply this method to the SNR G327.1-1.1, for which we argue that there is no bow shock around its pulsar wind nebula.

Eric van der Swaluw; Turlough P. Downes

2003-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

309

Stability of bubble nuclei through Shell-Effects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the shell structure of bubble nuclei in simple phenomenological shell models and study their binding energy as a function of the radii and of the number of neutron and protons using Strutinsky's method. Shell effects come about, on the one hand, by the high degeneracy of levels with large angular momentum and, on the other, by the big energy gaps between states with a different number of radial nodes. Shell energies down to -40 MeV are shown to occur for certain magic nuclei. Estimates demonstrate that the calculated shell effects for certain magic numbers of constituents are probably large enough to produce stability against fission, alpha-, and beta-decay. No bubble solutions are found for mass number A < 450.

Klaus Dietrich; Krzysztof Pomorski

1997-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

310

ccsd00000577 Threedimensional bubble clusters: shape, packing and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

properties such as aging, due to gas dif­ fusion, and structure is a problem of fundamental interest­length) structure of equal­ size bubbles that fills space? In 2D, Hales [3] proved that this is the familiar=V 2=3 . #15; Growth laws: how does a foam age, or coarsen, due to gas diffusion across its surfaces

311

Negative mass bubbles in de Sitter space-time  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the possibility of the existence of negative mass bubbles within a de Sitter space-time background with matter content corresponding to a perfect fluid. It is shown that there exist configurations of the perfect fluid, that everywhere satisfy the dominant energy condition, the Einstein equations and the equations of hydrostatic equilibrium, however asymptotically approach the exact solution of Schwarzschid-de Sitter space-time with a negative mass.

Mbarek, Saoussen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Negative mass bubbles in de Sitter space-time  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the possibility of the existence of negative mass bubbles within a de Sitter space-time background with matter content corresponding to a perfect fluid. It is shown that there exist configurations of the perfect fluid, that everywhere satisfy the dominant energy condition, the Einstein equations and the equations of hydrostatic equilibrium, however asymptotically approach the exact solution of Schwarzschid-de Sitter space-time with a negative mass.

Saoussen Mbarek; M. B. Paranjape

2014-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

313

The Argonaut Reactor - Reactors designed/built by Argonne National  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Achievements > Achievements > Argonne Reactors > Training Reactors About Director's Welcome Organization Achievements Highlights Fact Sheets, Brochures & Other Documents Multimedia Library Visit Argonne Work with Argonne Contact us Nuclear Energy Why Nuclear Energy? Why are some people afraid of Nuclear Energy? How do nuclear reactors work? Cheaper & Safer Nuclear Energy Helping to Solve the Nuclear Waste Problem Nuclear Reactors Nuclear Reactors Early Exploration Training Reactors Basic and Applied Science Research LWR Technology Development BORAX-III lighting Arco, Idaho (Press Release) Heavy Water and Graphite Reactors Fast Reactor Technology Integral Fast Reactor Argonne Reactor Tree CP-1 70th Anniversary CP-1 70th Anniversary Argonne's Nuclear Science and Technology Legacy

314

Bubble study could improve industrial splash control | Argonne National  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The evolution process during drop impact: inertial retraction of an air film, contraction of the top air surface into a toroidbubble, and pinch-off of a daughter droplet in the bubble. The solid-line arrows denote the propagation of capillary waves, and the dashed-line arrow indicates the contact between the crest and the substrate. To view a larger version of the image, click on it. The evolution process during drop impact: inertial retraction of an air film, contraction of the top air surface into a toroidbubble, and pinch-off of a daughter droplet in the bubble. The solid-line arrows denote the propagation of capillary waves, and the dashed-line arrow indicates the contact between the crest and the substrate. To view a larger version of the image, click on it. The evolution process during drop impact: inertial retraction of an air film, contraction of the top air surface into a toroidbubble, and pinch-off of a daughter droplet in the bubble. The solid-line arrows denote the propagation of capillary waves, and the dashed-line arrow indicates the contact between the crest and the substrate. To view a larger version of the image, click on it.

315

Azimuthal Asymmetries and Vibrational Modes in Bubble Pinch-off  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The pressure-driven inertial collapse of a cylindrical void in an inviscid liquid is an integrable, Hamiltonian system that forms a finite-time singularity as the radius of the void collapses to zero. Here it is shown that when the natural cylindrical symmetry of the void is perturbed azimuthally, the perturbation modes neither grow nor decay, but instead cause constant amplitude vibrations about the leading-order symmetric collapse. Though the amplitudes are frozen in time, they grow relative to the mean radius which is collapsing to zero, eventually overtaking the leading-order symmetric implosion. Including weak viscous dissipation destroys the integrability of the underlying symmetric implosion, and the effect on the stability spectrum is that short-wavelength disturbances are now erased as the implosion proceeds. Introducing a weak rotational flow component to the symmetric implosion dynamics causes the vibrating shapes to spin as the mean radius collapses. The above theoretical scenario is compared to a closely related experimental realization of void implosion: the disconnection of an air bubble from an underwater nozzle. There, the thin neck connecting the bubble to the nozzle implodes primarily radially inward and disconnects. Recent experiments were able to induce vibrations of the neck shape by releasing the bubble from a slot-shaped nozzle. The frequency and amplitude of the observed vibrations are consistent with the theoretical prediction once surface tension effects are taken into account.

Laura E. Schmidt

2011-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

316

Reactor vessel support system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

Golden, Martin P. (Trafford, PA); Holley, John C. (McKeesport, PA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Screening reactor steam/water piping systems for water hammer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A steam/water system possessing a certain combination of thermal, hydraulic and operational states, can, in certain geometries, lead to a steam bubble collapse induced water hammer. These states, operations, and geometries are identified. A procedure that can be used for identifying whether an unbuilt reactor system is prone to water hammer is proposed. For the most common water hammer, steam bubble collapse induced water hammer, six conditions must be met in order for one to occur. These are: (1) the pipe must be almost horizontal; (2) the subcooling must be greater than 20 C; (3) the L/D must be greater than 24; (4) the velocity must be low enough so that the pipe does not run full, i.e., the Froude number must be less than one; (5) there should be void nearby; (6) the pressure must be high enough so that significant damage occurs, that is the pressure should be above 10 atmospheres. Recommendations on how to avoid this kind of water hammer in both the design and the operation of the reactor system are made.

Griffith, P. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

CD54AC04, CD74AC04 HEX INVERTERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

°C to 125°C SOIC M Tube CD74AC04M AC04M­55°C to 125°C SOIC ­ M Tape and reel CD74AC04M96 AC04M CDIP-maximum-rated conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. NOTES: 1. The input and output voltage ratings may be exceeded if the input and output current ratings are observed. 2. The package thermal impedance

Kretchmar, R. Matthew

319

Reactor water cleanup system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling.

Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA); Taft, William E. (Los Gatos, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Reactor water cleanup system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling. 1 figure.

Gluntz, D.M.; Taft, W.E.

1994-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bubbling reactor cd" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Chlorine-doped CdS thin films from CdCl2-mixed CdS powder  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The CdS:Cl thin films have been prepared using thermally evaporated, CdCl2-mixed CdS powder at 200°C substrate temperature. The percentage of CdCl2 in the mixture varied from 0% to 0.20%. The electrical propertie...

Husam H. Abu-Safe; Marouf Hossain; Hameed Naseem…

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Global existence for a translating near-circular Hele-Shaw bubble with surface tension  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper is concerned with proving global existence and stability of a translating bubble in a Hele-Shaw cell that is small relative to cell width. When the ratio of cell width to bubble dimension is sufficient large, the equations admit the steady translating near-circular bubble shape. We are concerned with global existence with the initial condition close to this steady shape. When the cell side walls effects are negligible, we show that the translating circular bubble is asymptotically stable for nonzero surface tension. With side walls effects, we obtain similar results for bubble shapes symmetric about the channel centerline. As with our prior work, we exploit a boundary integral approach that allows for a finite nonzero viscosity ratio between fluid inside and outside the bubble.

Ye, J

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Recent CD-ROM Software  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A modern inheritor of the classic AO Manual of Osteosynthesis..., this work reconciles an exhaustive approach to traumatology with modern learning methods made up by the video media on CD-ROM.

Pierre Kehr

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Combined effect of viscosity and vorticity on single mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability bubble growth  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The combined effect of viscosity and vorticity on the growth rate of the bubble associated with single mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability is investigated. It is shown that the effect of viscosity on the motion of the lighter fluid associated with vorticity accumulated inside the bubble due to mass ablation may be such as to reduce the net viscous drag on the bubble exerted by the upper heavier fluid as the former rises through it.

Banerjee, Rahul; Mandal, Labakanta; Roy, S.; Khan, M.; Gupta, M. R. [Department of Instrumentation Science and Centre for Plasma Studies, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

325

Invention and History of the Bubble Chamber (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Summer Lecture Series 2006: Don Glaser won the 1960 Nobel Prize for Physics for his 1952 invention of the bubble chamber at Berkeley Lab, a type of particle detector that became the mainstay of high-energy physics research throughout the 1960s and 1970s. He discusses how, inspired by bubbles in a glass of beer, he invented the bubble chamber and detected cosmic-ray muons.

Glaser, Don

2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

326

Transport of entrained air bubbles in fresh concrete due to pressure variations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is beneficial. Bubbles are stabilized against mechanical deformation and rupture by means of the so called "Marangoni" effect due to the adsorbed films and the consequent lowering of surface tension. "This effect is to restore a locally deformed bubble... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . , . . . . . . . 185 LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Page Air Pressure in Bubbles Due to Surface Tension Only [9]. . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Table 2. Estimation of Air Loss by Dissolution. Table 3. Design Factorial Test Conditions. 83 Table 4...

Macha, Ravi Kumar

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

327

CdS/CdTe Solar Cells Containing Directly-Deposited CdSxTe1-x Alloy Layers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A CdS{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} layer forms by interdiffusion of CdS and CdTe during the fabrication of thin-film CdTe photovoltaic (PV) devices. The CdS{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} layer is thought to be important because it relieves strain at the CdS/CdTe interface that would otherwise exist due to the 10% lattice mismatch between these two materials. Our previous work [1] has indicated that the electrical junction is located in this interdiffused CdS{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} region. Further understanding, however, is essential to predict the role of this CdS{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} layer in the operation of CdS/CdTe devices. In this study, CdS{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} alloy films were deposited by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering and co-evaporation from CdTe and CdS sources. Both RF-magnetron-sputtered and co-evaporated CdS{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} films of lower S content (x<;0.3) have a cubic zincblende (ZB) structure akin to CdTe, whereas those of higher S content have a hexagonal wurtzite (WZ) structure like that of CdS. Films become less preferentially oriented as a result of a CdCl{sub 2} heat treatment (HT) at {approx}400 C for 5 min. Films sputtered in a 1% O{sub 2}/Ar ambient are amorphous as deposited, but show CdTe ZB, CdS WZ, and CdTe oxide phases after a CdCl{sub 2} HT. Films sputtered in O{sub 2} partial pressure have a much wider bandgap than expected. This may be explained by nanocrystalline size effects seen previously [2] for sputtered oxygenated CdS (CdS:O) films. Initial PV device results show that the introduction of a directly-deposited CdS{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} alloy layer into the device structure produces devices of comparable performance to those without the alloy layer when a CdCl{sub 2} HT is performed. Further investigation is required to determine whether the CdCl{sub 2} heat treatment step can be altered or eliminated through direct deposition of the alloy layer.

Duenow, J. N.; Dhere, R. G.; Moutinho, H. R.; To, B.; Pankow, J. W.; Kuciauskas, D.; Gessert, T. A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Bubbles Help Break Energy Storage Record for Lithium Air-Batteries  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Bubbles Help Break Energy Storage Record for Lithium Air-Batteries Foam-base graphene keeps oxygen flowing in batteries that holds promise for electric vehicles January...

329

E-Print Network 3.0 - air bubbles mimic Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

bubble. Adv Colloid Interfac 39:397-416. 8... (received for review January 14, 2010) The interaction between moving ... Source: Chan, Derek Y C - Department of Mathematics and...

330

Bubble-Point Measurements of Eight Binary Mixtures for Organic Rankine Cycle Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Bubble-Point Measurements of Eight Binary Mixtures for Organic Rankine Cycle Applications ... These mixtures are of interest as working fluids in organic Rankine power cycles. ...

Stephanie L. Outcalt; Eric W. Lemmon

2013-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

331

SciTech Connect: ON THE ANALYSIS OF BUBBLE CHAMBER TRACKS  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

by such analysis. The discussion is based largely on experience gained in performing hydrogen bubble chamber experiments with the University of California's Bevatron (6-Bev proton...

332

E-Print Network 3.0 - air bubble entrainment Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

30 June 4, 2010 Summary: . Finally, bubble entrainment and interaction with traveling vortex tube under dilute loadings are simulated... some conditions, the entrainment of eight...

333

E-Print Network 3.0 - anisotropic bubble nucleation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering 11 Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 263 (2005) 336340 Phenomenology of bubble nucleation in the solid-state Summary: December 2004 Available online 3...

334

NREL study may provide future guidance in improving CdS/CdTe photovoltaic device performance.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NREL study may provide future guidance in improving CdS/CdTe photovoltaic device performance. The majority of minority carrier lifetime (MCL) studies performed on CdS/CdTe photovoltaic (PV) devices have Carrier Lifetime Measurements in Superstrate and Substrate CdTe PV Devices." Proc. 37th IEEE Photovoltaic

335

Performance study of CdS/Co-Doped-CdSe quantum dot sensitized solar cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to optimize the charge transfer path in quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSCs), we employed successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method to dope CdSe with Co for fabricating CdS/Co-doped-CdSe QDSCs constructed with CdS/Co-doped-CdSe ...

