Sample records for btu r-value thermal

  1. Reduction in the thermal resistance (R-value) of loose-fill insulation and fiberglass batts due to compression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarbrough, D.W.; Wright, J.H.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is presented for calculating the thickness reduction of loose-fill insulations and fiberglass batts that result from compressive forces exerted by additional insulation. The thickness reduction is accompanied by an increase in density and a reduction in the R value of the compressed layer. Calculations for thermal resistance of two layers of insulation are given. Information in 4 appendices includes: identification of products tested (products from 3 companies); experimental values for thickness as a function of loading; Fortran programs and output; and calculated R values for stacked insulations. (MCW)

  2. The performance check between whole building thermal performance criteria and exterior wall measured clear wall R-value, thermal bridging, thermal mass, and airtightness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosny, J.; Christian, J.E.; Desjarlais, A.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Buildings Technology Center; Kossecka, E. [Polish Academy of Sciences (Poland); Berrenberg, L. [American Polysteel Forms (United States)

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the last IEA Annex 32 meeting it was proposed that the annex develop the links between level 1 (the whole building performance) and level 2 (the envelope system). This paper provides a case study of just that type of connection. An exterior wall mockup is hot box tested and modeled in the laboratory. Measurements of the steady state and dynamic behavior of this mockup are used as the basis to define the thermal bridging, thermal mass benefit and air tightness of the whole wall system. These level two performance characteristics are related to the whole building performance. They can be analyzed by a finite difference modeling of the wall assembly. An equivalent wall theory is used to convert three dimensional heat flow to one dimensional terms that capture thermal mass effects, which in turn are used in a common whole building simulation model. This paper illustrates a performance check between the thermal performance of a Massive ICF (Insulating Concrete Form) wall system mocked up (level 2) and Whole Building Performance criteria (level 1) such as total space heating and cooling loads (thermal comfort).

  3. Small (5 million Btu/h) and large (300 million Btu/h) thermal test rigs for coal and coal slurry burner development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, J.W.; Beal, P.R.; Hufton, P.F.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NEI International Combustion Ltd. of Derby, England, now operates two thermal test rigs for the development of burners capable of handling coal-water slurries (CWS). A general description of the large rig and its capacity was given. Also, the necessary conversions of the equipment to handle CWS were described. Information on the properties of the CWS was included. This consisted of chemical analysis of the parent coal and the slurry, sieve analysis of a dry sample, and viscosity versus temperature data of the CWS. The process of design development of the burner was outlined. Ten illustrations were presented, including schematic diagrams of equipment and graphs of data.

  4. Accurate BTU Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hosseini, S.; Rusnak, J. J.

    1 represents a typical arrangement in which heat is supplied to, or absorbed by the difference in temperatures of a working fluid, generally water. (See Ref. 1). Supply (TIl- Supply (Tl1 E E Heat (BTU) He.' ~ Exchange Exchange Relurn (T2... rate (BTU/unit time) ? m Mass flow rate (lb/unit time) hI' h2 = Specific enthalpy of supply and return liquid (BTU/lb) BTU C p - Average specific heat (--~----) IboF Equations 1, 2 are instantaneous values for heat flow or energy transferred...

  5. BTU Accounting for Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Redd, R. O.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , salesmen cars, over the highway trucks, facilities startup, waste used as fuel and fuels received for storage. This is a first step in the DOE's effort to establish usage guidelines for large industrial users and, we note, it requires BTU usage data...-generated electricity, heating, ventilating, air conditioning, in-plant transportation, ore hauling, raw material storage and finished product warehousing. Categories which are excluded are corporate and divisional offices, basic research, distribution centers...

  6. The effect of compression on the material R-value of fiberglass batt insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graves, R.S.; Yarbrough, D.W.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fiberglass batt insulations intended for use in buildings are labeled with an R-value and thickness at which the R-value is achieved. In some cases the insulation is installed in such a way that the label thickness is not achieved. The material R-value of fiberglass batts installed at less than full thickness will be less than the full-thickness R-value. Results are presented for values measured in accordance with ASTM C 518 for commercially available fiberglass batts at full thickness and compressed to as much as 50% of full thickness. Thermal data and the resulting correlations are presented in this paper for six products manufactured in 1990. 4 refs., 6 tabs., 8 figs.

  7. A Requirement for Significant Reduction in the Maximum BTU Input...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    A Requirement for Significant Reduction in the Maximum BTU Input Rate of Decorative Vented Gas Fireplaces Would Impose Substantial Burdens on Manufacturers A Requirement for...

  8. Moisture Management for High R-Value Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lepage, R.; Schumacher, C.; Lukachko, A.

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The following report explains the moisture-related concerns for High R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. Hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones (2, 3, 4C, 4, 5A, and 7, respectively). The simulations are informed by experience gained from past research in this area and validated by field measurement and forensic experience. The modeling program was developed to assess the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage. The peak annual moisture content of the wood based exterior sheathing was used to comparatively analyze the response to the moisture loads for each of the walls in each given city. Walls which experienced sheathing moisture contents between 20% and 28% were identified as risky, whereas those exceeding 28% were identified as very high risk. All of the wall assemblies perform well under idealized conditions. However, only the walls with exterior insulation, or cavity insulation which provides a hygrothermal function similar to exterior insulation, perform adequately when exposed to moisture loads. Walls with only cavity insulation are particularly susceptible to air leakage condensation. None of the walls performed well when a precipitation based bulk water leak was introduced to the backside of the sheathing, emphasizing the importance of proper flashing details.

  9. Sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is disclosed. The combustor includes several separately removable combustion chambers each having an annular sectoral cross section and a double-walled construction permitting separation of stresses due to pressure forces and stresses due to thermal effects. Arrangements are described for air-cooling each combustion chamber using countercurrent convective cooling flow between an outer shell wall and an inner liner wall and using film cooling flow through liner panel grooves and along the inner liner wall surface, and for admitting all coolant flow to the gas path within the inner liner wall. Also described are systems for supplying coal gas, combustion air, and dilution air to the combustion zone, and a liquid fuel nozzle for use during low-load operation. The disclosed combustor is fully air-cooled, requires no transition section to interface with a turbine nozzle, and is operable at firing temperatures of up to 3000.degree. F. or within approximately 300.degree. F. of the adiabatic stoichiometric limit of the coal gas used as fuel.

  10. Lowest Pressure Steam Saves More BTU's Than You Think

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallery, S. J.

