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Sample records for bubble chamber tracks

  1. ON THE ANALYSIS OF BUBBLE CHAMBER TRACKS Bradner, H.; Solmitz...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ON THE ANALYSIS OF BUBBLE CHAMBER TRACKS Bradner, H.; Solmitz, F. 08 HYDROGEN; 43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; BEVATRON; BUBBLE CHAMBERS; DETECTION; HYDROCARBONS; HYDROGEN; INVENTIONS;...

  2. Donald Glaser, the Bubble Chamber, and Elementary Particles

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    construction of computational models that shed light on the physics and physiology of human perception." - Edited excerpt from: 1960: Donald Glaser and His Bubble Chamber,...

  3. Dark matter limits froma 15 kg windowless bubble chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szydagis, Matthew Mark; /Chicago U.

    2010-12-01

    The COUPP collaboration has successfully used bubble chambers, a technology previously applied only to high-energy physics experiments, as direct dark matter detectors. It has produced the world's most stringent spin-dependent WIMP limits, and increasingly competitive spin-independent limits. These limits were achieved by capitalizing on an intrinsic rejection of the gamma background that all other direct detection experiments must address through high-density shielding and empirically-determined data cuts. The history of COUPP, including its earliest prototypes and latest results, is briefly discussed in this thesis. The feasibility of a new, windowless bubble chamber concept simpler and more inexpensive in design is discussed here as well. The dark matter limits achieved with a 15 kg windowless chamber, larger than any previous COUPP chamber (2 kg, 4 kg), are presented. Evidence of the greater radiopurity of synthetic quartz compared to natural is presented using the data from this 15 kg device, the first chamber to be made from synthetic quartz. The effective reconstruction of the three-dimensional positions of bubbles in a highly distorted optical field, with ninety-degree bottom lighting similar to cloud chamber lighting, is demonstrated. Another innovation described in this thesis is the use of the sound produced by bubbles recorded by an array of piezoelectric sensors as the primary means of bubble detection. In other COUPP chambers, cameras have been used as the primary trigger. Previous work on bubble acoustic signature differentiation using piezos is built upon in order to further demonstrate the ability to discriminate between alpha- and neutron-induced events.

  4. A Measurement of the holographic minimum observable beam branching ratio in the Fermilab 15-foot bubble chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aderholz, M.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Akbari, H.; Allport, P.P.; Badyal, S.K.; Ballagh, H.C.; Barth, M.; Baton, J.P.; Bingham, H.H.; Bjelkhagen, H.; Brucker, E.B.; Burnstein,; Campbell, J.R.; Cence, R.J.; Chatterjee, T.K.; Clayton, E.F.; Corrigan, G.; Coutures, C.; DeProspo, D.; Devanand,; De Wolf, E.A.; /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Brussels U.,

    1997-01-01

    Holography has been used successfully in combination with conventional optics for the first time in a large cryogenic bubble chamber, the 15-Foot Bubble Chamber at Fermilab, during a physics run. The innovative system combined the reference beam with the object beam, illuminating a conical volume of {approx} 1.4 m{sup 3}. Bubble tracks from neutrino interactions with a width of {approx} 120 {micro}m have been recorded with good contrast. The ratio of intensities of the object light to the reference light striking the film is called the Beam Branching Ratio. We obtained in our experiment an exceedingly small minimum-observable ratio of (0.54 {+-} 0.21) x 10{sup -7}. The technology has the potential for a wide range of applications.

  5. The electronics of ALICE Dimuon tracking chambers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chambert, V

    2008-01-01

    The muon spectrometer is one of the main detection system of ALICE, the dedicated heavy-ion experiment at CERN LHC. The muon tracking system consists of five cathodepad chamber station (ST) with two detection planes each. The readout architecture, based on dedicated FE boards, embedded digital crates and a trigger dispatcher crate and the process to reach the electronics final design will be described, as well as the production and the tests of the 19.600 FE boards. Finally, the integration of ST1 at CERN (including EMC issues and commissioning) will be highlighted.

  6. Invention and History of the Bubble Chamber (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Glaser, Don

    2011-04-28

    Summer Lecture Series 2006: Don Glaser won the 1960 Nobel Prize for Physics for his 1952 invention of the bubble chamber at Berkeley Lab, a type of particle detector that became the mainstay of high-energy physics research throughout the 1960s and 1970s. He discusses how, inspired by bubbles in a glass of beer, he invented the bubble chamber and detected cosmic-ray muons.

  7. -The Bubble Chamber -http://thebubblechamber.org -Review: Cold War Social Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solovey, Mark

    [1] - The Bubble Chamber - http://thebubblechamber.org - Review: Cold War Social Science Posted By Mike Thicke On July 10, 2013 @ 11:04 pm In What We're Reading | No Comments Cold War Social Science.) Palgrave Macmillan (2012) Cold War Social Science is an edited volume that serves as an ideal entrée

  8. Bubble tracking in image sequences Da-chuan Cheng and Hans Burkhardt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bubble tracking in image sequences Da-chuan Cheng and Hans Burkhardt Institute of Pattern This paper will be published in International Journal of Thermal Science, 2003. Correspondence: Da-chuan-(0)761-2038272 Fax: +49-(0)761-2038262 #12;1 Bubble tracking in image sequences Da-chuan Cheng and Hans Burkhardt

  9. Threshold bubble chamber for measurement of knock-on DT neutron tails from magnetic and inertial confinement experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, R.K. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Zaveryaev, V.S. [Russian Research Centre, Moscow (Russian Federation). Kurchatov Institute; Trusillo, S.V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Centre, Arzamas (Russian Federation). Experimental Physics Institute

    1996-07-01

    We propose a new {open_quotes}threshold{close_quotes} bubble chamber detector for measurement of knock-on neutron tails. These energetic neutrons result from fusion reactions involving energetic fuel ions created by alpha knock-on collisions in tokamak and other magnetic confinement experiments, and by both alpha and neutron knock-on collisions in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The energy spectrum of these neutrons will yield information on the alpha population and energy distribution in tokamaks, and on alpha target physics and {rho}R measurements in ICF experiments. The bubble chamber should only detect neutrons with energies above a selectable threshold energy controlled by the bubble chamber pressure. The bubble chamber threshold mechanism, detection efficiency, and proposed applications to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and National Ignition Facility (NIF) experiments will be discussed.

  10. PICASSO, COUPP and PICO - Search for dark matter with bubble chambers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Amole, C.; Ardid, M.; Asner, D. M.; Baxter, D.; Behnke, E.; Bhattacharjee, P.; Borsodi, H.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Brice, S. J.; Broemmelsiek, D.; et al

    2015-05-29

    The PICASSO and COUPP collaborations use superheated liquid detectors to search for cold dark matter through the direct detection of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). These experiments, located in the underground laboratory of SNOLAB, Canada, detect phase transitions triggered by nuclear recoils in the keV range induced by interactions with WIMPs. We present details of the construction and operation of these detectors as well as the results, obtained by several years of observations. We also introduce PICO, a joint effort of the two collaborations to build a second generation ton-scale bubble chamber with 250 liters of active liquid.

  11. Specification for a real-time computer for use with the CERN 2 metre-liquid Hydrogen Bubble Chamber and associated particle beam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CERN. Geneva. TC-200

    1966-01-01

    Specification for a real-time computer for use with the CERN 2 metre-liquid Hydrogen Bubble Chamber and associated particle beam

  12. A Proposal for a Ton Scale Bubble Chamber for Dark Matter Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collar, Juan; Dahl, C.Eric; Fustin, Drew; Robinson, Alan; Behnke, Ed; Behnke, Joshua; Breznau, William; Connor, Austin; Kuehnemund, Emily Grace; Levine, Ilan; Moan, Timothy; /Indiana U., South Bend /Fermilab

    2010-10-07

    The nature of non-baryonic dark matter is one of the most intriguing questions for particle physics at the start of the 21st century. There is ample evidence for its existence, but almost nothing is known of its properties. WIMPs are a very appealing candidate particle and several experimental campaigns are underway around the world to search for these particles via the nuclear recoils that they should induce. The COUPP series of bubble chambers has played a significant role in the WIMP search. Through a sequence of detectors of increasing size, a number of R&D issues have arisen and been solved, and the technology has now been advanced to the point where the construction of large chambers requires a modest research effort, some development, but mostly just engineering. It is within this context that we propose to build the next COUPP detector - COUPP-500, a ton scale device to be built over the next three years at Fermilab and then deployed deep underground at SNOLAB. The primary advantages of the COUPP approach over other technologies are: (1) The ability to reject electron and gamma backgrounds by arranging the chamber thermodynamics such that these particles do not even trigger the detector. (2) The ability to suppress neutron backgrounds by having the radioactively impure detection elements far from the active volume and by using the self-shielding of a large device and the high granularity to identify multiple bubbles. (3) The ability to build large chambers cheaply and with a choice of target fluids. (4) The ability to increase the size of the chambers without changing the size or complexity of the data acquisition. (5) Sensitivity to spin-dependent and spin-independent WIMP couplings. These key advantages should enable the goal of one background event in a ton-year of exposure to be achieved. The conceptual design of COUPP-500 is scaled from the preceding devices. In many cases all that is needed is a simple scaling up of components previously used. Calibration and R&D are still needed on some aspects of the system. We know we have the ability to distinguish alpha-induced events from nuclear recoils, but we do not yet know whether the combination of material purity and rejection are good enough to run for a year with no alpha background. We also need to have more detailed measurements of the detector threshold and a better understanding of its high gamma rejection. In addition, there are important checks to make on the longevity of the detector components in the hydraulic fluid and on the chemistry of the active fluid. The 2009 PASAG report explicitly supported the construction of the COUPP-500 device in all funding scenarios. The NSF has shown similar enthusiasm. It awarded one of its DUSEL S4 grants to assist in the engineering needed to build COUPP-500. The currently estimated cost of COUPP-500 is $8M, about half the $15M-$20M price tag expected by the PASAG report for a next generation dark matter search experiment. The COUPP-500 device will have a spin independent WIMP-nucleus cross-section sensitivity of 6 x 10{sup -47} cm{sup 2} after a background-free year of running. This device should then provide the benchmark against which all other WIMP searches are measured.

  13. A sun-tracking environmental chamber for the outdoor quantification of CPV modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faiman, David Melnichak, Vladimir Bokobza, Dov Kabalo, Shlomo

    2014-09-26

    The paper describes a sun-tracking environmental chamber and its associated fast electronics, devised for the accurate outdoor characterization of CPV cells, receivers, mono-modules, and modules. Some typical measurement results are presented.

  14. First Dark Matter Search Results from a 4-kg CF$_3$I Bubble Chamber Operated in a Deep Underground Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behnke, E.; Behnke, J.; Brice, S.J.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Collar, J.I.; Conner, A.; Cooper, P.S.; Crisler, M.; Dahl, C.E.; Fustin, D.; Grace, E.; /Indiana U., South Bend /Fermilab

    2012-04-01

    New data are reported from the operation of a 4.0 kg CF{sub 3}I bubble chamber in the 6800 foot deep SNOLAB underground laboratory. The effectiveness of ultrasound analysis in discriminating alpha decay background events from single nuclear recoils has been confirmed, with a lower bound of >99.3% rejection of alpha decay events. Twenty single nuclear recoil event candidates and three multiple bubble events were observed during a total exposure of 553 kg-days distributed over three different bubble nucleation thresholds. The effective exposure for single bubble recoil-like events was 437.4 kg-days. A neutron background internal to the apparatus, of known origin, is estimated to account for five single nuclear recoil events and is consistent with the observed rate of multiple bubble events. This observation provides world best direct detection constraints on WIMP-proton spin-dependent scattering for WIMP masses >20 GeV/c{sup 2} and demonstrates significant sensitivity for spin-independent interactions.

  15. Behavior of Calibration Electrons in the Mu2e Tracking Chamber Devyn Shafera,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gollin, George

    Behavior of Calibration Electrons in the Mu2e Tracking Chamber Devyn Shafera,b , George Gollina, University of Pennsylvania July 30, 2010 ABSTRACT The paper describes the simulation of calibration electrons and a description of methods of determining electron paths. The final objective of the project involves creating

  16. Particle tracking in kaon electroproduction with cathode-charge sampling in multi-wire proportional chambers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Achenbach; C. Ayerbe Gayoso; J. C. Bernauer; R. Böhm; D. Bosnar; M. Bösz; L. Debenjak; M. O. Distler; A. Esser; I. Friš?i?; M. Gómez Rodríguez de la Paz; M. Makek; H. Merkel; U. Müller; L. Nungesser; J. Pochodzalla; M. Potokar; S. Sánchez Majos; B. S. Schlimme; S. Širca; M. Weinriefer

    2011-04-21

    Wire chambers are routinely operated as tracking detectors in magnetic spectrometers at high-intensity continuous electron beams. Especially in experiments studying reactions with small cross-sections the reaction yield is limited by the background rate in the chambers. One way to determine the track of a charged particle through a multi-wire proportional chamber (MWPC) is the measurement of the charge distribution induced on its cathodes. In practical applications of this read-out method, the algorithm to relate the measured charge distribution to the avalanche position is an important factor for the achievable position resolution and for the track reconstruction efficiency. An algorithm was developed for operating two large-sized MWPCs in a strong background environment with multiple-particle tracks. Resulting efficiencies were determined as a function of the electron beam current and on the signal amplitudes. Because of the different energy-losses of pions, kaons, and protons in the momentum range of the spectrometer the efficiencies depend also on the particle species.

  17. First determination of an astrophysical cross section with a bubble chamber: the 15N(?,?)19F reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Ugalde; B. DiGiovine; D. Henderson; R. J. Holt; K. E. Rehm; A. Sonnenschein; A. Robinson; R. Raut; G. Rusev; A. P. Tonchev

    2012-12-31

    We have devised a technique for measuring some of the most important nuclear reactions in stars which we expect to provide considerable improvement over previous experiments. Adapting ideas from dark matter search experiments with bubble chambers, we have found that a superheated liquid is sensitive to recoils produced from \\gamma-rays photodisintegrating the nuclei of the liquid. The main advantage of the new target-detector system is a gain in yield of six orders of magnitude over conventional gas targets due to the higher mass density of liquids. Also, the detector is practically insensitive to the \\gamma-ray beam itself, thus allowing it to detect only the products of the nuclear reaction of interest. The first set of tests of a superheated target with a narrow bandwidth \\gamma-ray beam was completed and the results demonstrate the feasibility of the scheme. The new data are successfully described by an R-matrix model using published resonance parameters. With the increase in luminosity of the next generation \\gamma-ray beam facilities, the measurement of thermonuclear rates in the stellar Gamow window would become possible.

  18. ON THE ANALYSIS OF BUBBLE CHAMBER TRACKS (Technical Report) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

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  19. ON THE ANALYSIS OF BUBBLE CHAMBER TRACKS (Technical Report) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report: AchievementsTemperatures Year 6Report) | SciTech ConnectConnect ON

  20. Liquid Hydrogen Bubble Chambers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Luis W.

    1956-01-01

    t No. W - 7 4 0 5 -eng-48 ,LIQUID HYDROGEN EUSBLE CHA,MBEEZSand 3erkeley to iind if liquid hydrogen could be used as thethat supezheated 'liquid hydrogen could be made to boil

  1. Bubbly Flow Experiment in Channel Using an Optical Probe and Tracking Algorithm 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Abdul

    2012-10-19

    In this study, the phenomenon of two-phase flow was investigated in a square channel. The experiment was performed with stagnant liquid conditions. The gas and liquid dynamics of the bubbly flow were observed in two regions far from the inlet. Air...

  2. In vivo multi-modality photoacoustic and pulse echo tracking of prostate tumor growth using a window chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Witte, Russell S.

    with a dorsal skin flap window chamber. PC-3 prostate tumor cells, expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP. Keywords: optoacoustic, ultrasound, window chamber, prostate cancer, green fluorescent protein, GFP, cancer energy pulsed laser. As light penetrates the skin, its energy is partially absorbed and converted to heat

  3. Ultraviolet laser calibration of drift chambers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, Grant (Grant Andrew)

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of a focused ultraviolet laser as a track calibration source in drift chambers, and specifically in a small time projection chamber (TPC). Drift chambers such as TPCs reconstruct the trajectories of ...

  4. Flow chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morozov, Victor (Manassas, VA)

    2011-01-18

    A flow chamber having a vacuum chamber and a specimen chamber. The specimen chamber may have an opening through which a fluid may be introduced and an opening through which the fluid may exit. The vacuum chamber may have an opening through which contents of the vacuum chamber may be evacuated. A portion of the flow chamber may be flexible, and a vacuum may be used to hold the components of the flow chamber together.

  5. Bubble diagnostics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visuri, Steven R. (Livermore, CA); Mammini, Beth M. (Walnut Creek, CA); Da Silva, Luiz B. (Danville, CA); Celliers, Peter M. (Berkeley, CA)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is intended as a means of diagnosing the presence of a gas bubble and incorporating the information into a feedback system for opto-acoustic thrombolysis. In opto-acoustic thrombolysis, pulsed laser radiation at ultrasonic frequencies is delivered intraluminally down an optical fiber and directed toward a thrombus or otherwise occluded vessel. Dissolution of the occlusion is therefore mediated through ultrasonic action of propagating pressure or shock waves. A vapor bubble in the fluid surrounding the occlusion may form as a result of laser irradiation. This vapor bubble may be used to directly disrupt the occlusion or as a means of producing a pressure wave. It is desirable to detect the formation and follow the lifetime of the vapor bubble. Knowledge of the bubble formation and lifetime yields critical information as to the maximum size of the bubble, density of the absorbed radiation, and properties of the absorbing material. This information can then be used in a feedback system to alter the irradiation conditions.

  6. Wire chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atac, Muzaffer (Wheaton, IL)

    1989-01-01

    A wire chamber or proportional counter device, such as Geiger-Mueller tube or drift chamber, improved with a gas mixture providing a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor.

  7. In-Jet Tracking Efficiency Analysis for the STAR Time Projection Chamber in Polarized Proton-Proton Collisions at sqrt(s) = 200GeV 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huo, Liaoyuan

    2012-07-16

    in polarized proton-proton collision experiments. TPC's in-jet tracking efficiency represents the largest systematic uncertainty on jet energy scale at high transverse momentum, whose measurement contributes to the understanding of the spin structure of protons...

  8. Gauged Dimension Bubbles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. I. Guendelman; J. R. Morris

    2003-07-01

    Some of the peculiar electrodynamical effects associated with gauged ``dimension bubbles'' are presented. Such bubbles, which effectively enclose a region of 5d spacetime, can arise from a 5d theory with a compact extra dimension. Bubbles with thin domain walls can be stabilized against total collapse by the entrapment of light charged scalar bosons inside the bubble, extending the idea of a neutral dimension bubble to accommodate the case of a gauged U(1) symmetry. Using a dielectric approach to the 4d dilaton-Maxwell theory, it is seen that the bubble wall is almost totally opaque to photons, leading to a new stabilization mechanism due to trapped photons. Photon dominated bubbles very slowly shrink, resulting in a temperature increase inside the bubble. At some critical temperature, however, these bubbles explode, with a release of radiation.

  9. BUBBLE ENTRAINMENT AND LIQUID-BUBBLE INTERACTION UNDER UNSTEADY BREAKING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirby, James T.

    BUBBLE ENTRAINMENT AND LIQUID-BUBBLE INTERACTION UNDER UNSTEADY BREAKING WAVES BY MORTEZA DERAKHTI Momentum Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.3 Bubble Entrainment Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 4.1 Bubble Entrainment And Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 4.1.1 3D free

  10. The TESLA Time Projection Chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nabil Ghodbane

    2002-12-12

    A large Time Projection Chamber is proposed as part of the tracking system for a detector at the TESLA electron positron linear collider. Different ongoing R&D studies are reviewed, stressing progress made on a new type readout technique based on Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors.

  11. Target Chamber

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  12. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ON THE ANALYSIS OF BUBBLE CHAMBER TRACKS Bradner H Solmitz F HYDROGEN PARTICLE ACCELERATORS BEVATRON BUBBLE CHAMBERS DETECTION HYDROCARBONS HYDROGEN INVENTIONS PHYSICS PROTONS...

  13. Charged Vacuum Bubble Stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. R. Morris

    1998-10-20

    A type of scenario is considered where electrically charged vacuum bubbles, formed from degenerate or nearly degenerate vacuua separated by a thin domain wall, are cosmologically produced due to the breaking of a discrete symmetry, with the bubble charge arising from fermions residing within the domain wall. Stability issues associated with wall tension, fermion gas, and Coulombic effects for such configurations are examined. The stability of a bubble depends upon parameters such as the symmetry breaking scale and the fermion coupling. A dominance of either the Fermi gas or the Coulomb contribution may be realized under certain conditions, depending upon parameter values.

  14. Passivity Based Adaptive Control of a Two Chamber Single Rod Hydraulic Actuator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Perry Y.

    Passivity Based Adaptive Control of a Two Chamber Single Rod Hydraulic Actuator Meng Wang and Perry based backstepping controller using a physical compressibility energy function for a chamber hydraulic produces an accurate trajectory tracking performance. I. INTRODUCTION Electronically controlled hydraulic

  15. Luis Alvarez, the Hydrogen Bubble Chamber, Tritium, and Dinosaurs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  16. Donald Glaser, the Bubble Chamber, and Elementary Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  17. Fermi Bubbles with HAWC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solares, H A Ayala; Hüntemeyer, P

    2015-01-01

    The Fermi Bubbles, which comprise two large and homogeneous regions of spectrally hard gamma-ray emission extending up to $55^{o}$ above and below the Galactic Center, were first noticed in GeV gamma-ray data from the Fermi Telescope in 2010. The mechanism or mechanisms which produce the observed hard spectrum are not understood. Although both hadronic and lep- tonic models can describe the spectrum of the bubbles, the leptonic model can also explain similar structures observed in microwave data from the WMAP and Planck satellites. Recent publications show that the spectrum of the Fermi Bubbles is well described by a power law with an exponential cutoff in the energy range of 100MeV to 500GeV. Observing the Fermi Bubbles at higher gamma-ray energies will help constrain the origin of the bubbles. A steeper cutoff will favor a leptonic model. The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory, located 4100m above sea level in Mexico, is designed to measure high-energy gamma rays between 100GeV to 100TeV. With...

  18. Bubble growth rates in boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffith, P.

    1956-01-01

    The conditions determining the growth rate of a bubble on a surface in boiling are considered and a mathematical model framed in the light of these conditions. The growth rate is then calculated for bubbles growing under ...

  19. Two chamber reaction furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaugher, Richard D. (Evergreen, CO)

    1998-05-05

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

  20. Bubble Radiation Detection: Current and Future Capability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    AJ Peurrung; RA Craig

    1999-11-15

    Despite a number of noteworthy achievements in other fields, superheated droplet detectors (SDDs) and bubble chambers (BCs) have not been used for nuclear nonproliferation and arms control. This report examines these two radiation-detection technologies in detail and answers the question of how they can be or should be ''adapted'' for use in national security applications. These technologies involve closely related approaches to radiation detection in which an energetic charged particle deposits sufficient energy to initiate the process of bubble nucleation in a superheated fluid. These detectors offer complete gamma-ray insensitivity when used to detect neutrons. They also provide controllable neutron-energy thresholds and excellent position resolution. SDDs are extraordinarily simple and inexpensive. BCs offer the promise of very high efficiency ({approximately}75%). A notable drawback for both technologies is temperature sensitivity. As a result of this problem, the temperature must be controlled whenever high accuracy is required, or harsh environmental conditions are encountered. The primary findings of this work are listed and briefly summarized below: (1) SDDs are ready to function as electronics-free neutron detectors on demand for arms-control applications. The elimination of electronics at the weapon's location greatly eases the negotiability of radiation-detection technologies in general. (2) As a result of their high efficiency and sharp energy threshold, current BCs are almost ready for use in the development of a next-generation active assay system. Development of an instrument based on appropriately safe materials is warranted. (3) Both kinds of bubble detectors are ready for use whenever very high gamma-ray fields must be confronted. Spent fuel MPC and A is a good example where this need presents itself. (4) Both kinds of bubble detectors have the potential to function as low-cost replacements for conventional neutron detectors such as {sup 3}He tubes. For SDDs, this requires finding some way to get boron into the detector. For BCs, this requires finding operating conditions permitting a high duty cycle.

  1. Cosmic Muon Detector Using Proportional Chambers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dezs? Varga; Zoltán Gál; Gerg? Hamar; Janka Sára Molnár; Éva Oláh; Péter Pázmándi

    2015-07-28

    A set of classical multi-wire proportional chambers were designed and constructed with the main purpose of efficient cosmic muon detection. These detectors are relatively simple to construct, and at the same time are low cost, making them ideal for educational purposes. The detector layers have efficiencies above 99% for minimum ionizing cosmic muons, and their position resolution is about 1 cm, that is, particle trajectories are clearly observable. Visualization of straight tracks is possible using an LED array, with the discriminated and latched signal driving the display. Due to the exceptional operating stability of the chambers, the design can also be used for cosmic muon telescopes.

  2. The Formation of a Bubble from a Submerged Orifice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simmons, Jonathan A; Shikhmurzaev, Yulii D

    2015-01-01

    The formation of a single bubble from an orifice in a solid surface, submerged in an in- compressible, viscous Newtonian liquid, is simulated. The finite element method is used to capture the multiscale physics associated with the problem and to track the evolution of the free surface explicitly. The results are compared to a recent experimental analysis and then used to obtain the global characteristics of the process, the formation time and volume of the bubble, for a range of orifice radii; Ohnesorge numbers, which combine the material parameters of the liquid; and volumetric gas flow rates. These benchmark calculations, for the parameter space of interest, are then utilised to validate a selection of scaling laws found in the literature for two regimes of bubble formation, the regimes of low and high gas flow rates.

  3. Microfluidic Actuation Using Electrochemically Generated Bubbles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sachs, Frederick

    Microfluidic Actuation Using Electrochemically Generated Bubbles Susan Z. Hua,*, Frederick Sachs, Buffalo, New York 14260 Bubble-based actuation in microfluidic applications is attractive owing closing) rate increases with applied voltage, small microfluidic dimensions accelerate bubble deflation

  4. Math of Popping Bubbles in a Foam

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Math of Popping Bubbles in a Foam Math of Popping Bubbles in a Foam Berkeley Lab researchers mathematically describe the complex evolution and disappearance of foamy bubbles May 9,...

  5. Bubble masks for time-encoded imaging of fast neutrons.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brubaker, Erik; Brennan, James S.; Marleau, Peter; Nowack, Aaron B.; Steele, John; Sweany, Melinda; Throckmorton, Daniel J.

    2013-09-01

    Time-encoded imaging is an approach to directional radiation detection that is being developed at SNL with a focus on fast neutron directional detection. In this technique, a time modulation of a detected neutron signal is induced-typically, a moving mask that attenuates neutrons with a time structure that depends on the source position. An important challenge in time-encoded imaging is to develop high-resolution two-dimensional imaging capabilities; building a mechanically moving high-resolution mask presents challenges both theoretical and technical. We have investigated an alternative to mechanical masks that replaces the solid mask with a liquid such as mineral oil. Instead of fixed blocks of solid material that move in pre-defined patterns, the oil is contained in tubing structures, and carefully introduced air gaps-bubbles-propagate through the tubing, generating moving patterns of oil mask elements and air apertures. Compared to current moving-mask techniques, the bubble mask is simple, since mechanical motion is replaced by gravity-driven bubble propagation; it is flexible, since arbitrary bubble patterns can be generated by a software-controlled valve actuator; and it is potentially high performance, since the tubing and bubble size can be tuned for high-resolution imaging requirements. We have built and tested various single-tube mask elements, and will present results on bubble introduction and propagation as a function of tubing size and cross-sectional shape; real-time bubble position tracking; neutron source imaging tests; and reconstruction techniques demonstrated on simple test data as well as a simulated full detector system.

  6. Laser calibration system for the CERES Time Projection Chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dariusz Miskowiec; Peter Braun-Munzinger

    2008-02-15

    A Nd:YAG laser was used to simulate charged particle tracks at known positions in the CERES Time Projection Chamber at the CERN SPS. The system was primarily developed to study the response of the readout electronics and to calibrate the electron drift velocity. Further applications were the determination of the gating grid transparency, the chamber position calibration, and long-term monitoring of drift properties of the gas in the detector.

  7. BNL | ATF Experimental Chambers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Injection Vacuum Chamber Located on beam line 1, the "Smith-Purcell box" has 140 liters of usable volume. Due to its size, it is mounted on a fixed platform. Hosted...

  8. Observations of solute effects on bubble formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hofmeier, U.; Yaminsky, V.V.; Christenson, H.K.

    1995-09-01

    The authors have studied the effects of solute, in particular aqueous electrolyte, on bubble formation at capillary orifices and frits at varying gas flow rates. Using a stroboscope, video microscope, and rotating mirror, they have obtained pictures which show how bubble formation involves the interaction of bubbles at the orifice. These interactions depend on the value of the surface elasticity E due to positively (ethanol) or negatively (NaCl) adsorbed solute. At low flow rates consecutive bubbles do not interact. Each bubble detaches and leaves the orifice region before the next one starts forming. A intermediate flow rates the more closely spaced, consecutive bubbles begin to interact. In pure liquids there is no barrier to bubble coalescence and the detached bubble is fed by the subsequent bubble as this starts to grow. The process may be repeated several times before the original bubble has risen out of range. In solutions where E is large enough bubble coalescence is inhibited. Instead of feeding into the detached bubble the following bubble pushes it aside, and the bubbles appear to bounce off each other. Bouncing may give rise to a characteristic sequence of larger and smaller bubbles if the emerging bubbles break off prematurely from the orifice due to the inertia of the original bubble. The transition from feeding to bouncing depends critically on E of the solution and leads to a smaller average bubble size for large E values. At high flow rates detached bubbles are invariably fed by several subsequent ones. At very high flow rates the bubbling becomes chaotic, but the interaction of bubbles after leaving the orifice area produces smaller bubbles in solutions. Bouncing is more likely to occur with narrow and irregular capillaries. The dramatically different appearance of gas-sparged columns in salt water and freshwater has its origin in the difference between assemblies of pores showing mainly feeding (freshwater) or bouncing (salt water).

  9. Sleeve reaction chamber system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Northrup, M. Allen (Berkeley, CA); Beeman, Barton V. (San Mateo, CA); Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA); Hadley, Dean R. (Manteca, CA); Landre, Phoebe (Livermore, CA); Lehew, Stacy L. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2009-08-25

    A chemical reaction chamber system that combines devices such as doped polysilicon for heating, bulk silicon for convective cooling, and thermoelectric (TE) coolers to augment the heating and cooling rates of the reaction chamber or chambers. In addition the system includes non-silicon-based reaction chambers such as any high thermal conductivity material used in combination with a thermoelectric cooling mechanism (i.e., Peltier device). The heat contained in the thermally conductive part of the system can be used/reused to heat the device, thereby conserving energy and expediting the heating/cooling rates. The system combines a micromachined silicon reaction chamber, for example, with an additional module/device for augmented heating/cooling using the Peltier effect. This additional module is particularly useful in extreme environments (very hot or extremely cold) where augmented heating/cooling would be useful to speed up the thermal cycling rates. The chemical reaction chamber system has various applications for synthesis or processing of organic, inorganic, or biochemical reactions, including the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or other DNA reactions, such as the ligase chain reaction.

  10. Applied Radiation and Isotopes 56 (2002) 953956 Sensitivity of LR115 detector in diffusion chamber to 222

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    2002-01-01

    Applied Radiation and Isotopes 56 (2002) 953­956 Sensitivity of LR115 detector in diffusion chamber Determination has been made of the sensitivity of LR115 type 2-track detectors (in units of m) to 222 Rn chamber. r 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Radon; Thoron; LR115 track detector

  11. Bubble column apparatus for separating wax from catalyst slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neathery, James K.; Davis, Burtron H.

    2004-07-13

    Novel methods and devices for production of liquid hydrocarbon products from gaseous reactants are disclosed. In one aspect, a method for separating a liquid hydrocarbon, typically a wax, from a catalyst containing slurry is provided, comprising passing the slurry through at least one downcomer extending from an overhead separation chamber and discharging into the bottom of a slurry bubble column reactor. The downcomer includes a cross-flow filtration element for separating a substantially particle-free liquid hydrocarbon for downstream processing. In another aspect, a method for promoting plug-flow movement in a recirculating slurry bubble column reactor is provided, comprising discharging the recirculating slurry into the reactor through at least one downcomer which terminates near the bottom of the reactor. Devices for accomplishing the above methods are also provided.

  12. Energy spectra in bubbly turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prakash, Vivek N; Ramos, Fabio Ernesto Mancilla; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao

    2013-01-01

    We conduct experiments in a turbulent bubbly flow to study the unknown nature of the transition between the classical -5/3 energy spectrum scaling for a single-phase turbulent flow and the -3 scaling for a swarm of bubbles rising in a quiescent liquid and of bubble-dominated turbulence. The bubblance parameter, b, which measures the ratio of the bubble-induced kinetic energy to the kinetic energy induced by the turbulent liquid fluctuations before bubble injection, is used to characterise the bubbly flow. We vary b from $b = \\infty$ (pseudo-turbulence) to b = 0 (single-phase flow) over 2-3 orders of magnitude: ~O(0.01, 0.1, 5) to study its effect on the turbulent energy spectrum and liquid velocity fluctuations. The experiments are conducted in a multi-phase turbulent water tunnel with air bubbles of diameters 2-4 mm and 3-5 mm. An active-grid is used to generate nearly homogeneous and isotropic turbulence in the liquid flow. The liquid speeds and gas void fractions are varied to achieve the above mentioned b...

  13. Domain Bubbles of Extra Dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, J R

    2003-01-01

    ``Dimension bubbles'' of the type previously studied by Blau and Guendelman [S.K. Blau and E.I. Guendelman, Phys. Rev. D40, 1909 (1989)], which effectively enclose a region of 5d spacetime and are surrounded by a region of 4d spacetime, can arise in a 5d theory with a compact extra dimension that is dimensionally reduced to give an effective 4d theory. These bubbles with thin domain walls can be stabilized against total collapse in a rather natural way by a scalar field which, as in the case with ``ordinary'' nontopological solitons, traps light scalar particles inside the bubble.

  14. Domain Bubbles of Extra Dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. R. Morris

    2002-11-19

    ``Dimension bubbles'' of the type previously studied by Blau and Guendelman [S.K. Blau and E.I. Guendelman, Phys. Rev. D40, 1909 (1989)], which effectively enclose a region of 5d spacetime and are surrounded by a region of 4d spacetime, can arise in a 5d theory with a compact extra dimension that is dimensionally reduced to give an effective 4d theory. These bubbles with thin domain walls can be stabilized against total collapse in a rather natural way by a scalar field which, as in the case with ``ordinary'' nontopological solitons, traps light scalar particles inside the bubble.

  15. Automated soil gas monitoring chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Edwards, Nelson T.; Riggs, Jeffery S.

    2003-07-29

    A chamber for trapping soil gases as they evolve from the soil without disturbance to the soil and to the natural microclimate within the chamber has been invented. The chamber opens between measurements and therefore does not alter the metabolic processes that influence soil gas efflux rates. A multiple chamber system provides for repetitive multi-point sampling, undisturbed metabolic soil processes between sampling, and an essentially airtight sampling chamber operating at ambient pressure.

  16. Secondary emission gas chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. In'shakov; V. Kryshkin; V. Skvortsov

    2014-12-10

    For a hadron calorimeter active element there is considered a gaseous secondary emis-sion detector (150 micron gap, 50 kV/cm). Such one-stage parallel plate chamber must be a radiation hard, fast and simple. A model of such detector has been produced, tested and some characteristics are presented.

  17. Mercury Chamber Considerations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Pump Gravity Drain Flow Control Valve Storage Tank Heat Exchanger Beam Dump #12;4 Managed by UT Mercury Jet Proton Beam Mercury Overflow Gravity Drain Flow Control Overflow drains WC Shielding #12 tungsten shielding · Chamber shape requires significant increase in complexity · Integrating resistive

  18. Improved wire chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atac, M.

    1987-05-12

    An improved gas mixture for use with proportional counter devices, such as Geiger-Mueller tubes and drift chambers. The improved gas mixture provides a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor. 2 figs.

  19. Multi-chamber deposition system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Richard L. (Roseville, MN); Jeffrey, Frank R. (Shoreview, MN); Westerberg, Roger K. (Cottage Grove, MN)

    1989-10-17

    A system for the simultaneous deposition of different coatings onto a thin web within a large volume vacuum chamber is disclosed which chamber is provided with a plurality of deposition chambers in which the different layers are deposited onto the film as its moves from a supply roll to a finished take-up roll of coated web. The deposition chambers provided within the large vacuum chamber are provided with separate seals which minimize back diffusion of any dopant gas from adjacent deposition chambers.

  20. Multi-chamber deposition system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Richard L. (Roseville, MN); Jeffrey, Frank R. (Shoreview, MN); Westerberg, Roger K. (Cottage Grove, MN)

    1989-06-27

    A system for the simultaneous deposition of different coatings onto a thin web within a large volume vacuum chamber is disclosed which chamber is provided with a plurality of deposition chambers in which the different layers are deposited onto the film as its moves from a supply roll to a finished take-up roll of coated web. The deposition chambers provided within the large vacuum chamber are provided with separate seals which minimize back diffusion of any dopant gas from adjacent deposition chambers.

  1. Three chamber negative ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA); Hiskes, John R. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A negative ion vessel is divided into an excitation chamber, a negative ionization chamber and an extraction chamber by two magnetic filters. Input means introduces neutral molecules into a first chamber where a first electron discharge means vibrationally excites the molecules which migrate to a second chamber. In the second chamber a second electron discharge means ionizes the molecules, producing negative ions which are extracted into or by a third chamber. A first magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the negative ionization chamber from the excitation chamber. A second magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the extraction chamber from the negative ionizing chamber. An extraction grid at the end of the negative ion vessel attracts negative ions into the third chamber and accelerates them. Another grid, located adjacent to the extraction grid, carries a small positive voltage in order to inhibit positive ions from migrating into the extraction chamber and contour the plasma potential. Additional electrons can be suppressed from the output flux using ExB forces provided by magnetic field means and the extractor grid electric potential.

  2. Combustion chamber noise suppressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livingston, A.M.

    1986-08-19

    A combustion chamber is described for a hot fog generating machine comprising a hollow cylindrical combustion chamber shell having a closure plate at one end and outlet means at the opposite end for directing hot combustion gasses to a fogging nozzle, air inlet means disposed adjacent the outlet means, fuel inlet means and ignition means mounted in the closure plate and liner means disposed concentrically within the cylindrical combustion chamber for controlling the flow of air and combustion gasses within the shell. The liner means includes a liner base having a frustroconical configuration with the smaller diameter end thereof disposed in communication with the outlet means and with the larger diameter end thereof disposed in spaced relation to the shell, circumferentially spaced, longitudinally extending fins extending outwardly from the liner base intermediate the liner base and the shell, a cylindrical liner midsection having circumferentially spaced fins extending outwardly therefrom between the midsection and the shell with the fins supporting the midsection on the larger diameter end of the liner base.

  3. Vertical two chamber reaction furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaugher, R.D.

    1999-03-16

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is disclosed. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

  4. Vertical two chamber reaction furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaugher, Richard D. (Evergreen, CO)

    1999-03-16

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

  5. MAIN CHAMBER NEUTRAL PRESSURE IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitcher, C. S.

    MAIN CHAMBER NEUTRAL PRESSURE IN ALCATOR C-MOD AND JET C S Pitcher, S K Erents*, W Fundamenski*, B on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics 18 ­ 22 June 1999, Madeira, Portugal MAIN CHAMBER NEUTRAL PRESSURE Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB,UK #12;(1) Introduction · main chamber gas can have a number

  6. TRACKING SITE

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    003235MLTPL00 AASG Geothermal Data submissions tracking application and site.  https://github.com/usgin/aasgtrack 

  7. Multi-anode ionization chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E. (South Setauket, NY); Smith, Graham (Port Jefferson, NY); Mahler, George J. (Rocky Point, NY); Vanier, Peter E. (Setauket, NY)

    2010-12-28

    The present invention includes a high-energy detector having a cathode chamber, a support member, and anode segments. The cathode chamber extends along a longitudinal axis. The support member is fixed within the cathode chamber and extends from the first end of the cathode chamber to the second end of the cathode chamber. The anode segments are supported by the support member and are spaced along the longitudinal surface of the support member. The anode segments are configured to generate at least a first electrical signal in response to electrons impinging thereon.