Xiaoping Zou, Sheng He, Gongqing Teng, Chuan Zhao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Generation -IV Reactor Concepts  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Generation-IV Reactor Concepts Generation-IV Reactor Concepts Thomas H. Fanning Argonne National Laboratory 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA The Generation-IV International Forum (GIF) is a multi-national research and development (R&D) collaboration. The GIF pursues the development of advanced, next generation reactor technology with goals to improve: a) sustainability (effective fuel utilization and minimization of waste) b) economics (competitiveness with respect to other energy sources) c) safety and reliability (e.g., no need for offsite emergency response), and d) proliferation resistance and physical protection The GIF Technology Roadmap exercise selected six generic systems for further study: the Gas- cooled Fast Reactor (GFR), the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR), the Molten Salt Reactor (MSR),

337

Numerical Simulations of Bubble Dynamics and Heat Transfer in Pool Boiling--Including the Effects of Conjugate Conduction, Level of Gravity, and Noncondensable Gas Dissolved in the Liquid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rohsenow, W. M. (1969). “Bubble growth rates in non-uniformW. M. , & Griffith, P. (1970). “On bubble growth rates. ”and Ju, Y.S. , “Single bubble dynamics on a superhydrophilic

Aktinol, Eduardo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

The effect of helium nano-bubbles on the structures stability and electronic properties of palladium tritides: a density functional theory study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...effect of helium nano-bubbles on the structures stability and electronic properties...found to contain helium gas bubbles. The stability of metal tritides decreases...The effects of helium bubbles on metal tritides are clearly...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Power Reactor Progress  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Argonne kicks off EBWR; Allis-Chalmers plans power reactor using both nuclear and conventional fuels ... NUCLEAR POWER took two giant steps last week. ... Just as the first nuclear power system in the U. S. designed and built solely for the generation of electric power went into full operation at Argonne, Allis-Chalmers came up with a new twist in power reactors—a controlled recirculation boiling reactor (CRBR) using both nuclear and conventional fuels (C&EN, Feb. 18, page 7). ...

1957-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

340

Improved vortex reactor system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved vortex reactor system is described for affecting fast pyrolysis of biomass and Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) feed materials comprising: a vortex reactor having its axis vertically disposed in relation to a jet of a horizontally disposed steam ejector that impels feed materials from a feeder and solids from a recycle loop along with a motive gas into a top part of said reactor. 12 figs.

Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.

1995-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bubbling reactor cd" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

AEC Pushes Fusion Reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

AEC Pushes Fusion Reactors ... Project Sherwood, as the study program is called, began in 1951-52 soon after the first successful thermonuclear explosion in the Pacific. ...

1955-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

342

Tokamak reactor first wall  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to an improved first wall construction for a tokamak fusion reactor vessel, or other vessels subjected to similar pressure and thermal stresses.

Creedon, R.L.; Levine, H.E.; Wong, C.; Battaglia, J.

1984-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

343

Advanced Nuclear Research Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes technical modifications implemented by INVAP to improve the safety of the Research Reactors the company designs and builds.

Lolich, J.V.

2004-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

344

Isoscalar multipole strength in Cd-110 and Cd-116  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Isoscalar multipole strength in 110Cd and 116Cd Y.-W. Lui, D. H. Youngblood, Y. Tokimoto, H. L. Clark, and B. John* Cyclotron Institute, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA (Received 6 October 2003; published 24 March 2004... chosen for the analysis. The dashed line below 10 MeV represents a contaminent peak present at some angles in the spectra taken with the spectrometer at 0?. This was subtracted before the multipole analysis was done. PHYSICAL REVIEW C 69, 034611 (2004...

Lui, YW; Youngblood, David H.; Tokimoto, Y.; Clark, HL; John, B.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Part I -Mechanics M09M.1 -Bubble in an Incompressible Fluid (J07M.3, J94M.1) M09M.1 -Bubble in an Incompressible Fluid (J07M.3, J94M.1)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Part I - Mechanics M09M.1 - Bubble in an Incompressible Fluid (J07M.3, J94M.1) M09M.1 - Bubble in an Incompressible Fluid (J07M.3, J94M.1) Problem An ideal incompressible fluid of density contains a bubble of radius R(t). The fluid pressure is held constant at P. Take the bubble to be empty (no pressure within

Petta, Jason

346

1. INTRODUCTION CdTe/CdS solar cells are among the most promising  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Te/CdS SOLAR CELLS A.Romeo, A.N. Tiwari, and H. Zogg Thin Films Physics Group, Institute of Quantum ElectronicsTe/CdS thin film solar cells. The merits of different TCOs and the properties of the CdTe/CdS solar cells1. INTRODUCTION CdTe/CdS solar cells are among the most promising devices for low cost and high

Romeo, Alessandro

347

A TEN MEGAWATT BOILING HETEROGENEOUS PACKAGE POWER REACTOR. Reactor...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

A TEN MEGAWATT BOILING HETEROGENEOUS PACKAGE POWER REACTOR. Reactor Design and Feasibility Problem Re-direct Destination: Temp Data Fields Rosen, M. A.; Coburn, D. B.; Flynn, T....

348

Simultaneous measurement of bubble size, velocity and void fraction in two-phase bubbly flows with time-resolved X-ray imaging  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Key parameters of two-phase flows, such as void fraction and microscale bubble size, shape and velocity, were simultaneously measured using time-resolved X-ray imaging.

Jung, S.Y.

2014-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

349

Research of Real Estate Bubble Measurements Based on Ramsey Model – A Case Study of Nanning in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Real estate bubble has become one of the serious problems that influence the economy sustainable development in our country. This paper employs Ramsey model to make measurement analysis on real estate bubbles in ...

Xiekui Zhang; Defu Wu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

On the stability of a self-similar spherical bubble of a scalar Higgs field in de Sitter space  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An exact generalized discontinuous solution of the spherical-bubble type is obtained for a scalar Higgs ... shown that the radius of such a generalized bubble evolves in accordance with one of the ... to a dynami...

N. A. Voronov; L. Dyshko; N. B. Konyukhova

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Analytic theory for the determination of velocity and stability of bubbles in a Hele-Shaw cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An asymptotic theory is presented for the determination of velocity and linear stability of a steady symmetric bubble in a Hele-Shaw cell for small ... surface tension. In the first part, the bubble velocity U re...

S. Tanveer

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Evaluation of stability and size distribution of sunflower oil-coated micro bubbles for localized drug delivery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A T-junction micro fluidic device constructed using 3D prototyping was made for the production of mono dispersed micro bubbles. These micro bubbles use sunflower oil as a lipid layer. Stability studies for micro

WalterDuartedeAraujo Filho; Fábio Kurt Schneider…

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Analytic theory for the determination of velocity and stability of bubbles in a Hele-Shaw cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Here, we extend the analysis of Part I to determine the linear stability of a bubble in a Hele-Shaw cell analytically. Only ... the solution branch corresponding to the largest possible bubble velocity U for give...

S. Tanveer

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Portfolio for fast reactor collaboration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of the LMFBR type reactor in the United Kingdom is reviewed. Design characteristics of a commercial demonstration fast reactor are presented and compared with the Super Phenix reactor.

Rippon, S.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Rapid measurement of minimum miscibility pressure with the rising-bubble apparatus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) for a gas/oil pair can be measured within 1 hour with the rising-bubble apparatus (RBA). Development of miscibility between a gas bubble and an oil can be observed visually. The measurements of the MMP with the RBA compare favorably with those based on slim-tube experiments and predictions from phase-behavior studies.

Christiansen, R.L.; Haines, H.K.

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Water-Splitting Photoelectrolysis Reaction Rate via Microscopic Imaging of Evolved Oxygen Bubbles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to directly split water in a semiconductor photoelectrochemical cell is a promising source of carbon-free fuel Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA Bubble formation and growth on a water of the gas-evolving reaction rate. Optical microscopy was used to record the bubble growth on single

Atwater, Harry

357

Electrokinetic displacement of air bubbles in microchannels Pavlo Takhistov, Alexandra Indeikina, and Hsueh-Chia Chang  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and further reduces film flow. Within a large window in the total ionic concentration Ct , these mechanisms a higher relative film conductivity. The bubble velocity within the above concentration window is captured is shown to be possible when the film flow around the bubble is less than the bulk flow behind it. In our

Chang, Hsueh-Chia

358

GLOBAL EXISTENCE FOR A TRANSLATING NEAR-CIRCULAR HELE-SHAW BUBBLE WITH SURFACE TENSION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GLOBAL EXISTENCE FOR A TRANSLATING NEAR-CIRCULAR HELE-SHAW BUBBLE WITH SURFACE TENSION J. YE1 AND S for any nonzero surface tension despite the fact that a local planar approximation near the front problem, Dissipative equations, Hele-Shaw prob- lem, Translating bubbles, Surface tension Mathematics

Tanveer, Saleh

359

Extreme organic carbon burial fuels intense methane bubbling in a temperate reservoir  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Extreme organic carbon burial fuels intense methane bubbling in a temperate reservoir Sebastian. Wehrli (2012), Extreme organic carbon burial fuels intense methane bubbling in a temperate reservoir; revised 25 November 2011; accepted 30 November 2011; published 4 January 2012. [1] Organic carbon (OC

Wehrli, Bernhard

360

Gas Exchange and Bubble-Induced Supersaturation in a Wind-Wave Tank  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gas exchange and bubble-induced supersaturation were measured in a wind-wave tank using total gas saturation meters. The water in the tank was subjected to bubbling using a large number of frits at a depth of 0.6 m.

Peter Bowyer; David Woolf

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bubbling reactor cd" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Ultrasonic bubble point sensor for petroleum fluids in remote and hostile environments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The bubble point is one of the most important physical properties of petroleum fluids. Present practice requires the shipment of samples to laboratories, a time-consuming process that compromises sample integrity. We have devised a method by which the bubble point can be estimated rapidly in a 5 mm diameter flow line immediately after a sample has been withdrawn from a subsurface rock formation. To measure the bubble point, the sample is isolated and depressurized. Measurement efficiency requires rapid depressurization, which often causes fluids to supersaturate. However, this problem can be mitigated by cavitation. We have found that it is possible to cavitate fluids at pressures of several megapascals, as long as the fluid is near its bubble point pressure. An ultrasonic transducer is used to simultaneously nucleate and detect bubbles at or near the thermodynamic bubble point. The cavitated bubbles produce fluctuations in the acoustic properties of the fluid that are detected in the near field or resonated volume of a transducer by measuring the fluctuations of the transducer's electrical properties. The variance of electrical properties increases by orders of magnitude in the presence of bubbles. The method has been demonstrated to work over a wide range of temperatures, pressures and fluids.

N W Bostrom; D D Griffin; R L Kleinberg; K K Liang

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Can 2HDM support fermion-stabilized bubbles of false vacuum?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Higgs potential of the two-Higgs-doublet model can have several minima with different properties. We discuss a possibility that a heavy fermion, if trapped in a microscopic false vacuum bubble, might become light enough to prevent the bubble from the collapse.

I. P. Ivanov

2007-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

363

Global Existence and Stability of translating bubbles in a Hele-Shaw cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

surface tension, inwards normal, interface speed, viscosity ratio and steady bubble speed #12;BoundaryGlobal Existence and Stability of translating bubbles in a Hele-Shaw cell Saleh Tanveer (Ohio State for arbitrary initial conditions in displacement of more viscous fluid. Stability of steady states and global

Tanveer, Saleh

364

Geometry and Stability of Bubbles with Gravity MIYUKI KOISO & BENNETT PALMER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as geometric mod- els for bubbles; they minimize the surface tension of a homogeneous membrane, subjectGeometry and Stability of Bubbles with Gravity MIYUKI KOISO & BENNETT PALMER ABSTRACT. We study conditions for the stability of PMC surfaces with planar boundaries. A height estimate is obtained for stable

Palmer, Bennett

365

Time correlated single photon Mie scattering from a sonoluminescing bubble K. R. Weninger,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to measure experimentally 5­8 . CW light scat- tering methods have been effective in measuring the dynami of detection PMTs to measure this bubble motion, but was limited by the 2 GHz sampling speed of the digitizer to measure bubble col- lapse near the time of light emission. The resolution limita- tions of light

Evans, Paul G.

366

A CD19/Fc fusion protein for detection of anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

buffer (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA. ). Protease inhibitorKit (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA. ) according to theactivator CD3/CD28 (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) in RPMI medium

De Oliveira, Satiro N; Wang, Jiexin; Ryan, Christine; Morrison, Sherie L; Kohn, Donald B; Hollis, Roger P

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

A CD19/Fc fusion protein for detection of anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptors.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

buffer (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA. ). Protease inhibitorKit (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA. ) according to theactivator CD3/CD28 (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) in RPMI medium

De Oliveira, Satiro N; Wang, Jiexin; Ryan, Christine; Morrison, Sherie L; Kohn, Donald B; Hollis, Roger P

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

8/12/08 9:38 AMLife in a bubble ( CAMBRIDGE Mass. --Hundreds of insec...) Page 1 of 2http://www.bio-medicine.org/biology-news-1/Life-in-a-bubble-4270-1/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

8/12/08 9:38 AMLife in a bubble ( CAMBRIDGE Mass. -- Hundreds of insec...) Page 1 of 2http://www.bio-medicine.org/biology-news-1/Life-in-a-bubble-4270-1/ Navigation Links Biology News Medicine News Biology Products Medicine Medicine Dictionary Biology Navigation Medical Navigation M life bubble Post Your Comments: (View All

Flynn, Morris R.

369

Handbook of Reactor Physics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... THIS handbook is one volume in a series sponsored by the United States Atomic Energy Commission with ... data and reference information in the field of reactors. The volume is devoted to reactor physics and radiation shielding, the latter subject occupying approximately a quarter of the book.

PETER W. MUMMERY

1956-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

370

Fast reactor safety  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... SIR, - In his article on fast reactor safety (26 July, page 270) Norman Dombey claims to introduce to non-specialists ... , page 270) Norman Dombey claims to introduce to non-specialists some features of fast reactors that are not available outside the technical literature. The non-specialist would do well ...