    ABSTRACT Steam is the most transferring heat from But most steam systems LOWEST PRESSURE STEAM SAVES MORE BTU'S THAN YOU THINK Stafford J. Vallery Armstrong Machine Works Three Rivers, Michigan steam to do the process heating rather than...

  11. Environmental Permitting of a Low-BTU Coal Gasification Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murawczyk, C.; Stewart, J. T.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that merits serious consideration since only relatively small modifications to the existing oil or gas burner system may be required, and boiler derating can be minimized. The environmental permitting and planning process for a low-Btu coal gasification...

  12. Thermally Enhanced Pipe for Geothermal Applications Stphane Gonthier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geothermal Pipe · It's a thermally enhanced pipe · The pipe has a thermal conductivity of 0,40 BTU/hr ft °F Geoexchange Coalition 0,4 to 2,2 Btu hr-1 ft-1°F-1 (soil) 0,43 to 1,15 Btu hr-1 ft-1°F-1 (backfilling) 0,58 to 2,6 Btu hr-1 ft-1°F-1 (bedrock) 0,22 to 0,24 Btu hr-1 ft-1°F-1 (HDPE 3608) RESULT An insulator

  13. EIS-0007: Low Btu Coal Gasification Facility and Industrial Park

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy prepared this environmental impact statement which evaluates the potential environmental impacts that may be associated with the construction and operation of a low-Btu coal gasification facility and the attendant industrial park in Georgetown, Scott County, Kentucky.

  14. Commercial demonstration of atmospheric medium BTU fuel gas production from biomass without oxygen the Burlington, Vermont Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohrer, J.W. [Zurn/NEPCO, South Portland, MA (United States); Paisley, M. [Battelle Laboratories, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The first U.S. demonstration of a gas turbine operating on fuel gas produced by the thermal gasification of biomass occurred at Battelle Columbus Labs (BCL) during 1994 using their high throughput indirect medium Btu gasification Process Research Unit (PRU). Zurn/NEPCO was retained to build a commercial scale gas plant utilizing this technology. This plant will have a throughput rating of 8 to 12 dry tons per hour. During a subsequent phase of the Burlington project, this fuel gas will be utilized in a commercial scale gas turbine. It is felt that this process holds unique promise for economically converting a wide variety of biomass feedstocks efficiently into both a medium Btu (500 Btu/scf) gas turbine and IC engine quality fuel gas that can be burned in engines without modification, derating or efficiency loss. Others are currently demonstrating sub-commercial scale thermal biomass gasification processes for turbine gas, utilizing both atmospheric and pressurized air and oxygen-blown fluid bed processes. While some of these approaches hold merit for coal, there is significant question as to whether they will prove economically viable in biomass facilities which are typically scale limited by fuel availability and transportation logistics below 60 MW. Atmospheric air-blown technologies suffer from large sensible heat loss, high gas volume and cleaning cost, huge gas compressor power consumption and engine deratings. Pressurized units and/or oxygen-blown gas plants are extremely expensive for plant scales below 250 MW. The FERCO/BCL process shows great promise for overcoming the above limitations by utilizing an extremely high throughout circulation fluid bed (CFB) gasifier, in which biomass is fully devolitalized with hot sand from a CFB char combustor. The fuel gas can be cooled and cleaned by a conventional scrubbing system. Fuel gas compressor power consumption is reduced 3 to 4 fold verses low Btu biomass gas.

  15. Property:Geothermal/AnnualGenBtuYr | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy ResourcesLoadingPenobscot County, Maine:Plug PowerAddressDataFormat JumpNercMroURL. PagesAnnualGenBtuYr

  16. High Btu gas from peat. Existing social and economic conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1980, the Minnesota Gas Company (Minnegasco) submitted a proposal to the US Department of Energy entitled, A Feasibility Study - High Btu Gas from Peat. The proposed study was designed to assess the overall viability of the design, construction and operation of a commercial facility for the production of high-Btu substitute natural gas (SNG) from Minnesota peat. On September 30, 1980, Minnegasco was awarded a grant by the Department of Energy to perform the proposed study. In order to complete the study, Minnegasco assembled an experienced project team with the wide range of expertise required. In addition, the State of Minnesota agreed to participate in an advisory capacity. The items to be investigated by the project team during the feasibility study include peat harvesting, dewatering, gasification process design, economic and risk assessment, site evaluation, environmental and socioeconomic impact assessment. Ertec (The Earth Technology Corporation) was selected to conduct the site evaluation and environmental assessment portions of the feasibility study. The site evaluation was completed in March of 1981 with the submittal of the first of several reports to Minnegasco. This report describes the existing social and economic conditions of the proposed project area in northern Minnesota. The baseline data presented will be used to assess the significance of potential project impacts in subsequent phases of the feasibility study. Wherever possible, the data base was established using 1980 Bureau of Census statistics. However, where the 1980 data were not yet available, the most recent information is presented. 11 figures, 46 tables.

  17. The Mansfield Two-Stage, Low BTU Gasification System: Report of Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blackwell, L. T.; Crowder, J. T.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The least expensive way to produce gas from coal is by low Btu gasification, a process by which coal is converted to carbon monoxide and hydrogen by reacting it with air and steam. Low Btu gas, which is used near its point of production, eliminates...

  18. Vol. 30 no. 14 2014, pages 20912092 BIOINFORMATICS MESSAGE FROM THE ISCB doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btu117

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radivojac, Predrag

    .1093/bioinformatics/btu117 Advance Access publication March 3, 2014 The automated function prediction SIG looks back

  19. Technical and economic feasibility of a Thermal Gradient Utilization Cycle (TGUC) power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raiji, Ashok

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Conversion unit mass mass flow rate life of system Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion power pressure heat flow Rl R4 TGUC TP T2 total primary energy subsidy expressed as BTU input per 1000 BTU output thermal energy subsidy expressed... has grown in energy technologies that use renewable resources such as solar (thermal conversion, ocean thermal energy conversion, photovoltaics, wind and biomass conversion), geothermal and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) . A new concept that can...

  20. Method for producing low and medium BTU gas from coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansfield, V.; Francoeur, C.M.

