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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu state coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Environmental Permitting of a Low-BTU Coal Gasification Facility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that merits serious consideration since only relatively small modifications to the existing oil or gas burner system may be required, and boiler derating can be minimized. The environmental permitting and planning process for a low-Btu coal gasification...

Murawczyk, C.; Stewart, J. T.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Recent regulatory experience of low-Btu coal gasification. Volume III. Supporting case studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The MITRE Corporation conducted a five-month study for the Office of Resource Applications in the Department of Energy on the regulatory requirements of low-Btu coal gasification. During this study, MITRE interviewed representatives of five current low-Btu coal gasification projects and regulatory agencies in five states. From these interviews, MITRE has sought the experience of current low-Btu coal gasification users in order to recommend actions to improve the regulatory process. This report is the third of three volumes. It contains the results of interviews conducted for each of the case studies. Volume 1 of the report contains the analysis of the case studies and recommendations to potential industrial users of low-Btu coal gasification. Volume 2 contains recommendations to regulatory agencies.

Ackerman, E.; Hart, D.; Lethi, M.; Park, W.; Rifkin, S.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

EIS-0007: Low Btu Coal Gasification Facility and Industrial Park  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The U.S. Department of Energy prepared this environmental impact statement which evaluates the potential environmental impacts that may be associated with the construction and operation of a low-Btu coal gasification facility and the attendant industrial park in Georgetown, Scott County, Kentucky.

4

Method for producing low and medium BTU gas from coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process for producing low and medium BTU gas from carbonizable material is described which comprises: partly devolatizing the material and forming hot incandescent coke therefrom by passing a bed of the same part way through a hot furnace chamber on a first horizontally moving grate while supplying a sub-stoichiometric quantity of air to the same and driving the reactions: C + O/sub 2/ = CO/sub 2/; 2C + O/sub 2/ = 2CO discharging the hot incandescent coke from the end of the first grate run onto a second horizontally moving grate run below the first grate run in the same furnace chamber so as to form a bed thereon, the bed formed on the second grate run being considerably thicker than the bed formed on the first grate run, passing the hot incandescent coke bed on the second grate run further through the furnace chamber in a substantially horizontal direction while feeding air and stream thereto so as to fully burn the coke and in ratio of steam to air driving the following reactions: 2C + O/sub 2/ = 2CO; C + H/sub 2/O = H/sub 2/ + CO; C + 2H/sub 2/O = 2H/sub 2/ + CO/sub 2/; CO + H/sub 2/O = H/sub 2/ + CO/sub 2/ taking off the ash residue of the burned coke and taking off the gaseous products of the reactions.

Mansfield, V.; Francoeur, C.M.

1988-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

5

Markets for low- and medium-Btu coal gasification: an analysis of 13 site specific studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1978 the US Department of Energy (DOE), through its Office of Resource Applications, developed a commercialization plan for low- and medium-Btu coal gasification. Several initial steps have been taken in that process, including a comprehensive study of industrial markets, issuance of a Notice of Program Interest, and funding of proposals under the Alternate Fuels Legislation (P.L. 96-126). To assist it in the further development and administration of the commercialization plan, the Office of Resource Applications has asked Booz, Allen and Hamilton to assess the market prospects for low- and medium-Btu coal gasification. This report covers the detailed findings of the study. Following the introduction which discusses the purpose of the study, approach used for the assignment and current market attitudes on coal gasification, there are three chapters on: systems configurations and applications; economic and finanical attractiveness; and summary of management decisions based on feasibility study results. The final chapter briefly assesses the management decisions. The general consensus seems to be that coal gasification is a technology that will be attractive in the future but is marginal now. 6 figures, 5 tables.

Not Available

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

COMPCOAL{trademark}: A profitable process for production of a stable high-Btu fuel from Powder River Basin coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Western Research Institute (WRI) is developing a process to produce a stable, clean-burning, premium fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and other low-rank coals. This process is designed to overcome the problems of spontaneous combustion, dust formation, and readsorption of moisture that are experienced with PRB coal and with processed PRB coal. This process, called COMPCOAL{trademark}, results in high-Btu product that is intended for burning in boilers designed for midwestern coals or for blending with other coals. In the COMPCOAL process, sized coal is dried to zero moisture content and additional oxygen is removed from the coal by partial decarboxylation as the coal is contacted by a stream of hot fluidizing gas in the dryer. The hot, dried coal particles flow into the pyrolyzer where they are contacted by a very small flow of air. The oxygen in the air reacts with active sites on the surface of the coal particles causing the temperature of the coal to be raised to about 700{degrees}F (371{degrees}C) and oxidizing the most reactive sites on the particles. This ``instant aging`` contributes to the stability of the product while only reducing the heating value of the product by about 50 Btu/lb. Less than 1 scf of air per pound of dried coal is used to avoid removing any of the condensible liquid or vapors from the coal particles. The pyrolyzed coal particles are mixed with fines from the dryer cyclone and dust filter and the resulting mixture at about 600{degrees}F (316{degrees}C) is fed into a briquettor. Briquettes are cooled to about 250{degrees}F (121{degrees}C) by contact with a mist of water in a gas-tight mixing conveyor. The cooled briquettes are transferred to a storage bin where they are accumulated for shipment.

Smith, V.E.; Merriam, N.W.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Small (5 million Btu/h) and large (300 million Btu/h) thermal test rigs for coal and coal slurry burner development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NEI International Combustion Ltd. of Derby, England, now operates two thermal test rigs for the development of burners capable of handling coal-water slurries (CWS). A general description of the large rig and its capacity was given. Also, the necessary conversions of the equipment to handle CWS were described. Information on the properties of the CWS was included. This consisted of chemical analysis of the parent coal and the slurry, sieve analysis of a dry sample, and viscosity versus temperature data of the CWS. The process of design development of the burner was outlined. Ten illustrations were presented, including schematic diagrams of equipment and graphs of data.

Allen, J.W.; Beal, P.R.; Hufton, P.F.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

An Evaluation of Low-BTU Gas from Coal as an Alternate Fuel for Process Heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of these factors, the difference between coal and natural gas prices and the project life are difficult to predict. The resulting uncertainty has caused Monsanto to pursue coal gasification for process heaters with cautious optimism, on a site by site basis....

Nebeker, C. J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Cofiring of coal and dairy biomass in a 100,000 btu/hr furnace  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dairy biomass (DB) is evaluated as a possible co-firing fuel with coal. Cofiring of DB offers a technique of utilizing dairy manure for power/steam generation, reducing greenhouse gas concerns, and increasing financial returns to dairy operators...

Lawrence, Benjamin Daniel

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

10

State coal profiles, January 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

Not Available

1994-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

11

Commercial low-Btu coal-gasification plant. Feasibility study: General Refractories Company, Florence, Kentucky. Volume I. Project summary. [Wellman-Galusha  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In response to a 1980 Department of Energy solicitation, the General Refractories Company submitted a Proposal for a feasibility study of a low Btu gasification facility for its Florence, KY plant. The proposed facility would substitute low Btu gas from a fixed bed gasifier for natural gas now used in the manufacture of insulation board. The Proposal from General Refractories was prompted by a concern over the rising costs of natural gas, and the anticipation of a severe increase in fuel costs resulting from deregulation. The proposed feasibility study is defined. The intent is to provide General Refractories with the basis upon which to determine the feasibility of incorporating such a facility in Florence. To perform the work, a Grant for which was awarded by the DOE, General Refractories selected Dravo Engineers and Contractors based upon their qualifications in the field of coal conversion, and the fact that Dravo has acquired the rights to the Wellman-Galusha technology. The LBG prices for the five-gasifier case are encouraging. Given the various natural gas forecasts available, there seems to be a reasonable possibility that the five-gasifier LBG prices will break even with natural gas prices somewhere between 1984 and 1989. General Refractories recognizes that there are many uncertainties in developing these natural gas forecasts, and if the present natural gas decontrol plan is not fully implemented some financial risks occur in undertaking the proposed gasification facility. Because of this, General Refractories has decided to wait for more substantiating evidence that natural gas prices will rise as is now being predicted.

none,

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

By Coal Destination State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

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13

By Coal Destination State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,

14

By Coal Destination State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S. Energy

15

By Coal Destination State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S. Energy0

16

By Coal Destination State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S. Energy01

17

By Coal Destination State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S.

18

By Coal Destination State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S.1 U.S.

19

By Coal Destination State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S.1 U.S.1

20

By Coal Destination State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S.1 U.S.12

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu state coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

By Coal Origin State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S.1 U.S.120

22

By Coal Origin State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S.1

23

By Coal Origin State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S.10 U.S.

24

By Coal Origin State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S.10 U.S.0

25

By Coal Origin State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S.10 U.S.01

26

By Coal Origin State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S.10

27

By Coal Origin State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S.101 U.S.

28

By Coal Origin State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S.101 U.S.1

29

By Coal Origin State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S.101

30

By Coal Destination State  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 633 622 566 8021 1 2 22008662 564CubicAnnual Coal

31

Biological removal of organic constituents in quench waters from high-Btu coal-gasification pilot plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies were initiated to assess the efficiency of bench-scale, activated-sludge treatment for removal of organic constituents from coal-gasification process effluents. Samples of pilot-plant, raw-gas quench waters were obtained from the HYGAS process of the Institute of Gas Technology and from the slagging, fixed-bed (SFB) process of the Grand Forks Energy Technology Center. The types of coal employed were Bituminous Illinois No. 6 for the HYGAS and Indian Head lignite for the SFB process. These pilot-plant quench waters, while not strictly representative of commercial condensates, were considered useful to evaluate the efficiency of biological oxidation for the removal of organics. Biological-reactor influent and effluent samples were extracted using a methylene chloride pH-fractionation method into acid, base, and neutral fractions, which were analyzed by capillary-column gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry. Influent acid fractions of both HYGAS and SFB condensates showed that nearly 99% of extractable and chromatographable organic material comprised phenol and alkylated phenols. Activated-sludge treatment removed these compounds almost completely. Removal efficiency of base-fraction organics was generally good, except for certain alkylated pyridines. Removal of neutral-fraction organics was also good, except for certain alkylated benzenes, certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and certain cycloalkanes and cycloalkenes, especially at low influent concentrations.

Stamoudis, V C; Luthy, R G

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Coal mine directory: United States and Canada  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The directory gives a state-by-state listing of all US and Canadian coal producers. It contains contact information as well as the type of mine, production statistics, coal composition, transportation methods etc. A statistical section provides general information about the US coal industry, preparation plants, and longwall mining operations.

NONE

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Accurate BTU Measurement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 represents a typical arrangement in which heat is supplied to, or absorbed by the difference in temperatures of a working fluid, generally water. (See Ref. 1). Supply (TIl- Supply (Tl1 E E Heat (BTU) He.' ~ Exchange Exchange Relurn (T2... rate (BTU/unit time) ? m Mass flow rate (lb/unit time) hI' h2 = Specific enthalpy of supply and return liquid (BTU/lb) BTU C p - Average specific heat (--~----) IboF Equations 1, 2 are instantaneous values for heat flow or energy transferred...

Hosseini, S.; Rusnak, J. J.

34

Conventional coal preparation in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Processing of bituminous and anthracite coal is widely practiced in the United States and, as mentioned earlier, about 80 percent of the production of these coals is processed as clean coal in preparation plants. Subbituminous coal is not widely processed, primarily because these low rank raw coals are low in sulfur (0.5 to 1.0 percent) and relatively low in ash (8 to 15 percent). They are also relatively low in heat content due to their high inherent moisture. Lignite coals, to the best of the authors{close_quote} knowledge, are not presently being processed in Conventional Coal Preparation plants. This is due to their unstable nature and putting them in water in a coal preparation plant is likely to cause severe degradation in particle size and add to their already high inherent moisture content. The following are the benefits of clean coal processing: produces a uniform product which can be utilized more efficiently; produces a higher quality product which results in higher efficiency at the power station or the steel mill; reduces sulfur dioxide and other adverse stack emissions during coal firing which is a very important environmental consideration; reduces ash or slag handling costs by the user; reduces shipping costs; and reduces handling and storage costs. Processing any stable raw coal in a coal preparation plant will always produce a higher grade product which is a more efficient and a more environmentally acceptable fuel for use at power stations, steel mills, home heating or industrial boilers.

Beck, M.K.; Taylor, B.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

35

State perspectives on clean coal technology deployment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

State governments have been funding partners in the Clean Coal Technology program since its beginnings. Today, regulatory and market uncertainties and tight budgets have reduced state investment in energy R and D, but states have developed program initiatives in support of deployment. State officials think that the federal government must continue to support these technologies in the deployment phase. Discussions of national energy policy must include attention to the Clean Coal Technology program and its accomplishments.

Moreland, T. [State of Illinois Washington Office, Washington, DC (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

37

The Mansfield Two-Stage, Low BTU Gasification System: Report of Operations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The least expensive way to produce gas from coal is by low Btu gasification, a process by which coal is converted to carbon monoxide and hydrogen by reacting it with air and steam. Low Btu gas, which is used near its point of production, eliminates...

Blackwell, L. T.; Crowder, J. T.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Coal Supply Basin Destination State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87 1967-2010 ImportsCubic Feet) Oil3Q 20093Q4QReal

39

Coal Supply Basin Destination State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87 1967-2010 ImportsCubic Feet) Oil3Q

40

Coal Supply Basin Destination State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87 1967-2010 ImportsCubic Feet) Oil3Qc. Real

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu state coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Sulfur and ash reduction potential and selected chemical and physical properties of United States coals. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the washability and comprehensive characterization results of 184 raw coal channel samples, including anthracite, bituminous and lignite coals, collected from the Central Region of the United States. This is the second of a three volume report on the coals of the United States. All the data are presented in six appendices. Statistical techniques and definitions are presented in Appendix A, and a glossary of terms is presented in Appendix B. The complete washability data and an in-depth characterization of each sample are presented alphabetically by state in Appendix C. In Appendix D, a statistical evaluation is given for the composited washability data, selected chemical and physical properties and washability data interpolated at various levels of Btu recovery. This presentation is shown by state, section, and region where four or more samples were collected. Appendix E presents coalbed codes and names for the Central Region coals. Graphical summations are presented by state, section and region showing the effects of crushing on impurity reductions, and the distribution of raw and clean coal samples meeting various levels of SO{sub 2} emissions. 35 figs., 5 tabs.

Cavallaro, J.A.; Deurbrouck, A.W.; Killmeyer, R.P.; Fuchs, W. (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (USA). Coal Preparation Div.); Jacobsen, P.S. (Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

BTU Accounting for Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, salesmen cars, over the highway trucks, facilities startup, waste used as fuel and fuels received for storage. This is a first step in the DOE's effort to establish usage guidelines for large industrial users and, we note, it requires BTU usage data...-generated electricity, heating, ventilating, air conditioning, in-plant transportation, ore hauling, raw material storage and finished product warehousing. Categories which are excluded are corporate and divisional offices, basic research, distribution centers...

Redd, R. O.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

application (coal gasification, coal combustion followed byversions of advanced gasification processes show promise ofFixed-Bed Low-Btu Coal Gasification Systems for Retrofitting

Ferrell, G.C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Characterization of seven United States coal regions. The development of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report characterizes seven United State coal regions in the Northern Great Plains, Rocky Mountain, Interior, and Gulf Coast coal provinces. Descriptions include those of the Fort Union, Powder River, Green River, Four Corners, Lower Missouri, Illinois Basin, and Texas Gulf coal resource regions. The resource characterizations describe geologic, geographic, hydrologic, environmental and climatological conditions of each region, coal ranks and qualities, extent of reserves, reclamation requirements, and current mining activities. The report was compiled as a basis for the development of hypothetical coal mining situations for comparison of conventional and terrace pit surface mining methods, under contract to the Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023, entitled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

Wimer, R.L.; Adams, M.A.; Jurich, D.M.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Gasifier feed: Tailor-made from Illinois coals. Interim final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main purpose of this project is to produce a feedstock from preparation plant fines from an Illinois coal that is ideal for a slurry fed, slagging, entrained-flow coal gasifier. The high sulfur content and high Btu value of Illinois coals are particularly advantageous in such a gasifier; preliminary calculations indicate that the increased cost of removing sulfur from the gas from a high sulfur coal is more than offset by the increased revenue from the sale of the elemental sulfur; additionally the high Btu Illinois coal concentrates more energy into the slurry of a given coal to water ratio. The Btu is higher not only because of the higher Btu value of the coal but also because Illinois coal requires less water to produce a pumpable slurry than western coal, i.e., as little as 30--35% water may be used for Illinois coal as compared to approximately 45% for most western coals. Destec Energy, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Dow Chemical Company, will provide guidelines and test compatibility of the slurries developed for gasification feedstock. Williams Technologies, Inc., will provide their expertise in long distance slurry pumping, and test selected products for viscosity, pumpability, and handleability. The Illinois State Geological Survey will study methods for producing clean coal/water slurries from preparation plant wastes including the concentration of pyritic sulfur into the coal slurry to increase the revenue from elemental sulfur produced during gasification operations, and decrease the pyritic sulfur content of the waste streams. ISGS will also test the gasification reactivity of the coals.

Ehrlinger, H.P. III; Lytle, J.; Frost, R.R.; Lizzio, A.; Kohlenberger, L.; Brewer, K. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

46

The development of clean coal technology in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The United States has made a $5-billion commitment, to be shared by the government and the private sector, to the development of a new generation of clean-coal technologies. Because the nation has a resource imperative to develop domestic coal supplies and a strong commitment to environmental protection, it seems that clean coal technologies are the preferred solution for power generation needs in the United States in the medium-term. The lessons learned during this demonstration program could have important implications for technology development and deployment in other countries. The purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the aspects of the US Clean Coal Technology (CCT) demonstration program that could be relevant to other countries. 2 refs., 8 tabs.

Streets, D.G.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 24, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery.

NONE

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal's emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)); Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States))

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Table 2. Coal Production by State  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781 2,328AdministrationReleaseMetallurgical Coal ExportsPrice of

50

Uncertainty in Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from United States Coal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

analyses involving coal. Greenhouse gas emissions from fuel use and methane releases at coal mines, fuel.5 million metric tons of methane emissions. Close to 95% of domestic coal was consumed by the electricityUncertainty in Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from United States Coal Aranya Venkatesh

Jaramillo, Paulina

51

The relationship between coal quality and coal resource parameters of Powder River and Williston Basin coal, Wyoming, Montana, and North Dakota  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Clean, compliant coal from mines in the Northern Rocky Mountain and Great Plains region is utilized as fuel for coal-fired power plants in 26 states. More than 30 percent of the nation`s 1997 production was from Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming. Production of clean, compliant coal from the region is estimated to increase to 415 million short tons by the year 2015. Studies in this region indicate a relationship between percent sulfur and ash and pounds of SO{sub 2} per million Btu and the resource parameters of coal thickness and overburden. The trends that the authors have observed indicate that both coal quality and the thickness of the coal and associated rocks are controlled by paleoenvironment and depositional setting.

Ellis, M.S.; Stricker, G.D.; Gunther, G.; Ochs, A.M.; Flores, R.M.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

52

Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation. Final report, October 1, 1988--March 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal`s emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R. [Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States)

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the United States--FischerTropsch Synthesis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the United States--Fischer­Tropsch Synthesis Tad W-mine development. Consequently, a large-scale effort to convert coal to liquids (CTL) has been proposed to create that coal into a synthetic liquid fuel, or synfuel. The plan is con- troversial, but Gov. Schweitzer ­ half

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

54

Coal-to-liquids bill introduced in the Senate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Of immense importance to the coal industry is the announcement, on 7 June 2006 by US Senators Barack Obama (D-IL) and Jim Bunning (R-KY) of S.3325, the 'Coal-to-Liquid Fund Promotion Act of 2006'. This legislation creates tax incentives for coal-to-liquids (CTL) technologies and construction of CTL plants. If passed, this will create the infrastructure needed to make CTL a viable energy resource throughout America. The article gives comment and background to this proposed legislation. Illinois Basin coal is well suited for CTL because of its high Btu content. If Sasol constructs a proposed plant in Illinois it would increase coal production in the state by 10 mt. 1 fig.

Buchsbaum, L.

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

55

Rock, Mineral, Coal, Oil, and Gas Resources on State Lands (Montana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This chapter authorizes and regulates prospecting permits and mining leases for the exploration and development of rock, mineral, oil, coal, and gas resources on state lands.

56

High-temperature turbine technology program. Turbine subsystem design report: Low-Btu gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the US Department of Energy High-Temperature Turbine Technology (DOE-HTTT) program is to bring to technology readiness a high-temperature (2600/sup 0/F to 3000/sup 0/F firing temperature) turbine within a 6- to 10-year duration, Phase II has addressed the performance of component design and technology testing in critical areas to confirm the design concepts identified in the earlier Phase I program. Based on the testing and support studies completed under Phase II, this report describes the updated turbine subsystem design for a coal-derived gas fuel (low-Btu gas) operation at 2600/sup 0/F turbine firing temperature. A commercial IGCC plant configuration would contain four gas turbines. These gas turbines utilize an existing axial flow compressor from the GE product line MS6001 machine. A complete description of the Primary Reference Design-Overall Plant Design Description has been developed and has been documented. Trends in overall plant performance improvement at higher pressure ratio and higher firing temperature are shown. It should be noted that the effect of pressure ratio on efficiency is significally enhanced at higher firing temperatures. It is shown that any improvement in overall plant thermal efficiency reflects about the same level of gain in Cost of Electricity (COE). The IGCC concepts are shown to be competitive in both performance and cost at current and near-term gas turbine firing temperatures of 1985/sup 0/F to 2100/sup 0/F. The savings that can be accumulated over a thirty-year plant life for a water-cooled gas turbine in an IGCC plant as compared to a state-of-the-art coal-fired steam plant are estimated. A total of $500 million over the life of a 1000 MW plant is projected. Also, this IGCC power plant has significant environmental advantages over equivalent coal-fired steam power plants.

Horner, M.W.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is disclosed. The combustor includes several separately removable combustion chambers each having an annular sectoral cross section and a double-walled construction permitting separation of stresses due to pressure forces and stresses due to thermal effects. Arrangements are described for air-cooling each combustion chamber using countercurrent convective cooling flow between an outer shell wall and an inner liner wall and using film cooling flow through liner panel grooves and along the inner liner wall surface, and for admitting all coolant flow to the gas path within the inner liner wall. Also described are systems for supplying coal gas, combustion air, and dilution air to the combustion zone, and a liquid fuel nozzle for use during low-load operation. The disclosed combustor is fully air-cooled, requires no transition section to interface with a turbine nozzle, and is operable at firing temperatures of up to 3000.degree. F. or within approximately 300.degree. F. of the adiabatic stoichiometric limit of the coal gas used as fuel.

Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Upgrading low rank coal using the Koppelman Series C process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Development of the K-Fuel technology began after the energy shortage of the early 1970s in the United States led energy producers to develop the huge deposits of low-sulfur coal in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. PRB coal is a subbituminous C coal containing about 30 wt % moisture and having heating values of about 18.6 megajoules/kg (8150 Btu/lb). PRB coal contains from 0.3 to 0.5 wt % sulfur, which is nearly all combined with the organic matrix in the coal. It is in much demand for boiler fuel because of the low-sulfur content and the low price. However, the low-heating value limits the markets for PRB coal to boilers specially designed for the high- moisture coal. Thus, the advantages of the low-sulfur content are not available to many potential customers having boilers that were designed for bituminous coal. This year about 250 million tons of coal is shipped from the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. The high- moisture content and, consequently, the low-heating value of this coal causes the transportation and combustion of the coal to be inefficient. When the moisture is removed and the heating value increased the same bundle of energy can be shipped using one- third less train loads. Also, the dried product can be burned much more efficiently in boiler systems. This increase in efficiency reduces the carbon dioxide emissions caused by use of the low-heating value coal. Also, the processing used to remove water and restructure the coal removes sulfur, nitrogen, mercury, and chlorides from the coal. This precombustion cleaning is much less costly than stack scrubbing. PRB coal, and other low-rank coals, tend to be highly reactive when freshly mined. These reactive coals must be mixed regularly (every week or two) when fresh, but become somewhat more stable after they have aged for several weeks. PRB coal is relatively dusty and subject to self-ignition compared to bituminous coals. When dried using conventional technology, PRB coal is even more dusty and more susceptible to spontaneous combustion than the raw coal. Also, PRB coal, if dried at low temperature, typically readsorbs about two- thirds of the moisture removed by drying. This readsorption of moisture releases the heat of adsorption of the water which is a major cause of self- heating of low-rank coals at low temperature.

Merriam, N.W., Western Research Institute

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Structural-chemical modeling of transition of coals to the plastic state  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The structural-chemical simulation of the formation of plastic state during the thermal treatment (pyrolysis, coking) of coals is based on allowance for intermolecular interactions in the organic matter. The feasibility of transition of coals to the plastic state is determined by the ratio between the onset plastic state (softening) and runaway degradation temperatures, values that depend on the petrographic composition and the degree of metamorphism of coals and the distribution of structural and chemical characteristics of organic matter. 33 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

A.M. Gyul'maliev; S.G. Gagarin [FGUP Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

60

Report to the United States Congress clean coal technology export markets and financing mechanisms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report responds to a Congressional Conference Report that requests that $625,000 in funding provided will be used by the Department to identify potential markets for clean coal technologies in developing countries and countries with economies in transition from nonmarket economies and to identify existing, or new, financial mechanisms or financial support to be provided by the Federal government that will enhance the ability of US industry to participate in these markets. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) expects world coal consumption to increase by 30 percent between 1990 and 2010, from 5.1 to 6.5 billion short tons. Five regions stand out as major foreign markets for the export of US clean coal technologies: China; The Pacific Rim (other than China); South Asia (primarily India); Transitional Economies (Central Europe and the Newly Independent States); and Other Markets (the Americas and Southern Africa). Nearly two-thirds of the expected worldwide growth in coal utilization will occur in China, one quarter in the United States. EIA forecasts nearly a billion tons per year of additional coal consumption in China between 1990 and 2010, a virtual doubling of that country`s coal consumption. A 30-percent increase in coal consumption is projected in other developing countries over that same period. This increase in coal consumption will be accompanied by an increase in demand for technologies for burning coal cost-effectively, efficiently and cleanly. In the Pacific Rim and South Asia, rapid economic growth coupled with substantial indigenous coal supplies combine to create a large potential market for CCTS. In Central Europe and the Newly Independent States, the challenge will be to correct the damage of decades of environmental neglect without adding to already-considerable economic disruption. Though the situation varies, all these countries share the basic need to use indigenous low-quality coal cleanly and efficiently.

Not Available

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu state coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone: this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe: swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone: this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

1985-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

62

Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone; this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe; swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone; this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

A portfolio approach to energy governance : state management of China's coal and electric power supply industries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This study addresses the extent to which China's central state devolved ownership and investment levels in its energy sector to other actors during the modern reform period (1978- 2008). The project focused on China's coal ...

Cunningham, Edward A., IV (Edward Albert)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

POTENTIAL MARKETS FOR HIGH-BTU GAS FROM COAL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It has become increasilngly clear that the energy-related ilemna facing this nation is both a long-term and deepening problem. A widespread recognition of the critical nature of our energy balance, or imbalance, evolved from the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973. The seeds of this crisis were sown in the prior decade, however, as our consumption of known energy reserves outpaced our developing of new reserves. The resultant increasing dependence on foreign energy supplies hs triggered serious fuel shortages, dramatic price increases, and a pervsive sense of unertainty and confusion throughout the country.

Booz, Allen, and Hamilton, Inc.,

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

High Btu gas from peat. Existing social and economic conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1980, the Minnesota Gas Company (Minnegasco) submitted a proposal to the US Department of Energy entitled, A Feasibility Study - High Btu Gas from Peat. The proposed study was designed to assess the overall viability of the design, construction and operation of a commercial facility for the production of high-Btu substitute natural gas (SNG) from Minnesota peat. On September 30, 1980, Minnegasco was awarded a grant by the Department of Energy to perform the proposed study. In order to complete the study, Minnegasco assembled an experienced project team with the wide range of expertise required. In addition, the State of Minnesota agreed to participate in an advisory capacity. The items to be investigated by the project team during the feasibility study include peat harvesting, dewatering, gasification process design, economic and risk assessment, site evaluation, environmental and socioeconomic impact assessment. Ertec (The Earth Technology Corporation) was selected to conduct the site evaluation and environmental assessment portions of the feasibility study. The site evaluation was completed in March of 1981 with the submittal of the first of several reports to Minnegasco. This report describes the existing social and economic conditions of the proposed project area in northern Minnesota. The baseline data presented will be used to assess the significance of potential project impacts in subsequent phases of the feasibility study. Wherever possible, the data base was established using 1980 Bureau of Census statistics. However, where the 1980 data were not yet available, the most recent information is presented. 11 figures, 46 tables.

Not Available

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

A Requirement for Significant Reduction in the Maximum BTU Input...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

A Requirement for Significant Reduction in the Maximum BTU Input Rate of Decorative Vented Gas Fireplaces Would Impose Substantial Burdens on Manufacturers A Requirement for...

67

State Energy Price System: 1982 update  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The State Energy Price System (STEPS) contains estimates of energy prices for ten major fuels (electricity, natural gas, metallurgical coal, steam coal, distillate, motor gasoline, diesel, kerosene/jet fuel, residual fuel, and liquefied petroleum gas), by major end-use sectors (residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and electric utility), and by state through 1982. Both physical unit prices and prices per million Btu are included in STEPS. Major changes in STEPS data base for 1981 and 1982 are described. The most significant changes in procedures for the updates occur in the residential sector distillate series and the residential sector kerosene series. All physical unit and Btu prices are shown with three significant digits instead of with four significant digits as shown in the original documentation. Details of these and other changes are contained in this report, along with the updated data files. 31 references, 65 tables.

Imhoff, K.L.; Fang, J.M.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Mercury emission control for coal fired power plants using coal and biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

were performed in a 100,000 BTU/hr (29.3 kWt) Boiler Burner facility located in the Coal and Biomass Energy laboratory (CBEL); coal and biomass blends in proportions of 80:20, 90:10, 95:5 and 100:0 were investigated as fuels. The percentage reduction...

Arcot Vijayasarathy, Udayasarathy

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

69

Coal Severance Tax (North Dakota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Coal Severance Tax is imposed on all coal severed for sale or industrial purposes, except coal used for heating buildings in the state, coal used by the state or any political subdivision of...

70

Assessment of coal technology options and implications for the State of Hawaii  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mandate of this research report was to provide the state of Hawaii with an assessment of the potential opportunities and drawbacks of relying on coal-fired generating technologies to diversify its fuel mix and satisfy future electric power requirements. This assessment was to include a review of existing and emerging coal-based power technologies-including their associated costs, environmental impacts, land use, and infrastructure requirements-to determine the range of impacts likely to occur if such systems were deployed in Hawaii. Coupled with this review, the report was also to (1) address siting and safety issues as they relate to technology choice and coal transport, (2) consider how environmental costs associated with coal usage are included in the integrated resource planning (ERP) process, and (3) develop an analytical tool from which the Department of Business, Economic Development & Tourism of the State of Hawaii could conduct first-order comparisons of power plant selection and siting. The prepared report addresses each element identified above. However, available resources and data limitations limited the extent to which particular characteristics of coal use could be assessed. For example, the technology profiles are current but not as complete regarding future developments and cost/emissions data as possible, and the assessment of coal technology deployment issues in Hawaii was conducted on an aggregate (not site-specific) basis. Nonetheless, the information and findings contained in this report do provide an accurate depiction of the opportunities for and issues associated with coal utilization in the state of Hawaii.