R.D. SMITH

1979-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

371

Instrumentation of Nuclear Reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... s Lecture Theatre on January 8, a symposium of papers on the instrumentation of nuclear reactors was organized, at which about five hundred members and visitors attended, including guests from ... the Institution, took the chair and introduced Sir John Cockcroft, whose lecture on "Nuclear Reactors and their Applications" provided a general background for the three specialized papers which followed. ...

1953-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

372

Nuclear Research Reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... their countries for the advent of nuclear power. A few countries had built large research reactors for the production of isotopes and to study the behaviour of nuclear fuel, but ... production of isotopes and to study the behaviour of nuclear fuel, but the small training reactor had not been developed. Since then, research ...

T. E. ALLIBONE

1963-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

373

Exploring the WTI crude oil price bubble process using the Markov regime switching model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The sharp volatility of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil price in the past decade triggers us to investigate the price bubbles and their evolving process. Empirical results indicate that the fundamental price of WTI crude oil appears relatively more stable than that of the market-trading price, which verifies the existence of oil price bubbles during the sample period. Besides, by allowing the WTI crude oil price bubble process to switch between two states (regimes) according to a first-order Markov chain, we are able to statistically discriminate upheaval from stable states in the crude oil price bubble process; and in most of time, the stable state dominates the WTI crude oil price bubbles while the upheaval state usually proves short-lived and accompanies unexpected market events.

Yue-Jun Zhang; Jing Wang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

The stability of buoyant bubbles in the atmospheres of galaxy clusters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The buoyant rise of hot plasma bubbles inflated by AGN outflows in galaxy clusters can heat the cluster gas and thereby compensate radiative energy losses of this material. Numerical simulations of this effect often show the complete disruption of the bubbles followed by the mixing of the bubble material with the surrounding cluster gas due to fluid instabilities on the bubble surface. This prediction is inconsistent with the observations of apparently coherent bubble structures in clusters. We derive a general description in the linear regime of the growth of instabilities on the surface between two fluids under the influence of a gravitational field, viscosity, surface tension provided by a magnetic field and relative motion of the two fluids with respect to each other. We demonstrate that Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities are always suppressed, if the fluids are viscous. They are also suppressed in the inviscid case for fluids of very different mass densities. We show that the effects of shear viscosity as we...

Kaiser, C R; Pope, E C D; Fangohr, H

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Canadian university research reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In Canada there are seven university research reactors: one medium-power (2-MW) swimming pool reactor at McMaster University and six low-power (20-kW) SLOWPOKE reactors at Dalhousie University, Ecole Polytechnique, the Royal Military College, the University of Toronto, the University of Saskatchewan, and the University of Alberta. This paper describes primarily the McMaster Nuclear Reactor (MNR), which operates on a wider scale than the SLOWPOKE reactors. The MNR has over a hundred user groups and is a very broad-based tool. The main applications are in the following areas: (1) neutron activation analysis (NAA); (2) isotope production; (3) neutron beam research; (4) nuclear engineering; (5) neutron radiography; and (6) nuclear physics.

Ernst, P.C.; Collins, M.F.

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Upconversion Luminescence of CdTe Nanoparticles. | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of CdTe Nanoparticles. Upconversion Luminescence of CdTe Nanoparticles. Abstract: Efficient upconversion luninescence is observed from CdTe nanoparticles in solution and...

377

Reactor & Nuclear Systems Publications | ORNL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nuclear Science Home | Science & Discovery | Nuclear Science | Publications and Reports | Reactor and Nuclear Systems Publications SHARE Reactor and Nuclear Systems Publications...

378

Measurements and Analysis of Oxygen Bubble Distributions in LiCl-KCl Molten Salt  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transparent system experimental studies have been performed to provide measurement and analysis of oxygen bubble distributions and mass transfer coefficients at different sparging rates ranging from 0.05 to 0.20 L/min in LiCl-KCl molten salt at 500 degrees C using a high-speed digital camera and an oxygen sensor. The results reveal that bubble sizes and rise velocities increased with an increase in oxygen sparging rate. The bubbles observed were ellipsoidal in shape, and an equivalent diameter based on the ellipsoid volume was calculated. The average equivalent bubble diameters at 500 degrees C and these oxygen sparging rates range from 2.63 to 4.07 mm. Results show that the bubble equivalent diameters at each respective sparging rate are normally distributed. A Fanning friction factor correlation was produced to predict a bubble’s rise velocity based on its equivalent diameter. The oxygen mass transfer coefficients for four sparging rates were calculated using the oxygenation model. These calculated values were within the order of magnitude of 10-2 cm/sec and followed a decreasing trend corresponding to an increasing bubble size and sparging rate. The diffusivities were calculated based on two different types of mechanisms, one based on physics of the bubbles and the other on systematic properties. The results reveal that diffusivity values calculated from bubble physics are 1.65 to 8.40 x 10-5 cm2/sec, which are within the range suggested by literature for gases in liquids of a similar viscosity.

Ryan W. Bezzant; Supathorn Phongikaroon; Michael F. Simpson

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

A numerical study of mass transfer of ozone dissolution in bubble plumes with an Euler-Lagrange Method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, as a model problem for a water purification system. The effect of bubble diameter and plume structure on mass are widely observed and exploited in engineering applications, with water purification using ozone bubble the mass transfer process of ozone dissolution in a bubble plume inside a rectangular water tank

Huang, Huaxiong

380

Bubble growth in slightly supersaturated albite melt at constant pressure Don R. Baker a,*, Phyllis Lang b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bubble growth in slightly supersaturated albite melt at constant pressure Don R. Baker a,*, Phyllis July 2005; accepted in revised form 11 January 2006 Abstract Bubble growth experiments were performed.5 or $1.5 wt.% H2O, respectively, which caused rapid exsolution and bubble growth. Results at 1200 °C

Long, Bernard

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bubbling reactor cd" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Bubble guidance of tubular growth in reactionprecipitation Stephanie Thouvenel-Romans, Jason J. Pagano and Oliver Steinbock*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bubble guidance of tubular growth in reaction­precipitation systems Stephanie Thouvenel, the growth is templated and guided by single, buoyant gas bubbles. The resulting tubes can be several decimetres long and have constant radii in the range of 100­600 mm. Systematic measurements show that bubble

Steinbock, Oliver

382

Journal of the Applied Mathematics, Statistics and Informatics (JAMSI), 1 (2005), No. 2 Computer Animation: Animation of Soap Bubble  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Animation: Animation of Soap Bubble Dynamics, Cluster Formation and Collision Roman Durikovic1 Abstract simulation of soap bubbles from a dynamic perspective, which should prove to be of great interest to physicists and mathematicians. We discuss the dynamic formation of irregular bubble clusters and how

Durikovic, Roman

383

Abstract P1-09-19: Demographic trends in clinical trial withdrawal rate within the bubble study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...clinical trial withdrawal rate within the bubble study EC Riley D Jain B Kantardzic X Wu SN...originally signed consent and enrolled in the Bubble Study but then withdrew at a later date. The Bubble Study is a non- blinded, prospective observational...

EC Riley; D Jain; B Kantardzic; X Wu; SN Rai

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

384

Structure and energetics of He2* bubble-states in superfluid 4 J. Eloranta, N. Schwentner,a)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the deep nodal well, ensuring the stability of the bare 3 d excimer in a large spherical bubbleStructure and energetics of He2* bubble-states in superfluid 4 He J. Eloranta, N. Schwentner bubble of 7 Ă? radius in which the excimer freely rotates. This explains the observed rotationally

Apkarian, V. Ara

385

Role of gas density in the stability of single-bubble sonoluminescence M.-C. Chu,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Role of gas density in the stability of single-bubble sonoluminescence L. Yuan,1 C. Y. Ho,2 M bubbles can be unstable 9,10 . The remarkable stability of SBSL have been explained partially by several the regions in which stable SBSL may exist map out a stability threshold for the equi- librium bubble radius

Yuan, Li

386

Stability of bubbly liquids and its connection to the process of cavitation inception D. Fuster, K. Pham, and S. Zaleski  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stability of bubbly liquids and its connection to the process of cavitation inception D. Fuster, K.1063/1.1416497 Noise induced stabilization of chaotic oscillations of cavitation bubbles AIP Conf. Proc. 524, 519 (2000, 14 Apr 2014 16:11:36 #12;PHYSICS OF FLUIDS 26, 042002 (2014) Stability of bubbly liquids and its

Fuster, Daniel

387

Nuclear reactor control column  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The nuclear reactor control column comprises a column disposed within the nuclear reactor core having a variable cross-section hollow channel and containing balls whose vertical location is determined by the flow of the reactor coolant through the column. The control column is divided into three basic sections wherein each of the sections has a different cross-sectional area. The uppermost section of the control column has the greatest cross-sectional area, the intermediate section of the control column has the smallest cross-sectional area, and the lowermost section of the control column has the intermediate cross-sectional area. In this manner, the area of the uppermost section can be established such that when the reactor coolant is flowing under normal conditions therethrough, the absorber balls will be lifted and suspended in a fluidized bed manner in the upper section. However, when the reactor coolant flow falls below a predetermined value, the absorber balls will fall through the intermediate section and into the lowermost section, thereby reducing the reactivity of the reactor core and shutting down the reactor.

Bachovchin, Dennis M. (Plum Borough, PA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Reactor Safety Research Programs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) from January 1 through March 31, 1981, for the Division of Reactor Safety Research within the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Evaluations of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibility of determining the strength of structural graphite, evaluating the feasibility of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the integrity of pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubes where service-induced degradation has been indicated. Experimental data and analytical models are being provided to aid in decision-making regarding pipeto- pipe impacts following postulated breaks in high-energy fluid system piping. Core thermal models are being developed to provide better digital codes to compute the behavior of full-scale reactor systems under postulated accident conditions. Fuel assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include loss-ofcoolant accident (LOCA) simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; fuel rod deformation, severe fuel damage, and postaccident coolability tests for the ESSOR reactor Super Sara Test Program, Ispra, Italy; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

Edler, S. K.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

THE FERMI BUBBLES. II. THE POTENTIAL ROLES OF VISCOSITY AND COSMIC-RAY DIFFUSION IN JET MODELS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The origin of the Fermi bubbles recently detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in the inner Galaxy is mysterious. In the companion paper Guo and Mathews (Paper I), we use hydrodynamic simulations to show that they could be produced by a recent powerful active galactic nucleus (AGN) jet event. Here, we further explore this scenario to study the potential roles of shear viscosity and cosmic-ray (CR) diffusion on the morphology and CR distribution of the bubbles. We show that even a relatively low level of viscosity ({mu}{sub visc} {approx}> 3 g cm{sup -1} s{sup -1}, or {approx}0.1%-1% of Braginskii viscosity in this context) could effectively suppress the development of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at the bubble surface, resulting in smooth bubble edges as observed. Furthermore, viscosity reduces circulating motions within the bubbles, which would otherwise mix the CR-carrying jet backflow near bubble edges with the bubble interior. Thus viscosity naturally produces an edge-favored CR distribution, an important ingredient to produce the observed flat gamma-ray surface brightness distribution. Generically, such a CR distribution often produces a limb-brightened gamma-ray intensity distribution. However, we show that by incorporating CR diffusion that is strongly suppressed across the bubble surface (as inferred from sharp bubble edges) but is close to canonical values in the bubble interior, we obtain a reasonably flat gamma-ray intensity profile. The similarity of the resulting CR bubble with the observed Fermi bubbles strengthens our previous result in Paper I that the Fermi bubbles were produced by a recent AGN jet event. Studies of the nearby Fermi bubbles may provide a unique opportunity to study the potential roles of plasma viscosity and CR diffusion on the evolution of AGN jets and bubbles.

Guo Fulai; Mathews, William G. [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Dobler, Gregory [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara Kohn Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Oh, S. Peng, E-mail: fulai@ucolick.org [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara Kohn Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

2012-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

390

Nuclear reactor reflector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A nuclear reactor reflector is disclosed that comprises a stack of reflector blocks with vertical water flow passages to cool the reflector. The interface between blocks is opposite support points for reactor fuel rods. Water flows between the reflector and the reactor barrel from passages in a bottom block. The top block contains a flange to limit this flow and the flange has a slot to receive an alignment pin that is welded to the barrel. The pin is held in the slot by two removable shims. Alignment bars extend the length of the stack in slots machined in each block when the stack is assembled.

Hopkins, Ronald J. (Pensacola, FL); Land, John T. (Pensacola, FL); Misvel, Michael C. (Pensacola, FL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Spherical torus fusion reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with dramatic simplification of plasma confinement design. Another object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with low magnetic field and small aspect ratio stable plasma confinement. In accordance with the principles of this invention there is provided a compact toroidal-type plasma confinement fusion reactor in which only the indispensable components inboard of a tokamak type of plasma confinement region, mainly a current conducting medium which carries electrical current for producing a toroidal magnet confinement field about the toroidal plasma region, are retained.

Martin Peng, Y.K.M.

1985-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

392

Photocurrent Mapping of 3D CdSe/CdTe Windowless Solar Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Photocurrent Mapping of 3D CdSe/CdTe Windowless Solar Cells ... back contact; CdSe; CdTe; photovoltaic; 3D solar cells; SPCM ... Scanning photocurrent microscopy (SPCM) has been used to evaluate the local performance of solar cells by scanning a finely focused optical beam across the surface while monitoring device response. ...

Carlos M. Hangarter; Ratan Debnath; Jong Y. Ha; Mehmet A. Sahiner; Christopher J. Reehil; William A. Manners; Daniel Josell

2013-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

393

Sea Level CD-ROMs Introduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sea Level CD-ROMs Introduction The Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Sea Level Center Service for Mean Sea Level. This CD-ROM contains the holdings of the WDC as of July 1994, which consists with the greatest concentration between 5 and 30 years, although a few sites have over 70 years. CD-ROM Contents

394

Why air bubbles in water glow so easily  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sound driven gas bubbles in water can emit light pulses (sonoluminescence). Experiments show a strong dependence on the type of gas dissolved in water. Air is found to be one of the most friendly gases towards this phenomenon. Recently, \\cite{loh96} have suggested a chemical mechanism to account for the strong dependence on the gas mixture: the dissociation of nitrogen at high temperatures and its subsequent chemical reactions to highly water soluble gases such as NO, NO$_2$, and/or NH$_3$. Here, we analyze the consequences of the theory and offer detailed comparison with the experimental data of Putterman's UCLA group. We can quantitatively account for heretofore unexplained results. In particular, we understand why the argon percentage in air is so essential for the observation of stable SL.