    1988-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing low and medium BTU gas from carbonizable material is described which comprises: partly devolatizing the material and forming hot incandescent coke therefrom by passing a bed of the same part way through a hot furnace chamber on a first horizontally moving grate while supplying a sub-stoichiometric quantity of air to the same and driving the reactions: C + O/sub 2/ = CO/sub 2/; 2C + O/sub 2/ = 2CO discharging the hot incandescent coke from the end of the first grate run onto a second horizontally moving grate run below the first grate run in the same furnace chamber so as to form a bed thereon, the bed formed on the second grate run being considerably thicker than the bed formed on the first grate run, passing the hot incandescent coke bed on the second grate run further through the furnace chamber in a substantially horizontal direction while feeding air and stream thereto so as to fully burn the coke and in ratio of steam to air driving the following reactions: 2C + O/sub 2/ = 2CO; C + H/sub 2/O = H/sub 2/ + CO; C + 2H/sub 2/O = 2H/sub 2/ + CO/sub 2/; CO + H/sub 2/O = H/sub 2/ + CO/sub 2/ taking off the ash residue of the burned coke and taking off the gaseous products of the reactions.

  1. Recent regulatory experience of low-Btu coal gasification. Volume III. Supporting case studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ackerman, E.; Hart, D.; Lethi, M.; Park, W.; Rifkin, S.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The MITRE Corporation conducted a five-month study for the Office of Resource Applications in the Department of Energy on the regulatory requirements of low-Btu coal gasification. During this study, MITRE interviewed representatives of five current low-Btu coal gasification projects and regulatory agencies in five states. From these interviews, MITRE has sought the experience of current low-Btu coal gasification users in order to recommend actions to improve the regulatory process. This report is the third of three volumes. It contains the results of interviews conducted for each of the case studies. Volume 1 of the report contains the analysis of the case studies and recommendations to potential industrial users of low-Btu coal gasification. Volume 2 contains recommendations to regulatory agencies.

  2. Vol. 30 ISMB 2014, pages i9i18 BIOINFORMATICS doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btu259

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moret, Bernard

    Vol. 30 ISMB 2014, pages i9­i18 BIOINFORMATICS doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btu259 Evaluating synteny

  3. High-temperature turbine technology program. Turbine subsystem design report: Low-Btu gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horner, M.W.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the US Department of Energy High-Temperature Turbine Technology (DOE-HTTT) program is to bring to technology readiness a high-temperature (2600/sup 0/F to 3000/sup 0/F firing temperature) turbine within a 6- to 10-year duration, Phase II has addressed the performance of component design and technology testing in critical areas to confirm the design concepts identified in the earlier Phase I program. Based on the testing and support studies completed under Phase II, this report describes the updated turbine subsystem design for a coal-derived gas fuel (low-Btu gas) operation at 2600/sup 0/F turbine firing temperature. A commercial IGCC plant configuration would contain four gas turbines. These gas turbines utilize an existing axial flow compressor from the GE product line MS6001 machine. A complete description of the Primary Reference Design-Overall Plant Design Description has been developed and has been documented. Trends in overall plant performance improvement at higher pressure ratio and higher firing temperature are shown. It should be noted that the effect of pressure ratio on efficiency is significally enhanced at higher firing temperatures. It is shown that any improvement in overall plant thermal efficiency reflects about the same level of gain in Cost of Electricity (COE). The IGCC concepts are shown to be competitive in both performance and cost at current and near-term gas turbine firing temperatures of 1985/sup 0/F to 2100/sup 0/F. The savings that can be accumulated over a thirty-year plant life for a water-cooled gas turbine in an IGCC plant as compared to a state-of-the-art coal-fired steam plant are estimated. A total of $500 million over the life of a 1000 MW plant is projected. Also, this IGCC power plant has significant environmental advantages over equivalent coal-fired steam power plants.

  4. An analytical investigation of primary zone combustion temperatures and NOx production for turbulent jet flames using low-BTU fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carney, Christopher Mark

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research project was to identify and determine the effect of jet burner operating variables that influence combustion of low-BTU gases. This was done by simulating the combustion of a low-BTU fuel in a jet flame and predicting...

  5. Hotbox Test R-value Database and the Building Envelopes Program (BEP)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Building Envelopes Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a program within the Buildings Technology Center (BTC), the premier U.S. research facility devoted to developing technologies that improve the energy efficiency and environmental compatibility of residential and commercial buildings. Our program is divided into two parts: building envelope research, which focuses on the structural elements that enclose a building (walls, roofs and foundations), and materials research, which concentrates on the materials within the envelope systems (such as insulation). The building envelope provides the thermal barrier between the indoor and outdoor environment, and its elements are the key determinants of a building's energy requirements that result from the climate where it is located. [copied from http://www.ornl.gov/sci/roofs+walls/

  6. Understanding Utility Rates or How to Operate at the Lowest $/BTU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, J. N.

    . The lower the energy rating (KW/Ton or KW/HP or KW/BTU) the more efficient the equipment and the less demand draw on the electric power plants, thereby reducing the need to build new power plants. To encourage DSM, utilities give rebates for high...: Bob Allwein, Oklahoma Natural Gas Company. Dick Landry, Gulf States Utility. Curtis Williford, Entex Gas Company. Bret McCants, Central Power and Light Company. Frank Tanner, Southern Union. Patric Coon, West Texas utilities. ESL-IE-93...

  7. Public Health Benefits of End-Use Electrical Energy Efficiency in California: An Exploratory Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKone, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~Mwe: conversion factor from Btu to MWe-y ( 3.345 x 10- MWe-insulation R-values [fe-hr OF I Btu] for electricity heatedspecific fuel, expressed as Btu/lb coal, Btu/ gal oil, Btu/

  8. R-value Calculator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298, and 323 K.Office of Science (SC) 1|Advanced Wall

  9. High btu gas from peat. A feasibility study. Part 1. Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In September, 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a Grant (No. DE-FG01-80RA50348) to the Minnesota Gas Company (Minnegasco) to evaluate the commercial viability - technical, economic and environmental - of producing 80 million standard cubic feet per day (SCFD) of substitute natural gas (SNG) from peat. The proposed product, high Btu SNG would be a suitable substitute for natural gas which is widely used throughout the Upper Midwest by residential, commercial and industrial sectors. The study team consisted of Dravo Engineers and Constructors, Ertec Atlantic, Inc., The Institute of Gas Technology, Deloitte, Haskins and Sells and Minnegasco. Preliminary engineering and operating and financial plans for the harvesting, dewatering and gasification operations were developed. A site in Koochiching County near Margie was chosen for detailed design purposes only; it was not selected as a site for development. Environmental data and socioeconomic data were gathered and reconciled. Potential economic data were gathered and reconciled. Potential impacts - both positive and negative - were identified and assessed. The peat resource itself was evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively. Markets for plant by-products were also assessed. In summary, the technical, economic, and environmental assessment indicates that a facility producing 80 billion Btu's per day SNG from peat is not commercially viable at this time. Minnegasco will continue its efforts into the development of peat and continue to examine other options.