Carlson, J.L.; Elcock, D.; Elliott, T.J. [and others] [and others

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the United States-Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The United States has the world's largest coal reserves and Montana the highest potential for mega-mine development. Consequently, a large-scale effort to convert coal to liquids (CTL) has been proposed to create a major source of domestic transportation fuels from coal, and some prominent Montanans want to be at the center of that effort. We calculate that the energy efficiency of the best existing Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process applied to average coal in Montana is less than 1/2 of the corresponding efficiency of an average crude oil refining process. The resulting CO{sub 2} emissions are 20 times (2000%) higher for CTL than for conventional petroleum products. One barrel of the FT fuel requires roughly 800 kg of coal and 800 kg of water. The minimum energy cost of subsurface CO{sub 2} sequestration would be at least 40% of the FT fuel energy, essentially halving energy efficiency of the process. We argue therefore that CTL conversion is not the most valuable use for the coal, nor will it ever be, as long as it is economical to use natural gas for electric power generation. This finding results from the low efficiency inherent in FT synthesis, and is independent of the monumental FT plant construction costs, mine construction costs, acute lack of water, and the associated environmental impacts for Montana.

Patzek, Tad W. [University of Texas, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (United States)], E-mail: patzek@mail.utexas.edu; Croft, Gregory D. [University of California, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (United States)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

72

Domestic Coal Distribution 2009 Q1 by Destination State: Alabama  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87CBECS Public Use Data0 0(BTUFeet)(Dollars per604

73

Domestic Coal Distribution 2009 Q1 by Origin State: Alabama  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87CBECS Public Use Data0 0(BTUFeet)(Dollars

74

Domestic Coal Distribution 2009 Q2 by Destination State: Alabama  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87CBECS Public Use Data0 0(BTUFeet)(Dollars61

75

Domestic Coal Distribution 2009 Q2 by Origin State: Alabama  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87CBECS Public Use Data0 0(BTUFeet)(Dollars61Q2 by

76

Gasifier feed: Tailor-made from Illinois coals. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main purpose of this project was to produce a feedstock from preparation plant fines from an Illinois (IL) coal that is ideal for a slurry fed, slagging, entrained-flow coal gasifier. The high-sulfur content and high-Btu value of IL coals are Particularly advantageous in such a gasifier; preliminary-calculations indicate that the increased cost of removing sulfur from the gas from a high-sulfur coal is more than offset b the increased revenue from the sale of the elemental sulfur; additionally the high-Btu IL coal concentrates more energy into the slurry of a given coal to water ratio. The Btu is--higher not only because of the hither Btu value of the coal but also because IL coal requires less water to produce a pumpable slurry than western coal, i.e., as little as 30--35% water may be used for IL coal as compared to approximately 45% for most western coals. During the contract extension, additional coal testing was completed confirming the fact that coal concentrates can be made from plant waste under a variety of flotation conditions 33 tests were conducted, yielding an average of 13326 Btu with 9.6% ash while recovering 86.0%-Of the energy value.

Ehrlinger, H.P. III [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Lytle, J.M.; Frost, R.R.; Lizzio, A.A.; Kohlenberger, L.B.; Brewer, K.K. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)]|[DESTEC Energy (United States)]|[Williams Technologies, Inc. (United States)]|[Illinois Coal Association (United States)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

77

Opportunities for coal to methanol conversion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The accumulations of mining residues in the anthracite coal regions of Pennsylvania offer a unique opportunity to convert the coal content into methanol that could be utilized in that area as an alternative to gasoline or to extend the supplies through blending. Additional demand may develop through the requirements of public utility gas turbines located in that region. The cost to run this refuse through coal preparation plants may result in a clean coal at about $17.00 per ton. After gasification and synthesis in a 5000 ton per day facility, a cost of methanol of approximately $3.84 per million Btu is obtained using utility financing. If the coal is to be brought in by truck or rail from a distance of approximately 60 miles, the cost of methanol would range between $4.64 and $5.50 per million Btu depending upon the mode of transportation. The distribution costs to move the methanol from the synthesis plant to the pump could add, at a minimum, $2.36 per million Btu to the cost. In total, the delivered cost at the pump for methanol produced from coal mining wastes could range between $6.20 and $7.86 per million Btu.

Not Available

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and desalination. Some of the direct approaches, such as dry air cooling, desalination, and recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, are costly and are deployed primarily in countries with severe water shortages, such as China, Australia, and South Africa. Table 1 shows drivers and approaches for reducing freshwater consumption in several countries outside the United States. Indirect approaches reduce water consumption while meeting other objectives, such as improving plant efficiency. Plants with higher efficiencies use less energy to produce electricity, and because the greater the energy production, the greater the cooling water needs, increased efficiency will help reduce water consumption. Approaches for improving efficiency (and for indirectly reducing water consumption) include increasing the operating steam parameters (temperature and pressure); using more efficient coal-fired technologies such as cogeneration, IGCC, and direct firing of gas turbines with coal; replacing or retrofitting existing inefficient plants to make them more efficient; installing high-performance monitoring and process controls; and coal drying. The motivations for increasing power plant efficiency outside the United States (and indirectly reducing water consumption) include the following: (1) countries that agreed to reduce carbon emissions (by ratifying the Kyoto protocol) find that one of the most effective ways to do so is to improve plant efficiency; (2) countries that import fuel (e.g., Japan) need highly efficient plants to compensate for higher coal costs; (3) countries with particularly large and growing energy demands, such as China and India, need large, efficient plants; (4) countries with large supplies of low-rank coals, such as Germany, need efficient processes to use such low-energy coals. Some countries have policies that encourage or mandate reduced water consumption - either directly or indirectly. For example, the European Union encourages increased efficiency through its cogeneration directive, which requires member states to assess their

Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

2011-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

79

Lowest Pressure Steam Saves More BTU's Than You Think  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ABSTRACT Steam is the most transferring heat from But most steam systems LOWEST PRESSURE STEAM SAVES MORE BTU'S THAN YOU THINK Stafford J. Vallery Armstrong Machine Works Three Rivers, Michigan steam to do the process heating rather than...

Vallery, S. J.

80

Coal Industry Annual 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu state coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Coal industry annual 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

NONE

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Compilation of data on strippable Fort Union coals in the northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region: A CD-ROM presentation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Fort Union Formation and equivalent formations of Paleocene age in the northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region contain 14 strippable coals that yielded more than 30 percent of the 1.03 billion short tons produced in the United States in 1996. These thick, low contaminant, compliant coals, which are utilized by electric power plants in 28 States, are being assessed by the US Geological Survey. The minable coals occur in the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana, Hanna, Carbon and Greater Green River Basins in Wyoming, and Williston Basin in North Dakota. Production during the past 25 years of thick, high quality Fort Union and equivalent coal beds and zones in the region increased from 40 to more than 340 million short tons. The Powder River Basin is projected to produce 416 million short tons of coal in 2015. Major production in the Powder River Basin is from the Wyodak-Anderson, Anderson-Dietz, and Rosebud coal deposits. Producing Fort Union coals in the Williston Basin include the Beulah-Zap, Hagel, and Harmon coal deposits. Producing Fort Union coals in the Greater Green River Basin are in five beds of the Deadman coal zone. Coal production in the Hanna Basin is from eight beds in the Ferris and Hanna Formations. Coals in the Powder River Basin and Williston Basin contain much less sulfur and ash than coals produced in other regions in the conterminous US. When sulfur values are compared as pounds of SO{sub 2} per million Btu (as received basis), Powder River Basin and Williston Basin coals have the lowest amounts of any coals in the conterminous US.

Flores, R.M.; Bader, L.R.; Cavaroc, V.V. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)] [and others

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Coal industry annual 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

NONE

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

The commercial feasibility of underground coal gasification in southern Thailand  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is a clean coal technology with the commercial potential to provide low- or medium-Btu gas for the generation of electric power. While the abundance of economic coal and natural gas reserves in the United States of America (USA) has delayed the commercial development of this technology in the USA, potential for commercial development of UCG-fueled electric power generation currently exists in many other nations. Thailand has been experiencing sustained economic growth throughout the past decade. The use of UCG to provide electric power to meet the growing power demand appears to have commercial potential. A project to determine the commercial feasibility of UCG-fueled electric power generation at a site in southern Thailand is in progress. The objective of the project is to determine the commercial feasibility of using UCG for power generation in the Krabi coal mining area located approximately 1,000 kilometers south of Bangkok, Thailand. The project team has developed a detailed methodology to determine the technical feasibility, environmental acceptability, and commercial economic potential of UCG at a selected site. In the methodology, hydrogeologic conditions of the coal seam and surrounding strata are determined first. These results and information describing the local economic conditions are then used to assess the commercial potential of the UCG application. The methodology for evaluating the Krabi UCG site and current project status are discussed in this paper.

Solc, J.; Young, B.C.; Harju, J.A.; Schmit, C.R. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Boysen, J.E. [B.C. Technologies, Ltd., Laramie, WY (United States); Kuhnel, R.A. [IIASES, Delft (Netherlands)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

85

Coal industry annual 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

Not Available

1994-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

86

EIA - Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 633 622 56623Primary MetalsOrigin State Glossary Home

87

Commercial demonstration of atmospheric medium BTU fuel gas production from biomass without oxygen the Burlington, Vermont Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The first U.S. demonstration of a gas turbine operating on fuel gas produced by the thermal gasification of biomass occurred at Battelle Columbus Labs (BCL) during 1994 using their high throughput indirect medium Btu gasification Process Research Unit (PRU). Zurn/NEPCO was retained to build a commercial scale gas plant utilizing this technology. This plant will have a throughput rating of 8 to 12 dry tons per hour. During a subsequent phase of the Burlington project, this fuel gas will be utilized in a commercial scale gas turbine. It is felt that this process holds unique promise for economically converting a wide variety of biomass feedstocks efficiently into both a medium Btu (500 Btu/scf) gas turbine and IC engine quality fuel gas that can be burned in engines without modification, derating or efficiency loss. Others are currently demonstrating sub-commercial scale thermal biomass gasification processes for turbine gas, utilizing both atmospheric and pressurized air and oxygen-blown fluid bed processes. While some of these approaches hold merit for coal, there is significant question as to whether they will prove economically viable in biomass facilities which are typically scale limited by fuel availability and transportation logistics below 60 MW. Atmospheric air-blown technologies suffer from large sensible heat loss, high gas volume and cleaning cost, huge gas compressor power consumption and engine deratings. Pressurized units and/or oxygen-blown gas plants are extremely expensive for plant scales below 250 MW. The FERCO/BCL process shows great promise for overcoming the above limitations by utilizing an extremely high throughout circulation fluid bed (CFB) gasifier, in which biomass is fully devolitalized with hot sand from a CFB char combustor. The fuel gas can be cooled and cleaned by a conventional scrubbing system. Fuel gas compressor power consumption is reduced 3 to 4 fold verses low Btu biomass gas.

Rohrer, J.W. [Zurn/NEPCO, South Portland, MA (United States); Paisley, M. [Battelle Laboratories, Columbus, OH (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

88

Understanding Utility Rates or How to Operate at the Lowest $/BTU  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The lower the energy rating (KW/Ton or KW/HP or KW/BTU) the more efficient the equipment and the less demand draw on the electric power plants, thereby reducing the need to build new power plants. To encourage DSM, utilities give rebates for high...: Bob Allwein, Oklahoma Natural Gas Company. Dick Landry, Gulf States Utility. Curtis Williford, Entex Gas Company. Bret McCants, Central Power and Light Company. Frank Tanner, Southern Union. Patric Coon, West Texas utilities. ESL-IE-93...

Phillips, J. N.

89

Advanced research and technoloty: University Coal Research Program. [Listed by state, organization and contract No. plus brief description  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In October 1979, Congress provided a new budget line item of $5 million for a program open to universities with existing laboratories capable of performing coal research. In response, the Department of Energy developed a national and regional program focused on university work in coal conversion and utilization. The program emphasizes coal combustion, conversion of coal to synthetic oil and gases, and characterization of coals from various regions of the country, and encourages the investigation and development of pertinent, promising, or novel ideas for advancing our knowledge of coal science. The program was announced to the academic community in December 1979, inviting more than 2000 departments of chemistry, chemical engineering, and mechanical engineering as well as academic vice-presidents for research, and university faculty to submit coal research proposals. By March 1980, more than 500 proposals had been received for consideration. By June 1980, after technical review of the proposals, 41 grants were awarded to 33 universities in 24 states. Each of these projects is described by means of a single-page summary that includes pertinent technical and fiscal information. The University Coal Research Program complements other DOE Fossil Energy activities with universities consisting of more than 400 active projects with an annual funding level of about $42 million. However, the new program differs in several respects: (1) it is performed through grants, rather than contracts or cooperative agreements, thereby offering investigators greater leeway in approaches to performance of their research objectives, (2) although mission oriented, it supports somewhat longer-term and more fundamental projects, and (3) it includes the training of students as an important objective.

Not Available

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Near-term implications of a ban on new coal-fired power plants in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Large numbers of proposed new coal power generators in the United States have been cancelled, and some states have prohibited new coal power generators. We examine the effects on the U.S. electric power system of banning the construction of coal-fired electricity generators, which has been proposed as a means to reduce U.S. CO{sub 2} emissions. The model simulates load growth, resource planning, and economic dispatch of the Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator (ISO), Inc., Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), and PJM under a ban on new coal generation and uses an economic dispatch model to calculate the resulting changes in dispatch order, CO{sub 2} emissions, and fuel use under three near-term (until 2030) future electric power sector scenarios. A national ban on new coal-fired power plants does not lead to CO{sub 2} reductions of the scale required under proposed federal legislation such as Lieberman-Warner but would greatly increase the fraction of time when natural gas sets the price of electricity, even with aggressive wind and demand response policies. 50 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Adam Newcomer; Jay Apt [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Carnegie Mellon Electricity Industry Center

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

91

Coal as a fuel: a user's viewpoint. [Bowling Green State University, Ohio  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The problems of a university heating plant burning 25,000 tons of coal per year are described. You cannot burn pulverized coal like the large electric utilities do, but have to use stoker-fed boilers. These have very specific requirements on the coal, so detailed specifications on the coal size, sulfur, volatile matter, ashes, moisture, etc. are required. There are several materials handling problems related to delivery of the coal, stockpiling, reclaiming, feeding, ash handling, etc. Truck delivery is relatively straightforward but expensive; rail delivery of one, or a few cars of coal, which is often frozen and hard to get out of the cars, presents several problems and is also somewhat expensive. (LTN)

Clodding, C.L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Coal demonstration plants. Quarterly report, July-September 1979  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The status of two coal liquefaction demonstration plants and of four coal gasification demonstration plants is reviewed under the following headings: company involved, contract number, funding, process name, process description, flowsheet, schedule, history and progress during the July-September quarter, 1979. Supporting projects in coal feeding systems, valves, grinding equipment, instrumentation, process control and water treatment are discussed in a similar way. Conceptual design work on commercial plants for coal to methanol and for a HYGAS high BTU gas plant were continued. (LTN)

None

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Property:Geothermal/AnnualGenBtuYr | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy ResourcesLoadingPenobscot County, Maine:Plug PowerAddressDataFormat JumpNercMroURL. PagesAnnualGenBtuYr

94

Joint United States and People`s Republic of China clean coal activities. Annual report, April 1994--December 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) and the Ministry of Coal Industry of the People`s Republic of China (China) signed a protocol in the field of fossil energy research and development in April 1985. An annex to this agreement, Annex IX, was signed in April 1994 for cooperation between the U.S. DOE and China`s State Science and Technology Commission (SSTC) in the area of clean coal utilization. Article III of Annex IX requires the United States and China jointly to prepare an annual report i describing the work performed and results achieved. This report, in compliance with Article III, is a description of the activities conducted under Annex IX during the period from April 1994 through December 1995. The report also contains the plans for future activities for the next 12 months, or through December 1996.

NONE

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Multi-parameter on-line coal bulk analysis. Quarterly report, March 16--June 15, 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An on-line coal analyzer is being developed as a joint venture between the French company SODERN which specializes in the manufacturing of neutron generators and associated electronics and the John B. Long Company which specializes in coal sampling equipment. Progress this quarter is summarized under the following topical headings: Measurement layout; Detector temperature stabilization; Raw coal library; and Determination of Btu content from elemental concentrations.

Vourvopoulos, G.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

96

High-pressure coal fuel processor development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of Subtask 1.1 Engine Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of ignition and stable combustion of directly injected, 3,000 psi, low-Btu gas with glow plug ignition assist at diesel engine compression ratios. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the combustion performance of synthesized low-Btu coal gas in a single-cylinder test engine combustion rig located at the Caterpillar Technical Center engine lab in Mossville, Illinois. The objective of Subtask 1.2 Fuel Processor Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of air-blown, fixed-bed, high-pressure coal fuel processing at up to 3,000 psi operating pressure, incorporating in-bed sulfur and particulate capture. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the performance of bench-scale processors located at Coal Technology Corporation (subcontractor) facilities in Bristol, Virginia. These two subtasks were carried out at widely separated locations and will be discussed in separate sections of this report. They were, however, independent in that the composition of the synthetic coal gas used to fuel the combustion rig was adjusted to reflect the range of exit gas compositions being produced on the fuel processor rig. Two major conclusions resulted from this task. First, direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize these low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risks associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept.

Greenhalgh, M.L.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Multifunctional (NOx/CO/O2) Solid-State Sensors For Coal Combustion Control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid-state sensors were developed for coal combustion control and the understanding of sensing mechanisms was advanced. Several semiconducting metal oxides (p-type and n-type) were used to fabricate sensor electrodes. The adsorption/desorption characteristics and catalytic activities of these materials were measured with Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) and Temperature Programmed Reaction (TPR) experiments. The sensitivity, selectivity, and response time of these sensors were measured for steps of NO, NO{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O vapor in simple N{sub 2}-balanced and multi-component, simulated combustion-exhaust streams. The role of electrode microstructure and fabrication parameters on sensing performance was investigated. Proof for the proposed sensing mechanism, Differential Electrode Equilibria, was demonstrated by relating the sensing behavior (sensitivities and cross-sensitivities) of the various electrode materials to their gas adsorption/desorption behaviors and catalytic activities. A multifunctional sensor array consisting of three sensing electrodes and an integrated heater and temperature sensors was fabricated with tape-casting and screen-printing and its NO{sub x} sensing performance was measured. The multifunctional sensor demonstrated it was possible to measure NO{sub 2} independent of NO by locally heating one of the sensing electrodes. The sensor technology was licensed to Fuel FX International, Inc. Fuel FX has obtained investor funding and is developing prototype sensors as a first step in their commercialization strategy for this technology.

Eric D. Wachsman

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

98

Preparation and gasification of a Thailand coal-water fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In response to an inquiry by the Department of Mineral Resources (DMR) in Thailand, the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) prepared a four-task program to assess the responsiveness of Wiang Haeng coal to the temperature and pressure conditions of hot-water drying (HWD). The results indicate that HWD made several improvements in the coal, notably increases in heating value and carbon content and reductions in equilibrium moisture and oxygen content. The equilibrium moisture content decreased from 37.4 wt% for the raw coal to about 20 wt% for the HWD coals. The energy density, determined at 500 cP, indicates an increase from 4450 to 6650 Btu/lb by hydrothermal treatment. Raw and HWD coal were then gasified at various mild gasification conditions of 700 C and 30 psig. The tests indicated that the coal is probably similar to other low-rank coals and will produce high levels of hydrogen and be fairly reactive.

Ness, R.O. Jr.; Anderson, C.M.; Musich, M.A.; Richter, J.J.; Dewall, R.A.; Young, B.C. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Nakanart, A. [Ministry of Industry, Bangkok (Thailand)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

99

Textures and conditions of formation of Middle Pennsylvanian coal balls, central United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ball zones is given in Table 1. TABLE 1.List of Localities Sampled. [Locations shown in Figure 1.] LOCALITY NO. ZONE AND DESCRIPTION 1 Welch Locality 1 (Mineral Coal); NW1/4 SW1/4 sec. 27, R. 20 E., T. 28 N., Craig Co., Okla.; 4.5 mi (6 km) west..., R. 20 E., T. 28 N., Craig Co., Okla.; 5 mi (7 km) northwest of Welch. Active strip pit. 4 Vinita Locality (Iron Post Coal), Peabody Coal Company. Tipple area: sec. 5, R. 18 E., T. 25 N., Craig Co., Okla. Strip pits: sec. 31, R. 18 E., T. 26 N...

Perkins, T. W.

1976-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

100

Coal Mining Regulations (Kentucky)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Kentucky Administrative Regulation Title 405 chapters 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 10, 12, 16, 18 and 20 establish the laws governing coal mining in the state.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu state coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Coal Development (Nebraska)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This section provides for the development of newly-discovered coal veins in the state, and county aid for such development.

102

Vol. 30 no. 14 2014, pages 20912092 BIOINFORMATICS MESSAGE FROM THE ISCB doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btu117  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.1093/bioinformatics/btu117 Advance Access publication March 3, 2014 The automated function prediction SIG looks back

Radivojac, Predrag

103

Arkansas Surface Coal Mining Reclamation Act (Arkansas)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Arkansas Surface Coal Mining Reclamation Act authorizes the state to develop, adopt, issue and amend rules and regulations pertaining to surface coal mining and reclamation operations. These...

104

Utility Generation and Clean Coal Technology (Indiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This statute establishes the state's support and incentives for the development of new energy production and generating facilities implementing advanced clean coal technology, such as coal...

105

A GIS-based Assessment of Coal-based Hydrogen Infrastructure Deployment in the State of Ohio  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

electricity and CO 2 from coal with commercially readyHong B, Slatick E. Carbon dioxide emission factors for coal.EIA Quarterly Coal Report JanuaryApril 1994:18. 1994. DOE/

Johnson, Nils; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, J

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Renewable wood fuel: Fuel feed system for a pulverized coal boiler. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report evaluates a pilot test program conducted by New York State Gas & Electric Corporation to evaluate the feasibility of co-firing a pulverized coal plant with renewable wood fuels. The goal was to establish that such a co-firing system can reduce air emissions while maintaining good operational procedures and cost controls. The test fuel feed system employed at Greenidge Station`s Boiler 6 was shown to be effective in feeding wood products. Emission results were promising and an economic analysis indicates that it will be beneficial to pursue further refinements to the equipment and systems. The report recommends further evaluation of the generation and emission impacts using woods of varied moisture contents and at varied Btu input rates to determine if a drying system would be a cost-effective option.

NONE

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Montana Coal Mining Code (Montana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of Labor and Industry is authorized to adopt rules pertaining to safety standards for all coal mines in the state. The Code requires coal mine operators to make an accurate map or...

108

Pricetown I underground coal gasification field test: operations report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) field test in bituminous coal was successfully completed near Pricetown, West Virginia. The primary objective of this field test was to determine the viability of the linked vertical well (LVV) technology to recover the 900 foot deep, 6 foot thick coal seam. A methane rich product gas with an average heating value of approximately 250 Btu/SCF was produced at low air injection flow rates during the reverse combustion linkage phase. Heating value of the gas produced during the linkage enhancement phase was 221 Btu/SCF with air injection. The high methane formation has been attributed to the thermal and hydrocracking of tars and oils along with hydropyrolysis and hydrogasification of coal char. The high heating value of the gas was the combined effect of residence time, flow pattern, injection flow rate, injection pressure, and back pressure. During the gasification phase, a gas with an average heating value of 125 Btu/SCF was produced with only air injection, which resulted in an average energy production of 362 MMBtu/day.

Agarwal, A.K.; Seabaugh, P.W.; Zielinski, R.E.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Tri-State Synfuels Project Review: Volume 12. Fluor project status. [Proposed Henderson, Kentucky coal to gasoline plant; engineering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to document and summarize activities associated with Fluor's efforts on the Tri-State Synfuels Project. The proposed facility was to be coal-to-transport fuels facility located in Henderson, Kentucky. Tri-State Synfuels Company was participating in the project as a partner of the US Department of Energy per terms of a Cooperative Agreement resulting from DOE's synfuel's program solicitation. Fluor's initial work plan called for preliminary engineering and procurement services to the point of commitment for construction for a Sasol Fischer-Tropsch plant. Work proceeded as planned until October 1981 when results of alternative coal-to-methanol studies revealed the economic disadvantage of the Synthol design for US markets. A number of alternative process studies followed to determine the best process configuration. In January 1982 Tri-State officially announced a change from Synthol to a Methanol to Gasoline (MTG) design basis. Further evaluation and cost estimates for the MTG facility eventually led to the conclusion that, given the depressed economic outlook for alternative fuels development, the project should be terminated. Official announcement of cancellation was made on April 13, 1982. At the time of project cancellation, Fluor had completed significant portions of the preliminary engineering effort. Included in this report are descriptions and summaries of Fluor's work during this project. In addition location of key project data and materials is identified and status reports for each operation are presented.

Not Available

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Data base for the analysis of compositional characteristics of coal seams and macerals. Final report. Part 2. A multivariate study of the interrelationships among selected variables of the organic fraction of samples of United States' coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Multivariate statistical techniques have been applied to study interrelationships among 12 variables within a set of 277 coals representing whole-seam channel, column, and core samples obtained from each of the 6 coal provinces of the United States, and varying in rank from lignite through anthracite. The data are maintained in computerized data base at The Pennsylvania State University Coal Research Section. The variables selected are components of the elemental analysis (carbon, oxygen, organic sulfur, hydrogen, and nitrogen), selected components of the proximate analysis (volatile matter and moisture), calorific value, reflectance of vitrinite, and the relative proportions of the 3 maceral groups (total vitrinite, inertinite, and liptinite group macerals). Faactor analyses performed on the entire data set and on subsets separated on the basis of rank, geographic location, and by cluster analysis indicated that rank is the most important factor in determining the amount of variation of each data set. The rank-dependent variables for the entire data set are carbon, reflectance, oxygen, volatile matter, calorific value, and moisture. The maceral groups account for the next greatest source of variation. Organic sulfur is independent of the first 2 factors and is the third most important source of variation. Cluster analyses indicated that the most significant partitioning produces 4 groups which are differentiated primarily on the basis of rank, maceral composition, and organic sulfur content. Factor analyses of the individual groups provide insights into the coalification processes of these more homogeneous coal associations.

Gerencher, J.J. Jr.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Vol. 30 ISMB 2014, pages i9i18 BIOINFORMATICS doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btu259  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vol. 30 ISMB 2014, pages i9­i18 BIOINFORMATICS doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btu259 Evaluating synteny

Moret, Bernard

112

Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam CoalReserves (Million Barrels)Reserves from%Year Jan Feb Mar Apr

113

Results from the third LLL underground coal gasification experiment at Hoe Creek  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A major objective of the US Energy Program is the development of processes to produce clean fuels from coal. Underground coal gasification is one of the most promising of these processes. If successful, underground coal gasification (UCG) would quadruple the proven reserves of the US coal. Cost for products produced from UCG are projected to be 65 to 75% of those from conventional coal conversion. Finally, UCG appears to possess environmental advantages since no mining is involved and there are less solid wastes produced. In this paper we describe results from the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal gasification test. The experiment employed a drilled channel between process wells spaced 130' apart. The drilled channel was enlarged by reverse combustion prior to forward gasification. The first week of forward gasification was carried out using air injection, during which 250 tons of coal were consumed yielding an average dry product gas heating value of 114 Btu/scf. Following this phase, steam and oxygen were injected (generally a 50-50 mixture) for 47 days, during which 3945 tons of coal were consumed at an average rate of 84 tons of coal per day and an average dry gas heating value of 217 Btu/scf. The average gas composition during the steam-oxygen phase was 37% H/sub 2/, 5% CH/sub 4/, 11% CO, and 44% CO/sub 2/. Gas recovery was approximately 82% during the test, and the average thermochemical efficiency was near 65%.

Hill, R.W.; Thorsness, C.B.; Cena, R.J.; Aiman, W.R.; Stephens, D.R.

1980-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

114

Method for producing and treating coal gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of generating a de-sulphurized volatile matter and a relatively low Btu gas includes the initial step of pyrolyzing coal to produce volatile matter and a char. The volatile matter is fed to a first de-sulphurizer containing a de-sulphurizing agent to remove sulphur therefrom. At the same time, the char is gasified to produce a relatively low Btu gas. The low Btu gas is fed to a second de-sulphurizer containing the de-sulphurizing agent to remove sulphur therefrom. A regenerator is provided for removing sulphur from the de-sulphurizing agent. Portions of the de-sulphurizing agent are moved among the first de-sulphurizer, the second de-sulphurizer, and the regenerator such that the regenerator regenerates the de-sulphurizing agent. Preferably, the portions of the de-sulphurizing agent are moved from the second de-sulphurizer to the first de-sulphurizer, from the first de-sulphurizer to the regenerator, and from the regenerator to the second de-sulphurizer.

Calderon, Albert (P.O. Box 126, Bowling Green, OH 43402)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Report of Shelton wood-coal firing tests conducted March 16-April 2, 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wood and coal combinations were tested at representative steam rates while boiler performance, gaseous and particulate emissions were measured. Wood and coal combinations were tested at representative steam rates while boiler performance, gaseous and particulate emissions were measured. Wood contributed up to 50% of the Btu requirements of the boilers during the tests. The Quinault-Pacific system will permit selected green mill residues to be used in place of coal at the rate of 2.5 tons of wood per ton of coal. Green wood and coal are compatible fuels. Heat provided by the coal and other combustion effects are enough to offset the effects of moisture in green wood and in some cases improve boiler performance. The combined firing of wood with coal at typical steam rates results in better flyash collection, lower emissions, improved opacity, better cinder recovery and lower steam costs.

Not Available

1980-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

116

Co-production of electricity and alternate fuels from coal. Final report, August 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Calderon process and its process development unit, PDU, were originally conceived to produce two useful products from a bituminous coal: a desulfurized medium BTU gas containing primarily CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O; and a desulfurized low BTU gas containing these same constituents plus N{sub 2} from the air used to provide heat for the process through the combustion of a portion of the fuel. The process was viewed as a means for providing both a synthesis gas for liquid fuel production (perhaps CH{sub 3}OH, alternatively CH{sub 4} or NH{sub 3}) and a pressurized, low BTU fuel gas, for gas turbine based power generation. The Calderon coal process comprises three principle sections which perform the following functions: coal pyrolysis in a continuous, steady flow unit based on coke oven technology; air blown, slagging, coke gasification in a moving bed unit based on a blast furnace technology; and a novel, lime pebble based, product gas processing in which a variety of functions are accomplished including the cracking of hydrocarbons and the removal of sulfur, H{sub 2}S, and of particulates from both the medium and low BTU gases. The product gas processing unit, based on multiple moving beds, has also been conceived to regenerate the lime pebbles and recover sulfur as elemental S.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

117

ECONOMICS AND FEASIBILITY OF RANKINE CYCLE IMPROVEMENTS FOR COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories (ALSTOM) has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL), American Electric Company (AEP) and Parsons Energy and Chemical Group to conduct a comprehensive study evaluating coal fired steam power plants, known as Rankine Cycles, equipped with three different combustion systems: Pulverized Coal (PC), Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB), and Circulating Moving Bed (CMB{trademark}). Five steam cycles utilizing a wide range of steam conditions were used with these combustion systems. The motivation for this study was to establish through engineering analysis, the most cost-effective performance potential available through improvement in the Rankine Cycle steam conditions and combustion systems while at the same time ensuring that the most stringent emission performance based on CURC (Coal Utilization Research Council) 2010 targets are met: > 98% sulfur removal; < 0.05 lbm/MM-Btu NO{sub x}; < 0.01 lbm/MM-Btu Particulate Matter; and > 90% Hg removal. The final report discusses the results of a coal fired steam power plant project, which is comprised of two parts. The main part of the study is the analysis of ten (10) Greenfield steam power plants employing three different coal combustion technologies: Pulverized Coal (PC), Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB), and Circulating Moving Bed (CMB{trademark}) integrated with five different steam cycles. The study explores the technical feasibility, thermal performance, environmental performance, and economic viability of ten power plants that could be deployed currently, in the near, intermediate, and long-term time frame. For the five steam cycles, main steam temperatures vary from 1,000 F to 1,292 F and pressures from 2,400 psi to 5,075 psi. Reheat steam temperatures vary from 1,000 F to 1,328 F. The number of feedwater heaters varies from 7 to 9 and the associated feedwater temperature varies from 500 F to 626 F. The main part of the study therefore determines the steam cycle parameters and combustion technology that would yield the lowest cost of electricity (COE) for the next generation of coal-fired steam power plants. The second part of the study (Repowering) explores the means of upgrading the efficiency and output of an older existing coal fired steam power plant. There are currently more than 1,400 coal-fired units in operation in the United States generating about 54 percent of the electricity consumed. Many of these are modern units are clean and efficient. Additionally, there are many older units in excellent condition and still in service that could benefit from this repowering technology. The study evaluates the technical feasibility, thermal performance, and economic viability of this repowering concept.