Michael Brenner; Sascha Hilgenfeldt; Detlef Lohse; ;

1996-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

395

Coalescence of bubbles and drops in an outer fluid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

When two liquid drops touch, a microscopic connecting liquid bridge forms and rapidly grows as the two drops merge into one. Whereas coalescence has been thoroughly studied when drops coalesce in vacuum or air, many important situations involve coalescence in a dense surrounding fluid, such as oil coalescence in brine. Here we study the merging of gas bubbles and liquid drops in an external fluid. Our data indicate that the flows occur over much larger length scales in the outer fluid than inside the drops themselves. Thus we find that the asymptotic early regime is always dominated by the viscosity of the drops, independent of the external fluid. A phase diagram showing the crossovers into the different possible late-time dynamics identifies a dimensionless number that signifies when the external viscosity can be important.

Joseph D. Paulsen; Rémi Carmigniani; Anerudh Kannan; Justin C. Burton; Sidney R. Nagel

2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

396

Evidence for nuclear emissions during neutron seeded acoustic bubble cavitation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In cavitation experiments with deuterated acetone statistically significant tritium decay activity above background levels was detected. In addition evidence for statistically significant neutron emissions near 2.5 MeV was also observed as would be expected for deuterium–deuterium fusion. Control experiments with normal acetone did not result in tritium activity or neutron emissions. Hydrodynamic shock code simulations supported the observed data and indicated compressed hot (106–107 K) bubble implosion conditions as required for thermonuclear fusion reactions. Separate experiments with additional fluids are under way and results appear to support those observed with acetone. Scalability potential to higher yields as well as evidence for neutron?tritium branching ratios are presented.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Single-Bubble Sonoluminescence as Dicke Superradiance at Finite Temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sonoluminescence is a process in which a strong sound field is used to produce light in liquids. We explain sonoluminescence as a phase transition from ordinary fluorescence to a superradiant phase. We consider a spin-boson model composed of a single bosonic mode and an ensemble of $N$ identical two-level atoms. We assume that the whole system is in thermal equilibrium with a reservoir at temperature $\\beta^{-1}$. We show that, in a ultrastrong-coupling regime, between the two-level atoms and the electromagnetic field it is possible to have a cooperative interaction of the molecules of the gas in the interior of the bubble with the field, generating sonoluminescence.

M. Aparicio Alcalde; Hernando Quevedo; Nami Fux Svaiter

2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

398

Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Cascade-Induced Ballistic Helium Resolutioning from Bubbles in Iron  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to assess the ability of atomic displacement cascades to eject helium from small bubbles in iron. This study of the ballistic resolutioning mechanism employed a recently-developed Fe-He interatomic potential in concert with an iron potential developed by Ackland and co-workers. The primary variables examined were: irradiation temperature (100 and 600K), cascade energy (5 and 20 keV), bubble radius (0.5 and 1.0 nm), and He-to-vacancy ratio in the bubble (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0). Systematic trends were observed for each of these variables. For example, ballistic resolutioning leads to a greater number of helium atoms being displaced from larger bubbles and from bubbles that have a higher He/vacancy ratio (bubble pressure). He resolutioning was reduced at 600K relative to 100K, and for 20 keV cascades relative to 5 keV cascades. Overall, the results indicate a modest level of He removal by ballistic resolutioning. The results can be used to provide guidance in selection of a resolution parameter that can be employed in cluster dynamics models to predict the bubble size distribution that evolves under irradiation.

Stoller, Roger E [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Cosmological consequences of slow-moving bubbles in first-order phase transitions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In cosmological first-order phase transitions, the progress of true-vacuum bubbles is expected to be significantly retarded by the interaction between the bubble wall and the hot plasma. We examine the evolution and collision of slow-moving true-vacuum bubbles. Our lattice simulations indicate that phase oscillations, predicted and observed in systems with a local symmetry and with a global symmetry where the bubbles move at speeds less than the speed of light, do not occur inside collisions of slow-moving local-symmetry bubbles. We observe almost instantaneous phase equilibration which would lead to a decrease in the expected initial defect density, or possibly prevent defects from forming at all. We illustrate our findings with an example of defect formation suppressed in slow-moving bubbles. Slow-moving bubble walls also prevent the formation of “extra defects,” and in the presence of plasma conductivity may lead to an increase in the magnitude of any primordial magnetic field formed.

Anne-Christine Davis and Matthew Lilley

2000-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

400

Inflation of small true vacuum bubble by quantization of Einstein-Hilbert action  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the quantization of the Einstein-Hilbert action for a small true vacuum bubble without matter or scalar field. The quantization of action induces an extra term of potential called quantum potential in Hamilton-Jacobi equation, which gives expanding solutions including the exponential expansion solutions of the scalar factor $a$ for the bubble. We show that exponential expansion of the bubble continues with a short period (about a Planck time $t_p$), no matter whether the bubble is closed, flat or open. The exponential expansion ends spontaneously when the bubble becomes large, i.e., the scalar factor $a$ of the bubble approaches a Planck length $l_p$. We show that it is quantum potential of the small true vacuum bubble that plays the role of the scalar field potential suggested in the slow-roll inflation model. With the picture of quantum tunneling, we calculate particle creation rate during inflation, which shows that particles created by inflation have the capability of reheating the universe.

Dongshan He; Qing-yu Cai

2014-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bubbling reactor cd" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Inflation of small true vacuum bubble by quantization of Einstein-Hilbert action  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the quantization of the Einstein-Hilbert action for a small true vacuum bubble without matter or scalar field. The quantization of action induces an extra term of potential called quantum potential in Hamilton-Jacobi equation, which gives expanding solutions including the exponential expansion solutions of the scalar factor $a$ for the bubble. We show that exponential expansion of the bubble continues with a short period (about a Planck time $t_p$), no matter whether the bubble is closed, flat or open. The exponential expansion ends spontaneously when the bubble becomes large, i.e., the scalar factor $a$ of the bubble approaches a Planck length $l_p$. We show that it is quantum potential of the small true vacuum bubble that plays the role of the scalar field potential suggested in the slow-roll inflation model. With the picture of quantum tunneling, we calculate particle creation rate during inflation, which shows that particles created by inflation have the capability of reheating the universe.

He, Dongshan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

THE FERMI BUBBLES AS A SCALED-UP VERSION OF SUPERNOVA REMNANTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, we treat Fermi bubbles as a scaled-up version of supernova remnants (SNRs). The bubbles are created through activities of the super-massive black hole (SMBH) or starbursts at the Galactic center (GC). Cosmic-rays (CRs) are accelerated at the forward shocks of the bubbles like SNRs, which means that we cannot decide whether the bubbles were created by the SMBH or starbursts from the radiation from the CRs. We follow the evolution of CR distribution by solving a diffusion-advection equation, considering the reduction of the diffusion coefficient by CR streaming. In this model, gamma rays are created through hadronic interaction between CR protons and the gas in the Galactic halo. In the GeV band, we can well reproduce the observed flat distribution of gamma-ray surface brightness because some amount of gas is left behind the shock. The edge of the bubbles is fairly sharp owing to the high gas density behind the shock and the reduction of the diffusion coefficient there. The latter also contributes the hard gamma-ray spectrum of the bubbles. We find that the CR acceleration at the shock began when the bubbles were small, and the time scale of the energy injection at the GC was much smaller than the age of the bubbles. We predict that if CRs are accelerated to the TeV regime, the apparent bubble size should be larger in the TeV band, which could be used to discriminate our hadronic model from other leptonic models. We also present neutrino fluxes.

Fujita, Yutaka [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)] [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Ohira, Yutaka; Yamazaki, Ryo, E-mail: fujita@vega.ess.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, Fuchinobe, Chuou-ku, Sagamihara 252-5258 (Japan)] [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, Fuchinobe, Chuou-ku, Sagamihara 252-5258 (Japan)

2013-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

403

The stability of buoyant bubbles in the atmospheres of galaxy clusters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The buoyant rise of hot plasma bubbles inflated by AGN outflows in galaxy clusters can heat the cluster gas and thereby compensate radiative energy losses of this material. Numerical simulations of this effect often show the complete disruption of the bubbles followed by the mixing of the bubble material with the surrounding cluster gas due to fluid instabilities on the bubble surface. This prediction is inconsistent with the observations of apparently coherent bubble structures in clusters. We derive a general description in the linear regime of the growth of instabilities on the surface between two fluids under the influence of a gravitational field, viscosity, surface tension provided by a magnetic field and relative motion of the two fluids with respect to each other. We demonstrate that Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities are always suppressed, if the fluids are viscous. They are also suppressed in the inviscid case for fluids of very different mass densities. We show that the effects of shear viscosity as well as a magnetic fields in the cluster gas can prevent the growth of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities on relevant scale lengths. R-T instabilities on pc-scales are suppressed even if the kinematic viscosity of the cluster gas is reduced by two orders of magnitude compared to the value given by Spitzer for a fully ionised, unmagnetised gas. Similarly, magnetic fields exceeding a few microG result in an effective surface tension preventing the disruption of bubbles. For more massive clusters, instabilities on the bubble surface grow faster. This may explain the absence of thermal gas in the north-west bubble observed in the Perseus cluster compared to the apparently more disrupted bubbles in the Virgo cluster.

C. R. Kaiser; G. Pavlovski; E. C. D. Pope; H. Fangohr

2005-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

404

Characterization of the Specific CD4+ T Cell Response  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, involving both CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and CD4+ T-helper lymphocytes (HTLs), play an essential

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

405

High Efficiency CdTe/CdS Thin Film Solar Cells Prepared by Treating CdTe Films with a Freon Gas in Substitution of CdCl2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High Efficiency CdTe/CdS Thin Film Solar Cells Prepared by Treating CdTe Films with a Freon Gas delle Scienze, 37/A-43010 Fontanini, Parma, Italy ABSTRACT: CdTe/CdS thin film solar cells have reached in the preparation of high efficiency CdTe/CdS solar cells is the activation treatment of CdTe film. Most research

Romeo, Alessandro

406

Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Thermal-Hydraulics Thermal-Hydraulics Dr. Tanju Sofu, Argonne National Laboratory In a power reactor, the energy produced in fission reaction manifests itself as heat to be removed by a coolant and utilized in a thermodynamic energy conversion cycle to produce electricity. A simplified schematic of a typical nuclear power plant is shown in the diagram below. Primary coolant loop Steam Reactor Heat exchanger Primary pump Secondary pump Condenser Turbine Water Although this process is essentially the same as in any other steam plant configuration, the power density in a nuclear reactor core is typically four orders of magnitude higher than a fossil fueled plant and therefore it poses significant heat transfer challenges. Maximum power that can be obtained from a nuclear reactor is often limited by the

407

Reactor hot spot analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The principle methods for performing reactor hot spot analysis are reviewed and examined for potential use in the Applied Physics Division. The semistatistical horizontal method is recommended for future work and is now available as an option in the SE2-ANL core thermal hydraulic code. The semistatistical horizontal method is applied to a small LMR to illustrate the calculation of cladding midwall and fuel centerline hot spot temperatures. The example includes a listing of uncertainties, estimates for their magnitudes, computation of hot spot subfactor values and calculation of two sigma temperatures. A review of the uncertainties that affect liquid metal fast reactors is also presented. It was found that hot spot subfactor magnitudes are strongly dependent on the reactor design and therefore reactor specific details must be carefully studied. 13 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

Vilim, R.B.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Molten metal reactors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M

2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

409

Oxygen quenching in LAB based liquid scintillator and nitrogen bubbling model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The oxygen quenching effect in Linear Alkl Benzne (LAB) based liquid scintillator (LAB as the solvent, 3 g/L 2, 5 diphe-nyloxazole (PPO) as the fluor and 15 mg/L $p$-bis-($o$-methylstyryl)-benzene (bis-MSB) as the $\\lambda$-shifter) is studied by measuring the light yield as the function of the nitrogen bubbling time. It is shown that the light yield of the fully purged liquid scintillator is increased by 11% at the room temperature and the room atmosphere pressure. A simple nitrogen bubbling model is proposed to describe the relationship between the relative light yield (oxygen quenching factor) and the bubbling time.

Xiao Hua-Lin

2009-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

410

F Reactor Inspection  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Workers from Mission Support Alliance, LLC., removed the welds around the steel door of the F Reactor before stepping inside the reactor to complete its periodic inspection. This is the first time the Department of Energy (DOE) has had the reactor open since 2008. The F Reactor is one of nine reactors along the Columbia River at the Department's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, where environmental cleanup has been ongoing since 1989. As part of the Tri-Party Agreement, the Department completes surveillance and maintenance activities of cocooned reactors periodically to evaluate the structural integrity of the safe storage enclosure and to ensure confinement of any remaining hazardous materials. "This entry marks a transition of sorts because the Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program, for the first time, was responsible for conducting the entry and surveillance and maintenance activities," said Keith Grindstaff, Energy Department Long-Term Stewardship Program Manager. "As the River Corridor cleanup work is completed and transitioned to long-term stewardship, our program will manage any on-going requirements."

Grindstaff, Keith; Hathaway, Boyd; Wilson, Mike

2014-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

411

F Reactor Inspection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Workers from Mission Support Alliance, LLC., removed the welds around the steel door of the F Reactor before stepping inside the reactor to complete its periodic inspection. This is the first time the Department of Energy (DOE) has had the reactor open since 2008. The F Reactor is one of nine reactors along the Columbia River at the Department's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, where environmental cleanup has been ongoing since 1989. As part of the Tri-Party Agreement, the Department completes surveillance and maintenance activities of cocooned reactors periodically to evaluate the structural integrity of the safe storage enclosure and to ensure confinement of any remaining hazardous materials. "This entry marks a transition of sorts because the Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program, for the first time, was responsible for conducting the entry and surveillance and maintenance activities," said Keith Grindstaff, Energy Department Long-Term Stewardship Program Manager. "As the River Corridor cleanup work is completed and transitioned to long-term stewardship, our program will manage any on-going requirements."