  8. Chamber for the optical manipulation of microscopic particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buican, Tudor N. (Los Alamos, NM); Upham, Bryan D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A particle control chamber enables experiments to be carried out on biological cells and the like using a laser system to trap and manipulate the particles. A manipulation chamber provides a plurality of inlet and outlet ports for the particles and for fluids used to control or to contact the particles. A central manipulation area is optically accessible by the laser and includes first enlarged volumes for containing a selected number of particles for experimentation. A number of first enlarged volumes are connected by flow channels through second enlarged volumes. The second enlarged volumes act as bubble valves for controlling the interconnections between the first enlarged volumes. Electrode surfaces may be applied above the first enlarged volumes to enable experimentation using the application of electric fields within the first enlarged volumes. A variety of chemical and environmental conditions may be established within individual first enlarged volumes to enable experimental conditions for small scale cellular interactions.

  9. Pulling bubbles from a bath

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kao, Justin C. T.

    Deposition of bubbles on a wall withdrawn from a liquid bath is a phenomenon observed in many everyday situations—the foam lacing left behind in an emptied glass of beer, for instance. It is also of importance to the many ...

  10. Ionization chamber dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renner, Tim R. (Berkeley, CA); Nyman, Mark A. (Berkeley, CA); Stradtner, Ronald (Kensington, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A method for fabricating an ion chamber dosimeter collecting array of the type utilizing plural discrete elements formed on a uniform collecting surface which includes forming a thin insulating layer over an aperture in a frame having surfaces, forming a predetermined pattern of through holes in the layer, plating both surfaces of the layer and simultaneously tilting and rotating the frame for uniform plate-through of the holes between surfaces. Aligned masking and patterned etching of the surfaces provides interconnects between the through holes and copper leads provided to external circuitry.

  11. Development of a time projection chamber with micro pixel electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Kubo; K. Miuchi; T. Nagayoshi; A. Ochi; R. Orito; A. Takada; T. Tanimori; M. Ueno

    2003-01-09

    A time projection chamber (TPC) based on a gaseous chamber with micro pixel electrodes (micro-PIC) has been developed for measuring three-dimensional tracks of charged particles. The micro-PIC with a detection area of 10 cm square consists of a double-sided printing circuit board. Anode pixels are formed with 0.4 mm pitch on strips aligned perpendicular to the cathode strips in order to obtain a two-dimensional position. In the TPC with drift length of 8 cm, 4 mm wide field cage electrodes are aligned at 1mm spaces and a uniform electric field of about 0.4 kV/cm is produced. For encoding of the three-dimensional position a synchronous readout system has been developed using Field Programmable Gate Arrays with 40 MHz clock. This system enables us to reconstruct the three-dimensional track of the particle at successive points like a cloud chamber even at high event rate. The drift velocity of electrons in the TPC was measured with the tracks of cosmic muons for three days, during which the TPC worked stably with the gas gain of 3000. With a radioisotope of gamma-ray source the three-dimensional track of a Compton scattered electron was taken successfully.

  12. Cosmological HII Bubble Growth During Reionization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shin, Min-Su; Cen, Renyue

    2007-01-01

    We present general properties of ionized hydrogen (HII) bubbles and their growth based on a state-of-the-art large-scale (100 Mpc/h) cosmological radiative transfer simulation. The simulation resolves all halos with atomic cooling at the relevant redshifts and simultaneously performs radiative transfer and dynamical evolution of structure formation. Our major conclusions include: (1) for significant HII bubbles, the number distribution is peaked at a volume of ~ 0.6 Mpc^3/h^3 at all redshifts. But, at z 10 even the largest HII bubbles have a balanced ionizing photon contribution from Pop II and Pop III stars, while at z Pop II stars start to dominate the overall ionizing photon production for large bubbles, although Pop III stars continue to make a non-negligible contribution. (6) The relationship between halo number density and bubble size is complicated but a strong correlation is found between halo number density and bubble size for for large bubbles.

  13. The Laser Calibration System of the ALICE Time Projection Chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Renault; B. S. Nielsen; J. Westergaard; J. J. Gaardhøje

    2005-11-07

    A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) is the only experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) dedicated to the study of heavy ion collisions. The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main tracking detector covering the pseudo rapidity range $|\\eta|laser system is to simulate ionizing tracks at predifined positions throughout the drift volume in order to monitor the TPC response to a known source. In particular, the alignment of the read-out chambers will be performed, and variations of the drift velocity due to drift field imperfections can be measured and used as calibration data in the physics data analysis. In this paper we present the design of the pulsed UV laser and optical system, together with the control and monitoring systems.

  14. Readout of TPC Tracking Chambers with GEMs and Pixel Chip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, T.

    2008-01-01

    TPC) readout at the International Linear Collider (ILC). Thechamber at the International Linear Collider (ILC) is the

  15. Development of Microstrip Gas Chambers for Radiation Detection and Tracking

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing BacteriaConnectlaser-solidSwitchgrass and Miscanthus x| SciTechApplicationat High

  16. Development of Microstrip Gas Chambers for Radiation Detection and Tracking

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing BacteriaConnectlaser-solidSwitchgrass and Miscanthus x| SciTechApplicationat Highat

  17. Thermocapillary migration of long bubbles in polygonal tubes. II. Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lajeunesse, Eric

    Thermocapillary migration of long bubbles in polygonal tubes. II. Experiments E. Lajeunesse experimentally the thermocapillary migration of a long gas bubble in a horizontal pipe of rectangular cross migration of the bubble towards the hotter region. The bubble velocity is found to be independent of bubble

  18. Simple improvements to classical bubble nucleation models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanaka, Kyoko K; Angélil, Raymond; Diemand, Jürg

    2015-01-01

    We revisit classical nucleation theory (CNT) for the homogeneous bubble nucleation rate and improve the classical formula using a new prefactor in the nucleation rate. Most of the previous theoretical studies have used the constant prefactor determined by the bubble growth due to the evaporation process from the bubble surface. However, the growth of bubbles is also regulated by the thermal conduction, the viscosity, and the inertia of liquid motion. These effects can decrease the prefactor significantly, especially when the liquid pressure is much smaller than the equilibrium one. The deviation in the nucleation rate between the improved formula and the CNT can be as large as several orders of magnitude. Our improved, accurate prefactor and recent advances in molecular dynamics simulations and laboratory experiments for argon bubble nucleation enable us to precisely constrain the free energy barrier for bubble nucleation. Assuming the correction to the CNT free energy is of the functional form suggested by T...

  19. Mechanism of bubble detachment from vibrating walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dongjun; Park, Jun Kwon Kang, Kwan Hyoung; Kang, In Seok

    2013-11-15

    We discovered a previously unobserved mechanism by which air bubbles detach from vibrating walls in glasses containing water. Chaotic oscillation and subsequent water jets appeared when a wall vibrated at greater than a critical level. Wave forms were developed at water-air interface of the bubble by the wall vibration, and water jets were formed when sufficiently grown wave-curvatures were collapsing. Droplets were pinched off from the tip of jets and fell to the surface of the glass. When the solid-air interface at the bubble-wall attachment point was completely covered with water, the bubble detached from the wall. The water jets were mainly generated by subharmonic waves and were generated most vigorously when the wall vibrated at the volume resonant frequency of the bubble. Bubbles of specific size can be removed by adjusting the frequency of the wall's vibration.

  20. Ion chamber based neutron detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derzon, Mark S; Galambos, Paul C; Renzi, Ronald F

    2014-12-16

    A neutron detector with monolithically integrated readout circuitry, including: a bonded semiconductor die; an ion chamber formed in the bonded semiconductor die; a first electrode and a second electrode formed in the ion chamber; a neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber; and the readout circuitry which is electrically coupled to the first and second electrodes. The bonded semiconductor die includes an etched semiconductor substrate bonded to an active semiconductor substrate. The readout circuitry is formed in a portion of the active semiconductor substrate. The ion chamber has a substantially planar first surface on which the first electrode is formed and a substantially planar second surface, parallel to the first surface, on which the second electrode is formed. The distance between the first electrode and the second electrode may be equal to or less than the 50% attenuation length for neutrons in the neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber.

  1. Fluid mechanics of bubble capture by the diving bell spider

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brooks, Alice (Alice P.)

    2010-01-01

    The water spider, a unique member of its species, is used as inspiration for a bubble capture mechanism. Bubble mechanics are studied in the pursuit of a biomimetic solution for transporting air bubbles underwater. Careful ...

  2. A Proportional Wire Chamber Array: GRAND's Status

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Poirier; C. D'Andrea; M. Lopez del Puerto; E. Strahler; J. Vermedahl

    2003-06-18

    Project GRAND is a 100m x 100m air shower array of position sensitive proportional wire chambers (PWCs) located at 41.7 degrees North and 86.2 degrees West at an elevation of 220m above sea level. Its convenient location adjacent to the campus of the University of Notre Dame makes it a good training ground for students. There are 64 stations each with eight 1.29 m^2 PWCs. The geometry of the stations allows for the angles of charged secondaries to be determined to within 0.26 degrees in each of two orthogonal planes; muons are differentiated from electrons and hadrons by means of a steel plate. Two triggers are run simultaneously: a multiple hit coincidence trigger, rich in extensive air showers, and a single track trigger, rich in secondary muon tracks. The former trigger is sensitive to primary energies greater than ~100 TeV, the latter to energies greater than ~10 GeV.

  3. Simple improvements to classical bubble nucleation models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kyoko K. Tanaka; Hidekazu Tanaka; Raymond Angélil; Jürg Diemand

    2015-07-13

    We revisit classical nucleation theory (CNT) for the homogeneous bubble nucleation rate and improve the classical formula using a new prefactor in the nucleation rate. Most of the previous theoretical studies have used the constant prefactor determined by the bubble growth due to the evaporation process from the bubble surface. However, the growth of bubbles is also regulated by the thermal conduction, the viscosity, and the inertia of liquid motion. These effects can decrease the prefactor significantly, especially when the liquid pressure is much smaller than the equilibrium one. The deviation in the nucleation rate between the improved formula and the CNT can be as large as several orders of magnitude. Our improved, accurate prefactor and recent advances in molecular dynamics simulations and laboratory experiments for argon bubble nucleation enable us to precisely constrain the free energy barrier for bubble nucleation. Assuming the correction to the CNT free energy is of the functional form suggested by Tolman, the precise evaluations of the free energy barriers suggest the Tolman length is $\\simeq 0.3 \\sigma$ independently of the temperature for argon bubble nucleation, where $\\sigma$ is the unit length of the Lenard-Jones potential. With this Tolman correction and our new prefactor one gets accurate bubble nucleation rate predictions in the parameter range probed by current experiments and molecular dynamics simulations.

  4. 25 July 2002 Sonoluminescence: Bubble power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    on to determine the yield of photons, radicals and ions formed. The energy efficiency of formation of photons and Suslick show that chemical reactions occur during cavitation of a single, isolated bubble, and they go a micro-reactor DETLEF LOHSE Gas bubbles in a liquid can convert sound energy into light. Detailed

  5. Solar prominences: 'double, double ... boil and bubble'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keppens, Rony

    2015-01-01

    Observations revealed rich dynamics within prominences, the cool 10,000 K, macroscopic (sizes of order 100 Mm) "clouds" in the million degree solar corona. Even quiescent prominences are continuously perturbed by hot, rising bubbles. Since prominence matter is hundredfold denser than coronal plasma, this bubbling is related to Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Here we report on true macroscopic simulations well into this bubbling phase, adopting a magnetohydrodynamic description from chromospheric layers up to 30 Mm height. Our virtual prominences rapidly establish fully non-linear (magneto)convective motions where hot bubbles interplay with falling pillars, with dynamical details including upwelling pillars forming within bubbles. Our simulations show impacting Rayleigh-Taylor fingers reflecting on transition region plasma, ensuring that cool, dense chromospheric material gets mixed with prominence matter up to very large heights. This offers an explanation for the return mass cycle mystery for prominence mater...

  6. Bubble Universes With Different Gravitational Constants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu-ichi Takamizu; Kei-ichi Maeda

    2015-04-21

    We argue a scenario motivated by the context of string landscape, where our universe is produced by a new vacuum bubble embedded in an old bubble and these bubble universes have not only different cosmological constants, but also their own different gravitational constants. We study these effects on the primordial curvature perturbations. In order to construct a model of varying gravitational constants, we use the Jordan-Brans-Dicke (JBD) theory where different expectation values of scalar fields produce difference of constants. In this system, we investigate the nucleation of bubble universe and dynamics of the wall separating two spacetimes. In particular, the primordial curvature perturbation on superhorizon scales can be affected by the wall trajectory as the boundary effect. We show the effect of gravitational constant in the exterior bubble universe can provide a peak like a bump feature at a large scale in a modulation of power spectrum.

  7. Bubble Universes With Different Gravitational Constants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takamizu, Yu-ichi

    2015-01-01

    We argue a scenario motivated by the context of string landscape, where our universe is produced by a new vacuum bubble embedded in an old bubble and these bubble universes have not only different cosmological constants, but also their own different gravitational constants. We study these effects on the primordial curvature perturbations. In order to construct a model of varying gravitational constants, we use the Jordan-Brans-Dicke (JBD) theory where different expectation values of scalar fields produce difference of constants. In this system, we investigate the nucleation of bubble universe and dynamics of the wall separating two spacetimes. In particular, the primordial curvature perturbation on superhorizon scales can be affected by the wall trajectory as the boundary effect. We show the effect of gravitational constant in the exterior bubble universe can provide a peak like a bump feature at a large scale in a modulation of power spectrum.

  8. Microfluidics Formation of Bubbles in a Multisection Flow-Focusing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prentiss, Mara

    Microfluidics Formation of Bubbles in a Multisection Flow-Focusing Junction Michinao Hashimoto the stable formation of trains of mono-, bi-, and tri-disperse bubbles in microfluidic flow- focusing (FF-assembly through the patterns of flow created by the bubbles. 1.1 Bubbles and Droplets in Microfluidics

  9. MULTISCALE NUMERICAL STUDY OF TURBULENT FLOW AND BUBBLE ENTRAINMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirby, James T.

    MULTISCALE NUMERICAL STUDY OF TURBULENT FLOW AND BUBBLE ENTRAINMENT IN THE SURF ZONE BY GANGFENG MA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1.2 Numerical Investigations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.2 Bubble Entrainment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.4 Bubble Entrainment Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.5 Bubble Breakup

  10. Bubble Free Energy in Cosmological Phase Transitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Ignatius

    1993-01-07

    Free energy as a function of temperature and the bubble radius is determined for spherical bubbles created in cosmological first order phase transitions. The phase transition is assumed to be driven by an order parameter (e.g. a Higgs field) with quartic potential. The definition of the bubble radius and the corresponding generalized, curvature-dependent surface tensions are discussed. In the free energy expansion in powers of the inverse radius, the coefficients of the curvature term and the constant term are also calculated.

  11. Impedances of Laminated Vacuum Chambers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burov, A.; Lebedev, V.; /Fermilab

    2011-06-22

    First publications on impedance of laminated vacuum chambers are related to early 70s: those are of S. C. Snowdon [1] and of A. G. Ruggiero [2]; fifteen years later, a revision paper of R. Gluckstern appeared [3]. All the publications were presented as Fermilab preprints, and there is no surprise in that: the Fermilab Booster has its laminated magnets open to the beam. Being in a reasonable mutual agreement, these publications were all devoted to the longitudinal impedance of round vacuum chambers. The transverse impedance and the flat geometry case were addressed in more recent paper of K. Y. Ng [4]. The latest calculations of A. Macridin et al. [5] revealed some disagreement with Ref. [4]; this fact stimulated us to get our own results on that matter. Longitudinal and transverse impendances are derived for round and flat laminated vacuum chambers. Results of this paper agree with Ref. [5].

  12. Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO-60 CF$_3$I Bubble Chamber (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing BacteriaConnect Collidertransfer (Journal Article)Journal Article: Dark

  13. Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO-60 CF$_3$I Bubble Chamber (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing BacteriaConnect Collidertransfer (Journal Article)Journal Article: DarkArticle) |

  14. PICASSO, COUPP and PICO - Search for dark matter with bubble chambers

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTech ConnectSpeeding access to(Conference) |ofPDV workshop(Conference) |

  15. PICASSO, COUPP and PICO - Search for dark matter with bubble chambers

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTech ConnectSpeeding access to(Conference) |ofPDV workshop(Conference) |(Journal Article)

  16. Gravity waves from cosmic bubble collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salem, Michael P.; Saraswat, Prashant; Shaghoulian, Edgar E-mail: ps88@stanford.edu

    2013-02-01

    Our local Hubble volume might be contained within a bubble that nucleated in a false vacuum with only two large spatial dimensions. We study bubble collisions in this scenario and find that they generate gravity waves, which are made possible in this context by the reduced symmetry of the global geometry. These gravity waves would produce B-mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background, which could in principle dominate over the inflationary background.

  17. Vortex Bubble Formation in Pair Plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berezhiani, V I; Mahajan, S M; Aleksi?, B N

    2013-01-01

    It is shown that delocalized vortex solitons in relativistic pair plasmas with small temperature asymmetries can be unstable for intermediate intensities of the background electromagnetic field. Instability leads to the generation of ever-expanding cavitating bubbles in which the electromagnetic fields are zero. The existence of such electromagnetic bubbles is demonstrated by qualitative arguments based on a hydrodynamic analogy, and by numerical solutions of the appropriate Nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation with a saturating nonlinearity.

  18. ADVANCED DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES FOR THREE-PHASE SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTORS (SBCR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.H. Al-Dahhan; M.P. Dudukovic; L.S. Fan

    2001-07-25

    This report summarizes the accomplishment made during the second year of this cooperative research effort between Washington University, Ohio State University and Air Products and Chemicals. The technical difficulties that were encountered in implementing Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT) in high pressure SBCR have been successfully resolved. New strategies for data acquisition and calibration procedure have been implemented. These have been performed as a part of other projects supported by Industrial Consortium and DOE via contract DE-2295PC95051 which are executed in parallel with this grant. CARPT and Computed Tomography (CT) experiments have been performed using air-water-glass beads in 6 inch high pressure stainless steel slurry bubble column reactor at selected conditions. Data processing of this work is in progress. The overall gas holdup and the hydrodynamic parameters are measured by Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) in 2 inch slurry bubble column using Norpar 15 that mimic at room temperature the Fischer Tropsch wax at FT reaction conditions of high pressure and temperature. To improve the design and scale-up of bubble column, new correlations have been developed to predict the radial gas holdup and the time averaged axial liquid recirculation velocity profiles in bubble columns.

  19. High temperature degradation by erosion-corrosion in bubbling fluidized bed combustors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hou, Peggy Y.; MacAdam, S.; Niu, Y.; Stringer, J.

    2003-01-01

    a Laboratory Simulated Bubbling Fluidized Bed", Wear. 235,Tube Wastage in Bubbling Fluidized Bed, a Laboratory StudyWheeldon, "Wastage in bubbling fluidized-bed combustors: an

  20. Active microuidic mixer and gas bubble lter driven by thermal bubble micropump$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Liwei

    Active micro¯uidic mixer and gas bubble ®lter driven by thermal bubble micropump$ Jr-Hung Tsaia interface to increase the contact area of mixing ¯uids to accelerate the mixing process. The micro and successfully demonstrated in the micro¯uidic mixing system. A model based on the principle of threshold

  1. Modeling bubble-vortex interactions Modeling and simulation of multiple bubble entrainment and interactions with two

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, Sourabh V.

    Modeling bubble-vortex interactions Modeling and simulation of multiple bubble entrainment entrainment and interactions with two dimensional vorti- cal flows are preformed using a Discrete Element microbubbles entrained in a traveling vortex tube is studied in detail. The test case resembles the experiments

  2. Rest frame of bubble nucleation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garriga, Jaume; Kanno, Sugumi; Tanaka, Takahiro E-mail: sugumi@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu

    2013-06-01

    Vacuum bubbles nucleate at rest with a certain critical size and subsequently expand. But what selects the rest frame of nucleation? This question has been recently addressed in [1] in the context of Schwinger pair production in 1+1 dimensions, by using a model detector in order to probe the nucleated pairs. The analysis in [1] showed that, for a constant external electric field, the adiabatic ''in'' vacuum of charged particles is Lorentz invariant, (and in this) case pairs tend to nucleate preferentially at rest with respect to the detector. Here, we sharpen this picture by showing that the typical relative velocity between the frame of nucleation and that of the detector is at most of order ?v ? S{sub E}{sup ?1/3} << 1. Here, S{sub E} >> 1 is the action of the instanton describing pair creation. The bound ?v coincides with the minimum uncertainty in the velocity of a non-relativistic charged particle embedded in a constant electric field. A velocity of order ?v is reached after a time interval of order ?t ? S{sub E}{sup ?1/3}r{sub 0} << r{sub 0} past the turning point in the semiclassical trajectory, where r{sub 0} is the size of the instanton. If the interaction takes place in the vicinity of the turning point, the semiclassical description of collision does not apply. Nonetheless, we find that even in this case there is still a strong asymmetry in the momentum transferred from the nucleated particles to the detector, in the direction of expansion after the turning point. We conclude that the correlation between the rest frame of nucleation and that of the detector is exceedingly sharp.

  3. Small scale vacuum chamber for general use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clayton, Alexander P

    2013-01-01

    For this thesis a small scale vacuum chamber assembly was designed and fabricated. This chamber's purpose is to provide high quality vacuum conditions for a variety of samples. Often these samples are in need of precise ...

  4. Master's Thesis: Behaviors of Air Bubbles in Drinking Water Pipelines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    Master's Thesis: Behaviors of Air Bubbles in Drinking Water Pipelines: Experimental Investigation............................................................................... 3 2.1 Air Bubbles in Pipeline........................................................................................ 3 2.1.1 Air Existence in Drinking Water Pipeline Networks

  5. Continuum-scale Modeling of Hydrogen and Helium Bubble Growth...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Continuum-scale Modeling of Hydrogen and Helium Bubble Growth in Metals Continuum-scale Modeling of Hydrogen and Helium Bubble Growth in Metals Presentation from the 34th Tritium...

  6. Bubble visualization in a simulated hydraulic jump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Witt, Adam; Shen, Lian

    2013-01-01

    This is a fluid dynamics video of two- and three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulations carried out at St. Anthony Falls Laboratory. A transient hydraulic jump is simulated using OpenFOAM, an open source numerical solver. A Volume of Fluid numerical method is employed with a realizable k-epsilon turbulence model. The goal of this research is to model the void fraction and bubble size in a transient hydraulic jump. This fluid dynamics video depicts the air entrainment characteristics and bubble behavior within a hydraulic jump of Froude number 4.82.

  7. AdS Bubbles, E$p$-branes and Entanglement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harvendra Singh

    2014-10-15

    The AdS-bubble solutions interestingly mimic Schr\\"odinger-like geometries when expressed in light-cone coordinates. These D$p$ bubble vacuas exhibit asymmetric scaling property with a negative dynamical exponent of time $a0$ in type II* super-strings. We obtain an expression for the entanglement entropy for `bubble E3-branes'. It is argued that the entropy from E3-bubbles has to be the lowest.

  8. Three-dimensional reconstruction of bubble distribution in two-phase bubbly flows with the dynamic programming method 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Furukawa, Toru

    2002-01-01

    A three-dimensional bubble reconstruction method is proposed in this thesis to analyze two-phase bubbly flows. Gas/liquid two-phase flows have important roles in the nuclear and chemical industries and other engineering fields...

  9. TRU waste characterization chamber gloveboxes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, D. S.

    1998-07-02

    Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) is participating in the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Transuranic Waste Program in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Laboratory's support currently consists of intrusive characterization of a selected population of drums containing transuranic waste. This characterization is performed in a complex of alpha containment gloveboxes termed the Waste Characterization Gloveboxes. Made up of the Waste Characterization Chamber, Sample Preparation Glovebox, and the Equipment Repair Glovebox, they were designed as a small production characterization facility for support of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). This paper presents salient features of these gloveboxes.

  10. Cap Bubble Drift Velocity in a Confined Test Section

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaodong Sun; Seungjin Kim; Mamoru Ishii; Frank W. Lincoln; Stephen G. Beus

    2002-10-09

    In the two-group interfacial area transport equation, bubbles are categorized into two groups, i.e., spherical/distorted bubbles as group 1 and cap/slug/churn-turbulent bubbles as group 2. The bubble rise velocities for both groups of bubbles may be estimated by the drift flux model by applying different distribution parameters and drift velocities for both groups. However, the drift velocity for group 2 bubbles is not always applicable (when the wall effect becomes important) as in the current test loop of interest where the flow channel is confined by two parallel flat walls, with a dimension of 200-mm in width and 10-mm in gap. The previous experiments indicated that no stable slug flow existed in this test section, which was designed to permit visualization of the flow patterns and bubble characteristics without the distortion associated with curved surfaces. In fact, distorted cap bubbly and churn-turbulent flow was observed. Therefore, it is essential to developed a correlation for cap bubble drift velocity in this confined flow channel. Since the rise velocity of a cap bubble depends on its size, a high-speed movie camera is used to capture images of cap bubbles to obtain the bubble size information. Meanwhile, the rise velocity of cap and elongated bubbles (called cap bubbles hereafter) is investigated by examining the captured images frame by frame. As a result, the conventional correlation of drift velocity for slug bubbles is modified and acceptable agreements between the measurements and correlation estimation are achieved.

  11. Electromechanical solar tracking apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stromberg, Robert P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1981-01-01

    The invention relates to an electromechanical solar tracking device which tracks the position of the sun using paired, partially-shaded bimetallic elements.

  12. Bubble Evolution and Properties in Homogeneous Nucleation Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angélil, Raymond; Tanaka, Kyoko; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the properties of naturally formed nano-bubbles in Lennard-Jones molecular dynamics simulations of liquid-to-vapor nucleation in the boiling and the cavitation regimes. The large computational volumes provide a realistic environment at unchanging average temperature and liquid pressure, which allows us to accurately measure properties of bubbles from their inception as stable, critically sized bubbles, to their continued growth into the constant speed regime. Bubble gas densities are up to 50$\\%$ lower than the equilibrium vapor densities at the liquid temperature, yet quite close to the gas equilibrium density at the lower gas temperatures measured in the simulations: The latent heat of transformation results in bubble gas temperatures up to 25$\\%$ below those of the surrounding bulk liquid. In the case of rapid bubble growth - typical for the cavitation regime - compression of the liquid outside the bubble leads to local temperature increases of up to 5$\\%$, likely significant enough to alter the...

  13. Fluidized wall for protecting fusion chamber walls

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maniscalco, James A. (Danville, CA); Meier, Wayne R. (Livermore, CA)

    1982-01-01

    Apparatus for protecting the inner wall of a fusion chamber from microexplosion debris, x-rays, neutrons, etc. produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) targets imploded within the fusion chamber. The apparatus utilizes a fluidized wall similar to a waterfall comprising liquid lithium or solid pellets of lithium-ceramic, the waterfall forming a blanket to prevent damage of the structural materials of the chamber.

  14. Internal combustion engine with rotary combustion chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, C.N.; Cross, P.C.

    1986-09-23

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine comprising: a block having at least one cylindrical wall surrounding a piston chamber, piston means located in the piston chamber means operable to reciprocate the piston means in the chamber, head means mounted on the block covering the chamber. The head means has an air and fuel intake passage, and exhaust gas passage, a rotary valve assembly operatively associated with the head means for controlling the flow of air and fuel into the rotary valve assembly and piston chamber and the flow of exhaust gas from rotary valve assembly and the piston chamber. The means has a housing with a bore open to the piston chamber accommodating the rotary valve assembly, the valve assembly comprising a cylindrical sleeve located in the bore, the sleeve having an inner surface, an ignition hole, and intake and exhaust ports aligned with the intake passage and exhaust gas passage, spark generating means mounted on the housing operable to generate a spark. The rotatable valving means is located within the sleeve for controlling the flow of air and fuel into the rotary valve assembly and piston chamber and the flow of exhaust gases out of the rotary valve assembly and piston chamber.

  15. Track 3: Exposure Hazards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ISM Workshop Presentations Knoxville Convention Center, Knoxville, TN August 2009 Track 3: Exposure Hazards

  16. Track 9: Quality Assurance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ISM Workshop Presentations Knoxville Convention Center, Knoxville, TN August 2009 Track 9: Quality Assurance

  17. Track 2: Worker Engagement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ISM Workshop Presentations Knoxville Convention Center, Knoxville, TN August 2009 Track 2: Worker Engagement

  18. The Drift Chamber for the Experiment to Study the Nature of the Confinement

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Berdnikov, Vladimir V.; Somov, S. V.; Pentchev, Lubomir; Zihlmann, Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    The GlueX experiment was designed to search for hybrid mesons with exotic quantum numbers using a beam of linearly polarized photons incident on a liquid hydrogen target. The spectrum of these states and their mass splitting from normal mesons may yield information on confinement. The description of the GlueX spectrometer and Forward Drift Chambers (FDC) as a part of track reconstruction system is presented in the text. FDC‘s are multiwire chambers with cathode and anode read-out. The system allows reconstructing tracks of charged particles with ~200mkm accuracy with angles from 20° up to 1°. One of the detector features ismore »1.64% X0 material amount in the active area. The cathode gain calibration procedure is presented. The results of such calibration using cosmic data and beam data are presented as well.« less

  19. Engineering development of a bubble tray structure 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glitsch, Hans C

    1954-01-01

    covered by 6 bubble cap Chat serves Co dei'lect the vapor back 'nto the liquid Bnd cr'cate a vapor liq'Qi(i bubblirlg ac't:Lon. The bu'bble trays axe normally arranged so that theiX 3. iquid will flow Gvex' weirs, Gx dame, to the next tray below... o'thex' f actors 8 f f ec'tixlg tx'ey sf f i cxiency? such as px'essux'6 dx"'op 'through the vapox' chimney-cap Rssemb I 3. 66, Foux1dx'y px*ac'tice I i%3. ted the BIinimuIII thickxlesses that could be success fully cast Rnd cons id61Rb 16 ax...

  20. Bubbling the Newly Grown Black Ring Hair

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasilakis, Orestis

    2012-01-01

    New families of BPS black ring solutions with four electric and four dipole magnetic charges have recently been explicitly constructed and uplifted to M-theory. These solutions were found to belong to a CFT with central charge different compared to the one of the STU model. Because of their importance to AdS/CFT, here we give the microstate description of these geometries in terms of topological bubbles and supertubes. The fourth charge results in an additional flux through the topological cycles that resolve the brane singularities. The analog of these solutions in the IIB frame yield a generalized regular supertube with three electric charges and one dipole charge. Direct comparison is also made with the previously-known bubbled geometries.

  1. Bubbling the Newly Grown Black Ring Hair

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orestis Vasilakis

    2012-02-08

    New families of BPS black ring solutions with four electric and four dipole magnetic charges have recently been explicitly constructed and uplifted to M-theory. These solutions were found to belong to a CFT with central charge different compared to the one of the STU model. Because of their importance to AdS/CFT, here we give the microstate description of these geometries in terms of topological bubbles and supertubes. The fourth charge results in an additional flux through the topological cycles that resolve the brane singularities. The analog of these solutions in the IIB frame yield a generalized regular supertube with three electric charges and one dipole charge. Direct comparison is also made with the previously-known bubbled geometries.

  2. Hydrodynamic models for slurry bubble column reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gidaspow, D. [IIT Center, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this investigation is to convert a {open_quotes}learning gas-solid-liquid{close_quotes} fluidization model into a predictive design model. This model is capable of predicting local gas, liquid and solids hold-ups and the basic flow regimes: the uniform bubbling, the industrially practical churn-turbulent (bubble coalescence) and the slugging regimes. Current reactor models incorrectly assume that the gas and the particle hold-ups (volume fractions) are uniform in the reactor. They must be given in terms of empirical correlations determined under conditions that radically differ from reactor operation. In the proposed hydrodynamic approach these hold-ups are computed from separate phase momentum balances. Furthermore, the kinetic theory approach computes the high slurry viscosities from collisions of the catalyst particles. Thus particle rheology is not an input into the model.

  3. Nucleation of vacuum bubbles in Brans-Dicke type theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hongsu Kim; Bum-Hoon Lee; Wonwoo Lee; Young Jae Lee; Dong-han Yeom

    2011-07-19

    In this paper, we explore the nucleation of vacuum bubbles in the Brans-Dicke type theory of gravity. In the Euclidean signature, we evaluate the fields at the vacuum bubbles as solutions of the Euler-Lagrange equations of motion as well as the bubble nucleation probabilities by integrating the Euclidean action. We illustrate three possible ways to obtain vacuum bubbles: true vacuum bubbles for \\omega>-3/2, false vacuum bubbles for \\omega-3/2 when the vacuum energy of the false vacuum in the potential of the Einstein frame is less than that of the true vacuum. After the bubble is nucleated at the t=0 surface, we can smoothly interpolate the field combinations to some solutions in the Lorentzian signature and consistently continue their subsequent evolutions. Therefore, we conclude that, in general scalar-tensor theories like this Brans-Dicke type theories, which may include and represent certain features of string theory, vacuum bubbles come in false vacuum bubbles as well as in true vacuum bubbles, as long as a special condition is assumed on the potential.

  4. A bubble detection system for propellant filling pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, Wen; Zong, Guanghua; Bi, Shusheng

    2014-06-15

    This paper proposes a bubble detection system based on the ultrasound transmission method, mainly for probing high-speed bubbles in the satellite propellant filling pipeline. First, three common ultrasonic detection methods are compared and the ultrasound transmission method is used in this paper. Then, the ultrasound beam in a vertical pipe is investigated, suggesting that the width of the beam used for detection is usually smaller than the internal diameter of the pipe, which means that when bubbles move close to the pipe wall, they may escape from being detected. A special device is designed to solve this problem. It can generate the spiral flow to force all the bubbles to ascend along the central line of the pipe. In the end, experiments are implemented to evaluate the performance of this system. Bubbles of five different sizes are generated and detected. Experiment results show that the sizes and quantity of bubbles can be estimated by this system. Also, the bubbles of different radii can be distinguished from each other. The numerical relationship between the ultrasound attenuation and the bubble radius is acquired and it can be utilized for estimating the unknown bubble size and measuring the total bubble volume.

  5. Improving neutron dosimetry using bubble detector technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckner, M.A.

    1993-02-01

    Providing accurate neutron dosimetry for a variety of neutron energy spectra is a formidable task for any dosimetry system. Unless something is known about the neutron spectrum prior to processing the dosimeter, the calculated dose may vary greatly from that actually encountered; that is until now. The entrance of bubble detector technology into the field of neutron dosimetry has eliminated the necessity of having an a priori knowledge of the neutron energy spectra. Recently, a new approach in measuring personnel neutron dose equivalent was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. By using bubble detectors in combination with current thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) as a Combination Personnel Neutron Dosimeter (CPND), not only is it possible to provide accurate dose equivalent results, but a simple four-interval neutron energy spectrum is obtained as well. The components of the CPND are a Harshaw albedo TLD and two bubble detectors with theoretical energy thresholds of 100 key and 1500 keV. Presented are (1) a synoptic history surrounding emergence of bubble detector technology, (2) a brief overview of the current theory on mechanisms of interaction, (3) the data and analysis process involved in refining the response functions, (4) performance evaluation of the original CPND and a reevaluation of the same data under the modified method, (5) the procedure used to determine the reference values of component fluence and dose equivalent for field assessment, (6) analysis of the after-modification results, (7) a critique of some currently held assumptions, offering some alternative explanations, and (8) thoughts concerning potential applications and directions for future research.

  6. Void distribution in a shallow bubbling pool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Lap Y.; Ting, Lu

    1989-01-01

    An analytical model based on the variational principle of minimum energy is derived to determine the steady-state two-phase mixture level and axial void distribution of a non-condensable gas that is introduced uniformly across the base of a shallow liquid pool. The model expresses pool void fraction and mixture level in terms of the Froude and Weber numbers, while the void fraction just below the free surface depends only on the Weber number. The shallow pool model is based on the assumption of one-dimensional flow of an inviscid bubbly mixture in a pool with its height much less than its diameter. It is also assumed that both the hydrostatic pressure of the pool and the pressure difference across the bubble surface are much smaller than the ambient pressure. By including the dependency of the added mass coefficient on void fraction, the model predicts a maximum bubbly flow void fraction of 0.3 which agrees well with the observed transition from bubbly to churn-turbulent flow at a void fraction between 0.2 and 0.3. When the theoretical results for an inviscid shallow pool are compared with available experimental data for void fraction in pools which are not shallow and hence the viscous and wall effects are not negligible, the model under-estimates the data on pool fraction by about a factor of 5. Good agreement is obtained between the inviscid model and a drift flux correlation for pool void fraction when the viscosity of water is extrapolated to 1/10 of the value at room temperature. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  7. IFE Chamber Technology Testing Program In NIF and Chamber Development Test Plan Mohamed A. Abdou

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    chamber technology testing program in NIF involoving: criteria for evaluation to testing in ignition facility serves a critical role in chamber R&D test plans in order to reduce the risks for chamber technology testing in NIF might not be achievable because its integrated performance is evaluated

  8. meters in CO2 euthanasia chambers. All CO2 euthanasia chambers in both

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Edward I.

    meters in CO2 euthanasia chambers. All CO2 euthanasia chambers in both the facilities, and durable flow meter to install in all of the CO2 chambers in all of the vivaria. When a specific model and laboratories will need flow meters. ULAR is currently in the process of identifying a cost-effective, accurate

  9. Blogs Are Echo Chambers: Blogs Are Echo Chambers Eric Gilbert, Tony Bergstrom and Karrie Karahalios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karahalios, Karrie G.

    Blogs Are Echo Chambers: Blogs Are Echo Chambers Eric Gilbert, Tony Bergstrom and Karrie Karahalios decade, blogs have exploded in number, popularity and scope. However, many commentators and researchers speculate that blogs isolate readers in echo chambers, cutting them off from dissenting opin- ions. Our

  10. Allostery through protein-induced DNA bubbles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Traverso, Joseph J.; Manoranjan, Valipuram S.; Bishop, A. R.; Rasmussen, Kim Ø.; Voulgarakis, Nikolaos K.

    2015-03-12

    Allostery through DNA is increasingly recognized as an important modulator of DNA functions. Here, we show that the coalescence of protein-induced DNA bubbles can mediate allosteric interactions that drive protein aggregation. We propose that such allostery may regulate DNA's flexibility and the assembly of the transcription machinery. Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), a dual-function protein involved in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) packaging and transcription initiation, is an ideal candidate to test such a hypothesis owing to its ability to locally unwind the double helix. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the coalescence of TFAM-induced bubbles can explain experimentally observed TFAM oligomerization. The resultingmore »melted DNA segment, approximately 10 base pairs long, around the joints of the oligomers act as flexible hinges, which explains the efficiency of TFAM in compacting DNA. Since mitochondrial polymerase (mitoRNAP) is involved in melting the transcription bubble, TFAM may use the same allosteric interaction to both recruit mitoRNAP and initiate transcription.« less

  11. Scalings for radiation from plasma bubbles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, A. G. R.

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, electron trajectories are studied analytically in the rest frame of a plasma bubble using nonevolving, linear, radial electric and azimuthal magnetic fields in a spherical structure. The electron motion is broken into two distinct periods; one where it orbits around the periphery to the rear of the bubble, and one where it performs oscillations within the bubble interior. By using the first period as an initial condition for the second, general scalings are developed for the x-ray radiation produced by the electron oscillations. The equations are also analyzed to give self-trapping conditions for the electron and to examine the sensitivity of the transverse momentum to small variations from an orbit that is a circular arc. The scalings are in reasonable agreement with recent experiments on x-ray generation and predict a peak spectral brightness of S{approx_equal}6x10{sup 27} photons/s mrad mm 0.1%BW of radiation with a critical energy of 300 MeV using a single stage accelerator driven by a 120 PW laser.