Richard E. Waryasz; Gregory N. Liljedahl

2004-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

118

Engineering support services for the DOE/GRI coal gasification research program. Final technical progress report, October 1978-November 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The agreement between the United States Government Department of Energy and the Gas Research Institute for the Joint Coal Gasification Research Program provided for one or more technical evaluation contractors. Pullman Kellogg (now the M.W. Kellogg Company) was selected as evaluation contractor to assess, and report to the DOE/GRI Operating Committee on, the relative merits of the active programs covered by the agreement. This report includes the period from 1 October 1978 to 30 November 1982. The objective was to provide engineering support for the DOE/GRI high Btu coal gasification program. This support generally consisted of assistance in developing or advancing each process to its maximum potential. Kellogg monitored and evaluated the startup and operational activities of all pilot plant projects within the combined DOE/GRI program. Kellogg evaluated proposals to determine their technical feasibility as potential processes or as viable processing operations for commercial-scale gasification of coal. Kellogg also recorded observations on the reliability, maintainability, and availability of the equipment used in the pilot plant or PDU facilities. Kellogg performed design reviews, data analyses, and engineering evaluations of proposals, cost estimates and monthly progress reports to provide information considered essential to the overall objectives of the combined DOE/GRI program.

Bostwick, L.E.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

High-pressure coal fuel processor development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. Two overall conclusions resulted from Task 1. First direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risk associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept. The significant conclusions from Task 2 were: An engine concept, derived from a Caterpillar 3600 series engine, and a fuel processor concept, based on scaling up a removable-canister configuration from the test rig, appear feasible; and although the results of this concept study are encouraging, further, full-scale component research and development are required before attempting a full-scale integrated system demonstration effort.

Greenhalgh, M.L. (Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States))

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Coal in China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The article gives an overview of the production and use of coal in China, for power generation and in other sectors. Coal use for power generation was 850 million tonnes in 2003 and 800 million tonnes in the non-power sector. The majority of power will continue to be produced from coal, with a trend towards new larger pulverised coal fired units and introduction of circulating fluidised bed combustors. Stricter regulations are forcing introduction of improved pollution control technologies. It seems likely that China will need international finance to supplement private and state investment to carry out a programme to develop and apply clean coal technologies. The author concludes that there is evidence of a market economy being established but there is a need to resolve inconsistencies with the planned aspects of the economy and that additional policies are needed in certain sectors to achieve sustainable development. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Minchener, A.J. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu state coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

An analytical investigation of primary zone combustion temperatures and NOx production for turbulent jet flames using low-BTU fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The objective of this research project was to identify and determine the effect of jet burner operating variables that influence combustion of low-BTU gases. This was done by simulating the combustion of a low-BTU fuel in a jet flame and predicting...

Carney, Christopher Mark

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. Penn State currently operates an aging stoker-fired steam plant at its University Park campus and has spent considerable resources over the last ten to fifteen years investigating boiler replacements and performing life extension studies. This effort, in combination with a variety of agricultural and other wastes generated at the agricultural-based university and the surrounding rural community, has led Penn State to assemble a team of fluidized bed and cofiring experts to assess the feasibility of installing a CFB boiler for cofiring biomass and other wastes along with coal-based fuels. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute and the Office of Physical Plant, Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc., and Cofiring Alternatives.

Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Dale Lamke; Joseph J. Battista

2001-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

123

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. Penn State currently operates an aging stoker-fired steam plant at its University Park campus and has spent considerable resources over the last ten to fifteen years investigating boiler replacements and performing life extension studies. This effort, in combination with a variety of agricultural and other wastes generated at the agricultural-based university and the surrounding rural community, has led Penn State to assemble a team of fluidized bed and cofiring experts to assess the feasibility of installing a CFB boiler for cofiring biomass and other wastes along with coal-based fuels. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences; Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc.; Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc.; and Cofiring Alternatives.

Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Tom Steitz

2002-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

124

Coal competition: prospects for the 1980s  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report consists of 10 chapters which present an historical overview of coal and the part it has played as an energy source in the economic growth of the United States from prior to World War II through 1978. Chapter titles are: definition of coals, coal mining; types of coal mines; mining methods; mining work force; development of coal; mine ownership; production; consumption; prices; exports; and imports. (DMC)

Not Available

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Encoal mild coal gasification project: Final design modifications report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design, construction and operation Phases of the Encoal Mild Coal Gasification Project have been completed. The plant, designed to process 1,000 ton/day of subbituminous Power River Basin (PRB) low-sulfur coal feed and to produce two environmentally friendly products, a solid fuel and a liquid fuel, has been operational for nearly five years. The solid product, Process Derived Fuel (PDF), is a stable, low-sulfur, high-Btu fuel similar in composition and handling properties to bituminous coal. The liquid product, Coal Derived Liquid (CDL), is a heavy, low-sulfur, liquid fuel similar in properties to heavy industrial fuel oil. Opportunities for upgrading the CDL to higher value chemicals and fuels have been identified. Significant quantities of both PDF and CDL have been delivered and successfully burned in utility and industrial boilers. A summary of the Project is given.

NONE

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Clean coal technologies: A business report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The book contains four sections as follows: (1) Industry trends: US energy supply and demand; The clean coal industry; Opportunities in clean coal technologies; International market for clean coal technologies; and Clean Coal Technology Program, US Energy Department; (2) Environmental policy: Clean Air Act; Midwestern states' coal policy; European Community policy; and R D in the United Kingdom; (3) Clean coal technologies: Pre-combustion technologies; Combustion technologies; and Post-combustion technologies; (4) Clean coal companies. Separate abstracts have been prepared for several sections or subsections for inclusion on the data base.

Not Available

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Advanced coal conversion process demonstration. Progress report, January 1, 1992--December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report contains a description of the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1992, through December 31, 1992. This project demonstrates an advanced thermal coal drying process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After drying, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. The SynCoal{reg_sign} process enhances low-rank, western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25 to 55 percent, sulfur content of 0.5 to 1.5 percent, and heating value of 5,500 to 9,000 British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb), by producing a stable, upgraded, coal product with a moisture content as low as 1 percent, sulfur content as low as 0.3 percent, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb. The 45-ton-per-hour unit is located adjacent to a unit train loadout facility at Western Energy Company`s Rosebud coal mine near Colstrip, Montana. The demonstration plant is sized at about one-tenth the projected throughput of a multiple processing train commercial facility. The demonstration drying and cooling equipment is currently near commercial size. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership`s ACCP Demonstration Facility entered Phase III, Demonstration Operation, in April 1992 and has been operating in an extended startup mode since that time. As with any new developing technology, a number of unforeseen obstacles have been encountered; however, Rosebud SynCoal Partnership has instituted an aggressive program to overcome these obstacles.

NONE

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

Robert Finkelman

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

129

Coal pump  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

Bonin, John H. (Sunnyvale, CA); Meyer, John W. (Palo Alto, CA); Daniel, Jr., Arnold D. (Alameda County, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Fluorine in coal and coal by-products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluorine occurs in awe amounts in most coals. It is typically associated with minerals of the apatite group, principally fluorapatite and clays, and with fluorite, tourmaline, topaz, amphiboles and micas. The average fluorine content of US coal is, according to the tabulation of Swanson, 74 {mu}g/g. In the United States, the lowest average fluorine concentration of 30 {mu}g/g is found in coals from Eastern Kentucky and the highest average value of 160 {mu}g/g is found in coals from Wyoming and New Mexico. The concentration range of fluorine in European coals is similar to that found in the US while the average fluorine content of Australian coals ranges from 15 to 500 {mu}g/g. We have determined the fluorine content in coal and fly ash standards by proton-induced gamma ray emission analysis (PIGE).

Robertson, J.D.; Wong, A.S.; Hower, J.C. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

131

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. Penn State currently operates an aging stoker-fired steam plant at its University Park campus and has spent considerable resources over the last ten to fifteen years investigating boiler replacements and performing life extension studies. This effort, in combination with a variety of agricultural and other wastes generated at the agricultural-based university and the surrounding rural community, has led Penn State to assemble a team of fluidized bed and cofiring experts to assess the feasibility of installing a CFB boiler for cofiring biomass and other wastes along with coal-based fuels.

Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Dale Lamke

2001-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

132

Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth Report Title: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth Report Title: Coal Production@nmsu.edu #12;Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth i Disclaimer This report States Government or any agency thereof. #12;Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic

Johnson, Eric E.

133

Integrated Coal Gasification Power Plant Credit (Kansas)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Integrated Coal Gasification Power Plant Credit states that an income taxpayer that makes a qualified investment in a new integrated coal gasification power plant or in the expansion of an existing...

134

Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Final technical progress report, January 1, 1995--December 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal Process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. The SynCoal Process enhances low-rank, western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25 to 55 percent, sulfur content of 0.5 to 1.5 percent, and heating value of 5,5000 to 9,000 British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb), by producing a stable, upgraded, coal product with a moisture content as low as 1 percent, sulfur content as low as 0.3 percent, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb. During this reporting period, the primary focus for the ACCP Demonstration Project team was to expand SynCoal market awareness and acceptability for both the products and the technology. The ACCP Project team continued to focus on improving the operation, developing commercial markets, and improving the SynCoal products as well as the product`s acceptance.

NONE

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

SUMMER 2012 9 Abstract: As a state with no coal, oil, or  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and integrate bioenergy production with bio-based markets, including traditional forest products markets upon, it could also enhance forest productivity and reduce carbon emissions. Yet bioenergy investments have been the barriers to bioenergy development from the perspective of supply-chain actors in the state and identifies

Levinson, David M.

136

A GIS-based Assessment of Coal-based Hydrogen Infrastructure Deployment in the State of Ohio  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

5] H2A. H2A central hydrogen production model users guide,Strategies for Future Hydrogen Production and Use. Nationalpaper, coal-based hydrogen production with CCS can signi?

Johnson, Nils; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, J

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Hoe Creek No. 3 - First long-term underground coal gasification experiment with oxygen-steam injection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper describes the first long-term underground coal gasification experiment with oxygen-steam injection. In the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground experiment, linkage paths were established between the injection and production wells by drilling a horizontal borehole between them near the bottom of the coal seam. The drilled linkage hole was enlarged by reverse burning, and then the forward gasification process was started - first with air injection for one week, then with oxygen-steam injection for the remainder of the experiment. During the oxygen-steam injection period, about 3900 tons of coal were gasified in 47 days, at an average rate of 83 tons per day. The heating value of the dry product gas averaged 218 Btu/scf, suitable for input to a processing plant for upgrading to pipeline quality, which is about 900 Btu/scf.

Not Available

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Quarterly coal report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the third quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

Young, P.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

CFBC evaluation of fuels processed from Illinois coals. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--November 10, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fuels studied in this project are (a) three flotation slurry fuels beneficiated from coal fines at various stages of the cleaning process and (b) coal-sorbent pellets made from the flotation concentrate of the same beneficiation process using corn starch as binder, (c) a run-of-mine Illinois No. 5 coal. Combustion data such as SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} emissions, combustion efficiency and ash mineral matter analyses from the slurry and pellet fuels are compared with similar parameters from the reference coal burnt under similar conditions of bed temperature and fluidization velocity. The combustion tests performed in a 4 in. internal diameter CFBC showed that the combustion efficiency of the slurry fuels and the pellets were quite comparable with that of the standard coal in the range of 91--98%. Sulfur dioxide emissions in lbs per million Btu from the slurry fuels were low enough to satisfy EPA emissions requirements with Ca/S ratios of 1.5 or less. Oxides of nitrogen emissions were generally on the order of 0.3 lbs per million Btu from the slurry fuels under the conditions of the present tests, while that from the pellets were between 0.6 to 0.75 lbs per million Btu depending on bed temperature.

Rajan, S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

140

[Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project]. Technical progress report: April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from April 1, 1992, through June 30, 1992. This project demonstrates an advanced thermal coal drying process coupled with physical cleaning techniques designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals into a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After drying, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. The SynCoal{reg_sign} process enhances low-rank, western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25 to 55 percent, sulfur content of 0.5 to 1.5 percent, and heating value of 5,500 to 9,000 British thermal units per pound (Btu/Ib), by producing a stable, upgraded coal product with a moisture content as low as 1 percent, sulfur content as low as 0.3 percent, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb. The 45-ton-per-hour unit is located adjacent to a unit train loadout facility at Western Energy Company`s Rosebud coal mine near Colstrip, Montana. The demonstration plant is sized at about one-tenth the projected throughput of a multiple processing train commercial facility. The demonstration drying and cooling equipment is currently near commercial size.

Not Available

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu state coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Use of fluidized bed coal combustion techniques to study efficiency, emission reduction, boiler effects, and waste utilization: Final report, July 1, 1985-February 28, 1986  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study program, funded by the US Department of Energy through the Southern Illinois University Coal Research Center's Coal Technology Laboratory, was conducted during the period from July 1984 through February 1986. Two lines of testing were carried out simultaneously. One consisted of using a laboratory-scale atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (AFBC) to acquire thermodynamic data and operating characteristics for Illinois coal combustion. The other included acquisition, installation, shakedown, and operation of a large one million Btu/h pilot-scale AFBC (plus boiler and associated instrumentation). Both programs were to study Illinois reference and gob (waste) type coals.

Hesketh, H.E.; Rajan, S.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

A feasibility study for underground coal gasification at Krabi Mine, Thailand  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study to evaluate the technical, economical, and environmental feasibility of underground coal gasification (UCG) in the Krabi Mine, Thailand, was conducted by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) in cooperation with B.C. Technologies (BCT) and the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT). The selected coal resource was found suitable to fuel a UCG facility producing 460,000 MJ/h (436 million Btu/h) of 100--125 Btu/scf gas for 20 years. The raw UCG gas could be produced for a selling price of $1.94/MMBtu. The UCG facility would require a total investment of $13.8 million for installed capital equipment, and annual operating expenses for the facility would be $7.0 million. The UCG gas could be either cofired in a power plant currently under construction or power a 40 MW simple-cycle gas turbine or a 60 MW combined-cycle power plant.

Solc, J.; Steadman, E.N. [Energy and Environmental Research Center, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Boysen, J.E. [BC Technologies, Laramie, WY (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

143

Coal Transportation Issues (released in AEO2007)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Most of the coal delivered to U.S. consumers is transported by railroads, which accounted for 64% of total domestic coal shipments in 2004. Trucks transported approximately 12% of the coal consumed in the United States in 2004, mainly in short hauls from mines in the East to nearby coal-fired electricity and industrial plants. A number of minemouth power plants in the West also use trucks to haul coal from adjacent mining operations. Other significant modes of coal transportation in 2004 included conveyor belt and slurry pipeline (12%) and water transport on inland waterways, the Great Lakes, and tidewater areas (9%).

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

to Date Census Division and State 1 April - June 2014 January - March 2014 April - June 2013 2014 2013 Percent Change Middle Atlantic Btu 13,334 13,037 12,906 13,111 12,844 2.1...

145

U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

to Date Census Division and State 1 April - June 2014 January - March 2014 April - June 2013 2014 2013 Percent Change New England Btu 13,306 12,964 13,323 13,105 13,253 -1.1 Sulfur...

146

[Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems]. Technical progress report, October--December 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emisssion boiler systems. The primary objectives are: NO{sub x} emissions, lb/million Btu; SO{sub 2} emissions, lb/million Btu; particulate emissions, lb/million Btu; and net plant efficiency, not less than 42%. The secondary objectives are: improved ash disposability; reduced waste generation; and reduced air toxics emissions. Accomplishments to date are summarized for the following tasks: task 1, project planning and management; task 7, component development and optimization; task 8, preliminary POC test facility design; task 9, subsystem test design and plan; task 10, subsystem test unit construction; and task 11, subsystem test operation and evaluation.

Wesnor, J.D.; Bakke, E. [ABB Environmental Systems, Birmingham, AL (United States); Bender, D.J.; Kaminski, R.S. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Inc., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

147

Wyoming coal-conversion project. Final technical report, November 1980-February 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project, Converse County, Wyoming; contains list of appendices with title and identification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final technical report describes what WyCoalGas, Inc. and its subcontractors accomplished in resolving issues related to the resource, technology, economic, environmental, socioeconomic, and governmental requirements affecting a project located near Douglas, Wyoming for producing 150 Billion Btu per day by gasifying sub-bituminous coal. The report summarizes the results of the work on each task and includes the deliverables that WyCoalGas, Inc. and the subcontractors prepared. The co-venturers withdrew from the project for two reasons: federal financial assistance to the project was seen to be highly uncertain; and funds were being expended at an unacceptably high rate.

None

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Coal extraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal is extracted using a mixed solvent which includes a substantially aromatic component and a substantially naphthenic component, at a temperature of 400/sup 0/ to 500/sup 0/C. Although neither component is an especially good solvent for coal by itself, the use of mixed solvent gives greater flexibility to the process and offers efficiency gains.

Clarke, J.W.; Kimber, G.M.; Rantell, T.D.; Snape, C.E.

1985-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

149

Use of the GranuFlow Process in Coal Preparation Plants to Improve Energy Recovery and Reduce Coal Processing Wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the increasing use of screen-bowl centrifuges in today's fine coal cleaning circuits, a significant amount of low-ash, high-Btu coal can be lost during the dewatering step due to the difficulty in capturing coal of this size consist (< 100 mesh or 0.15mm). The GranuFlow{trademark} technology, developed and patented by an in-house research group at DOE-NETL, involves the addition of an emulsified mixture of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons to a slurry of finesized coal before cleaning and/or mechanical dewatering. The binder selectively agglomerates the coal, but not the clays or other mineral matter. In practice, the binder is applied so as to contact the finest possible size fraction first (for example, froth flotation product) as agglomeration of this fraction produces the best result for a given concentration of binder. Increasing the size consist of the fine-sized coal stream reduces the loss of coal solids to the waste effluent streams from the screen bowl centrifuge circuit. In addition, the agglomerated coal dewaters better and is less dusty. The binder can also serve as a flotation conditioner and may provide freeze protection. The overall objective of the project is to generate all necessary information and data required to commercialize the GranuFlow{trademark} Technology. The technology was evaluated under full-scale operating conditions at three commercial coal preparation plants to determine operating performance and economics. The handling, storage, and combustion properties of the coal produced by this process were compared to untreated coal during a power plant combustion test.

Glenn A. Shirey; David J. Akers

2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

150

Low NOx modifications on front-fired pulverized coal fuel burners  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Burner optimizations and modifications were performed on Public Service of New Hampshire`s Schiller Units 4, 5, and 6. These are Foster-Wheeler 50 MWg pulverized coal and No.6 fuel oil-fired boilers with six burners each. Burner optimizations consisted of fuel flow, primary air, secondary air testing and balancing. Burner modifications consisted of the addition of circumferentially and radially staged flame stabilizers, circumferentially-staged coal spreaders, and modifications to the existing pulverized coal pipe. NO{sub x} emissions on Unit 6 of .41 lb/mmBtu were achieved at optimized burner settings at full load with all burners in service and without the use of overfire air or bias firing. This represented a 50% NO{sub x} reduction from the average pre-modification baseline NO{sub x} emissions of .81 lb/mmBtu prior to the optimizations and burner modification program. NO{sub x} emissions as low as .38 lb/mmBtu were achieved with the use of overfire air. There was essentially no quantifiable change in LOIs (baseline LOIs averaged 40%). Furnace excess O{sub 2} as low as 1.2% was achieved with CO emissions of less than 200 ppm. Total installed costs including the overfire air system were approximately $7/kW.

Owens, B.; Hitchko, M. [Public Service of New Hampshire, Manchester, NH (United States); Broderick, R.G. [RJM Corp., Ridgefield, CT (United States)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

ENCOAL mild coal gasification project public design and construction report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Public Design Report describes the 1000 ton per day ENCOAL mild coal gasification demonstration plant now in operation at the Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The objective of the project is to demonstrate that the proprietary Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology can reliably and economically convert low Btu PRB coal into a superior, high-Btu solid fuel (PDF), and an environmentally attractive low-sulfur liquid fuel (CDL). The Project`s plans also call for the production of sufficient quantities of PDF and CDL to permit utility companies to carry out full scale burn tests. While some process as well as mechanical design was done in 1988, the continuous design effort was started in July 1990. Civil construction was started in October 1990; mechanical erection began in May 1991. Virtually all of the planned design work was completed by July 1991. Most major construction was complete by April 1992 followed by plant testing and commissioning. Plant operation began in late May 1992. This report covers both the detailed design and initial construction aspects of the Project.

NONE

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pennsylvania State University, utilizing funds furnished by the U.S. Department of Energy's Biomass Power Program, investigated the installation of a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The study was performed using a team that included personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences; Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc.; Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation; Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc.; and Cofiring Alternatives. The activities included assessing potential feedstocks at the University Park campus and surrounding region with an emphasis on biomass materials, collecting and analyzing potential feedstocks, assessing agglomeration, deposition, and corrosion tendencies, identifying the optimum location for the boiler system through an internal site selection process, performing a three circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler design and a 15-year boiler plant transition plan, determining the costs associated with installing the boiler system, developing a preliminary test program, determining the associated costs for the test program, and exploring potential emissions credits when using the biomass CFB boiler.

Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; Rhett McLaren; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Tom Steitz; Joseph J. Battista

2003-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

153

Small boiler uses waste coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Burning coal waste in small boilers at low emissions poses considerable problem. While larger boiler suppliers have successfully installed designs in the 40 to 80 MW range for some years, the author has been developing small automated fluid bed boiler plants for 25 years that can be applied in the range of 10,000 to 140,000 lbs/hr of steam. Development has centered on the use of an internally circulating fluid bed (CFB) boiler, which will burn waste fuels of most types. The boiler is based on the traditional D-shaped watertable boiler, with a new type of combustion chamber that enables a three-to-one turndown to be achieved. The boilers have all the advantages of low emissions of the large fluid boilers while offering a much lower height incorporated into the package boiler concept. Recent tests with a waste coal that had a high nitrogen content of 1.45% demonstrated a NOx emission below the federal limit of 0.6 lbs/mm Btu. Thus a NOx reduction on the order of 85% can be demonstrate by combustion modification alone. Further reductions can be made by using a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system and sulfur absorption of up to 90% retention is possible. The article describes the operation of a 30,000 lbs/hr boiler at the Fayette Thermal LLC plant. Spinheat has installed three ICFB boilers at a nursing home and a prison, which has been tested on poor-grade anthracite and bituminous coal. 2 figs.

Virr, M.J. [Spinheat Ltd. (United States)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

154

Sulfur and ash in Paleocene Wyodak-Anderson coal in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana: A fuel source beyond 2000  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When coal-fired power plants are required by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to meet more stringent sulfur emission standards (0.6 pound per million Btu) after the year 2000, most of the clean and compliant coals will come from the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana. In 1996 more than 300 million short toms of these clean and compliant coals were produced from the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plans region. This is more than 30% of the total US coal production of 1.03 billion short tons in 1996. Future demand for clean and compliant coals can probably be met through production of more F or Union coals in the region. It is projected by the Energy Information Agency (1996) that most of the low-sulfur and low-ash coals in the northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region will be produced from the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed/zone of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the Powder River Basin. To date, coal produced from the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed/zone, containing 0.5% sulfur, 1.2 lb SO{sub 2} per million btu, and 6% ash (mean values on an as-received basis) meet current EPA regulatory compliance. This coal bed/zone alone produced 262 million short toms of >26% of the total US coal production in 1996. Based on the current consumption rates of coal and a forecast by the EIA (1996), the Wyodak-Anderson coals are projected to produce an additional 153 million short tons a year by the year 2016. At this rate of production, high quality Wyodak-Anderson coals may be adequate to fill future energy needs.

Ellis, M.S.; Stricker, G.D.; Flores, R.M.; Bader, L.R.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Sulfur and ash in paleocene Wyodak-Anderson coal in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana: A fuel source beyond 2000  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When coal-fired power plants are required by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to meet more stringent sulfur emission standards (0.6 pound per million Btu) after the year 2000, most of the clean and compliant coals will come from the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana. In 1996 more than 300 million short tons of these clean and compliant coals were produced from the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region. This is more than 30 percent of the total US coal production of 1.03 billion short tons in 1996. Future demand for clean and compliant coals can probably be met through production of more Fort Union coals in the region. It is projected by the Energy Information Agency (1996) that most of the low-sulfur and low-ash coals in the northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region will be produced from the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed/zone of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the Powder River Basin. To date, coal produced from the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed/zone, containing 0.5 percent sulfur, 1.2 lb SO{sub 2} per million btu, and 6 percent ash (mean values on an as-received basis) meet current EPA regulatory compliance. This coal bed/zone alone produced 262 million short tons or >26 percent of the total U.S. coal production in 1996. Based on the current consumption rates of coal and a forecast by the EIA (1996), the Wyodak-Anderson coals are projected to produce an additional 153 million short tons a year by the year 2016. At this rate of production, high quality Wyodak-Anderson coals may be adequate to fill our future energy needs.

Ellis, M.S.; Stricker, G.D.; Flores, R.M.; Bader, L.R. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

High-pressure coal fuel processor development. Task 1, Proof of principle testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of Subtask 1.1 Engine Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of ignition and stable combustion of directly injected, 3,000 psi, low-Btu gas with glow plug ignition assist at diesel engine compression ratios. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the combustion performance of synthesized low-Btu coal gas in a single-cylinder test engine combustion rig located at the Caterpillar Technical Center engine lab in Mossville, Illinois. The objective of Subtask 1.2 Fuel Processor Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of air-blown, fixed-bed, high-pressure coal fuel processing at up to 3,000 psi operating pressure, incorporating in-bed sulfur and particulate capture. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the performance of bench-scale processors located at Coal Technology Corporation (subcontractor) facilities in Bristol, Virginia. These two subtasks were carried out at widely separated locations and will be discussed in separate sections of this report. They were, however, independent in that the composition of the synthetic coal gas used to fuel the combustion rig was adjusted to reflect the range of exit gas compositions being produced on the fuel processor rig. Two major conclusions resulted from this task. First, direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize these low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risks associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept.

Greenhalgh, M.L.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Coal Retirements: Defining the Need and the Efficiency Opportunity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For decades, major areas of the United States have relied heavily on coal for electricity generation. Abundant and relatively cheap, coal has powered large swaths of the Southeast, Midwest, Mid-Atlantic and western United States. Aging equipment...

Chittum, A.; Farley, K.; Elliot, R. N.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Performance Characteristics of Coal-to-Liquids (CTL) Diesel in...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Characteristics of Coal-to-Liquids (CTL) Diesel in a 50-State Emissions Compliant Passenger Car Performance Characteristics of Coal-to-Liquids (CTL) Diesel in a 50-State Emissions...

159

By Coal Origin State  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 633 622 566 8021 1 2 22008662 564CubicAnnual

160

Coal industry annual 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents data on coal consumption, distribution, coal stocks, quality, prices, coal production information, and emissions for a wide audience.

NONE

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu state coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

High-pressure coal fuel processor development. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. Two overall conclusions resulted from Task 1. First direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risk associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept. The significant conclusions from Task 2 were: An engine concept, derived from a Caterpillar 3600 series engine, and a fuel processor concept, based on scaling up a removable-canister configuration from the test rig, appear feasible; and although the results of this concept study are encouraging, further, full-scale component research and development are required before attempting a full-scale integrated system demonstration effort.

Greenhalgh, M.L. [Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States)

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

In-situ coal-gasification data look promising  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

According to a report given at the 6th Underground Coal Conversion Symposium (Afton, Oklahoma 1980), the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal-gasification experiments Oil Gas J. 77 sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Gas Research Institute and directed by the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory demonstrated the feasibility of in-situ coal conversion and featured the use of a directionally drilled channel to connect the injection and production wells rather than the reverse-burn ordinarily used to produce the connecting channel. In the test, 2816 cu m of coal weighing (APPROX) 4200 tons was consumed, with (APPROX) 18% of the product gas escaping through the overburden or elsewhere. When air injection was used, the average heating value was 217 Btu/std cu ft. The average thermal efficiency of the burn was 65%, and the average gas composition was 35% hydrogen, 5% methane, 11% carbon monoxide, and 44% carbon dioxide. Subsidence occurred after completion of the test. The Uniwell gasification method, scheduled for use in the final experiment in the Deep-1 series of underground coal-gasification tests in Wyoming, seeks to prevent subsidence by use of concentric pipes which are inserted into the vertical well to control the combustion zone. Underground coal-gasification prospects and the mechanics of subsidence are discussed.

Not Available

1980-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

163

Preparation and combustion of coal-water fuel from the Sin Pun coal deposit, southern Thailand  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In response to an inquiry by the Department of Mineral Resources in Thailand, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) prepared a program to assess the responsiveness of Sin Pun lignite to the temperature and pressure conditions of hot-water drying. The results indicate that drying made several improvements in the coal, notably increases in heating value and carbon content and reductions in equilibrium moisture and oxygen content. The equilibrium moisture content decreased from 27 wt% for the raw coal to about 15 wt% for the hot-water-dried (HWD) coals. The energy density for a pumpable coal-water fuel (CWF) indicates an increase from 4500 to 6100 Btu/lb by hot-water drying. Approximately 650 lb of HWD Sin Pun CWF were fired in the EERC`s combustion test facility. The fuel burned extremely well, with no feed problems noted during the course of the test. Fouling and slagging deposits each indicated a very low rate of ash deposition, with only a dusty layer formed on the cooled metal surfaces. The combustor was operated at between 20% and 25% excess air, resulting in a flue gas SO{sub 2} concentration averaging approximately 6500 parts per million.

NONE

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals: potential UCG products and markets. Final report, Phase I  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) The US will continue to require new sources of energy fuels and substitutes for petrochemical feedstocks into the foreseeable future. Most of this requirement will be met using coal. However, the cost of mining, transporting, cleaning, and preparing coal, disposing of ash or slag and scrubbing stack gases continues to rise; particularly, in the Eastern US where the need is greatest. UCG avoids these pitfalls and, as such, should be considered a viable alternative to the mining of deeper coals. (2) Of the two possible product gases LBG and MBG, MBG is the most versatile. (3) The most logical use for UCG product in the Eastern US is to generate power on-site using a combined-cycle or co-generation system. Either low or medium Btu gas (LBG or MBG) can be used. (4) UCG should be an option whenever surface gasification is considered; particularly, in areas where deeper, higher sulfur coal is located. (5) There are environmental and social benefits to use of UCG over surface gasification in the Eastern US. (6) A site could be chosen almost anywhere in the Illinois and Ohio area where amenable UCG coal has been determined due to the existence of existing transportation or transmission systems. (7) The technology needs to be demonstrated and the potential economic viability determined at a site in the East-North-Central US which has commercial quantities of amenable bituminous coal before utilities will show significant interest.

None

1982-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

165

Quarterly coal report, October--December 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1996 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1990 through the third quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 72 tabs.

NONE

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Origin State Destination State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

7. Estimated truck transportation rates for coal, state to state, EIA data Origin State Destination State 2008 2009 2010 2008-2010 2009-2010 Alabama Alabama W W W W W Alabama...