  10. Markets for low- and medium-Btu coal gasification: an analysis of 13 site specific studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1978 the US Department of Energy (DOE), through its Office of Resource Applications, developed a commercialization plan for low- and medium-Btu coal gasification. Several initial steps have been taken in that process, including a comprehensive study of industrial markets, issuance of a Notice of Program Interest, and funding of proposals under the Alternate Fuels Legislation (P.L. 96-126). To assist it in the further development and administration of the commercialization plan, the Office of Resource Applications has asked Booz, Allen and Hamilton to assess the market prospects for low- and medium-Btu coal gasification. This report covers the detailed findings of the study. Following the introduction which discusses the purpose of the study, approach used for the assignment and current market attitudes on coal gasification, there are three chapters on: systems configurations and applications; economic and finanical attractiveness; and summary of management decisions based on feasibility study results. The final chapter briefly assesses the management decisions. The general consensus seems to be that coal gasification is a technology that will be attractive in the future but is marginal now. 6 figures, 5 tables.

  11. Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

    1985-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone: this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe: swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone: this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

  12. Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone; this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe; swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone; this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

  13. Structural stability vs. thermal performance: old dilemma, new solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosny, J.; Christian, J.E.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In many building envelopes, actual thermal performance falls quite a bit short of nominal design parameters given in standards. Very often only windows, doors, and a small part of the wall area meet standards requirements. In the other parts of the building envelope, unaccounted thermal bridges reduce the effective thermal resistance of the insulation material. Such unaccounted heat losses compromise the thermal performance of the whole building envelope. For the proper analysis of the thermal performance of most wall and roof details, measurements and three-dimensional thermal modeling are necessary. For wall thermal analysis the whole-wall R-value calculation method can be very useful. In ties method thermal properties of all wall details are incorporated as an area weighted average. For most wall systems, the part of the wall that is traditionally analyzed, is the clear wall, that is, the flat part of the wall that is uninterrupted by details. It comprises only 50 to 80% of the total area of the opaque wall. The remaining 20 to 50% of the wall area is not analyzed nor are its effects incorporated in the thermal performance calculations. For most of the wall technologies, traditionally estimated R-values are 20 to 30% higher than whole-wall R-values. Such considerable overestimation of wall thermal resistance leads to significant errors in building heating and cooling load estimations. In this paper several examples are presented of the use of the whole-wall R-value procedure for building envelope components. The advantages of the use of the whole wall R-value calculation procedure are also discussed. For several building envelope components, traditional clear-wall R-values are compared with the results of whole-wall thermal analysis to highlight significant limits on the use of the traditional methods and the advantages of advanced computer modeling.

  14. STATE OF CALIFORNIA SPACE CONDITIONING SYSTEMS, DUCTS AND FANS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , crawl- space, etc.) Duct R-value Heating Load (Btu/hr) Heating Capacity (Btu/hr) Equip Type (package Load (Btu/hr) Cooling Capacity (Btu/hr) 1. If project is new construction, see Footnotes to Standards

  15. Thermal performance of steel-framed walls. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbour, E. [NAHB Research Center, Inc., Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Goodrow, J. [Holometrix, Inc., Bedford, MA (United States); Kosny, J.; Christian, J.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In wall construction, highly conductive members spaced along the wall, which allow higher heat transfer than that through less conductive areas, are referred to as thermal bridges. Thermal bridges in walls tend to increase heat loss and, under certain adverse conditions, can cause dust streaking (``ghosting``) on interior walls over studs due to temperature differentials, as well as condensation in and on walls. Although such adverse conditions can be easily avoided by proper thermal design of wall systems, these effects have not been well understood and thermal data has been lacking. Therefore, the present study was initiated to provide (1) a better understanding of the thermal behavior of steel-framed walls, (2) a set of R-values for typical wall constructions, and (3) information that could be used to develop improved methods of predicting R-values. An improved method for estimating R-value would allow an equitable comparison of thermal performance with other construction types and materials. This would increase the number of alternative materials for walls available to designers, thus allowing them to choose the optimum choice for construction. Twenty-three wall samples were tested in a calibrated hot box (ASTM C9761) to measure the thermal performance of steel-framed wall systems. The tests included an array of stud frame configurations, exterior sheathing and fiberglass batt insulations. Other studies have not included the use of insulating sheathing, which reduces the extent of the thermal bridges and improves total thermal performance. The purpose of the project was to provide measured R-values for commonly used steel-framed wall configurations and to improve R-value estimating methods. Test results were compared to R-value estimates using the parallel path method, the isothermal planes method and the ASHRAE Zone method. The comparison showed that the known procedures do not fully account for the three-dimensional effects created by steel framing in a wall.

  16. High Btu gas from peat. A feasibility study. Part 2. Management plans for project continuation. Task 10. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this task, which was the responsibility of the Minnesota Gas Company, was to determine the needs of the project upon completion of the feasibility study and determine how to implement them most effectively. The findings of the study do not justify the construction of an 80 billion Btu/day SNG from peat plant. At the present time Minnegasco will concentrate on other issues of peat development. Other processes, other products, different scales of operation - these are the issues that Minnegasco will continue to study. 3 references.

  17. The effect of CO? on the flammability limits of low-BTU gas of the type obtained from Texas lignite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaines, William Russell

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) . If the L. used are the lower limits of 1 the individual components, then Equation (1) will yield the lower flammability limit of the mixture (Zabetakis, 1965) . If the inert gases nitrogen or carbon dioxide are present, the Equation (1) may still... gas cylinders with the exception of the air which was atmospheric. The carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrogen came from commercial sources in high- pressure cylinders. The low-BTU gas consisting of 20. 89% CO, 2 . 65% CH4, 0 . 2% C2H6, 15 . 37% H2...