  12. Mesoscale modeling of intergranular bubble percolation in nuclear fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Millett, Paul C.; Tonks, Michael; Biner, S. B. [Nuclear Fuels and Materials, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Phase-field simulations are used to examine the variability of intergranular fission gas bubble growth and percolation on uranium dioxide grain boundaries on a mesoscopic length scale. Three key parameters are systematically varied in this study: the contact angle (or dihedral angle) defining the bubble shape, the initial bubble density on the grain boundary plane, and the ratio of the gas diffusivity on the grain boundary versus the grain interiors. The simulation results agree well with previous experimental data obtained for bubble densities and average bubble areas during coalescence events. Interestingly, the rate of percolation is found to be highly variable, with a large dependency on the contact angle and the initial bubble density and little-to-no dependency on the grain boundary gas diffusivity.

  13. MESOSCALE MODELING OF INTERGRANULAR BUBBLE PERCOLATION IN NUCLEAR FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul C. Millett; Michael Tonks; S. B. Biner

    2012-04-01

    Phase-field simulations are used to examine the variability of intergranular fission gas bubble growth and percolation on uranium dioxide grain boundaries on a mesoscopic length scale. Three key parameters are systematically varied in this study: the contact angle (or dihedral angle) defining the bubble shape, the initial bubble density on the grain boundary plane, and the ratio of the gas diffusivity on the grain boundary versus the grain interiors. The simulation results agree well with previous experimental data obtained for bubble densities and average bubble areas during coalescence events. Interestingly, the rate of percolation is found to be highly variable, with a large dependency on the contact angle and the initial bubble density, and little-to-no dependency on the grain boundary gas diffusivity.

  14. Detecting vapour bubbles in simulations of metastable water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    González, Miguel A.; Abascal, Jose L. F.; Valeriani, Chantal E-mail: cvaleriani@quim.ucm.es; Menzl, Georg; Geiger, Philipp; Dellago, Christoph E-mail: cvaleriani@quim.ucm.es; Aragones, Juan L.; Caupin, Frederic

    2014-11-14

    The investigation of cavitation in metastable liquids with molecular simulations requires an appropriate definition of the volume of the vapour bubble forming within the metastable liquid phase. Commonly used approaches for bubble detection exhibit two significant flaws: first, when applied to water they often identify the voids within the hydrogen bond network as bubbles thus masking the signature of emerging bubbles and, second, they lack thermodynamic consistency. Here, we present two grid-based methods, the M-method and the V-method, to detect bubbles in metastable water specifically designed to address these shortcomings. The M-method incorporates information about neighbouring grid cells to distinguish between liquid- and vapour-like cells, which allows for a very sensitive detection of small bubbles and high spatial resolution of the detected bubbles. The V-method is calibrated such that its estimates for the bubble volume correspond to the average change in system volume and are thus thermodynamically consistent. Both methods are computationally inexpensive such that they can be used in molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations of cavitation. We illustrate them by computing the free energy barrier and the size of the critical bubble for cavitation in water at negative pressure.

  15. Visualizing Buoyant Burning Bubbles in Type Ia Supernovae at...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simulation was conducted using a specialized low Mach number hydrodynamics code for thermonuclear flames. Adaptive mesh refinement was used to focus resolution on the bubble,...

  16. Simultaneous observation of nascent plasma and bubble induced...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Simultaneous observation of nascent plasma and bubble induced by laser ablation in water with various pulse durations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Simultaneous...

  17. Heart-shaped bubbles rising in anisotropic liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-04-27

    Apr 27, 2007 ... ronment, the bubble shape is affected not only by the hydro- dynamic forces and interfacial tension, but also by the sur- face anchoring and bulk ...

  18. COLD BUBBLE FORMATION DURING TOKAMAK DENSITY LIMIT DISRUPTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard, John

    COLD BUBBLE FORMATION DURING TOKAMAK DENSITY LIMIT DISRUPTIONS J. HOWARD, M. PERSSON* Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physical Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra

  19. Double, Double Toil and Trouble: Tungsten Burns and Helium Bubbles...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    larger when it bursts, creating more surface debris. The colors indicate helium atoms (blue) and tungsten atoms (red). The Science When simulated helium (He) bubbles grow quickly,...

  20. Effect of Bubbles and Silica Dissolution on Melter Feed Rheology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bubbles and Silica Dissolution on Melter Feed Rheology during Conversion to Glass As the nuclear waste glass melter feed is converted to molten glass, the feed becomes a...

  1. Thermonuclear Supernovae: Is Deflagration Triggered by Floating Bubbles?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eduardo Bravo; Domingo Garcia-Senz

    2002-11-13

    In recent years, it has become clear from multidimensional simulations that the outcome of deflagrations depends strongly on the initial configuration of the flame. We have studied under which conditions this configuration could consist of a number of scattered, isolated, hot bubbles. Afterwards, we have calculated the evolution of deflagrations starting from different numbers of bubbles. We have found that starting from 30 bubbles a mild explosion is produced M(Ni56)=0.56 solar masses, while starting from 10 bubbles the star becomes only marginally unbound (K = 0.05 foes).

  2. Multifocal laser surgery: Cutting enhancement by hydrodynamic interactions between cavitation bubbles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palanker, Daniel

    Multifocal laser surgery: Cutting enhancement by hydrodynamic interactions between cavitation a single cavitation bubble. We investigate the hydrodynamic interactions between simultaneous cavitation bubbles originating from multiple laser foci. Simultaneous expansion and collapse of cavitation bubbles

  3. Experimental Investigation of Bubble Formation in Micro-devices N. Dietrich, S. Poncin & Huai Z. Li

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of bubbles serves various applications in industrial processes such as the generation of biogas bubbles by anaerobic sludge granules in a bioreactor (Wu et al., 2006), bubble nucleation in polymer devolatization

  4. Solar tracking apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammons, Burrell E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a solar tracking device which tracks the position of the sun using paired, partially-shaded photocells. Auxiliary photocells are used for initial acquisition of the sun and for the suppression of false tracking when the sun is obscured by clouds.

  5. Experimental characterisation of bubbly flow using MRI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tayler, Alexander B.

    2011-11-08

    and industry. Known as gas-liquid flows, these systems occur in situations as diverse as the bow wave of a ship to the cooling system in a nuclear power plant. The structure of a gas-liquid flow depends upon the relative flow-rates of the two phases, and... . [3] Deckwer, W.D., 1985. Bubble column reactors. Wiley, Chichester. [4] Jacobsen, H.A., 2008. Chemical reactor modeling. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. [5] Saxena, S.C., Patel, D., Smith, D.N. and Ruether, J.A., 1988. An assessment of experimental...

  6. Proceedings of the Workshop on Radiation Damage to Wire Chambers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kadyk, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    from chamber cleaning, outgassing from elastomers or otherTPC -- perhaps by normal outgassing and perhaps by reactionproperites and low outgassing. WIRE CHAMBER DEGRADATION AT

  7. Formation mechanisms of combustion chamber deposits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Christopher J. (Christopher John)

    2001-01-01

    Combustion chamber deposits are found in virtually all internal combustion engines after a few hundred hours of operation. Deposits form on cylinder, piston, and head surfaces that are in contact with fuel-air mixture ...

  8. PHASE-FIELD SIMULATION OF IRRADIATED METALS: PART II: GAS BUBBLE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    conditions. Finally, intergranular bubble characteristics such as shape, pinning energy on GB motion, and bubble density are investigated. Authors: Paul C Millett ; Anter...

  9. Kinetic Model of Gas Bubble Dissolution in Groundwater and Its

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner

    diffusivities. Introduction The interaction of gas bubbles with a surrounding liquid is an essential part in both natural and technical gas exchange processes. In chemical engineering systems, the dissolution of a discrete gas phase that bubbles through either liquid or liquid-solid reactors is an important application

  10. Oscillations with uniquely long periods in a microfluidic bubble generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    LETTERS Oscillations with uniquely long periods in a microfluidic bubble generator PIOTR GARSTECKI1 generator that shows stable oscillatory patterns (both in space and time) of unanticipated complexity to a single outlet channel. In this geometry, the pinch-off process that generates bubbles is regulated17

  11. Deformed bubble growth and coalescence in polymer foam processing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allaboun, Hussein Raji

    1996-01-01

    field is ddv?Bv a" a, =' (3. 2) 20 2e / I I RPb h Bubble A Bubble B Figure 3. 3. Film geometry. 21 Extensional flows are totally characterized by the extensional rate which is given by the following equation: -l i)h h rtt (3 3) where g...

  12. Tubular precipitation and redox gradients on a bubbling template

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Raymond E.

    Tubular precipitation and redox gradients on a bubbling template David A. Stone* and Raymond E) Tubular structures created by precipitation abound in nature, from chimneys at hydrothermal vents to soda oxides precipitate on the surface of bubbles that linger at the tube rim and then detach, leaving behind

  13. Plasma Turbulence in the Local Bubble

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steven R. Spangler

    2008-06-05

    Turbulence in the Local Bubble could play an important role in the thermodynamics of the gas that is there. The best astronomical technique for measuring turbulence in astrophysical plasmas is radio scintillation. Measurements of the level of scattering to the nearby pulsar B0950+08 by Philips and Clegg in 1992 showed a markedly lower value for the line-of-sight averaged turbulent intensity parameter $$ than is observed for other pulsars, consistent with radio wave propagation through a highly rarefied plasma. In this paper, we discuss the observational progress that has been made since that time. At present, there are four pulsars (B0950+08, B1133+16, J0437-4715, and B0809+74) whose lines of sight seem to lie mainly within the local bubble. The mean densities and line of sight components of the interstellar magnetic field along these lines of sight are smaller than nominal values for pulsars, but not by as much expected. Three of the four pulsars also have measurements of interstellar scintillation. The value of the parameter $$ is smaller than normal for two of them, but is completely nominal for the third. This inconclusive status of affairs could be improved by measurements and analysis of ``arcs'' in ``secondary spectra'' of pulsars.

  14. Dynamical system theory of periodically collapsing bubbles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yukalov, V I; Sornette, D

    2015-01-01

    We propose a reduced form set of two coupled continuous time equations linking the price of a representative asset and the price of a bond, the later quantifying the cost of borrowing. The feedbacks between asset prices and bonds are mediated by the dependence of their "fundamental values" on past asset prices and bond themselves. The obtained nonlinear self-referencing price dynamics can induce, in a completely objective deterministic way, the appearance of periodically exploding bubbles ending in crashes. Technically, the periodically explosive bubbles arise due to the proximity of two types of bifurcations as a function of the two key control parameters $b$ and $g$, which represent, respectively, the sensitivity of the fundamental asset price on past asset and bond prices and of the fundamental bond price on past asset prices. One is a Hopf bifurcation, when a stable focus transforms into an unstable focus and a limit cycle appears. The other is a rather unusual bifurcation, when a stable node and a saddle...

  15. Destabilization of Neutron Stars by Type I Dimension Bubbles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. I. Guendelman; J. R. Morris

    2005-01-16

    An inhomogeneous compactification of a higher dimensional spacetime can result in the formation of type I dimension bubbles, i.e., nontopological solitons which tend to absorb and entrap massive particle modes. We consider possible consequences of a neutron star that harbors such a soliton. The astrophysical outcome depends upon the model parameters for the dimension bubble, with a special sensitivity to the bubble's energy scale. For relatively small energy scales, the bubble tends to rapidly consume the star without forming a black hole. For larger energy scales, the bubble grows to a critical mass, then forms a black hole within the star, which subsequently causes the remaining star to collapse. It is possible that the latter scenario is associated with core collapse explosions and gamma ray bursts.

  16. Micro-Bubble Experiments at the Van de Graaff Accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Z. J.; Wardle, Kent E.; Quigley, K. J.; Gromov, Roman; Youker, A. J.; Makarashvili, Vakhtang; Bailey, James; Stepinski, D. C.; Chemerisov, S. D.; Vandegrift, G. F.

    2015-02-01

    In order to test and verify the experimental designs at the linear accelerator (LINAC), several micro-scale bubble ("micro-bubble") experiments were conducted with the 3-MeV Van de Graaff (VDG) electron accelerator. The experimental setups included a square quartz tube, sodium bisulfate solution with different concentrations, cooling coils, gas chromatography (GC) system, raster magnets, and two high-resolution cameras that were controlled by a LabVIEW program. Different beam currents were applied in the VDG irradiation. Bubble generation (radiolysis), thermal expansion, thermal convection, and radiation damage were observed in the experiments. Photographs, videos, and gas formation (O2 + H2) data were collected. The micro-bubble experiments at VDG indicate that the design of the full-scale bubble experiments at the LINAC is reasonable.

  17. Performance studies of resistive Micromegas chambers for the upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ntekas, Konstantinos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration at LHC has endorsed the resistive Micromegas technology (MM), along with the small-strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGC), for the high luminosity upgrade of the first muon station in the high-rapidity region, the so called New Small Wheel (NSW) project. The NSW requires fully efficient MM chambers, up to a particle rate of $\\sim15\\,\\mathrm{kHz/cm^2}$, with spatial resolution better than $100\\,\\mu\\mathrm{m}$ independent of the track incidence angle and the magnetic field ($B \\leq 0.3\\,\\mathrm{T}$). Along with the precise tracking the MM should be able to provide a trigger signal, complementary to the sTGC, thus a decent timing resolution is required. Several tests have been performed on small ($10\\times10\\,\\mathrm{cm^2}$) MM chambers using medium ($10\\,\\mathrm{GeV/c}$, PS) and high ($150\\,\\mathrm{GeV/c}$, SPS) momentum hadron beams at CERN. Results on the efficiency and position resolution measured during these tests are presented demonstrating the excellent characteristics of the MM that fulf...

  18. Main Chamber Pressure why do we care about it?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitcher, C. S.

    Main Chamber Pressure why do we care about it? - neutrals in the main chamber imply a particle-surface interaction there which may result in impurity production and erosion - neutrals in the main chamber may.main chamber recycling 3.ion flux to the upper part of the outer plate 4.upper divertor leakage #12

  19. Relic Radio Bubbles and Cluster Cooling Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David S. De Young

    2003-05-09

    Recent suggestions that buoyant radio emitting cavities in the intracluster medium can cause significant reheating of cooling flows are re-examined when the effects of the intracluster magnetic field are included. Expansion of the cavity creates a tangential magnetic field in the ICM around the radio source, and this field can suppress instabilities that mix the ICM and the radio source. The onset of instability can be delayed for ~100 million years, and calculation of the actual reheating time shows that this may not occur until about 1Gy after creation of the cavity. These results may explain why the relic radio bubbles are still intact at such late times, and it may imply that the role of radio sources in reheating the ICM should be re-examined. In addition, the existence of relic radio cavities may also imply that the particle content of radio source lobes is primarily electrons and protons rather than electrons and positrons.

  20. Energy partition at the collapse of spherical cavitation bubbles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tinguely, Marc; Kobel, Philippe; Dorsaz, Nicolaz; de Bosset, Aurele; Farhat, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Spherically collapsing cavitation bubbles produce a shock wave followed by a rebound bubble. Here we present a systematic investigation of the energy partition between the rebound and the shock. Highly spherical cavitation bubbles are produced in microgravity, which suppress the buoyant pressure gradient that otherwise deteriorates the sphericity of the bubbles. We measure the radius of the rebound bubble and estimate the shock energy as a function of the initial bubble radius (2-5.6 mm) and the liquid pressure (10-80 kPa). Those measurements uncover a systematic pressure dependence of the energy partition between rebound and shock. We demonstrate that these observations agree with a physical model relying on a first-order approximation of the liquid compressibility and an adiabatic treatment of the non-condensable gas inside the bubble. Using this model we find that the energy partition between rebound and shock is dictated by a single non-dimensional parameter $\\xi = \\Delta p\\gamma^6/[{p_{g0}}^{1/\\gamma} (\\...

  1. Moduli Vacuum Bubbles Produced by Evaporating Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. R. Morris

    2007-08-14

    We consider a model with a toroidally compactified extra dimension giving rise to a temperature-dependent 4d effective potential with one-loop contributions due to the Casimir effect, along with a 5d cosmological constant. The forms of the effective potential at low and high temperatures indicates a possibility for the formation of a domain wall bubble, formed by the modulus scalar field, surrounding an evaporating black hole. This is viewed as an example of a recently proposed black hole vacuum bubble arising from matter-sourced moduli fields in the vicinity of an evaporating black hole [D. Green, E. Silverstein, and D. Starr, Phys. Rev. D74, 024004 (2006), arXiv:hep-th/0605047]. The black hole bubble can be highly opaque to lower energy particles and photons, and thereby entrap them within. For high temperature black holes, there may also be a symmetry-breaking black hole bubble of false vacuum of the type previously conjectured by Moss [I.G. Moss, Phys. Rev. D32,1333 (1985)], tending to reflect low energy particles from its wall. A double bubble composed of these two different types of bubble may form around the black hole, altering the hole's emission spectrum that reaches outside observers. Smaller mass black holes that have already evaporated away could have left vacuum bubbles behind that contribute to the dark matter.

  2. Inertial confinement fusion based on the ion-bubble trigger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jafari, S. Nilkar, M.; Ghasemizad, A.; Mehdian, H.

    2014-10-15

    Triggering the ion-bubble in an inertial confinement fusion, we have developed a novel scheme for the fast ignition. This scheme relies on the plasma cavitation by the wake of an intense laser pulse to generate an ion-bubble. The bubble acts both as an intense electron accelerator and as an electron wiggler. Consequently, the accelerated electrons trapped in the bubble can emit an intense tunable laser light. This light can be absorbed by an ablation layer on the outside surface of the ignition capsule, which subsequently drills it and thereby produces a guide channel in the pellet. Finally, the relativistic electron beam created in the bubble is guided through the channel to the high density core igniting the fusion fuel. The normalized beam intensity and beam energy required for triggering the ignition have been calculated when core is heated by the e-beam. In addition, through solving the momentum transfer, continuity and wave equations, a dispersion relation for the electromagnetic and space-charge waves has been analytically derived. The variations of growth rate with the ion-bubble density and electron beam energy have been illustrated. It is found that the growth rates of instability are significantly controlled by the ions concentration and the e-beam energy in the bubble.

  3. Sun tracking controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menser, H.K.; Newcomb, R.D.

    1981-11-24

    An apparatus is described which controls the electric tracking motors of solar energy collectors and other solar devices which are adapted to be aimed at the sun.

  4. Impact of boundaries on velocity profiles in bubble rafts Yuhong Wang, Kapilanjan Krishan, and Michael Dennin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dennin, Michael

    ); and confined bubble rafts (bubbles confined between the surface of water below and a glass plate on top). Often two solid plates); bubble rafts (a single layer of bubbles freely floating on a surface of water . This corresponds to the quoted quasi-static limit in a number of previous experiments. It is found that the top

  5. Sensors and Actuators A 136 (2007) 717722 Deflection of microcantilever by growing vapor bubble

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Ho-Young

    2007-01-01

    : Microcantilever; Bubble; Surface tension; Elastocapillarity 1. Introduction Development of MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical

  6. Influence of increased gas density on hydrodynamics of bubble-column reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishna, R.; Swart, J.W.A. de; Hennephof, D.E.; Ellenberger, J.; Hoefsloot, H.C.J. (Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    A mechanistic background to the understanding of the hydrodynamics of high-pressure bubble column reactors in both the homogeneous and heterogeneous flow regimes is discussed. An important parameter determining the stability of homogeneous bubbly flow in a bubble column is shown to be the Richardson-Zaki exponent in the bubble swarm velocity relationship V[sub swarm] = [upsilon][sub [infinity

  7. Reduce Steam Trap Failures at Chambers Works 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kouba, C.

    2010-01-01

    Failures at Chambers Works GB/BB Name: Cyndi Kouba Mentor/MBB: Andrew Degraff Team Members Michael Crowley(Site Energy Lead), (Charlie) Flanigan (Aramids-maintenance), Ben Snyder (Aramids-ATO), Michael Scruggs (Central Maintenance Mechanic), Rick... is it sustainable HOW we went about finding a solution What do you have learn from this 10/20/2010 3 Six Sigma Methodology was KEY to success Savings: $1MM annualized in only 6 months! 10/20/2010 4Define: Project CTQ?s Customer: Chambers Works site Voice...

  8. A Study of Three Dimensional Bubble Velocities at Co-current Gas-liquid Vertical Upward Bubbly Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuntoro, Hadiyan Yusuf; Deendarlianto,

    2015-01-01

    Recently, experimental series of co-current gas-liquid upward bubbly flows in a 6 m-height and 54.8 mm i.d. vertical titanium pipe had been conducted at the TOPFLOW thermal hydraulic test facility, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Germany. The experiments were initially performed to develop a high quality database of two-phase flows as well as to validate new CFD models. An ultrafast dual-layer electron beam X-ray tomography, named ROFEX, was used as measurement system with high spatial and temporal resolutions. The gathered cross sectional grey value image results from the tomography scanning were reconstructed, segmented and evaluated to acquire gas bubble parameters for instance bubble position, size and holdup. To assign the correct paired bubbles from both measurement layers, a bubble pair algorithm was implemented on the basis of the highest probability values of bubbles in position, volume and velocity. Hereinafter, the individual characteristics of bubbles were calculated include instantaneous th...

  9. Dependence of electron trapping on bubble geometry in laser-plasma wakefield acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, X. F.; Yu, Q.; Huang, S.; Zhang, F.; Kong, Q., E-mail: qkong@fudan.edu.cn [Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Gu, Y. J. [Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines Project, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic); Kawata, S. [Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences, Utsunomiya University, 7-1-2 Yohtoh, Utsunomiya 321-8585 (Japan)

    2014-07-15

    The effect of bubble shape in laser-plasma electron acceleration was investigated. We showed the general existence of an ellipsoid bubble. The electromagnetic field in this bubble and its dependence on bubble shape were determined through theory. The electron-trapping cross-section for different bubble aspect ratios was studied in detail. When the shape of the bubble was close to spherical, the trapping cross-section reached to the maximum. When the bubble deviated from a spherical shape, the cross-section decreased until electron injection no longer occurred. These results were confirmed by particle-in-cell simulation.

  10. The Milky Way Project: Leveraging Citizen Science and Machine Learning to Detect Interstellar Bubbles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beaumont, Christopher; Williams, Jonathan; Kendrew, Sarah; Simpson, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We present Brut, an algorithm to identify bubbles in infrared images of the Galactic midplane. Brut is based on the Random Forest algorithm, and uses bubbles identified by >35,000 citizen scientists from the Milky Way Project to discover the identifying characteristics of bubbles in images from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We demonstrate that Brut's ability to identify bubbles is comparable to expert astronomers. We use Brut to re-assess the bubbles in the Milky Way Project catalog, and find that 10-30% of the objects in this catalog are non-bubble interlopers. Relative to these interlopers, high-reliability bubbles are more confined to the mid plane, and display a stronger excess of Young Stellar Objects along and within bubble rims. Furthermore, Brut is able to discover bubbles missed by previous searches -- particularly bubbles near bright sources which have low contrast relative to their surroundings. Brut demonstrates the synergies that exist between citizen scientists, professional scientists, and machi...

  11. Knowledge, Information and Data (KID) Track Track Description

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , classification, clustering, database management, data mining, digital libraries, electronic publishing, expert, XML, WWW, Web 2.0. Related areas include bioinformatics, library and information scienceKnowledge, Information and Data (KID) Track Track Description: This track focuses on the broad

  12. Biomechanics Track Curriculum Map

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Tonghun

    Biomechanics Track Curriculum Map C MATH 221 (4) Calculus I RHET 105 (4) Principles of Composition) Bioenergetics BIOE 301 (3) Biomechanics BIOE 310 (3) Comp Tools for Bio Data BIOE 303 (2) Quant Human Physiology not graduating on time due to pre-reqs. Biomechanics Track Electives: (Fall) (Spring) (Both Semesters) · BIOE 461

  13. Environmental Public Health Tracking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Environmental Public Health Tracking Network VISION Version 1.0 10/20/2004 This document has been for Disease Control and Prevention ­ Department of Health and Human Services #12;Environmental Public Health the features that will be proposed to stakeholders to support environmental public health tracking nationwide

  14. Large scale tracking algorithms.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, Ross L.; Love, Joshua Alan; Melgaard, David Kennett; Karelitz, David B.; Pitts, Todd Alan; Zollweg, Joshua David; Anderson, Dylan Z.; Nandy, Prabal; Whitlow, Gary L.; Bender, Daniel A.; Byrne, Raymond Harry

    2015-01-01

    Low signal-to-noise data processing algorithms for improved detection, tracking, discrimination and situational threat assessment are a key research challenge. As sensor technologies progress, the number of pixels will increase signi cantly. This will result in increased resolution, which could improve object discrimination, but unfortunately, will also result in a significant increase in the number of potential targets to track. Many tracking techniques, like multi-hypothesis trackers, suffer from a combinatorial explosion as the number of potential targets increase. As the resolution increases, the phenomenology applied towards detection algorithms also changes. For low resolution sensors, "blob" tracking is the norm. For higher resolution data, additional information may be employed in the detection and classfication steps. The most challenging scenarios are those where the targets cannot be fully resolved, yet must be tracked and distinguished for neighboring closely spaced objects. Tracking vehicles in an urban environment is an example of such a challenging scenario. This report evaluates several potential tracking algorithms for large-scale tracking in an urban environment.

  15. Wireless System Tracks Esophageal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    Wireless System Tracks Esophageal Reflux WEDNESDAY, June 20 (HealthDay News) -- A wireless and transmits that information to a wireless sensor worn around the patient's neck. Details about this system HealthDay · Wireless System Tracks Esophageal Reflux · Experts Debate Limits on Implanted Defibrillator

  16. The Fermi Bubbles as Starburst Wind Termination Shocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lacki, Brian C

    2013-01-01

    The enhanced star formation in the inner 100 pc of the Galaxy launches a superwind, reaching ~1600 km/s for M82-like parameters. The ram pressure of the wind is very low compared to more powerful starburst winds. I show that halo gas stops the wind a few kpc from the Galactic Center. I argue that the termination shock accelerates cosmic rays, and that the resulting Inverse Compton gamma-rays are visible as the Fermi Bubbles. The Bubbles are thus wind bubbles, which the starburst can inflate within 10 Myr. They remain in steady state as long as the starburst lasts. The shock may accelerate PeV electrons and ultra-high energy protons. The Bubbles may be analogs of galactic wind termination shocks in the intergalactic medium. I discuss the advantages and problems of this model.

  17. Steam bubble collapse, water hammer and piping network response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gruel, R.

    Work on steam bubble collapse, water hammer and piping network response was carried out in two closely related but distinct sections. Volume I of ,,is report details the experiments and analyses carried out in conjunction ...

  18. The transition from two phase bubble flow to slug flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radovcich, Nick A.

    1962-01-01

    The process of transition from bubble to slug flow in a vertical pipe has been studied analytically and experimentally. An equation is presented which gives the agglomeration time as a function of void fraction, channel ...

  19. The incorporation of bubbles into a computer graphics fluid simulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenwood, Shannon Thomas

    2005-08-29

    level set representation of the fluid surface. We create bubbles from escaped marker particles from the outside to the inside. These marker particles might represent air that has been trapped within the fluid surface. Further, we detect when air...

  20. Recent Advances in Chamber Science and Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    Recent Advances in Chamber Science and Technology Mohamed Abdou April 8, 2002ISFNT-6 San Diego, USA;HYLIFE-II ALPS/APEX NSTX Li module Liquid Wall Science & Technology are being Advanced in Several MFE with Swirl Flow - Fast liquid adheres to back wall by centrifugal force - Applicable to LM's or molten salts

  1. Miniature reaction chamber and devices incorporating same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathies, Richard A. (Moraga, CA); Woolley, Adam T. (Albany, CA)

    2000-10-17

    The present invention generally relates to miniaturized devices for carrying out and controlling chemical reactions and analyses. In particular, the present invention provides devices which have miniature temperature controlled reaction chambers for carrying out a variety of synthetic and diagnostic applications, such as PCR amplification, nucleic acid hybridization, chemical labeling, nucleic acid fragmentation and the like.

  2. Mini-PROTEAN Multi-Casting Chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raizada, Manish N.

    Mini-PROTEAN® 3 Multi-Casting Chamber Instruction Manual Catalog Number 165-4110 For Technical components should be cleaned with a suitable laboratory detergent (Bio-Rad's Cleaning Concentrate, catalog number 161-0772), rinsed thoroughly with distilled water, and dried before use. Section 2 Loading

  3. Numerical Simulation of 3D Bubbles Rising in Viscous Liquids using a Front Tracking Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Ping

    Hua a , Jan F. Stene b and Ping Lin b a Institute of High Performance Computing, 1 Science Park Road of High Performance Computing 1 Science Park Road, #01-01 The Capricorn Singapore 117528 Email address. Stene b and Ping Lin b a Institute of High Performance Computing, 1 Science Park Road, #01

  4. Single Bubble in Laminar and Turbulent Shear Flows Using Interface Tracking

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation ofAlbuquerque|Sensitive Species3 Outlook forSimulations Yield Clues

  5. Atomic-scale Mechanisms of Helium Bubble hardening in Iron

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Osetskiy, Yury N.; Stoller, Roger E.

    2015-06-03

    Generation of helium due to (n, ) transmutation reactions changes the response of structural materials to neutron irradiation. The whole process of radiation damage evolution is affected by He accumulation and leads to significant changes in the material s properties. A population of nanometric He-filled bubbles affects mechanical properties and the impact can be quite significant because of their high density. Understanding how these basic mechanisms affect mechanical properties is necessary for predicting radiation effects. In this paper we present an extensive study of the interactions between a moving edge dislocation and bubbles using atomic-scale modeling. We focus on themore »effect of He bubble size and He concentration inside bubbles. We found that ability of bubbles to act as an obstacle to dislocation motion is close to that of voids when the He-to-vacancy ratio is in the range from 0 to 1. A few simulations made at higher He contents demonstrated that the interaction mechanism is changed for over-pressurized bubbles and they become weaker obstacles. The results are discussed in light of post-irradiation materials testing.« less

  6. Bubble formation in water with addition of a hydrophobic solute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryuichi Okamoto; Akira Onuki

    2015-05-29

    We show that phase separation can occur in a one-component liquid outside its coexistence curve (CX) with addition of a small amount of a solute. The solute concentration at the transition decreases with increasing the difference of the solvation chemical potential between liquid and gas. As a typical bubble-forming solute, we consider ${\\rm O}_2$ in ambient liquid water, which exhibits mild hydrophobicity and its critical temperature is lower than that of water. Such a solute can be expelled from the liquid to form gaseous domains while the surrounding liquid pressure is higher than the saturated vapor pressure $p_{cx}$. This solute-induced bubble formation is a first-order transition in bulk and on a partially dried wall, while a gas film grows continuously on a completely dried wall. We set up a bubble free energy $\\Delta G$ for bulk and surface bubbles with a small volume fraction $\\phi$. It becomes a function of the bubble radius $R$ under the Laplace pressure balance. Then, for sufficiently large solute densities above a threshold, $\\Delta G$ exhibits a local maximum at a critical radius and a minimum at an equilibrium radius. We also examine solute-induced nucleation taking place outside CX, where bubbles larger than the critical radius grow until attainment of equilibrium.

  7. Bubble size and gas-liquid interfacial area measurements using molten paraffin waxes in bubble columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bukur, D.B.; Patel, S.A.; Daly, J.G.; Raphael, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in 0.05 m ID and 0.23 m ID by 3 m tall bubble columns with different types of molten waxes as the liquid medium and nitrogen as the gas, under processing conditions typical or Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over iron catalysts (i.e. gas velocities up to 0.15 m s, and temperatures between 200 and 270/sup 0/C) to estimate gas liquid interfacial area from measured values of average gas hold-up and Sauter mean bubble diameter. The gas hold-up was estimated from visual observations of the expanded and static liquid heights, and the Sauter was estimated from bubble size measurements obtained by photography and dynamic gas disengagement. The paraffin wax (FT-300) used in the authors' studies is non-coalescing and has a tendency to foam. The amount of foam is greater for runs conducted in the order of increasing gas velocities, than in runs with decreasing velocities. Thus, two values of hold-up are possible and the start-up procedure determines which one will be attained. At higher gas velocities (> 0.05 m/s) the foam disappears and a transition to the slug flow, churn-turbulent regime takes place. Reactor waxes are coalescing in nature and do not produce foam. Despite similar hold-ups for the different waxes at higher gas velocities, the Sauters are significantly different and this is reflected in the specific gas-liquid interfacial areas, with larger values obtained with the paraffin wax compared to values with reactor waxes.

  8. GPU COMPUTING FOR PARTICLE TRACKING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nishimura, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    TRACKING * Hiroshi Nishimura ', Kai Song, Krishna Muriki, Changchun Sun,TRACKING Hiroshi Nishimura, K a i Song, Krishna Muriki, Changchun Sun,

  9. Investigations of protons passing through the CR-39/PM-355 type of solid state nuclear track detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malinowska, A.; Szyd?owski, A.; Jaskó?a, M.; Korman, A.; Kuk, M.; Sartowska, B.; Kuehn, T.

    2013-07-15

    Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors of the CR-39/PM-355 type were irradiated with protons with energies in the range from 0.2 to 8.5 MeV. Their intensities and energies were controlled by a Si surface barrier detector located in an accelerator scattering chamber. The ranges of protons with energies of 6–7 MeV were comparable to the thickness of the PM-355 track detectors. Latent tracks in the polymeric detectors were chemically etched under standard conditions to develop the tracks. Standard optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used for surface morphology characterization.

  10. The vacuum bubbles in de Sitter background and black hole pair creation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bum-Hoon Lee; Wonwoo Lee

    2009-10-07

    We study the possible types of the nucleation of vacuum bubbles. We classify vacuum bubbles in de Sitter background and present some numerical solutions. The thin-wall approximation is employed to obtain the nucleation rate and the radius of vacuum bubbles. With careful analysis we confirm that Parke's formula is also applicable to the large true vacuum bubbles. The nucleation of the false vacuum bubble in de Sitter background is also evaluated. The tunneling process in the potential with degenerate vacua is analyzed as the limiting cases of the large true vacuum bubble and false vacuum bubble. Next, we consider the pair creation of black holes in the background of bubble solutions. We obtain static bubble wall solutions of junction equation with black hole pair. The masses of created black holes are uniquely determined by the cosmological constant and surface tension on the wall. Finally, we obtain the rate of pair creation of black holes.

  11. The experimental feature on the data of the primary proton identification in stratospheric X-ray emulsion chambers at energies >10 TeV (RUNJOB experiment)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. S. Zayarnaya

    2006-10-02

    The RUNJOB balloon-born emulsion chamber experiments have been carried out for investigating the composition and energy spectra of primary cosmic rays at energies 10-1000 TeV/nucleon. On the data of the treatment of RUNJOB` X-ray emulsion chambers exposed since 1995 to 1999 year about 50 % proton tracks were identified. In remained half of the events from proton group the one charged primary tracks were not found in the search area determined with high accuracy by the triangulation method using the several background heavy tracks. Considered methodical reasons in this paper could not explain this experimental result. The one from the probable physical reasons that is the neutrons in cosmic ray flux does not explain it too.

  12. On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Leaching Chambers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2000-02-04

    Leaching chambers distribute treated wastewater into the soil. This publication lists the advantages and disadvantages of leaching chamber systems, explains how to maintain them and gives estimates of costs....

  13. Development of the Captive Aerosol Growth and Evolution Chamber System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonietti, Carlos G

    2014-08-28

    . The reactor cylinder end walls are made of a permeable Teflon membrane for gas exchange between the inside of the chamber and pre- conditioned or filtered ambient gas. This continuous gas exchange permits dynamic control of the chamber composition without...

  14. Energy Tracking Software Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan Davis; Nathan Bird; Rebecca Birx; Hal Knowles

    2011-04-04

    Acceleration has created an interactive energy tracking and visualization platform that supports decreasing electric, water, and gas usage. Homeowners have access to tools that allow them to gauge their use and track progress toward a smaller energy footprint. Real estate agents have access to consumption data, allowing for sharing a comparison with potential home buyers. Home builders have the opportunity to compare their neighborhood's energy efficiency with competitors. Home energy raters have a tool for gauging the progress of their clients after efficiency changes. And, social groups are able to help encourage members to reduce their energy bills and help their environment. EnergyIT.com is the business umbrella for all energy tracking solutions and is designed to provide information about our energy tracking software and promote sales. CompareAndConserve.com (Gainesville-Green.com) helps homeowners conserve energy through education and competition. ToolsForTenants.com helps renters factor energy usage into their housing decisions.

  15. Gas Injection Apparatus for Vacuum Chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Almabouada, F.; Louhibi, D.; Hamici, M.

    2011-12-26

    We present in this article a gas injection apparatus which comprises the gas injector and its electronic command for vacuum chamber applications. Some of these applications are thin-film deposition by a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) or a cathodic arc deposition (arc-PVD) and the plasma generation. The electronic part has been developed to adjust the flow of the gas inside the vacuum chamber by controlling both of the injector's opening time and the repetition frequency to allow a better gas flow. In this case, the system works either on a pulsed mode or a continuous mode for some applications. In addition, the repetition frequency can be synchronised with a pulsed laser by an external signal coming from the laser, which is considered as an advantage for users. Good results have been obtained using the apparatus and testing with Argon and Nitrogen gases.

  16. Engineering analyses of large precision cathode strip chambers for GEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horvath, J.A.; Belser, F.C.; Pratuch, S.M.; Wuest, C.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Mitselmakher, G. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States)] [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States); Gordeev, A. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Johnson, C.V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States); Polychronakos, V.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Golutvin, I.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)] [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    1993-10-21

    Structural analyses of large precision cathode strip chambers performed up to the date of this publication are documented. Mechanical property data for typical chamber materials are included. This information, originally intended to be an appendix to the {open_quotes}CSC Structural Design Bible,{close_quotes} is presented as a guide for future designers of large chambers.

  17. Track 10: Feedback and Improvement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ISM Workshop Presentations Knoxville Convention Center, Knoxville, TN August 2009 Track 10: Feedback and Improvement

  18. Gas Bubbles Emerging from a Submerged Granular Bed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meier, John A; Brennen, Christopher E

    2009-01-01

    This fluid dynamics video was submitted to the Gallery of Fluid Motion for the 2009 APS Division of Fluid Dynamics Meeting in Minneapolis, Minnesota. In this video we show some results from a simple experiment where air was injected by a single nozzle at known constant flow rates in the bottom of a granular bed submerged in water. The injected air propagates through the granular bed in one of two modes. Mode 1 emergence involves small discrete bubbles taking tortuous paths through the interstitial space of the bed. Multiple small bubbles can be emitted from the bed in an array of locations at the same time during Mode 1 emergence. Mode 2 emergence involves large discrete bubbles locally fluidizing the granular bed and exiting the bed approximately above the injection site. Bead diameter, bead density, and air flow rate were varied to investigate the change in bubble release behavior at the top of the granular bed. This system is a useful model for methane seeps in lakes. Methane bubbles are released from the ...

  19. Tracking Hemicellulose and Lignin Deconstruction During Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKenzie, Heather Lorelei

    2012-01-01

    surfaces and heat transfer in bubbling fluidized beds- II.of heat transfer in bubbling fluidized beds. Chem. Eng. Sci.coefficient in bubbling fluidized bed with fast response

  20. BUBBLY: A method for detecting and characterizing interstellar bubbles using Fabry-Perot spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camps-Fariña, Artemi; Beckman, John E; Font, Joan; García-Lorenzo, Begoña; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Amram, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    We present a new method for the detection and characterization of expansion in galaxy discs based on H{\\alpha} Fabry-Perot spectroscopy, taking advantage of the high spatial and velocity resolution of our instrument (GH{\\alpha}FaS). The method analyses multi-peaked emission line profiles to find expansion along the line of sight on a point-by-point basis. At this stage we have centred our attention on the large scale structures of expanding gas associated with HII regions which show a characteristic pattern of expansion velocities, of order 100 km/s, as a result of both bubble shape and projection effects. We show an example of the expansion map obtained with our method from a superbubble detected in the Antennae galaxies. We use the information obtained from the method to measure the relevant physical parameters of the superbubbles, including their ages which can be used to date young star clusters.