167

High btu gas from peat. A feasibility study. Part 1. Executive summary. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In September, 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a Grant (No. DE-FG01-80RA50348) to the Minnesota Gas Company (Minnegasco) to evaluate the commercial viability - technical, economic and environmental - of producing 80 million standard cubic feet per day (SCFD) of substitute natural gas (SNG) from peat. The proposed product, high Btu SNG would be a suitable substitute for natural gas which is widely used throughout the Upper Midwest by residential, commercial and industrial sectors. The study team consisted of Dravo Engineers and Constructors, Ertec Atlantic, Inc., The Institute of Gas Technology, Deloitte, Haskins and Sells and Minnegasco. Preliminary engineering and operating and financial plans for the harvesting, dewatering and gasification operations were developed. A site in Koochiching County near Margie was chosen for detailed design purposes only; it was not selected as a site for development. Environmental data and socioeconomic data were gathered and reconciled. Potential economic data were gathered and reconciled. Potential impacts - both positive and negative - were identified and assessed. The peat resource itself was evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively. Markets for plant by-products were also assessed. In summary, the technical, economic, and environmental assessment indicates that a facility producing 80 billion Btu's per day SNG from peat is not commercially viable at this time. Minnegasco will continue its efforts into the development of peat and continue to examine other options.

Not Available

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Y~' Table 3-12. Coal Source State Mine Seam Wilsonville SRCAnalysis for Coal Underground Mines in 48-inch Seams - 1974Analysis for Coal Underground Mines in 72-inch Seams - 1974

Ferrell, G.C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Coal Cleaning Using Resonance Disintegration for Mercury and Sulfur Reduction Prior to Combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal-cleaning processes have been utilized to increase the heating value of coal by extracting ash-forming minerals in the coal. These processes involve the crushing or grinding of raw coal followed by physical separation processes, taking advantage of the density difference between carbonaceous particles and mineral particles. In addition to the desired increase in the heating value of coal, a significant reduction of the sulfur content of the coal fed to a combustion unit is effected by the removal of pyrite and other sulfides found in the mineral matter. WRI is assisting PulseWave to develop an alternate, more efficient method of liberating and separating the undesirable mineral matter from the carbonaceous matter in coal. The approach is based on PulseWave's patented resonance disintegration technology that reduces that particle size of materials by application of destructive resonance, shock waves, and vortex generating forces. Illinois No.5 coal, a Wyodak coal, and a Pittsburgh No.8 coal were processed using the resonance disintegration apparatus then subjected to conventional density separations. Initial microscopic results indicate that up to 90% of the pyrite could be liberated from the coal in the machine, but limitations in the density separations reduced overall effectiveness of contaminant removal. Approximately 30-80% of the pyritic sulfur and 30-50% of the mercury was removed from the coal. The three coals (both with and without the pyritic phase separated out) were tested in WRI's 250,000 Btu/hr Combustion Test Facility, designed to replicate a coal-fired utility boiler. The flue gases were characterized for elemental, particle bound, and total mercury in addition to sulfur. The results indicated that pre-combustion cleaning could reduce a large fraction of the mercury emissions.

Andrew Lucero

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Wiang Haeng coal-water fuel preparation and gasification, Thailand - task 39  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In response to an inquiry by the Department of Mineral Resources (DMR) in Thailand, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) prepared a four-task program to assess the responsiveness of Wiang Haeng coal to the temperature and pressure conditions of hot-water drying (HWD). The results indicate that HWD made several improvements in the coal, notably increases (HWD). The results indicate that HWD made several improvements in the coal, notably increases in heating value and carbon content and reductions in equilibrium moisture and oxygen content. The equilibrium moisture content decreased from 37.4 wt% for the raw coal to about 20 wt% for the HWD coals. The energy density for a pumpable coal-water fuel indicates an increase from 4450 to 6650 Btu/lb by hydrothermal treatment. Raw and HWD coal were then gasified at various mild gasification conditions of 700{degrees}C and 30 psig. The tests indicated that the coal is probably similar to other low-rank coals, will produce high levels of hydrogen, and be fairly reactive.

Anderson, C.M.; Musich, M.A.; Young, B.C. [and others

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Quarterly Coal Report, July--September 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1994 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1986 through the second quarter of 1994. Appendix A displays, from 1986 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the United States, historical information has been integrated in this report. Additional historical data can also be found in the following EIA publications : Annual Energy Review 1993 (DOE/EIA-0384(93)), Monthly Energy Review (DOE/EIA-0035), and Coal Data: A Reference (DOE/EIA-0064(90)). The historical data in this report are collected by the EIA in three quarterly coal surveys (coal consumption at manufacturing plants, coal distribution, and coal consumption at coke plants), one annual coal production survey, and two monthly surveys of electric utilities. All data shown for 1993 and previous years are final. Data for 1994 are preliminary.

Not Available

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Technical and economic assessment of the IGT peat-gasification process. Engineering support services for the DOE/GRI Coal Gasification Research Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Kellogg has completed a moderately detailed design and cost estimate of a 250 billion Btu/Day grass-roots SNG plant using the Peatgas process. Results indicate that the cost of SNG would be $4.40/MM Btu, using a cost of $1.50/MM Btu for peat feedstock at 50% moisture. The SNG cost is reasonably competitive with that currently estimated for SNG from coal, and Kellogg would anticipate that capital cost reductions, via design optimization, could reduce the NSG cost to a level which is quite competitive. The cost of peat feedstock is a critical area of concern in evaluating economics of the Peatgas process. The value chosen for the base-case economics ($1.50/MM Btu) is in the higher portion of the price range considered typical by most investigators; the price of $1.50/MM Btu was chosen arbitrarily to represent a 50% increase over the cost of coal ($1.00/MM Btu) used by Kellogg in parallel studies, to reflect higher costs for land use and reclamation and for harvesting and dewatering of peat. In a study concurrent with that reported here, Kellogg found that one method of wet harvesting and mechanical/thermal dewatering yields a peat (50% moisture) cost which is unfavorably high and was therefore rejected for use as a base-case cost since much cheaper feedstock is apparently available by other harvesting/dewatering methods. The base-case cost of SNG is moderate somewhat by the values placed on the benzene and oil coproducts (i.e., $1.10 and $0.75 per gallon, respectively). The total of such credits amounts to about 39% of the gross operating cost; a reduction in value of the coproducts would adversely affect the cost of SNG. Certain technical factors are discussed: materials handling problems, high reactivity, low sulfur content, and limited gasification data.

Bostwick, L.E.; Hubbard, D.A.; Laramore, R.W.; Senules, E.A.; Shah, K.V.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Coal distribution, January--June 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Coal Distribution report provides information on coal production, distribution, and stocks in the United States to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. The data in this report are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275, Sections 5 and 13, as amended). This issue presents information for January through June 1991. Coal distribution data are shown (in Tables 1--34) by coal-producing Sate of origin, consumer use, method of transportation, and State of destination. All data in this report were collected by the EIA on Form EIA-6, Coal Distribution Report.'' A copy of the form and the instructions for filing appear in Appendix B. All data in this report for 1991 are preliminary. Data for previous years are final. 6 figs., 34 tabs.

Not Available

1991-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

174

Development and testing of a commercial-scale coal-fired combustion system, Phase 3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Within the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant fuels used to meet the space-heating needs of schools, office buildings, apartment complexes, and other similar structures. In general, these buildings require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu/hr. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a coal-fired combustion system for this sector. The commercial-scale coal-water slurry (CWS)-fired space heating system will be a scale-up of a CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system developed by Tecogen under contract to the Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This system included a patented nonslagging combustor known as IRIS, for Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation. This combustion technology, which has demonstrated high combustion efficiency using CWS fuels at input rates of 100,000 Btu/hr, will be scaled to operate at 2 to 5 millon Btu/hr. Along with the necessary fuel storage and delivery, heat recovery, and control equipment, the system will include pollution control devices to meet targeted values of NO{sub x}, S0{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. In general, the system will be designed to match the reliability, safety, turndown, and ignition performance of gas or oil-fired systems.

Litka, A.F.; Breault, R.W.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pollutants Associated With Coal Combustion. E.P.A.Control Guidelines for Coal-Derived Pollutants .Forms of Sulfur in Coal . . . . Coal Desulfurization

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

The directory of United States coal & technology export resources. Profiles of domestic US corporations, associations and public entities, nationwide, which offer products or services suitable for export, relating to coal and its utilization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of available U.S. coal and coal related resources to potential purchasers of those resources abroad. The directory lists business entities within the US which offer coal related resources, products and services for sale on the international market. Each listing is intended to describe the particular business niche or range of product and/or services offered by a particular company. The listing provides addresses, telephones, and telex/fax for key staff in each company committed to the facilitation of international trade. The content of each listing has been formulated especially for this directory and reflects data current as of the date of this edition. The directory listings are divided into four primary classifications: coal resources; technology resources; support services; and financing and resource packaging. The first three of which are subdivided as follows: Coal Resources -- coal derivatives, coal exporters, and coal mining; Technology Resources -- advanced utilization, architects and engineers, boiler equipment, emissions control and waste disposal systems, facility construction, mining equipment, power generation systems, technical publications, and transport equipment; Support Services -- coal transport, facility operations, freight forwarders, sampling services and equipment, and technical consultants. Listings for the directory were solicited on the basis of this industry breakdown. Each of the four sections of this directory begins with a matrix illustrating which companies fall within the particular subclassifications specific to that main classification. A general alphabetical index of companies and an index by product/service classification are provided following the last section of the directory.

Not Available

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Coal preparation: The essential clean coal technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This chapter is a brief introduction to a broad topic which has many highly specialized areas. The aim is to summarize the essential elements of coal preparation and illustrate its important role in facilitating the clean use of coal. Conventional coal preparation is the essential first step in ensuring the economic and environmentally acceptable use of coal. The aim of coal preparation is to produce saleable products of consistent, specified quality which satisfy customer requirements while optimizing the utilization of the coal resource. Coal preparation covers all aspects of preparing coal for the market. It includes size reduction, blending and homogenization and, most importantly, the process of physical beneficiation or washing, which involves separation of undesirable mineral matter from the coal substance itself. Coal preparation can be performed at different levels of sophistication and cost. The degree of coal preparation required is decided by considering the quality of the raw coal, transport costs and, in particular, the coal quality specified by the consumer. However, the cost of coal beneficiation rises rapidly with the complexity of the process and some coal is lost with the waste matter because of process inefficiencies, therefore each situation requires individual study to determine the optimum coal preparation strategy. The necessary expertise is available within APEC countries such as Australia. Coals destined for iron making are almost always highly beneficiated. Physical beneficiation is mostly confined to the higher rank, hard coals, but all other aspects of coal preparation can be applied to subbituminous and lignitic coals to improve their utilization. Also, there are some interesting developments aimed specifically at reducing the water content of lower rank coals.

Cain, D.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

178

Coal: America's energy future. Volume I  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman requested the National Coal Council in April 2005 a report identifying the challenges and opportunities of more fully exploring the USA's domestic coal resources to meet the nations' future energy needs. This resultant report addresses the Secretary's request in the context of the President's focus, with eight findings and recommendations that would use technology to leverage the USA's extensive coal assets and reduce dependence on imported energy. Volume I outlines these findings and recommendations. Volume II provides technical data and case histories to support the findings and recommendations. Chapter headings of Volume I are: Coal-to-Liquids to Produce 2.6 MMbbl/d; Coal-to-Natural Gas to Produce 4.0 Tcf Per Year; Coal-to-Clean Electricity; Coal to Produce Ethanol; Coal-to-Hydrogen; Enhanced Oil and Gas (Coalbed Methane); Recovery as Carbon Management Strategies; Delineate U.S. Coal Reserves and Transportation Constraints as Part of an Effort to Maximize U.S. Coal Production; and Penn State Study, 'Economic Benefits of Coal Conversion Investments'.

NONE

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

179

Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaing for Premium Fuel Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ash in six common bituminous coals, Taggart, Winifrede, Elkhorn No. 3, Indiana VII, Sunnyside and Hiawatha, could be liberated by fine grinding to allow preparation of clean coal meeting premium fuel specifications (< 1- 2 lb/ MBtu ash and <0.6 lb/ MBtu sulfur) by laboratory and bench- scale column flotation or selective agglomeration. Over 2,100 tons of coal were cleaned in the PDU at feed rates between 2,500 and 6,000 lb/ h by Microcel? column flotation and by selective agglomeration using recycled heptane as the bridging liquid. Parametric testing of each process and 72- hr productions runs were completed on each of the three test coals. The following results were achieved after optimization of the operating parameters: The primary objective was to develop the design base for commercial fine coal cleaning facilities for producing ultra- clean coals which can be converted into coal-water slurry premium fuel. The coal cleaning technologies to be developed were advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration, and the goal was to produce fuel meeting the following specifications -- Less than 2 pounds of ash per million Btu (860 grams per gigajoule) and

Frank J. Smit; Gene L. Schields; Mehesh C. Jha; Nick Moro

1997-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

180

Coal Reburning for Cyclone Boiler NO[sub x] Control Demonstration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project involves retrofitting/testing the reburning technology at Wisconsin Power Light's 100 MWe Nelson Dewey Unit [number sign]2 in Cassville, Wisconsin to determine the commercial applicability of this technology to reduce NO[sub x] emission levels. Based upon the data collected and evaluated f or reburn No[sub x] reduction performance with the Lamar Indiana bituminous coal f or boiler loads of 110 MW, 82 MW, and 60 MW, average NO[sub x] reductions of 52.4%, 50.1% and 35.8%, respectively were achieved. Average emissions of NO[sub x]with reburn in operation were 290 ppm (.39 lb/million Btu) , 265 ppm (.36 lb/million Btu) and 325 ppm (.44 lb/million Btu) respectively, all corrected to 3% 02 content. Boiler efficiency losses due to increased unburned carbon in the ash were 0.1% at 110 NW, .25% at 83 MW and 1.5% at 60 MW. Reburn performance results with western sub-bituminous coal at 110 MW, 82 MW and 60 MW boiler loads indicated NO[sub x] reductions of 55.4%, 52.1% and 52.6% respectively. Under optimal conditions, NO[sub x] reductions approaching 63% were achieved with the more reactive western sub-bituminous coal. Boiler efficiency losses due to increased unburned carbon in the ash were unchanged at full load, a loss of 0.2% at 83 MW and a loss of .3% at low load, much improved over results with the Lamar coal.

Not Available

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu state coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Quarterly coal report, July--September 1998  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the second quarter of 1998. 58 tabs.

NONE

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Microbial solubilization of coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

183

Hoe Creek No. 3: first long-term underground coal gasification experiment with oxygen-steam injection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are compelling reasons for pursuing underground coal gasification. The resource that could be exploited is huge - enough to quadruple present proved coal reserves - if the process is successful. Cost estimates indicate that substitute natural gas or gasoline may be producible at reasonable prices by the technique. In the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal gasification experiment linkage paths were established between the injection and production wells by drilling a horizontal borehole between them near the bottom of the coal seam. The drilled linkage hole was enlarged by reverse burning, then the forward gasification process began - first with air injection for one week, then with oxygen-steam injection for the remainder of the experiment. During the oxygen-steam injection period, approximately 3900 tons of coal was gasified in 47 days, at an average rate of 83 tons/day. The heating value of the dry product gas averaged 218 Btu/SCF (194 kj/mol), suitable for input to a processing plant for upgrading to pipeline quality, which is approximately 900 Btu/SCF (800 kj/mol).

Not Available

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Coal gasification power generation, and product market study. Topical report, March 1, 1995--March 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Western Research Institute (WRI) project was part of a WRI Energy Resource Utilization Program to stimulate pilot-scale improved technologies projects to add value to coal resources in the Rocky Mountain region. The intent of this program is to assess the application potential of emerging technologies to western resources. The focus of this project is on a coal resource near the Wyoming/Colorado border, in Colorado. Energy Fuels Corporation/Kerr Coal Company operates a coal mine in Jackson County, Colorado. The coal produces 10,500 Btu/lb and has very low sulfur and ash contents. Kerr Coal Company is seeking advanced technology for alternate uses for this coal. This project was to have included a significant cost-share from the Kerr Coal Company ownership for a market survey of potential products and technical alternatives to be studied in the Rocky Mountain Region. The Energy Fuels Corporation/Kerr Coal Company and WRI originally proposed this work on a cost reimbursable basis. The total cost of the project was priced at $117,035. The Kerr Coal Company had scheduled at least $60,000.00 to be spent on market research for the project that never developed because of product market changes for the company. WRI and Kerr explored potential markets and new technologies for this resource. The first phase of this project as a preliminary study had studied fuel and nonfuel technical alternatives. Through related projects conducted at WRI, resource utilization was studied to find high-value materials that can be targeted for fuel and nonfuel use and eventually include other low-sulfur coals in the Rocky Mountain region. The six-month project work was spread over about a three-year period to observe, measure, and confirm over time-any trends in technology development that would lead to economic benefits in northern Colorado and southern Wyoming from coal gasification and power generation.

Sheesley, D.; King, S.B.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

185

Development of an Advanced Fine Coal Suspension Dewatering Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the advancement in fine coal cleaning technology, recovery of fine coal (minus 28 mesh) has become an attractive route for the U.S. coal industry. The clean coal recovered using the advanced flotation technology i.e. column flotation, contains on average 20% solids and 80% water, with an average particle size of 35 microns. Fine coal slurry is usually dewatered using a vacuum dewatering technique, providing a material with about 25 to 30 percent moisture. The process developed in this project will improve dewatering of fine (0.6mm) coal slurry to less than 20 percent moisture. Thus, thermal drying of dewatered wet coal will be eliminated. This will provide significant energy savings for the coal industry along with some environmental benefits. A 1% increase in recovery of coal and producing a filter cake material of less than 20 % moisture will amount to energy savings of 1900 trillion Btu/yr/unit. In terms of the amount of coal it will be about 0.8% of the total coal being used in the USA for electric power generation. It is difficult to dewater the fine clean coal slurry to about 20% moisture level using the conventional dewatering techniques. The finer the particle, the larger the surface area and thus, it retains large amounts of moisture on the surface. The coal industry has shown some reluctance in using the advanced coal recovery techniques, because of unavailability of an economical dewatering technique which can provide a product containing less than 20% moisture. The U.S.DOE and Industry has identified the dewatering of coal fines as a high priority problem. The goal of the proposed program is to develop and evaluate a novel two stage dewatering process developed at the University of Kentucky, which involves utilization of two forces, namely, vacuum and pressure for dewatering of fine coal slurries. It has been observed that a fine coal filter cake formed under vacuum has a porous structure with water trapped in the capillaries. When this porous cake is subjected to pressure for a short time, the free water present is released from the filter cake. Laboratory studies have shown that depending on the coal type a filter cake containing about 15% moisture could be obtained using the two-stage filtration technique. It was also noted that applying intermittent breaks in vacuum force during cake formation, which disturbed the cake structure, helped in removing moisture from the filter cakes. In this project a novel approach of cleaning coal using column flotation was also developed. With this approach the feed capacity of the column is increased significantly, and the column was also able to recover coarser size coal which usually gets lost in the process. The outcome of the research benefits the coal industry, utility industry, and indirectly the general public. The benefits can be counted in terms of clean energy, cleaner environment, and lower cost power.

B. K. Parekh; D. P. Patil

2008-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

186

Clean coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The article describes the physics-based techniques that are helping in clean coal conversion processes. The major challenge is to find a cost- effective way to remove carbon dioxide from the flue gas of power plants. One industrially proven method is to dissolve CO{sub 2} in the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) at a temperature of 38{sup o}C and then release it from the solvent in another unit when heated to 150{sup o}C. This produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. Research is in progress with alternative solvents that require less energy. Another technique is to use enriched oxygen in place of air in the combustion process which produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. A process that is more attractive from an energy management viewpoint is to gasify coal so that it is partially oxidized, producing a fuel while consuming significantly less oxygen. Several IGCC schemes are in operation which produce syngas for use as a feedstock, in addition to electricity and hydrogen. These schemes are costly as they require an air separation unit. Novel approaches to coal gasification based on 'membrane separation' or chemical looping could reduce the costs significantly while effectively capturing carbon dioxide. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 photo.

Liang-Shih Fan; Fanxing Li [Ohio State University, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

187

Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a coal liquefaction process using two stages. The first stage liquefies the coal and maximizes the product while the second stage hydrocracks the remainder of the coal liquid to produce solvent.

Schindler, Harvey D. (Fair Lawn, NJ); Chen, James M. (Edison, NJ)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Competitive interstate taxation of western coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper analyzes the potential market power of western states in setting coal severance taxes. An attempt to determine the emphasis placed by the western states on the development of their coal resources is also made. Three market structures are analyzed. One involves a western regional cartel, setting taxes collectively. The other cases are noncooperative tax equilibria with Montana and Wyoming competing against each other. We study the effects on these equilibria of changes in each region's relative emphasis on development of coal resources vs tax revenue. The welfare impacts of these tax setting policies are also addressed. The analysis is based on an activity analysis of US coal markets. The results show that the taxes associated with the noncooperative competitive tax equilibria are close to present tax levels. Additionally, we conclude that western states currently are quite efficient extractors of economic rent from coal produced within their boundaries, in terms of welfare loss per dollar of tax revenue collected. 2 figures.

Kolstad, C.D.; Wolak, F.A. Jr.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Coal combustion science  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency (IEA) Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks include: coal devolatilization, coal char combustion, and fate of mineral matter during coal combustion. 91 refs., 40 figs., 9 tabs.

Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Baxter, L.L.; Fletcher, T.H.; Mitchell, R.E.

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

State energy price system. Volume I: overview and technical documentation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study utilizes existing data sources and previous analyses of state-level energy prices to develop consistent state-level energy prices series by fuel type and by end-use sector. The fuels are electricity, natural gas, coal, distillate fuel oil, motor gasoline, diesel, kerosene, jet fuel, residual fuel, and liquefied petroleum gas. The end-use sectors are residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and electric utility. Based upon an evaluation of existing data sources, recommendations were formulated on the feasible approaches for developing a consistent state energy price series. The data series were compiled based upon the approaches approved after a formal EIA review. Detailed documentation was provided, including annual updating procedures. Recommendations were formulated for future improvements in the collection of data or in data processing. Generally, the geographical coverage includes the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Information on state-level energy use was generally taken from the State Energy Data System (SEDS). Corresponding average US prices are also developed using volumes reported in SEDS. To the extent possible, the prices developed are quantity weighted average retail prices. Both a Btu price series and a physical unit price series are developed for each fuel. The period covered by the data series is 1970 through 1980 for most fuels, though prices for electricity and natural gas extend back to 1960. (PSB)

Fang, J.M.; Nieves, L.A.; Sherman, K.L.; Hood, L.J.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Coal Bed Methane Primer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of stakeholders to present a consistent and complete synopsis of the key issues involved with CBM. In light of the numerous CBM NEPA documents under development this Primer could be used to support various public scoping meetings and required public hearings throughout the Western States in the coming years.

Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

2005-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

192

Coal Mining (Iowa)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These sections describe procedures for coal exploration and extraction, as well as permitting requirements relating to surface and underground coal mining. These sections also address land...

193

Challenges and Opportunities for the Illinois Coal Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Illinois Coal Consumption by State, 2007 6 Figure 4. Added Capacity by Energy Source, 2003-2009 8 Figure 5 Figure 7. Change in U.S. Coal Consumption by Sector, 2009-2011 (Forecast) 13 Figure 8. U.S. Coal Kawamura Department Head Urban Planning and Public Policy University of Illinois ­ Chicago Associate

Illinois at Chicago, University of

194

Demonstration of coal reburning for cyclone boiler NO{sub x} control. Final project report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Innovative Clean Coal Technology Program, under Round 2, a project for Full Scale Demonstration of Coal Reburning for Cyclone Boiler Nitrogen Oxide (NO{sub x},) Control was selected. DOE sponsored The Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) Company, with Wisconsin Power & Light (WP&L) as the host utility, to demonstrate coal reburning technology at WP&L`s 110 MW{sub c}, cyclone-fired Unit No.2 at the Nelson Dewey Generating Station in Cassville, Wisconsin. The coal reburning demonstration was justified based on two prior studies. An Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and B&W sponsored engineering feasibility study indicated that the majority of cyclone-equipped boilers could successfully apply reburning technology to reduce NO{sub x}, emissions by 50 to 70%. An EPRI/Gas Research Institute (GRI)/B&W pilot-scale evaluation substantiated this conclusion through pilot-scale testing in B&W`s 6 million Btu/hr Small Boiler Simulator. Three different reburning fuels, natural gas, No. 6 oil, and pulverized coal were tested. This work showed that coal as a reburning fuel performs nearly as well as gas/oil without deleterious effects of combustion efficiency. Coal was selected for a full scale demonstration since it is available to all cyclone units and represents the highest level of technical difficulty-in demonstrating the technology.

Not Available

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Performance of an industrial type combustor burning simulated fuels of medium BTU content  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

studied fuels were those produced by coal gasification (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). Other widely studied fuels include petroleum distillates, alcohol type fuel, fuel made from tar sands, fuel made from oil shale (1), petro- chemical process plants "off-gases" (2...). Harmful emissions can be reduced by using steam injection (8, 2, 9). Also the amount of equipment needed to produce and refine fuels, such as coal gas, is large; whereas, in the case of steam, the amount of' equipment needed is relatively small. Also...

Goehring, Howard Lee

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Alaska coal geology, resources, and coalbed methane potential  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Estimated Alaska coal resources are largely in Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks distributed in three major provinces, Northern Alaska-Slope, Central Alaska-Nenana, and Southern Alaska-Cook Inlet. Cretaceous resources, predominantly bituminous coal and lignite, are in the Northern Alaska-Slope coal province. Most of the Tertiary resources, mainly lignite to subbituminous coal with minor amounts of bituminous and semianthracite coals, are in the other two provinces. The combined measured, indicated, inferred, and hypothetical coal resources in the three areas are estimated to be 5,526 billion short tons (5,012 billion metric tons), which constitutes about 87 percent of Alaska's coal and surpasses the total coal resources of the conterminous United States by 40 percent. Coal mining has been intermittent in the Central Alaskan-Nenana and Southern Alaska-Cook Inlet coal provinces, with only a small fraction of the identified coal resource having been produced from some dozen underground and strip mines. Alaskan coals have a lower sulfur content (averaging 0.3 percent) than most coals in the conterminous United States and are within or below the minimum sulfur value mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments. Another untapped potential resource is coalbed methane estimated to total 1,000 trillion cubic feet (28 trillion cubic meters).

Romeo M. Flores; Gary D. Stricker; Scott A. Kinney

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

197

PARTICULATE CHARACTERIZATION AND ULTRA LOW-NOx BURNER FOR THE CONTROL OF NO{sub x} AND PM{sub 2.5} FOR COAL FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In response to the serious challenge facing coal-fired electric utilities with regards to curbing their NO{sub x} and fine particulate emissions, Babcock and Wilcox and McDermott Technology, Inc. conducted a project entitled, ''Particulate Characterization and Ultra Low-NO{sub x} Burner for the Control of NO{sub x} and PM{sub 2.5} for Coal Fired Boilers.'' The project included pilot-scale demonstration and characterization of technologies for removal of NO{sub x} and primary PM{sub 2.5} emissions. Burner development and PM{sub 2.5} characterization efforts were based on utilizing innovative concepts in combination with sound scientific and fundamental engineering principles and a state-of-the-art test facility. Approximately 1540 metric tonnes (1700 tons) of high-volatile Ohio bituminous coal were fired. Particulate sampling for PM{sub 2.5} emissions characterization was conducted in conjunction with burner testing. Based on modeling recommendations, a prototype ultra low-NO{sub x} burner was fabricated and tested at 100 million Btu/hr in the Babcock and Wilcox Clean Environment Development Facility. Firing the unstaged burner with a high-volatile bituminous Pittsburgh 8 coal at 100 million Btu/hr and 17% excess air achieved a NO{sub x} goal of 0.20 lb NO{sub 2}/million Btu with a fly ash loss on ignition (LOI) of 3.19% and burner pressure drop of 4.7 in H{sub 2}O for staged combustion. With the burner stoichiometry set at 0.88 and the overall combustion stoichiometry at 1.17, average NO{sub x} and LOI values were 0.14 lb NO{sub 2}/million Btu and 4.64% respectively. The burner was also tested with a high-volatile Mahoning 7 coal. Based on the results of this work, commercial demonstration is being pursued. Size classified fly ash samples representative of commercial low-NO{sub x} and ultra low-NO{sub x} combustion of Pittsburgh 8 coal were collected at the inlet and outlet of an ESP. The mass of size classified fly ash at the ESP outlet was sufficient to evaluate the particle size distribution, but was of insufficient size to permit reliable chemical analysis. The size classified fly ash from the inlet of the ESP was used for detailed chemical analyses. Chemical analyses of the fly ash samples from the ESP outlet using a high volume sampler were performed for comparison to the size classified results at the inlet. For all test conditions the particulate removal efficiency of the ESP exceeded 99.3% and emissions were less than the NSPS limits of {approx}48 mg/dscm. With constant combustion conditions, the removal efficiency of the ESP increased as the ESP voltage and Specific Collection Area (SCA) increased. The associated decrease in particle emissions occurred in size fractions both larger and smaller than 2.5 microns. For constant ESP voltage and SCA, the removal efficiency for the ultra low-NO{sub x} combustion ash (99.4-99.6%) was only slightly less than for the low-NO{sub x} combustion ash (99.7%). The decrease in removal efficiency was accompanied by a decrease in ESP current. The emission of PM{sub 2.5} from the ESP did not change significantly as a result of the change in combustion conditions. Most of the increase in emissions was in the size fraction greater than 2.5 microns, indicating particle re-entrainment. These results may be specific to the coal tested in this program. In general, the concentration of inorganic elements and trace species in the fly ash at the ESP inlet was dependent on the particle size fraction. The smallest particles tended to have higher concentrations of inorganic elements/trace species than larger particles. The concentration of most elements by particle size range was independent of combustion condition and the concentration of soluble ions in the fly ash showed little change with combustion condition when evaluated on a carbon free basis.

Ralph Bailey; Hamid Sarv; Jim Warchol; Debi Yurchison

2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

198

Coal systems analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This collection of papers provides an introduction to the concept of coal systems analysis and contains examples of how coal systems analysis can be used to understand, characterize, and evaluate coal and coal gas resources. Chapter are: Coal systems analysis: A new approach to the understanding of coal formation, coal quality and environmental considerations, and coal as a source rock for hydrocarbons by Peter D. Warwick. Appalachian coal assessment: Defining the coal systems of the Appalachian Basin by Robert C. Milici. Subtle structural influences on coal thickness and distribution: Examples from the Lower Broas-Stockton coal (Middle Pennsylvanian), Eastern Kentucky Coal Field, USA by Stephen F. Greb, Cortland F. Eble, and J.C. Hower. Palynology in coal systems analysis The key to floras, climate, and stratigraphy of coal-forming environments by Douglas J. Nichols. A comparison of late Paleocene and late Eocene lignite depositional systems using palynology, upper Wilcox and upper Jackson Groups, east-central Texas by Jennifer M.K. O'Keefe, Recep H. Sancay, Anne L. Raymond, and Thomas E. Yancey. New insights on the hydrocarbon system of the Fruitland Formation coal beds, northern San Juan Basin, Colorado and New Mexico, USA by W.C. Riese, William L. Pelzmann, and Glen T. Snyder.

Warwick, P.D. (ed.)