  18. COMPCOAL{trademark}: A profitable process for production of a stable high-Btu fuel from Powder River Basin coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, V.E.; Merriam, N.W.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Western Research Institute (WRI) is developing a process to produce a stable, clean-burning, premium fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and other low-rank coals. This process is designed to overcome the problems of spontaneous combustion, dust formation, and readsorption of moisture that are experienced with PRB coal and with processed PRB coal. This process, called COMPCOAL{trademark}, results in high-Btu product that is intended for burning in boilers designed for midwestern coals or for blending with other coals. In the COMPCOAL process, sized coal is dried to zero moisture content and additional oxygen is removed from the coal by partial decarboxylation as the coal is contacted by a stream of hot fluidizing gas in the dryer. The hot, dried coal particles flow into the pyrolyzer where they are contacted by a very small flow of air. The oxygen in the air reacts with active sites on the surface of the coal particles causing the temperature of the coal to be raised to about 700{degrees}F (371{degrees}C) and oxidizing the most reactive sites on the particles. This ``instant aging`` contributes to the stability of the product while only reducing the heating value of the product by about 50 Btu/lb. Less than 1 scf of air per pound of dried coal is used to avoid removing any of the condensible liquid or vapors from the coal particles. The pyrolyzed coal particles are mixed with fines from the dryer cyclone and dust filter and the resulting mixture at about 600{degrees}F (316{degrees}C) is fed into a briquettor. Briquettes are cooled to about 250{degrees}F (121{degrees}C) by contact with a mist of water in a gas-tight mixing conveyor. The cooled briquettes are transferred to a storage bin where they are accumulated for shipment.

  19. Microfabricated BTU monitoring device for system-wide natural gas monitoring.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Einfeld, Wayne; Manginell, Ronald Paul; Robinson, Alex Lockwood; Moorman, Matthew Wallace

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The natural gas industry seeks inexpensive sensors and instrumentation to rapidly measure gas heating value in widely distributed locations. For gas pipelines, this will improve gas quality during transfer and blending, and will expedite accurate financial accounting. Industrial endusers will benefit through continuous feedback of physical gas properties to improve combustion efficiency during use. To meet this need, Sandia has developed a natural gas heating value monitoring instrument using existing and modified microfabricated components. The instrument consists of a silicon micro-fabricated gas chromatography column in conjunction with a catalytic micro-calorimeter sensor. A reference thermal conductivity sensor provides diagnostics and surety. This combination allows for continuous calorimetric determination with a 1 minute analysis time and 1.5 minute cycle time using air as a carrier gas. This system will find application at remote natural gas mining stations, pipeline switching and metering stations, turbine generators, and other industrial user sites. Microfabrication techniques will allow the analytical components to be manufactured in production quantities at a low per-unit cost.

  20. System and process for the abatement of casting pollution, reclaiming resin bonded sand, and/or recovering a low BTU fuel from castings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scheffer, Karl D. (121 Governor Dr., Scotia, NY 12302)

    1984-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Air is caused to flow through the resin bonded mold to aid combustion of the resin binder to form a low BTU gas fuel. Casting heat is recovered for use in a waste heat boiler or other heat abstraction equipment. Foundry air pollution is reduced, the burned portion of the molding sand is recovered for immediate reuse and savings in fuel and other energy is achieved.

  1. System and process for the abatement of casting pollution, reclaiming resin bonded sand, and/or recovering a low Btu fuel from castings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scheffer, K.D.

    1984-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Air is caused to flow through the resin bonded mold to aid combustion of the resin binder to form a low Btu gas fuel. Casting heat is recovered for use in a waste heat boiler or other heat abstraction equipment. Foundry air pollutis reduced, the burned portion of the molding sand is recovered for immediate reuse and savings in fuel and other energy is achieved. 5 figs.

  2. Thermal performance of typical light frame walls with reflective surface insulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, R.G. (Jim Walter Research Corp., St. Petersburg, FL (US)); Riskowski, G.L.; Christianson, L.L. (Agricultural Engineering Dept., Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (US))

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of tests were conducted in a guarded hotbox to evaluate the thermal performance (R-value) of wall constructions typical of light-frame buildings that are commonly used in agricultural applications. The systems were insulated with either a commercially available foil-faced bubble pack material (FFBP) or foil-faced polyisocyanurate (PIR) foam board. Tests were conducted under two different temperature conditions, chosen to be representative of a midwestern winter and summer. This paper reports temperatures of the surfaces bounding the reflective airspaces measured and the R-value calculated. These data were used in the ASHRAE series/parallel calculations and the resultant R-value was compared to the measured R-value. Agreement was usually better than 10%.

  3. Performance Criteria for Residential Zero Energy Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Huang, Joe; Kohler, Christian; Mitchell, Robin

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CA) MEC Zone MEC Pkg # Glz % Btu/h-ft2-F Fenestration U-factor W/m2-K (h-ft2-F)/Btu Ceiling R-value (m2-K)/W (h-ft2-F)/Btu Wall R-value (m2-K)/W (h-ft2-F)/Btu Floor

  4. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF MANAGED WINDOW SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S. E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    plus .35 m2 K/W (2 hr ft 2 F/Btu) for single-glazing, and52 m2 -K/W (2 hr-ft 2 - F/Btu) for double-glazing, assumingthan .85 m -K/W (5 hr-ftL-F/Btu) diminish rapidly and would

  5. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF INSULATING WINDOW SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of .16 m2K/W (.91 hrft2.oF/Btu) for the combined thermalvalue of 6.25 ~;m2.K (1 .1 Btu/hrft F) might be reduced3.4- 4.5 w;m2K (.6- .8 Btu/hr'ft F). Some techniques for

  6. Insulation products promote thermal efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chalmers, R.

    1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The judicious use of thermal insulation products in non-residential buildings can provide a number of advantages including increased energy efficiency, lower first costs (by avoiding overside HVAC systems), improved fire safety and better acoustics. Thermal insulation products are those products which retard the flow of heat energy. Materials include glass, plastics, and organic materials such as wood fibers, vermiculite and perlite. Forms range from the familiar batts and blankets of glass fibers to foamed plastic, rigid boards, losse fill and systems combining two or more products, such as polystyrene boards covered with insulating plaster. The R values of selected insulation materials with a cost/sq. ft. of each material at R 10 are given. Costs cover both the material and installation and may vary depending on local conditions.