  1. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernard A. Toseland, Ph.D.

    1999-03-01

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors. The past three months of research have been focused on two major areas of bubble column hydrodynamics: (1) pressure and temperature effects on gas holdup and (2) region transition using a sparger as a gas distributor.

  2. Impact of flow regime on slurry bubble column mixing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, M.; Hsu, E.C.; Coulaloglou, C.A. [Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Florham Park, NJ (United States)

    1993-12-31

    In slurry bubble column reactors, gas and slurry backmixing play an important role in the performance of the reactor. The majority of backmixing correlations in the literature were based on data obtained in small scale units operating at ambient conditions with air/water and in the churn turbulent flow regime. These data show that slurry dispersion coefficients increase at least linearly with vessel diameter. Mixing data obtained at process conditions and in large mockup units with non-aqueous systems operating in the small bubble flow regime showed that slurry mixing is lower than predicted by literature correlations. Furthermore, the effect of vessel diameter on slurry mixing is significantly smaller than literature predictions based on the churn turbulent regime. These results are in line with recently reported literature data obtained in bubbly flow regime. This paper will review available data pertinent to this subject.

  3. Vacuum chamber with a supersonic flow aerodynamic window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanson, Clark L. (Livermore, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A supersonic flow aerodynamic window, whereby a steam ejector situated in a primary chamber at vacuum exhausts superheated steam toward an orifice to a region of higher pressure, creating a barrier to the gas in the region of higher pressure which attempts to enter through the orifice. In a mixing chamber outside and in fluid communication with the primary chamber, superheated steam and gas are combined into a mixture which then enters the primary chamber through the orifice. At the point of impact of the ejector/superheated steam and the incoming gas/superheated steam mixture, a barrier is created to the gas attempting to enter the ejector chamber. This barrier, coupled with suitable vacuum pumping means and cooling means, serves to keep the steam ejector and primary chamber at a negative pressure, even though the primary chamber has an orifice to a region of higher pressure.

  4. Vacuum chamber with a supersonic-flow aerodynamic window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanson, C.L.

    1980-10-14

    A supersonic flow aerodynamic window is disclosed whereby a steam ejector situated in a primary chamber at vacuum exhausts superheated steam toward an orifice to a region of higher pressure, creating a barrier to the gas in the region of higher pressure which attempts to enter through the orifice. In a mixing chamber outside and in fluid communication with the primary chamber, superheated steam and gas are combined into a mixture which then enters the primary chamber through the orifice. At the point of impact of the ejector/superheated steam and the incoming gas/superheated steam mixture, a barrier is created to the gas attempting to enter the ejector chamber. This barrier, coupled with suitable vacuum pumping means and cooling means, serves to keep the steam ejector and primary chamber at a negative pressure, even though the primary chamber has an orifice to a region of higher pressure.

  5. Design and Construction of Large Size Micromegas Chambers for the Upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philipp Lösel; Ralph Müller

    2015-08-11

    Large area Micromegas detectors will be employed for the first time in high-energy physics experiments. A total surface of about $\\mathbf{150~m^2}$ of the forward regions of the Muon Spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at LHC will be equipped with 8-layer Micromegas modules. Each layer covers more than $\\mathbf{2~m^2}$ for a total active area of $\\mathbf{1200~m^2}$. Together with the small strip Thin Gap Chambers they will compose the two New Small Wheels, which will replace the innermost stations of the ATLAS endcap muon tracking system in the 2018/19 shutdown. In order to achieve a 15$\\mathbf{\\%}$ transverse momentum resolution for $\\mathbf{1~TeV}$ muons, in addition to an excellent intrinsic resolution, the mechanical precision of each plane of the assembled module must be as good as $\\mathbf{30~\\mu m}$ along the precision coordinate and $\\mathbf{80~\\mu m}$ perpendicular to the chamber. The design and construction procedure of the Micromegas modules will be presented, as well as the design for the assembly of modules onto the New Small Wheel. Emphasis will be on the methods developed to achieve the challenging mechanical precision. Measurements and simulations of deformations created on chamber prototypes as a function of thermal gradients, internal stress (mesh tension and module fixation on supports) and gas over-pressure were essential in the development of the final design. During installation and operation all deformations and relative misalignments will be monitored by an optical alignment system and compensated in the tracking software.

  6. Heat and mass transfer in bubble column dehumidifiers for HDH desalination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tow, Emily W

    2014-01-01

    Heat and mass transfer processes governing the performance of bubble dehumidifier trays are studied in order to develop a predictive model and design rules for efficient and economical design of bubble column dehumidifiers ...

  7. Measurements of Heat Transfer Coefficients to Cylinders in Shallow Bubble Columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tow, Emily W.

    High heat transfer coefficients and large interfacial areas make bubble columns ideal for dehumidification. However, the effect of geometry on the heat transfer coefficients outside cooling coils in shallow bubble columns, ...

  8. An overview of potential financial bubbles in the US financial markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadalla, Marco Antonio V. (Marco Antonio Vieira)

    2013-01-01

    Financial bubbles have presented a challenge for the financial markets for a long time and caused steep losses for many investors. This thesis has two main goals relating to financial bubbles. The first is to try to determine ...

  9. Steam bubble collapse induced water hammer in draining pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, P.; Silva, R.J.

    1991-08-01

    When hot steam replaces cold condensate in a horizontal or almost horizontal pipe, a steam bubble collapse induced water hammer often results. The effect of condensate drainage velocity and pipe declination on the incidence of steam bubble collapse induced water hammer is investigated experimentally. Declining the pipe more than 2.4{degrees} allows drainage velocities up to 3 ft/sec (1m/s) in a two inch (5 cm) pipe without water hammer. A semi-empirical theory allows extrapolation to other pressures, pipe sizes and inclinations. 4 refs.

  10. Vacuum chamber for containing particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harvey, A.

    1985-11-26

    A vacuum chamber for containing a charged particle beam in a rapidly changing magnetic environment comprises a ceramic pipe with conducting strips oriented along the longitudinal axis of the pipe and with circumferential conducting bands oriented perpendicular to the longitudinal axis but joined with a single longitudinal electrical connection. When both strips and bands are on the outside of the ceramic pipe, insulated from each other, a high-resistance conductive layer such as nickel can be coated on the inside of the pipe.

  11. Sandia National Laboratories: Mode Stirred Chamber

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust, High-ThroughputUpcoming Release of thePrograms:Mode Stirred Chamber The Mode Stirred

  12. How important are shock waves to single-bubble sonoluminescence? H. Y. Cheng,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, Li

    at the center of the bubble could be high enough to ignite thermonuclear fusion 3 . Previous calculations based

  13. Color-based tracking of plasma dust particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villamayor, Michelle Marie S. Soriano, Maricor N.; Ramos, Henry J.; Kato, Shuichi; Wada, Motoi

    2014-02-15

    Color-based tracking to observe agglomeration of deposited particles inside a compact planar magnetron during plasma discharge was done by creating high dynamic range (HDR) images of photos captured by a Pentax K10D digital camera. Carbon erosion and redeposition was also monitored using the technique. The HDR images were subjected to a chromaticity-based constraint discoloration inside the plasma chamber indicating film formation or carbon redeposition. Results show that dust deposition occurs first near the evacuation pumps due to the pressure gradient and then accumulates at the positively charged walls of the chamber. This method can be applied to monitor dust formation during dusty plasma experiments without major modification of plasma devices, useful especially for large fusion reactors.

  14. AC electroosmotic pump with bubble-free palladium electrodes and rectifying polymer membrane valves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AC electroosmotic pump with bubble-free palladium electrodes and rectifying polymer membrane valves valve system. Individual valves are based on a flexible membrane with a slit. Bubble-free palladium As a second novelty, we suppress the generation of bubbles by employing palladium electrodes that can store

  15. Emergent Behavior in a Low-Order Fluidized-Bed Bubble Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennessee, University of

    Emergent Behavior in a Low-Order Fluidized-Bed Bubble Model John S. Halow National Energy of this type of model to describe the dynamics of voids in bubbling fluidized beds. The model considers vertical interactions between neighboring bubbles in fluidized beds. Emergent collective behavior is shown

  16. Characterizing the Hydrodynamics of Bubbling Fluidized Beds with Multivariate Pressure Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennessee, University of

    Characterizing the Hydrodynamics of Bubbling Fluidized Beds with Multivariate Pressure Measurements mounted on the walls of a bubbling fluidized bed. Our objective was to identify multivariate dynamic of bubbling fluidized beds with multivariate pressure measurements. 2000 AIChE Annual Meeting (Los Angeles

  17. How Bubbly Mixtures Foam and Foam Control Using a Fluidized Bed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, Daniel D.

    How Bubbly Mixtures Foam and Foam Control Using a Fluidized Bed by Jos e Guiti anz Daniel Joseph to the top because it has a higher gas fraction than the bubbly mixture from which it comes. The high gas slit bubble reactor which when used with aqueous anionic surfactants gives rise to foam. This reactor

  18. MODELING SPACE-TIME DEPENDENT HELIUM BUBBLE EVOLUTION IN TUNGSTEN ARMOR UNDER IFE CONDITIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    dependent Helium transport in finite geometries, including the simultaneous transient production of defects of Helium bubbles. I. INTRODUCTION Helium production and helium bubble evolution in neutronMODELING SPACE-TIME DEPENDENT HELIUM BUBBLE EVOLUTION IN TUNGSTEN ARMOR UNDER IFE CONDITIONS Qiyang

  19. Mechanism of mass transfer between a bubble initially composed of oxygen and molten glass1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Mechanism of mass transfer between a bubble initially composed of oxygen and molten glass1 F ­ BP 135, 93303 Aubervilliers Cedex, France Abstract The bubble removal from molten glass is an important problem in glass melting process. In this paper, the mass transfer undergone by a bubble rising

  20. Controlling bubble motion over heated surface through evaporation momentum force to enhance pool boiling heat transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    Controlling bubble motion over heated surface through evaporation momentum force to enhance pool://apl.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;Controlling bubble motion over heated surface through evaporation momentum force to enhance pool on the basis of this hypothesis to control the bubble trajectory for (i) enhancing the heat transfer

  1. May 31-June 1, 2001 A. R. Raffray, et al., Assessment of Dry Chamber Walls as Preliminary Step in Defining Key Processes for Chamber Clearing Code 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffray, A. René

    in Defining Key Processes for Chamber Clearing Code 3 Outline of Presentation · Chamber Wall Options ­ Thermal in Defining Key Processes for Chamber Clearing Code 7 Temporal Distribution of Energy Depositions from Photons in Defining Key Processes for Chamber Clearing Code 1 Assessment of Dry Chamber Wall Configurations

  2. Solar tracking device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyland, R.R.

    1981-01-20

    A solar tracking device having a plurality of reflector banks for reflecting the sun rays onto collector tubes and heating a fluid circulated therethrough. The reflector banks synchronized to follow the sun during the daily and yearly cycle of the earth as the earth orbits around the sun. The device by accurately following the sun provides a more efficient means of collecting solar energy.

  3. Probing the Local Bubble with Diffuse Interstellar Bands (DIBs)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Loon, Jacco Th; Javadi, Atefeh; Bailey, Mandy; Khosroshahi, Habib

    2015-01-01

    The Sun lies in the middle of an enormous cavity of a million degree gas, known as the Local Bubble. The Local Bubble is surrounded by a wall of denser neutral and ionized gas. The Local Bubble extends around 100 pc in the plane of Galaxy and hundreds of parsecs vertically, but absorption-line surveys of neutral sodium and singly-ionized calcium have revealed a highly irregular structure and the presence of neutral clouds within an otherwise tenuous and hot gas. We have undertaken an all-sky, European-Iranian survey of the Local Bubble in the absorption of a number of diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) to offer a novel view of our neighbourhood. Our dedicated campaigns with ESO's New Technology Telescope and the ING's Isaac Newton Telescope comprise high signal-to-noise, medium-resolution spectra, concentrating on the 5780 and 5797 \\AA\\ bands which trace ionized/irradiated and neutral/shielded environments, respectively; their carriers are unknown but likely to be large carbonaceous molecules. With about 660 s...

  4. Visualization and simulation of bubble growth in pore networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xuehai; Yortsos, Y.C.

    1994-03-01

    Bubble nucleation and bubble growth in porous media is an important problem encountered in processes, such as pressure depletion and boiling. To understand its basic aspects, experiments and numerical simulations in micromodel geometries were undertaken. Experiments of bubble growth by pressure depletion were carried out in 2-D etched-glass micromodels and in Hele-Shaw cells. Nucleation of bubbles and the subsequent growth of gas clusters were visualized. Contrary to the bulk or to Hele-Shaw cells, gas clusters in the micromodel have irregular and ramified shapes and share many of the features of an external invasion process (e.g. of percolation during drainage). A pore network numerical model was developed to simulate the growth of multiple gas clusters under various conditions. The model is based on the solution of the convection-diffusions equation and also accounts for capillary and viscous forces, which play an important role in determining the growth patterns. Numerical simulation resulted in good agreement with the experimental results.

  5. IDENTIFYING THE RADIO BUBBLE NATURE OF THE MICROWAVE HAZE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobler, Gregory, E-mail: dobler@kitp.ucsb.edu [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara Kohn Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2012-11-20

    Using seven-year data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, I identify a sharp 'edge' in the microwave haze at high southern Galactic latitude (-55 Degree-Sign < b < -35 Degree-Sign ) that is spatially coincident with the southern edge of the 'Fermi haze/bubbles'. This finding proves conclusively that the edge in the gamma rays is real (and not a processing artifact), demonstrates explicitly that the microwave haze and the gamma-ray bubbles are indeed the same structure observed at multiple wavelengths, and strongly supports the interpretation of the microwave haze as a separate component of Galactic synchrotron (likely generated by a transient event) as opposed to a simple variation of the spectral index of disk synchrotron. In addition, combining these data sets allows for the first determination of the magnetic field within a radio bubble using microwaves and gamma rays by taking advantage of the fact that the inverse Compton gamma rays are primarily generated by scattering of cosmic microwave background photons at these latitudes, thus minimizing uncertainty in the target radiation field. Assuming uniform volume emissivity, I find that the magnetic field within the southern Galactic microwave/gamma-ray bubble is {approx}5 {mu}G above 6 kpc off of the Galactic plane.

  6. 1. Introduction Slag foaming consists of introducing gas bubbles into

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    that slag foaming could be more beneficial in steel production. Indeed, it provides a shield bubbled into molten CaO­SiO2­FeO­MgO­Al2O3 slags of various compositions contained in cylindrical tanks

  7. The oil price really is a speculative bubble

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eckaus, Richard S.

    2008-01-01

    The oil price really is a speculative bubble. Yet only recently has the U.S. Congress, for example, showed recognition that this might even be a possibility. In general there seems to be a preference for the claim that the ...

  8. Integrating S6 Code Search and Code Bubbles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiss, Steven P.

    the results of the search. Index Terms--Code search, integrated development envi- ronments, test-based searchIntegrating S6 Code Search and Code Bubbles Steven P. Reiss Department of Computer Science Brown search over open source repositories as part of the Code Bub- bles integrated development environment

  9. Slow closure of denaturation bubbles in DNA: twist matters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anil Kumar Dasanna; Nicolas Destainville; John Palmeri; Manoel Manghi

    2013-04-24

    The closure of long equilibrated denaturation bubbles in DNA is studied using Brownian dynamics simulations. A minimal mesoscopic model is used where the double-helix is made of two interacting bead-spring freely rotating strands, with a non-zero torsional modulus in the duplex state, $\\kappa_\\phi=$200 to 300 kT. For DNAs of lengths N=40 to 100 base-pairs (bps) with a large initial bubble in their middle, long closure times of 0.1 to 100 microseconds are found. The bubble starts winding from both ends until it reaches a 10 bp metastable state. The final closure is limited by three competing mechanisms depending on $\\kappa_\\phi$ and N: arms diffusion until their alignment, bubble diffusion along the DNA until one end is reached, or local Kramers process (crossing over a torsional energy barrier). For clamped ends or long DNAs, the closure occurs via this latter temperature activated mechanism, yielding for the first time a good quantitative agreement with experiments.

  10. A steerable UV laser system for the calibration of liquid argon time projection chambers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Ereditato; I. Kreslo; M. Lüthi; C. Rudolf von Rohr; M. Schenk; T. Strauss; M. Weber; M. Zeller

    2014-10-04

    A number of liquid argon time projection chambers (LAr TPC's) are being build or are proposed for neutrino experiments on long- and short baseline beams. For these detectors a distortion in the drift field due to geometrical or physics reasons can affect the reconstruction of the events. Depending on the TPC geometry and electric drift field intensity this distortion could be of the same magnitude as the drift field itself. Recently, we presented a method to calibrate the drift field and correct for these possible distortions. While straight cosmic ray muon tracks could be used for calibration, multiple coulomb scattering and momentum uncertainties allow only a limited resolution. A UV laser instead can create straight ionization tracks in liquid argon, and allows one to map the drift field along different paths in the TPC inner volume. Here we present a UV laser feed-through design with a steerable UV mirror immersed in liquid argon that can point the laser beam at many locations through the TPC. The straight ionization paths are sensitive to drift field distortions, a fit of these distortion to the linear optical path allows to extract the drift field, by using these laser tracks along the whole TPC volume one can obtain a 3D drift field map. The UV laser feed-through assembly is a prototype of the system that will be used for the MicroBooNE experiment at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL).

  11. Microscopic Characterization of Individual Submicron Bubbles during the Layer-by-Layer Deposition: Towards Creating Smart Agents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riku Kato; Hiroshi Frusawa

    2015-07-11

    We investigated the individual properties of various polyion-coated bubbles with a mean diameter ranging from 300 to 500 nm. Dark field microscopy allows one to track the individual particles of the submicron bubbles (SBs) encapsulated by the layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition of cationic and anionic polyelectrolytes (PEs). Our focus is on the two-step charge reversals of PE-SB complexes: the first is a reversal from negatively charged bare SBs with no PEs added to positive SBs encapsulated by polycations (monolayer deposition), and the second is overcharging into negatively charged PE-SB complexes due to the subsequent addition of polyanions (double-layer deposition). The details of these phenomena have been clarified through the analysis of a number of trajectories of various PE-SB complexes that experience either Brownian motion or electrophoresis. The contrasted results obtained from the analysis were as follows: an amount in excess of the stoichiometric ratio of the cationic polymers was required for the first charge-reversal, whereas the stoichiometric addition of the polyanions lead to the electrical neutralization of the PE-SB complex particles. The recovery of the stoichiometry in the double-layer deposition paves the way for fabricating multi-layered SBs encapsulated solely with anionic and cationic PEs, which provides a simple protocol to create smart agents for either drug delivery or ultrasound contrast imaging.

  12. Incorporation of Reaction Kinetics into a Multiphase, Hydrodynamic Model of a Fischer Tropsch Slurry Bubble Column Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna Guillen, PhD; Anastasia Gribik; Daniel Ginosar, PhD; Steven P. Antal, PhD

    2008-11-01

    This paper describes the development of a computational multiphase fluid dynamics (CMFD) model of the Fischer Tropsch (FT) process in a Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR). The CMFD model is fundamentally based which allows it to be applied to different industrial processes and reactor geometries. The NPHASE CMFD solver [1] is used as the robust computational platform. Results from the CMFD model include gas distribution, species concentration profiles, and local temperatures within the SBCR. This type of model can provide valuable information for process design, operations and troubleshooting of FT plants. An ensemble-averaged, turbulent, multi-fluid solution algorithm for the multiphase, reacting flow with heat transfer was employed. Mechanistic models applicable to churn turbulent flow have been developed to provide a fundamentally based closure set for the equations. In this four-field model formulation, two of the fields are used to track the gas phase (i.e., small spherical and large slug/cap bubbles), and the other two fields are used for the liquid and catalyst particles. Reaction kinetics for a cobalt catalyst is based upon values reported in the published literature. An initial, reaction kinetics model has been developed and exercised to demonstrate viability of the overall solution scheme. The model will continue to be developed with improved physics added in stages.

  13. Mechanics of Bubbles in Sludges and Slurries Modeling Studies of Particulate Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillip A. Gauglitz; Guillermo Terrones; Susan J. Muller; Morton M. Denn; William R. Rossen

    2002-01-07

    The Hanford Site has 177 underground waste storage tanks that are known to retain and release bubbles composed of flammable gases. Characterizing and understanding the behavior of these bubbles is important for the safety issues associated with the flammable gases for both ongoing waste storage and future waste-retrieval operations. The retained bubbles are known to respond to small barometric pressure changes, though in a complex manner with unusual hysteresis occurring in some tanks in the relationship between bubble volume and pressure, or V-P hysteresis. With careful analysis, information on the volume of retained gas and the interactions of the waste and the bubbles can be determined.

  14. Video Tracking Using Acoustic Triangulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivanov, Alexander

    2012-05-03

    This study focuses on the detection and triangulation of sound sources. Specifically, we focus on the detection of sound in order to track a person’s position with a video camera. Acoustic tracking, an alternative to visual tracking, is relatively...

  15. VIDEO TRACKING USING ACOUSTIC TRIANGULATION 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raducanu, Alexandru

    2012-05-03

    This study focuses on the detection and triangulation of sound sources. Specifically, we focus on the detection of sound in order to track a person’s position with a video camera. Acoustic tracking, an alternative to visual tracking, is relatively...

  16. Cosmic bubble and domain wall instabilities III: The role of oscillons in three-dimensional bubble collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Richard Bond; Jonathan Braden; Laura Mersini-Houghton

    2015-06-09

    We study collisions between pairs of bubbles nucleated in an ambient false vacuum. For the first time, we include the effects of small initial (quantum) fluctuations around the instanton profiles describing the most likely initial bubble profile. Past studies of this problem neglect these fluctuations and work under the assumption that the collisions posess an exact SO(2,1) symmetry. We use three-dimensional lattice simulations to demonstrate that for double-well potentials, small initial perturbations to this symmetry can be amplified as the system evolves. Initially the amplification is well-described by linear perturbation theory around the SO(2,1) background, but the onset of strong nonlinearities amongst the fluctuations quickly leads to a drastic breaking of the original SO(2,1) symmetry and the production of oscillons in the collision region. We explore several single-field models, and we find it is hard to both realize inflation inside of a bubble and produce oscillons in a collision. Finally, we extend our results to a simple two-field model. The additional freedom allowed by the second field allows us to construct viable inflationary models that allow oscillon production in collisions. The breaking of the SO(2,1) symmetry allows for a new class of observational signatures from bubble collisions that do not posess azimuthal symmetry, including the production of gravitational waves which cannot be supported by an SO(2,1) spacetime.

  17. Dielectric liquid ionization chambers for detecting fast neutrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyd, Erin M

    2008-01-01

    Three ionization chambers with different geometries have been constructed and filled with dielectric liquids for detection of fast neutrons. The three dielectric liquids studied were Tetramethylsilane (TMS), Tetramethylpentane ...

  18. Automated micro-tracking planar solar concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hallas, Justin Matthew

    2011-01-01

    PV cell behind each lens tracking the sun with only lateralclimbing required for tracking the sun, and experimentalin a fixed frame tracking the sun with only micro-tracking.

  19. Quantum combustion chamber for the digital engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evers, L.W.; Baasch, V.

    1985-01-01

    For increasing fuel economy and reducing hydrocarbon emissions, a two-stoke-cycle, loop-scavenged single cylinder engine was modified by replacing the head with a head having three subchambers and incorporating a distributing pump fuel injection system. The fuel injection system allowed one subchamber to be operated at a time. The quantum combustion system demonstrated both lower fuel consumption and lower hydrocarbon emissions than a conventional homogeneous charge engine. The experimental evidence also indicates that the combustion essentially occurred in the one chamber into which fuel was injected. Establishing stratified charge combustion by mechanically separating the regions of air from the regions of air/fuel mixtures by means of subchambers is feasible.

  20. Study of electron trapping by a transversely ellipsoidal bubble in the laser wake-field acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Myung-Hoon; Kim, Young-Kuk; Hur, Min Sup

    2013-09-15

    We present electron trapping in an ellipsoidal bubble which is not well explained by the spherical bubble model by [Kostyukov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 175003 (2009)]. The formation of an ellipsoidal bubble, which is elongated transversely, frequently occurs when the spot size of the laser pulse is large compared to the plasma wavelength. First, we introduce the relation between the bubble size and the field slope inside the bubble in longitudinal and transverse directions. Then, we provide an ellipsoidal model of the bubble potential and investigate the electron trapping condition by numerical integration of the equations of motion. We found that the ellipsoidal model gives a significantly less restrictive trapping condition than that of the spherical bubble model. The trapping condition is compared with three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations and the electron trajectory in test potential simulations.

  1. EXPERIMENTAL BUBBLE FORMATION IN A LARGE SCALE SYSTEM FOR NEWTONIAN AND NONNEWTONIAN FLUIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leishear, R; Michael Restivo, M

    2008-06-26

    The complexities of bubble formation in liquids increase as the system size increases, and a photographic study is presented here to provide some insight into the dynamics of bubble formation for large systems. Air was injected at the bottom of a 28 feet tall by 30 inch diameter column. Different fluids were subjected to different air flow rates at different fluid depths. The fluids were water and non-Newtonian, Bingham plastic fluids, which have yield stresses requiring an applied force to initiate movement, or shearing, of the fluid. Tests showed that bubble formation was significantly different in the two types of fluids. In water, a field of bubbles was formed, which consisted of numerous, distributed, 1/4 to 3/8 inch diameter bubbles. In the Bingham fluid, large bubbles of 6 to 12 inches in diameter were formed, which depended on the air flow rate. This paper provides comprehensive photographic results related to bubble formation in these fluids.

  2. arXiv:submit/0673806[q-fin.TR]13Mar2013 Bubbles, Jumps, and Scaling from Properly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreiter, Andreas K.

    values [6]. Hence, bubbles and crashes do not disprove the EMH. Currently supported by the Volkswagen

  3. Bubble Density Dependent Functionals to Describe Deformation and Stress Equilibrium Evolution for In-Reactor Nuclear Fuel Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stout, Ray B.

    2008-07-01

    Future designs of nuclear fuels require an increased understanding of fission gas bubble density evolution. Derivations will be provided for a generic Boltzmann bubble density evolution equation, a bubble density deformation field equation, and a Cauchy stress/bubble-pressure equilibrium equation. (author)

  4. Mimac-He3, a Project for a Micro-TPC Matrix of Chambers of Helium 3 for Axial Direct Detection of Non-Baryonic Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Moulin; D. Santos

    2005-05-21

    MIMAC-He3 (MIcro-tpc MAtrix of Chambers of Helium 3) is a project for direct detection of non-baryonic dark matter search using He3 as sensitive medium. The priviledged properties of He3 are highlighted. The double detection : ionization and track projection, is explained and rejection evaluated. A phenomenological study in effective SUSY models has been to investigate the MIMAC-He3 complementarity with respect to existing Dark Matter detectors.

  5. Make Music with The Boston College Chamber Music Society!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianyu

    Make Music with The Boston College Chamber Music Society! The BC Chamber Music Society is the umbrella organization for most small ensembles based in the Music Department, and includes instrumentalists to provide music for various university functions. All members of the BC community are welcome to audition

  6. Properties of a Moscow Glass Gas Microstrip Chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and excellent position resolution that make it a rele­ vant technology for tracking at the Large Hadron Collider

  7. Engineering Development of Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR) Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toseland, B.A.

    1998-10-29

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

  8. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernard A. Toseland, Ph.D.

    2002-01-01

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

  9. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernard A. Toseland

    1998-06-30

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column rector to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

  10. Liquid-phase mixing in churn-turbulent bubble columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, K.J.; Dudukovic, M.P.; Ramachandran, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    A physically realistic description of liquid mixing is necessary for the proper design and scale-up of bubble columns. Currently, liquid-phase mixing is almost exclusively described by the one-dimensional axial dispersion model which lacks a sound physical basis. A new phenomenological model of liquid-phase backmixing in churn-turbulent bubble columns has been proposed. This model divides the system into two regions. The first region is a gas-rich region that rises rapidly through the column transporting liquid to various points in the system. The second region is a relatively stagnant, gas-lean region that is vigorously agitated by the passage of the gas-rich region. Evaluation of most of the model parameters by physical reasoning reduces the proposed model to a one-parameter model.

  11. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernard A. Toseland, Ph.D.

    2000-01-01

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

  12. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernard A. Toseland

    2002-09-30

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

  13. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernard A. Toseland, Ph.D.

    2000-06-01

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column 0reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

  14. Helium bubble linkage and the transition to rapid He release in aging Pd tritide.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowgill, Donald F.

    2006-02-01

    A model is presented for the linking of helium bubbles growing in aging metal tritides. Stresses created by neighboring bubbles are found to produce bubble growth toward coalescence. This process is interrupted by the fracture of ligaments between bubble arrays. The condition for ligament fracture percolates through the material to reach external surfaces, leading to material micro-cracking and the release of helium within the linked-bubble cluster. A comparison of pure coalescence and pure fracture mechanisms shows the critical HeM concentration for bubble linkage is not strongly dependent on details of the linkage process. The combined stress-directed growth and fracture process produces predictions for the onset of rapid He release and the He emission rate. Transition to this rapid release state is determined from the physical size of the linked-bubble clusters, which is calculated from dimensional invariants in classical percolation theory. The result is a transition that depends on material dimensions. The onset of bubble linkage and rapid He release are found to be quite sensitive to the bubble spacing distribution, which is log-normal for bubbles nucleated by self-trapping.

  15. THE MILKY WAY PROJECT: LEVERAGING CITIZEN SCIENCE AND MACHINE LEARNING TO DETECT INTERSTELLAR BUBBLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beaumont, Christopher N.; Williams, Jonathan P. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai'i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Goodman, Alyssa A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kendrew, Sarah; Simpson, Robert, E-mail: beaumont@ifa.hawaii.edu [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-01

    We present Brut, an algorithm to identify bubbles in infrared images of the Galactic midplane. Brut is based on the Random Forest algorithm, and uses bubbles identified by >35,000 citizen scientists from the Milky Way Project to discover the identifying characteristics of bubbles in images from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We demonstrate that Brut's ability to identify bubbles is comparable to expert astronomers. We use Brut to re-assess the bubbles in the Milky Way Project catalog, and find that 10%-30% of the objects in this catalog are non-bubble interlopers. Relative to these interlopers, high-reliability bubbles are more confined to the mid-plane, and display a stronger excess of young stellar objects along and within bubble rims. Furthermore, Brut is able to discover bubbles missed by previous searches—particularly bubbles near bright sources which have low contrast relative to their surroundings. Brut demonstrates the synergies that exist between citizen scientists, professional scientists, and machine learning techniques. In cases where ''untrained' citizens can identify patterns that machines cannot detect without training, machine learning algorithms like Brut can use the output of citizen science projects as input training sets, offering tremendous opportunities to speed the pace of scientific discovery. A hybrid model of machine learning combined with crowdsourced training data from citizen scientists can not only classify large quantities of data, but also address the weakness of each approach if deployed alone.

  16. Photon Bubbles in the Circumstellar Envelopes of Young Massive Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. J. Turner; E. Quataert; H. W. Yorke

    2007-01-28

    We show that the optically-thick dusty envelopes surrounding young high-mass stars are subject to the photon bubble instability. The infrared radiation passing through the envelope amplifies magnetosonic disturbances, with growth rates in our local numerical radiation MHD calculations that are consistent with a linear analysis. Modes with wavelengths comparable to the gas pressure scale height grow by more than two orders of magnitude in a thousand years, reaching non-linear amplitudes within the envelope lifetime. If the magnetic pressure in the envelope exceeds the gas pressure, the instability develops into trains of propagating shocks. Radiation escapes readily through the low-density material between the shocks, enabling accretion to continue despite the Eddington limit imposed by the dust opacity. The supersonic motions arising from the photon bubble instability can help explain the large velocity dispersions of hot molecular cores, while conditions in the shocked gas are suitable for maser emission. We conclude that the photon bubble instability may play a key role in the formation of massive stars.

  17. Vacuum chamber for ion manipulation device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Tsung-Chi; Tang, Keqi; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Smith, Richard D; Anderson, Gordon A; Baker, Erin M

    2014-12-09

    An ion manipulation method and device is disclosed. The device includes a pair of substantially parallel surfaces. An array of inner electrodes is contained within, and extends substantially along the length of, each parallel surface. The device includes a first outer array of electrodes and a second outer array of electrodes. Each outer array of electrodes is positioned on either side of the inner electrodes, and is contained within and extends substantially along the length of each parallel surface. A DC voltage is applied to the first and second outer array of electrodes. A RF voltage, with a superimposed electric field, is applied to the inner electrodes by applying the DC voltages to each electrode. Ions either move between the parallel surfaces within an ion confinement area or along paths in the direction of the electric field, or can be trapped in the ion confinement area. A predetermined number of pairs of surfaces are disposed in one or more chambers, forming a multiple-layer ion mobility cyclotron device.

  18. Paint coatings: Controlled field and chamber experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edney, E.O.

    1989-04-01

    To determine the impact of pollution levels on the weathering rates of coatings, laboratory chamber experiments and controlled field exposures at North Carolina and Ohio sites were conducted in such a manner to separate the contributions due to dry deposition, wet deposition, precipitation pH, etc. The results of these studies confirm that acidic gases such as SO/sub 2/ and HNO/sub 3/, as well as acids within rain, promote the dissolution of alkaline components including CaCO/sub 3/, ZnO, and Al flake from paint films. It is unclear from these studies whether the removal of these components reduces the service life or protective properties of the paint film. Other researchers within the Coatings Effects Program are conducting subsequent analyses to determine micro-damage of these paints. The uptake of acidic gases to painted surfaces is a complex process that depends on several factors. The deposition rate of SO/sub 2/ to a wet, painted surface may be controlled by the level of oxidants such as H/sub 2/O/sub 2/.

  19. October 24, 2001 1. Remaining Action Items on Dry Chamber Wall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffray, A. René

    and chamber wall design · Power to chamber wall · Coolant outlet temperature · Cycle efficiency · Thermal-hydraulic parameters · Maximum temperature of chamber wall - Chamber wall power assumed to be spread over the completeOctober 24, 2001 1 1. Remaining Action Items on Dry Chamber Wall 2. "Overlap" Design Regions 3

  20. Study of the performance of the MicroMegas chambers for the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer Upgrade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vanadia, Marco; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Micromegas (MICRO MEsh GAseous Structure) chambers are Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors designed to provide a high spatial resolution in highly irradiated environments. In 2007 an ambitious long-term R&D activity was started in the context of the ATLAS experiment, at CERN: the Muon ATLAS Micromegas Activity (MAMMA). After years of tests on prototypes and technology breakthroughs, Micromegas chambers were chosen as tracking detectors for an upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer. These novel detectors will be installed in 2018 and 2019 during the second long shutdown of the Large Hadron Collider, and will serve as precision detectors in the innermost part of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer. Eight layers of Micromegas modules of unprecedented size, up to 3 $\\rm{{m^2}}$, will cover a surface of 150 $\\rm{{m^2}}$ for a total active area of about 1200 $\\rm{{m^2}}$. This upgrade will be crucial to ensure high quality performance for the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer in view of the third run of the Large Hadron Collider and...

  1. Design and Construction of Large Size Micromegas Chambers for the Upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lösel, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Large area Micromegas detectors will be employed for the first time in high-energy physics experiments. A total surface of about $\\mathbf{150~m^2}$ of the forward regions of the Muon Spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at LHC will be equipped with 8-layer Micromegas modules. Each layer covers more than $\\mathbf{2~m^2}$ for a total active area of $\\mathbf{1200~m^2}$. Together with the small strip Thin Gap Chambers they will compose the two New Small Wheels, which will replace the innermost stations of the ATLAS endcap muon tracking system in the 2018/19 shutdown. In order to achieve a 15$\\mathbf{\\%}$ transverse momentum resolution for $\\mathbf{1~TeV}$ muons, in addition to an excellent intrinsic resolution, the mechanical precision of each plane of the assembled module must be as good as $\\mathbf{30~\\mu m}$ along the precision coordinate and $\\mathbf{80~\\mu m}$ perpendicular to the chamber. The design and construction procedure of the Micromegas modules will be presented, as well as the design for the assembly ...

  2. Electrons trajectories around a bubble regime in intense laser plasma interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ding; Xie, Bai-Song; Ali Bake, Muhammad; Sang, Hai-Bo; Zhao, Xue-Yan; Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 ; Wu, Hai-Cheng

    2013-06-15

    Some typical electrons trajectories around a bubble regime in intense laser plasma interaction are investigated theoretically. By considering a modification of the fields and ellipsoid bubble shape due to the presence of residual electrons in the bubble regime, we study in detail the electrons nonlinear dynamics with or without laser pulse. To examine the electron dynamical behaviors, a set of typical electrons, which locate initially at the front of the bubble, on the transverse edge and at the bottom of the bubble respectively, are chosen for study. It is found that the range of trapped electrons in the case with laser pulse is a little narrower than that without laser pulse. The partial phase portraits for electrons around the bubble are presented numerically and their characteristic behaviors are discussed theoretically. Implication of our results on the high quality electron beam generation is also discussed briefly.

  3. Multi-focal laser surgery: cutting enhancement by hydrodynamic interactions between cavitation bubbles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toytman, Ilya; Simanovski, Dmitri; Palanker, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Transparent biological tissues can be precisely dissected with ultrafast lasers using optical breakdown in the tight focal zone. Typically, tissues are cut by sequential application of pulses, each of which produces a single cavitation bubble. We investigate the hydrodynamic interactions between simultaneous cavitation bubbles originating from multiple laser foci. Simultaneous expansion and collapse of cavitation bubbles can enhance the cutting efficiency by increasing the resulting deformations in tissue, and the associated rupture zone. An analytical model of the flow induced by the bubbles is presented and experimentally verified. The threshold strain of the material rupture is measured in a model tissue. Using the computational model and the experimental value of the threshold strain one can compute the shape of the rupture zone in tissue resulting from application of multiple bubbles. With the threshold strain of 0.7 two simultaneous bubbles produce a continuous cut when applied at the distance 1.35 time...

  4. Effects of liquid helium bubble formation in a superconducting cavity cryogenic system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, X.; Wang, E.; Xin, T.

    2011-03-01

    We constructed a simple prototype model based on the geometry of the 56 MHz superconducting cavity for RHIC. We studied the formation, in this prototype, of bubbles of liquid helium and their thermal effects on the cavity. We found that due to the low viscosity of the liquid helium, and its small surface tension, no large bubbles formed. The tiny bubbles, generated from most of the area, behaved like light gas travelling in a free space and escaped from the trapping region. The bubbles that were generated in the trapping area, due to its descending geometry, are much bigger than the other bubbles, but due to the liquid flow generated by heating, they still are negligible compared to the size of the trapping region. We expected that the effects of bubbles in our 56 MHz cavity during operation might well be negligible.

  5. PHASE-FIELD SIMULATION OF INTERGRANULAR BUBBLE GROWTH AND PERCOLATION IN BICRYSTALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul C. Millett; Michael Tonks; S. B. Biner; Liangzhe Zhang; K. Chockalingam; Yongfeng Zhang

    2012-06-01

    We present three-dimensional phase-field simulations of the growth and coalescence of intergranular bubbles in bicrystal grain geometries. We investigate the dependency of bubble percolation on two factors: the initial bubble density and the bubble shape, which is governed by the ratio of the grain boundary energy over the surface energy. We find that variations of each of these factors can lead to large discrepancies in the bubble coalescence rate, and eventual percolation, which may partially explain this observed occurrence in experimental investigations. The results presented here do not account for concurrent gas production and bubble resolution due to irradiation, therefore this simulation study is most applicable to post-irradiation annealing.

  6. Turbine component cooling channel mesh with intersection chambers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Marra, John J

    2014-05-06

    A mesh (35) of cooling channels (35A, 35B) with an array of cooling channel intersections (42) in a wall (21, 22) of a turbine component. A mixing chamber (42A-C) at each intersection is wider (W1, W2)) than a width (W) of each of the cooling channels connected to the mixing chamber. The mixing chamber promotes swirl, and slows the coolant for more efficient and uniform cooling. A series of cooling meshes (M1, M2) may be separated by mixing manifolds (44), which may have film cooling holes (46) and/or coolant refresher holes (48).