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Coal production expansion: a selected bibliography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The expeditious and economic transport of coal from producing regions to consuming regions is essential to any policy designed to increase the use of coal as an energy source. Obtaining an optimal coal transportation system, including terminal facilities, is significant in providing US coal to its users in the United States and abroad. Rail, barge, truck, slurry pipeline, and ship are the modes used to move coal from the producer to the user. Transportation costs represent a large percentage of the delivered price. This bibliography includes 138 selected citations on coal export, transport, and production. The references are to reports from the Department of Energy and its contractors, reports from other government or private organizations, and journal articles, books, conference papers, and monographs from US originators. These citations and hundreds of additional citations on this subject are available for on-line searching and retrieval from the Technical Information Center's Energy Data Base using the DOE/RECON interactive system. Approximately 50,000 citations on coal and coal products are a part of this data base. Current additions to data base on this subject are announced monthly in Fossil Energy Update. DOE-sponsored work is also announced in Energy Research Abstracts. The citations in this publication are arranged in broad subject categories as shown in the table of contents. Five indexes are provided: Corporate, Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. Included as an appendix are some tables and figures from Energy Information Administration reports covering coal production and disposition.

Grissom, M.C. (ed.)

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

transportation component of coal price should also increase;investment. Coal costs and prices are functions of a numberto forecast coal demand, supply, and prices from now to

McCollum, David L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu state coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Coal is a combustible sedimentary rock and a valuable economic resource. During the Pennsylvanian Period  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coal is a combustible sedimentary rock and a valuable economic resource. During the Pennsylvanian of years produced the bituminous coals currently found in southwestern Indiana. Bituminous coals in Indiana currently ranks as the seventh-largest coal-producing state in the nation and has an estimated 17.57 billion

Polly, David

202

Tri-State Synfuels Project Review: Volume 8. Commercial status of licensed process units. [Proposed Henderson, Kentucky coal to gasoline plant; licensed commercial processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document demonstrates the commercial status of the process units to be used in the Tri-State Synfuels Project at Henderson, Kentucky. The basic design philosophy as established in October, 1979, was to use the commercial SASOL II/III plants as a basis. This was changed in January 1982 to a plant configuration to produce gasoline via a methanol and methanol to gasoline process. To accomplish this change the Synthol, Oil workup and Chemical Workup Units were eliminated and replaced by Methanol Synthesis and Methanol to Gasoline Units. Certain other changes to optimize the Lurgi liquids processing eliminated the Tar Distillation and Naphtha Hydrotreater Units which were replaced by the Partial Oxidation Unit. The coals to be gasified are moderately caking which necessitates the installation of stirring mechanism in the Lurgi Dry Bottom gasifier. This work is in the demonstration phase. Process licenses either have been obtained or must be obtained for a number of processes to be used in the plant. The commercial nature of these processes is discussed in detail in the tabbed sections of this document. In many cases there is a list of commercial installations at which the licensed equipment is used.

Not Available

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Paradigm Shift: Burning Coal to Geothermal | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

1120ballstatepresentation.pdf More Documents & Publications Indiana Recovery Act State Memo Coal Study Guide - Middle School BSU GHP District Heating and Cooling System (Phase I)...

204

U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

and Institutional Users by Census Division and State (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2014 Year to Date...

205

NPDES Rule for Coal Mining Facilities (West Virginia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This rule establishes requirements implementing the powers, duties, and responsibilities of State's Water Pollution Control Act with respect to all coal mines, preparation plants and all refuse and...

206

Coal Reburning for Cyclone Boiler NO{sub x} Control Demonstration. Quarterly report No. 12, January--March 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project involves retrofitting/testing the reburning technology at Wisconsin Power & Light`s 100 MWe Nelson Dewey Unit {number_sign}2 in Cassville, Wisconsin to determine the commercial applicability of this technology to reduce NO{sub x} emission levels. Based upon the data collected and evaluated f or reburn No{sub x} reduction performance with the Lamar Indiana bituminous coal f or boiler loads of 110 MW, 82 MW, and 60 MW, average NO{sub x} reductions of 52.4%, 50.1% and 35.8%, respectively were achieved. Average emissions of NO{sub x}with reburn in operation were 290 ppm (.39 lb/million Btu) , 265 ppm (.36 lb/million Btu) and 325 ppm (.44 lb/million Btu) respectively, all corrected to 3% 02 content. Boiler efficiency losses due to increased unburned carbon in the ash were 0.1% at 110 NW, .25% at 83 MW and 1.5% at 60 MW. Reburn performance results with western sub-bituminous coal at 110 MW, 82 MW and 60 MW boiler loads indicated NO{sub x} reductions of 55.4%, 52.1% and 52.6% respectively. Under optimal conditions, NO{sub x} reductions approaching 63% were achieved with the more reactive western sub-bituminous coal. Boiler efficiency losses due to increased unburned carbon in the ash were unchanged at full load, a loss of 0.2% at 83 MW and a loss of .3% at low load, much improved over results with the Lamar coal.

Not Available

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

90e COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION J. Wrathall, T.of coal during combustion. The process involves the additionCOAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION Lawrence Berkeley

Wrathall, J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Coal data: A reference  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

Not Available

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Coal combustion by wet oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The combustion of coal by wet oxidation was studied by the Center for Waste Management Programs, of Michigan Technological University. In wet oxidation a combustible material, such as coal, is reacted with oxygen in the presence of liquid water. The reaction is typically carried out in the range of 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 353/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) with sufficient pressure to maintain the water present in the liquid state, and provide the partial pressure of oxygen in the gas phase necessary to carry out the reaction. Experimental studies to explore the key reaction parameters of temperature, time, oxidant, catalyst, coal type, and mesh size were conducted by running batch tests in a one-gallon stirred autoclave. The factors exhibiting the greatest effect on the extent of reaction were temperature and residence time. The effect of temperature was studied from 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) with a residence time from 600 to 3600 seconds. From this data, the reaction activation energy of 2.7 x 10/sup 4/ calories per mole was determined for a high-volatile-A-Bituminous type coal. The reaction rate constant may be determined at any temperature from the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation. Additional data were generated on the effect of mesh size and different coal types. A sample of peat was also tested. Two catalysts were evaluated, and their effects on reaction rate presented in the report. In addition to the high temperature combustion, low temperature desulfurization is discussed. Desulfurization can improve low grade coal to be used in conventional combustion methods. It was found that 90% of the sulfur can be removed from the coal by wet oxidation with the carbon untouched. Further desulfurization studies are indicated.

Bettinger, J.A.; Lamparter, R.A.; McDowell, D.C.

1980-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

210

Coal-Fired Power Plants, Greenhouse Gases, and State Statutory Substantial Endangerment Provisions: Climate Change Comes to Kansas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to climate change. Second, it provides regulatory context for KDHE?s decision denying a permit for the Sunflower project. It summarizes the status of federal regulation of greenhouse gas (?GHG?) emissions. It also describes state efforts to fill... of air quality permits for the Sunflower units is within KDHE?s authority to take actions to prevent the substantial endangerment to public health and the environment arising from GHG emissions. I reach this conclusion even though the denial was based...

Glicksman, Robert L.

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Preburn versus postburn mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of overburden and coal at the Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hundreds of mineralogic and geochemical tests were done under US Department of Energy contracts on core samples taken from the Hanna underground coal gasification site. These tests included x-ray diffraction studies of minerals in coal ash, overburden rocks, and heat-altered rocks; x-ray fluorescence analyses of oxides in coal ash and heat-altered rocks; semi-quantitative spectrographic analyses of elements in coal, overburden, and heat-altered rocks; chemical analyses of elements and compounds in coal, overburden, and heat-altered rocks and ASTM proximate and ultimate analyses of coal and heat-altered coal. These data sets were grouped, averaged, and analyzed to provide preburn and postburn mineralogic and geochemical characteristics of rock units at the site. Where possible, the changes in characteristics from the preburn to the postburn state are related to underground coal gasification processes. 11 references, 13 figures, 8 tables.

Oliver, R.L.; Youngberg, A.D.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coal Cleaning Costs Process Clean Coal Produced, * T/D (DryMM$ Net Operating Cost, $/T (Clean Coal Basis) Net OperatingCost, $/T (Clean Coal Bases) Case NA Hazen KVB Battelle

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Quarterly coal report, October--December 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities. This report presents detailed quarterly data for october through December 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the third quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 73 tabs.

NONE

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Upgraded Coal Interest Group  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

Evan Hughes

2009-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

215

Petrographic characterization of Kentucky coals. Quarterly progress report, March 1982-May 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project Petrographic characterization of Kentucky coals consists of three specific areas of coal petrology: spectral fluorescence of liptinite macerals, properties of semi-inert macerals, and size/form/microlithotype association of pyrite/marcasite. Additional research on the Mannington and Dunbar coals in western Kentucky and the Alma coal zone in eastern Kentucky will apply techniques developed in the first three areas. Suites of coals from other states will also be studied to expand the variability in the sample set.

Hower, J.C.; Ferm, J.C.; Cobb, J.C.; Trinkle, E.J.; Frankie, K.A.; Poe, S.H.; Baynard, D.N.; Graese, A.M.; Raione, R.P.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Petrographic characterization of Kentucky coals. Quarterly progress report, June 1982-August 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project Petrographic Characterization of Kentucky Coals consists of three specific areas of coal petrology: spectral fluorescence of liptinite macerals, properties of semi-inert macerals, and size/form/microlithotype association of pyrite/marcasite. Additional research on the Mannington and Dunbar coals in western Kentucky and the Alma coal zone in eastern Kentucky will apply techniques developed in the first three areas. Suites of coals from other states will also be studied to expand the variability in the sample set.

Hower, J.C.; Ferm, J.C.; Cobb, J.C.; Trinkle, E.J.; Frankie, K.A.; Poe, S.H.; Baynard, D.N.; Graese, A.M.; Raione, R.P.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Public Health Benefits of End-Use Electrical Energy Efficiency in California: An Exploratory Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

~Mwe: conversion factor from Btu to MWe-y ( 3.345 x 10- MWe-insulation R-values [fe-hr OF I Btu] for electricity heatedspecific fuel, expressed as Btu/lb coal, Btu/ gal oil, Btu/

McKone, Thomas E.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Coal Combustion Science  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Coal-fired generation staging a comeback. 2nd ed.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report is an overview of the renewed U.S. market interest in coal-fired power generation. It provides a concise look at what is driving interest in coal-fired generation, the challenges faced in implementing coal-fired generation projects, and the current and future state of coal-fired generation. Topics covered in the report include: An overview of coal-fired generation including its history, the current market environment, and its future prospects; An analysis of the key business factors that are driving renewed interest in coal-fired generation; An analysis of the challenges that are hindering the implementation of coal-fired generation projects; A description of coal-fired generation technologies; A review of the economic drivers of coal-fired generation project success; An evaluation of coal-fired generation versus other generation technologies; A discussion of the key government initiatives supporting new coal-fired generation; and A listing of planned coal-fired generation projects. 13 figs., 12 tabs., 1 app.

NONE

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Utilization ROLE OF COAL COMBUSTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, materials left after combustion of coal in conventional and/ or advanced clean-coal technology combustors and advanced clean-coal technology combustors. This paper describes various coal combustion products produced (FGD) products from pulverized coal and advanced clean-coal technology combustors. Over 70% of the CCPs

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu state coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

High Btu gas from peat. A feasibility study. Part 2. Management plans for project continuation. Task 10. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of this task, which was the responsibility of the Minnesota Gas Company, was to determine the needs of the project upon completion of the feasibility study and determine how to implement them most effectively. The findings of the study do not justify the construction of an 80 billion Btu/day SNG from peat plant. At the present time Minnegasco will concentrate on other issues of peat development. Other processes, other products, different scales of operation - these are the issues that Minnegasco will continue to study. 3 references.

Not Available

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

The effect of CO? on the flammability limits of low-BTU gas of the type obtained from Texas lignite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) . If the L. used are the lower limits of 1 the individual components, then Equation (1) will yield the lower flammability limit of the mixture (Zabetakis, 1965) . If the inert gases nitrogen or carbon dioxide are present, the Equation (1) may still... gas cylinders with the exception of the air which was atmospheric. The carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrogen came from commercial sources in high- pressure cylinders. The low-BTU gas consisting of 20. 89% CO, 2 . 65% CH4, 0 . 2% C2H6, 15 . 37% H2...

Gaines, William Russell

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Microbial solubilization of coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention deals with the solubilization of coal using species of Streptomyces. Also disclosed is an extracellular component from a species of Streptomyces, said component being able to solubilize coal.

Strandberg, Gerald W. (Farragut, TN); Lewis, Susan N. (Knoxville, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Coal quality trends and distribution of Title III trace elements in Eastern Kentucky coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The quality characteristics of eastern Kentucky coal beds vary both spatially and stratigraphically. Average total sulfur contents are lowest, and calorific values highest, in the Big Sandy and Upper Cumberland Reserve Districts. Average coal thickness is greatest in these two districts as well. Conversely, the thinnest coal with the highest total sulfur content, and lowest calorific value, on average, occurs in the Princess and Southwest Reserve Districts. Several Title III trace elements, notably arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, and nickel, mirror this distribution (lower average concentrations in the Big Sandy and Upper Cumberland Districts, higher average concentrations in the Princess and Southwest Districts), probably because these elements are primarily associated with sulfide minerals in coal. Ash yields and total sulfur contents are observed to increase in a stratigraphically older to younger direction. Several Title III elements, notably cadmium, chromium, lead, and selenium follow this trend, with average concentrations being higher in younger coals. Average chlorine concentration shows a reciprocal distribution, being more abundant in older coals. Some elements, such as arsenic, manganese, mercury, cobalt, and, to a lesser extent, phosphorus show concentration spikes in coal beds directly above, or below, major marine zones. With a few exceptions, average Title III trace element concentrations for eastern Kentucky coals are comparable with element distributions in other Appalachian coal-producing states.

Eble, C.F. [Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington, KY (United States); Hower, J.C. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

225

Alabama Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquids Reserve3.Revenue3ProvedYear Jan Feb Mar

226

Alabama Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquids Reserve3.Revenue3ProvedYear Jan Feb

227

Alaska Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYear Jan FebProved ReservesYear Jan Feb

228

Alaska Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYear Jan FebProved ReservesYear Jan

229

Arizona Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYear JanYear Jan FebNaturalWorkingYear Jan

230

Arizona Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYear JanYear Jan FebNaturalWorkingYear

231

Arkansas Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYear JanYearVented andDecade Year-0

232

Arkansas Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYear JanYearVented andDecade Year-0Foot)

233

California Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReservesmDecade Year-0Separation,

234

California Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReservesmDecade Year-0Separation,Cubic

235

Colorado Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87 1967-2010 ImportsCubic Feet)+Foot) Decade

236

Colorado Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87 1967-2010 ImportsCubic Feet)+Foot)

237

Connecticut Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87CBECS Public Use Data CBECSYear Jan Feb Mar

238

Connecticut Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87CBECS Public Use Data CBECSYear Jan Feb MarCubic

239

Delaware Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87CBECS Public Use Data0 0 0 00/03) ElectricFoot)

240

Delaware Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87CBECS Public Use Data0 0 0 00/03)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu state coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Florida Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96NebraskaWells

242

Georgia Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96NebraskaWellsFoot) Year Jan12,608SamplingSee See

243

Hawaii Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam CoalReserves (Million Barrels)Reserves from GreaterDecadeFoot)

244

Idaho Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam CoalReserves (Million Barrels)Reserves from%Year1.A2.Foot)

245

Illinois Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam CoalReserves (Million Barrels)Reserves%

246

Indiana Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam CoalReserves (MillionYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunApril

247

Iowa Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam CoalReserves (MillionYear Jan Feb Mar

248

Kansas Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam CoalReserves (MillionYear Jan FebFoot) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2

249

Kentucky Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam CoalReserves (MillionYear JanDecade Year-0ProvedDecade Year-0

250

Louisiana Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam CoalReserves (MillionYear(Billion Cubic Feet)ProvedDecade

251

Coal gasification apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Coal hydrogenation vessel has hydrogen heating passages extending vertically through its wall and opening into its interior.

Nagy, Charles K. (Monaca, PA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Autothermal coal gasification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Test data from the Ruhrchemie/Ruhrkohle Texaco coal gasification demonstration plant at Oberhausen are reported. (5 refs.)

Konkol. W.; Ruprecht, P.; Cornils, B.; Duerrfeld, R.; Langhoff, J.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Materials performance in coal gasification pilot plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of several materials testing projects which were conducted in operating coal gasification pilot plants in the United States. These projects were designed to test potential materials of construction for commercial plants under actual operating conditions. Pilot plants included in the overall test program included the Hygas, Conoco Coal, Synthane, Bi-Gas, Peatgas (Hygas operating with peat), Battelle, U-Gas, Westinghouse (now KRW), General Electric (Gegas), and Mountain Fuel Resources plants. Test results for a large variety of alloys are discussed and conclusions regarding applicability of these materials in coal gasification environments are presented. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

Judkins, R.R.; Bradley, R.A.

1987-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

254

Development and testing of a commercial-scale coal-fired combustion system, Phase 3. Quarterly technical progress report No. 3, April 1, 1991--June 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Within the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant fuels used to meet the space-heating needs of schools, office buildings, apartment complexes, and other similar structures. In general, these buildings require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu/hr. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a coal-fired combustion system for this sector. The commercial-scale coal-water slurry (CWS)-fired space heating system will be a scale-up of a CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system developed by Tecogen under contract to the Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This system included a patented nonslagging combustor known as IRIS, for Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation. This combustion technology, which has demonstrated high combustion efficiency using CWS fuels at input rates of 100,000 Btu/hr, will be scaled to operate at 2 to 5 millon Btu/hr. Along with the necessary fuel storage and delivery, heat recovery, and control equipment, the system will include pollution control devices to meet targeted values of NO{sub x}, S0{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. In general, the system will be designed to match the reliability, safety, turndown, and ignition performance of gas or oil-fired systems.

Litka, A.F.; Breault, R.W.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Alaska Regional Energy Resources Planning Project. Phase 2: coal, hydroelectric and energy alternatives. Volume I. Beluga Coal District Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This volume deals with the problems and procedures inherent in the development of the Beluga Coal District. Socio-economic implications of the development and management alternatives are discussed. A review of permits and approvals necessary for the initial development of Beluga Coal Field is presented. Major land tenure issues in the Beluga Coal District as well as existing transportation routes and proposed routes and sites are discussed. The various coal technologies which might be employed at Beluga are described. Transportation options and associated costs of transporting coal from the mine site area to a connecting point with a major, longer distance transportation made and of transporting coal both within and outside (exportation) the state are discussed. Some environmental issues involved in the development of the Beluga Coal Field are presented. (DMC)

Rutledge, G.; Lane, D.; Edblom, G.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coal Prices..AEO 2007 forecast for coal prices for PRB coal. Transmissionregimes. Sensitivity to Coal Prices Figure 9 is similar to

Phadke, Amol

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Coal recovery process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for the beneficiation of coal by selective agglomeration and the beneficiated coal product thereof is disclosed wherein coal, comprising impurities, is comminuted to a particle size sufficient to allow impurities contained therein to disperse in water, an aqueous slurry is formed with the comminuted coal particles, treated with a compound, such as a polysaccharide and/or disaccharide, to increase the relative hydrophilicity of hydrophilic components, and thereafter the slurry is treated with sufficient liquid agglomerant to form a coagulum comprising reduced impurity coal.

Good, Robert J. (Grand Island, NY); Badgujar, Mohan (Williamsville, NY)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

E-Print Network 3.0 - australian coal industry Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Utilization 27 Dr. David Kemp Australian Minister of Summary: - Southern StatesThailand - sustainable industry development - Southern StatesBrazil - clean coal power......

259

E-Print Network 3.0 - alberta mountain coal Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the U.S.-Resource Base Gregory D. Croft1 and Tad W... the multi-Hubbert curve analysis to coal production in the United States, we...

260

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced coal fired Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the U.S.-Resource Base Gregory D. Croft1 and Tad W... the multi-Hubbert curve analysis to coal production in the United States, we...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu state coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Bio-coal briquette  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Some of the developing nations aim to earn foreign currency by exporting oil and/or gas and to increase the domestic consumption of coal to ensure a secure energy supply. Therefore, it is very important to promote effective coal utilization in these nations. Currently, these countries experience problems associated with coal use for household cooking and household industries. For household cooking, coal creates too much smoke and smells unpleasant. In addition, illegally obtained firewood is almost free in local agricultural regions. Coal is also used in household industries; however, simple stoker boilers are inefficient, since unburned coal particles tend to drop through screens during the combustion process. The bio-coal briquette, on the other hand, is an effective and efficient fuel, since it utilizes coal, which is to be used extensively in households and in small and medium-scale industry sectors in some coal-producing countries, as a primary fuel and bamboos (agricultural waste) as a secondary fuel. In addition, the use of bio-coal briquettes will greatly help reduce unburned coal content.

Honda, Hiroshi

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

262

Coal: the new black  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Long eclipsed by oil and natural gas as a raw material for high-volume chemicals, coal is making a comeback, with oil priced at more than $100 per barrel. It is relatively cheap feedstock for chemicals such as methanol and China is building plants to convert coal to polyolefins on a large scale and interest is spreading worldwide. Over the years several companies in the US and China have made fertilizers via the gasification of coal. Eastman in Tennessee gasifies coal to make methanol which is then converted to acetic acid, acetic anhydride and acetate fiber. The future vision is to convert methanol to olefins. UOP and Lurgi are the major vendors of this technology. These companies are the respective chemical engineering arms of Honeywell and Air Liquide. The article reports developments in China, USA and India on coal-to-chemicals via coal gasification or coal liquefaction. 2 figs., 2 photo.

Tullo, A.H.; Tremblay, J.-F.

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

263

Chemical comminution of coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the present research is to study the chemical reactivity of a mixture of methyl alcohol and aqueous sodium hydroxide solution in the temperature range 298 to 363 K, and a caustic concentration of 0 to 10 wt. %, on an Iowa bituminous coal. The sample studied was collected from coal zone 4, equivalent to most historical references to Laddsdale coal. The coals in this zone are typical high-sulfur, high-ash middle Pennsylvania Cherokee group coals. The apparent rank is high-volatile C bituminous coal. The relatively high content of sulfur and 23 other elements in these coals is related to near neutral (6-8) pH conditions in the depositional and early diagenetic environments, and to postdepositional sphalerite/calcite/pyrite/kaolinite/barite mineralization.

Mamaghani, A.H.; Beddow, J.K.; Vetter, A.F.

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Energy Information Administration quarterly coal report, October--December 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The United States produced just over 1 billion short tons of coal in 1992, 0.4 percent more than in 1991. Most of the 4-million-short-ton increase in coal production occurred west of the Mississippi River, where a record level of 408 million short tons of coal was produced. The amount of coal received by domestic consumers in 1992 totaled 887 million short tons. This was 7 million short tons more than in 1991, primarily due to increased coal demand from electric utilities. The average price of delivered coal to each sector declined by about 2 percent. Coal consumption in 1992 was 893 million short tons, only 1 percent higher than in 1991, due primarily to a 1-percent increase in consumption at electric utility plants. Consumer coal stocks at the end of 1992 were 163 million short tons, a decrease of 3 percent from the level at the end of 1991, and the lowest year-end level since 1989. US coal exports fell 6 percent from the 1991 level to 103 million short tons in 1992. Less coal was exported to markets in Europe, Asia, and South America, but coal exports to Canada increased 4 million short tons.

Not Available

1993-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

265

Weekly Coal Production by State  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781Title: Telephone:short version) Themonthly4Blender Net Production

266

Water Management Plans for Surface Coal Mining Operations (North Dakota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A water management plan is required for all surface coal mining operations. This plan must be submitted to the State Engineer of the State Water Commission at the same time a surface mining permit...

267

Problem 2.67: A gas undergoes a process from State 1, where p1 = 60 lbf/in2 & v1 = 6:0 ft3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Problem 2.67: A gas undergoes a process from State 1, where p1 = 60 lbf/in2 & v1 = 6:0 ft3 /lbm...c volume, & internal energy is u = 0:2651 BTU-in2 lbf-ft3 pv 95:436 BTU lbm where p is in lbf/in2 , v is in ft3 /lbm, & u is in BTU/lbm. The mass of gas is 10 lbm. Neglecting kinetic- and potential-energy e

268

STATE OF CALIFORNIA SPACE CONDITIONING SYSTEMS, DUCTS AND FANS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, crawl- space, etc.) Duct R-value Heating Load (Btu/hr) Heating Capacity (Btu/hr) Equip Type (package Load (Btu/hr) Cooling Capacity (Btu/hr) 1. If project is new construction, see Footnotes to Standards

269

Quarterly coal report, October--December 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1994 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1986 through the third quarter of 1994. Appendix A displays, from 1986 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

NONE

1995-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

270

Quarterly coal report, January--March 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1994 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1986 through the fourth quarter of 1993. Appendix A displays, from 1986 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

Not Available

1994-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

271

Quarterly coal report, January--March 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

NONE

1995-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

272

Quarterly coal report, January--March 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience,including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

NONE

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Tracking Progress Last updated 6/2/2014 Current and Expected Energy From Coal for California 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2007 to 2012, energy from in-state coal and petroleum (pet) coke plants declined by 62 percent. These trends are shown in Figure 1. Eight in-state coal and pet coke plants retired or stopped operating in 2011 and 2012. Of the 16 in-state coal and pet coke plants that once operated in California, only two

274

Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Council (NCC), 2006, Coal: Americas Energy Future, VolumeAssessments to Inform Energy Policy, Coal: Research andOF RAIL TRANSPORTATION OF COAL The Federal Energy Regulatory

McCollum, David L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF RAIL TRANSPORTATION OF COAL The Federal Energy RegulatoryPlants Due to Coal Shortages, Federal Energy RegulatoryCouncil (NCC), 2006, Coal: Americas Energy Future, Volume

McCollum, David L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of total electricity generation is because coal plants haveplants come to play an important role in the electricity generationplants will be built in the years around 2020, thereby increasing coals share of electricity generation

McCollum, David L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a particular type of coal, each of which is inherentlyThere are four classes of coal: bituminous, sub-bituminous,minerals Metallic ores Coal Crude petroleum Gasoline Fuel

McCollum, David L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

6/yr Operating Cost $/ton /10 6 Btu Selling Price 12% DCF$/ton /10 6 Btu Production (Million Tons Per Year)ash, 3.38% sulfur, 12,821 Btu/lb **15,900 Btu/lb, 1% sulfur.

Ferrell, G.C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Pulverized coal fuel injector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pulverized coal fuel injector contains an acceleration section to improve the uniformity of a coal-air mixture to be burned. An integral splitter is provided which divides the coal-air mixture into a number separate streams or jets, and a center body directs the streams at a controlled angle into the primary zone of a burner. The injector provides for flame shaping and the control of NO/NO.sub.2 formation.

Rini, Michael J. (Hebron, CT); Towle, David P. (Windsor, CT)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), and up to 5500 psi with emphasis upon 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally-acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national perspective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

R. Viswanathan

2002-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu state coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

coal (PC) or integrated gasification combined cycle ( IGCC)coal (PC) or integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC)will be integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) (Same

McCollum, David L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Credit Extra Fuel Oil Coal to gasifier Na cost Na processoiL Replace res. with coal as gasifier feed. 543 ton/day @$

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Coal Mining Tax Credit (Arkansas)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Coal Mining Tax Credit provides an income or insurance premium tax credit of $2.00 per ton of coal mined, produced or extracted on each ton of coal mined in Arkansas in a tax year. An...

284

Illinois Coal Revival Program (Illinois)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Illinois Coal Revival Program is a grants program providing partial funding to assist with the development of new, coal-fueled electric generation capacity and coal gasification or IGCC units...

285

COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Corporation, 5-25~79. on Coal Liquefaction at ChevronHamersma, et a L, "Meyers Process for Coal Desulfurization,"in Wheelock, Coal Desulfurization, ACS Symp. Ser 64 (1977(.

Wrathall, J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

US coal market softens  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The operators table some near term expansion plans, meanwhile long-term fundamentals look strong. This is one of the findings of the Coal Age Forecast 2007 survey of readers predictions on production and consumption of coal and attitudes in the coal industry. 50% of respondents expected product levels in 2007 to be higher than in 2006 and 50% described the attitude in the coal industry to be more optimistic in 2007 than in 2006. Most expenditure is anticipated on going on new equipment but levels of expenditure will be less than in 2006. 7 figs.

Fiscor, S.

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

287

Coal Gasification Systems Solicitations  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Low Cost Coal Conversion to High Hydrogen Syngas; FE0023577 Alstom's Limestone Chemical Looping Gasification Process for High Hydrogen Syngas Generation; FE0023497 OTM-Enhanced...

288

Coal extraction process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sub-divided coal is extracted under non-thermally destructive conditions with a solvent liquid containing a compound having the general formula:

Hammack, R. W.; Sears, J. T.; Stiller, A. H.

1981-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

289

Clean Coal Projects (Virginia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This legislation directs the Virginia Air Pollution Control Board to facilitate the construction and implementation of clean coal projects by expediting the permitting process for such projects.

290

Clean coal technology applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

{open_quotes}Coal is a stratified rock formed of the more or less altered remains of plants (together with associated mineral matter) which flourished in past ages{hor_ellipsis} The problem of the origin and maturing of coal is complicated by the fact that every coal contains, in addition to carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, variable proportions of nitrogen and sulfur which are combined in unknown ways in the organic molecules...{close_quotes}. The challenge with coal has always been the management of its mineral matter, sulfur and nitrogen contents during use. The carbon content of fuels, including coal, is a more recent concern. With clean coal technologies, there are opportunities for ensuring the sustained use of coal for a very long time. The clean coal technologies of today are already capable of reducing, if not eliminating, harmful emissions. The technologies of the future will allow coal to be burned with greatly reduced emissions, thus eliminating the necessity to treat them after they occur.

Bharucha, N.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

291

The Economic Impact of Coal Mining in New Mexico  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The economic impact of coal mining in New Mexico is examined in this report. The analysis is based on economic multipliers derived from an input-output model of the New Mexico economy. The direct, indirect, and induced impacts of coal mining in New Mexico are presented in terms of output, value added, employment, and labor income for calendar year 2007. Tax, rental, and royalty income to the State of New Mexico are also presented. Historical coal production, reserves, and price data are also presented and discussed. The impacts of coal-fired electricity generation will be examined in a separate report.

Peach, James; Starbuck, C.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Quarterly coal report July--September 1996, February 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1996 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1990 through the second quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 8 figs., 72 tabs.

NONE

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

Huffman, G.P. (ed.)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research continues on coal liquefaction in the following areas: (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

Huffman, G.P. (ed.)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Evolving performance characteristics of clean coal technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (also referred to as the CCT Program) is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of {open_quotes}semicommercial{close_quotes} facilities. These demonstrations are on a scale large enough to generate all the data, from design, construction, and operation, that are necessary for the private sector to judge commercial potential and make informed, confident decisions on commercial readiness. The projects in the program are demonstrating technologies that will encompass advanced electric power generation systems, high-performance pollution control devices, coal processing for clean fuels and industrial applications. The innovative CCTs being demonstrated offer tremendous potential as solutions to many complex problems in a rapidly changing arena dominated by energy, economic, and environmental issues. These issues include the following: air quality; global climate change; energy security; international competitiveness; acid rain; power production; and technology awareness. These technologies are expected to be of particular importance to the utility industry. Power production in the United States, particularly in the form of electricity, is expected to increase rapidly during the next 20 years. The growth in electricity consumption between 1990 and 2000 translates into the need for at least an additional 200,000 MWe of capacity by 2010. The ability to continue to use coal to produce electricity and as a source of industrial heat and power is critical. In the United States approximately 86 percent of coal is critical. The CCT Program is developing through demonstration new power and steam production systems using coal-based technologies that will permit coal to be a clean, efficient, reliable source of affordable energy.

Miller, C.L.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

296

Illinois Coal Development Program (Illinois)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Illinois Coal Development Program seeks to advance promising clean coal technologies beyond research and towards commercialization. The program provides a 50/50 match with private industry...

297

Clean coal technologies market potential  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

Drazga, B. (ed.)