  7. UPGRADING METHANE USING ULTRA-FAST THERMAL SWING ADSORPTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anna Lee Tonkovich

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project is to design and demonstrate an approach to upgrade low-BTU methane streams from coal mines to pipeline-quality natural gas. The objective of Phase I of the project was to assess the feasibility of upgrading low-Btu methane streams using ultra-fast thermal swing adsorption (TSA) using Velocys' modular microchannel process technology. The project is on schedule and under budget. For Task 1.1, the open literature, patent information, and vendor contacts were surveyed to identify adsorbent candidates for experimental validation and subsequent demonstration in an MPT-based ultra-fast TSA separation for methane upgrading. The leading candidates for preferential adsorption of methane over nitrogen are highly microporous carbons. A Molecular Gate{trademark} zeolite from Engelhard Corporation has emerged as a candidate. For Task 1.2, experimental evaluation of adsorbents was initiated, and data were collected on carbon (MGN-101) from PICA, Inc. This carbon demonstrated a preferential capacity for methane over nitrogen, as well as a reasonable thermal swing differential capacity for a 90% methane and 10% nitrogen mixture. A similar methane swing capacity at 2 psig was measured. The mixture composition is relevant because gob gas contains nearly 85% methane and must be purified to 97% methane for pipeline quality.

  8. INTERACTION OF A SOLAR SPACE HEATING SYSTEM WITH THE THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF A BUILDING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vilmer, Christian

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    constant: TBM 6.8 min 279. Btu/hr-F) Switch Differential:0.44 C (0.79 F) 504, Btu/hr-F) Coefficient c(: FurnaceR l/R 1/R 128 WJC ( 243. Btu/hr-F) 1640 WJC (3111. Btu/

  9. Thermal Fluids

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Fluids The Thermal Fluids and Heat Transfer program works on thermal hydraulic reactor safety code development and experimental heat transferthermal hydraulics. The...

  10. Upgrading Methane Using Ultra-Fast Thermal Swing Adsorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anna Lee Tonkovich

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project is to design and demonstrate an approach to upgrade low-BTU methane streams from coal mines to pipeline-quality natural gas. The objective of Phase I of the project was to assess the technical feasibility and cost of upgrading low-BTU methane streams using ultra-fast thermal swing adsorption (TSA) using Velocys modular microchannel process technology. The objective of Phase II is to demonstrate the process at the bench-scale. Natural gas upgrading systems have six main unit operations: feed compressor, dehydration unit, nitrogen rejection unit, deoxygenator, carbon dioxide scrubber, and a sales compressor. The NRU is the focus of the development program, and a bench-scale demonstration has been initiated. The Velocys NRU system targets producing methane with greater than 96% purity and at least 90% recovery for final commercial operation. A preliminary cost analysis of the methane upgrading system, including the Velocys NRU, suggests that costs below $2.00 per million (MM) BTU methane may be achieved. The cost for a conventional methane upgrading system is well above $2.30 per MM BTU, as benchmarked in an Environmental Protection Agency study. The project is on schedule and on budget. Task 4, a bench-scale demonstration of the ultra-fast TSA system is complete. Rapid thermal swing of an adsorbent bed using microchannels has been successfully demonstrated and the separation of a 70% methane and 30% nitrogen was purified to 92% methane. The bench-scale demonstration unit was small relative to the system dead volume for the initial phase of experiments and a purge step was added to sweep the dead volume prior to desorbing the bed and measuring purity. A technical and economic feasibility assessment was completed in Task 3. The proposed Velocys technology appears feasible for the methane upgrading market. Evaluated categories include adsorbent selection, rapid-cycle valve selection, microchannel manufacturability assessment, and system design and cost. The selected adsorbent, granular microporous carbon from either Barnaby-Sutcliffe or Calgon, experimentally demonstrated sufficient methane capacity under differential temperature at 100 pounds per square inch gauge. Several valve options were identified, including candidates that can operate millions of cycles between refurbishment. The microchannel adsorber and desorber designs were made using internal Velocys manufacturability standards, and the associated costs are acceptable as included with the complete nitrogen rejection unit (NRU) cost projection. A system design and cost estimate was completed for the NRU section of the methane upgrading system. As integrated into the complete system, the cost is in line with the market requirement.

  11. Commercial low-Btu coal-gasification plant. Feasibility study: General Refractories Company, Florence, Kentucky. Volume I. Project summary. [Wellman-Galusha

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to a 1980 Department of Energy solicitation, the General Refractories Company submitted a Proposal for a feasibility study of a low Btu gasification facility for its Florence, KY plant. The proposed facility would substitute low Btu gas from a fixed bed gasifier for natural gas now used in the manufacture of insulation board. The Proposal from General Refractories was prompted by a concern over the rising costs of natural gas, and the anticipation of a severe increase in fuel costs resulting from deregulation. The proposed feasibility study is defined. The intent is to provide General Refractories with the basis upon which to determine the feasibility of incorporating such a facility in Florence. To perform the work, a Grant for which was awarded by the DOE, General Refractories selected Dravo Engineers and Contractors based upon their qualifications in the field of coal conversion, and the fact that Dravo has acquired the rights to the Wellman-Galusha technology. The LBG prices for the five-gasifier case are encouraging. Given the various natural gas forecasts available, there seems to be a reasonable possibility that the five-gasifier LBG prices will break even with natural gas prices somewhere between 1984 and 1989. General Refractories recognizes that there are many uncertainties in developing these natural gas forecasts, and if the present natural gas decontrol plan is not fully implemented some financial risks occur in undertaking the proposed gasification facility. Because of this, General Refractories has decided to wait for more substantiating evidence that natural gas prices will rise as is now being predicted.

  12. THE MOBILE WINDOW THERMAL TEST FACILITY (MoWiTT)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klems, J. H.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    facilitieso For a 2 K/W (10 BTU- 1 ft 2 hr F) is reasonable;or 0005 W m- 2 K- l (0.01 BTU hr- 1 ft- 2 ). For a commonthis becomes 0.05 W/K (0.1 BTU hr- 1 F- 1 ). (approximately

  13. Upgrading Methane Using Ultra-Fast Thermal Swing Adsorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anna Lee Tonkovich