  7. Bubble Transport in Three-Dimensional Gravity Driven Flow, Part I. Mathematical Formulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent; Fedorov, Andrei G.; Ramkrishna, D; Viskanta, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    rising gas bubble in a soda-lime silicate glass melt”,Optical properties of soda-lime silicate”, Solar Energyof characteristics. Keywords: soda-lime silicate glass,

  8. Fermionic and Bosonic Stabilizing Effects for Type I and Type II Dimension Bubbles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. R. Morris

    2004-05-21

    We consider two types of "dimension bubbles", which are viewed as 4d nontopological solitons that emerge from a 5d theory with a compact extra dimension. The size of the extra dimension varies rapidly within the domain wall of the soliton. We consider the cases of type I (II) bubbles where the size of the extra dimension inside the bubble is much larger (smaller) than outside. Type I bubbles with thin domain walls can be stabilized by the entrapment of various particle modes whose masses become much smaller inside than outside the bubble. This is demonstrated here for the cases of scalar bosons, fermions, and massive vector bosons, including both Kaluza-Klein zero modes and Kaluza-Klein excitation modes. Type II bubbles expel massive particle modes but both types can be stabilized by photons. Plasma filled bubbles containing a variety of massless or nearly massless radiation modes may exist as long-lived metastable states. Furthermore, in contrast to the case with a "gravitational bag", the metric for a fluid-filled dimension bubble does not exhibit a naked singularity at the bubble's center.

  9. Transmission Electron Microscopy Investigation of Krypton Bubbles in Polycrystalline CeO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lingfeng He; Clarissa Yablinsky; Mahima Gupta; Jian Gan; Marquis A. Kirk; Todd R. Allen

    2013-05-01

    To gain an understanding of gas bubble transport in oxide nuclear fuel, this paper uses polycrystalline CeO2, composed of both nanograins and micrograins, as a surrogate material for UO2. The CeO2 was implanted with 150-keV Kr ions up to a dose of 1 x 1016 ions/cm2 at 600 degrees C. Transmission electron microscopy characterizations of small Kr bubbles in nanograin and micrograin regions were compared. The grain boundary acted as an efficient defect sink, as evidenced by smaller bubbles and a lower bubble density in the nanograin region as compared to the micrograin region.

  10. Ultrasonic effect on the bubble nucleation and heat transfer of oscillating nanofluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Nannan; Fu, Benwei; Ma, H. B.

    2014-06-30

    Ultrasonic sound effect on bubble nucleation, oscillating motion activated by bubble formation, and its heat transfer enhancement of nanofluid was experimentally investigated. Nanofluid consists of distilled water and dysprosium (III) oxide (Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles with an average size of 98?nm and a mass ratio of 0.5%. Visualization results demonstrate that when the nanoparticles are added in the fluid influenced by the ultrasonic sound, bubble nucleation can be significantly enhanced. The oscillating motion initiated by the bubble formation of nanofluid under the influence of ultrasonic sound can significantly enhance heat transfer of nanofluid in an interconnected capillary loop.

  11. Performance of a Drift Chamber Candidate for a Cosmic Muon Tomography System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anghel, V.; Jewett, C.; Jonkmans, G.; Thompson, M.; Armitage, J.; Botte, J.; Boudjemline, K.; Erlandson, A.; Oakham, G.; Bueno, J.; Bryman, D.; Liu, Z.; Charles, E.; Gallant, G.; Cousins, T.; Noel, S.; Drouin, P.-L.; Waller, D.; Stocki, T. J.

    2011-12-13

    In the last decade, many groups around the world have been exploring different ways to probe transport containers which may contain illicit Special Nuclear Materials such as uranium. The muon tomography technique has been proposed as a cost effective system with an acceptable accuracy. A group of Canadian institutions (see above), funded by Defence Research and Development Canada, is testing different technologies to track the cosmic muons. One candidate is the single wire Drift Chamber. With the capability of a 2D impact position measurement, two detectors will be placed above and two below the object to be probed. In order to achieve a good 3D image quality of the cargo content, a good angular resolution is required. The simulation showed that 1mrad was required implying the spatial resolution of the trackers must be in the range of 1 to 2 mm for 1 m separation. A tracking system using three prototypes has been built and tested. The spatial resolution obtained is 1.7 mm perpendicular to the wire and 3 mm along the wire.

  12. Carrying Semiautomatic Pistols with a Round in the Chamber

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-10-28

    Sets forth requirements for a DOE security police officer who must carry a round in the chamber of a semiautomatic pistol while on duty. Does not cancel other directives.

  13. Neutral Gas Expansion in a Cylindrical Helicon Discharge Chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Mitchell

    ­1500 G) magnetic field parallel to the axis of the tube. In many helicon experiments for basic plasma research, the discharge chamber is composed of a small diameter (2­10 cm), relatively long (0.5­1.75 m

  14. Effects of outgassing of loader chamber walls on hydriding of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    gas pressure. Complete process data for (1) a copper-(1.83 wt. %)beryllium wet hydrogen fired passivated (600 C-1 h) externally heated pipe hydriding chamber are reported....

  15. E-Cloud Build-up in Grooved Chambers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venturini, Marco

    2007-01-01

    and F. Zimmermann, ”LC e-Cloud Activities at CERN”, talkal. , Simulations of the Electron Cloud for Vari- ous Con?E-CLOUD BUILD-UP IN GROOVED CHAMBERS ? M. Venturini † LBNL,

  16. Fast Track Kinderchirurgie -von der Qualittsverbesserung zur

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manstein, Dietmar J.

    Fast Track Kinderchirurgie - von der Qualitätsverbesserung zur integrierten Versorgung - Benno Ure Multimodales Konzept / Chirurgie entlang eines Pfades Hendrik Kehlet 1991 Kopenhagen, Dänemark Fast Track Chirurgie #12;Multimodales Konzept Fast Track Chirurgie Chirurgie Anästhesie Schmerztherapie Pflege andere

  17. Fast Magnetic Reconnection in Laser-Produced Plasma Bubbles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Germaschewski, K.

    2011-05-27

    Recent experiments have observed magnetic reconnection in high-energy-density, laser-produced plasma bubbles, with reconnection rates observed to be much higher than can be explained by classical theory. Based on fully kinetic particle simulations we find that fast reconnection in these strongly driven systems can be explained by magnetic flux pileup at the shoulder of the current sheet and subsequent fast reconnection via two-fluid, collisionless mechanisms. In the strong drive regime with two-fluid effects, we find that the ultimate reconnection time is insensitive to the nominal system Alfven time.

  18. Automated micro-tracking planar solar concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hallas, Justin Matthew

    2011-01-01

    self-tracking solar concentration: design and materialsself- tracking solar concentration: design and materialsSolar Concentrators," in International Optical Design

  19. SOFTWARE QUALITY & SYSTEMS ENGINEERING PROGRAM: Project Tracking...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Tracking Checklist SOFTWARE QUALITY & SYSTEMS ENGINEERING PROGRAM: Project Tracking Checklist The following checklist is intended to provide system owners, project...

  20. Mechanisms of self-excitation of thermoacoustic vibrations in two-phase bubble flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skalozubov, V.I. )

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the mechanisms of self-excitation of thermoacoustic vibrations in two-phase bubble flows are described. It is shown that a theory of this process must take into consideration the work performed by bubbles traveling in the acoustic wave. The results of the theory herein developed agree with previous experimental data of the author.

  1. 10.1098/rspa.2002.1063 Acoustic resonances in the bubble plume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buckingham, Michael

    ratio, that is, the ratio of the air-to-water volume fluxes in the jet, and the unspecified constant to chemical mixing processes, aeration of fluids and gas transfer across the air­sea interface. Also important be due to the resonances of individual bubbles, since the bubble sizes required are much larger than

  2. Improvement of acoustic theory of ultrasonic waves in dilute bubbly liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colonius, Tim

    by including the effect of liquid com- pressibility on the natural frequency of the bubbles. The modified and modify the dispersion relation by including the effect of liquid compressibility on the natural frequency Here, µl is the liquid viscosity, S is the surface tension, and pg0 is the internal (gas) bubble

  3. Film drainage and the lifetime of bubbles C. T. Nguyen, H. M. Gonnermann, and Y. Chen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonnermann, Helge

    Film drainage and the lifetime of bubbles C. T. Nguyen, H. M. Gonnermann, and Y. Chen Department film thinning and bubble coalescence as a consequence of liquid expulsion by gravitational.25 film drainage is due to capillary forces, whereas at Bo > 0.25 gravitational forces result in film

  4. Ellipsoidal model of the rise of a Taylor bubble in a round tube T. Funada a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, Daniel D.

    November 2004 Abstract The rise velocity of long gas bubbles (Taylor bubbles) in round tubes is modeled in Eo; the composition of these separate power laws emerge as 0301-9322/$ - see front matter Ó 2005 rising steadily in a li- quid is in a balance of buoyant weight and drag. It is natural to think

  5. Non-SUSY $p$-branes, bubbles and tubular branes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. X. Lu; S. Roy

    2006-04-26

    We consider non-supersymmetric $p$-brane solutions of type II string theories characterized by three parameters. When the charge parameter vanishes and one of the other two takes a specific value, the corresponding chargeless solutions can be regular and describe ``bubbles'' in static (unstable) equilibrium when lifted to $d = 11$. In appropriate coordinates, they represent D6 branes with a tubular topology R$^{1,p}$ $\\times$ S$^{6-p}$ when reduced to $d=10$, called the tubular D6 branes, held in static equilibrium by a fixed magnetic flux (fluxbrane). Moreover, a `rotation parameter' can be introduced to either of the above two eleven dimensional configurations, giving rise to a generalized configuration labelling by the parameter. As such, it brings out the relations among non-supersymmetric $p$-branes, bubbles and tubular D6 branes. Given our understanding on tubular D6 branes, we are able to reinforce the interpretation of the chargeless non-supersymmetric $p$-branes as representing $p$-brane-anti$p$-brane (or non-BPS $p$-brane) systems, and understand the static nature and various singularities of these systems in a classical supergravity approximation.

  6. Cooperative Modeling and Design History Tracking Using Design Tracking Matrix 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jonghyun

    2010-10-12

    This thesis suggests a new framework for cooperative modeling which supports concurrency design protocol with a design history tracking function. The proposed framework allows designers to work together while eliminating design conflicts...

  7. Abrasion resistant track shoe grouser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, Keith D; Diekevers, Mark S; Afdahl, Curt D; Steiner, Kevin L; Barnes, Christopher A

    2013-04-23

    A track shoe for a track-type vehicle. The track shoe includes a base plate and a grouser projecting away from the base plate. A capping surface structure of substantially horseshoe shaped cross-section is disposed across a distal portion of the grouser. The capping surface structure covers portions of a distal edge surface and adjacent lateral surfaces. The capping surface structure is formed from an material characterized by enhanced wear resistance relative to portions of the grouser underlying the capping surface structure.

  8. High resolution track etch autoradiography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Solares, Guido (Arlington, MA); Zamenhof, Robert G. (Brookline, MA)

    1994-01-01

    A detector assembly for use in obtaining alpha-track autoradiographs, the detector assembly including a substantially boron-free substrate; a detector layer deposited on the substantially boron-free substrate, the detector layer being capable of recording alpha particle tracks and exhibiting evidence of the alpha tracks in response to being exposed to an etchant, the detector layer being less than about 2 microns thick; and a protective layer deposited on the detector layer, the protective layer being resistant to the etchant and having a thickness of about 0.5 to 1 microns.

  9. High resolution track etch autoradiography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Solares, G.; Zamenhof, R.G.

    1994-12-27

    A detector assembly is disclosed for use in obtaining alpha-track autoradiographs, the detector assembly including a substantially boron-free substrate; a detector layer deposited on the substantially boron-free substrate, the detector layer being capable of recording alpha particle tracks and exhibiting evidence of the alpha tracks in response to being exposed to an etchant, the detector layer being less than about 2 microns thick; and a protective layer deposited on the detector layer, the protective layer being resistant to the etchant and having a thickness of about 0.5 to 1 microns. 13 figures.

  10. A large dynamic chamber for characterizing particulate and VOC emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawless, P.A.; Smith, D.D.; Ensor, D.S. [Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Sparks, L.E. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.

    1996-12-31

    A dynamic chamber (8 m{sup 3}) was designed and constructed for the investigation of particulate emissions from appliances and office equipment and their impact on indoor air quality. The supply air incorporated high efficiency particle filters to provide a near-zero particle background in a low turbulence flow. The flow rate could be varied from 2 to 80 m{sup 3}/min. For testing operating appliances, such as vacuum cleaners, the dimensions of the chamber were chosen to allow an operator to use an appliance over a floor area of about 2 m{sup 2}. The need for low particle backgrounds dictated that the chamber be operated in an overpressure mode, so that all leaks were from the inside and would only affect the total flow measurements. The flow converges into an outlet tube 20 cm in diameter where velocity and concentration measurements could be made in multiple ports. The chamber was furnished with interior lights and electrical outlets. Recently, the chamber has been modified with carbon filters on the inlet to allow for sampling of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as from floor wax. The filters remove the VOC background to a level below that detectable by the sorbent cartridges/analysis system used for sampling. The chamber has even been pressed into service as a small cleanroom for some operations that required its unique characteristics. The chamber has been successfully operated in both a closed-loop mode and in an open-loop mode. The main advantage of the closed loop mode is that the backgrounds can be reduced to zero more quickly, but the disadvantage is that humidity and carbon dioxide concentrations grow because they are not removed by the filters.

  11. Application of Phase-field Method in Predicting Gas Bubble Microstructure Evolution in Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Shenyang Y.; Li, Yulan; Sun, Xin; Gao, Fei; Devanathan, Ramaswami; Henager, Charles H.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2010-04-30

    Fission product accumulation and gas bubble microstructure evolution in nuclear fuels strongly affect thermo-mechanical properties such as thermal conductivity, gas release, volumetric swelling and cracking, and hence the fuel performance. In this paper, a general phase-field model is developed to predict gas bubble formation and evolution. Important materials processes and thermodynamic properties including the generation of gas atoms and vacancies, sinks for vacancies and gas atoms, the elastic interaction among defects, gas re-solution, and inhomogeneity of elasticity and diffusivity are accounted for in the model. The simulations demonstrate the potential application of the phase-field method in investigating 1) heterogeneous nucleation of gas bubbles at defects; 2) effect of elastic interaction, inhomogeneity of material properties, and gas re-solution on gas bubble microstructures; and 3) effective properties from the output of phase-field simulations such as distribution of defects, gas bubbles, and stress fields.

  12. Bubbles in Planetary Nebulae and Clusters of Galaxies: Slowly Precessing Jets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noam Soker

    2007-01-16

    I derive the condition for narrow jets with varying axis, e.g., precessing jets, to inflate more or less spherical (fat) bubbles in planetary nebulae and clusters of galaxies. This work follows a previous work dealing with wide jets, i.e., having a wide opening angle. The expressions derive here are qualitatively and quantitatively similar to the conditions for inflating fat bubbles by non-precessing wide jets. This follows the similar physical cause of inflating fat bubbles, which is that the jet deposits energy inside the bubble. Fat bubbles in planetary nebulae (and similar stellar systems) and in clusters of galaxies, are likely to be formed by wide jets, precessing jets, or other jets whose axis is not constant relative to the medium they expand into.

  13. Fluorescent image tracking velocimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shaffer, Franklin D. (Library, PA)

    1994-01-01

    A multiple-exposure fluorescent image tracking velocimeter (FITV) detects and measures the motion (trajectory, direction and velocity) of small particles close to light scattering surfaces. The small particles may follow the motion of a carrier medium such as a liquid, gas or multi-phase mixture, allowing the motion of the carrier medium to be observed, measured and recorded. The main components of the FITV include: (1) fluorescent particles; (2) a pulsed fluorescent excitation laser source; (3) an imaging camera; and (4) an image analyzer. FITV uses fluorescing particles excited by visible laser light to enhance particle image detectability near light scattering surfaces. The excitation laser light is filtered out before reaching the imaging camera allowing the fluoresced wavelengths emitted by the particles to be detected and recorded by the camera. FITV employs multiple exposures of a single camera image by pulsing the excitation laser light for producing a series of images of each particle along its trajectory. The time-lapsed image may be used to determine trajectory and velocity and the exposures may be coded to derive directional information.

  14. Thermodynamics and kinetics of vapor bubbles nucleation in one-component liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikolay V. Alekseechkin

    2012-05-01

    The multivariable theory of nucleation [J. Chem. Phys. 124, 124512 (2006)] is applied to the problem of vapor bubbles formation in pure liquids. The presented self-consistent macroscopic theory of this process employs thermodynamics (classical, statistical and linear non-equilibrium), hydrodynamics and interfacial kinetics. As a result of thermodynamic study of the problem, the work of formation of a bubble is obtained and parameters of the critical bubble are determined. The variables V (the bubble volume), \\rho (the vapor density), and T (the vapor temperature) are shown to be natural for the given task. An algorithm of writing the equations of motion of a bubble in the space {V, \\rho, T} - equations for V, \\rho, and T - is offered. This algorithm ensures symmetry of the matrix of kinetic coefficients. The equation for written on the basis of this algorithm is shown to represent the first law of thermodynamics for a bubble. The negative eigenvalue of the motion equations which alongside with the work of the critical bubble formation determines the stationary nucleation rate of bubbles is obtained. Various kinetic limits are considered. One of the kinetic constraints leads to the fact that the nucleation cannot occur in the whole metastable region; it occurs only in some subregion of the latter. Zeldovich theory of cavitation is shown to be a limiting case of the theory presented. The limiting effects of various kinetic processes on the nucleation rate of bubbles are shown analytically. These are the inertial motion of a liquid as well as the processes of particles exchange and heat exchange between a bubble and surrounding liquid. The nucleation rate is shown to be determined by the slowest kinetic process at positive and moderately negative pressures in a liquid. The limiting effect vanishes at high negative pressures.

  15. Fig.1a. Schematic picture of ITER tokamak, showing the toroidal main chamber,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhihong

    Fig.1a. Schematic picture of ITER tokamak, showing the toroidal main chamber, material wall, and the small divertor chamber at the bottom of the main chamber Gyrokinetic particle simulation of neoclassical and b). The wall plates in the divertor chamber are periodically replaced, giving the main wall a much

  16. Track detection: an MCM approach 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kotha, Kedarnath S.

    1993-01-01

    132ns. A new integrated circuit packaging structure coupled with a purely hardware system was needed to meet the high speed and best performance requirements for track detection of subatomic particles. Microprocessors cannot be used for this kind...

  17. Initial Back-to-Back Fission Chamber Testing in ATRC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benjamin Chase; Troy Unruh; Joy Rempe

    2014-06-01

    Development and testing of in-pile, real-time neutron sensors for use in Materials Test Reactor experiments is an ongoing project at Idaho National Laboratory. The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility has sponsored a series of projects to evaluate neutron detector options in the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATRC). Special hardware was designed and fabricated to enable testing of the detectors in the ATRC. Initial testing of Self-Powered Neutron Detectors and miniature fission chambers produced promising results. Follow-on testing required more experiment hardware to be developed. The follow-on testing used a Back-to-Back fission chamber with the intent to provide calibration data, and a means of measuring spectral indices. As indicated within this document, this is the first time in decades that BTB fission chambers have been used in INL facilities. Results from these fission chamber measurements provide a baseline reference for future measurements with Back-to-Back fission chambers.

  18. Inertial confinement fusion reaction chamber and power conversion system study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maya, I.; Schultz, K.R.; Battaglia, J.M.; Buksa, J.J.; Creedson, R.L.; Erlandson, O.D.; Levine, H.E.; Roelant, D.F.; Sanchez, H.W.; Schrader, S.A.

    1984-09-01

    GA Technologies has developed a conceptual ICF reactor system based on the Cascade rotating-bed reaction chamber concept. Unique features of the system design include the use of low activation SiC in a reaction chamber constructed of box-shaped tiles held together in compression by prestressing tendons to the vacuum chamber. Circulating Li/sub 2/O granules serve as the tritium breeding and energy transport material, cascading down the sides of the reaction chamber to the power conversion system. The total tritium inventory of the system is 6 kg; tritium recovery is accomplished directly from the granules via the vacuum system. A system for centrifugal throw transport of the hot Li/sub 2/O granules from the reaction chamber to the power conversion system has been developed. A number of issues were evaluated during the course of this study. These include the response of first-layer granules to the intense microexplosion surface heat flux, cost effective fabrication of Li/sub 2/O granules, tritium inventory and recovery issues, the thermodynamics of solids-flow options, vacuum versus helium-medium heat transfer, and the tradeoffs of capital cost versus efficiency for alternate heat exchange and power conversion system option. The resultant design options appear to be economically competitive, safe, and environmentally attractive.

  19. Atmosphere contamination following repainting of a human hyperbaric chamber complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lillo, R.S.; Morris, J.W.; Caldwell, J.M.; Balk, D.M.; Flynn, E.T. )

    1990-09-01

    The Naval Medical Research Institute currently conducts hyperbaric research in a Man-Rated Chamber Complex (MRCC) originally installed in 1977. Significant engineering alterations to the MRCC and rusting of some of its interior sections necessitated repainting, which was completed in 1988. Great care was taken in selecting an appropriate paint (polyamide epoxy) and in ensuring correct application and curing procedures. Only very low levels of hydrocarbons were found in the MRCC atmosphere before initial pressurization after painting and curing. After pressurization, however, significant chemical contamination was found. The primary contaminants were aromatic hydrocarbons: xylenes (which were a major component of both the primer and topcoat paint) and ethyl benzene. The role that pressure played in stimulating off-gassing from the paint is not clear; the off-gassing rate was observed to be similar over a large range in chamber pressures from 1.6 to 31.0 atm abs. Scrubbing the chamber atmosphere with the chemical absorbent Purafil was effective in removing the contaminants. Contamination has been observed to slowly decline with chamber use and is expected to continue to improve with time. However, this contamination experience emphasizes the need for a high precision gas analysis program at any diving facility to ensure the safety of the breathing gas and chamber atmosphere.

  20. First detection of tracks of radon progeny recoils by MIMAC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riffard, Q; Bosson, G; Bourrion, O; Descombes, T; Fourel, C; Guillaudin, O; Muraz, J -F; Colas, P; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Giomataris, I; Busto, J; Fouchez, D; Tao, C; Lebreton, L; Maire, D

    2015-01-01

    The MIMAC experiment is a $\\mu$-TPC matrix project for directional dark matter search. Directional detection is a strategy based on the measurement of the WIMP flux anisotropy due to the solar system motion with respect to the dark matter halo. The main purpose of MIMAC project is the measurement of the energy and the direction of nuclear recoils in 3D produced by elastic scattering of WIMPs. Since June 2012 a bi-chamber prototype is operating at the Modane underground laboratory. In this paper, we report the first ionization energy and 3D track observations of nuclear recoils produced by the radon progeny. This measurement shows the capability of the MIMAC detector and opens the possibility to explore the low energy recoil directionality signature.

  1. First detection of tracks of radon progeny recoils by MIMAC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Q. Riffard; D. Santos; G. Bosson; O. Bourrion; T. Descombes; C. Fourel; O. Guillaudin; J. -F. Muraz; P. Colas; E. Ferrer-Ribas; I. Giomataris; J. Busto; D. Fouchez; C. Tao; L. Lebreton; D. Maire

    2015-04-22

    The MIMAC experiment is a $\\mu$-TPC matrix project for directional dark matter search. Directional detection is a strategy based on the measurement of the WIMP flux anisotropy due to the solar system motion with respect to the dark matter halo. The main purpose of MIMAC project is the measurement of the energy and the direction of nuclear recoils in 3D produced by elastic scattering of WIMPs. Since June 2012 a bi-chamber prototype is operating at the Modane underground laboratory. In this paper, we report the first ionization energy and 3D track observations of nuclear recoils produced by the radon progeny. This measurement shows the capability of the MIMAC detector and opens the possibility to explore the low energy recoil directionality signature.

  2. Attoyac Bayou Bacterial Source Tracking Report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, E.; Gentry, T.; Gregory, L.; Wagner, K.

    2014-01-01

    ...................................................................................... 2 Bacterial Source Tracking ................................................................................................... 4 Library-Independent BST... ............................................................................................... 4 Library-Dependent BST .................................................................................................. 4 Results...

  3. 3D tracking via body radio reflections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kabelac, Zachary (Zachary E.)

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents WiTrack, a system that tracks the 3D motion of a user from the radio signals reflected off her body. It works even if the person is occluded from the WiTrack device or in a different room. WiTrack does ...

  4. Track 4: Employee Health and Wellness

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    ISM Workshop Presentations Knoxville Convention Center, Knoxville, TN August 2009 Track 4: Employee Health and Wellness

  5. Extreme-UV lithography vacuum chamber zone seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haney, Steven J. (Tracy, CA); Herron, Donald Joe (Manteca, CA); Klebanoff, Leonard E. (San Ramon, CA); Replogle, William C. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Control of particle contamination on the reticle and carbon contamination of optical surfaces in photolithography systems can be achieved by the establishment of multiple pressure zones in the photolithography systems. The different zones will enclose the reticle, projection optics, wafer, and other components of system. The system includes a vacuum apparatus that includes: a housing defining a vacuum chamber; one or more metrology trays situated within the vacuum chamber each of which is supported by at least one support member, wherein the tray separates the vacuum chamber into a various compartments that are maintained at different pressures; and conductance seal devices for adjoining the perimeter of each tray to an inner surface of the housing wherein the tray is decoupled from vibrations emanating from the inner surface of the housing.

  6. Extreme-UV lithography vacuum chamber zone seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haney, Steven J. (Tracy, CA); Herron, Donald Joe (Manteca, CA); Klebanoff, Leonard E. (San Ramon, CA); Replogle, William C. (Livermore, CA)

    2003-04-15

    Control of particle contamination on the reticle and carbon contamination of optical surfaces in photolithography systems can be achieved by the establishment of multiple pressure zones in the photolithography systems. The different zones will enclose the reticle, projection optics, wafer, and other components of system. The system includes a vacuum apparatus that includes: a housing defining a vacuum chamber; one or more metrology trays situated within the vacuum chamber each of which is supported by at least one support member, wherein the tray separates the vacuum chamber into a various compartments that are maintained at different pressures; and conductance seal devices for adjoining the perimeter of each tray to an inner surface of the housing wherein the tray is decoupled from vibrations emanating from the inner surface of the housing.

  7. Extreme-UV lithography vacuum chamber zone seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haney, Steven J. (Tracy, CA); Herron, Donald Joe (Manteca, CA); Klebanoff, Leonard E. (San Ramon, CA); Replogle, William C. (Livermore, CA)

    2003-04-08

    Control of particle contamination on the reticle and carbon contamination of optical surfaces in photolithography systems can be achieved by the establishment of multiple pressure zones in the photolithography systems. The different zones will enclose the reticle, projection optics, wafer, and other components of system. The system includes a vacuum apparatus that includes: a housing defining a vacuum chamber; one or more metrology trays situated within the vacuum chamber each of which is supported by at least one support member, wherein the tray separates the vacuum chamber into a various compartments that are maintained at different pressures; and conductance seal devices for adjoining the perimeter of each tray to an inner surface of the housing wherein the tray is decoupled from vibrations emanating from the inner surface of the housing.

  8. Chamber Design for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P; Aceves, S; Anklam, T; Badders, D; Cook, A W; DeMuth, J; Divol, L; El-Dasher, B; Farmer, J C; Flowers, D; Fratoni, M; ONeil, R G; Heltemes, T; Kane, J; Kramer, K J; Kramer, R; Lafuente, A; Loosmore, G A; Morris, K R; Moses, G A; Olson, B; Pantano, C; Reyes, S; Rhodes, M; Roe, K; Sawicki, R; Scott, H; Spaeth, M; Tabak, M; Wilks, S

    2010-11-30

    The Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) concept is being designed to operate as either a pure fusion or hybrid fusion-fission system. The present work focuses on the pure fusion option. A key component of a LIFE engine is the fusion chamber subsystem. It must absorb the fusion energy, produce fusion fuel to replace that burned in previous targets, and enable both target and laser beam transport to the ignition point. The chamber system also must mitigate target emissions, including ions, x-rays and neutrons and reset itself to enable operation at 10-15 Hz. Finally, the chamber must offer a high level of availability, which implies both a reasonable lifetime and the ability to rapidly replace damaged components. An integrated design that meets all of these requirements is described herein.

  9. Tracking Atmospheric Ducts Using Radar Clutter: II. Surface-based Duct Tracking Using Multiple Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerstoft, Peter

    Tracking Atmospheric Ducts Using Radar Clutter: II. Surface-based Duct Tracking Using Multiple variability in tracking surface-based ducts in marine and coastal environments. The method tracks of the problem and evaporation duct tracking has been introduced in [1]. In previous studies, atmospheric

  10. Coalescence of bubbles and drops in an outer fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph D. Paulsen; Rémi Carmigniani; Anerudh Kannan; Justin C. Burton; Sidney R. Nagel

    2014-07-24

    When two liquid drops touch, a microscopic connecting liquid bridge forms and rapidly grows as the two drops merge into one. Whereas coalescence has been thoroughly studied when drops coalesce in vacuum or air, many important situations involve coalescence in a dense surrounding fluid, such as oil coalescence in brine. Here we study the merging of gas bubbles and liquid drops in an external fluid. Our data indicate that the flows occur over much larger length scales in the outer fluid than inside the drops themselves. Thus we find that the asymptotic early regime is always dominated by the viscosity of the drops, independent of the external fluid. A phase diagram showing the crossovers into the different possible late-time dynamics identifies a dimensionless number that signifies when the external viscosity can be important.

  11. Coalescence of bubbles and drops in an outer fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulsen, Joseph D; Kannan, Anerudh; Burton, Justin C; Nagel, Sidney R

    2014-01-01

    When two liquid drops touch, a microscopic connecting liquid bridge forms and rapidly grows as the two drops merge into one. Whereas coalescence has been thoroughly studied when drops coalesce in vacuum or air, many important situations involve coalescence in a dense surrounding fluid, such as oil coalescence in brine. Here we study the merging of gas bubbles and liquid drops in an external fluid. Our data indicate that the flows occur over much larger length scales in the outer fluid than inside the drops themselves. Thus we find that the asymptotic early regime is always dominated by the viscosity of the drops, independent of the external fluid. A phase diagram showing the crossovers into the different possible late-time dynamics identifies a dimensionless number that signifies when the external viscosity can be important.

  12. Liquid Hole Multipliers: bubble-assisted electroluminescence in liquid xenon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arazi, L; Coimbra, A E C; Rappaport, M L; Vartsky, D; Chepel, V; Breskin, A

    2015-01-01

    In this work we discuss the mechanism behind the large electroluminescence signals observed at relatively low electric fields in the holes of a Thick Gas Electron Multiplier (THGEM) electrode immersed in liquid xenon. We present strong evidence that the scintillation light is generated in xenon bubbles trapped below the THGEM holes. The process is shown to be remarkably stable over months of operation, providing - under specific thermodynamic conditions - energy resolution similar to that of present dual-phase liquid xenon experiments. The observed mechanism may serve as the basis for the development of Liquid Hole Multipliers (LHMs), capable of producing local charge-induced electroluminescence signals in large-volume single-phase noble-liquid detectors for dark matter and neutrino physics experiments.

  13. Liquid Hole Multipliers: bubble-assisted electroluminescence in liquid xenon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Arazi; E. Erdal; A. E. C. Coimbra; M. L. Rappaport; D. Vartsky; V. Chepel; A. Breskin

    2015-05-13

    In this work we discuss the mechanism behind the large electroluminescence signals observed at relatively low electric fields in the holes of a Thick Gas Electron Multiplier (THGEM) electrode immersed in liquid xenon. We present strong evidence that the scintillation light is generated in xenon bubbles trapped below the THGEM holes. The process is shown to be remarkably stable over months of operation, providing - under specific thermodynamic conditions - energy resolution similar to that of present dual-phase liquid xenon experiments. The observed mechanism may serve as the basis for the development of Liquid Hole Multipliers (LHMs), capable of producing local charge-induced electroluminescence signals in large-volume single-phase noble-liquid detectors for dark matter and neutrino physics experiments.

  14. COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELING OF THREE-PHASE SLURRY-BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isaac K. Gamwo; Dimitri Gidaspow

    1999-09-01

    Considerable progress has been achieved in understanding three-phase reactors from the point of view of kinetic theory. In a paper in press for publication in Chemical Engineering Science (Wu and Gidaspow, 1999) we have obtained a complete numerical solution of bubble column reactors. In view of the complexity of the simulation a better understanding of the processes using simplified analytical solutions is required. Such analytical solutions are presented in the attached paper, Large Scale Oscillations or Gravity Waves in Risers and Bubbling Beds. This paper presents analytical solutions for bubbling frequencies and standing wave flow patterns. The flow patterns in operating slurry bubble column reactors are not optimum. They involve upflow in the center and downflow at the walls. It may be possible to control flow patterns by proper redistribution of heat exchangers in slurry bubble column reactors. We also believe that the catalyst size in operating slurry bubble column reactors is not optimum. To obtain an optimum size we are following up on the observation of George Cody of Exxon who reported a maximum granular temperature (random particle kinetic energy) for a particle size of 90 microns. The attached paper, Turbulence of Particles in a CFB and Slurry Bubble Columns Using Kinetic Theory, supports George Cody's observations. However, our explanation for the existence of the maximum in granular temperature differs from that proposed by George Cody. Further computer simulations and experiments involving measurements of granular temperature are needed to obtain a sound theoretical explanation for the possible existence of an optimum catalyst size.

  15. Direct Simulations of Homogeneous Bubble Nucleation: Agreement with CNT and no Local Hot Spots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jürg Diemand; Raymond Angélil; Kyoko K. Tanaka; Hidekazu Tanaka

    2014-10-24

    We present results from direct, large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of homogeneous bubble (liquid-to-vapor) nucleation. The simulations contain half a billion Lennard-Jones (LJ) atoms and cover up to 56 million time-steps. The unprecedented size of the simulated volumes allows us to resolve the nucleation and growth of many bubbles per run in simple direct micro-canonical (NVE) simulations while the ambient pressure and temperature remain almost perfectly constant. We find bubble nucleation rates which are lower than in most of the previous, smaller simulations. It is widely believed that classical nucleation theory (CNT) generally underestimates bubble nucleation rates by very large factors. However, our measured rates are within two orders of magnitude of CNT predictions - only at very low temperatures does CNT underestimate the nucleation rate significantly. Introducing a small, positive Tolman length leads to very good agreement at all temperatures, as found in our recent vapor-to-liquid nucleation simulations. The critical bubbles sizes derived with the nucleation theorem agree well with the CNT predictions at all temperatures. Local hot spots reported in the literature are not seen: Regions where a bubble nucleation events will occur are not above the average temperature, and no correlation of temperature fluctuations with subsequent bubble formation is seen.

  16. Gas-bubble growth mechanisms in the analysis of metal fuel swelling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruber, E.E.; Kramer, J.M.

    1986-06-01

    During steady-state irradiation, swelling rates associated with growth of fission-gas bubbles in metallic fast reactor fuels may be expected to remain small. As a consequence, bubble-growth mechanisms are not a major consideration in modeling the steady-state fuel behavior, and it is usually adequate to consider the gas pressure to be in equilibrium with the external pressure and surface tension restraint. On transient time scales, however, various bubble-growth mechanisms become important components of the swelling rate. These mechanisms include growth by diffusion, for bubbles within grains and on grain boundaries; dislocation nucleation at the bubble surface, or ''punchout''; and bubble growth by creep. Analyses of these mechanisms are presented and applied to provide information on the conditions and the relative time scales for which the various processes should dominate fuel swelling. The results are compared to a series of experiments in which the swelling of irradiated metal fuel was determined after annealing at various temperatures and pressures. The diffusive growth of bubbles on grain boundaries is concluded to be dominant in these experiments.

  17. Modeling the impediment of methane ebullition bubbles by seasonal lake ice

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Greene, S.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Archer, D.; Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Martinez-Cruz, K.

    2014-12-08

    Microbial methane (CH4) ebullition (bubbling) from anoxic lake sediments comprises a globally significant flux to the atmosphere, but ebullition bubbles in temperate and polar lakes can be trapped by winter ice cover and later released during spring thaw. This "ice-bubble storage" (IBS) constitutes a novel mode of CH4 emission. Before bubbles are encapsulated by downward-growing ice, some of their CH4 dissolves into the lake water, where it may be subject to oxidation. We present field characterization and a model of the annual CH4 cycle in Goldstream Lake, a thermokarst (thaw) lake in interior Alaska. We find that summertime ebullition dominatesmore »annual CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. Eighty percent of CH4 in bubbles trapped by ice dissolves into the lake water column in winter, and about half of that is oxidized. The ice growth rate and the magnitude of the CH4 ebullition flux are important controlling factors of bubble dissolution. Seven percent of annual ebullition CH4 is trapped as IBS and later emitted as ice melts. In a future warmer climate, there will likely be less seasonal ice cover, less IBS, less CH4 dissolution from trapped bubbles, and greater CH4 emissions from northern lakes.« less

  18. Modeling the impediment of methane ebullition bubbles by seasonal lake ice

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Greene, S.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Archer, D.; Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Martinez-Cruz, K.

    2014-07-15

    Microbial methane (CH4) ebullition (bubbling) from anoxic lake sediments comprises a globally significant flux to the atmosphere, but ebullition bubbles in temperate and polar lakes can be trapped by winter ice cover and later released during spring thaw. This "ice-bubble storage" (IBS) constitutes a novel mode of CH4 emission. Before bubbles are encapsulated by downward-growing ice, some of their CH4 dissolves into the lake water, where it may be subject to oxidation. We present field characterization and a model of the annual CH4 cycle in Goldstream Lake, a thermokarst (thaw) lake in interior Alaska. We find that summertime ebullition dominatesmore »annual CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. Eighty percent of CH4 in bubbles trapped by ice dissolves into the lake water column in winter, and about half of that is oxidized. The ice growth rate and the magnitude of the CH4 ebullition flux are important controlling factors of bubble dissolution. Seven percent of annual ebullition CH4 is trapped as IBS and later emitted as ice melts. In a future warmer climate, there will likely be less seasonal ice cover, less IBS, less CH4 dissolution from trapped bubbles, and greater CH4 emissions from northern lakes.« less

  19. Phase-field simulations of intragranular fission gas bubble evolution in UO2 under post-irradiation thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Montgomery, Robert O.; Gao, Fei; Sun, Xin

    2013-05-15

    Fission gas bubble is one of evolving microstructures, which affect thermal mechanical properties such as thermo-conductivity, gas release, volume swelling, and cracking, in operating nuclear fuels. Therefore, fundamental understanding of gas bubble evolution kinetics is essential to predict the thermodynamic property and performance changes of fuels. In this work, a generic phasefield model was developed to describe the evolution kinetics of intra-granular fission gas bubbles in UO2 fuels under post-irradiation thermal annealing conditions. Free energy functional and model parameters are evaluated from atomistic simulations and experiments. Critical nuclei size of the gas bubble and gas bubble evolution were simulated. A linear relationship between logarithmic bubble number density and logarithmic mean bubble diameter is predicted which is in a good agreement with experimental data.

  20. Measurement of bubble sizes in fluidised beds using electrical capacitance tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandrasekera, T. C.; Li, Y.; Moody, D.; Schnellmann, M. A.; Dennis, J. S.; Holland, D. J.

    2015-01-13

    to identify all of the small bubbles present in this system or to coalescence of bubbles occurring between the pressure sensor and the ECT sensor. However, overall the agreement between the frequency measurements is good, indicating that the ECT measurements... , 161–169. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.partic.2011.10.005. Reinecke, N., Mewes, D., 1996. Recent developments and industrial/research applications of capacitance tomography. Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 233–246. Rowe, P.N., 1976. Prediction of bubble size in a...