2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

298

POC-SCALE TESTING OF A DRY TRIBOELECTROSTATIC SEPARATOR FOR FINE COAL CLEANING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Numerous advanced coal cleaning processes have been developed in recent years that are capable of substantially reducing both ash- and sulfur-forming minerals from coal. However, most of the processes involve fine grinding and use water as the cleaning medium; therefore, the clean coal products must be dewatered before they can be transported and burned. Unfortunately, dewatering fine coal is costly, which makes it difficult to deploy advanced coal cleaning processes for commercial applications. As a means of avoiding problems associated with the fine coal dewatering, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) developed a dry coal cleaning process in which mineral matter is separated from coal without using water. In this process, pulverized coal is subjected to triboelectrification before being placed in an electric field for electrostatic separation. The triboelectrification is accomplished by passing a pulverized coal through an in-line mixer made of copper. Copper has a work function that lies between that of carbonaceous material (coal) and mineral matter. Thus, coal particles impinging on the copper wall lose electrons to the metal thereby acquiring positive charges, while mineral matter impinging on the wall gain electrons to acquire negative charges. The charged particles then pass through an electric field where they are separated according to their charges into two or more products depending on the configuration of the separator. The results obtained at NETL showed that it is capable of removing more than 90% of the pyritic sulfur and 70% of the ash-forming minerals from a number of eastern U.S. coals. However, the BTU recoveries were less than desirable. The laboratory-scale batch triboelectrostatic separator (TES) used by NETL relied on adhering charged particles on parallel electrode surfaces and scraping them off. Therefore, its throughput will be proportional to the electrode surface area. If this laboratory device is scaled-up as is, it would suffer from low throughput capacities and high maintenance requirements. In general, surface area-based separators (e.g., shaking tables, magnetic drum separator, electrodynamic separator, etc.) have lower throughput capacities than volume-based separators (e.g., flotation cell, dense-medium bath, cyclones, etc.) by an order of magnitude. Furthermore, the electrodes of the laboratory unit need to be cleaned frequently, creating a high maintenance requirement if it is scaled-up to a commercial unit. The bench-scale continuous TES unit developed at NETL, on the other hand, separates positively and negatively charged particles by splitting the gaseous stream containing these particles in an electric field by means of a flow splitter, so that the oppositely charged particles can be directed into different compartments. This device is fundamentally different from the laboratory unit in that the former is a surface area-based separator, while the latter is a volume-based separator. The bench-scale unit is referred to as an entrained flow separator by the in-house researchers at NETL. Thus, the entrained flow TES unit is a significant improvement over the laboratory unit with regard to throughput capacity. In the present work, the entrained flow separator concept will be utilized for developing a proof-of concept (POC) separator that can be scaled-up to commercial size units. To accomplish this, it is necessary to develop a bench-scale separator that can achieve high Btu recoveries while maintaining the high degree of separation efficiencies. It is the objective of the present investigation to develop an efficient separator by studying the mechanisms of triboelectrification and investigating better ways of separating the charged particles. An important criterion for developing efficient separators is that they not only provide high separation efficiencies but also have high throughput capacities, which are essential ingredients for successful commercialization.

R.H. Yoon; G.H. Luttrell; E.S. Yan; A.D. Walters

2001-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

299

JV Task 126 - Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Bituminous Coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The EERC developed an applied research consortium project to test cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for utilities burning bituminous coals. The project goal was to test innovative Hg control technologies that have the potential to reduce Hg emissions from bituminous coal-fired power plants by {ge}90% at costs of one-half to three-quarters of current estimates for activated carbon injection (ACI). Hg control technology evaluations were performed using the EERC's combustion test facility (CTF). The CTF was fired on pulverized bituminous coals at 550,000 Btu/hr (580 MJ/hr). The CTF was configured with the following air pollution control devices (APCDs): selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFDS). The Hg control technologies investigated as part of this project included ACI (three Norit Americas, Inc., and eleven Envergex sorbents), elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation catalysts (i.e., the noble metals in Hitachi Zosen, Cormetech, and Hitachi SCR catalysts), sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) (a proprietary EERC additive, trona, and limestone), and blending with a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. These Hg control technologies were evaluated separately, and many were also tested in combination.

Jason Laumb; John Kay; Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Nicholas Lentz; Donald McCollor; Kevin Galbreath

2009-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

300

Methane emission from flooded coal seams in abandoned mines, in the light of laboratory investigations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane emission from flooded coal seams in abandoned mines, in the light of laboratory of methane from flooded unexploited coal seams Field experience from the flooding operations of the abandoned sorption capacity of coal in the dry-air state through determining the isotherm of methane sorption

Boyer, Edmond

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu state coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the U.S.-Resource Base  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the U.S.-Resource Base Gregory D. Croft1 and Tad W that could be used to create mega- scale conversion of coal to liquid transportation fuels. In a separate the multi-Hubbert curve analysis to coal production in the United States, we demonstrate that anthracite

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

302

Coal waste seen as valuable resource Published: March. 29, 2011 at 8:09 PM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coal waste seen as valuable resource Published: March. 29, 2011 at 8:09 PM ANAHEIM, Calif., March 29 (UPI) -- Fly ash, a byproduct of coal-burning electric power plants, could save billions. More than 450 coal-burning electric power plants in the United States produce about 130 million tons

Belogay, Eugene A.

303

Introduction of clean coal technology in Japan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal is an abundant resource, found throughout the world, and inexpensive and constant in price. For this reason, coal is expected to play a role as one of the energy supply sources in the world. The most critical issues to promote utilization of coal are to decrease the environmental load. In this report, the history, outline and recent developments of the clean coal technology in Japan, mainly the thermal power generation technology are discussed. As recent topics, here outlined first is the technology against global warming such as the improvement of steam condition for steam turbines, improvement of power generation efficiency by introducing combined generation, carbon neutral combined combustion of biomass, and carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technology. Also introduced are outlines of Japanese superiority in application technology against NOx and SO{sub 2} which create acid rain, development status of the technical improvement in the handling method for coal which is a rather difficult solid-state resource, and utilization of coal ash.

Takashi Kiga [Japan Coal Energy Center (JCOAL), Tokyo (Japan). R and D Department

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

304

Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals. Volume I. Executive summary. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the bituminous coal resources of the United States, identifies those resources which are potentially amenable to Underground Coal Gasification (UCG), identifies products and markets in the vicinity of selected target areas, identifies UCG concepts, describes the state of the art of UCG in bituminous coal, and presents three R and D programs for development of the technology to the point of commercial viability. Of the 670 billion tons of bituminous coal remaining in-place as identified by the National Coal Data System, 32.2 billion tons or 4.8% of the total are potentially amenable to UCG technology. The identified amenable resource was located in ten states: Alabama, Colorado, Illinois, Kentucky, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, Utah, Virginia, and West Virginia. The principal criteria which eliminated 87.3% of the resource was the minimum thickness (42 inches). Three R and D programs were developed using three different concepts at two different sites. Open Borehole, Hydraulic Fracture, and Electrolinking concepts were developed. The total program costs for each concept were not significantly different. The study concludes that much of the historical information based on UCG in bituminous coals is not usable due to the poor siting of the early field tests and a lack of adequate diagnostic equipment. This information gap requires that much of the early work be redone in view of the much improved understanding of the role of geology and hydrology in the process and the recent development of analytical tools and methods.

None

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Method for coal liquefaction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is disclosed for coal liquefaction in which minute particles of coal in intimate contact with a hydrogenation catalyst and hydrogen arc reacted for a very short time at a temperature in excess of 400.degree. C. at a pressure of at least 1500 psi to yield over 50% liquids with a liquid to gaseous hydrocarbon ratio in excess of 8:1.

Wiser, Wendell H. (Kaysville, UT); Oblad, Alex G. (Salt Lake City, UT); Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for economic evaluation and commercial application. During the project performance period, Alstom performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and large pilot scale combustion testing in its Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut in support of these objectives. The NOx reduction approach was to optimize near-field combustion to ensure that minimum NOx emissions are achieved with minimal impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down. Several iterations of CFD and combustion testing on a Midwest coal led to an optimized design, which was extensively combustion tested on a range of coals. The data from these tests were then used to validate system costs and benefits versus SCR. Three coals were evaluated during the bench-scale and large pilot-scale testing tasks. The three coals ranged from a very reactive subbituminous coal to a moderately reactive Western bituminous coal to a much less reactive Midwest bituminous coal. Bench-scale testing was comprised of standard ASTM properties evaluation, plus more detailed characterization of fuel properties through drop tube furnace testing and thermogravimetric analysis. Bench-scale characterization of the three test coals showed that both NOx emissions and combustion performance are a strong function of coal properties. The more reactive coals evolved more of their fuel bound nitrogen in the substoichiometric main burner zone than less reactive coal, resulting in the potential for lower NOx emissions. From a combustion point of view, the more reactive coals also showed lower carbon in ash and CO values than the less reactive coal at any given main burner zone stoichiometry. According to bench-scale results, the subbituminous coal was found to be the most amenable to both low NOx, and acceptably low combustibles in the flue gas, in an air staged low NOx system. The Midwest bituminous coal, by contrast, was predicted to be the most challenging of the three coals, with the Western bituminous coal predicted to beh

David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

307

Coal market momentum converts skeptics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tight supplies, soaring natural gas prices and an improving economy bode well for coal. Coal Age presents it 'Forecast 2006' a survey of 200 US coal industry executives. Questions asked included predicted production levels, attitudes, expenditure on coal mining, and rating of factors of importance. 7 figs.

Fiscor, S.

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

308

Conditioner for flotation of coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method for recovering coal is described which comprises the steps of floating coal in an aqueous frothing medium containing an amount of a condensation product of an alkanolamine and naphthenic acid sufficient to increase the recovery of coal as compared to the recovery of coal in an identical process using none of the condensation product.

Nimerick, K.H.

1988-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

309

Wisconsin Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYearTexas--StateWinterYearFeet)perWestern StatesCubic Foot)

310

Wisconsin Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYearTexas--StateWinterYearFeet)perWestern StatesCubic

311

Natural mercury isotope variation in coal deposits and organic soils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is a need to distinguish among sources of Hg to the atmosphere in order to more fully understand global Hg pollution. In this study we investigate whether coal deposits within the United States, China, and Russia-Kazakhstan, which are three of the five greatest coal-producing regions, have diagnostic Hg isotopic fingerprints that can be used to discriminate among Hg sources. We also investigate the Hg isotopic composition of modern organic soil horizons developed in areas distant from point sources of Hg in North America. Mercury stored in coal deposits displays a wide range of both mass dependent fractionation and mass independent fractionation. {delta}{sup 202}Hg varies in coals by 3{per_thousand} and {Delta}{sup 201}Hg varies by 0.9{per_thousand}. Combining these two Hg isotope signals results in what may be a unique isotopic 'fingerprint' for many coal deposits. Mass independent fractionation of mercury has been demonstrated to occur during photochemical reactions of mercury. This suggests that Hg found in most coal deposits was subjected to photochemical reduction near the Earth's surface prior to deposition. The similarity in MDF and MIF of modern organic soils and coals from North America suggests that Hg deposition from coal may have imprinted an isotopic signature on soils. This research offers a new tool for characterizing mercury inputs from natural and anthropogenic sources to the atmosphere and provides new insights into the geochemistry of mercury in coal and soils. 35 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Abir, Biswas; Joel D. Blum; Bridget A. Bergquist; Gerald J. Keeler; Zhouqing Xie [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Department of Geological Sciences

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

312

PressurePressure Indiana Coal Characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TimeTime PressurePressure · Indiana Coal Characteristics · Indiana Coals for Coke · Coal Indiana Total Consumption Electricity 59,664 Coke 4,716 Industrial 3,493 Major Coal- red power plantsTransportation in Indiana · Coal Slurry Ponds Evaluation · Site Selection for Coal Gasification · Coal-To-Liquids Study, CTL

Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

313

Coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range.

Wright, Charles H. (Overland Park, KS)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range. 1 fig.

Wright, C.H.

1986-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

315

Coal Pile Basin Project (4595), 5/31/2012  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Coal Pile Basin Project (4595) Program or Field Office: Y-12 Site Office Location(s) (CityCountyState): Oak Ridge, Anderson County, Tennessee Proposed Action Description: Submit...

316

Ownership of Carbon Dioxide Captured by Clean Coal Project (Texas)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This legislation stipulates that the Railroad Commission of Texas automatically acquires the title to any carbon dioxide captured by a clean coal project in the state. The Bureau of Economic...

317

Panel data analysis of U.S. coal productivity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We analyze labor productivity in coal mining in the United States using indices of productivity change associated with the concepts of panel data modeling. This approach is valuable when there is extensive heterogeneity ...

Stoker, Thomas M.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Development of a Coal Quality Expert  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ABB Power Plant Laboratories Combustion Engineering, Inc., (ABB CE) and CQ Inc. completed a broad, comprehensive program to demonstrate the economic and environmental benefits of using higher quality U.S. coals for electrical power generation and developed state-of-the-art user-friendly software--Coal Quality Expert (CQE)-to reliably predict/estimate these benefits in a consistent manner. The program was an essential extension and integration of R and D projects performed in the past under U.S. DOE and EPRI sponsorship and it expanded the available database of coal quality and power plant performance information. This software will permit utilities to purchase the lowest cost clean coals tailored to their specific requirements. Based on common interest and mutual benefit, the subject program was cosponsored by the U.S. DOE, EPRI, and eight U.S. coal-burning utilities. In addition to cosponsoring this program, EPN contributed its background research, data, and computer models, and managed some other supporting contracts under the terms of a project agreement established between CQ Inc. and EPRI. The essential work of the proposed project was performed under separate contracts to CQ Inc. by Electric Power Technologies (El?'T), Black and Veatch (B and V), ABB Combustion Engineering, Babcock and Wilcox (B and W), and Decision Focus, Inc. Although a significant quantity of the coals tied in the United States are now cleaned to some degree before firing, for many of these coals the residual sulfur content requires users to install expensive sulfur removal systems and the residual ash causes boilers to operate inefficiently and to require frequent maintenance. Disposal of the large quantities of slag and ash at utility plant sites can also be problematic and expensive. Improved and advanced coal cleaning processes can reduce the sulfur content of many coals to levels conforming to environmental standards without requiring post-combustion desulfurization systems. Also, some coals may be beneficiated or blended to a quality level where significantly less costly desulfurization systems are needed. Coal cleaning processes may also be used to remove the precursors of other troublesome emissions that can be identified now or in the future. An added benefit of coal cleaning and blending is the reduction in concentrations of mineral impurities in the fuel leading to improved performance and operation of the'' boiler in which it is fired. The ash removed during the pre-combustion cleaning process can be more easily and safely disposed of at the mine than at the utility plant after combustion. EPRI's Coal Quality Impact Model (CQIM) has shown that improved fuel quality can result in savings in unit capital and operating costs. This project produced new and improved software to select coal types and specifications resulting in the best quality and lowest cost fuel to meet specific environmental requirements.

None

1998-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

319

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced coal-fired gas Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

CHLORINE LINK IN COMMERCIAL SCALE SYSTEM FLUE GASES? Summary: that Battelle measured dioxins in coal fired utility boiler stack emissions in the United States and by ETSU... in...

320

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced coal-fired boilers Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

CHLORINE LINK IN COMMERCIAL SCALE SYSTEM FLUE GASES? Summary: that Battelle measured dioxins in coal fired utility boiler stack emissions in the United States and by ETSU... in...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu state coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Kansas coal resources and their potential for utilization in the near future  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Preliminary evaluation of deep coal resources in Kansas indicates nearly 50 billion tons (45 billion MT) of coal in eastern Kansas. The Cherokee Group and Marmaton Groups of Middle Pennsylvanian age are the important coal-bearing geologic units. Most of the coal beds are thin, with only a limited amount (1.85 billion tons or 1.68 billion MT) from coal beds exceeding 42 in. (105 cm) in thickness. Most of these coal thicknesses were determined from geophysical logs run for oil and gas tests, and the potential for a much larger resource of thick coal exists in several areas of the state. Depths of this deep-coal resource range from 100 ft (30 m) down to approximately 3,000 ft (900 m) in the deeper parts of the western Cherokee basin.

Brady, L.L. (Kansas Geological Survey, Lawrence (USA))

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

generation systems. Coal energy density could be increasedfuel reserves were coal by energy content; 19% were oil, andConsumption, 2007 coal/primary energy consumption Source: BP

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

19 3.4. Coking coal for iron & steels FOB export value for coking coal was relatively stables FOB export value for coking coal significantly increased

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

12 2.6. International coal prices and18 International coal prices and trade In parallel with the2001, domestic Chinese coal prices moved from stable levels

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

farms with advanced coal generation facilities and operatingfarms with advanced coal generation facilities and operatingin the stand-alone coal generation option (IGCC+CCS plant)

Phadke, Amol

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

services. Power generation Coal increasingly dominates28 Thermal coal electricity generation efficiency alsostudy examines four coal-thermal generation technology types

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Clean Coal Power Initiative | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Clean Coal Power Initiative Clean Coal Power Initiative "Clean coal technology" describes a new generation of energy processes that sharply reduce air emissions and other...

328

Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Figures Figure ES-1. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Basicviii Figure 1. Advanced-Coal Wind Hybrid: Basic29 Figure 9. Sensitivity to Coal

Phadke, Amol

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of deploying advanced coal power in the Chinese context,12 2.6. International coal prices and12 III. Chinese Coal

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

System and process for the abatement of casting pollution, reclaiming resin bonded sand, and/or recovering a low BTU fuel from castings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Air is caused to flow through the resin bonded mold to aid combustion of the resin binder to form a low BTU gas fuel. Casting heat is recovered for use in a waste heat boiler or other heat abstraction equipment. Foundry air pollution is reduced, the burned portion of the molding sand is recovered for immediate reuse and savings in fuel and other energy is achieved.

Scheffer, Karl D. (121 Governor Dr., Scotia, NY 12302)

1984-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

331

System and process for the abatement of casting pollution, reclaiming resin bonded sand, and/or recovering a low Btu fuel from castings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Air is caused to flow through the resin bonded mold to aid combustion of the resin binder to form a low Btu gas fuel. Casting heat is recovered for use in a waste heat boiler or other heat abstraction equipment. Foundry air pollutis reduced, the burned portion of the molding sand is recovered for immediate reuse and savings in fuel and other energy is achieved. 5 figs.

Scheffer, K.D.

1984-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

332

Aqueous coal slurry  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

Berggren, Mark H.; Smit, Francis J.; Swanson, Wilbur W.

1993-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

333

Coal markets squeeze producers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Supply/demand fundamentals seem poised to keep prices of competing fossil fuels high, which could cushion coal prices, but increased mining and transportation costs may squeeze producer profits. Are markets ready for more volatility?

Ryan, M.

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Clean Coal Research  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE's clean coal R&D isfocused on developing and demonstrating advanced power generation and carbon capture, utilization and storage technologies for existing facilities and new fossil-fueled...

335

Clean Coal Technology (Indiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A public utility may not use clean coal technology at a new or existing electric generating facility without first applying for and obtaining from the Utility Regulatory Commission a certificate...

336

Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

these provisions are assumed to result in 1 gigawatt of advanced coal-fired capacity with carbon capture and sequestration by 2017. Subtitle B which extends the phaseout of...

337

Coal Market Module This  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

together, are assumed to result in about 1 gigawatt of advanced coal-fired capacity with carbon capture and sequestration by 2017. EIEA was passed in October 2008 as part of the...

338

Aqueous coal slurry  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

Berggren, Mark H. (Golden, CO); Smit, Francis J. (Arvada, CO); Swanson, Wilbur W. (Golden, CO)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Utah Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYearTexas--StateWinterYear Jan MonthlyProduction (BillionDecade

340

Utah Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYearTexas--StateWinterYear Jan MonthlyProduction

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu state coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Vermont Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYearTexas--StateWinterYear JanWellhead PriceDay) Process:

342

Vermont Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYearTexas--StateWinterYear JanWellhead PriceDay) Process:Foot) Year

343

Virginia Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYearTexas--StateWinterYear JanWellheadProved ReservesFoot) Decade

344

Virginia Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYearTexas--StateWinterYear JanWellheadProved ReservesFoot)

345

Washington Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYearTexas--StateWinterYearFeet) Year Jan Feb MarSeptembertoCubic

346

Washington Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYearTexas--StateWinterYearFeet) Year Jan Feb

347

West Virginia Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYearTexas--StateWinterYearFeet) Year JanProvedDecade Year-0

348

West Virginia Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYearTexas--StateWinterYearFeet) Year JanProvedDecade Year-0Cubic

349

U.S. Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYearTexas--StateWinter 2013-14 Wells (Thousand Feet) U.S.2009 2010

350

U.S. Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYearTexas--StateWinter 2013-14 Wells (Thousand Feet) U.S.2009

351

U.S. Natural Gas Liquid Composite Price (Dollars per Million Btu)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYearTexas--StateWinter 2013-14Deliveries (Million Cubic Feet)DecadeYear

352

Coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to an improved process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal. The claimed improved process includes the hydrocracking of the light SRC mixed with a suitable hydrocracker solvent. The recycle of the resulting hydrocracked product, after separation and distillation, is used to produce a solvent for the hydrocracking of the light solvent refined coal.

Skinner, Ronald W. (Allentown, PA); Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA); Znaimer, Samuel (Vancouver, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Coal Liquefaction desulfurization process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a solvent refined coal liquefaction process, more effective desulfurization of the high boiling point components is effected by first stripping the solvent-coal reacted slurry of lower boiling point components, particularly including hydrogen sulfide and low molecular weight sulfur compounds, and then reacting the slurry with a solid sulfur getter material, such as iron. The sulfur getter compound, with reacted sulfur included, is then removed with other solids in the slurry.

Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Method for coal liquefaction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is disclosed for coal liquefaction in which minute particles of coal in intimate contact with a hydrogenation catalyst and hydrogen arc reacted for a very short time at a temperature in excess of 400 C at a pressure of at least 1500 psi to yield over 50% liquids with a liquid to gaseous hydrocarbon ratio in excess of 8:1. 1 figures.

Wiser, W.H.; Oblad, A.G.; Shabtai, J.S.

1994-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

355

Coal science for the clean use of coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal will need to be retained as a major source of energy in the next century. It will need to be used more effectively and more cleanly. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to introduce new technology supported by a local community of science and technology. Only in this way can the full benefits of international advances in coal utilization be fully achieved. It is important that full advantage be taken of the advances that have been achieved in laboratory techniques and in the better understanding of fundamental coal science. This paper reviews available technologies in power generation, industrial process heat, coal combustion, coal gasification, and coal analytical procedures.

Harrison, J.S. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

356

Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB) 'Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies' program began on June 1, 2003, and was completed on January 31, 2009. The project proved beneficial in providing state decision-makers with information that assisted them in removing barriers or implementing incentives to deploy clean coal technologies. This was accomplished through two specific tasks: (1) domestic energy security and diversity; and (2) the energy-water interface. Milestones accomplished during the project period are: (1) Presentations to Annual Meetings of SSEB Members, Associate Member Meetings, and the Gasification Technologies Council. (2) Energy: Water reports - (A) Regional Efforts to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies: Impacts and Implications for Water Supply and Quality. June 2004. (B) Energy-Water Interface Challenges: Coal Bed Methane and Mine Pool Water Characterization in the Southern States Region. 2004. (C) Freshwater Availability and Constraints on Thermoelectric Power Generation in the Southeast U.S. June 2008. (3) Blackwater Interactive Tabletop Exercise - Decatur, Georgia April 2007. (4) Blackwater Report: Blackwater: Energy and Water Interdependency Issues: Best Practices and Lessons Learned. August 2007. (5) Blackwater Report: BLACKWATER: Energy Water Interdependency Issues REPORT SUMMARY. April 2008.

Gerald Hill; Kenneth Nemeth; Gary Garrett; Kimberly Sams

2009-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

357

Method for gasification of deep, thin coal seams  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of gasification of coal in deep, thin seams by using controlled bending subsidence to confine gas flow to a region close to the unconsumed coal face. The injection point is moved sequentially around the perimeter of a coal removal area from a production well to sweep out the area to cause the controlled bending subsidence. The injection holes are drilled vertically into the coal seam through the overburden or horizontally into the seam from an exposed coal face. The method is particularly applicable to deep, thin seams found in the eastern United States and at abandoned strip mines where thin seams were surface mined into a hillside or down a modest dip until the overburden became too thick for further mining.

Gregg, David W. (Moraga, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Testing for market integration crude oil, coal, and natural gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Prompted by the contemporaneous spike in coal, oil, and natural gas prices, this paper evaluates the degree of market integration both within and between crude oil, coal, and natural gas markets. Our approach yields parameters that can be readily tested against a priori conjectures. Using daily price data for five very different crude oils, we conclude that the world oil market is a single, highly integrated economic market. On the other hand, coal prices at five trading locations across the United States are cointegrated, but the degree of market integration is much weaker, particularly between Western and Eastern coals. Finally, we show that crude oil, coal, and natural gas markets are only very weakly integrated. Our results indicate that there is not a primary energy market. Despite current price peaks, it is not useful to think of a primary energy market, except in a very long run context.

Bachmeier, L.J.; Griffin, J.M. [Texas A& amp; M Univ, College Station, TX (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Method for gasification of deep, thin coal seams. [DOE patent  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of gasification of coal in deep, thin seams by using controlled bending subsidence to confine gas flow to a region close to the unconsumed coal face is given. The injection point is moved sequentially around the perimeter of a coal removal area from a production well to sweep out the area to cause the controlled bending subsidence. The injection holes are drilled vertically into the coal seam through the overburden or horizontally into the seam from an exposed coal face. The method is particularly applicable to deep, thin seams found in the eastern United States and at abandoned strip mines where thin seams were surface mined into a hillside or down a modest dip until the overburden became too thick for further mining.

Gregg, D.W.

1980-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

360

COAL LOGISTICS. Tracking U.S. Coal Exports  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

COAL LOGISTICS has the capability to track coal from a U. S. mine or mining area to a foreign consumer`s receiving dock. The system contains substantial quantities of information about the types of coal available in different U. S. coalfields, present and potential inland transportation routes to tidewater piers, and shipping routes to and port capabilities in Italy, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. It is designed to facilitate comparisons of coal quality and price at several stages of the export process, including delivered prices at a wide range of destinations. COAL LOGISTICS can be used to examine coal quality within or between any of 18 U. S. coalfields, including three in Alaska, or to compare alternative routes and associated service prices between coal-producing regions and ports-of-exit. It may be used to explore the possibilities of different ship sizes, marine routes, and foreign receiving terminals for coal exports. The system contains three types of information: records of coal quality, domestic coal transportation options, and descriptions of marine shipment routes. COAL LOGISTICS contains over 3100 proximate analyses of U. S. steam coals, usually supplemented by data for ash softening temperature and Hardgrove grindability; over 1100 proximate analyses for coals with metallurgical potential, usually including free swelling index values; 87 domestic coal transportation options: rail, barge, truck, and multi-mode routes that connect 18 coal regions with 15 U. S. ports and two Canadian terminals; and data on 22 Italian receiving ports for thermal and metallurgical coal and 24 coal receiving ports along the Asian Pacific Rim. An auxiliary program, CLINDEX, is included which is used to index the database files.

Sall, G.W. [US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

1988-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu state coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

The production of a premium solid fuel from Powder River Basin coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes our initial evaluation of a process designed to produce premium-quality solid fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. The process is based upon our experience gained by producing highly-reactive, high-heating-value char as part of a mild-gasification project. In the process, char containing 20 to 25 wt % volatiles and having a gross heating value of 12,500 to 13,000 Btu/lb is produced. The char is then contacted by coal-derived liquid. The result is a deposit of 6 to 8 wt % pitch on the char particles. The lower boiling component of the coal-derived liquid which is not deposited on the char is burned as fuel. Our economic evaluation shows the process will be economically attractive if the product can be sold for about $20/ton or more. Our preliminary tests show that we can deposit pitch on to the char, and the product is less dusty, less susceptible to readsorption of moisture, and has reduced susceptibility to self heating.

Merriam, N.; Sethi, V.; Thomas, K.; Grimes, R.W.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

The production of a premium solid fuel from Powder River Basin coal. [COMPCOAL Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes our initial evaluation of a process designed to produce premium-quality solid fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. The process is based upon our experience gained by producing highly-reactive, high-heating-value char as part of a mild-gasification project. In the process, char containing 20 to 25 wt % volatiles and having a gross heating value of 12,500 to 13,000 Btu/lb is produced. The char is then contacted by coal-derived liquid. The result is a deposit of 6 to 8 wt % pitch on the char particles. The lower boiling component of the coal-derived liquid which is not deposited on the char is burned as fuel. Our economic evaluation shows the process will be economically attractive if the product can be sold for about $20/ton or more. Our preliminary tests show that we can deposit pitch on to the char, and the product is less dusty, less susceptible to readsorption of moisture, and has reduced susceptibility to self heating.

Merriam, N.; Sethi, V.; Thomas, K.; Grimes, R.W.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2 Syngas (H2 + CO + CO2) Coal Gasifier coal Fuel Production/2 Syngas (H2 + CO + CO2) Coal Gasifier coal Fuel Production/this operational mode, the gasifiers and other parts of the

Phadke, Amol

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Current and future industrial energy service characterizations. Volume III. Energy data on 15 selected states' manufacturing subsector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An examination is made of the current and future energy demands, and uses, and cost to characterize typical applications and resulting services in the US and industrial sectors of 15 selected states. Volume III presents tables containing data on selected states' manufacturing subsector energy consumption, functional uses, and cost in 1974 and 1976. Alabama, California, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Michigan, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas, West Virginia, and Wisconsin were chosen as having the greatest potential for replacing conventional fuel with solar energy. Basic data on the quantities, cost, and types of fuel and electric energy purchased by industr for heat and power were obtained from the 1974 and 1976 Annual Survey of Manufacturers. The specific indutrial energy servic cracteristics developed for each selected state include. 1974 and 1976 manufacturing subsector fuels and electricity consumption by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC and primary fuel (quantity and relative share); 1974 and 1976 manufacturing subsector fuel consumption by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC and primary fuel (quantity and relative share); 1974 and 1976 manufacturing subsector average cost of purchsed fuels and electricity per million Btu by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC and primary fuel (in 1976 dollars); 1974 and 1976 manufacturing subsector fuels and electric energy intensity by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC and primary fuel (in 1976 dollars); manufacturing subsector average annual growth rates of (1) fuels and electricity consumption, (2) fuels and electric energy intensity, and (3) average cost of purchased fuels and electricity (1974 to 1976). Data are compiled on purchased fuels, distillate fuel oil, residual ful oil, coal, coal, and breeze, and natural gas. (MCW)

Krawiec, F.; Thomas, T.; Jackson, F.; Limaye, D.R.; Isser, S.; Karnofsky, K.; Davis, T.D.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Coal gasification for power generation. 2nd ed.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report gives an overview of the opportunities for coal gasification in the power generation industry. It provides a concise look at the challenges faced by coal-fired generation, the ability of coal gasification to address these challenges, and the current state of IGCC power generation. Topics covered in the report include: An overview of coal generation including its history, the current market environment, and the status of coal gasification; A description of gasification technology including processes and systems; An analysis of the key business factors that are driving increased interest in coal gasification; An analysis of the barriers that are hindering the implementation of coal gasification projects; A discussion of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology; An evaluation of IGCC versus other generation technologies; A discussion of IGCC project development options; A discussion of the key government initiatives supporting IGCC development; Profiles of the key gasification technology companies participating in the IGCC market; and A description of existing and planned coal IGCC projects.