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project is to design and demonstrate an approach to upgrade low-BTU methane streams from coal mines to pipeline-quality natural gas. The objective of Phase I of the project was to assess the technical feasibility and cost of upgrading low-BTU methane streams using ultra-fast thermal swing adsorption (TSA) using Velocys modular microchannel process technology. The objective of Phase II is to demonstrate the process at the bench scale. The project is on schedule and on budget. A technical and economic feasibility assessment was completed in Task 3. The proposed Velocys technology appears feasible for the methane upgrading market. Evaluated categories include adsorbent selection, rapid-cycle valve selection, microchannel manufacturability assessment, and system design and cost. The selected adsorbent, granular microporous carbon from either Barnaby-Sutcliffe or Calgon, experimentally demonstrated sufficient methane capacity under differential temperature at 100 pounds per square inch gauge. Several valve options were identified, including candidates that can operate millions of cycles between refurbishment. The microchannel adsorber and desorber designs were made using internal Velocys manufacturability standards, and the associated costs are acceptable as included with the complete nitrogen rejection unit (NRU) cost projection. A system design and cost estimate was completed for the NRU section of the methane upgrading system. As integrated into the complete system, the cost is in line with the market requirement. The system has six main unit operations: feed compressor, dehydration unit, nitrogen rejection unit, deoxygenator, carbon dioxide scrubber, and a sales compressor. The NRU is the focus of the development program, and a bench-scale demonstration will be initiated in the next fiscal year. The Velocys NRU system targets producing methane with greater than 96% purity and at least 90% recovery for final commercial operation. A preliminary cost analysis of the methane upgrading system, including the Velocys NRU, suggests that costs below $2.00 per million (MM) BTU methane may be achieved. The cost for a conventional methane upgrading system is well above $2.30 per MM BTU, as benchmarked in an Environmental Protection Agency study.

  14. Effects of Framing on the Thermal Performance of Wood and Steel-Framed Walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kosny, J.; Yarbrough, D. W.; Childs, P.; Mohiuddin, S. A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    members as well as insulation imperfections [13]. Building load calculation programs like Manual J [14] also does not incorporate these thermal anomalies. Previous ORNL research demonstrated that about 10% to 15% of the US residential energy consumption... of nominal 2x4 inch wood and steel-framed walls insulated with R-13 hft 2 F/BTU (3.5-in. thick) fiberglass batts were tested in the ORNL guarded hot box in accordance with ASTM C 1363. In these walls, nominal 2x4 inch wood or steel studs were constructed...

  15. 7-55E An office that is being cooled adequately by a 12,000 Btu/h window air-conditioner is converted to a computer room. The number of additional air-conditioners that need to be installed is to be determined.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    7-20 7-55E An office that is being cooled adequately by a 12,000 Btu/h window air-conditioner is converted to a computer room. The number of additional air-conditioners that need to be installed/h. Then noting that each available air conditioner provides 4,000 Btu/h cooling, the number of air- conditioners

  16. THERMAL ANALYSIS OF 3013/9975 CONFIGURATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, N.

    2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The 3013 containers are designed in accordance with the DOE-STD-3013-2004 and are qualified to store plutonium (Pu) bearing materials for 50 years. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) certified Model 9975 shipping package is used to transport the 3013 containers to the K-Area Material Storage (KAMS) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and to store the containers until the plutonium can be properly dispositioned. Detailed thermal analyses to support the storage in the KAMS facility are given in References 2, 3, and 4. The analyses in this paper serve to provide non-accident condition, non-bounding, specific 3013 container temperatures for use in the surveillance activities. This paper presents a methodology where critical component temperatures are estimated using numerical methods over a range of package and storage parameters. The analyses include factors such as ambient storage temperature and the content weight, density, heat generation rate, and fill height, that may impact the thermal response of the packages. Statistical methods are used to develop algebraic equations for ease of computations to cover the factor space. All computations were performed in BTU-FT-Hr-{sup o}F units.

  17. First BTU | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublicIDAPowerPlantSitingConstruction.pdfNotify98.pdf Jump to:Siting.pdf JumpFirelands Electric Coop,

  18. California's Energy Future - The View to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gge) (kg H 2 ) (million Btu) tons) Electricity (kWh) GaseousH 2 ) Thermal (million Btu) Biomass (dry tons) Electricity (2 (MtH 2 ). Thermal (million Btu, TBtu): One million British

  19. Californias Energy Future: The View to 2050 - Summary Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gge) (kg H 2 ) (million Btu) tons) Electricity (kWh) GaseousH 2 ) Thermal (million Btu) Biomass (dry tons) Electricity (2 (MtH 2 ). Thermal (million Btu, TBtu): One million British

  20. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, M.T.; Basaran, O.A.; Kollie, T.G.; Weaver, F.J.

    1996-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm{sup 3} and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m{sup 2}/g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraalkyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders. 2 figs.

  1. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Basaran, Osman A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Weaver, Fred J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2/ g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

  2. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Basaran, Osman A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Weaver, Fred J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2 /g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

  3. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Basaran, Osman A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Weaver, Fred J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2/ g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

  4. Energy Management A Program of Energy Conservation for the Community College Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    General Glossary I II Btu (British thermal unit). The amountabove a fixed data point (in Btu/lb), including sensible andsquare centimeter, or 3.69 Btu/per square foot. LA TENT HEA

  5. Heat transfer pathways in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, F.; Jin, H.; Webster, T.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    coefficient, W/(m 2 ?K) (Btu/[h?ft 2 ?F]) downwardcoefficient, W/(m 2 ?K) (Btu/[h?ft 2 ? F]) forcedcoefficient, W/(m 2 ?K) (Btu/[h?ft 2 ?F]) slab thermal

  6. MEASURING ENERGY CONSERVATION WITH UTILITY BILLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deckel, Walter

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in British Thermal Units, BTU, for these comparisons. Themade by noting that there are 100,000 BTU's in one therm andthat there are 3413 BTU's in one kilowatt hour. It should be

  7. ANALYSIS OF THE CALIFORNIA ENERGY INDUSTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Input fuel quantities (in BTU) which account for thermalOutput energy (in BTU). Includes biomass, accounted asMWE) COIL FIRED peWER PLINT-lew BTU 1800 MWEI ~UlFUA O~IOE

  8. Ferrocyanide safety program: Heat load and thermal characteristics determination for selected tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLaren, J.M.; Cash, R.J.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An analysis was conducted to determine the heat loads, conductivities, and heat distributions of waste tanks 241-BY-105, -106, -108, -110, -111, and 241-C-109 at the Hanford Site. The heat distribution of tank 241-BY-111 was determined to be homogeneously distributed throughout the sludge contained in the tank. All of the other tanks, with the exception of 241-C-109, showed evidence of a heat-producing layer at the bottom of the tanks. No evidence of a heat-producing layer in a position above the bottom was found. The thermal conductivities were determined to be within the ranges found by previous laboratory and computer analysis. The heat loads of the tanks were found to be below 2.81 kW (9,600 Btu/hr).