Grindstaff, Keith; Hathaway, Boyd; Wilson, Mike

2014-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

412

HIGH EFFICIENCY CdTe/CdS THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS WITH A NOVEL BACK-CONTACT Nicola Romeoa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HIGH EFFICIENCY CdTe/CdS THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS WITH A NOVEL BACK-CONTACT Nicola Romeoa , Alessio in the fabrication of high efficiency CdTe/CdS thin film solar cells. Usually, it is done first by etching the Cd: Back Contact, CdTe, Thin Film 1 INTRODUCTION The back contact in the CdTe/CdS thin film solar cell

Romeo, Alessandro

413

Doping of CdS nanoparticles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The doping of semiconductor nanoparticles is introduced and examined via doping of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles both by chemical bath deposition route with In3+ cations and by thermal annealing route with Cl? anions. The CdS nanoparticles (10–20 nm in size) were prepared by mixing CdCl2 and Na2S solutions stabilized with pyridine both in absence and in presence of InCl3 additives. The doping of the nanostructured CdS films prepared from CdS nanoparticles dispersions was performed by additives of aqueous CdCl2 solution followed by the film annealing. Due to the used doping procedure the increase of the film conductivity began at temperature ?300 °C, which was far lower than temperature inducing the doping of polycrystalline CdS films and not yet enough for the noticeable recrystallization of CdS nanoparticles into larger domains. The In2S3 and CdCl2 doping of CdS nanoparticles resulted in changes in electronic absorption and luminescence spectra of the nanoparticle dispersions and films. The phenomenon of the easier doping of CdS nanoparticles is discussed in terms of the high surface energy of CdS nanoparticles.

N.M. Osipyonok; A.F. Singaevsky; Yu.V. Noskov; Yu.P. Piryatinski; P.S. Smertenko; O.P. Dimitriev; A.A. Pud

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Full-Volume, Three-Dimensional, Transient Measurements of Bubbly Flows Using Particle Tracking Velocimetry and Shadow Image Velocimetry Coupled with Pattern Recognition Techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Develop a state-of-the-art non-intrusive diagnostic tool to perform simultaneous measurements of both the temporal and three-dimensional spatial velocity of the two phases of a bubbly flow. These measurements are required to provide a foundation for studying the constitutive closure relations needed in computational fluid dynamics and best-estimate thermal hydraulic codes employed in nuclear reactor safety analysis and severe accident simulation. Such kinds of full-field measurements are not achievable through the commonly used point-measurement techniques, such as hot wire, conductance probe, laser Doppler anemometry, etc. The results can also be used in several other applications, such as the dynamic transport of pollutants in water or studies of the dispersion of hazardous waste.

Yassin Hassan

2001-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

415

Semitransparent ultrathin CdTe solar cells Semitransparent ultrathin CdTe solar cells and durabilityand durability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Semitransparent ultrathin CdTe solar cells Semitransparent ultrathin CdTe solar cells core technology is built around · sputter deposition · CdS/CdTe cell structure · Extensive IPTe cellsultrathin CdTe cells X26 stateoftheart compared with other CdTe deposition: [X26 technology has been

Rollins, Andrew M.

416

Steam Gasification of Cellulose with Cobalt Catalysts in a Fluidized Bed Reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The catalytic performance of Co/MgO catalysts for the treatment of tar derived from cellulose steam gasification in a bubbling fluidized bed gasifier of 22 mm i.d. and 500 mm height was investigated by means of two different methods:? hot gas cleaning in a fixed bed reactor after the fluidized bed gasifier (secondary method) and treatment inside the gasifier with catalyst as a fluidizing medium (primary method). ... From this perspective, developing a more effective catalyst is essential for scaling down the plant size while still facilitating high and stable catalytic performance. ... At 720-760°, space-times 0.10-0.20 s, catalyst sizes <1.0 ...

Kazuhiko Tasaka; Takeshi Furusawa; Atsushi Tsutsumi

2007-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

417

REACTOR GROUT THERMAL PROPERTIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Savannah River Site has five dormant nuclear production reactors. Long term disposition will require filling some reactor buildings with grout up to ground level. Portland cement based grout will be used to fill the buildings with the exception of some reactor tanks. Some reactor tanks contain significant quantities of aluminum which could react with Portland cement based grout to form hydrogen. Hydrogen production is a safety concern and gas generation could also compromise the structural integrity of the grout pour. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a non-Portland cement grout to fill reactors that contain significant quantities of aluminum. Grouts generate heat when they set, so the potential exists for large temperature increases in a large pour, which could compromise the integrity of the pour. The primary purpose of the testing reported here was to measure heat of hydration, specific heat, thermal conductivity and density of various reactor grouts under consideration so that these properties could be used to model transient heat transfer for different pouring strategies. A secondary purpose was to make qualitative judgments of grout pourability and hardened strength. Some reactor grout formulations were unacceptable because they generated too much heat, or started setting too fast, or required too long to harden or were too weak. The formulation called 102H had the best combination of characteristics. It is a Calcium Alumino-Sulfate grout that contains Ciment Fondu (calcium aluminate cement), Plaster of Paris (calcium sulfate hemihydrate), sand, Class F fly ash, boric acid and small quantities of additives. This composition afforded about ten hours of working time. Heat release began at 12 hours and was complete by 24 hours. The adiabatic temperature rise was 54 C which was within specification. The final product was hard and displayed no visible segregation. The density and maximum particle size were within specification.

Steimke, J.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Guerrero, H.

2011-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

418

Reactor Safety Planning for Prometheus Project, for Naval Reactors Information  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this letter is to submit to Naval Reactors the initial plan for the Prometheus project Reactor Safety work. The Prometheus project is currently developing plans for cold physics experiments and reactor prototype tests. These tests and facilities may require safety analysis and siting support. In addition to the ground facilities, the flight reactor units will require unique analyses to evaluate the risk to the public from normal operations and credible accident conditions. This letter outlines major safety documents that will be submitted with estimated deliverable dates. Included in this planning is the reactor servicing documentation and shipping analysis that will be submitted to Naval Reactors.

P. Delmolino

2005-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

419

At Solar System's Edge, There be...Bubbles? - NERSC Science News, June 9,  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

At Solar System's At Solar System's Edge, There be...Bubbles? At Solar System's Edge, There be...Bubbles? Voyagers, Computer Models Find Surprising Magnetic Froth June 9, 2011 | Tags: Astrophysics, Franklin, Fusion Energy, Fusion Energy Sciences (FES), Hopper Margie Wylie, mwylie@lbl.gov, +1 510 486 7421 This animated computer simulation shows how magnetic bubbles form at the edge of our solar system. It was created on NERSC's "Franklin" supercomputer using 8,192 processor cores simultaneously running for 20 hours. (Credit: James F. Drake) NASA's Voyager probes have reached the end of our solar system where they've found neither giants nor dragons, but something nearly as surprising-a turbulent froth of magnetic bubbles. Using new computer models to analyze Voyager data, scientists computing at

420

Bubbles Hot Spring Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bubbles Hot Spring Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Bubbles Hot Spring Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Bubbles Hot Spring Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Bubbles Hot Spring Sector Geothermal energy Type Pool and Spa Location Catron County, New Mexico Coordinates 34.1515173°, -108.4276047° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[]}

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bubbling reactor cd" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Gas holdup in a gas-liquid-fiber semi-batch bubble column.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A 4-m high, 15.24-cm diameter semi-batch bubble column connected to one of three perforated plate gas distributors with open area ratios A = 0.57%, 0.99%,… (more)

Su, Xuefeng

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Graphene for reducing bubble defects and enhancing mechanical properties of graphene/cellulose acetate composite films  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, we have demonstrated a strategy by which graphene was used to reduce the bubble defects and enhance the mechanical properties in graphene/cellulose acetate (Gr/CA) composite films. Mono- and multil...

Lei Liu; Zhigang Shen; Shuaishuai Liang; Min Yi…

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Bubble formation and Kr distribution in Kr-irradiated UO2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In situ and ex situ transmission electron microscopy observation of small Kr bubbles in both single-crystal and polycrystalline UO2 were conducted to understand the inert gas bubble behavior in oxide nuclear fuel. The bubble size and volume swelling are shown as a weak function of ion dose but strongly depend on the temperature. The Kr bubble formation at room temperature was observed for the first time. The depth profiles of implanted Kr determined by atom probe tomography are in good agreement with the calculated profiles by SRIM, but the measured concentration of Kr is about 1/3 of calculated one. This difference is mainly due to low solubility of Kr in UO2 matrix, which has been confirmed by both density-functional theory calculations and chemical equilibrium analysis.

L.F. He; B. Valderrama; A.-R. Hassan; J. Yu; M. Gupta; J. Pakarinen; H.B. Henderson; J. Gan; M.A. Kirk; A.T. Nelson; M.V. Manuel; A. El-Azab; T.R. Allen

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

A model on chemical looping combustion of methane in a bubbling fluidized-bed process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We developed a mathematical model to discuss the performance of chemical looping combustion (CLC) of methane in continuous bubbling ... The present model agrees reasonably well with the combustion efficiency meas...

Jeong-Hoo Choi; Pil Sang Youn; Djamila Brahimi…

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

iBubble: Multi-keyword Routing Protocol for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Matt Spear, Karl Levitt and S. Felix Wu Department of Computer Science UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616 Email. By utilizing keywords, iBubble bridges many routing and energy problems prevalent in WSN, and provides a simple

California at Davis, University of

426

Soap films and soap bubbles: from Plateau to the olympic swimming pool in Beijing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is very interesting to study the parallel story of soap bubbles and soap films in art and science. Noting that mathematicians in particular have been intrigued by their complex geometry, the author traces a...

Michele Emmer

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

MagLab - Electrostatic Repulsion in Van de Graaff Bubbles Tutorial  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Electrostatic Repulsion in Van de Graaff Bubbles This is a Java tutorial, which requires that you have Java, a free software, installed on your computer. It works best if you have...

428

Characterization of single and colliding laser-produced plasma bubbles using Thomson scattering and proton radiography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Time-resolved measurements of electron and ion temperatures using Thomson scattering have been combined with proton radiography data for comprehensive characterization of individual laser-produced plasma bubbles or the ...

Rosenberg, Michael Jonathan

429

Experimental study on bubble collapse phenomena in subcooled water with three-dimensional particle image velocimetry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The purpose of this study is to apply three-Micrographics. dimensional particle image velocimetry (PlV) technique to study bubble collapse phenomenon. Simultaneous stereoscopic views of the tracer-seeded flow were recorded by three charged couple...

Yang, Yu-Hsiang

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

430

Measurements with an Automatically Recording Inverted Echo Sounder; ARIES and the Bubble Clouds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report here analysis of the first observations with a new instrument, ARIES, designed to record the acoustic backscatter from bubble clouds at several levels below the surface of the ocean. The instrument is deployed on a subsurface mooring ...

S. A. Thorpe

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Direct Simulations of Homogeneous Bubble Nucleation: Agreement with CNT and no Local Hot Spots  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present results from direct, large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of homogeneous bubble (liquid-to-vapor) nucleation. The simulations contain half a billion Lennard-Jones (LJ) atoms and cover up to 56 million time-steps. The unprecedented size of the simulated volumes allows us to resolve the nucleation and growth of many bubbles per run in simple direct micro-canonical (NVE) simulations while the ambient pressure and temperature remain almost perfectly constant. We find bubble nucleation rates which are lower than in most of the previous, smaller simulations. It is widely believed that classical nucleation theory (CNT) generally underestimates bubble nucleation rates by very large factors. However, our measured rates are within two orders of magnitude of CNT predictions - only at very low temperatures does CNT underestimate the nucleation rate significantly. Introducing a small, positive Tolman length leads to very good agreement at all temperatures, as found in our recent vapor-to-liquid nucle...

Diemand, Jürg; Tanaka, Kyoko K; Tanaka, Hidekazu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

On the stability of gas bubbles in liquid-gas solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It was shown some time ago by use of diffusion theory that a gas bubble in a liquid-gas solution was unstable. ... papers both of which propose to develop a stability analysis solely from thermodynamic considerat...

Milton S. Plesset; Satwindar S. Sadhal

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

A non-local free boundary problem arising in a theory of financial bubbles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...can be legitimately called a bubble. (d) Organization of the...viscosity solutions and the stability properties of these solutions...supersolutions is their stability: Proposition 2.2 (Stability of sub/supersolutions...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

On the stability of gas bubbles oscillating non-spherically in a compressible liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper describes the non-spherical free and forced oscillations of a gas bubble in a compressible liquid. Generally two different ... compressibility of the liquid and the gas. Stability and threshold conditi...

H. J. Rath

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Stability of a bubble in a dielectric liquid in an external electrostatic field  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Critical instability conditions are found for a gas bubble in a liquid dielectric in a uniform external electrostatic field E 0. It is shown that they depend both on the magnitude of E ...

A. I. Grigor’ev; A. N. Zharov; S. O. Shiryaeva

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Stability of a charged bubble in a dielectric liquid against radial perturbations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is shown that the critical conditions for instability of a charged vapor-gas bubble in a dielectric liquid against virtual radially symmetric volume perturbations are substantially less stringent than the c...

A. I. Grigor’ev

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Formation of seep bubble plumes in the Coal Oil Point seep field  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hydrocarbon seeps near Coal Oil Point, California. Marof seep bubble plumes in the Coal Oil Point seep field Irameasurement system in the Coal Oil Point seep field in the

Leifer, Ira; Culling, Daniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Acoustic studies for alpha background rejection in dark matter bubble chamber detectors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

COUPP (Chicagoland Observatory for Underground Particle Physics) is an experiment with bubble chambers able to detect dark matter directly either with Spin-Dependent or with Spin-Independent interactions. The target material is a superheated liquid (usually CF3I) that can be bubble nucleated due to nuclear recoils produced by elastic collisions of dark matter particles. The bubble growth inside the chamber is accompanied with an acoustic signature. The acoustic technique has been successfully used to have a good alpha discrimination (about 99%). In this paper, we present different studies and results related with the characterization of the acoustic properties of the detector and the different phenomena involved in the acoustic measurements of the bubble growth, such as sound generation, sound transmission and optimization of piezoelectric transducers.