NONE

2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

366

Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

application of new clean coal technologies with near zeroapplication of new clean coal technologies with near zero

Phadke, Amol

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of coal sulfur K-T gasification process SRC I process U. S.flow sheet of a K-T coal gasification complex for producingProduction via K-T Gasification" CEP Aug. 78. Feed

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

Yavorsky, Paul M. (Monongahela, PA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Composition and properties of coals from the Yurty coal occurrence  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coals from the Yurty coal occurrence were studied. It was found that the samples were brown non-coking coals with low sulfur contents (to 1%) and high yields of volatile substances. The high heat value of coals was 20.6-27.7 MJ/kg. The humic acid content varied from 5.45 to 77.62%. The mineral matter mainly consisted of kaolinite, a-quartz, and microcline. The concentration of toxic elements did not reach hazardous values.

N.G. Vyazova; L.N. Belonogova; V.P. Latyshev; E.A. Pisar'kova [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk (Russia). Research Institute of Oil and Coal Chemistry and Synthesis

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

370

Calculation of calorific values of coals from ultimate analyses: theoretical basis and geochemical implications. Final report. Part 8  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The various formulae for calculating calorific values for coals from ultimate analyses depend essentially on a propositon due to Dulong, that the heat of combustion of an organic compound is nearly equal to the heats of combustion of the elements in it, multiplied by their percentage content in the compound in question. This proposition assumes that the enthalpy of decomposition is negligible compared with the heat of combustion. The various published formulae, such as that due to Mott and Spooner, include empirical adjustments to allow for the fact that the enthalpy of formation or decomposition of no organic compound is zero (except rarely by chance). A new equation is proposed, which excludes empirical correction terms but includes a term explicitly related to the enthalpy of decomposition. As expected from the behavior of known compounds, this enthalpy varies with rank, but it also varies at the same level of rank with the geological history of the sample: rank is not the only source of variance in coal properties. The new equation is at least as effective in predicting calorific values for a set of 992 coals as equivalent equations derived for 6 subsets of the coals. On the whole, the distributions of differences between observed and calculated calorific values are skewed to only a small extent. About 86% of the differences lie between -300 and +300 Btu/lb (+- 700 kJ/kg). 10 references, 7 figures, 4 tables.

Given, P.H.; Weldon, D.; Zoeller, J.H.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Clean coal technology: Export finance programs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Participation by US firms in the development of Clean Coal. Technology (CCT) projects in foreign countries will help the United States achieve multiple national objectives simultaneously--addressing critical goals related to energy, environmental technology, industrial competitiveness and international trade. US participation in these projects will result in an improved global environment, an improvement in the balance of payments and an increase in US jobs. Meanwhile, host countries will benefit from the development of economically- and environmentally-sound power facilities. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (Public Law 101-549, Section 409) as supplemented by a requirement in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-486, Section 1331(f)) requires that the Secretary of Energy, acting through the Trade Promotion Coordinating Committee Subgroup on Clean Coal Technologies, submit a report to Congress with information on the status of recommendations made in the US Department of Energy, Clean Coal Technology Export Programs, Report to the United States Congress, February 1992. Specific emphasis is placed on the adequacy of financial assistance for export of CCTS. This report fulfills the requirements of the Act. In addition, although this report focuses on CCT power projects, the issues it raises about the financing of these projects are also relevant to other CCT projects such as industrial applications or coal preparation, as well as to a much broader range of energy and environmental technology projects worldwide.

Not Available

1993-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

372

Coal combustion system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a coal combustion system suitable for a gas turbine engine, pulverized coal is transported to a rich zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio exceeding 1 at a temperature above the slagging temperature of the coal so that combustible hot gas and molten slag issue from the rich zone combustor. A coolant screen of water stretches across a throat of a quench stage and cools the combustible gas and molten slag to below the slagging temperature of the coal so that the slag freezes and shatters into small pellets. The pelletized slag is separated from the combustible gas in a first inertia separator. Residual ash is separated from the combustible gas in a second inertia separator. The combustible gas is mixed with secondary air in a lean zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio of less than 1 to produce hot gas motive at temperature above the coal slagging temperature. The motive fluid is cooled in a dilution stage to an acceptable turbine inlet temperature before being transported to the turbine.

Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN); Tramm, Peter C. (Indianapolis, IN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

The Caterpillar Coal Gasification Facility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper is a review of one of America's premier coal gasification installations. The caterpillar coal gasification facility located in York, Pennsylvania is an award winning facility. The plant was recognized as the 'pace setter plant of the year...

Welsh, J.; Coffeen, W. G., III

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Hydrogen from Coal Edward Schmetz  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Turbines Carbon Capture & Sequestration Carbon Capture & Sequestration The Hydrogen from Coal Program Cells, Turbines, and Carbon Capture & Sequestration #12;Production Goal for Hydrogen from Coal Central Separation System PSA Membrane Membrane Carbon Sequestration Yes (87%) Yes (100%) Yes (100%) Hydrogen

375

The world price of coal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A significant increase in the seaborne trade for coal over the past twenty years has unified formerly separate coal markets into a world market in which prices move in tandem. Due to its large domestic market, the United ...

Ellerman, A. Denny

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Low-rank coal research  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Surface Coal Mining Regulations (Mississippi)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Surface Coal Mining Regulations are a combination of permitting requirements and environmental regulations that limit how, where and when coal can be mined. It protects lands that are under...

378

2009 Coal Age Buyers Guide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The buyers guide lists more than 1200 companies mainly based in the USA, that provide equipment and services to US coal mines and coal preparation plants. The guide is subdivided by product categories.

NONE

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

379

Illinois SB 1987: the Clean Coal Portfolio Standard Law  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On January 12, 2009, Governor Rod Blagojevich signed SB 1987, the Clean Coal Portfolio Standard Law. The legislation establishes emission standards for new coal-fueled power plants power plants that use coal as their primary feedstock. From 2009-2015, new coal-fueled power plants must capture and store 50 percent of the carbon emissions that the facility would otherwise emit; from 2016-2017, 70 percent must be captured and stored; and after 2017, 90 percent must be captured and stored. SB 1987 also establishes a goal of having 25 percent of electricity used in the state to come from cost-effective coal-fueled power plants that capture and store carbon emissions by 2025. Illinois is the first state to establish a goal for producing electricity from coal-fueled power plants with carbon capture and storage (CCS). To support the commercial development of CCS technology, the legislation guarantees purchase agreements for the first Illinois coal facility with CCS technology, the Taylorville Energy Center (TEC); Illinois utilities are required to purchase at least 5 percent of their electricity supply from the TEC, provided that customer rates experience only modest increases. The TEC is expected to be completed in 2014 with the ability to capture and store at least 50 percent of its carbon emissions.

NONE

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

380

The Asia-Pacific coal technology conference  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Asia-Pacific coal technology conference was held in Honolulu, Hawaii, November 14--16, 1989. Topics discussed included the following: Expanded Horizons for US Coal Technology and Coal Trade; Future Coal-Fired Generation and Capacity Requirements of the Philippines; Taiwan Presentation; Korean Presentation; Hong Kong Future Coal Requirements; Indonesian Presentation; Electric Power System in Thailand; Coal in Malaysia -- A Position Paper; The US and Asia: Pacific Partners in Coal and Coal Technology; US Coal Production and Export; US Clean Coal Technologies; Developments in Coal Transport and Utilization; Alternative/Innovative Transport; Electricity Generation in Asia and the Pacific: Power Sector Demand for Coal, Oil and Natural Gas; Role of Clean Coal Technology in the Energy Future of the World; Global Climate Change: A Fossil Energy Perspective; Speaker: The Role of Coal in Meeting Hawaii's Power Needs; and Workshops on Critical Issues Associated with Coal Usage. Individual topics are processed separately for the data bases.

Not Available

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu state coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Sustainable development with clean coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

NONE

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Ashing properties of coal blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fusion properties of sulfur materials present in coals were investigated. The treatment of the samples of eleven different coals is described. Thermal treatment of low temperature ashing (LTA) concentrates of eight of the coals was performed, and raw and wash ashing curves were examined to determine what quantitative correlations, if any, exist between ashing parameters and rank of coal. The actual form of the function which describes the ashing curve is derived.

Biggs, D.L.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Condensing economizers for small coal-fired boilers and furnaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Condensing economizers increase the thermal efficiency of boilers by recovering sensible and latent heat from exhaust gas. These economizers are currently being used commercially for this purpose in a wide range of applications. Performance is dependent upon application-specific factors affecting the utility of recovered heat. With the addition of a condensing economizer boiler efficiency improvements up to 10% are possible. Condensing economizers can also capture flue gas particulates. In this work, the potential use of condensing economizers for both efficiency improvement and control of particulate emissions from small, coal water slurry-fired boilers was evaluated. Analysis was done to predict heat transfer and particulate capture by mechanisms including: inertial impaction, interception, diffusion, thermophoretic forces, and condensation growth. Shell-and-tube geometries were considered with flue gas on the outside of Teflon-covered tubes. Experimental studies were done with both air- and water-cooled economizers refit to a small boiler. Two experimental arrangements were used including oil-firing with injection of flyash upstream of the economizer and direct coal water slurry firing. Firing rates ranged from 27 to 82 kW (92,000 to 280,000 Btu/hr). Inertial impaction was found to be the most important particulate capture mechanism and removal efficiencies to 95% were achieved. With the addition of water sprays directly on the first row of tubes, removal efficiencies increased to 98%. Use of these sprays adversely affects heat recovery. Primary benefits of the sprays are seen to be the addition of small impaction sites and future design improvements are suggested in which such small impactors are permanently added to the highest velocity regions of the economizer. Predicted effects of these added impactors on particulate removal and pressure drop are presented.

Butcher, T.A.; Litzke, W.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume II  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A two dimensional, steady-state model for describing a variety of reactive and nonreactive flows, including pulverized coal combustion and gasification, is presented. The model, referred to as 93-PCGC-2 is applicable to cylindrical, axi-symmetric systems. Turbulence is accounted for in both the fluid mechanics equations and the combustion scheme. Radiation from gases, walls, and particles is taken into account using a discrete ordinates method. The particle phase is modeled in a lagrangian framework, such that mean paths of particle groups are followed. A new coal-general devolatilization submodel (FG-DVC) with coal swelling and char reactivity submodels has been added.

Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. [and others

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Pyrolysis of coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for mild gasification of crushed coal in a single vertical elongated reaction vessel providing a fluidized bed reaction zone, a freeboard reaction zone, and an entrained reaction zone within the single vessel. Feed coal and gas may be fed separately to each of these reaction zones to provide different reaction temperatures and conditions in each reaction zone. The reactor and process of this invention provides for the complete utilization of a coal supply for gasification including utilization of caking and non-caking or agglomerating feeds in the same reactor. The products may be adjusted to provide significantly greater product economic value, especially with respect to desired production of char having high surface area.

Babu, Suresh P. (Willow Springs, IL); Bair, Wilford G. (Morton Grove, IL)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Healy Clean Coal Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Healy Clean Coal Project, selected by the U.S. Department of Energy under Round 111 of the Clean Coal Technology Program, has been constructed and is currently in the Phase 111 Demonstration Testing. The project is owned and financed by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA), and is cofunded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Construction was 100% completed in mid-November of 1997, with coal firing trials starting in early 1998. Demonstration testing and reporting of the results will take place in 1998, followed by commercial operation of the facility. The emission levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (S02), and particulate from this 50-megawatt plant are expected to be significantly lower than current standards.

None

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

387

CONSORTIUM FOR CLEAN COAL UTILIZATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CONSORTIUM FOR CLEAN COAL UTILIZATION Call for Proposals Date of Issue: July 29, 2013 The Consortium for Clean Coal Utilization (CCCU) at Washington University in St. Louis was established in January of Clean Coal Utilization. The format may be a conference or workshop, or a seminar given by a leading

Subramanian, Venkat

388

COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a $1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community.

Darren D. Schmidt

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

PNNL Coal Gasification Research  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report explains the goals of PNNL in relation to coal gasification research. The long-term intent of this effort is to produce a syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in materials, catalysts, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, system modifications to increase operational flexibility and reliability or accommodate other fuel sources that can be used for syngas production could be useful.

Reid, Douglas J.; Cabe, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.

2010-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

390

Clean Coal Power Initiative  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is the fifth quarterly Technical Progress Report submitted by NeuCo, Incorporated, under Award Identification Number, DE-FC26-04NT41768. This award is part of the Clean Coal Power Initiative (''CCPI''), the ten-year, $2B initiative to demonstrate new clean coal technologies in the field. This report is one of the required reports listed in Attachment B Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist, part of the Cooperative Agreement. The report covers the award period January 1, 2006 - March 31, 2006 and NeuCo's efforts within design, development, and deployment of on-line optimization systems during that period.

Doug Bartlett; Rob James; John McDermott; Neel Parikh; Sanjay Patnaik; Camilla Podowski

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

391

Air toxic emissions from the combustion of coal: Identifying and quantifying hazardous air pollutants from US coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report addresses the key air toxic emissions likely to emanate from continued and expanded use of domestic coal. It identifies and quantifies those trace elements specified in the US 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, by tabulating selected characterization data on various source coals by region, state, and rank. On the basis of measurements by various researchers, this report also identifies those organic compounds likely to be derived from the coal combustion process (although their formation is highly dependent on specific boiler configurations and operating conditions).

Szpunar, C.B.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Alaska coal gasification feasibility studies - Healy coal-to-liquids plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Alaska Coal Gasification Feasibility Study entailed a two-phase analysis of the prospects for greater use of Alaska's abundant coal resources in industrial applications. Phase 1, Beluga Coal Gasification Feasibility Study (Report DOE/NETL 2006/1248) assessed the feasibility of using gasification technology to convert the Agrium fertilizer plant in Nikiski, Alaska, from natural gas to coal feedstock. The Phase 1 analysis evaluated coals from the Beluga field near Anchorage and from the Usibelli Coal Mine near Healy, both of which are low in sulfur and high in moisture. This study expands the results of Phase 1 by evaluating a similar sized gasification facility at the Usibelli Coal mine to supply Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquids to central Alaska. The plant considered in this study is small (14,640 barrels per day, bbl/d) compared to the recommended commercial size of 50,000 bbl/d for coal-to-liquid plants. The coal supply requirements for the Phase 1 analysis, four million tons per year, were assumed for the Phase 2 analysis to match the probable capacity of the Usibelli mining operations. Alaska refineries are of sufficient size to use all of the product, eliminating the need for F-T exports out of the state. The plant could produce marketable by-products such as sulfur as well as electric power. Slag would be used as backfill at the mine site and CO{sub 2} could be vented, captured or used for enhanced coalbed methane recovery. The unexpected curtailment of oil production from Prudhoe Bay in August 2006 highlighted the dependency of Alaskan refineries (with the exception of the Tesoro facility in Nikiski) on Alaska North Slope (ANS) crude. If the flow of oil from the North Slope declines, these refineries may not be able to meet the in-state needs for diesel, gasoline, and jet fuel. Additional reliable sources of essential fuel products would be beneficial. 36 refs., 14 figs., 29 tabs., 3 apps.

Lawrence Van Bibber; Charles Thomas; Robert Chaney [Research & Development Solutions, LLC (United States)

2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

393

Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For more than two decades, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has developed a range of low cost, in-furnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes ALSTOM's internally developed TFS 2000 firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). As of 2004, more than 200 units representing approximately 75,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with ALSTOM low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coals to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coals, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing (retrofit) boiler equipment. If enacted, proposed Clear Skies legislation will, by 2008, require an average, effective, domestic NOx emissions rate of 0.16 lb/MMBtu, which number will be reduced to 0.13 lb/MMBtu by 2018. Such levels represent a 60% and 67% reduction, respectively, from the effective 2000 level of 0.40 lb/MMBtu. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. In light of these needs, ALSTOM, in cooperation with the DOE, is developing an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner which, when integrated with ALSTOM's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems, will provide a means to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx at less than 3/4 the cost of an SCR with low to no impact on balance of plant issues when firing a high volatile bituminous coal. Such coals can be more economic to fire than subbituminous or Powder River Basin (PRB) coals, but are more problematic from a NOx control standpoint as existing firing system technologies do not provide a means to meet current or anticipated regulations absent the use of an SCR. The DOE/ALSTOM program performed large pilot scale combustion testing in ALSTOM's Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut. During this work, the near-field combustion environment was optimized to maximize NOx reduction while minimizing the impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down under globally reducing conditions. Initially, ALSTOM utilized computational fluid dynamic modeling to evaluate a series of burner and/or near field stoichiometry controls in order to screen promising design concepts in advance of the large pilot scale testing. The third and final test, to be executed, will utilize several variants of the best nozzle tip configuration and compare performance with 3 different coals. The fuels to be tested will cover a wide range of coals commonly fired at US utilities. The completion of this work will provide sufficient data to allow ALSTOM to design, construct, and demonstrate a commercial version of an enhanced combustion low NOx pulverized coal burner. A preliminary cost/performance analysis of the developed enhanced combustion low NOx burner applied to ALSTOM's state-of-the-art TFS 2000 firing system was performed to show that the burner enhancements is a cost effective means to reduce NOx.

Ray Chamberland; Aku Raino; David Towle

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

394

apec coal flow: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

from pulverized coal pulverized-coal-fired furnaces, cyclone furnaces, or advanced clean-coal technology furnaces. The ash collected from pulverized-coal-fired furnaces is fly...

395

alkaline coal ash: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

from pulverized coal pulverized-coal-fired furnaces, cyclone furnaces, or advanced clean-coal technology furnaces. The ash collected from pulverized-coal-fired furnaces is fly...

396

Coal Combustion Products Extension Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final project report presents the activities and accomplishments of the ''Coal Combustion Products Extension Program'' conducted at The Ohio State University from August 1, 2000 to June 30, 2005 to advance the beneficial uses of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highway and construction, mine reclamation, agricultural, and manufacturing sectors. The objective of this technology transfer/research program at The Ohio State University was to promote the increased use of Ohio CCPs (fly ash, FGD material, bottom ash, and boiler slag) in applications that are technically sound, environmentally benign, and commercially competitive. The project objective was accomplished by housing the CCP Extension Program within The Ohio State University College of Engineering with support from the university Extension Service and The Ohio State University Research Foundation. Dr. Tarunjit S. Butalia, an internationally reputed CCP expert and registered professional engineer, was the program coordinator. The program coordinator acted as liaison among CCP stakeholders in the state, produced information sheets, provided expertise in the field to those who desired it, sponsored and co-sponsored seminars, meetings, and speaking at these events, and generally worked to promote knowledge about the productive and proper application of CCPs as useful raw materials. The major accomplishments of the program were: (1) Increase in FGD material utilization rate from 8% in 1997 to more than 20% in 2005, and an increase in overall CCP utilization rate of 21% in 1997 to just under 30% in 2005 for the State of Ohio. (2) Recognition as a ''voice of trust'' among Ohio and national CCP stakeholders (particularly regulatory agencies). (3) Establishment of a national and international reputation, especially for the use of FGD materials and fly ash in construction applications. It is recommended that to increase Ohio's CCP utilization rate from 30% in 2005 to 40% by 2010, the CCP Extension Program be expanded at OSU, with support from state and federal agencies, utilities, trade groups, and the university, to focus on the following four specific areas of promise: (a) Expanding use in proven areas (such as use of fly ash in concrete); (b) Removing or reducing regulatory and perceptual barriers to use (by working in collaboration with regulatory agencies); (c) Developing new or under-used large-volume market applications (such as structural fills); and (d) Placing greater emphasis on FGD byproducts utilization.

Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe

2006-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

397

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 9. Gasification of Elkhorn bituminous coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) group. This report is the ninth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Elkhorn bituminous coal. The period of gasificastion test was September 13 to October 12, 1983. 9 refs., 24 figs., 35 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 7. Gasification of Piney Tipple bituminous coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the seventh volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Piney Tipple bituminous coal. The period of the gasification test was July 18-24, 1983. 6 refs., 20 figs., 17 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 2. Gasification of Jetson bituminous coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report describes the gasification testing of Jetson bituminous coal. This Western Kentucky coal was gasified during an initial 8-day and subsequent 5-day period. Material flows and compositions are reported along with material and energy balances. Operational experience is also described. 4 refs., 24 figs., 17 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

400

Catalytic coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids. 1 fig.

Garg, D.; Sunder, S.

1986-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu state coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Biochemical transformation of coals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed. 7 figs.

Lin, M.S.; Premuzic, E.T.

1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

402

Catalytic coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids.

Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Sunder, Swaminathan (Allentown, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Catalytic coal hydroliquefaction process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for the liquefaction of coal in a hydrogen donor solvent in the presence of hydrogen and a co-catalyst combination of iron and a Group VI or Group VIII non-ferrous metal or compounds of the catalysts.

Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Coal slurry fuel supply and purge system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A coal slurry fuel supply and purge system for a locomotive engines is disclosed which includes a slurry recirculation path, a stand-by path for circulating slurry during idle or states of the engine when slurry fuel in not required by the engine, and an engine header fluid path connected to the stand-by path, for supplying and purging slurry fuel to and from fuel injectors. A controller controls the actuation of valves to facilitate supply and purge of slurry to and from the fuel injectors. A method for supplying and purging coal slurry in a compression ignition engine is disclosed which includes controlling fluid flow devices and valves in a plurality of fluid paths to facilitate continuous slurry recirculation and supply and purge of or slurry based on the operating state of the engine.

McDowell, Robert E. (Fairview, PA); Basic, Steven L. (Hornell, NY); Smith, Russel M. (North East, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Supercritical fluid thermodynamics for coal processing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main objective of this research is to develop an equation of state that can be used to predict solubilities and tailor supercritical fluid solvents for the extraction and processing of coal. To meet this objective we have implemented a two-sided. approach. First, we expanded the database of model coal compound solubilities in higher temperature fluids, polar fluids, and fluid mixtures systems. Second, the unique solute/solute, solute/cosolvent and solute/solvent intermolecular interactions in supercritical fluid solutions were investigated using spectroscopic techniques. These results increased our understanding of the molecular phenomena that affect solubility in supercritical fluids and were significant in the development of an equation of state that accurately reflects the true molecular makeup of the solution. (VC)

van Swol, F. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Eckert, C.A. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Chemical Engineering)

1988-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

406

Coal-oil slurry preparation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Coal mine methane global review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the second edition of the Coal Mine Methane Global Overview, updated in the summer of 2008. This document contains individual, comprehensive profiles that characterize the coal and coal mine methane sectors of 33 countries - 22 methane to market partners and an additional 11 coal-producing nations. The executive summary provides summary tables that include statistics on coal reserves, coal production, methane emissions, and CMM projects activity. An International Coal Mine Methane Projects Database accompanies this overview. It contains more detailed and comprehensive information on over two hundred CMM recovery and utilization projects around the world. Project information in the database is updated regularly. This document will be updated annually. Suggestions for updates and revisions can be submitted to the Administrative Support Group and will be incorporate into the document as appropriate.

NONE

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Biological production of ethanol from coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to the abundant supply of coal in the United States, significant research efforts have occurred over the past 15 years concerning the conversion of coal to liquid fuels. Researchers at the University of Arkansas have concentrated on a biological approach to coal liquefaction, starting with coal-derived synthesis gas as the raw material. Synthesis gas, a mixture of CO, H[sub 2], CO[sub 2], CH[sub 4] and sulfur gases, is first produced using traditional gasification techniques. The CO, CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] are then converted to ethanol using a bacterial culture of Clostridium 1jungdahlii. Ethanol is the desired product if the resultant product stream is to be used as a liquid fuel. However, under normal operating conditions, the wild strain'' produces acetate in favor of ethanol in conjunction with growth in a 20:1 molar ratio. Research was performed to determine the conditions necessary to maximize not only the ratio of ethanol to acetate, but also to maximize the concentration of ethanol resulting in the product stream.

Not Available

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Underground Coal Thermal Treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal??s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO{sub 2} sequestration. Efforts focused on: ? Constructing a suite of three different coal pyrolysis reactors. These reactors offer the ability to gather heat transfer, mass transfer and kinetic data during coal pyrolysis under conditions that mimic in situ conditions (Subtask 6.1). ? Studying the operational parameters for various underground thermal treatment processes for oil shale and coal and completing a design matrix analysis for the underground coal thermal treatment (UCTT). This analysis yielded recommendations for terms of targeted coal rank, well orientation, rubblization, presence of oxygen, temperature, pressure, and heating sources (Subtask 6.2). ? Developing capabilities for simulating UCTT, including modifying the geometry as well as the solution algorithm to achieve long simulation times in a rubblized coal bed by resolving the convective channels occurring in the representative domain (Subtask 6.3). ? Studying the reactive behavior of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with limestone, sandstone, arkose (a more complex sandstone) and peridotite, including mineralogical changes and brine chemistry for the different initial rock compositions (Subtask 6.4). Arkose exhibited the highest tendency of participating in mineral reactions, which can be attributed to the geochemical complexity of its initial mineral assemblage. In experiments with limestone, continuous dissolution was observed with the release of CO{sub 2} gas, indicated by the increasing pressure in the reactor (formation of a gas chamber). This occurred due to the lack of any source of alkali to buffer the solution. Arkose has the geochemical complexity for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2} as carbonates and is also relatively abundant. The effect of including NH{sub 3} in the injected gas stream was also investigated in this study. Precipitation of calcite and trace amounts of ammonium zeolites was observed. A batch geochemical model was developed using Geochemists Workbench (GWB). Degassing effect in the experiments was corrected using the sliding fugacity model in GWB. Experimental and simulation results were compared and a reasonable agreement between the two was observed.

P. Smith; M. Deo; E. Eddings; A. Sarofim; K. Gueishen; M. Hradisky; K. Kelly; P. Mandalaparty; H. Zhang

2011-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

410

Formation and control of fuel-nitrogen pollutants in catalytic combustion of coal-derived gases. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this program has been the elucidation of the mechanism of high temperature catalytic oxidation of coal-derived gases, including their individual constituents,and the effects of sulfur and nitrogen impurities. Detailed experimental data were obtained and a two-dimensional model is being developed and tested by comparison with the experimental data. When complete, the model can be used to optimize designs of catalytic combustors. The model at present includes axial and radial diffusion and gas and surface chemical reactions. Measured substrate temperatures are input in lieu of complete coupling of gas and solid energy conservation equations and radiative heat transfer. Axial and radial gas temperature and composition profiles inside a catalyst channel were computed and compared with experimental measurements at the catalyst outlet. Experimental investigations were made of carbon monoxide and medium-Btu gas combustion in the presence of platinum supported on a monolithic Cordierite substrate. Axial profiles of substrate temperature, gas temperature, and gas composition were determined at different gas velocities and equivalence ratios. The effects of H/sub 2/S and NH/sub 3/ in the medium-Btu gas were also investigated. Systems were proposed for making resonance absorption and Raman scattering measurements of gas temperature and/or species concentrations in a catalytic reactor. A new pulsed multipass Raman scattering technique for increasing photon yield from a scattering volume was developed.

Walsh, P. M.; Bruno, C.; Santavicca, D. A.; Bracco, F. V.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Study of catalytic diffusion in coal. Final report, 1983-1984  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of these studies is to determine the pore (hole) size and pore shape distribution in standard bituminous coal samples from various Alabama coal seams such as that of the Mary Lee, Black Creek and Pratt during and after swelling of the coal with different solvents at various temperatures. These samples come from the Penn State Coal Sample Bank at Pennsylvania State University Coal Research Section and from Alabama's Mineral Industries. Methods were developed in the laboratory whereby free-radical probes of varying sizes can be diffused into the coal under various conditions. These probes can be detected and the environment surrounding the probes can be deduced by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) methods. To date, it has been found that not only can the shape and size of the pores be determined, but that the size distribution varies from one bituminous coal seam to another, even for coal of the same rank, suggesting a different optimal catalyst should be used for each seam. The effect of oxygen on the coal samples during grinding has been studied; however, the free radical technique appears to be insensitive to the presence of oxygen effects. The goal is to determine the structural differences between various bituminous coals.

Kispert, L.D.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Create a Consortium and Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of these projects was to investigate alternative technologies for non-fuel uses of coal. Special emphasis was placed on developing premium carbon products from coal-derived feedstocks. A total of 14 projects, which are the 2003 Research Projects, are reported herein. These projects were categorized into three overall objectives. They are: (1) To explore new applications for the use of anthracite in order to improve its marketability; (2) To effectively minimize environmental damage caused by mercury emissions, CO{sub 2} emissions, and coal impounds; and (3) To continue to increase our understanding of coal properties and establish coal usage in non-fuel industries. Research was completed in laboratories throughout the United States. Most research was performed on a bench-scale level with the intent of scaling up if preliminary tests proved successful. These projects resulted in many potential applications for coal-derived feedstocks. These include: (1) Use of anthracite as a sorbent to capture CO{sub 2} emissions; (2) Use of anthracite-based carbon as a catalyst; (3) Use of processed anthracite in carbon electrodes and carbon black; (4) Use of raw coal refuse for producing activated carbon; (5) Reusable PACs to recycle captured mercury; (6) Use of combustion and gasification chars to capture mercury from coal-fired power plants; (7) Development of a synthetic coal tar enamel; (8) Use of alternative binder pitches in aluminum anodes; (9) Use of Solvent Extracted Carbon Ore (SECO) to fuel a carbon fuel cell; (10) Production of a low cost coal-derived turbostratic carbon powder for structural applications; (11) Production of high-value carbon fibers and foams via the co-processing of a low-cost coal extract pitch with well-dispersed carbon nanotubes; (12) Use of carbon from fly ash as metallurgical carbon; (13) Production of bulk carbon fiber for concrete reinforcement; and (14) Characterizing coal solvent extraction processes. Although some of the projects funded did not meet their original goals, the overall objectives of the CPCPC were completed as many new applications for coal-derived feedstocks have been researched. Future research in many of these areas is necessary before implementation into industry.

Frank Rusinko; John Andresen; Jennifer E. Hill; Harold H. Schobert; Bruce G. Miller

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Eight Advanced Coal Projects Chosen for Further Development by DOE's University Coal Research Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE has selected eight new projects to further advanced coal research under the University Coal Research Program. The selected projects will improve coal conversion and use and will help propel technologies for future advanced coal power systems.

414

Moist caustic leaching of coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for reducing the sulfur and ash content of coal. Particulate coal is introduced into a closed heated reaction chamber having an inert atmosphere to which is added 50 mole percent NaOH and 50 mole percent KOH moist caustic having a water content in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and in a caustic to coal weight ratio of about 5 to 1. The coal and moist caustic are kept at a temperature of about 300.degree. C. Then, water is added to the coal and caustic mixture to form an aqueous slurry, which is washed with water to remove caustic from the coal and to produce an aqueous caustic solution. Water is evaporated from the aqueous caustic solution until the water is in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and is reintroduced to the closed reaction chamber. Sufficient acid is added to the washed coal slurry to neutralize any remaining caustic present on the coal, which is thereafter dried to produce desulfurized coal having not less than about 90% by weight of the sulfur present in the coal feed removed and having an ash content of less than about 2% by weight.