  1. The effect of bubble growth dynamics on the performance of a gas evolving electrode 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haque, Mohammad Shamsul

    1967-01-01

    V11 1 16 28 41 58 64 67 73 77 Table LIST OF TABLES Page 1 BUBBLE NO. 1 GROWTH DATA. 2 BUBBLE NO. 2 GROMTH DATA. 3 BUBBLE NO. 3 GROWTH DATA 80 81 82 4 DATA ON SULFURIC ACID AS A FUNCTION OF CONCENTRATION. . . 83 V1 LIST OF FIGURES... was found to varv as (time) during the entire period of 2/7 growth. This dependence is reflected in the dimensionless corre- lation: N5h = ~2(NR N5 1/2 when the velocity parameter in the Reynolds Number (N ) is taken to Re be: L (PL P v) 9 1/4 Pv...

  2. The Laser of the ALICE Time Projection Chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Renault; B. S. Nielsen; J. Westergaard; J. J. GaardhØJe

    2007-03-27

    The large TPC ($95 \\mathrm{m}^3$) of the ALICE detector at the CERN LHC was commissioned in summer 2006. The first tracks were observed both from the cosmic ray muons and from the laser rays injected into the TPC. In this article the basic principles of operating the $266 \\mathrm{nm}$ lasers are presented, showing the installation and adjustment of the optical system and describing the control system. To generate the laser tracks, a wide laser beam is split into several hundred narrow beams by fixed micro-mirrors at stable and known positions throughout the TPC. In the drift volume, these narrow beams generate straight tracks at many angles. Here we describe the generation of the first tracks and compare them with simulations.

  3. QER- Comment of PA Chamber of Business and Industry

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    On behalf of Gene Barr, President & CEO of the Pennsylvania Chamber of Business and Industry, please find attached our comments regarding Natural Gas Transmission, Storage & Distribution, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania July 21, 2014. Thanks in advance for the attention to our comments and for holding a hearing today in our state. All the best, Kevin

  4. Thermodynamic Analysis of a single chamber Microbial Eric A. Zielke

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 #12;Microbial Fuel Cell Zielke 1 1 Introduction Renewable energy (RE) applications are becomingThermodynamic Analysis of a single chamber Microbial Fuel Cell Eric A. Zielke May 5, 2006 #12;Microbial Fuel Cell Zielke ii List of Tables 1 First Law Thermodynamic Efficiencies from Experimental Data

  5. Hydrogen Production in a Single Chamber Microbial Electrolysis Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrogen Production in a Single Chamber Microbial Electrolysis Cell Lacking a Membrane D O U G L 7, 2008. Hydrogen gas can be produced by electrohydrogenesis in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs assumed that a membrane is needed in an MEC to avoid hydrogen losses due to bacterial consumption

  6. The Majorana Parts Tracking Database

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Majorana Collaboration; N. Abgrall; E. Aguayo; F. T. Avignone III; A. S. Barabash; F. E. Bertrand; V. Brudanin; M. Busch; D. Byram; A. S. Caldwell; Y-D. Chan; C. D. Christofferson; D. C. Combs; C. Cuesta; J. A. Detwiler; P. J. Doe; Yu. Efremenko; V. Egorov; H. Ejiri; S. R. Elliott; J. Esterline; J. E. Fast; P. Finnerty; F. M. Fraenkle; A. Galindo-Uribarri; G. K. Giovanetti; J. Goett; M. P. Green; J. Gruszko; V. E. Guiseppe; K. Gusev; A. L. Hallin; R. Hazama; A. Hegai; R. Henning; E. W. Hoppe; S. Howard; M. A. Howe; K. J. Keeter; M. F. Kidd; O. Kochetov; S. I. Konovalov; R. T. Kouzes; B. D. LaFerriere; J. Diaz Leon; L. E. Leviner; J. C. Loach; J. MacMullin; R. D. Martin; S. J. Meijer; S. Mertens; M. L. Miller; L. Mizouni; M. Nomachi; J. L. Orrell; C. O'Shaughnessy; N. R. Overman; R. Petersburg; D. G. Phillips II; A. W. P. Poon; K. Pushkin; D. C. Radford; J. Rager; K. Rielage; R. G. H. Robertson; E. Romero-Romero; M. C. Ronquest; B. Shanks; T. Shima; M. Shirchenko; K. J. Snavely; N. Snyder; A. Soin; A. M. Suriano; D. Tedeschi; J. Thompson; V. Timkin; W. Tornow; J. E. Trimble; R. L. Varner; S. Vasilyev; K. Vetter; K. Vorren; B. R. White; J. F. Wilkerson; C. Wiseman; W. Xu; E. Yakushev; A. R. Young; C. -H. Yu; V. Yumatov; I. Zhitnikov

    2015-02-05

    The Majorana Demonstrator is an ultra-low background physics experiment searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay of $^{76}$Ge. The Majorana Parts Tracking Database is used to record the history of components used in the construction of the Demonstrator. The tracking implementation takes a novel approach based on the schema-free database technology CouchDB. Transportation, storage, and processes undergone by parts such as machining or cleaning are linked to part records. Tracking parts provides a great logistics benefit and an important quality assurance reference during construction. In addition, the location history of parts provides an estimate of their exposure to cosmic radiation. A web application for data entry and a radiation exposure calculator have been developed as tools for achieving the extreme radio-purity required for this rare decay search.

  7. The Majorana Parts Tracking Database

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abgrall, N; Avignone, F T; Bertrand, F E; Brudanin, V; Busch, M; Byram, D; Caldwell, A S; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C D; Combs, D C; Cuesta, C; Detwiler, J A; Doe, P J; Efremenko, Yu; Egorov, V; Ejiri, H; Elliott, S R; Esterline, J; Fast, J E; Finnerty, P; Fraenkle, F M; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Giovanetti, G K; Goett, J; Green, M P; Gruszko, J; Guiseppe, V E; Gusev, K; Hallin, A L; Hazama, R; Hegai, A; Henning, R; Hoppe, E W; Howard, S; Howe, M A; Keeter, K J; Kidd, M F; Kochetov, O; Kouzes, R T; LaFerriere, B D; Leon, J Diaz; Leviner, L E; Loach, J C; MacMullin, J; Martin, R D; Meijer, S J; Mertens, S; Miller, M L; Mizouni, L; Nomachi, M; Orrell, J L; O'Shaughnessy, C; Overman, N R; Petersburg, R; Phillips, D G; Poon, A W P; Pushkin, K; Radford, D C; Rager, J; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Romero-Romero, E; Ronquest, M C; Shanks, B; Shima, T; Shirchenko, M; Snavely, K J; Snyder, N; Soin, A; Suriano, A M; Tedeschi, D; Thompson, J; Timkin, V; Tornow, W; Trimble, J E; Varner, R L; Vasilyev, S; Vetter, K; Vorren, K; White, B R; Wilkerson, J F; Wiseman, C; Xu, W; Yakushev, E; Young, A R; Yu, C -H; Zhitnikov, I

    2015-01-01

    The Majorana Demonstrator is an ultra-low background physics experiment searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay of $^{76}$Ge. The Majorana Parts Tracking Database is used to record the history of components used in the construction of the Demonstrator. The tracking implementation takes a novel approach based on the schema-free database technology CouchDB. Transportation, storage, and processes undergone by parts such as machining or cleaning are linked to part records. Tracking parts provides a great logistics benefit and an important quality assurance reference during construction. In addition, the location history of parts provides an estimate of their exposure to cosmic radiation. A web application for data entry and a radiation exposure calculator have been developed as tools for achieving the extreme radio-purity required for this rare decay search.

  8. Tracking the Elusive QOOH Radical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S.Week DayDr.Theories81TowardsTracking Living Cells asTracking

  9. Tracking the Elusive QOOH Radical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S.Week DayDr.Theories81TowardsTracking Living CellsTracking the

  10. Formation of seep bubble plumes in the Coal Oil Point seep field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leifer, Ira; Culling, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    hydrocarbon seeps near Coal Oil Point, California. Marof seep bubble plumes in the Coal Oil Point seep field Irameasurement system in the Coal Oil Point seep field in the

  11. Molecular dynamics simulation of deuterium trapping and bubble formation in tungsten

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    is assumed much lower than other PFM such as carbon fiber composites (CFCs) and Be. However, hydrogen atoms bubbles were caused by the near surface deuterium super-saturation region and the subsequent plastic

  12. Bubble behavior in subcooled flow boiling on surfaces of variable wettability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tow, Emily W

    2012-01-01

    Flow boiling is important in energy conversion and thermal management due to its potential for very high heat fluxes. By improving understanding of the conditions leading to bubble departure, surfaces can be designed that ...

  13. Bubble transport in three-dimensional laminar gravity-driven flow mathematical formulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    Bubble transport in three-dimensional laminar gravity-driven flow ­ mathematical formulation, growth and shrinkage in three-dimensional flows. The flow is assumed to be laminar for the sake

  14. Correlation of black oil properties at pressures below the bubble-point 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Velarde, Jorge Javier

    1996-01-01

    recourse in such cases is the use of empirically derived correlations This study considers the correlation of black oil Pressure-Volume-Temperature (PVT) properties for pressures at or below the bubble-point pressure. Specifically, we address the following...

  15. Computation of Bubbly Flows with a Mass-Conserving Level-Set Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuik, Kees

    in chemical reactors, boiling, fuel injectors and coating. The bubbles and the surrounding fluid are modeled numerical simulation of two-phase flows. We consider two incompressible fluids (e.g. air and water

  16. Pump probe imaging of nanosecond laser induced bubbles in agar gel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguilar, Guillermo

    .0000) General. References and links 1. A. Brujan and A. Vogel, "Stress wave emission and cavitation bubble lysis: Time-resolved imaging and analysis of hydrodynamic effects," Biophysical Journal 91

  17. Bubble formation and Kr distribution in Kr-irradiated UO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, L. F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States) Dept. of Engineering Physics; Valderrama, B. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States) Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Hassan, A. -R. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States) School of Nuclear Engineering; Yu, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gupta, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States) Dept. of Engineering Physics; Pakarinen, J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States) Dept. of Engineering Physics; Henderson, H. B. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States) Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Gan, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kirk, M. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Nelson, A. T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Manuel, M. V. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States) Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; El-Azab, A. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States) School of Nuclear Engineering; Allen, T. R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States) Dept. of Engineering Physics; Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In situ and ex situ transmission electron microscopy observation of small Kr bubbles in both single-crystal and polycrystalline UO2 were conducted to understand the inert gas bubble behavior in oxide nuclear fuel. The bubble size and volume swelling are shown as a weak function of ion dose but strongly depend on the temperature. The Kr bubble formation at room temperature was observed for the first time. The depth profiles of implanted Kr determined by atom probe tomography are in good agreement with the calculated profiles by SRIM, but the measured concentration of Kr is about 1/3 of calculated one. This difference is mainly due to low solubility of Kr in UO2 matrix, which has been confirmed by both density-functional theory calculations and chemical equilibrium analysis.

  18. The bubbly-slug transition in a high velocity two phase flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffith, P.

    1964-01-01

    A possible mechanism for the transition between bubbly and slug flow is proposed and tested in a simulated slug flow system. No sudden collapse of slug flow with increasing velocity is found and it is concluded that: a. ...

  19. Shock-induced collapse of a gas bubble in shockwave lithotripsy Eric Johnsena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colonius, Tim

    Shock-induced collapse of a gas bubble in shockwave lithotripsy Eric Johnsena and Tim Coloniusb collapse, ultimately hitting the distal side and generating a water-hammer shock. As a result

  20. Formation and Decay of Toroidal and Bubble Nuclei and the Nuclear-Equation of State 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, HM; Natowitz, J. B.; Gagliardi, Carl A.; Tribble, Robert E.; Wong, C. Y.; Lynch, W. G.

    1993-01-01

    Multifragmentation, following the formation of toroidal and bubble nuclei, is observed with an improved Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck model for central Mo-92 + Mo-92 collisions. With a stiff equation of state, simultaneous ...

  1. Effect of surface tension and brine concentration on mass transfer in micro-bubble aeration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henry, Michael Kent

    1998-01-01

    concentration. An increase in surface tension increases the resistance to mass transfer across the bubble interface. By using the American Society of Civil Engineers' (ASCE) reaeration technique, the mass transfer coefficient is determined as a function...

  2. So You Think You Can Dance? Lessons from the US Private Equity Bubble

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turco, Catherine

    This article develops a sociologically informed approach to market bubbles by integrating insights from financial-economic theory with the concepts of voice and dissimulation from other cases of distorted valuation studied ...

  3. Heat Flux and Effectiveness in Bubble Colum Dehumidifiers for HDH Desalination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tow, Emily W.

    Humidification-dehumidification is a promising technology for decentralized, small-scale desalination, but high energy consumption and large dehumidifier size are disadvantages. Direct-contact dehumidification in bubble ...

  4. Robotic vehicle with multiple tracked mobility platforms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salton, Jonathan R. (Albuquerque, NM); Buttz, James H. (Albuquerque, NM); Garretson, Justin (Albuquerque, NM); Hayward, David R. (Wetmore, CO); Hobart, Clinton G. (Albuquerque, NM); Deuel, Jr., Jamieson K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-07-24

    A robotic vehicle having two or more tracked mobility platforms that are mechanically linked together with a two-dimensional coupling, thereby forming a composite vehicle of increased mobility. The robotic vehicle is operative in hazardous environments and can be capable of semi-submersible operation. The robotic vehicle is capable of remote controlled operation via radio frequency and/or fiber optic communication link to a remote operator control unit. The tracks have a plurality of track-edge scallop cut-outs that allow the tracks to easily grab onto and roll across railroad tracks, especially when crossing the railroad tracks at an oblique angle.

  5. MESO-SCALE MODELING OF THE INFLUENCE OF INTERGRANULAR GAS BUBBLES ON EFFECTIVE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul C. Millett; Michael Tonks

    2011-06-01

    Using a mesoscale modeling approach, we have investigated how intergranular fission gas bubbles, as observed in high-burnup nuclear fuel, modify the effective thermal conductivity in a polycrystalline material. The calculations reveal that intergranular porosity has a significantly higher resistance to heat transfer compared to randomly-distributed porosity. A model is developed to describe this conductivity reduction that considers an effective grain boundary Kapitza resistance as a function of the fractional coverage of grain boundaries by bubbles.

  6. Ageing studies on small Thin Gap Chambers for the ATLAS New Small Wheel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gignac, Matthew; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The instantaneous luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will be increased up to a factor of five with respect to the design value by undergoing an extensive upgrade program over the coming decade. The largest upgrade project for the ATLAS Muon System is the replacement of the present first station in the forward regions with the so-called New Small Wheels (NSWs), to be installed during the LHC long shutdown in 2018/19. Small-Strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGC) detectors are one chosen technology to provide fast trigger and high precision muon tracking under the high luminosity LHC conditions. We study ageing effects of sTGC detectors with a gas mixture of 55% of CO2 and 45% of n-pentane. A sTGC detector was irradiated with beta-rays from a Sr-90 source. Three different gas flow rates were tested. We observed no deterioration on pulse height of the sTGC up to an accumulated charge of 6.7 C/cm.

  7. The design and performance of a prototype water Cherenkov optical time-projection chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oberla, E

    2015-01-01

    A first experimental test of tracking relativistic charged particles by `drifting' Cherenkov photons in a water-based optical time-projection chamber (OTPC) has been performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility. The prototype OTPC detector consists of a 77~cm long, 28~cm diameter, 40~kg cylindrical water mass instrumented with a combination of commercial $5.1\\times5.1$~cm$^2$ micro-channel plate photo-multipliers (MCP-PMT) and $6.7\\times6.7$~cm$^2$ mirrors. Five MCP-PMTs are installed in two columns along the OTPC cylinder in a small-angle stereo configuration. A mirror is mounted opposite each MCP-PMT on the far side of the detector cylinder, effectively doubling the photo-detection efficiency and providing a time-resolved image of the Cherenkov light on the opposing wall. Each MCP-PMT is coupled to an anode readout consisting of thirty 50 Ohm microstrips. A 180-channel data acquisition system digitizes the MCP-PMT signals on one end of the microstrips using the PSEC4 waveform sampling-and-digitizing chip op...

  8. Turning heads: The biology of solar tracking in sunflower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vandenbrink, JP; Brown, EA; Harmer, SL; Blackman, BK

    2014-01-01

    Cessation of solar tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Solar tracking is not solely driven by the movement of theEcological function(s) of solar tracking and mature head

  9. Corrective Action Tracking System (CATS) | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Action Tracking System (CATS) Corrective Action Tracking System (CATS) The CATS web-based database is used to enter, track, and report the status of corrective actions...

  10. Experimental investigation of bubbling in particle beds with high solid holdup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Songbai; Hirahara, Daisuke; Tanaka, Youhei; Gondai, Yoji; Zhang, Bin; Matsumoto, Tatsuya; Morita, Koji; Fukuda, Kenji; Yamano, Hidemasa; Suzuki, Tohru; Tobita, Yoshiharu

    2011-02-15

    A series of experiments on bubbling behavior in particle beds was performed to clarify three-phase flow dynamics in debris beds formed after core-disruptive accident (CDA) in sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors (FBRs). Although in the past, several experiments have been performed in packed beds to investigate flow patterns, most of these were under comparatively higher gas flow rate, which may be not expected during an early sodium boiling period in debris beds. The current experiments were conducted under two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) conditions separately, in which water was used as liquid phase, and bubbles were generated by injecting nitrogen gas from the bottom of the viewing tank. Various particle-bed parameters were varied, including particle-bed height (from 30 mm to 200 mm), particle diameter (from 0.4 mm to 6 mm) and particle type (beads made of acrylic, glass, alumina and zirconia). Under these experimental conditions, three kinds of bubbling behavior were observed for the first time using digital image analysis methods that were further verified by quantitative detailed analysis of bubbling properties including surface bubbling frequency and surface bubble size under both 2D and 3D conditions. This investigation, which hopefully provides fundamental data for a better understanding and an improved estimation of CDAs in FBRs, is expected to benefit future analysis and verification of computer models developed in advanced fast reactor safety analysis codes. (author)

  11. N131: A dust bubble born from the disruption of a gas filament

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Chuan-Peng; Wyrowski, Friedrich; Wang, Jun-Jie; Yuan, Jing-Hua; Xu, Jin-Long; Gong, Yan; Yeh, Cosmos C; Menten, Karl M

    2015-01-01

    OB type stars have strong ionizing radiation, and drive energetic winds. The ultraviolet (UV) radiation from ionizing stars may heat dust and ionize gas to sweep up an expanding bubble shell. This shell may be the result of feedback leading to a new generation of stars. N131 is an infrared dust bubble residing in a molecular filament. We study the formation and fragmentation of this bubble with multi-wavelength dust and gas observations. Towards the bubble N131, we analyzed archival multi-wavelength observations including 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, 24, 70, 160, 250, 350, 500 \\mu m, 1.1 mm, and 21 cm. In addition, we performed new observations of CO (2-1), CO (1-0), and ^{13}CO (1-0) with the IRAM 30-m telescope. Multi-wavelength dust and gas observations reveal a ringlike shell with compact fragments, two filamentary structures, and a secondary bubble N131-A. The bubble N131 is a rare object with a large hole at 24 \\mu m and 21 cm in the direction of its center. The dust and gas clumps are compact and might have bee...

  12. AGATA - Advanced Gamma Tracking Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Akkoyun; A. Algora; B. Alikhani; F. Ameil; G. de Angelis; L. Arnold; A. Astier; A. Ataç; Y. Aubert; C. Aufranc; A. Austin; S. Aydin; F. Azaiez; S. Badoer; D. L. Balabanski; D. Barrientos; G. Baulieu; R. Baumann; D. Bazzacco; F. A. Beck; T. Beck; P. Bednarczyk; M. Bellato; M. A. Bentley; G. Benzoni; R. Berthier; L. Berti; R. Beunard; G. Lo Bianco; B. Birkenbach; P. G. Bizzeti; A. M. Bizzeti-Sona; F. Le Blanc; J. M. Blasco; N. Blasi; D. Bloor; C. Boiano; M. Borsato; D. Bortolato; A. J. Boston; H. C. Boston; P. Bourgault; P. Boutachkov; A. Bouty; A. Bracco; S. Brambilla; I. P. Brawn; A. Brondi; S. Broussard; B. Bruyneel; D. Bucurescu; I. Burrows; A. Bürger; S. Cabaret; B. Cahan; E. Calore; F. Camera; A. Capsoni; F. Carrió; G. Casati; M. Castoldi; B. Cederwall; J. -L. Cercus; V. Chambert; M. El Chambit; R. Chapman; L. Charles; J. Chavas; E. Clément; P. Cocconi; S. Coelli; P. J. Coleman-Smith; A. Colombo; S. Colosimo; C. Commeaux; D. Conventi; R. J. Cooper; A. Corsi; A. Cortesi; L. Costa; F. C. L. Crespi; J. R. Cresswell; D. M. Cullen; D. Curien; A. Czermak; D. Delbourg; R. Depalo; T. Descombes; P. Désesquelles; P. Detistov; C. Diarra; F. Didierjean; M. R. Dimmock; Q. T. Doan; C. Domingo-Pardo; M. Doncel; F. Dorangeville; N. Dosme; Y. Drouen; G. Duchêne; B. Dulny; J. Eberth; P. Edelbruck; J. Egea; T. Engert; M. N. Erduran; S. Ertürk; C. Fanin; S. Fantinel; E. Farnea; T. Faul; M. Filliger; F. Filmer; Ch. Finck; G. de France; A. Gadea; W. Gast; A. Geraci; J. Gerl; R. Gernhäuser; A. Giannatiempo; A. Giaz; L. Gibelin; A. Givechev; N. Goel; V. González; A. Gottardo; X. Grave; J. Gr?bosz; R. Griffiths; A. N. Grint; P. Gros; L. Guevara; M. Gulmini; A. Görgen; H. T. M. Ha; T. Habermann; L. J. Harkness; H. Harroch; K. Hauschild; C. He; A. Hernández-Prieto; B. Hervieu; H. Hess; T. Hüyük; E. Ince; R. Isocrate; G. Jaworski; A. Johnson; J. Jolie; P. Jones; B. Jonson; P. Joshi; D. S. Judson; A. Jungclaus; M. Kaci; N. Karkour; M. Karolak; A. Ka?ka?; M. Kebbiri; R. S. Kempley; A. Khaplanov; S. Klupp; M. Kogimtzis; I. Kojouharov; A. Korichi; W. Korten; Th. Kröll; R. Krücken; N. Kurz; B. Y. Ky; M. Labiche; X. Lafay; L. Lavergne; I. H. Lazarus; S. Leboutelier; F. Lefebvre; E. Legay; L. Legeard; F. Lelli; S. M. Lenzi; S. Leoni; A. Lermitage; D. Lersch; J. Leske; S. C. Letts; S. Lhenoret; R. M. Lieder; D. Linget; J. Ljungvall; A. Lopez-Martens; A. Lotodé; S. Lunardi; A. Maj; J. van der Marel; Y. Mariette; N. Marginean; R. Marginean; G. Maron; A. R. Mather; W. M?czy?ski; V. Mendéz; P. Medina; B. Melon; R. Menegazzo; D. Mengoni; E. Merchan; L. Mihailescu; C. Michelagnoli; J. Mierzejewski; L. Milechina; B. Million; K. Mitev; P. Molini; D. Montanari; S. Moon; F. Morbiducci; R. Moro; P. S. Morrall; O. Möller; A. Nannini; D. R. Napoli; L. Nelson; M. Nespolo; V. L. Ngo; M. Nicoletto; R. Nicolini; Y. Le Noa; P. J. Nolan; M. Norman; J. Nyberg; A. Obertelli; A. Olariu; R. Orlandi; D. C. Oxley; C. Özben; M. Ozille; C. Oziol; E. Pachoud; M. Palacz; J. Palin; J. Pancin; C. Parisel; P. Pariset; G. Pascovici; R. Peghin; L. Pellegri; A. Perego; S. Perrier; M. Petcu; P. Petkov; C. Petrache; E. Pierre; N. Pietralla; S. Pietri; M. Pignanelli; I. Piqueras; Z. Podolyak; P. Le Pouhalec; J. Pouthas; D. Pugnére; V. F. E. Pucknell; A. Pullia; B. Quintana; R. Raine; G. Rainovski; L. Ramina; G. Rampazzo; G. La Rana; M. Rebeschini; F. Recchia; N. Redon; M. Reese; P. Reiter; P. H. Regan; S. Riboldi; M. Richer; M. Rigato; S. Rigby; G. Ripamonti; A. P. Robinson; J. Robin; J. Roccaz; J. -A. Ropert; B. Rossé; C. Rossi Alvarez; D. Rosso; B. Rubio; D. Rudolph; F. Saillant; E. ?ahin; F. Salomon; M. -D. Salsac; J. Salt; G. Salvato; J. Sampson; E. Sanchis; C. Santos; H. Schaffner; M. Schlarb; D. P. Scraggs; D. Seddon; M. ?enyi?it; M. -H. Sigward; G. Simpson; J. Simpson; M. Slee; J. F. Smith; P. Sona; B. Sowicki; P. Spolaore; C. Stahl; T. Stanios; E. Stefanova; O. Stézowski; J. Strachan; G. Suliman; P. -A. Söderström; J. L. Tain; S. Tanguy; S. Tashenov; Ch. Theisen; J. Thornhill; F. Tomasi; N. Toniolo; R. Touzery; B. Travers; A. Triossi; M. Tripon; K. M. M. Tun-Lanoë; M. Turcato; C. Unsworth; C. A. Ur; J. J. Valiente-Dobon; V. Vandone; E. Vardaci; R. Venturelli; F. Veronese; Ch. Veyssiere; E. Viscione; R. Wadsworth; P. M. Walker; N. Warr; C. Weber; D. Weisshaar; D. Wells; O. Wieland; A. Wiens; G. Wittwer; H. J. Wollersheim; F. Zocca; N. V. Zamfir; M. Zi?bli?ski; A. Zucchiatti

    2012-09-17

    The Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) is a European project to develop and operate the next generation gamma-ray spectrometer. AGATA is based on the technique of gamma-ray energy tracking in electrically segmented high-purity germanium crystals. This technique requires the accurate determination of the energy, time and position of every interaction as a gamma ray deposits its energy within the detector volume. Reconstruction of the full interaction path results in a detector with very high efficiency and excellent spectral response. The realization of gamma-ray tracking and AGATA is a result of many technical advances. These include the development of encapsulated highly-segmented germanium detectors assembled in a triple cluster detector cryostat, an electronics system with fast digital sampling and a data acquisition system to process the data at a high rate. The full characterization of the crystals was measured and compared with detector-response simulations. This enabled pulse-shape analysis algorithms, to extract energy, time and position, to be employed. In addition, tracking algorithms for event reconstruction were developed. The first phase of AGATA is now complete and operational in its first physics campaign. In the future AGATA will be moved between laboratories in Europe and operated in a series of campaigns to take advantage of the different beams and facilities available to maximize its science output. The paper reviews all the achievements made in the AGATA project including all the necessary infrastructure to operate and support the spectrometer.

  13. Professional MBA Program Banking Track

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almor, Amit

    Third Year Spring I (Jan ­ Feb) Spring II (Mar ­ Apr) Spring Intersession Financial Accounting period. #12;Term First Year Second Year Third Year Fall I (Aug ­ Oct) Fall II (Oct ­ Dec) FallProfessional MBA Program Banking Track Spring Entry Course Sequence Term First Year Second Year

  14. Tracking dynamic regions of texture and shape

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Migdal, Joshua N. (Joshua Nicholas), 1979-

    2007-01-01

    The tracking of visual phenomena is a problem of fundamental importance in computer vision. Tracks are used in many contexts, including object recognition, classification, camera calibration, and scene understanding. ...

  15. Track 6: Integrating Safety Into Security Operations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ISM Workshop Presentations Knoxville Convention Center, Knoxville, TN August 2009 Track 6: Integrating Safety Into Security Operations

  16. Track 5: Integration of Safety Into Design

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ISM Workshop Presentations Knoxville Convention Center, Knoxville, TN August 2009 Track 5: Integration of Safety Into Design

  17. Using sputter coated glass to stabilize microstrip gas chambers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gong, Wen G. (Albany, CA)

    1997-01-01

    By sputter coating a thin-layer of low-resistive, electronically-conductive glass on various substrates (including quartz and ceramics, thin-film Pestov glass), microstrip gas chambers (MSGC) of high gain stability, low leakage current, and a high rate capability can be fabricated. This design can make the choice of substrate less important, save the cost of ion-implantation, and use less glass material.

  18. Fast Track Program for Master's Electrical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Arlington, University of

    Fast Track Program for Master's Degree in Electrical Engineering Prepared by: W. Alan Davis at Arlington ee grad advising@uta.edu 1 #12;Fast Track Program for Master's Degree in Electrical Engineering that they will remain and pursue doctoral degrees. Overview of the Fast Track Program The program is designed to ensure

  19. Rail ClipsRail Clips Track Renewal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colton, Jonathan S.

    Rail ClipsRail Clips and Track Renewal ver. 1 ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J 2009 7 #12;Track Renewal ­ Tie replacement ballast packingTie replacement, ballast packing ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009 8 #12;Track Renewal ME 6222: Manufacturing

  20. Tracking Defect Warnings Across Versions Jaime Spacco

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hovemeyer, David H.

    the results of tracking defect warnings across Sun's Java runtime library. Categories and Subject DescriptorsTracking Defect Warnings Across Versions Jaime Spacco£ , David HovemeyerÝ , William Pugh£ £ Dept of reasons, it is important to be able to track the occurrence of each potential defect over multiple

  1. CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network MAINE Keeping Track, Promoting Health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CS225774_E CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network MAINE Keeping Track their networks every day to improve the health of their communities. Why Tracking Matters in Maine Since joining CDC's Tracking Program, Maine has greatly expanded its ability to monitor environmental health issues

  2. CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network NEW YORK CITY Keeping Track, Promoting Health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CS225774_A CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network NEW YORK CITY Keeping Track their networks every day to improve the health of their communities. Why Tracking Matters in New York City One of New York City's (NYC) environmental public health tracking priorities is identifying hazards

  3. Compensation for the Eddy Current Effect in the APS Storage Ring Vacuum Chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemner, Ken

    Compensation for the Eddy Current Effect in the APS Storage Ring Vacuum Chamber Y. Chung Abstract inside the APS storage ring vacuum chamber due to the eddy current effect were measured. A circuit of the correction magnet field, externally applied to the vac- uum chamber, induces eddy current inside the aluminum

  4. Explicit Representation of Main-Chamber Recycling in the OEDGE Boundary Code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stangeby, P. C.

    Explicit Representation of Main-Chamber Recycling in the OEDGE Boundary Code S. LISGO, P contact occurs with the main chamber walls, additional to the divertor target. In order to investigate the role of main chamber recycling on core fuelling and impurity behavior, the OSM-EIRENE- DIVIMP (OEDGE

  5. A study of the polyethylene membrane used in diffusion chambers for radon gas concentration measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    A study of the polyethylene membrane used in diffusion chambers for radon gas concentration. Thoron can also be deterred from entering the diffusion chamber by using a polyethylene (PE) membrane rights reserved. PACS: 29.40; 23.60 Keywords: Diffusion chamber; Polyethylene membrane; Radon and thoron

  6. Recent advances in single-chamber fuel-cells: Experiment and modeling , Zongping Shao b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haile, Sossina M.

    Recent advances in single-chamber fuel-cells: Experiment and modeling Yong Hao a , Zongping Shao b; accepted 6 May 2006 Abstract Single-chamber fuel cells (SCFC) are ones in which the fuel and oxidizer is discussed. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Solid oxide fuel cell; Single chamber

  7. Enhanced Generic Phase-field Model of Irradiation Materials: Fission Gas Bubble Growth Kinetics in Polycrystalline UO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Montgomery, Robert O.; Gao, Fei; Sun, Xin

    2012-05-30

    Experiments show that inter-granular and intra-granular gas bubbles have different growth kinetics which results in heterogeneous gas bubble microstructures in irradiated nuclear fuels. A science-based model predicting the heterogeneous microstructure evolution kinetics is desired, which enables one to study the effect of thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the system on gas bubble microstructure evolution kinetics and morphology, improve the understanding of the formation mechanisms of heterogeneous gas bubble microstructure, and provide the microstructure to macroscale approaches to study their impact on thermo-mechanical properties such as thermo-conductivity, gas release, volume swelling, and cracking. In our previous report 'Mesoscale Benchmark Demonstration, Problem 1: Mesoscale Simulations of Intra-granular Fission Gas Bubbles in UO2 under Post-irradiation Thermal Annealing', we developed a phase-field model to simulate the intra-granular gas bubble evolution in a single crystal during post-irradiation thermal annealing. In this work, we enhanced the model by incorporating thermodynamic and kinetic properties at grain boundaries, which can be obtained from atomistic simulations, to simulate fission gas bubble growth kinetics in polycrystalline UO2 fuels. The model takes into account of gas atom and vacancy diffusion, vacancy trapping and emission at defects, gas atom absorption and resolution at gas bubbles, internal pressure in gas bubbles, elastic interaction between defects and gas bubbles, and the difference of thermodynamic and kinetic properties in matrix and grain boundaries. We applied the model to simulate gas atom segregation at grain boundaries and the effect of interfacial energy and gas mobility on gas bubble morphology and growth kinetics in a bi-crystal UO2 during post-irradiation thermal annealing. The preliminary results demonstrate that the model can produce the equilibrium thermodynamic properties and the morphology of gas bubbles at grain boundaries for given grain boundary properties. More validation of the model capability in polycrystalline is underway.

  8. Track Finding Efficiency in BaBar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Allmendinger; B. Bhuyan; D. N. Brown; H. Choi; S. Christ; R. Covarelli; M. Davier; A. G. Denig; M. Fritsch; A. Hafner; R. Kowalewski; O. Long; A. M. Lutz; M. Martinelli; D. R. Muller; I. M. Nugent; D. Lopes Pegna; M. V. Purohit; E. Prencipe; J. M. Roney; G. Simi; E. P. Solodov; A. V. Telnov; E. Varnes; R. Waldi; W. F. Wang; R. M. White

    2012-07-12

    We describe several studies to measure the charged track reconstruction efficiency and asymmetry of the BaBar detector. The first two studies measure the tracking efficiency of a charged particle using $\\tau$ and initial state radiation decays. The third uses the $\\tau$ decays to study the asymmetry in tracking, the fourth measures the tracking efficiency for low momentum tracks, and the last measures the reconstruction efficiency of $K_S^0$ particles. The first section also examines the stability of the measurements vs BaBar running periods.

  9. Dual chamber system providing simultaneous etch and deposition on opposing substrate sides for growing low defect density epitaxial layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Nagraj S. (Knoxville, TN); Kasica, Richard J. (Ashburn, VA) ,

    2011-03-08

    A dual-chamber reactor can include a housing enclosing a volume having a divider therein, where the divider defines a first chamber and a second chamber. The divider can include a substrate holder that supports at least one substrate and exposes a first side of the substrate to the first chamber and a second side of the substrate to the second chamber. The first chamber can include an inlet for delivering at least one reagent to the first chamber for forming a film on the first side of the substrate, and the second chamber can include a removal device for removing material from the second side of the substrate.

  10. Radiopurity assessment of the tracking readout for the NEXT double beta decay experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Cebrián; J. Pérez; I. Bandac; L. Labarga; V. Álvarez; A. I. Barrado; A. Bettini; F. I. G. M. Borges; M. Camargo; S. Cárcel; A. Cervera; C. A. N. Conde; E. Conde; T. Dafni; J. Díaz; R. Esteve; L. M. P. Fernandes; M. Fernández; P. Ferrario; A. L. Ferreira; E. D. C. Freitas; V. M. Gehman; A. Goldschmidt; J. J. Gómez-Cadenas; D. González-Díaz; R. M. Gutiérrez; J. Hauptman; J. A. Hernando Morata; D. C. Herrera; I. G. Irastorza; A. Laing; I. Liubarsky; N. López-March; D. Lorca; M. Losada; G. Luzón; A. Marí; J. Martín-Albo; A. Martínez; G. Martínez-Lema; T. Miller; F. Monrabal; M. Monserrate; C. M. B. Monteiro; F. J. Mora; L. M. Moutinho; J. Muñoz Vidal; M. Nebot-Guinot; D. Nygren; C. A. B. Oliveira; A. Ortiz de Solórzano; J. L. Pérez Aparicio; M. Querol; J. Renner; L. Ripoll; J. Rodríguez; F. P. Santos; J. M. F. dos Santos; L. Serra; D. Shuman; A. Simón; C. Sofka; M. Sorel; J. F. Toledo; J. Torrent; Z. Tsamalaidze; J. F. C. A. Veloso; J. A. Villar; R. C. Webb; J. T. White; N. Yahlali

    2015-06-15

    The Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon Time-Projection Chamber (NEXT) is intended to investigate the neutrinoless double beta decay of 136Xe, which requires a severe suppression of potential backgrounds; therefore, an extensive screening and selection process is underway to control the radiopurity levels of the materials to be used in the experimental set-up of NEXT. The detector design combines the measurement of the topological signature of the event for background discrimination with the energy resolution optimization. Separate energy and tracking readout planes are based on different sensors: photomultiplier tubes for calorimetry and silicon multi-pixel photon counters for tracking. The design of a radiopure tracking plane, in direct contact with the gas detector medium, was specially challenging since the needed components like printed circuit boards, connectors, sensors or capacitors have typically, according to available information in databases and in the literature, activities too large for experiments requiring ultra-low background conditions. Here, the radiopurity assessment of tracking readout components based on gamma-ray spectroscopy using ultra-low background germanium detectors at the Laboratorio Subterraneo de Canfranc (Spain) is described. According to the obtained results, radiopure enough printed circuit boards made of kapton and copper, silicon photomultipliers and other required components, fulfilling the requirement of an overall background level in the region of interest of at most 8 10-4 counts keV-1 kg-1 y-1, have been identified.

  11. Single nanoparticle tracking spectroscopic microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Haw (Moraga, CA); Cang, Hu (Berkeley, CA); Xu, Cangshan (Berkeley, CA); Wong, Chung M. (San Gabriel, CA)

    2011-07-19

    A system that can maintain and track the position of a single nanoparticle in three dimensions for a prolonged period has been disclosed. The system allows for continuously imaging the particle to observe any interactions it may have. The system also enables the acquisition of real-time sequential spectroscopic information from the particle. The apparatus holds great promise in performing single molecule spectroscopy and imaging on a non-stationary target.

  12. Infrared tag and track technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Partin, Judy K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stone, Mark L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Slater, John (Albuquerque, NM); Davidson, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2007-12-04

    A method of covertly tagging an object for later tracking includes providing a material capable of at least one of being applied to the object and being included in the object, which material includes deuterium; and performing at least one of applying the material to the object and including the material in the object in a manner in which in the appearance of the object is not changed, to the naked eye.

  13. Construction and test of MDT chambers for the ATLAS muon spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauer, F; Dietl, H; Kroha, H; Lagouri, T; Manz, A; Ostapchuk, A Ya; Richter, R; Schael, S; Chouridou, S; Deile, M; Kortner, O; Staude, A; Ströhmer, R; Trefzger, T M

    2001-01-01

    The Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers for the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) consist of 3-4 layers of pressurized drift tubes on either side ofa space frame carrying an optical monitoring system to correct fordeformations. The full-scale prototype of a large MDT chamber has been constructed with methods suitable for large-scale production. X-ray measurements at CERN showed a positioning accuracy of the sense wires in the chamber of better than the required 20 micrometers (rms). The performance of the chamber was studied in a muon beam at CERN. Chamber production for ATLAS now has started.

  14. Exploring Light's Interactions with Bubbles and Light Absorbers in Photoelectrochemical Devices using Ray Tracing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, John

    2013-12-31

    Ray tracing was used to perform optical optimization of arrays of photovoltaic microrods and explore the interaction between light and bubbles of oxygen gas on the surface of the microrods. The incident angle of light was varied over a wide range. The percent of incident light absorbed by the microrods and reflected by the bubbles was computed over this range. It was found that, for the 10 ?m diameter, 100 ?m tall SrTiO{sub 3} microrods simulated in the model, the optimal center-­?to-­?center spacing was 14 ?m for a square grid. This geometry produced 75% average and 90% maximum absorbance. For a triangular grid using the same microrods, the optimal center-­?to-­?center spacing was 14 ?m. This geometry produced 67% average and 85% maximum absorbance. For a randomly laid out grid of 5 ?m diameter, 100 ?m tall SrTiO! microrods with an average center-­?to-­?center spacing of 20 ?m, the average absorption was 23% and the maximum absorption was 43%. For a 50% areal coverage fraction of bubbles on the absorber surface, between 2%-­?20% of the incident light energy was reflected away from the rods by the bubbles, depending upon incident angle and bubble morphology.