Bou-Cabo, M.; Felis, I.; Ardid, M.; Collaboration: COUPP Collaboration

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

439

B Reactor | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Operational Management » History » Manhattan Project » Signature Operational Management » History » Manhattan Project » Signature Facilities » B Reactor B Reactor B Reactor Completed in September 1944, the B Reactor was the world's first large-scale plutonium production reactor. As at Oak Ridge, the need for labor turned Hanford into an atomic boomtown, with the population reaching 50,000 by summer 1944. Similar to the X-10 Graphite Reactor at Oak Ridge in terms of loading and unloading fuel, the B Reactor was built on a much larger scale and used water rather than air as a coolant. Whereas the X-10 had an initial design output of 1,000 kilowatts, the B Reactor was designed to operate at 250,000 kilowatts. Consisting of a 28- by 36-foot, 1,200-ton graphite cylinder lying on its side, the reactor was penetrated through its

440

Mathematical modeling of fluidized bed reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

III-B. Bubbling Bed Model (BBM). 26 TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) CHAPTER III-8-1. BBM with Constant Bubble Size III-B-2. BBM with Variable Bubble Size III-C. Countercurrent Backmixing Model (CCBM). Page 28 29 30 III-C-1. CCBM with Constant... IV NUMERICAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. IV-A. Langmuir-Hinshelwood Type of Kinetics. IV-B. First Order Kinetics . 57 IV-B-1. Davidson and Harrison Model (DHM) . . 57 IV-8-2. Bubbling Bed Model (BBM). IV-B-3. Countercurrent Backmixing Model (CCBM...

Nasif, Nilufer Havva

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bubbling reactor cd" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Analytical solutions of the Rayleigh equation for empty and gas--filled bubble  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Rayleigh equation for bubble dynamics is widely used. However, analytical solutions of this equation have not been obtained previously. Here we find closed--form general solutions of the Rayleigh equation both for an empty and gas--filled spherical bubble. We present an approach allowing us to construct exact solutions of the Rayleigh equation. We show that our solutions are useful for testing numerical algorithms.

Kudryashov, Nikolay A

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Laser light scattering by bubbles in water: Fundamentals and applications to acoustics.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Laser light scattering is sometimes used as an alternative to acoustical methods for monitoring bubbles in seawater. There has also been interest in using lasers to investigate bubbles in wakes. In some cases light scattering by bubbles has been used in conjunction with acoustical measurements to characterize dynamics of bubbles radiating sound [J. S. Stroud and P. L. Marston J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 94 2788–2792 (1993)]. In applications such as these it is important to understand the optical properties of bubbles that differ significantly from drops and particles. Examples include critical angle scattering and the transition to total reflection [D. S. Langley and P. L. Marston Appl. Opt. 23 1044–1054 (1984)] forward scattering and extinction [D. S. Langley and P. L. Marston Appl. Opt. 30 3452–3458 (1991); J. S. Stroud and P. L. Marston cited previously] glory back?scattering enhancements and shape effects [W. P. Arnott and P. L. Marston J. Opt. Soc. Am. A5 496–506 (1988); Appl. Opt. 30 3429–3442 (1991)] and Brewster angle scattering. Some optical effects of coatings on bubbles (which can occur naturally) have also been modeled [P. L. Marston Appl. Opt. 30 3479–3484 (1991)]. [Research supported by ONR between 1980 and 1995.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Reactor Pressure Vessel Task of Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program:  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Reactor Pressure Vessel Task of Light Water Reactor Sustainability Reactor Pressure Vessel Task of Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Initial Assessment of Thermal Annealing Needs and Challenges Reactor Pressure Vessel Task of Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Initial Assessment of Thermal Annealing Needs and Challenges The most life-limiting structural component in light-water reactors (LWR) is the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) because replacement of the RPV is not considered a viable option at this time. LWR licenses are now being extended from 40y to 60y by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with intentions to extend licenses to 80y and beyond. The RPV materials exhibit varying degrees of sensitivity to irradiation-induced embrittlement (decreased toughness) , as shown in Fig. 1.1, and extending operation from

444

Reactor Pressure Vessel Task of Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program:  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Reactor Pressure Vessel Task of Light Water Reactor Sustainability Reactor Pressure Vessel Task of Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Milestone Report on Materials and Machining of Specimens for the ATR-2 Experiment Reactor Pressure Vessel Task of Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Milestone Report on Materials and Machining of Specimens for the ATR-2 Experiment The reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in a light-water reactor (LWR) represents the first line of defense against a release of radiation in case of an accident. Thus, regulations, which govern the operation of commercial nuclear power plants, require conservative margins of fracture toughness, both during normal operation and under accident scenarios. In the unirradiated condition, the RPV has sufficient fracture toughness such that failure is implausible under any postulated condition, including

445

Reactor for exothermic reactions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F. Wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

1993-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

446

Thermionic Reactor Design Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Paper presented at the 29th IECEC in Monterey, CA in August 1994. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their (thermionic reactor) performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling.

Schock, Alfred

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

CD  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

at electric power plants; enclosed structures that are not buildings, such as oil tanks, statues, and monuments; and dilapidated or incompleted buildings missing a roof or a...

448

CD  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

on historical data during a period that did not include the typical processing of high-heat backlog waste. This did not allow normal evaporator operation in F-Tank Farm because...

449

Diagnostics for hybrid reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hybrid Reactor(HR) can be considered an attractive actinide-burner or a fusion assisted transmutation for destruction of transuranic(TRU) nuclear waste. The hybrid reactor has two important subsystems: the tokamak neutron source and the blanket which includes a fuel zone where the TRU are placed and a tritium breeding zone. The diagnostic system for a HR must be as simple and robust as possible to monitor and control the plasma scenario, guarantee the protection of the machine and monitor the transmutation.

Orsitto, Francesco Paolo [ENEA Unita' Tecnica Fusione , Associazione ENEA-EURATOM sulla Fusione C R Frascati v E Fermi 45 00044 Frascati (Italy)

2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

450

Recycling of CdTe photovoltaic waste  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for extracting and reclaiming metals from scrap CdTe photovoltaic cells and manufacturing waste by leaching the waste with a leaching solution comprising nitric acid and water, skimming any plastic material from the top of the leaching solution, separating the glass substrate from the liquid leachate and electrolyzing the leachate to separate Cd from Te, wherein the Te is deposits onto a cathode while the Cd remains in solution.

Goozner, Robert E. (Charlotte, NC); Long, Mark O. (Charlotte, NC); Drinkard, Jr., William F. (Charlotte, NC)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

indirect LFV Stephan Lammel, Fermilab CD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Fermilab CD Lepton-Photon 2005 Uppsala, June 30th Search for Higgs and New Phenomena at Colliders / #12;Lepton-Photon 2005 Stephan Lammel, Fermilab CD 2005-Jun-30, page 2/28 · Large variety of excellent-Photon 2005 Stephan Lammel, Fermilab CD 2005-Jun-30, page 3/28 Precision EWK/Top and Higgs CDF/D0 mtop went

Fermilab

452

"El Torito" Bootable CD-ROM Format  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

"El Torito" Bootable CD-ROM Format Specification Version 1.0 January 25, 1995 Curtis E. Stevens WITHOUT CHARGE FOR USE IN DEVELOPING COMPUTER SYSTEMS AND CD-ROM DRIVES. THE DEVELOPERS OF THIS DOCUMENT.0 THE INT 13 ACCESSIBLE IMAGE 14 4.0 INT 13 AND CD-ROMS 14 4.1 INT 13 Function 08 14 4.2 INT 13 Function 48

Gummadi, Ramakrishna

453

Structural materials for fusion reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fusion Reactors will require specially engineered structural materials, which ... on safety considerations. The fundamental differences between fusion and other nuclear reactors arise due to the 14MeV neutronics ...

P. M. Raole; S. P. Deshpande

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

A Study of CdS and Ag doped CdS Prepared through CBD Technique  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel and simple CBD Technique has been utilized to synthesize CdS and Ag doped CdS nanoparticles and thin film with an average particle size of 7nm, characterized by X-RD,...

Chandel, Shubham

455

p-CdTe/n-CdS photovoltaic cells in the substrate configuration.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In this thesis, p-CdTe/n-CdS solar cells in the substrate configuration have been studied. The focus is on device fabrication, performance optimization, and the development of… (more)

Wu, Hsiang Ning (1984 - )

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Stability Issues in Sputtered CdS/CdTe Solar Cells.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Magnetron sputtering is a well-established thin-film deposition technique which is particularly well-suited for sub-micron layers. We use this method to deposit ultra-thin CdS/CdTe layers… (more)

Paudel, Naba Raj

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Si, CdTe and CdZnTe radiation detectors for imaging applications.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The structure and operation of CdTe, CdZnTe and Si pixel detectors based on crystalline semiconductors, bump bonding and CMOS technology and developed mainly at Oy… (more)

Schulman, Tom

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Aqueous Synthesis of Zinc Blende CdTe/CdS Magic-Core/Thick-Shell...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

CdTeCdS Magic-CoreThick-Shell Tetrahedral Shaped Nanocrystals with Emission Tunable to Near-Infrared Authors: Deng, Z., Schulz, O., Lin, S., Ding, B., Liu, X., Wei, X., Ros, R.,...

459

CdS and CdS/CdSe sensitized ZnO nanorod array solar cells prepared by a solution ions exchange process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CdS and CdS/CdSe quantum dots are assembled on ZnO nanorods by ion exchange process. • The CdS/CdSe sensitization of ZnO effectively extends the absorption spectrum. • The performance of ZnO/CdS/CdSe cell is improved by extending absorption spectrum. - Abstract: In this paper, cadmium sulfide (CdS) and cadmium sulfide/cadmium selenide (CdS/CdSe) quantum dots (QDs) are assembled onto ZnO nanorod arrays by a solution ion exchange process for QD-sensitized solar cell application. The morphology, composition and absorption properties of different photoanodes were characterized with scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrum and Raman spectrum in detail. It is shown that conformal and uniform CdS and CdS/CdSe shells can grow on ZnO nanorod cores. Quantum dot sensitized solar cells based on ZnO/CdS and ZnO/CdS/CdSe nanocable arrays were assembled with gold counter electrode and polysulfide electrolyte solution. The CdS/CdSe sensitization of ZnO can effectively extend the absorption spectrum up to 650 nm, which has a remarkable impact on the performance of a photovoltaic device by extending the absorption spectrum. Preliminary results show one fourth improvement in solar cell efficiency.

Chen, Ling; Gong, Haibo; Zheng, Xiaopeng; Zhu, Min; Zhang, Jun [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Functional Materials in Universities of Shandong, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong (China); Yang, Shikuan [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802-6812 (United States); Cao, Bingqiang, E-mail: mse_caobq@ujn.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Functional Materials in Universities of Shandong, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong (China)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

460

Reactor Materials | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Benefits Crosscutting Technology Development Reactor Materials Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation Proliferation and Terrorism Risk Assessment Advanced Methods for Manufacturing...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bubbling reactor cd" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Reactor operation safety information document  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report contains a reactor facility description which includes K, P, and L reactor sites, structures, operating systems, engineered safety systems, support systems, and process and effluent monitoring systems; an accident analysis section which includes cooling system anomalies, radioactive materials releases, and anticipated transients without scram; a summary of onsite doses from design basis accidents; severe accident analysis (reactor core disruption); a description of operating contractor organization and emergency planning; and a summary of reactor safety evolution. (MB)

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

A comparative investigation of laminar separation bubbles at low Reynolds numbers in wind tunnels and free flight environments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reynolds numbers between 230, 000 and 315, 000. The character and length of the laminar separation bubbles were documented as well as the nature of the flight environment. The results of the study were compared to existing wind tunnel data for similar... separation bubble lengths and integrated lift curve slopes. Small discrepancies existed between the two environments in the magnitudes of the pressure distributions and lengths of the separation bubbles at Reynolds numbers near 230, 000. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT...

Blohowiak, James Russell

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

463

Fossil fuel furnace reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

Parkinson, William J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Transport reactor development status  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is part of METC`s Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located at Wilsonville, Alabama. The primary objective of the Advanced Gasifier module is to produce vitiated gases for intermediate-term testing of Particulate Control Devices (PCDs). The Transport reactor potentially allows particle size distribution, solids loading, and particulate characteristics in the off-gas stream to be varied in a number of ways. Particulates in the hot gases from the Transport reactor will be removed in the PCDs. Two PCDs will be initially installed in the module; one a ceramic candle filter, the other a granular bed filter. After testing of the initial PCDs they will be removed and replaced with PCDs supplied by other vendors. A secondary objective is to verify the performance of a Transport reactor for use in advanced Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IG-FC), and Pressurized Combustion Combined Cycle (PCCC) power generation units. This paper discusses the development of the Transport reactor design from bench-scale testing through pilot-scale testing to design of the Process Development Unit (PDU-scale) facility at Wilsonville.

Rush, R.E.; Fankhanel, M.O.; Campbell, W.M.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Thermal Reactor Safety  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Information is presented concerning fire risk and protection; transient thermal-hydraulic analysis and experiments; class 9 accidents and containment; diagnostics and in-service inspection; risk and cost comparison of alternative electric energy sources; fuel behavior and experiments on core cooling in LOCAs; reactor event reporting analysis; equipment qualification; post facts analysis of the TMI-2 accident; and computational methods.

Not Available

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

NETL - Chemical Looping Reactor  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

NETL's Chemical Looping Reactor unit is a high-temperature integrated CLC process with extensive instrumentation to improve computational simulations. A non-reacting test unit is also used to study solids flow at ambient temperature. The CLR unit circulates approximately 1,000 pounds per hour at temperatures around 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit.