Nowak, Michael A. (Elizabeth, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Quarterly coal report July--September 1995, February 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the second quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

NONE

1996-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

416

Western Coal/Great Lakes Alternative export-coal conference  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This conference dealt with using the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway as an alternative to the East and Gulf Coasts for the exporting of coal to Europe and the potential for a piece of the European market for the subbituminous coals of Montana and Wyoming. The topics discussed included: government policies on coal exports; the coal reserves of Montana; cost of rail transport from Western mines to Lake Superior; the planning, design, and operation of the Superior Midwest Energy Terminal at Superior, Wisconsin; direct transfer of coal from self-unloading lakers to large ocean vessels; concept of total transportation from mines to users; disadvantage of a nine month season on the Great Lakes; costs of maritime transport of coal through the Great Lakes to Europe; facilities at the ice-free, deep water port at Sept Iles; the use of Western coals from an environmental and economic viewpoint; the properties of Western coal and factors affecting its use; the feasibility of a slurry pipeline from the Powder River Basin to Lake Superior; a systems analysis of the complete hydraulic transport of coal from the mine to users in Europe; the performance of the COJA mill-burner for the combustion of superfine coal; demand for steam coal in Western Europe; and the effect the New Source Performance Standards will have on the production and use of Western coal. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 19 papers for the Energy Data Base (EDB); 17 will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) and 11 in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (CKK)

Not Available

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

High-sulfur coals in the eastern Kentucky coal field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Eastern Kentucky coal field is notable for relatively low-sulfur, [open quotes]compliance[close quotes] coals. Virtually all of the major coals in this area do have regions in which higher sulfur lithotypes are common, if not dominant, within the lithologic profile. Three Middle Pennsylvanian coals, each representing a major resource, exemplify this. The Clintwood coal bed is the stratigraphically lowest coal bed mined throughout the coal field. In Whitley County, the sulfur content increase from 0.6% at the base to nearly 12% in the top lithotype. Pyrite in the high-sulfur lithotype is a complex mixture of sub- to few-micron syngenetic forms and massive epigenetic growths. The stratigraphically higher Pond Creek coal bed is extensively mined in portions of the coal field. Although generally low in sulfur, in northern Pike and southern Martin counties the top one-third can have up to 6% sulfur. Uniformly low-sulfur profiles can occur within a few hundred meters of high-sulfur coal. Pyrite occurs as 10-50 [mu]m euhedra and coarser massive forms. In this case, sulfur distribution may have been controlled by sandstone channels in the overlying sediments. High-sulfur zones in the lower bench of the Fire Clay coal bed, the stratigraphically highest coal bed considered here, are more problematical. The lower bench, which is of highly variable thickness and quality, generally is overlain by a kaolinitic flint clay, the consequence of a volcanic ash fall into the peat swamp. In southern Perry and Letcher counties, a black, illite-chlorite clay directly overlies the lower bench. General lack of lateral continuity of lithotypes in the lower bench suggests that the precursor swamp consisted of discontinuous peat-forming environments that were spatially variable and regularly inundated by sediments. Some of the peat-forming areas may have been marshlike in character.

Hower, J.C.; Graham, U.M. (Univ. of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States)); Eble, C.F. (Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington, KY (United States))

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Autothermal coal gasification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents test results of a pilot plant study of coal gasification system based on the process developed by Texaco. This process has been improved by the project partners Ruhrchenie A.G. and Ruhrkohle A.C. in West Germany and tested in a demonstration plant that operated for more than 10,000 hours, converting over 50,000 tons of coal into gas. The aim was to develop a process that would be sufficiently flexible when used at the commercial level to incorporate all of the advantages inherent in the diverse processes of the 'first generation' - fixed bed, fluidized bed and entrained bed processes - but would be free of the disadvantages of these processes. Extensive test results are tabulated and evaluated. Forecast for future development is included. 5 refs.

Konkol, W.; Ruprecht, P.; Cornils, B.; Duerrfeld, R.; Langhoff, J.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Coal | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectricEnergyCTBarreisVolcanicPower Address:Climatic SolarInformationCoal

420

Zero emission coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu state coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Upgrading of low-rank coals for conventional and advanced combustion systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low-rank coals, subbituminous, lignitic, and brown coals, have a ubiquitous presence in the world, being found in all continents. Close to half of the world`s estimated coal resources are low- rank coals. Many countries have no alternative economic source of energy. In the lower 48 states of the United States, there are 220 billion tons of economically recoverable reserves of lignite and subbituminous coal. Add to this quantity 5 trillion tons of predominantly subbituminous coal in Alaska, and the combined amount represents the largest supply of the lowest-cost fuels available for generating electric power in the United States. However, to use these coals cost-effectively and in an environmentally acceptable way, it is imperative that their properties and combustion/gasification behavior be well understood. The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) takes a cradle-to-grave approach (i.e., mining, precleaning, combustion/gasification, postcleaning, and reuse and disposal of residues) for all aspects of coal processing and utilization. The environmental impact of these activities must be matched with the appropriate technologies. Experience over many years has shown that variations in coal and ash properties have a critical impact on design, reliability and efficiency of operation, and environmental compliance when low-rank coals are burned in conventional systems. This chapter reviews the significant technical issues of beneficiation, which includes reduction in moisture as well as ash (including sulfur), in relation to low-rank coal properties and their impact on conventional and advanced power systems. Finally, the development and utilization of low-rank coal resources are briefly discussed in view of policy, economic, and strategic issues.

Young, B.C.; Musich, M.A.; Jones, M.L.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

422

Liquid chromatographic analysis of coal surface properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main objectives of this proposed research are to refine further the inverse liquid chromatography technique for the study of surface properties of raw coals, treated coals and coal minerals in water, to evaluate relatively surface properties of raw coals, treated coals and coal minerals by inverse liquid chromatography, and to evaluate floatability of various treated coals in conjunction with surface properties of coals. Alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, isobutanol, tert-butanol, heptanol, 1-hexadecanol, 2-methyl-pentanol, 4-methyl-2-penthanol (methylisobutyl carbinol), n-octanol, s-octanol, and cyclohexanol as probe compounds are utilized to evaluate hydrophilicity of coals and coal minerals. N-alkanes such as hexane, heptane and octane, and stearic acid are employed as probe compounds to evaluate hydrophobicity of coals and coal minerals. Aromatic compounds such as benzene and toluene as probe compounds are used to examine aromaticity of coal surface. Aromatic acids such as o-cresol, m-cresol, p-cresol, phenol and B-naphthol are used to detect aromatic acidic sites of coal surface. Hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity and aromaticity of surfaces for either raw coals or treated coals in water are relatively determined by evaluating both equilibrium physical/chemical adsorption and dynamic adsorption of probe compounds on various raw coals and treated coals to compare affinities of coals for water.

Kwon, K.C.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Transporting export coal from Appalachia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This publication is part of a series titled Market Guide for Steam Coal Exports from Appalachia. It focuses on the transportation link in the steam-coal supply chain, enabling producers to further assess their transportation options and their ability to compete in the export-coal marketplace. Transportation alternatives and handling procedures are discussed, and information is provided on the costs associated with each element in the transportation network.

Not Available

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Utilization of coal-water fuels in fire-tube boilers. Final report, October 1990--August 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this DOE sponsored project was to successfully fire coal-water slurry in a fire-tube boiler that was designed for oil/gas firing and establish a data base that will be relevant to a large number of existing installations. Firing slurry in a fire-tube configuration is a very demanding application because of the extremely high heat release rates and the correspondingly low furnace volume where combustion can be completed. Recognizing that combustion efficiency is the major obstacle when firing slurry in a fire-tube boiler, the program was focused on innovative approaches for improving carbon burnout without major modifications to the boiler. The boiler system was successfully designed and operated to fire coal-water slurry for extended periods of time with few slurry related operational problems. The host facility was a 3.8 million Btu/hr Cleaver-Brooks fire-tube boiler located on the University of Alabama Campus. A slurry atomizer was designed that provided outstanding atomization and was not susceptible to pluggage. The boiler was operated for over 1000 hours and 12 shipments of slurry were delivered. The new equipment engineered for the coal-water slurry system consisted of the following: combustion air and slurry heaters; cyclone; baghouse; fly ash reinjection system; new control system; air compressor; CWS/gas burner and gas valve train; and storage tank and slurry handling system.

Sommer, T.; Melick, T.; Morrison, D.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

425

Upgrading drained coal mine methane to pipeline quality: a report on the commercial status of system suppliers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In today's scenario of growing energy demand worldwide and rising natural gas prices, any methane emitted into the atmosphere is an untapped resource of energy and potentially a lost opportunity for additional revenue. In 2005, 9.7% of the total US anthropogenic emissions of methane were attributed to coal production. In recent years, many gassy coal mines have seized the opportunity to recover coal mine methane (CMM) and supply it to natural gas pipeline systems. With natural gas prices in the US exceeding $7.00 per million Btu, CMM pipeline sales brought in an annual revenue topping $97 million in 2005. However, significant opportunity still exists for tapping into this resource as 22% of the drained CMM remains unutilized as of 2005, primarily because its quality does not meet the requirements of natural gas pipeline systems. Recent advances in technologies now offer off-the-shelf options in the US that can upgrade the drained CMM to pipeline quality. These gas upgrading technologies are not only opening up the market to lower-quality methane resources but also providing significant means for reducing emissions, since methane is over 20 times a more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. This report reviews current gas upgrading technologies available in the market for removal of typical CMM contaminants, provides examples of their successful commercial implementation and compiles a list of vendors specific to nitrogen rejection systems, since nitrogen exposes the biggest challenge to upgrading CMM. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 9 apps.

Carothers, F.P.; Schultz, M.L.

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

426

A comparison study of column flotation technologies for cleaning Illinois coal. [Quarterly] technical report, December 1, 1993--February 28, 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this research project are to optimize the performance of six commercially available column technologies for the treatment of Illinois Basin coal fines and to compare their performance on the basis of the recovery-grade curve and column throughput capacity. A statistically-designed, experimental program will be conducted to optimize the critical operating performance values of each flotation column. During the previous reporting period, construction and installation of the six flotation columns were completed. The flotation feed sample that will be used for the tests in this investigation was collected from a coal preparation plant treating the Illinois No. 5 seam coal. During this reporting period, the flotation feed sample was characterized on a size-by-size basis for its ash, total sulfur, and BTU content. A release analysis was also conducted to obtain the best possible recovery versus product grade curve that can be achieved by a froth flotation process for the treatment of the Illinois No. 5 flotation feed sample. Experiments were initiated on the Jameson Cell. The preliminary results indicate that the Jameson Cell achieves a separation performance that is close to the release data. The experimental program on the Jameson Cell and the other flotation technologies will be performed during the next reporting period.

Honaker, R.Q.; Paul, B.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Quarterly review of methane from coal-seams technology. Volume 7, Number 3, July-September 1989  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report contains: sources of coal well information; Powder River Basin, Wyoming; greater Green River coal region, Wyoming and Colorado; Piceance Basin, Colorado; San Juan Basin, Colorado and New Mexico; Raton Basin, Colorado and New Mexico; Black Warrior Basin, Alabama; the United States coalbed methane resource; western cretaceous coal seams project; multiple coal seams project; spalling and the development of a hydraulic fracturing strategy for coal; geologic evaluation of critical production parameters for coalbed methane resources; coalbed methane opportunities in Alberta; the coalbed methane forum; eastern coalbed methane forum.

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Volatile coal prices reflect supply, demand uncertainties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal mine owners and investors say that supply and demand are now finally in balance. But coal consumers find that both spot tonnage and new contract coal come at a much higher price.

Ryan, M.

2004-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

429

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of natural gas, along with the coal reserve base of 326s Fossil Fuel Reserve Base, 2007 Oil Natural Gas Coal 233ensured reserves) of coal, oil and natural gas published in

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Low-rank coal oil agglomeration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

Knudson, Curtis L. (Grand Forks, ND); Timpe, Ronald C. (Grand Forks, ND)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

coal electricity generation efficiency also varies by plantplants. The unit water requirement of coal-fired electricity generationelectricity generation is comparatively low in China due to the prevalence of small, outdated coal-fired power plants.

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Commercialization of Coal-to-Liquids Technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report provides an overview of the current status of coal-to-liquids (CTL) commercialization efforts, including an analysis of efforts to develop and implement large-scale, commercial coal-to-liquids projects to create transportation fuels. Topics covered include: an overview of the history of coal usage and the current market for coal; a detailed description of what coal-to-liquids technology is; the history of coal-to-liquids development and commercial application; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving the increased interest in coal-to-liquids; an analysis of the issues and challenges that are hindering the commercialization of coal-to-liquids technology; a review of available coal-to-liquids technology; a discussion of the economic drivers of coal-to-liquids project success; profiles of key coal-to-liquids developers; and profiles of key coal-to-liquids projects under development.

NONE

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

434

Commercializing the H-Coal Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Hydrocarbon Research, Inc. (HRI) has observed a decided swing in interest in commercial coal liquefaction. Project owners can select one of two paths for commercial coal liquefaction using H-Coal technology. The quantum strategy involves the construction of a...

DeVaux, G. R.; Dutkiewicz, B.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Coal Bed Methane Protection Act (Montana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Coal Bed Methane Protection Act establishes a long-term coal bed methane protection account and a coal bed methane protection program for the purpose of compensating private landowners and...

436

Process for electrochemically gasifying coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is claimed for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution. 7 figs.

Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.

1985-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

437

Coal Mine Safety Act (Virginia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This Act is the primary legislation pertaining to coal mine safety in Virginia. It contains information on safety rules, safety standards and required certifications for mine workers, prohibited...

438

MS_Coal_Studyguide.indd  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

what about costs? Th e mining, transportation, electricity generation, and pollution-control costs associated with using coal are increasing, but both natural gas and oil are...

439

Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by gasified coal. System concepts that integrate a coal gasifier with a SOFC, a gas turbine, and a steam turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 200 MW. Two alternative integration configurations were selected with projected system efficiency of over 53% on a HHV basis, or about 10 percentage points higher than that of the state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The initial cost of both selected configurations was found to be comparable with the IGCC system costs at approximately $1700/kW. An absorption-based CO2 isolation scheme was developed, and its penalty on the system performance and cost was estimated to be less approximately 2.7% and $370/kW. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

Chellappa Balan; Debashis Dey; Sukru-Alper Eker; Max Peter; Pavel Sokolov; Greg Wotzak

2004-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

440

Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. Topical report, July 1992--December 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project (WRCGRP, or Wabash Project) is a joint venture of Destec Energy, Inc. of Houston, Texas and PSI Energy, Inc. of Plainfield, Indiana, who will jointly repower an existing 1950 vintage coal-fired steam generating plant with coal gasification combined cycle technology. The Project is located in West Terre Haute, Indiana at PSI`s existing Wabash River Generating Station. The Project will process locally-mined Indiana high-sulfur coal to produce 262 megawatts of electricity. PSI and Destec are participating in the Department of Energy Clean Coal Technology Program to demonstrate coal gasification repowering of an existing generating unit affected by the Clean Air Act Amendments. As a Clean Coal Round IV selection, the project will demonstrate integration of an existing PSI steam turbine generator and auxiliaries, a new combustion turbine generator, heat recovery steam generator tandem, and a coal gasification facility to achieve improved efficiency, reduced emissions, and reduced installation costs. Upon completion in 1995, the Project will not only represent the largest coal gasification combined cycle power plant in the United States, but will also emit lower emissions than other high sulfur coal-fired power plants and will result in a heat rate improvement of approximately 20% over the existing plant configuration. As of the end of December 1993, construction work is approximately 20% complete for the gasification portion of the Project and 25% complete for the power generation portion.

Not Available

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu state coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Developments to watch/cross flow of air is effective for separating coal from pyrite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cross flow of air is effective for separating coal from pyrite, limestone, clay, and shale while in the dry state to achieve a concentration of 90% purity at a competitive cost, according to West Virginia University Coal Research Bureau. The coal is crushed, screened to size, and placed in a vibrating feeder modified by adding small ridges parallel to the vibrating motion on the plate surface. The plate motion moves lighter coal particles slightly higher than the same size, heavier waste particles. A cross flow of air, which blows perpendicular to the vibratory motion, enhances the separation system.

Not Available

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Petrographic characterization of Kentucky coals. Quarterly progress report, September-November 1981  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project Petrographic Characterization of Kentucky Coals consists of research in three specific areas of coal petrology: spectral fluorescence of liptinite macerals, properties of semi-inert macerals, and size/form/microlithotype association of pyrite/marcasite. Additional research on the Mannington (No. 4, also known as Mining City and Lewisport) coal will apply techniques developed in the first three areas. Certain suits of coals from other states will also be studied to expand the variability in the samples. Preliminary results are reported.

Hower, J.C.; Ferm, J.C.; Cobb, J.C.; Trinkle, E.J.; Frankie, K.A.; Poe, S.H.; Baynard, D.N.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Characterization of selected Ohio coals to predict their conversion behavior relative to 104 North American Coals. [Factors correlating with liquefaction behavior  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Twenty-six coal samples from Ohio were collected as washed and seam samples, and lithobodies within the seams. Characterization of these samples included determination of % maceral, % anti R/sub max/, LTA, chlorine content and proximate/ultimate and qualitative mineral analyses. These data were compared to data from a similar project by Yarzab, R.F., et al., 1980 completed at Pennsylvania State University using tetralin as the hydrogen donor solvent. The characteristics of these coals were correlated with liquefaction conversion and other data accrued on 104 North American coals by statistical analyses. Utilizing percent carbon, sulfur, volatile matter, reflectance, vitrinite and total reactive macerals, Q-mode cluster analysis demonstrated that Ohio coals are more similar to the coals of the Interior province than to those of the Appalachian province. Linear multiple regression analysis for the 104 North American coals provided a prediction equation for conversion (R = .96). The predicted conversion values for the samples range from 58.8 to 79.6%, with the Lower Kittanning (No. 5) and the Middle Kittanning (No. 6) coal seams showing the highest predicted percent conversion (respectively, 73.4 and 72.2%). The moderately low FSI values for the No. 5 and No. 6 coals (respectively, 2.5 and 3) and their moderately high alkaline earth content (respectively, 0.69 and 0.74%) suggest that these coals possess the best overall properties for conversion. Stepwise regression has indicated that the most important coal characteristics affecting conversion are, in decreasing order of importance: % volatile matter, % vitrinite and % total sulfur. Conversion processes can be expected to produce higher yields with Ohio coals due to the presence of such mineral catalysts as pyrite and kaolinite. It is believed that the presence of these disposable catalysts increases the marketability of Ohio coals.

Whitacre, T. P.; Hunt, T. J.; Kneller, W. A.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Thirteenth biennial lignite symposium: technology and utilization of low-rank coals proceedings. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

These proceedings are the collected manuscripts from the 1985 Lignite Symposium held at Bismarck, North Dakota on May 21-23, 1985. Sponsorship of the thirteenth biennial meeting was by the United States Department of Energy, the University of North Dakota Energy Research Center, and the Texas University Coal Research Consortium. Seven technical sessions plus two luncheons and a banquet were held during the two and a half day meeting. The final half day included tours of the Great Plains Gasification Plant; Basin Electric's Antelope Valley Power Station; and the Freedom Mine. Sessions covered diverse topics related to the technology and use of low-rank coals including coal development and public policy, combustion, gasification, environmental systems for low-rank coal utilization, liquefaction, beneficiation and coal mining and coal inorganics. All the papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA.

Jones, M.L. (ed.)

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Thirteenth biennial lignite symposium: technology and utilization of low-rank coals proceedings. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

These proceedings are the collected manuscripts from the 1985 Lignite Symposium held at Bismarck, North Dakota on May 21-23. Sponsorship of the thirteenth biennial meeting was by the United States Department of Energy, the University of North Dakota Energy Research Center, and the Texas University Coal Research Consortium. Seven technical sessions were held during the two and a half day meeting. The final half day included tours of the Great Plains Gasification Plant; Basin Electric's Antelope Valley Power Station; and the Freedom Mine. Sessions covered diverse topics related to the technology and use of low-rank coals including coal development and public policy, combustion, gasification, environmental systems for low-rank coal utilization, liquefaction, beneficiation and coal mining and coal inorganics. Twenty-four papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA.

Jones, M.L. (ed.)

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Energy 42 (2012) 486-496 Thermoeconomic operation optimization of a coal-fired power plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- -,- -------:-:-:-:-:-:-:~:-:-:-:-:---.-- Energy 42 (2012) 486-496 Thermoeconomic operation optimization of a coal-fired power plant Jie Xiong a, Haibo Zhao a.*, Chao Zhang a, Chuguang Zheng a, Peter B. Luh b aState Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion. Huazhong University ofSdence and Technology. Wuhan

Luh, Peter

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency, DOE. LBNL 275-E Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid:Renewable Energy Laboratory), and Ryan Wiser ( LBNL). i Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid:

Phadke, Amol

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

s 2006 total primary energy consumption, compared to 24Coal Dependence of Primary Energy Consumption, 2007coal/primary energy consumption Source: BP Statistical

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

The recovery of purified coal from solution.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A new process is being developed to produce graphite from prime coking coal. Coal is dissolved in dimethylformamide (DMF), on addition of sodium hydroxide. The (more)

Botha, Mary Alliles

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

raising transportation oil demand. Growing internationalcoal by wire could reduce oil demand by stemming coal roadEastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Wood-Coal Fired "Small" Boiler Case Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

extremely attrac t:i.ve to today's capital investment market. 7. Several states, including North Carolina, have enacted 15% State Tax Credits to further the use of wood fuel boilers. Specific examples of the utilization of wood as a boiler fuel include... on the fact that Galaxy would be purchasing all of its waste wood fuel, as well as supplemental coal if needed. Efficiency guarantees of 80% on wood waste with less than 10% moisture content were given, as well as 78.5% on coal. These efficiencies were...

Pincelli, R. D.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Impacts of the extended-weight coal haul road system. Final research report, December 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Extended-Weight Coal Haul Road System, created by the Kentucky Legislature in 1986, consists of all roads which carry over 50,000 tons of coal in a calendar year. Trucks hauling coal on this system are authorized to exceed normal weight limits through the payment of an annual decal fee. A research study was initiated in July of 1992 to analyze the impacts of the extended-weight system. Analyses in this report are based on the following: historical data on coal production and transportation: data from coal decal applications; interviews of legislators, transportation officials, coal company representatives, and coal trucking representatives; newspaper articles; vehicle classification data; analyses of pavement costs; pavement rideability data; and accident data. Primary conclusions include; (1) The extended-weight system has apparently been somewhat successful in accomplishing the objective of enhancing the competitiveness and economic viability of the Kentucky coal industry; (2) Overall accident rates did not increase as a result of implementation of the extended-weight system, but the fatal accident injury rates were significantly higher on the extended-weight system and for trucks operating with the coal decal; (3) Advance-warning flashers have been evaluated and recommended as a means of reducing intersection accidents involving heavy/coal trucks; (4) The coal-decal fee structure results in a net annual loss in Road Fund revenue of approximately $2 million; (5) Forty percent of revenue from decal fees are allocated to counties even though county-maintained roads comprise only eight percent of the extended-weight system; (6) Heavier weights of coal-decal trucks add approximately $9 million annually to the pavement overlay costs; (7) Road users throughout the state are subsidizing the movement of Kentucky coal by participating in the cost of maintaining and improving the highway system; and (8) Possibly reflecting the increased funding of extended-weight roads.

Pigman, J.; Crabtree, J.; Agent, K.; Graves, C.; Deacon, J.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Elizabeth City State University Dr. Linda Hayden  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cores C) 35KW F) ~37,000 BTU's G) (5) IEC309 (60 amp) H) 208V (3 phase)C) ~35KW E) 180 amps (connector) D) 208V (3 Phase) E) 500lbs H) 208V (3 phase) I) ~3000lbs J) 120,000 BTU's E) ~500lbs #12;A) 320, 000 BTU/HRA) 320, 000 BTU/HR B) 1 Ton = 12,000 BTU/hr C) 26 Ton CRAC requirement (really a 30 ton CRAC

454

Low-rank coal study : national needs for resource development. Volume 2. Resource characterization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Comprehensive data are presented on the quantity, quality, and distribution of low-rank coal (subbituminous and lignite) deposits in the United States. The major lignite-bearing areas are the Fort Union Region and the Gulf Lignite Region, with the predominant strippable reserves being in the states of North Dakota, Montana, and Texas. The largest subbituminous coal deposits are in the Powder River Region of Montana and Wyoming, The San Juan Basin of New Mexico, and in Northern Alaska. For each of the low-rank coal-bearing regions, descriptions are provided of the geology; strippable reserves; active and planned mines; classification of identified resources by depth, seam thickness, sulfur content, and ash content; overburden characteristics; aquifers; and coal properties and characteristics. Low-rank coals are distinguished from bituminous coals by unique chemical and physical properties that affect their behavior in extraction, utilization, or conversion processes. The most characteristic properties of the organic fraction of low-rank coals are the high inherent moisture and oxygen contents, and the correspondingly low heating value. Mineral matter (ash) contents and compositions of all coals are highly variable; however, low-rank coals tend to have a higher proportion of the alkali components CaO, MgO, and Na/sub 2/O. About 90% of the reserve base of US low-rank coal has less than one percent sulfur. Water resources in the major low-rank coal-bearing regions tend to have highly seasonal availabilities. Some areas appear to have ample water resources to support major new coal projects; in other areas such as Texas, water supplies may be constraining factor on development.

Not Available

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

COAL SLAGGING AND REACTIVITY TESTING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Union Fenosa's La Robla I Power Station is a 270-MW Foster Wheeler arch-fired system. The unit is located at the mine that provides a portion of the semianthracitic coal. The remaining coals used are from South Africa, Russia, Australia, and China. The challenges at the La Robla I Station stem from the various fuels used, the characteristics of which differ from the design coal. The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the Lehigh University Energy Research Center (LUERC) undertook a program to assess problematic slagging and unburned carbon issues occurring at the plant. Full-scale combustion tests were performed under baseline conditions, with elevated oxygen level and with redistribution of air during a site visit at the plant. During these tests, operating information, observations and temperature measurements, and coal, slag deposit, and fly ash samples were obtained to assess slagging and unburned carbon. The slagging in almost all cases appeared due to elevated temperatures rather than fuel chemistry. The most severe slagging occurred when the temperature at the sampling port was in excess of 1500 C, with problematic slagging where first-observed temperatures exceeded 1350 C. The presence of anorthite crystals in the bulk of the deposits analyzed indicates that the temperatures were in excess of 1350 C, consistent with temperature measurements during the sampling period. Elevated temperatures and ''hot spots'' are probably the result of poor mill performance, and a poor distribution of the coal from the mills to the specific burners causes elevated temperatures in the regions where the slag samples were extracted. A contributing cause appeared to be poor combustion air mixing and heating, resulting in oxygen stratification and increased temperatures in certain areas. Air preheater plugging was observed and reduces the temperature of the air in the windbox, which leads to poor combustion conditions, resulting in unburned carbon as well as slagging. A second phase of the project involved advanced analysis of the baseline coal along with an Australian coal fired at the plant. These analysis results were used in equilibrium thermodynamic modeling along with a coal quality model developed by the EERC to assess slagging, fouling, and opacity for the coals. Bench-scale carbon conversion testing was performed in a drop-tube furnace to assess the reactivity of the coals. The Australian coal had a higher mineral content with significantly more clay minerals present than the baseline coal. The presence of these clay minerals, which tend to melt at relatively low temperatures, indicated a higher potential for problematic slagging than the baseline coal. However, the pyritic minerals, comprising over 25% of the baseline mineral content, may form sticky iron sulfides, leading to severe slagging in the burner region if local areas with reducing conditions exist. Modeling results indicated that neither would present significant fouling problems. The Australian coal was expected to show slagging behavior much more severe than the baseline coal except at very high furnace temperatures. However, the baseline coal was predicted to exhibit opacity problems, as well as have a higher potential for problematic calcium sulfate-based low-temperature fouling. The baseline coal had a somewhat higher reactivity than the Australian coal, which was consistent with both the lower average activation energy for the baseline coal and the greater carbon conversion at a given temperature and residence time. The activation energy of the baseline coal showed some effect of oxygen on the activation energy, with E{sub a} increasing at the lower oxygen concentration, but may be due to the scatter in the baseline coal kinetic values at the higher oxygen level tested.

Donald P. McCollor; Kurt E. Eylands; Jason D. Laumb

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Coal: Energy for the future  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report was prepared in response to a request by the US Department of energy (DOE). The principal objectives of the study were to assess the current DOE coal program vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), and to recommend the emphasis and priorities that DOE should consider in updating its strategic plan for coal. A strategic plan for research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD and C) activities for coal should be based on assumptions regarding the future supply and price of competing energy sources, the demand for products manufactured from these sources, technological opportunities, and the need to control the environmental impact of waste streams. These factors change with time. Accordingly, the committee generated strategic planning scenarios for three time periods: near-term, 1995--2005; mid-term, 2006--2020; and, long-term, 2021--2040. The report is divided into the following chapters: executive summary; introduction and scope of the study; overview of US DOE programs and planning; trends and issues for future coal use; the strategic planning framework; coal preparation, coal liquid mixtures, and coal bed methane recovery; clean fuels and specialty products from coal; electric power generation; technology demonstration and commercialization; advanced research programs; conclusions and recommendations; appendices; and glossary. 174 refs.

NONE

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Consensus Coal Production Forecast for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the consensus forecast produced in 2006, primarily from the decreased demand as a result of the current nationalConsensus Coal Production Forecast for West Virginia 2009-2030 Prepared for the West Virginia Summary 1 Recent Developments 2 Consensus Coal Production Forecast for West Virginia 10 Risks

Mohaghegh, Shahab

458

Commercialization of clean coal technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The steps to commercialization are reviewed in respect of their relative costs, the roles of the government and business sectors, and the need for scientific, technological, and economic viability. The status of commercialization of selected clean coal technologies is discussed. Case studies related to a clean coal technology are reviewed and conclusions are drawn on the factors that determine commercialization.

Bharucha, N. [Dept. of Primary Industries and Energy, Canberra (Australia)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

459

EIA -Quarterly Coal Distribution  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed NewcatalystNeutron scatteringDelawareTexasMissouri NuclearTennesseeWashington- Coal

460

Coal | Department of Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to User Group and Userof aChristinaCliffPublication Revision PolicyCoal

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu state coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Coal combustion products (CCPs  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTieCelebrate Earth DayFuelsDepartmentPolicyClean, EEREClosureHighforCoal

462

Annual Coal Distribution Tables  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved Reserves (Billion CubicCubic Feet)Year Jan FebForeign Distribution of U.S. Coal

463

Annual Coal Report 2013  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781Title: Telephone:shortOil and Natural Gas AEO2015EnergyAnnual Coal

464

Annual Coal Distribution Report  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYear JanYear Jan Feb MarAlternative0of

465

Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87 1967-2010 ImportsCubic Feet) Oil3Q 2009

466

Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87 1967-2010 ImportsCubic Feet) Oil3Q 20093Q 2009

467

Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87 1967-2010 ImportsCubic Feet) Oil3Q 20093Q

468

Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87 1967-2010 ImportsCubic Feet) Oil3Q 20093Q4Q

469

Rail Coal Transportation Rates  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30 2013 Macroeconomicper8,170Thousand2.442 3.028 3.803 3.971Feet)06Coal

470

Rail Coal Transportation Rates  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30NaturalThousand Cubic Feet) OmanThousand36,610.05 KeroseneCoal Glossary

471

Rail Coal Transportation Rates  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30NaturalThousand Cubic Feet) OmanThousand36,610.05 KeroseneCoal

472

Coal Supply Region  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87 1967-2010 ImportsCubic Feet) Oil3Qc. Real12

473

EIA - Coal Distribution  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87CBECS Public Use Data03. U.S. uraniumFormsAnnual

474

Strategic Center for Coal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBiSiteNeutron Scattering4American'!Stores Catalogof SVO ResearchCoal

475

ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Costs References . . Coal-Electric Generation Technologyon coal preparation, coal-electric generation and emissionson coal preparation, coal-electric generation and emissions

Ferrell, G.C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Coals and coal requirements for the COREX process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The utilization of non met coals for production of liquid hot metal was the motivation for the development of the COREX Process by VAI/DVAI during the 70`s. Like the conventional ironmaking route (coke oven/blast furnace) it is based on coal as source of energy and reduction medium. However, in difference to blast furnace, coal can be used directly without the necessary prestep of cokemaking. Coking ability of coals therefore is no prerequisite of suitability. Meanwhile the COREX Process is on its way to become established in ironmaking industry. COREX Plants at ISCOR, Pretoria/South Africa and POSCO Pohang/Korea, being in operation and those which will be started up during the next years comprise already an annual coal consumption capacity of approx. 5 Mio. tonnes mtr., which is a magnitude attracting the interest of industrial coal suppliers. The increasing importance of COREX as a comparable new technology forms also a demand for information regarding process requirements for raw material, especially coal, which is intended to be met here.

Heckmann, H. [Deutsche Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z