  15. Micro-chamber filling experiments for validation of macro models with applications in capillary driven microfluidics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gauntt, Stephen Byron

    2009-05-15

    Prediction of bubble formation during filling of microchambers is often critical for determining the efficacy of microfluidic devices in various applications. In this study experimental validation is performed to verify the predictions from a...

  16. Performance parameters of a liquid filled ionization chamber array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poppe, B.; Stelljes, T. S.; Looe, H. K.; Chofor, N.; Harder, D.; Willborn, K.

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: In this work, the properties of the two-dimensional liquid filled ionization chamber array Octavius 1000SRS (PTW-Freiburg, Germany) for use in clinical photon-beam dosimetry are investigated.Methods: Measurements were carried out at an Elekta Synergy and Siemens Primus accelerator. For measurements of stability, linearity, and saturation effects of the 1000SRS array a Semiflex 31013 ionization chamber (PTW-Freiburg, Germany) was used as a reference. The effective point of measurement was determined by TPR measurements of the array in comparison with a Roos chamber (type 31004, PTW-Freiburg, Germany). The response of the array with varying field size and depth of measurement was evaluated using a Semiflex 31010 ionization chamber as a reference. Output factor measurements were carried out with a Semiflex 31010 ionization chamber, a diode (type 60012, PTW-Freiburg, Germany), and the detector array under investigation. The dose response function for a single detector of the array was determined by measuring 1 cm wide slit-beam dose profiles and comparing them against diode-measured profiles. Theoretical aspects of the low pass properties and of the sampling frequency of the detector array were evaluated. Dose profiles measured with the array and the diode detector were compared, and an intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) field was verified using the Gamma-Index method and the visualization of line dose profiles.Results: The array showed a short and long term stability better than 0.1% and 0.2%, respectively. Fluctuations in linearity were found to be within ±0.2% for the vendor specified dose range. Saturation effects were found to be similar to those reported in other studies for liquid-filled ionization chambers. The detector's relative response varied with field size and depth of measurement, showing a small energy dependence accounting for maximum signal deviations of ±2.6% from the reference condition for the setup used. The ?-values of the Gaussian dose response function for a single detector of the array were found to be (0.72 ± 0.25) mm at 6 MV and (0.74 ± 0.25) mm at 15 MV and the corresponding low pass cutoff frequencies are 0.22 and 0.21 mm{sup ?1}, respectively. For the inner 5 × 5 cm{sup 2} region and the outer 11 × 11 cm{sup 2} region of the array the Nyquist theorem is fulfilled for maximum sampling frequencies of 0.2 and 0.1 mm{sup ?1}, respectively. An IMRT field verification with a Gamma-Index analysis yielded a passing rate of 95.2% for a 3 mm/3% criterion with a TPS calculation as reference.Conclusions: This study shows the applicability of the Octavius 1000SRS in modern dosimetry. Output factor and dose profile measurements illustrated the applicability of the array in small field and stereotactic dosimetry. The high spatial resolution ensures adequate measurements of dose profiles in regular and intensity modulated photon-beam fields.

  17. Nov 13-14, 2001 A. R. Raffray, et al., Progress Report on Chamber Clearing Code Effort 1 Progress Report on Chamber Clearing Code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffray, A. René

    Nov 13-14, 2001 A. R. Raffray, et al., Progress Report on Chamber Clearing Code Effort 1 Progress Livermore November 13-14, 2001 #12;Nov 13-14, 2001 A. R. Raffray, et al., Progress Report on Chamber.g. - CFDRC - HEIGHTS - RECON · Code implementation and integration of packages #12;Nov 13-14, 2001 A. R

  18. Statistics of the electromagnetic response of a chaotic reverberation chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. -B. Gros; U. Kuhl; O. Legrand; F. Mortessagne; O. Picon; E. Richalot

    2014-09-20

    This article presents a study of the electromagnetic response of a chaotic reverberation chamber (RC) in the presence of losses. By means of simulations and of experiments, the fluctuations in the maxima of the field obtained in a conventional mode-stirred RC are compared with those in a chaotic RC in the neighborhood of the Lowest Useable Frequency (LUF). The present work illustrates that the universal spectral and spatial statistical properties of chaotic RCs allow to meet more adequately the criteria required by the Standard IEC 61000-4-21 to perform tests of electromagnetic compatibility.

  19. Performance Evaluation of Reverberant Chamber Background Noise Levels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ravi, Sankaranarayana

    2012-02-14

    ?higher?octave?bands,? the reby? increasing? the? loudness?of? the? fan.?? For?better?system?design,?it? is?necessary?to?obtain ?the?sound?power?signatures?of?the? fan?in?the?various?octave?bands?rather?than?a?singl e?rating?number?for?sound?power?level.?? Laboratory? fan...?installed?or?a?rotating?boom?microphone?s etup??is?adopted.? 4.2 ? Literature?Review? Table?5?presents? the?survey?of?all? relevant? literat ure?on?reverberant?chamber? testing? with?a?particular?attention?to?sound?power?measurem ent?testing?facilities.? ? ? 15? Ta bl e?5 ???????? Li...

  20. Quantitative measurement by artificial vision of small bubbles in flowing mercury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paquit, Vincent C [ORNL; Wendel, Mark W [ORNL; Felde, David K [ORNL; Riemer, Bernie [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    At the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), an accelerator-based neutron source located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Tennessee, USA), the production of neutrons is obtained by accelerating protons against a mercury target. This self-cooling target, however, suffers rapid heat deposition by the beam pulse leading to large pressure changes and thus to cavitations that may be damaging to the container. In order to locally compensate for pressure increases, a small-bubble population is added to the mercury flow using gas bubblers. The geometry of the bubblers being unknown, we are testing several bubblers configurations and are using machine vision techniques to characterize their efficiency by quantitative measurement of the created bubble population. In this paper we thoroughly detail the experimental setup and the image processing techniques used to quantitatively assess the bubble population. To support this approach we are comparing our preliminary results for different bubblers and operating modes, and discuss potential improvements.

  1. Fermion scattering off a [ital CP]-violating electroweak bubble wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Funakubo, K.; Kakuto, A.; Otsuki, S.; Takenaga, K.; Toyoda, F. (Department of Physics, Saga University, Saga 840 (Japan) Department of Liberal Arts, Kinki University in Kyushu, Iizuka 820 (Japan) Department of Physics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812 (Japan))

    1994-07-15

    A general prescription to solve the Dirac equation in the presence of a [ital CP]-violating electroweak bubble wall is presented. The profile of the bubble wall is not specified except that the wall height is [ital m][sub 0] and zero deep in the broken- and the symmetric-phase regions, respectively, where [ital m][sub 0] is a fermion mass given by the Higgs vacuum, expectation value and the Yukawa coupling. The [ital CP]-violating effects are evaluated by regarding the [ital CP]-violating part of the bubble wall as a perturbation to [ital CP]-conserving solutions. The basic quantity [ital R][sub [ital R][r arrow][ital L

  2. Modeling the influence of bubble pressure on grain boundary separation and fission gas release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pritam Chakraborty; Michael R. Tonks; Giovanni Pastore

    2014-09-01

    Grain boundary (GB) separation as a mechanism for fission gas release (FGR), complementary to gas bubble interlinkage, has been experimentally observed in irradiated light water reactor fuel. However there has been limited effort to develop physics-based models incorporating this mechanism for the analysis of FGR. In this work, a computational study is carried out to investigate GB separation in UO2 fuel under the effect of gas bubble pressure and hydrostatic stress. A non-dimensional stress intensity factor formula is obtained through 2D axisymmetric analyses considering lenticular bubbles and Mode-I crack growth. The obtained functional form can be used in higher length-scale models to estimate the contribution of GB separation to FGR.

  3. Random-Walk Monte Carlo Simulation of Intergranular Gas Bubble Nucleation in UO2 Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yongfeng Zhang; Michael R. Tonks; S. B. Biner; D.A. Andersson

    2012-11-01

    Using a random-walk particle algorithm, we investigate the clustering of fission gas atoms on grain bound- aries in oxide fuels. The computational algorithm implemented in this work considers a planar surface representing a grain boundary on which particles appear at a rate dictated by the Booth flux, migrate two dimensionally according to their grain boundary diffusivity, and coalesce by random encounters. Specifically, the intergranular bubble nucleation density is the key variable we investigate using a parametric study in which the temperature, grain boundary gas diffusivity, and grain boundary segregation energy are varied. The results reveal that the grain boundary bubble nucleation density can vary widely due to these three parameters, which may be an important factor in the observed variability in intergranular bubble percolation among grain boundaries in oxide fuel during fission gas release.

  4. Arresting bubble coarsening: A model for stopping grain growth with interfacial elasticity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anniina Salonen; Cyprien Gay; Armando Maestro; Wiebke Drenckhan; Emmanuelle Rio

    2015-05-22

    Many two-phase materials suffer from grain-growth due to the energy cost which is associated with the interface that separates both phases. While our understanding of the driving forces and the dynamics of grain growth in different materials is well advanced by now, current research efforts address the question of how this process may be slowed down, or, ideally, arrested. We use a model system of two bubbles to explore how the presence of an interfacial elasticity may interfere with the coarsening process and the final grain size distribution. Combining experiments and modelling in the analysis of the evolution of two bubbles, we show that clear relationships can be predicted between the interfacial tension, the interfacial elasticity and the change in bubble polydispersity. Despite its general interest, the presented results have direct implications for our understanding of foam stability.

  5. Analytic model of electron self-injection in a plasma wakefield accelerator in the strongly nonlinear bubble regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi, S. A.; Khudik, V.; Siemon, C.; Shvets, G.

    2012-12-21

    Self-injection of background electrons in plasma wakefield accelerators in the highly nonlinear bubble regime is analyzed using particle-in-cell and semi-analytic modeling. It is shown that the return current in the bubble sheath layer is crucial for accurate determination of the trapped particle trajectories.

  6. Influence of surfactant solubility on the deformation and breakup of a bubble or capillary jet in a viscous fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, Yuan N.

    and Center for Applied Mathematics and Statistics, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey pinch-off as occurs for a surfactant-free bubble. Insoluble surfactant significantly retards pinch bubble. With soluble surfactant, depending on parameter values, a slender thread forms but can pinch

  7. Entrainment and mixing properties of multiphase plumes: Experimental studies on turbulence and scalar structure of a bubble plume 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seol, Dong Guan

    2009-05-15

    . The entrainment coefficients representing the mixing properties of a bubble plume are calculated to lie between 0.08 near the plume source and 0.05 in the upper region, and to depend on the non-dimensional quantity us/(B/z)1/3, where us is the bubble slip velocity...

  8. Tracking system for solar collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, B.

    1980-10-01

    A tracking system is provided for pivotally mounted spaced-apart solar collectors. A pair of cables is connected to spaced-apart portions of each collector, and a driver displaces the cables, thereby causing the collectors to pivot about their mounting, so as to assume the desired orientation. The collectors may be of the cylindrical type as well as the flat-plate type. Rigid spar-like linkages may be substituted for the cables. Releasable attachments of the cables to the collectors is also described, as is a fine tuning mechanism for precisely aligning each individual collector.

  9. Tracking system for solar collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, Barry L. (Golden, CO)

    1984-01-01

    A tracking system is provided for pivotally mounted spaced-apart solar collectors. A pair of cables is connected to spaced-apart portions of each collector, and a driver displaces the cables, thereby causing the collectors to pivot about their mounting, so as to assume the desired orientation. The collectors may be of the cylindrical type as well as the flat-plate type. Rigid spar-like linkages may be substituted for the cables. Releasable attachments of the cables to the collectors is also described, as is a fine tuning mechanism for precisely aligning each individual collector.

  10. Tracking the Elusive QOOH Radical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S.Week DayDr.Theories81TowardsTracking Living Cells

  11. Emergence of granular-sized magnetic bubbles through the solar atmosphere. I. Spectropolarimetric observations and simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortiz, Ada; Hansteen, Viggo H.; Van der Voort, Luc Rouppe [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway); Bellot Rubio, Luis R. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Apdo. 3040, E-18080 Granada (Spain); De la Cruz Rodríguez, Jaime, E-mail: ada@astro.uio.no [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-02-01

    We study a granular-sized magnetic flux emergence event that occurred in NOAA 11024 in 2009 July. The observations were made with the CRISP spectropolarimeter at the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope achieving a spatial resolution of 0.''14. Simultaneous full Stokes observations of the two photospheric Fe I lines at 630.2 nm and the chromospheric Ca II 854.2 nm line allow us to describe in detail the emergence process across the solar atmosphere. We report here on three-dimensional (3D) semi-spherical bubble events, where instead of simple magnetic footpoints, we observe complex semi-circular feet straddling a few granules. Several phenomena occur simultaneously, namely, abnormal granulation, separation of opposite-polarity legs, and brightenings at chromospheric heights. However, the most characteristic signature in these events is the observation of a dark bubble in filtergrams taken in the wings of the Ca II 854.2 nm line. There is a clear coincidence between the emergence of horizontal magnetic field patches and the formation of the dark bubble. We can infer how the bubble rises through the solar atmosphere as we see it progressing from the wings to the core of Ca II 854.2 nm. In the photosphere, the magnetic bubble shows mean upward Doppler velocities of 2 km s{sup –1} and expands at a horizontal speed of 4 km s{sup –1}. In about 3.5 minutes it travels some 1100 km to reach the mid chromosphere, implying an average ascent speed of 5.2 km s{sup –1}. The maximum separation attained by the magnetic legs is 6.''6. From an inversion of the observed Stokes spectra with the SIR code, we find maximum photospheric field strengths of 480 G and inclinations of nearly 90° in the magnetic bubble interior, along with temperature deficits of up to 250 K at log ? = –2 and above. To aid the interpretation of the observations, we carry out 3D numerical simulations of the evolution of a horizontal, untwisted magnetic flux sheet injected in the convection zone, using the Bifrost code. The computational domain spans from the upper convection zone to the lower corona. In the modeled chromosphere, the rising flux sheet produces a large, cool, magnetized bubble. We compare this bubble with the observed ones and find excellent agreement, including similar field strengths and velocity signals in the photosphere and chromosphere, temperature deficits, ascent speeds, expansion velocities, and lifetimes.

  12. Breakup of Air Bubbles in Water: Memory and Breakdown of Cylindrical Symmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nathan C. Keim; Peder Moller; Wendy W. Zhang; Sidney R. Nagel

    2006-07-31

    Using high-speed video, we have studied air bubbles detaching from an underwater nozzle. As a bubble distorts, it forms a thin neck which develops a singular shape as it pinches off. As in other singularities, the minimum neck radius scales with the time until breakup. However, because the air-water interfacial tension does not drive breakup, even small initial cylindrical asymmetries are preserved throughout the collapse. This novel, non-universal singularity retains a memory of the nozzle shape, size and tilt angle. In the last stages, the air appears to tear instead of pinch.

  13. Energy enhancement of proton acceleration in combinational radiation pressure and bubble by optimizing plasma density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bake, Muhammad Ali; Xie Baisong [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Shan Zhang [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, Shijiazhuang 050043 (China); Hong Xueren [College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Wang Hongyu [Department of Physics, Anshan Normal University, Anshan 114005 (China); Shanghai Bright-Tech Information Technology Co. Ltd, Shanghai 200136 (China)

    2012-08-15

    The combinational laser radiation pressure and plasma bubble fields to accelerate protons are researched through theoretical analysis and numerical simulations. The dephasing length of the accelerated protons bunch in the front of the bubble and the density gradient effect of background plasma on the accelerating phase are analyzed in detail theoretically. The radiation damping effect on the accelerated protons energy is also considered. And it is demonstrated by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations that the protons bunch energy can be increased by using the background plasma with negative density gradient. However, radiation damping makes the maximal energy of the accelerated protons a little reduction.

  14. Temporal evolution of bubble tip velocity in classical Rayleigh-Taylor instability at arbitrary Atwood numbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, W. H.; HEDPS and CAPT, Peking University, Beijing 100871 ; Wang, L. F.; Ye, W. H.; Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088; Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 ; He, X. T.; Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088

    2013-06-15

    In this research, the temporal evolution of the bubble tip velocity in Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) at arbitrary Atwood numbers and different initial perturbation velocities with a discontinuous profile in irrotational, incompressible, and inviscid fluids (i.e., classical RTI) is investigated. Potential models from Layzer [Astrophys. J. 122, 1 (1955)] and perturbation velocity potentials from Goncharov [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 134502 (2002)] are introduced. It is found that the temporal evolution of bubble tip velocity [u(t)] depends essentially on the initial perturbation velocity [u(0)]. First, when the u(0)bubble tip velocity increases smoothly up to the asymptotic velocity (u{sup asp}) or terminal velocity. Second, when C{sup (1)}u{sup asp}?u(0)bubble tip velocity increases quickly, reaching a maximum velocity and then drops slowly to the u{sup asp}. Third, when C{sup (2)}u{sup asp}?u(0)bubble tip velocity decays rapidly to a minimum velocity and then increases gradually toward the u{sup asp}. Finally, when u(0)?C{sup (3)}u{sup asp}, the bubble tip velocity decays monotonically to the u{sup asp}. Here, the critical coefficients C{sup (1)},C{sup (2)}, and C{sup (3)}, which depend sensitively on the Atwood number (A) and the initial perturbation amplitude of the bubble tip [h(0)], are determined by a numerical approach. The model proposed here agrees with hydrodynamic simulations. Thus, it should be included in applications where the bubble tip velocity plays an important role, such as the design of the ignition target of inertial confinement fusion where the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) can create the seed of RTI with u(0)?u{sup asp}, and stellar formation and evolution in astrophysics where the deflagration wave front propagating outwardly from the star is subject to the combined RMI and RTI.

  15. Two-axis tracking solar collector mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Kenneth C. (201 W. California Ave., #401, Sunnyvale, CA 94086)

    1990-01-01

    This invention is a novel solar tracking mechanism incorporating a number of practical features that give it superior environmental resilience and exceptional tracking accuracy. The mechanism comprises a lightweight space-frame assembly supporting an array of point-focus Fresnel lenses in a two-axis tracking structure. The system is enclosed under a glass cover which isolates it from environmental exposure and enhances tracking accuracy by eliminating wind loading. Tracking accuracy is also enhanced by the system's broad-based tracking support. The system's primary intended application would be to focus highly concentrated sunlight into optical fibers for transmission to core building illumination zones, and the system may also have potential for photovoltaic or photothermal solar energy conversion.

  16. Two-axis tracking solar collector mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Kenneth C. (201 W. California Ave. #705, Sunnyvale, CA 94086)

    1992-01-01

    This invention is a novel solar tracking mechanism incorporating a number of practical features that give it superior environmental resilience and exceptional tracking accuracy. The mechanism comprises a lightweight space-frame assembly supporting an array of point-focus Fresnel lenses in a two-axis tracking structure. The system is enclosed under a glass cover which isolates it from environmental exposure and enhances tracking accuracy by eliminating wind loading. Tracking accuracy is also enhanced by the system's broad-based tracking support. The system's primary intended application would be to focus highly concentrated sunlight into optical fibers for transmission to core building illumination zones, and the system may also have potential for photovoltaic or photothermal solar energy conversion.

  17. Two-axis tracking solar collector mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, K.C.

    1992-12-08

    This invention is a novel solar tracking mechanism incorporating a number of practical features that give it superior environmental resilience and exceptional tracking accuracy. The mechanism comprises a lightweight space-frame assembly supporting an array of point-focus Fresnel lenses in a two-axis tracking structure. The system is enclosed under a glass cover which isolates it from environmental exposure and enhances tracking accuracy by eliminating wind loading. Tracking accuracy is also enhanced by the system's broad-based tracking support. The system's primary intended application would be to focus highly concentrated sunlight into optical fibers for transmission to core building illumination zones, and the system may also have potential for photovoltaic or photothermal solar energy conversion. 16 figs.

  18. Fuel, lubricant and additive effects in combustion chamber deposit formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelemen, S.R.; Homan, H.S.

    1996-10-01

    CCD causes octane requirement increase (ORI) and can potentially contributes to exhaust emissions and combustion chamber deposit interference (CCDI). Experiments were conducted to identify the separate fuel, lubricant and additive contributions to the amount and composition of CCD. CCD originates from multiple sources. Gasoline hydrocarbon components, gasoline additives, engine lubricant, and atmospheric nitrogen contribute to CCD in different ways. With some fuels the engine lubricant is the main contributor to CCD and this is shown by the high ash level in the CCD. For other fuels CCD is predominantly organic. Significant amounts of nitrogen were found in the CCD even when the fuel and lubricant were nitrogen free. The pyrolysis reactivity of different CCDs was studied to gain an understanding about the transformations that potentially happen over longer times and lower temperatures on the combustion chamber walls. In all cases during mild pyrolysis (375{degrees}C) there was a substantial increase in the level of aromatic carbon and a decrease in the level of organic oxygen. The largest increases in the amount of aromatic carbon occurred for CCDs that were the least aromatic.

  19. Slag monitoring system for combustion chambers of steam boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taler, J.; Taler, D.

    2009-07-01

    The computer-based boiler performance system presented in this article has been developed to provide a direct and quantitative assessment of furnace and convective surface cleanliness. Temperature, pressure, and flow measurements and gas analysis data are used to perform heat transfer analysis in the boiler furnace and evaporator. Power boiler efficiency is calculated using an indirect method. The on-line calculation of the exit flue gas temperature in a combustion chamber allows for an on-line heat flow rate determination, which is transferred to the boiler evaporator. Based on the energy balance for the boiler evaporator, the superheated steam mass flow rate is calculated taking into the account water flow rate in attemperators. Comparing the calculated and the measured superheated steam mass flow rate, the effectiveness of the combustion chamber water walls is determined in an on-line mode. Soot-blower sequencing can be optimized based on actual cleaning requirements rather than on fixed time cycles contributing to lowering of the medium usage in soot blowers and increasing of the water-wall lifetime.

  20. Atmospheric-pressure plasma decontamination/sterilization chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herrmann, Hans W. (Los Alamos, NM); Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01

    An atmospheric-pressure plasma decontamination/sterilization chamber is described. The apparatus is useful for decontaminating sensitive equipment and materials, such as electronics, optics and national treasures, which have been contaminated with chemical and/or biological warfare agents, such as anthrax, mustard blistering agent, VX nerve gas, and the like. There is currently no acceptable procedure for decontaminating such equipment. The apparatus may also be used for sterilization in the medical and food industries. Items to be decontaminated or sterilized are supported inside the chamber. Reactive gases containing atomic and metastable oxygen species are generated by an atmospheric-pressure plasma discharge in a He/O.sub.2 mixture and directed into the region of these items resulting in chemical reaction between the reactive species and organic substances. This reaction typically kills and/or neutralizes the contamination without damaging most equipment and materials. The plasma gases are recirculated through a closed-loop system to minimize the loss of helium and the possibility of escape of aerosolized harmful substances.

  1. Wire-chamber radiation detector with discharge control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, V.; Mulera, T.A.

    1982-03-29

    A wire chamber; radiation detector has spaced apart parallel electrodes and grids defining an ignition region in which charged particles or other ionizing radiations initiate brief localized avalanche discharges and defining an adjacent memory region in which sustained glow discharges are initiated by the primary discharges. Conductors of the grids at each side of the memory section extend in orthogonal directions enabling readout of the X-Y coordinates of locations at which charged particles were detected by sequentially transmitting pulses to the conductors of one grid while detecting transmissions of the pulses to the orthogonal conductors of the other grid through glow discharges. One of the grids bounding the memory region is defined by an array of conductive elements each of which is connected to the associated readout conductor through a separate resistance. The wire chamber avoids ambiguities and imprecisions in the readout of coordinates when large numbers of simultaneous or; near simultaneous charged particles have been detected. Down time between detection periods and the generation of radio frequency noise are also reduced.

  2. Track recognition in 4 [mu]s by a systolic trigger processor using a parallel Hough transform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klefenz, F.; Noffz, K.H.; Conen, W.; Zoz, R.; Kugel, A. . Lehrstuhl fuer Informatik V); Maenner, R. . Lehrstuhl fuer Informatik V Univ. Heidelberg . Interdisziplinaeres Zentrum fuer Wissenschaftliches Rechnen)

    1993-08-01

    A parallel Hough transform processor has been developed that identifies circular particle tracks in a 2D projection of the OPAL jet chamber. The high-speed requirements imposed by the 8 bunch crossing mode of LEP could be fulfilled by computing the starting angle and the radius of curvature for each well defined track in less than 4 [mu]s. The system consists of a Hough transform processor that determines well defined tracks, and a Euler processor that counts their number by applying the Euler relation to the thresholded result of the Hough transform. A prototype of a systolic processor has been built that handles one sector of the jet chamber. It consists of 35 [times] 32 processing elements that were loaded into 21 programmable gate arrays (XILINX). This processor runs at a clock rate of 40 MHz. It has been tested offline with about 1,000 original OPAL events. No deviations from the off-line simulation have been found. A trigger efficiency of 93% has been obtained. The prototype together with the associated drift time measurement unit has been installed at the OPAL detector at LEP and 100k events have been sampled to evaluate the system under detector conditions.

  3. Acoustic emission associated with the bursting of a gas bubble at the free surface of a non-newtonian fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thibaut Divoux; Valérie Vidal; Francisco Melo; Jean-Christophe Géminard

    2008-07-01

    We report experimental measurements of the acoustic emission associated with the bursting of a gas bubble at the free surface of a non-newtonian fluid. On account of the viscoelastic properties of the fluid, the bubble is generally elongated. The associated frequency and duration of the acoustic signal are discussed with regard to the shape of the bubble and successfully accounted for by a simple linear model. The acoustic energy exhibits a high sensitivity to the dynamics of the thin film bursting, which demonstrates that, in practice, it is barely possible to deduce from the acoustic measurements the total amount of energy released by the event. Our experimental findings provide clues for the understanding of the signals from either volcanoes or foams, where one observes respectively, the bursting of giant bubbles at the free surface of lava and bubble bursting avalanches.

  4. Effect of bubble volume fraction on the shear and extensional rheology of bubbly liquids based on guar gum (a Giesekus fluid) as continuous phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres, M. D.; Hallmark, B.; Wilson, D. I.

    2014-09-16

    al., 2012). Bubbly liquids are also 57 encountered in nature in the form of magmas (Manga and Loewenberg, 2001; Gonnermann and 58 Manga, 2007) and in other industrial sectors in the form of foamed cement (Ahmed et al., 2009), 59 extracted crude oil... relaxation and temperature equilibration. A thin film of a Newtonian silicone oil 189 (viscosity 1 Pa s) was applied to the exposed sample edges to prevent evaporation. Initial testing on a 190 series of samples showed little difference between measurements...

  5. Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    betterbuildings.energy.gov Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance i Preface The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Better Buildings, Better Plants Program (Better...

  6. Pollution Prevention Tracking and Reporting System | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Welcome to the Department of Energy's Pollution Prevention Tracking and Reporting System (PPTRS). DOE uses this system to collect information about, and assess the performance of,...

  7. Tracking New Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    January 8, 2010 National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Systems Analyses and Planning Erik Shuster 2 Tracking New Coal-Fired Power Plants This report is intended to...

  8. Automated micro-tracking planar solar concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hallas, Justin Matthew

    2011-01-01

    I : Introduction I.A Concentrated Photovoltaic Systemsconcentrated photovoltaic (CPV) systems and their trackingConcentrated photovoltaic (CPV) systems use optical

  9. Dose response of selected ion chambers in applied homogeneous transverse and longitudinal magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, M. [Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Fallone, B. G. [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Departments of Oncology and Physics, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Rathee, S. [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: The magnetic fields of an integrated MR-Linac system will alter the paths of electrons that produce ions in the ionization chambers. The dose response of selected ion chambers is evaluated in the presence of varying transverse and longitudinal magnetic fields. The investigation is useful in calibration of therapeutic x-ray beams associated with MR-Linac systems. Methods: The Monte Carlo code PENELOPE was used to model the irradiation of NE2571, and PR06C ionization chambers in the presence of a transverse and longitudinal (with respect to the photon beam) magnetic fields of varying magnitude. The long axis of each chamber was simulated both parallel and perpendicular to the incident photon beam for each magnetic field case. The dose deposited in each chamber for each case was compared to the case with zero magnetic field by means of a ratio. The PR06C chamber's response was measured in the presence of a transverse magnetic field with field strengths ranging from 0.0 to 0.2 T to compare to simulated results. Results: The simulations and measured data show that in the presence of a transverse magnetic field there is a considerable dose response (maximum of 11% near 1.0 T in the ion chambers investigated, which depends on the magnitude of magnetic field, and relative orientation of the magnetic field, radiation beam, and ion chamber. Measurements made with the PR06C chamber verify these results in the region of measurement. In contrast, a longitudinal magnetic field produces only a slight increase in dose response (2% at 1.5 T) that rises slowly with increasing magnetic field and is seemingly independent of chamber orientation. Response trends were similar for the two ion chambers and relative orientations considered, but slight variations are present from chamber to chamber. Conclusions: Care must be taken when making ion chamber measurements in a transverse magnetic field. Ion chamber responses vary not only with transverse field strength, but with chamber orientation and type, and can be considerable. Longitudinal magnetic fields influence ion chamber responses relatively little (2% at 1.5 T), and only at field strengths in excess of 1.0 T.

  10. The effect of discharge chamber geometry on the ignition of low-pressure rf capacitive discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisovskiy, V.; Martins, S.; Landry, K.; Douai, D.; Booth, J.-P.; Cassagne, V.; Yegorenkov, V. [Laboratoire de Physique et Technologie des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau 91128, France and Kharkov National University, Kharkov 61077 (Ukraine); Unaxis Displays Division France SAS, 5, Rue Leon Blum, Palaiseau 91120 (France); Laboratoire de Physique et Technologie des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau 91128 (France); Unaxis Displays Division France SAS, 5, Rue Leon Blum, Palaiseau 91120 (France); Kharkov National University, Kharkov 61077 (Ukraine)

    2005-09-15

    This paper reports measured and calculated breakdown curves in several gases of rf capacitive discharges excited at 13.56 MHz in chambers of three different geometries: parallel plates surrounded by a dielectric cylinder ('symmetric parallel plate'), parallel plates surrounded by a grounded metallic cylinder ('asymmetric parallel plate'), and parallel plates inside a much larger grounded metallic chamber ('large chamber'). The breakdown curves for the symmetric chamber have a multivalued section at low pressure. For the asymmetric chamber the breakdown curves are shifted to lower pressures and rf voltages, but the multivalued feature is still present. At higher pressures the breakdown voltages are much lower than for the symmetric geometry. For the large chamber geometry the multivalued behavior is not observed. The breakdown curves were also calculated using a numerical model based on fluid equations, giving results that are in satisfactory agreement with the measurements.

  11. CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network NEW HAMPSHIRE Keeping Track, Promoting Health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CS225774_W CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network NEW HAMPSHIRE Keeping Track their networks every day to improve the health of their communities. Why Tracking Matters in New Hampshire New, and climate change threaten the enjoyment of these natural resources. They are also a threat to New Hampshire

  12. Tracking Atmospheric Ducts Using Radar Clutter: I. Evaporation Duct Tracking Using Kalman Filters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerstoft, Peter

    Tracking Atmospheric Ducts Using Radar Clutter: I. Evaporation Duct Tracking Using Kalman Filters 92093­0238, USA Introduction This paper addresses the problem of tracking evaporation ducts in marine-standard electromagnetic propagation due to formation of lower atmospheric sea ducts is a common occurrence in maritime

  13. CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network SOUTH CAROLINA Keeping Track, Promoting Health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CS225774_C CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network SOUTH CAROLINA Keeping Track their networks every day to improve the health of their communities. Why Tracking Matters in South Carolina In August of 2009, South Carolina became one of six additional states awarded CDC funding to build a local

  14. CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network UTAH Keeping Track, Promoting Health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CS225774_N CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network UTAH Keeping Track, Promoting Health "CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network is the most important accomplishment of the past decade." Thomas A. Burke, Ph.D., M.P.H. Associate Dean for Public Health Practice

  15. CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network LOUISIANA Keeping Track, Promoting Health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CS225774_L CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network LOUISIANA Keeping Track, Promoting Health "CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network is the most important accomplishment of the past decade." Thomas A. Burke, Ph.D., M.P.H. Associate Dean for Public Health Practice

  16. CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network NEW MEXICO Keeping Track, Promoting Health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CS225774_D CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network NEW MEXICO Keeping Track, Promoting Health "CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network is the most important accomplishment of the past decade." Thomas A. Burke, Ph.D., M.P.H. Associate Dean for Public Health Practice

  17. CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network PENNSYLVANIA Keeping Track, Promoting Health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CS225774_U CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network PENNSYLVANIA Keeping Track, Promoting Health "CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network is the most important accomplishment of the past decade." Thomas A. Burke, Ph.D., M.P.H. Associate Dean for Public Health Practice

  18. CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network VERMONT Keeping Track, Promoting Health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CS225774_O CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network VERMONT Keeping Track, Promoting Health "CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network is the most important accomplishment of the past decade." Thomas A. Burke, Ph.D., M.P.H. Associate Dean for Public Health Practice

  19. CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network MINNESOTA Keeping Track, Promoting Health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CS225774_I CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network MINNESOTA Keeping Track, Promoting Health "CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network is the most important accomplishment of the past decade." Thomas A. Burke, Ph.D., M.P.H. Associate Dean for Public Health Practice

  20. CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network WASHINGTON Keeping Track, Promoting Health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CS225774_S CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network WASHINGTON Keeping Track, Promoting Health "CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network is the most important accomplishment of the past decade." Thomas A. Burke, Ph.D., M.P.H. Associate Dean for Public Health Practice

  1. CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network OREGON Keeping Track, Promoting Health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CS225774_M CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network OREGON Keeping Track, Promoting Health "CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network is the most important accomplishment of the past decade." Thomas A. Burke, Ph.D., M.P.H. Associate Dean for Public Health Practice

  2. CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network CALIFORNIA Keeping Track, Promoting Health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CS225774_G CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network CALIFORNIA Keeping Track, Promoting Health "CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network is the most important accomplishment of the past decade." Thomas A. Burke, Ph.D., M.P.H. Associate Dean for Public Health Practice

  3. CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network IOWA Keeping Track, Promoting Health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CS225774_J CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network IOWA Keeping Track, Promoting Health "CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network is the most important accomplishment of the past decade." Thomas A. Burke, Ph.D., M.P.H. Associate Dean for Public Health Practice

  4. Multi-wavelength emission from the Fermi bubbles. I. Stochastic acceleration from background plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, K. S.; Chernyshov, D. O.; Dogiel, V. A.; Ko, C. M.

    2014-07-20

    We analyze processes of electron acceleration in the Fermi bubbles in order to define parameters and restrictions of the models, which are suggested for the origin of these giant radio and gamma-ray structures. In the case of the leptonic origin of the nonthermal radiation from the bubbles, these electrons should be produced somehow in situ because of the relatively short lifetime of high-energy electrons, which lose their energy by synchrotron and inverse-Compton processes. It has been suggested that electrons in bubbles may be accelerated by shocks produced by tidal disruption of stars accreting onto the central black hole or a process of re-acceleration of electrons ejected by supernova remnants. These processes will be investigated in subsequent papers. In this paper, we focus on in situ stochastic (Fermi) acceleration by a hydromagnetic/supersonic turbulence, in which electrons can be directly accelerated from the background plasma. We showed that the acceleration from the background plasma is able to explain the observed fluxes of radio and gamma-ray emission from the bubbles, but the range of permitted parameters of the model is strongly restricted.

  5. SOLAR UPGRADE OF METHANE USING DRY REFORMING IN DIRECT CONTACT BUBBLE REACTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SOLAR UPGRADE OF METHANE USING DRY REFORMING IN DIRECT CONTACT BUBBLE REACTOR Khalid Al-Ali 1 , Kodama S. 1 , Kaneko H. 1 , Sekiguchi H. 1 , Tamaura Y. 1 and Chiesa M. 2 1 Department of Chemical, in an alkali carbonate based molten salt system containing suspended Ni-Al2O3 catalyst. A thermodynamical

  6. The effect of soluble surfactant on the transient motion of a buoyancy-driven bubble

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muradoglu, Metin

    the drag force and, thus, reduces the terminal velocity.1,2,8 The effect of surfactant on the rise is most pronounced in the nearly spherical regime in which the bubble behaves similar to a solid sphere and its terminal velocity approaches that of an equivalent solid sphere. Effects of the elasticity number

  7. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Effects of Surface Roughness on Laminar Separation Bubble over a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhi Jian "ZJ"

    1 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Effects of Surface Roughness on Laminar Engineering and CFD Center, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 Laminar separation bubbles (LSBs) are often of surface roughness on laminar separation and turbulent transition can provide insights into the design

  8. Molecular gas and star formation towards the IR dust bubble S24 and its environs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cappa, C E; Firpo, V; Vasquez, J; López-Caraballo, C H; Rubio, M; Vazzano, M M

    2015-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of the infrared dust bubble S24, and its environs, with the aim of investigating the characteristics of the molecular gas and the interstellar dust linked to them, and analyzing the evolutionary status of the young stellar objects (YSOs) identified there. Using APEX data, we mapped the molecular emission in the CO(2-1), $^{13}$CO(2-1), C$^{18}$O(2-1), and $^{13}$CO(3-2) lines in a region of about 5'x 5' in size around the bubble. The cold dust distribution was analyzed using ATLASGAL and Herschel images. Complementary IR and radio data were also used.The molecular gas linked to the S24 bubble, G341.220-0.213, and G341.217-0.237 has velocities between -48.0 km sec$^{-1}$ and -40.0 km sec$^{-1}$. The gas distribution reveals a shell-like molecular structure of $\\sim$0.8 pc in radius bordering the bubble. A cold dust counterpart of the shell is detected in the LABOCA and Herschel images.The presence of extended emission at 24 $\\mu$m and radio continuum emission inside the b...

  9. acoustic cavitation of slightly subcritical bubbles of Mathematics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harkin, Anthony

    , the transition between regular and chaotic os- cillations,& as well as the onset of rapid radial growth, is stud with two or more frequencies, the transition to chaos& and the threshold for rapid growth occur at lower am oscillations of spherically symmetric bubbles in inviscid incompressible liquids are nonlinear.5 0 The phase

  10. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 89, 013011 (2014) Unorthodox bubbles when boiling in cold water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Granick, Steve

    2014-01-01

    -infrared laser beam heating water below the boiling point (60­70 °C) with heating powers spanning the range from the bubbles are conventional: They grow symmetrically through evaporation until buoyancy lifts them away produced by boiling [4,14,18­21] but while important, such studies show only by inference the life cycles

  11. LOWFREQUENCY RADIO OBSERVATIONS OF XRAY GHOST BUBBLES A2597: A HISTORY RADIO ACTIVITY THE CORE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarazin, Craig

    LOW­FREQUENCY RADIO OBSERVATIONS OF X­RAY GHOST BUBBLES A2597: A HISTORY RADIO ACTIVITY THE CORE T showed ``ghost holes'' X­ray emission west northeast central radio galaxy PKS 2322#123. Previous radio observations detect radio emission coming from interior X­ray holes. present low­frequency observations A2597

  12. TEXTURE-INDUCED CAVITATION BUBBLES AND FRICTION REDUCTION IN THE ELROD-ADAMS MODEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buscaglia, Gustavo C.