None

2014-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

467

Multi-wavelength Emission from the Fermi Bubble II. Secondary Electrons and the Hadronic Model of the Bubble  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We analyse the origin of the gamma-ray flux from the Fermi Bubbles (FBs) in the framework of the hadronic model in which gamma-rays are produced by collisions of relativistic protons with the protons of background plasma in the Galactic halo. It is assumed in this model that the observed radio emission from the FBs is due to synchrotron radiation of secondary electrons produced by $pp$ collisions. However, if these electrons loose their energy by the synchrotron and inverse-Compton, the spectrum of secondary electrons is too soft, and an additional arbitrary component of primary electrons is necessary in order to reproduce the radio data. Thus, a mixture of the hadronic and leptonic models is required for the observed radio flux. It was shown that if the spectrum of primary electrons is $\\propto E_e^{-2}$, the permitted range of the magnetic field strength is within 2 - 7 $\\mu$G region. The fraction of gamma-rays produced by $pp$ collisions can reach about 80% of the total gamma-ray flux from the FBs. If magn...

Cheng, K -S; Dogiel, V A; Ko, C -M

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Bubble departure in the direct-contact boiling field with a continuous liquid-liquid interface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Behavior of vapor bubbles was experimentally investigated in the boiling field where a volatile liquid layer of per-fluorocarbon PF5050 (boiling point 306K) was directly in contact with an immiscible hot liquid layer of water above it. Heat was supplied to the continuous liquid-liquid interface by the impingement of the downward hot water jet. Vapor bubbles were generated not only from this continuous interface but from a large number of PF5050 droplets floating on it. According to precise observation, incipience of boiling did not occur at the liquid-liquid interface but in the PF5050 liquid close to the interface in both cases of continuous and dispersed interfaces. As a result, the bubbles broke up the thin PF5050 liquid film above them and rose up into the water layer. This bubble departure phenomenon, which does not occur in the ordinary pool boiling field on the solid heating wall, is very important to evaluate the heat transfer performance in the present direct-contact boiling system. For modeling this behavior, sizes of the bubbles were measured at the moment just after they were released into the water pool. Volumes of the bubbles were larger in the case of departing from the continuous liquid-liquid interface than from the droplets. This tendency could be explained by taking into account the buoyancy force acting on unit area of the thin PF5050 liquid film above the bubble before departure, which was one of the most important parameters for the liquid film breakdown. (author)

Kadoguchi, Katsuhiko [Energy Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan)

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

469

Final Report: AST-0613577 "Experimental study of magnetic bubble expansion as a model for extragalactic radio lobes"  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Final report for project "Experimental study of magnetic bubble expansion as a model for extragalactic radio lobes" supported by NSF/DOE Joint Program in Basic Plasma Science.

Lynn, Alan [University of New Mexico

2011-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

470

Chemical Looping Combustion System-Fuel Reactor Modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a process in which an oxygen carrier is used for fuel combustion instead of air or pure oxygen as shown in the figure below. The combustion is split into air and fuel reactors where the oxidation of the oxygen carrier and the reduction of the oxidized metal occur respectively. The CLC system provides a sequestration-ready CO2 stream with no additional energy required for separation. This major advantage places combustion looping at the leading edge of a possible shift in strict control of CO2 emissions from power plants. Research in this novel technology has been focused in three distinct areas: techno-economic evaluations, integration of the system into power plant concepts, and experimental development of oxygen carrier metals such as Fe, Ni, Mn, Cu, and Ca. Our recent thorough literature review shows that multiphase fluid dynamics modeling for CLC is not available in the open literature. Here, we have modified the MFIX code to model fluid dynamic in the fuel reactor. A computer generated movie of our simulation shows bubble behavior consistent with experimental observations.

Gamwo, I.K.; Jung, J. (ANL); Anderson, R.R.; Soong, Y.

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Reactor vessel support system. [LMFBR  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

Golden, M.P.; Holley, J.C.

1980-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

472

1. INTRODUCTION CdTe/CdS is one of the most promising solar cell for low  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with CdTe grown by close space sublimation, electrodeposition, spray pyrolysis, vacuum evaporation and RF conversion of CdTe layers, as well as for the intermixing of CdS-CdTe. An optimum annealing condition is required for the formation of an appropriate CdTe1-x-Sx intermixed interface. It is desirable to separately

Romeo, Alessandro

473

Co-gasification of biosolids with biomass: Thermogravimetric analysis and pilot scale study in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This work studied the feasibility of co-gasification of biosolids with biomass as a means of disposal with energy recovery. The kinetics study at 800 °C showed that biomass, such as switchgrass, could catalyze the reactions because switchgrass ash contained a high proportion of potassium, an excellent catalyst for gasification. However, biosolids could also inhibit gasification due to interaction between biomass alkali/alkaline earth metals and biosolids clay minerals. In the pilot scale experiments, increasing the proportion of biosolids in the feedstock affected gasification performance negatively. Syngas yield and char conversion decreased from 1.38 to 0.47 m3/kg and 82–36% respectively as the biosolids proportion in the fuel increased from 0% to 100%. Over the same range, the tar content increased from 10.3 to 200 g/m3, while the ammonia concentration increased from 1660 to 19,200 ppmv. No more than 25% biosolids in the fuel feed is recommended to maintain a reasonable gasification.

Ming Ming Yu; Mohammad S. Masnadi; John R. Grace; Xiaotao T. Bi; C. Jim Lim; Yonghua Li

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Fusion reactor systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this review we consider deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reactors based on four different plasma-confinement and heating approaches: the tokamak, the theta-pinch, the magnetic-mirror, and the laser-pellet system. We begin with a discussion of the dynamics of reacting plasmas and basic considerations of reactor power balance. The essential plasma physical aspects of each system are summarized, and the main characteristics of the corresponding conceptual power plants are described. In tokamak reactors the plasma densities are about 1020 m-3, and the ? values (ratio of plasma pressure to confining magnetic pressure) are approximately 5%. Plasma burning times are of the order of 100-1000 sec. Large superconducting dc magnets furnish the toroidal magnetic field, and 2-m thick blankets and shields prevent heat deposition in the superconductor. Radially diffusing plasma is diverted away from the first wall by means of null singularities in the poloidal (or transverse) component of the confining magnetic field. The toroidal theta-pinch reactor has a much smaller minor diameter and a much larger major diameter, and operates on a 10-sec cycle with 0.1-sec burning pulses. It utilizes shock heating from high-voltage sources and adabatic-compression heating powered by low-voltage, pulsed cryogenic magnetic or inertial energy stores, outside the reactor core. The plasma has a density of about 1022 m-3 and ? values of nearly unity. In the power balance of the reactor, direct-conversion energy obtained by expansion of the burning high-? plasma against the containing magnetic field is an important factor. No divertor is necessary since neutral-gas flow cools and replaces the "spent" plasma between pulses. The open-ended mirror reactor uses both thermal conversion of neutron energy and direct conversion of end-loss plasma energy to dc electrical power. A fraction of this direct-convertor power is then fed back to the ioninjection system to sustain the reaction and maintain the plasma. The average ion energy is 600 keV, plasma diameter 6 m, and the plasma beta 85%. The power levels of the three magnetic-confinement devices are in the 500-2000 MWe range, with the exception of the mirror reactor, for which the output is approximately 200 MWe. In Laser-Pellet reactors, frozen D-T pellets are ignited in a cavity which absorbs the electromagnetic, charged particle, and neutron energy from the fusion reaction. The confinement is "inertial," since the fusion reaction occurs during the disassembly of the heated pellet. A pellet-cavity unit would produce about 200 MWt in pulses with a repetition rate of the order of 10 sec-1. Such units could be clustered to give power plants with outputs in the range of 1000 MWe.

F. L. Ribe

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

The UNEP project CD4CDM Sustainable  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The UNEP project CD4CDM CDM Sustainable Development Impacts #12;1 CDM Sustainable Development Impacts developed for the UNEP project `CD4CDM' The project is funded by the Netherlands Ministry Impacts UNEP Risø Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development Risø National Laboratory Roskilde

476

Extending the bubble-based EMMS model to CFB riser simulations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Experiments have shown that various structures (e.g., the streamer, cluster, void and bubble) can be clearly observed in gas–solid fluidized beds. These structures affect the overall behavior of flow, mass/heat transfer and reactions significantly and should be accounted for in simulations of gas–solid flow. For the purpose of riser flow simulation, the structure-based drag model has already been proposed based on the description of meso-scale clusters, and incorporated into the framework of a two-fluid model to calculate the effective drag force. However, there is still no clear agreement about the characterization of clusters, such as the cluster shape, size and orientation. In contrast, it is easier to describe and measure the characteristic size of visible bubbles. Here, we attempt to upgrade the bubble-based EMMS model which was established for bubbling fluidized beds originally, and then extend it to simulations of heterogeneous gas–solid flows in CFB risers. Numerical analysis on this new model reveals that it is capable of predicting two turning points, where the flow state is transforming rapidly from uniform to heterogeneous distribution. The predicted voidage in the dense phase is qualitatively consistent with experimental data in the literature. To evaluate this new drag, finally, CFB riser simulations have been carried out by coupling of the two-fluid model and the bubble-based EMMS drag. The results show good agreement with experimental data.

Kun Hong; Zhansheng Shi; Atta Ullah; Wei Wang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Thin-shell bubbles and information loss problem in anti de Sitter background  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the motion of thin-shell bubbles and their tunneling in anti de Sitter (AdS) background. We are interested in the case when the outside of a shell is a Schwarzschild-AdS space (false vacuum) and the inside of it is an AdS space with a lower vacuum energy (true vacuum). If a collapsing true vacuum bubble is created, classically it will form a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole. However, this collapsing bubble can tunnel to a bouncing bubble that moves out to spatial infinity. Then, although the classical causal structure of a collapsing true vacuum bubble has the singularity and the event horizon, quantum mechanically the wavefunction has support for a history without any singularity nor event horizon which is mediated by the non-perturbative, quantum tunneling effect. This may be regarded an explicit example that shows the unitarity of an asymptotic observer in AdS, while a classical observer who only follows the most probable history effectively lose information due to the formation of an event horizon.

Misao Sasaki; Dong-han Yeom

2014-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

478

Bubble Over-Potential During Two-Phase Alkaline Water Electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract During two-phase water electrolysis production of bubbles at one or both electrodes is observed. This leads to a change in the electrolyser electrical and hydrodynamic properties. When gravity is present, the production of bubbles at the electrodes induces a macro-convection in the electrolyser. This leads to a local distribution of the bubbles determining the local gas void fraction and current density at the electrodes. The absence of gravity eliminates the natural convection and buoyancy forces and consequently the frictional forces. It is generally difficult to estimate the quantitative influence of each of these single phenomena due to strong coupling. In the present work, alkaline water electrolysis is performed. The formation of gas bubbles at the anode is observed using four cameras. The aim of this study is to establish the quantitative evolution laws for the electrochemical cell potential, the bubble diameter and population density during alkaline (NaOH) two-phase electrolysis in function of the two explored inputs current density and gravity.

Philippe Mandin; Zine Derhoumi; Hervé Roustan; Wüthrich Rolf

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

High-tech IPOs in the USA, UK and Europe after the dot-com bubble  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

From 1998 to 2001, the high-tech industry saw a dramatic increase and subsequent sharp decline in market capitalisation during a phenomenon known as the dot-com bubble. During this time there were a large number of private companies that made the decision to go public via an Initial Public Offering (IPO) of stock on the general equities market. After the dot-com crash of 2001, the IPO market for high-tech companies changed dramatically. Far fewer companies went public, and they had much lower first-day returns than those during the bubble. This paper explores the first-day returns of high-tech IPOs in the USA and Europe in the post-bubble era. We compare the results of the 2002â??2005 post-bubble period with those of the 1998â??2001 dot-com bubble period. We find that the high-tech IPO market was dramatically affected by the dot-com crash and that, after the crash, the number of high-tech IPOs dropped considerably, as did the average first-day returns of these IPOs. Finally, we find that the European high-tech IPO market was not as adversely affected by the dot-com crash as the American market.

Keith Pilbeam; Frank Nagle

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Nuclear reactor construction with bottom supported reactor vessel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved liquid metal nuclear reactor construction has a reactor core and a generally cylindrical reactor vessel for holding a large pool of low pressure liquid metal coolant and housing the core within the pool. The reactor vessel has an open top end, a closed flat bottom end wall and a continuous cylindrical closed side wall interconnecting the top end and bottom end wall. The reactor also has a generally cylindrical concrete containment structure surrounding the reactor vessel and being formed by a cylindrical side wall spaced outwardly from the reactor vessel side wall and a flat base mat spaced below the reactor vessel bottom end wall. A central support pedestal is anchored to the containment structure base mat and extends upwardly therefrom to the reactor vessel and upwardly therefrom to the reactor core so as to support the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and the lower end of the reactor core in spaced apart relationship above the containment structure base mat. Also, an annular reinforced support structure is disposed in the reactor vessel on the bottom end wall thereof and extends about the lower end of the core so as to support the periphery thereof. In addition, an annular support ring having a plurality of inward radially extending linear members is disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end of the reactor vessel wall and is connected to and supports the reactor vessel at its bottom end on the containment structure base mat so as to allow the reactor vessel to expand radially but substantially prevent any lateral motions that might be imposed by the occurrence of a seismic event. The reactor construction also includes a bed of insulating material in sand-like granular form, preferably being high density magnesium oxide particles, disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and uniformly supporting the reactor vessel at its bottom end wall on the containment structure base mat so as to insulate the reactor vessel bottom end wall from the containment structure base mat and allow the reactor vessel bottom end wall to freely expand as it heats up while providing continuous support thereof. Further, a deck is supported upon the side wall of the containment structure above the top open end of the reactor vessel, and a plurality of serially connected extendible and retractable annular bellows extend between the deck and the top open end of the reactor vessel and flexibly and sealably interconnect the reactor vessel at its top end to the deck. An annular guide ring is disposed on the containment structure and extends between its side wall and the top open end of the reactor vessel for providing lateral support of the reactor vessel top open end by limiting imposition of lateral loads on the annular bellows by the occurrence of a lateral seismic event.