    TEXTURE-INDUCED CAVITATION BUBBLES AND FRICTION REDUCTION IN THE ELROD-ADAMS MODEL Hugo M. Checoa, Friction reduction, Cavitation, Numerical simulation. Symbol Description a, b the pad occupies the regionU function characterizing the pad profile 1 #12;m pad linear mass per unit width p hydrodynamic pressure

  13. BLOWING BUBBLES FOR THE MULTI-SCALE ANALYSIS AND DECOMPOSITION OF TRIANGLE-MESHES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rossignac, Jarek

    , and various blending shapes that transition between them may be characterized in terms of local curvature the shape is analyzed. The number of connected components of the intersection curve between each bubble the classification and detect specific features such as sharp protrusions or wells, mounts or dips, blends

  14. Dissolution of carbon dioxide bubbles and microfluidic multiphase flows Ruopeng Sun and Thomas Cubaud*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cubaud, Thomas

    . Introduction Carbon dioxide gas is widespread in natural and industrial processes. At the small scale microfluidic flow pattern consists of elongated gas bubbles separated by liquid plugs. When the liquid wets-sections. The liquid gener- ally fills the corners and gas slugs are separated from the walls by thin liquid films.11

  15. Film drainage and coalescence between deformable drops and bubbles Derek Y. C. Chan,*abc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Derek Y C

    Film drainage and coalescence between deformable drops and bubbles Derek Y. C. Chan,*abc Evert not present in the interaction between solid bodies. The drops can entrap a thin liquid film of the continuous phase that can lead to a stable film or coalescence. But before leading to either of these outcomes

  16. Position Reconstruction of Bubble Formation in Liquid Nitrogen using Piezoelectric Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brian Lenardo; Yin Li; Aaron Manalaysay; James Morad; Chrisman Payne; Scott Stephenson; Matthew Szydagis; Mani Tripathi

    2015-11-13

    Cryogenic liquids, particularly liquid xenon and argon, are of interest as detector media for experiments in nuclear and particle physics. Here we present a new detector diagnostic technique using piezoelectric sensors to detect bubbling of the liquid. Bubbling can indicate locations of excess heat dissipation e.g., in immersed electronics. They can also interfere with normal event evolution by scattering of light or by interrupting the drift of ionization charge. In our test apparatus, four sensors are placed in the vacuum space of a double-walled dewar of liquid nitrogen and used to detect and locate a source of bubbling inside the liquid volume. Utilizing the differences in transmitted frequencies through the different media present in the experiment, we find that sound traveling in a direct path from the source to the sensor can be isolated with appropriate filtering. The location of the source is then reconstructed using the time difference of arrivals (TDOA) information. The reconstruction algorithm is shown to have a 95.8% convergence rate and reconstructed positions are self-consistent to an average +/-0.5cm around the mean in x, y, and z. Systematic effects are observed to cause errors in reconstruction when bubbles occur very close to the surfaces of the liquid volume.

  17. Risk assessment for uncertain cash flows: Model ambiguity, discounting ambiguity, and the role of bubbles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Föllmer, Hans

    Risk assessment for uncertain cash flows: Model ambiguity, discounting ambiguity, and the role of bubbles Beatrice Acciaio Hans F¨ollmer Irina Penner August 26, 2010 Abstract We study the risk assessment penalization, and how they cause a breakdown of asymptotic safety of the risk assessment procedure. Mathematics

  18. Three-dimensional airway reopening: The steady propagation of a semi-infinite bubble into

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heil, Matthias

    .g., in asthma or pulmonary oedema); and/or (iii) increased surface tension of the liquid lining, usually caused, , causes an increase in the bubble pressure required to drive the air finger at a given speed. p b also tissue. 1 Introduction A number of pulmonary diseases can cause the smaller airways of the lung to col

  19. THE BUBBLE TRANSFORM: A NEW TOOL FOR ANALYSIS OF FINITE ELEMENT METHODS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE BUBBLE TRANSFORM: A NEW TOOL FOR ANALYSIS OF FINITE ELEMENT METHODS RICHARD S. FALK AND RAGNAR estimates for various finite element methods. In particular, for the analysis of mixed finite element be very useful, but hard to construct, is the analysis of the so-called p-version of the finite element

  20. Upper Bound for Neutron Emission from Sonoluminescing Bubbles in Deuterated Acetone C. G. Camara,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    of the individual ions would be sufficient to generate thermonuclear fusion [2,6]. Experi- mentally, the search dramatically reduces background. Observation of thermonuclear fusion generated by cav- itation in deuterated search for nuclear fusion inside imploding bubbles of degassed deuterated acetone at 0 C driven by a 15

  1. Prediction of inertial confinement fusion chamber gas evolution using multi-species computational fluid dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Robert Scott

    2007-01-01

    to the pro- duction of fusion energy for power generation.injection in an inertial fusion energy chamber, Fusionas Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (Laser IFE), the ability to

  2. Liquid fuel vaporizer and combustion chamber having an adjustable thermal conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Powell, Michael R; Whyatt, Greg A; Howe, Daniel T; Fountain, Matthew S

    2014-03-04

    The efficiency and effectiveness of apparatuses for vaporizing and combusting liquid fuel can be improved using thermal conductors. For example, an apparatus having a liquid fuel vaporizer and a combustion chamber can be characterized by a thermal conductor that conducts heat from the combustion chamber to the vaporizer. The thermal conductor can be a movable member positioned at an insertion depth within the combustion chamber that corresponds to a rate of heat conduction from the combustion chamber to the vaporizer. The rate of heat conduction can, therefore, be adjusted by positioning the movable member at a different insertion depth.

  3. Conceptual Design Report for the Extreme Ecosystems Test Chambers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Barnes; J. Beller; K. Caldwell; K. Croft; R. Cherry; W. Landman

    1998-12-01

    This conceptual design supports the creation of Extreme Ecosystems Test Chambers, which will replicate deep subsurface and subocean environments characterized by high pressure (2,000 psi) and subfreezing to high temperature (-4 to 300 degrees F) with differing chemical and saturation conditions. The design provides a system to support research and development that includes heat transfer, phase change issues in porous media, microbiology in extreme environments, and carbon sequestration and extraction. The initial system design is based on the research needs to support the commercial production of methane hydrates from subsurface sediments. The design provides for three pressure vessels: a Down Hole Test Vessel, a Vertical Multi-phase Test Vessel, and a Horizontal Multi-phase Test Vessel.

  4. Effects of acidic deposition on paint: A chamber study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spence, J.W.; Lemmons, T.J.; Hou, Y.; Schadt, R.J.; Fornes, R.E.

    1993-08-01

    Exterior acrylic latex and alkyd architectural coatings were exposed to different conditions in a chamber exposure system involving simulated sunlight, dew, and photochemical smog-containing sulfur dioxide (SO2). A simulated sunlight exposure of the coating films in the presence of clean air was also incorporated into the experimental design. Changes in surface features after 1,370 hours of exposure were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive analysis of x-rays (EDAX). Gaseous species that deposited to the films were determined by ion chromatography of the dew collections. Color-change measurements of the exposed films were recorded as Delta E values. Latex and alkyd films that were formulated with calcium carbonate (CACO3) as an extender pigment were found to undergo the most change in surface features, composition, and color.

  5. Charge-Focusing Readout of Time Projection Chambers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. J. Ross; M. T. Hedges; I. Jaegle; M. D. Rosen; I. S. Seong; T. N. Thorpe; S. E. Vahsen; J. Yamaoka

    2013-04-02

    Time projection chambers (TPCs) have found a wide range of applications in particle physics, nuclear physics, and homeland security. For TPCs with high-resolution readout, the readout electronics often dominate the price of the final detector. We have developed a novel method which could be used to build large-scale detectors while limiting the necessary readout area. By focusing the drift charge with static electric fields, we would allow a small area of electronics to be sensitive to particle detection for a much larger detector volume. The resulting cost reduction could be important in areas of research which demand large-scale detectors, including dark matter searches and detection of special nuclear material. We present simulations made using the software package Garfield of a focusing structure to be used with a prototype TPC with pixel readout. This design should enable significant focusing while retaining directional sensitivity to incoming particles. We also present first experimental results and compare them with simulation.

  6. Nonlinear Tracking Control of Underactuated Surface Vessel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Yi

    Nonlinear Tracking Control of Underactuated Surface Vessel Wenjie Dong and Yi Guo Abstract-- We consider in this paper the tracking control problem of an underactuated surface vessel. Based that the proposed control laws are effective. I. INTRODUCTION Control of underactuated surface vessels has attracted

  7. GUYANA FORESTRY COMMISSION NATIONAL WOOD TRACKING SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timber Sales Agreement VPA Voluntary Partnership Agreement WCL Wood Cutting Lease WTS Wood Tracking chain is managed and controlled the Guyana Forestry Commission has developed a Wood Tracking System (WTS in the process as well as flow charts illustrating essential elements of the system. The WTS links closely

  8. TRACK Internet Service 3.1 Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Froude, Lizzie

    Chapter 3 TRACK Internet Service 3.1 Introduction In chapter 1 the idea of a TRACK Internet Service single computer may be infeasible. An Internet Service has been developed to address these issues of data storage and computer CPU. The Internet Service has been used to help with the large amount of data

  9. TRACKING DYNAMIC BOUNDARIES BY EVOLVING Tingting Jiang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tingting Jiang

    TRACKING DYNAMIC BOUNDARIES BY EVOLVING CURVES by Tingting Jiang Department of Computer Science Duke University Date: Approved: Carlo Tomasi, Supervisor Ron Parr Scott C. Schmidler Xiaobai Sun in the Department of Computer Science in the Graduate School of Duke University 2007 #12;ABSTRACT TRACKING DYNAMIC

  10. Position and orientation tracking system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burks, Barry L. (Oak Ridge, TN); DePiero, Fred W. (Knoxville, TN); Armstrong, Gary A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Jansen, John F. (Knoxville, TN); Muller, Richard C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Gee, Timothy F. (Riceville, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A position and orientation tracking system presents a laser scanning appaus having two measurement pods, a control station, and a detector array. The measurement pods can be mounted in the dome of a radioactive waste storage silo. Each measurement pod includes dual orthogonal laser scanner subsystems. The first laser scanner subsystem is oriented to emit a first line laser in the pan direction. The second laser scanner is oriented to emit a second line laser in the tilt direction. Both emitted line lasers scan planes across the radioactive waste surface to encounter the detector array mounted on a target robotic vehicle. The angles of incidence of the planes with the detector array are recorded by the control station. Combining measurements describing each of the four planes provides data for a closed form solution of the algebraic transform describing the position and orientation of the target robotic vehicle.

  11. Position and orientation tracking system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burks, B.L.; DePiero, F.W.; Armstrong, G.A.; Jansen, J.F.; Muller, R.C.; Gee, T.F.

    1998-05-05

    A position and orientation tracking system presents a laser scanning apparatus having two measurement pods, a control station, and a detector array. The measurement pods can be mounted in the dome of a radioactive waste storage silo. Each measurement pod includes dual orthogonal laser scanner subsystems. The first laser scanner subsystem is oriented to emit a first line laser in the pan direction. The second laser scanner is oriented to emit a second line laser in the tilt direction. Both emitted line lasers scan planes across the radioactive waste surface to encounter the detector array mounted on a target robotic vehicle. The angles of incidence of the planes with the detector array are recorded by the control station. Combining measurements describing each of the four planes provides data for a closed form solution of the algebraic transform describing the position and orientation of the target robotic vehicle. 14 figs.

  12. GPU COMPUTING FOR PARTICLE TRACKING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishimura, Hiroshi; Song, Kai; Muriki, Krishna; Sun, Changchun; James, Susan; Qin, Yong

    2011-03-25

    This is a feasibility study of using a modern Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) to parallelize the accelerator particle tracking code. To demonstrate the massive parallelization features provided by GPU computing, a simplified TracyGPU program is developed for dynamic aperture calculation. Performances, issues, and challenges from introducing GPU are also discussed. General purpose Computation on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU) bring massive parallel computing capabilities to numerical calculation. However, the unique architecture of GPU requires a comprehensive understanding of the hardware and programming model to be able to well optimize existing applications. In the field of accelerator physics, the dynamic aperture calculation of a storage ring, which is often the most time consuming part of the accelerator modeling and simulation, can benefit from GPU due to its embarrassingly parallel feature, which fits well with the GPU programming model. In this paper, we use the Tesla C2050 GPU which consists of 14 multi-processois (MP) with 32 cores on each MP, therefore a total of 448 cores, to host thousands ot threads dynamically. Thread is a logical execution unit of the program on GPU. In the GPU programming model, threads are grouped into a collection of blocks Within each block, multiple threads share the same code, and up to 48 KB of shared memory. Multiple thread blocks form a grid, which is executed as a GPU kernel. A simplified code that is a subset of Tracy++ [2] is developed to demonstrate the possibility of using GPU to speed up the dynamic aperture calculation by having each thread track a particle.

  13. Triggered star formation around mid-infrared bubbles in G8.14+0.23 H II region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dewangan, L K; Anandarao, B G; Ghosh, S K; Chakraborti, S

    2012-01-01

    Mid-infrared (MIR) shells or bubbles around expanding H II regions have received much attention due to their ability to initiate a new generation of star formation. We present multi-wavelength observations around two bubbles associated with a southern massive star-forming (MSF) region G8.14+0.23, to investigate the triggered star formation signature on the edges of the bubbles by the expansion of the H II region. We have found observational signatures of the collected molecular and cold dust material along the bubbles and the 12CO(J=3-2) velocity map reveals that the molecular gas in the bubbles is physically associated around the G8.14+0.23 region. We have detected 244 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the region and about 37% of these YSOs occur in clusters. Interestingly, these YSO clusters are associated with the collected material on the edges of the bubbles. We have found good agreement between the dynamical age of the H II region and the kinematical time scale of bubbles (from the 12CO(J=3-2) line data) ...

  14. Tracking formulas and strategies for a receiver oriented dual-axis tracking toroidal heliostat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Minghuan; Wang, Zhifeng; Liang, Wenfeng; Zhang, Xiliang; Zang, Chuncheng; Lu, Zhenwu; Wei, Xiudong

    2010-06-15

    A 4 m x 4 m toroidal heliostat with receiver oriented dual-axis tracking, also called spinning-elevation tracking, was developed as an auxiliary heat source for a hydrogen production system. A series of spinning-elevation tracking formulas have been derived for this heliostat. This included basic tracking formulas, a formula for the elevation angle for heliostat with a mirror-pivot offset, and a more general formula for the biased elevation angle. This paper presents the new tracking formulas in detail and analyzes the accuracy of applying a simplifying approximation. The numerical results show these receiver oriented dual-axis tracking formula approximations are accurate to within 2.5 x 10{sup -6} m in image plane. Some practical tracking strategies are discussed briefly. Solar images from the toroidal heliostat at selected times are also presented. (author)

  15. *Always wear lint and powder free clean room gloves when reaching into the specimen chamber to reduce leaving oils, dust, or other contaminants inside the chamber.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SX-100 *Always wear lint and powder free clean room gloves when reaching into the specimen chamber (off) on the small on/off box behind the monitors. 6) Wait 30 minutes to cool down the diffusion pump

  16. Homodyne target tracking for direct drive laser inertial fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spalding, Jon David

    2009-01-01

    thermonuclear burn. This implosion is repeated several times per second within a chamber that recovers excess energy

  17. Tracking Grantee Portal Standards and Recommendations Standards and Recommendations Table

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tracking Grantee Portal Standards and Recommendations April 2009 Standards and Recommendations Table Tracking Network Standards Provide both public and secure grantee portals. Provide a link to the Tracking Network's National Portal from individual state portals. Maintain visual consistency among pages

  18. Method and apparatus for active control of combustion rate through modulation of heat transfer from the combustion chamber wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roberts, Jr., Charles E.; Chadwell, Christopher J.

    2004-09-21

    The flame propagation rate resulting from a combustion event in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is controlled by modulation of the heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls. In one embodiment, heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls is mechanically modulated by a movable member that is inserted into, or withdrawn from, the combustion chamber thereby changing the shape of the combustion chamber and the combustion chamber wall surface area. In another embodiment, heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls is modulated by cooling the surface of a portion of the combustion chamber wall that is in close proximity to the area of the combustion chamber where flame speed control is desired.

  19. Diagnosis of bubble evolution in laser-wakefield acceleration via angular distributions of betatron x-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Y.; Chen, L. M., E-mail: lmchen@iphy.ac.cn; Huang, K.; Yan, W. C. [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, CAS, Beijing 100080 (China); Hafz, N. A. M.; Zhang, J. [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Li, D. Z. [Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing 100049 (China); Dunn, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Sheng, Z. M. [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Department of Physics, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-20

    We present an indirect method to diagnose the electron beam behaviors and bubble dynamic evolution in a laser-wakefield accelerator. Four kinds of typical bubble dynamic evolution and, hence, electron beam behaviors observed in Particle-In-Cell simulations are identified correspondingly by simultaneous measurement of distinct angular distributions of the betatron radiation and electron beam energy spectra in experiment. The reconstruction of the bubble evolution may shed light on finding an effective way to better generate high-quality electron beams and enhanced betatron X-rays.

  20. Determination of the shear and extensional rheology of bubbly liquids with a shear-thinning continuous phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres, M.D.; Hallmark, B.; Wilson, D.I.

    2015-01-17

    , -??(*?dimensionless shear stress, -????parameter from Choi and Schowalter model, -????angular velocity, rad/s??Introduction Bubbly liquids are dispersions of a gas, ofair, in a liquid with low to medium volume fraction of the bubble phase so that the bubbles remain... that there was negligible contribution from wall slip. Samples were loaded carefully to ensure minimal structural damage, and held at rest for 5 min before testing to allow stress relaxation and temperature equilibration. A thin film of a Newtonian silicone oil (viscosity 1...

  1. Secure Program Execution Via Dynamic Information Flow Tracking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suh, G. Edward

    2003-07-21

    We present a simple architectural mechanism called dynamicinformation flow tracking that can significantly improve thesecurity of computing systems with negligible performanceoverhead. Dynamic information flow tracking ...

  2. Pore Models Track Reactions in Underground Carbon Capture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pore Models Track Reactions in Underground Carbon Capture Pore Models Track Reactions in Underground Carbon Capture September 25, 2014 | Tags: Advanced Scientific Computing...

  3. Extracting and Using Data From Tracking Systems | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Extracting and Using Data From Tracking Systems Extracting and Using Data From Tracking Systems Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Data and Evaluation Peer Exchange Call:...

  4. High Efficiency Broadband Envelope-Tracking Power Amplifiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan, Jonmei Johana

    M. ,   “   Wideband High Efficiency Envelope Tracking PowerPeter  M. ,  “High-Efficiency Envelope Tracking High PowerMemory! DPD! Drain! Efficiency! (%)! Gain! (dB)! Output!

  5. Tracking the Sun VIII: The Installed Price of Residential and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tracking the Sun VIII: The Installed Price of Residential and Non-Residential Photovoltaic Systems in the United States Tracking the Sun VIII: The Installed Price of Residential...

  6. DOE Strengthens Public Registry to Track Greenhouse Gas Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Strengthens Public Registry to Track Greenhouse Gas Emissions DOE Strengthens Public Registry to Track Greenhouse Gas Emissions April 17, 2006 - 10:20am Addthis Announces Revised...

  7. Tracking and Using Data to Support Revenue Streams | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Tracking and Using Data to Support Revenue Streams Tracking and Using Data to Support Revenue Streams Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Data and Evaluation Peer Exchange Call:...

  8. TRACKING CLEAN UP AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CONNELL, C.W.

    2005-05-27

    The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the ''Tri-Party Agreement'' (TPA), is a legally binding agreement among the US Department of Energy (DOE), The Washington State Department of Ecology, and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for cleaning up the Hanford Site. Established in the 1940s to produce material for nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project, Hanford is often referred to as the world's large environmental cleanup project. The Site covers more than 580 square miles in a relatively remote region of southeastern Washington state in the US. The production of nuclear materials at Hanford has left a legacy of tremendous proportions in terms of hazardous and radioactive waste. From a waste-management point of view, the task is enormous: 1700 waste sites; 450 billion gallons of liquid waste; 70 billion gallons of contaminated groundwater; 53 million gallons of tank waste; 9 reactors; 5 million cubic yards of contaminated soil; 22 thousand drums of mixed waste; 2.3 tons of spent nuclear fuel; and 17.8 metric tons of plutonium-bearing material and this is just a partial listing. The agreement requires that DOE provide the results of analytical laboratory and non-laboratory tests/readings to the lead regulatory agency to help guide then in making decisions. The agreement also calls for each signatory to preserve--for at least ten years after the Agreement has ended--all of the records in it, or its contractors, possession related to sampling, analysis, investigations, and monitoring conducted. The Action Plan that supports the TPA requires that Ecology and EPA have access to all data that is relevant to work performed, or to be performed, under the Agreement. Further, the Action Plan specifies two additional requirements: (1) that EPA, Ecology and their respective contractor staffs have access to all the information electronically, and (2) that the databases are accessible to, and used by, all personnel doing TPA-related work. The Hanford Environmental Databases document and track the progress of Site cleanup--Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS), Hanford Well Information Data System (HWIS), the Waste Information Data System (WIDS), and the Hanford Geographic Information System (HGIS). HEIS contains the date, time, location, and results from samples taken during activities such as field investigations and groundwater monitoring. HWIS contains the details of the wells and boreholes on the Site. WIDS tracks the waste sites--from discovery through cleanup. Each of the databases is supported by several applications for entering or retrieving information. HGIS keeps track of the locations for waste (WIDS) sites, wells and boreholes, and other sampling site locations. Of the applications used to extract data from the Environmental Databases, the Hanford Map Portal (QMAP) is the newest, and perhaps the most efficient. QMAP combines the HGIS spatial information with the information from the other databases so that users may browse to, or query, the waste site or well of interest. A query of a waste site or well engages QMAP to find the object and then the user may access the appropriate database. This paper describes the Environmental Databases and their maintenance, as well as the applications used to access them. Collectively, these databases are a critical element in formally documenting the work and associated decisions made during the cleanup of Hanford.

  9. Source of methane and methods to control its formation in single chamber microbial electrolysis cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Source of methane and methods to control its formation in single chamber microbial electrolysis online 31 March 2009 Keywords: Hydrogen Microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) Methane Single chamber Exoelectrogenic a b s t r a c t Methane production occurs during hydrogen gas generation in microbial electrolysis

  10. Subsidence in magma chamber and the development of magmatic foliation in Oman ophiolite gabbros

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cattin, Rodolphe

    Subsidence in magma chamber and the development of magmatic foliation in Oman ophiolite gabbros Keywords: Oman ophiolite fast spreading ridges magma chamber gabbro subsidence In the Oman ophiolite these gabbros to subsidence of a compacting mush from the floor of the melt lens into the underlying, main magma

  11. On the dynamic nature of azimuthal thermoacoustic modes in annular gas turbine combustion chambers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    On the dynamic nature of azimuthal thermoacoustic modes in annular gas turbine combustion chambers with the dynamics of standing and rotating azimuthal thermoacoustic modes in annular combustion chambers source intensity, the asymmetry in the system and the strength of the thermo-acoustic interaction

  12. Dynamic Chamber System to Measure Gaseous Compounds Emissions and Atmospheric-Biospheric Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aneja, Viney P.

    : Dynamic chamber, Emissions, Ammonia, Nitrogen oxide, Hydrogen sulphide, Hydrogen peroxide Abstract agricultural soils where nitrogen-rich fertilizers have been applied. Ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) and reduced-liquid interface at swine waste treatment anaerobic storage lagoons, and agricultural fields. Similar chamber

  13. A simple analytical model to study and control azimuthal instabilities in annular combustion chambers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicoud, Franck

    . It is based on a one-dimensional zero Mach number formulation where N burners are connected to a single) a single burner connected to an annular chamber (N = 1), (2) two burners connected to the chamber (N = 2), (3) four burners (N = 4). In this case, the tool also allows to study passive control methods where

  14. In situ reduction and evaluation of anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    In situ reduction and evaluation of anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells D.05.118 #12;Abstract Single chamber anode-supported fuel cells are investigated under several methane under methane-to-oxygen ratio (Rmix) of 2. Anode-supported fuel cells are investigated regarding

  15. Sensitivity of LR 115 detectors in hemispherical chambers for radon measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    Sensitivity of LR 115 detectors in hemispherical chambers for radon measurements D. Nikezic 1 , F, if the radius is larger than 3 cm, the effects of the deposition fraction of radon progeny will come into effect, which will again introduce uncertainties in radon measurements. For the hemispherical chamber

  16. Micro Strip Gas Chambers Overcoated with Carbon, Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon, and Glass Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Micro Strip Gas Chambers Overcoated with Carbon, Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon, and Glass Films M Moscow GSP­1, Russia c Moscow Power Engineering Institute, Krasnokazarmennaya St. 14, Moscow, Russia Abstract The performance of glass and sapphire substrate Micro Strip Gas Chambers with chromium

  17. October 27-28, 2004 HAPL meeting, PPPL Overview of the Components of an IFE Chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffray, A. René

    Energy Source: IFE Based on Lasers, Direct Drive Targets and Solid Wall Chambers Target injection (including radiation) - Turbulence effects - Laser lines and effect on final optics - Impact target injection for Chamber with R=6.5 m (from BUCKY) #12;October 27-28, 2004 HAPL meeting, PPPL 4 · Target injection

  18. The development and application of advanced analytical methods to commercial ICF reactor chambers. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cousseau, P.; Engelstad, R.; Henderson, D.L. [and others

    1997-10-01

    Progress is summarized in this report for each of the following tasks: (1) multi-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics computer code development; (2) 2D radiation-hydrodynamic code development; (3) ALARA: analytic and Laplacian adaptive radioactivity analysis -- a complete package for analysis of induced activation; (4) structural dynamics modeling of ICF reactor chambers; and (5) analysis of self-consistent target chamber clearing.

  19. IFE CHAMBER TECHNOLOGY STATUS AND FUTURE CHALLENGES W.R. Meier1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffray, A. René

    1 IFE CHAMBER TECHNOLOGY ­ STATUS AND FUTURE CHALLENGES W.R. Meier1 , A.R. Raffrary2 , S.I. Abdel.gov (925) 422-8536 2. University of California, San Diego, CA 3. Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta-ion, laser and Z-pinch drivers. A variety of chamber concepts are being investigated including dry- wall

  20. IFE CHAMBER TECHNOLOGY STATUS AND FUTURE CHALLENGES W.R. Meier1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najmabadi, Farrokh

    IFE CHAMBER TECHNOLOGY ­ STATUS AND FUTURE CHALLENGES W.R. Meier1 , A.R. Raffray2 , S.I. Abdel.gov (925) 422-8536 2. University of California, San Diego, CA 3. Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta-ion, laser and Z-pinch drivers. A variety of chamber concepts are being investigated including dry- wall

  1. Kalman Filter Tracking on Parallel Architectures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giuseppe Cerati; Peter Elmer; Steven Lantz; Kevin McDermott; Dan Riley; Matevž Tadel; Peter Wittich; Frank Würthwein; Avi Yagil

    2015-05-18

    Power density constraints are limiting the performance improvements of modern CPUs. To address this we have seen the introduction of lower-power, multi-core processors, but the future will be even more exciting. In order to stay within the power density limits but still obtain Moore's Law performance/price gains, it will be necessary to parallelize algorithms to exploit larger numbers of lightweight cores and specialized functions like large vector units. Example technologies today include Intel's Xeon Phi and GPGPUs. Track finding and fitting is one of the most computationally challenging problems for event reconstruction in particle physics. At the High Luminosity LHC, for example, this will be by far the dominant problem. The need for greater parallelism has driven investigations of very different track finding techniques including Cellular Automata or returning to Hough Transform. The most common track finding techniques in use today are however those based on the Kalman Filter. Significant experience has been accumulated with these techniques on real tracking detector systems, both in the trigger and offline. They are known to provide high physics performance, are robust and are exactly those being used today for the design of the tracking system for HL-LHC. Our previous investigations showed that, using optimized data structures, track fitting with Kalman Filter can achieve large speedup both with Intel Xeon and Xeon Phi. We report here our further progress towards an end-to-end track reconstruction algorithm fully exploiting vectorization and parallelization techniques in a realistic simulation setup.

  2. Integrated Chamber Design for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Latkowski, J F; Kramer, K J; Abbott, R P; Morris, K R; DeMuth, J; Divol, L; El-Dasher, B; Lafuente, A; Loosmore, G; Reyes, S; Moses, G A; Fratoni, M; Flowers, D; Aceves, S; Rhodes, M; Kane, J; Scott, H; Kramer, R; Pantano, C; Scullard, C; Sawicki, R; Wilks, S; Mehl, M

    2010-12-07

    The Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) concept is being designed to operate as either a pure fusion or hybrid fusion-fission system. A key component of a LIFE engine is the fusion chamber subsystem. The present work details the chamber design for the pure fusion option. The fusion chamber consists of the first wall and blanket. This integrated system must absorb the fusion energy, produce fusion fuel to replace that burned in previous targets, and enable both target and laser beam transport to the ignition point. The chamber system also must mitigate target emissions, including ions, x-rays and neutrons and reset itself to enable operation at 10-15 Hz. Finally, the chamber must offer a high level of availability, which implies both a reasonable lifetime and the ability to rapidly replace damaged components. An integrated LIFE design that meets all of these requirements is described herein.

  3. Fluid intensifier having a double acting power chamber with interconnected signal rods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitehead, John C. (Davis, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A fluid driven reciprocating apparatus having a double acting power chamber with signal rods serving as high pressure pistons, or to transmit mechanical power. The signal rods are connected to a double acting piston in the power chamber thereby eliminating the need for pilot valves, with the piston being controlled by a pair of intake-exhaust valves. The signal rod includes two spaced seals along its length with a vented space therebetween so that the driving fluid and driven fluid can't mix, and performs a switching function to eliminate separate pilot valves. The intake-exhaust valves can be integrated into a single housing with the power chamber, or these valves can be built into the cylinder head only of the power chamber, or they can be separate from the power chamber.

  4. PROGRESS TOWARDS MODELING OF FISCHER TROPSCH SYNTHESIS IN A SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna Post Guillen; Tami Grimmett; Anastasia M. Gandrik; Steven P. Antal

    2010-11-01

    The Hybrid Energy Systems Testing (HYTEST) Laboratory is being established at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop and test hybrid energy systems with the principal objective to safeguard U.S. Energy Security by reducing dependence on foreign petroleum. A central component of the HYTEST is the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) in which the gas-to-liquid reactions will be performed to synthesize transportation fuels using the Fischer Tropsch (FT) process. SBCRs are cylindrical vessels in which gaseous reactants (for example, synthesis gas or syngas) is sparged into a slurry of liquid reaction products and finely dispersed catalyst particles. The catalyst particles are suspended in the slurry by the rising gas bubbles and serve to promote the chemical reaction that converts syngas to a spectrum of longer chain hydrocarbon products, which can be upgraded to gasoline, diesel or jet fuel. These SBCRs operate in the churn-turbulent flow regime which is characterized by complex hydrodynamics, coupled with reacting flow chemistry and heat transfer, that effect reactor performance. The purpose of this work is to develop a computational multiphase fluid dynamic (CMFD) model to aid in understanding the physico-chemical processes occurring in the SBCR. Our team is developing a robust methodology to couple reaction kinetics and mass transfer into a four-field model (consisting of the bulk liquid, small bubbles, large bubbles and solid catalyst particles) that includes twelve species: (1) CO reactant, (2) H2 reactant, (3) hydrocarbon product, and (4) H2O product in small bubbles, large bubbles, and the bulk fluid. Properties of the hydrocarbon product were specified by vapor liquid equilibrium calculations. The absorption and kinetic models, specifically changes in species concentrations, have been incorporated into the mass continuity equation. The reaction rate is determined based on the macrokinetic model for a cobalt catalyst developed by Yates and Satterfield [1]. The model includes heat generation due to the exothermic chemical reaction, as well as heat removal from a constant temperature heat exchanger. Results of the CMFD simulations (similar to those shown in Figure 1) will be presented.

  5. TRACKING CODE DEVELOPMENT FOR BEAM DYNAMICS OPTIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L.

    2011-03-28

    Dynamic aperture (DA) optimization with direct particle tracking is a straight forward approach when the computing power is permitted. It can have various realistic errors included and is more close than theoretical estimations. In this approach, a fast and parallel tracking code could be very helpful. In this presentation, we describe an implementation of storage ring particle tracking code TESLA for beam dynamics optimization. It supports MPI based parallel computing and is robust as DA calculation engine. This code has been used in the NSLS-II dynamics optimizations and obtained promising performance.

  6. Bubble nucleation on nano- to micro-size cavities and posts: An experimental validation of classical theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, B.

    Recently reported data suggest that bubble nucleation on surfaces with nano-sized features (cavities and posts) may occur close to the thermodynamic saturation temperature. However, according to the traditional theory of ...

  7. Effects of Carbon Nanotube Coating on Bubble Departure Diameter and Frequency in Pool Boiling on a Flat, Horizontal Heater 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glenn, Stephen T.

    2011-08-08

    The effects of a carbon nanotube (CNT) coating on bubble departure diameter and frequency in pool boiling experiments was investigated and compared to those on a bare silicon wafer. The pool boiling experiments were performed at liquid subcooling...

  8. TRIGGERED STAR FORMATION AROUND MID-INFRARED BUBBLES IN THE G8.14+0.23 H II REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dewangan, L. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Chakraborti, S.; Anandarao, B. G.; Ghosh, S. K.

    2012-09-10

    Mid-infrared shells or bubbles around expanding H II regions have received much attention due to their ability to initiate a new generation of star formation. We present multi-wavelength observations around two bubbles associated with a southern massive star-forming region G8.14+0.23, to investigate the triggered star formation signature on the edges of the bubbles by the expansion of the H II region. We have found observational signatures of the collected molecular and cold dust material along the bubbles and the {sup 12}CO(J = 3-2) velocity map reveals that the molecular gas in the bubbles is physically associated around the G8.14+0.23 region. We have detected 244 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the region and about 37% of these YSOs occur in clusters. Interestingly, these YSO clusters are associated with the collected material on the edges of the bubbles. We have found good agreement between the dynamical age of the H II region and the kinematical timescale of bubbles (from the {sup 12}CO(J = 3-2) line data) with the fragmentation time of the accumulated molecular materials to explain possible 'collect and collapse' process around the G8.14+0.23 region. However, one cannot entirely rule out the possibility of triggered star formation by compression of the pre-existing dense clumps by the shock wave. We have also found two massive embedded YSOs (about 10 and 22 M{sub Sun }) which are associated with the dense fragmented clump at the interface of the bubbles. We conclude that the expansion of the H II region is also leading to the formation of these two young massive embedded YSOs in the G8.14+0.23 region.

  9. A correlation for the coefficient of isothermal compressibility of black oil at pressures below the bubble point 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Villena Lanzi, Alejandro J

    1985-01-01

    A CORRELATION FOR THE COEFFICIENT OF ISOTHERMAL COMPRESSIBILITY OF BLACK OIL AT PRESSURES BELOW THE BUBBLE POINT A Thesis by ALEJANDRO J. VILLENA LAiVZI Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1985 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineerrng A CORRELATION FOR THE COEFFICIENT OF ISOTHERMAL COMPRESSIBILITY OF BLACK OIL AT PRESSURES BELOW THE BUBBLE POINT A Thesis by ALEJANDRO J. VILLENA LANZI...

  10. Laminated track design for inductrack maglev systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    2004-07-06

    A magnet configuration comprising a pair of Halbach arrays magnetically and structurally connected together are positioned with respect to each other so that a first component of their fields substantially cancels at a first plane between them, and a second component of their fields substantially adds at this first plane. A track is located between the pair of Halbach arrays and a propulsion mechanism is provided for moving the pair of Halbach arrays along the track. When the pair of Halbach arrays move along the track and the track is not located at the first plane, a current is induced in the windings and a restoring force is exerted on the pair of Halbach arrays.

  11. Tracking Dynamic Boundary Fronts using Range Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramamritham, Krithi

    , tracking forest fires and environmental phenomena. Consider a poisonous gas or plume monitoring ap) are being used for detecting forest fires [6], [7] in the last few years. Lidars detect fire by analysing

  12. Tracking Dynamic Boundary Fronts Using Range Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramamritham, Krithi

    , tracking forest fires and environmental phenomena. Consider a poisonous gas or plume monitoring ap De- tection and Ranging) are being used for detecting forest fires [6], [7] in the last few years

  13. Innovative Mobile Technologies for Asset Tracking 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liko, W.

    2013-01-01

    - Innovative Mobile Technologies for Asset Tracking Agenda ? Learn how clients have mobilized their enterprise data to increase the consistent capture and reporting of important building information, from lease data to work orders to space & occupancy...

  14. JourneyLog 64 5 Vehicle tracking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haddadi, Hamed

    JourneyLog 64 5 Vehicle tracking blinkx 8 Five years on Tomas Pfister 11 Graduate story Raspberry Pi 12 Exciting and engaging children to learn about computing Ring news 2 Note from the Editor

  15. Radar deception through phantom track generation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maithripala, Diyogu Hennadige Asanka

    2006-04-12

    This thesis presents a control algorithm to be used by a team of ECAVs (Electronic Combat Air Vehicle) to deceive a network of radars through the generation of a phantom track. Each ECAV has the electronic capability of ...

  16. Alpha track density using a semiconductor detector 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Ian Scott

    1993-01-01

    of factors including variation in the initial dielectric thickness, and other undefined parameters. In addition, the resultant radon concentration reading is dependent upon the calibration factor used to interpret the track density reading. Obtaining...

  17. Copyright Siemens Business Services Patient Tracking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manstein, Dietmar J.

    (motherreel process and shipments ) · Craemer (palet tracking) · Intel Germany (repair and maintenance) · Laurel 1 (Logistic MUC ­ New York) · Intel US (ISMC, Logistic Demo Solution) · VDO Regensburg (Consulting, Warehouse and Logistics) · VDO Babenhausen (Consulting, Warehouse and Logistics) · Fiege + Premiere · Licon

  18. Numerical investigation of electron self-injection in the nonlinear bubble regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benedetti, C.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.; Rossi, F.

    2013-10-15

    The process of electron self-injection in the nonlinear bubble wake generated by a short and intense laser pulse propagating in a uniform underdense plasma is studied by means of fully self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations and test-particle simulations. We consider a wake generated by a non-evolving laser driver traveling with a prescribed velocity, which then sets the structure and the velocity of the wake, so the injection dynamics is decoupled from driver evolution, but a realistic structure for the wakefield is retained. We show that a threshold for self-injection into a non-evolving bubble wake exists, and we characterize the dependence of the self-injection threshold on laser intensity, wake velocity, and plasma temperature for a range of parameters of interest for current and future laser-plasma accelerators.

  19. Atomistic studies of formation and diffusion of helium clusters and bubbles in BCC iron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, David M [ORNL; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Osetskiy, Yury N [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    In fusion applications, helium created by transmutation plays an important role in the response of reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels to neutron radiation damage. We have performed extensive atomistic simulations using the ORNL 3-body Fe He interatomic potential combined with three interatomic potentials for the iron matrix. Some of the results obtained are summarized in this review. Interstitial helium is very mobile and coalesces together to form interstitial clusters. We have investigated the mobility of these clusters. When an interstitial He cluster reaches sufficient size, it punches out an Fe interstitial, creating an immobile helium vacancy cluster. If more helium atoms join it, more Fe interstitials can be created; the He V defect is a nascent bubble. These mechanisms are investigated together in simulations that examine the nucleation of He defects. Mobile interstitial He clusters and helium bubbles 1 to 6 nm across are also simulated separately. Results are compared based on temperature and interatomic potentials used.

  20. A multi-messenger study of the Fermi Bubbles: very high energy gamma rays and neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lunardini, Cecilia; Yang, Lili

    2015-01-01

    The Fermi Bubbles have been imaged in sub-TeV gamma rays at Fermi-LAT, and, if their origin is hadronic, they might have been seen with low statistics in $\\sim 0.1- 1$ PeV neutrinos at IceCube. We discuss the detectability of these objects at the new High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) gamma ray detector. HAWC will view the North Bubble for $\\sim 2-3$ hours a day, and will map its spectrum at 0.1-100 TeV. For the hard primary proton spectrum required to explain five events at IceCube, a high significance detection at HAWC will be achieved in less than 30 days. The combination of results at HAWC and IceCube will substantiate the hadronic model, or constrain its spectral parameters.