Sharbaugh, John E. (Bullskin Township, Fayette County, PA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bubbling reactor cd" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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481

Spherical torus fusion reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fusion reactor is provided having a near spherical-shaped plasma with a modest central opening through which straight segments of toroidal field coils extend that carry electrical current for generating a toroidal magnet plasma confinement fields. By retaining only the indispensable components inboard of the plasma torus, principally the cooled toroidal field conductors and in some cases a vacuum containment vessel wall, the fusion reactor features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (typically about 1.5), a naturally elongated plasma cross section without extensive field shaping, requires low strength magnetic containment fields, small size and high beta. These features combine to produce a spherical torus plasma in a unique physics regime which permits compact fusion at low field and modest cost.

Peng, Yueng-Kay M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Nuclear divisional reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A nuclear divisional reactor including a reactor core having side and top walls, a heat exchanger substantially surrounding the core, the heat exchanger including a plurality of separate fluid holding and circulating chambers each in contact with a portion of the core, control rod means associated with the core and external of the heat exchanger including control rods and means for moving said control rods, each of the chambers having separate means for delivering and removing fluid therefrom, separate means associated with each of the delivering and removing means for producing useable energy external of the chambers, each of the means for producing useable energy having separate variable capacity energy outputs thereby making available a plurality of individual sources of useable energy of varying degrees.

Administratrix, A.P.; Rugh, J.L.

1982-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

483

Fusion reactor pumped laser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam. 10 figs.

Jassby, D.L.

1987-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

484

Molecular Hydrogen bubbles formation on thin vacuum deposited Aluminum layers after proton irradiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Metals are the most common materials used in space technology. Metal structures, while used in space, are subjected to the full spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation together with particle irradiation. Hence, they undergo degradation. Future space missions are planned to proceed in the interplanetary space, where the protons of the solar wind play a very destructive role on metallic surfaces. Unfortunately, their real degradation behavior is to a great extent unknown. Our aim is to predict materials' behavior in such a destructive environment. Therefore both, theoretical and experimental studies are performed at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in Bremen, Germany. Here, we report the theoretical results of those studies. We examine the process of H2-bubble formation on metallic surfaces. H2-bubbles are metal caps filled with Hydrogen molecular gas resulting from recombination processes of the metal free electrons and the solar protons. A thermodynamic model of the bubble growth is presented. Our model pr...

Sznajder, Maciej

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Shock formation in the collapse of a vapor nano-bubble  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper a diffuse-interface model featuring phase change, transition to supercritical conditions, thermal conduction, compressibility effects and shock wave propagation is exploited to deal with the dynamics of a cavitation bubble. At variance with previous descriptions, the model is uniformly valid for all phases (liquid, vapor and supercritical) and phase transitions involved, allowing to describe the non-equilibrium processes ongoing during the collapse. As consequence of this unitary description, rather unexpectedly for pure vapor bubbles, the numerical experiments show that the collapse is accompanied by the emission of a strong shock wave in the liquid and by the oscillation of the bubble that periodically disappears and reappears, due to transition to super/sub critical conditions. The mechanism of shock wave formation is strongly related to the transition of the vapor to supercritical state, with a progressive steepening of the compression wave to form the shock which is eventually reflected as ...

Magaletti, Francesco; Casciola, Carlo Massimo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Investigation of Junction Properties of CdS/CdTe Solar Cells and their Correlation to Device Properties (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the Junction Studies are: (1) understand the nature of the junction in the CdTe/CdS device; (2) correlate the device fabrication parameters to the junction formation; and (3) develop a self consistent device model to explain the device properties. Detailed analysis of CdS/CdTe and SnO{sub 2}/CdTe devices prepared using CSS CdTe is discussed.

Dhere, R. G.; Zhang, Y.; Romero, M. J.; Asher, S. E.; Young, M.; To, B.; Noufi, R.; Gessert, T. A.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Thermionic Reactor Design Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the 1960's and early 70's the author performed extensive design studies, analyses, and tests aimed at thermionic reactor concepts that differed significantly from those pursued by other investigators. Those studies, like most others under Atomic Energy Commission (AEC and DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsorship, were terminated in the early 1970's. Some of this work was previously published, but much of it was never made available in the open literature. U.S. interest in thermionic reactors resumed in the early 80's, and was greatly intensified by reports about Soviet ground and flight tests in the late 80's. This recent interest resulted in renewed U.S. thermionic reactor development programs, primarily under Department of Defense (DOD) and Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship. Since most current investigators have not had an opportunity to study all of the author's previous work, a review of the highlights of that work may be of value to them. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling. Where the author's concepts differed from the later Topaz-2 design was in the relative location of the emitter and the collector. Placing the fueled emitter on the outside of the cylindrical diodes permits much higher axial conductances to reduce ohmic losses in the electrodes of full-core-height diodes. Moreover, placing the fuel on the outside of the diode makes possible reactors with much higher fuel volume fractions, which enable power-flattened fast reactors scalable to very low power levels without the need for life-limiting hydride moderators or the use of efficiency-limiting driver fuel. In addition, with the fuel on the outside its swelling does not increase the emitter diameter or reduce the interelectrode gap. This should permit long lifetimes even with closer spacings, which can significantly improve the system efficiences. This was confirmed by coupled neutronic, thermal, thermionic, and electrical system analyses - some of which are presented in this paper - and by subsequent experiments. A companion paper presented next describes the fabrication and testing of full-scale converter elements, both fueled and unfueled, and summarizes the test results obtained. There is a duplicate copy in the file.

Schock, Alfred

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Entrainment and mixing properties of multiphase plumes: Experimental studies on turbulence and scalar structure of a bubble plume  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the velocity and concentration field measurements using the developed two-phase PIV and LIF methods are applied for a bubble plume in a density-stratified ambient. The turbulent flow characteristics induced by a bubble plume in a stratified ambient water...

Seol, Dong Guan

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

489

arXiv:astro-ph/0503398v117Mar2005 Development of Bubble Chambers With Enhanced Stability and Sensitivity to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

arXiv:astro-ph/0503398v117Mar2005 Development of Bubble Chambers With Enhanced Stability Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL, USA The viability of using a Bubble Chamber for rare stability in such a detector are described. Results from prototype trials indicate that sensitivity to low

Collar, Juan I.

490

High-speed and bi-stable electrolysis-bubble actuated planar micro gate valves are demonstrated in this paper.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SUMMARY High-speed and bi-stable electrolysis-bubble actuated planar micro gate valves are demonstrated in this paper. The speed of previous low power planar microvalves was limited by the bubble collapse process. In addition bi-stability was unreliable. In this work, surface tension is used

Liepmann, Dorian

491

Commensurate-incommensurate transitions in magnetic bubble arrays with periodic line pinning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report direct observations of commensurate-incommensurate phase transitions as a function of bubble concentration in a two-dimensional magnetic bubble array subject to periodic line pinning. The pinning lines consist of lithographically produced parallel permalloy bars. Temperature is simulated by an ac magnetic field. The structure function shows a smooth migration of Bragg peaks with density indicating a second order (or weakly first order) commensurate-incommensurate-commensurate transition as the local orientation of the array rotates continuously. We have also identified a commensurate smectic phase.

Junmin Hu and R. M. Westervelt

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Energy enhancement of proton acceleration in combinational radiation pressure and bubble by optimizing plasma density  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The combinational laser radiation pressure and plasma bubble fields to accelerate protons are researched through theoretical analysis and numerical simulations. The dephasing length of the accelerated protons bunch in the front of the bubble and the density gradient effect of background plasma on the accelerating phase are analyzed in detail theoretically. The radiation damping effect on the accelerated protons energy is also considered. And it is demonstrated by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations that the protons bunch energy can be increased by using the background plasma with negative density gradient. However, radiation damping makes the maximal energy of the accelerated protons a little reduction.

Bake, Muhammad Ali; Xie Baisong [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Shan Zhang [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, Shijiazhuang 050043 (China); Hong Xueren [College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Wang Hongyu [Department of Physics, Anshan Normal University, Anshan 114005 (China); Shanghai Bright-Tech Information Technology Co. Ltd, Shanghai 200136 (China)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

493

The effect of bubble growth dynamics on the performance of a gas evolving electrode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE EFFECT OF BUBBLE GRONTH D'rgiAMI CS ON THE PE' FOi&ilANCE OF A GAS EVOLVING ELECTRODE A Thesis By MOHAMMAD SHAMSUL HAgUE Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas Alg& University in Partial ful fi llment of the requirements... for the degree o, MASTER OF SCIENCE Aug us t 1967 Major Subject: CHEMICAL ENGINEERING THE EFFFCT OF BUBBLE GROI'JTH DYNAMICS ON THE PERFOR1ANCE OF A GAS EVOLVING ELECTRODE A Thesis YiOHPJiINAD SHCivISUL HAQUE Approved as to style and content by...

Haque, Mohammad Shamsul

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

494

Registered Nurse Labor Supply and the Recession — Are We in a Bubble?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...smaller — approximately 240,000. Thus, according to the model's projections, this substantial expansion in the RN workforce is largely a temporary bubble that is likely to deflate during the next several years. Unemployment is expected to decrease by 3.5 percentage points between 2010 and 2015, falling... Hospital employment of registered nurses (RNs) increased dramatically during the recession, making it seem as if the decade-long national shortage of RNs had ended. But RN employment is countercyclical, and the bubble is likely to burst during the next several years.

Staiger D.O.Auerbach D.I.Buerhaus P.I.

2012-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

495

Junction Evolution During Fabrication of CdS/CdTe Thin-film PV Solar Cells (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Discussion of the formation of CdTe thin-film PV junctions and optimization of CdTe thin-film PV solar cells.

Gessert, T. A.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Enhancing mass transfer and ethanol production in syngas fermentation of Clostridium carboxidivorans P7 through a monolithic biofilm reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Syngas fermentation is a promising process for producing fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass. Currently syngas fermentation faces several engineering challenges, with gas-to-liquid mass transfer limitation representing the major bottleneck. The aim of this work is to evaluate the performance of a monolithic biofilm reactor (MBR) as a novel reactor configuration for syngas fermentation. The volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa) of the MBR was evaluated in abiotic conditions within a wide range of gas flow rates (i.e., gas velocity in monolithic channels) and liquid flow rates (i.e., liquid velocity in the channels). The kLa values of the MBR were higher than those of a controlled bubble column reactor (BCR) in certain conditions, due to the slug flow pattern in the monolithic channels. A continuous syngas fermentation using Clostridium carboxidivorans P7 was conducted in the MBR system under varying operational conditions, with the variables including syngas flow rate, liquid recirculation between the monolithic column and reservoir, and dilution rate. It was found that the syngas fermentation performance – measured by such parameters as syngas utilization efficiency, ethanol concentration and productivity, and ratio of ethanol to acetic acid – depended not only on the mass transfer efficiency but also on the biofouling or abrading of the biofilm attached on the monolithic channel wall. At a condition of 300 mL/min of syngas flow rate, 500 mL/min of liquid flow rate, and 0.48 day?1 of dilution rate, the MBR produced much higher syngas (CO/H2) utilization efficiency and much greater metabolite (ethanol/acetic acid) productivity than what was obtained using a traditional bubble column reactor. The study demonstrates the great potential of MBR as a promising reactor configuration for syngas fermentation with high mass transfer efficiency, low energy consumption, and high metabolite productivity.

Yanwen Shen; Robert Brown; Zhiyou Wen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Massive Hanford Test Reactor Removed - Plutonium Recycle Test...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Massive Hanford Test Reactor Removed - Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor removed from Hanford's 300 Area Massive Hanford Test Reactor Removed - Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor removed...

498

Nuclear Reactor Severe Accident Experiments  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nuclear Reactor Severe Accident Experiments Nuclear Reactor Severe Accident Experiments Capabilities Engineering Experimentation Reactor Safety Testing and Analysis Overview Nuclear Reactor Severe Accident Experiments MAX NSTF SNAKE Aerosol Experiments System Components Laser Applications Robots Applications Other Facilities Other Capabilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Nuclear Reactor Severe Accident Experiments 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 We perform experiments simulating reactor core melt phenomena in which molten core debris ("corium") erodes the concrete floor of a containment building. This occurred during the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident though the extent of concrete damage is yet unknown. This video shows the top view of a churning molten pool of uranium oxide at 2000°C (3600°F) seen during an experiment at Argonne. Corium behaves much like lava.

499

Recycling of CdTe photovoltaic waste  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for extracting and reclaiming metals from scrap CdTe photovoltaic cells and manufacturing waste by leaching the metals in dilute nitric acid, leaching the waste with a leaching solution comprising nitric acid and water, skimming any plastic material from the top of the leaching solution, separating the glass substrate from the liquid leachate, adding a calcium containing base to the leachate to precipitate Cd and Te, separating the precipitated Cd and Te from the leachate, and recovering the calcium-containing base.

Goozner, Robert E. (Charlotte, NC); Long, Mark O. (Charlotte, NC); Drinkard, Jr., William F. (Charlotte, NC)

1999-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

500

Acoustic emission associated with the bursting of a gas bubble at the free surface of a non-newtonian fluid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report experimental measurements of the acoustic emission associated with the bursting of a gas bubble at the free surface of a non-newtonian fluid. On account of the viscoelastic properties of the fluid, the bubble is generally elongated. The associated frequency and duration of the acoustic signal are discussed with regard to the shape of the bubble and successfully accounted for by a simple linear model. The acoustic energy exhibits a high sensitivity to the dynamics of the thin film bursting, which demonstrates that, in practice, it is barely possible to deduce from the acoustic measurements the total amount of energy released by the event. Our experimental findings provide clues for the understanding of the signals from either volcanoes or foams, where one observes respectively, the bursting of giant bubbles at the free surface of lava and bubble bursting avalanches.

Thibaut Divoux; Valérie Vidal; Francisco Melo; Jean-Christophe Géminard

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z