  9. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    using aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlinedmatical Modeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers,"ings of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Workshop, Lawrence

  10. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlined aboveModeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers," Proceed-ings of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Workshop, Lawrence

  11. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    using aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlinedmatical Modeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers,"Proceed- ings of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Workshop,

  12. Thermal conductivity of thermal-battery insulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Moss, M.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal conductivities of a variety of insulating materials used in thermal batteries were measured in atmospheres of argon and helium using several techniques. (Helium was used to simulate the hydrogen atmosphere that results when a Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2} thermal battery ages.) The guarded-hot-plate method was used with the Min-K insulation because of its extremely low thermal conductivity. For comparison purposes, the thermal conductivity of the Min-K insulating board was also measured using the hot-probe method. The thermal-comparator method was used for the rigid Fiberfrax board and Fiberfrax paper. The thermal conductivity of the paper was measured under several levels of compression to simulate the conditions of the insulating wrap used on the stack in a thermal battery. The results of preliminary thermal-characterization tests with several silica aerogel materials are also presented.

  13. Thermal storage for solar cooling using paired ammoniated salt reactors. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of the program were to investigate the feasibility of using various solid and liquid ammoniates in heat pump/thermal storage systems for space heating and cooling. The study included corrosion testing of selected metallic and non-metallic specimens in the ammoniates, subscale testing of the candidate ammoniates singly and in pairs, trade studies and conceptual design of a residential system, prototype testing, and ammoniation/deammoniation cyclic testing of manganese chloride. Results of the corrosion testing showed that problems exist with manganese and magnesium chloride ammoniates, except with the teflon which displayed excellent resistance in all environments. Also, all liquid ammoniates are unsuitable for use with uncoated carbon steel. Cycling of the manganese chloride between the high and low ammoniates does not affect its properties. However, the density change between the high and low ammoniates could cause packing problems in a reactor which constrains the salt volume. Subscale tests with solid ammoniates indicated that the heat transfer coefficient in a fixed bed reactor is low (approx. 1 Btu/h-ft/sup 2/-/sup 0/F). Therefore solid ammoniates are not practical because of the high heat exchanger cost requirement. Forced ammonia recirculation was tested as a means of increasing heat transfer rate in the fixed bed reactor with solid salts, but was not successful. Conversely, the subscale testing with liquid ammoniates produced heat transfer coefficients of 40 to 45 Btu/h-ft/sup 2/-/sup 0/F. Thus, the residential design was based on a liquid ammoniate/ammonia system using ammonium nitrate as the salt.

  14. High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production This...

  15. SolarOil Project, Phase I preliminary design report. [Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baccaglini, G.; Bass, J.; Neill, J.; Nicolayeff, V.; Openshaw, F.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The preliminary design of the Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery (SolarOil) Plant is described in this document. This plant is designed to demonstrate that using solar thermal energy is technically feasible and economically viable in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The SolarOil Plant uses the fixed mirror solar concentrator (FMSC) to heat high thermal capacity oil (MCS-2046) to 322/sup 0/C (611/sup 0/F). The hot fluid is pumped from a hot oil storage tank (20 min capacity) through a once-through steam generator which produces 4.8 MPa (700 psi) steam at 80% quality. The plant net output, averaged over 24 hr/day for 365 days/yr, is equivalent to that of a 2.4 MW (8.33 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr) oil-fired steam generator having an 86% availability. The net plant efficiency is 57.3% at equinox noon, a 30%/yr average. The plant will be demonstrated at an oilfield site near Oildale, California.

  16. Seasonal thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, R.D.; Kannberg, L.D.; Raymond, J.R.

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the following: (1) the US Department of Energy Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program, (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology, (3) alternative STES technology, (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage, and (5) economic assessment.

  17. THERMAL BUILDING PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION USING SPATIAL ARCHETYPES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papalambros, Panos

    is spent for heating and cooling systems, see Figure 1.2. Figure 1.1 Primary energy consumption by sector, 1970-2020 in quadrillion Btu (EIA, 2001) Figure 1.2 Residential Primary Energy Consumption by end use encouragement, love and support #12;1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1. Energy Consumption Energy conscious building

  18. STAFF PAPER THERMAL EFFICIENCY OF GASFIRED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is the primary reason for the decline in California's systemwide heat rate. Keywords: Combined cycle 5: Heat Rates for California's Natural GasFired Power Plants (Btu/kWh) ...................... 8 in generation from newer combined cycle plants and a reduced dependence on generation from aging power plants

  19. Thermal unobtainiums? The perfect thermal conductor and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    contribute to thermal resistance · Isotopically pure diamond has highest thermal conductivity of any material materials: disordered layered crystals Conclude with some thoughts on promising, high-risk, research even in a computer model. #12;Thermal resistance is created by Umklapp scattering (U

  20. Experimental program for the development of peat gasification. Process designs and cost estimates for the manufacture of 250 billion Btu/day SNG from peat by the PEATGAS Process. Interim report No. 8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arora, J.L.; Tsaros, C.L.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents process designs for the manufacture of 250 billion Btu's per day of SNG by the PEATGAS Process from peats. The purpose is to provide a preliminary assessment of the process requirements and economics of converting peat to SNG by the PEATGAS Process and to provide information needed for the Department of Energy (DOE) to plan the scope of future peat gasification studies. In the process design now being presented, peat is dried to 35% moisture before feeding to the PEATGAS reactor. This is the basic difference between the Minnesota peat case discussed in the current report and that presented in the Interim Report No. 5. The current design has overall economic advantages over the previous design. In the PEATGAS Process, peat is gasified at 500 psig in a two-stage reactor consisting of an entrained-flow hydrogasifier followed by a fluidized-bed char gasifier using steam and oxygen. The gasifier operating conditions and performance are necessarily based on the gasification kinetic model developed for the PEATGAS reactor using the laboratory- and PDU-scale data as of March 1978 and April 1979, respectively. On the basis of the available data, this study concludes that, although peat is a low-bulk density and low heating value material requiring large solids handling costs, the conversion of peat to SNG appears competitive with other alternatives being considered for producing SNG because of its very favorable gasification characteristics (high methane formation tendency and high reactivity). As a direct result of the encouraging technical and economic results, DOE is planning to modify the HYGAS facility in order to begin a peat gasification pilot plant project.

  1. Thermal Control & System Integration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The thermal control and system integration activity focuses on issues such as the integration of motor and power control technologies and the development of advanced thermal control technologies....

  2. Improving the thermal performance of the US residential window stock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, R.E.; Arasteh, D.K.; Eto, J.H.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Windows have typically been the least efficient thermal component in the residential envelope, but technology advances over the past decade have helped to dramatically improve the energy efficiency of window products. While the thermal performance of these advanced technology windows can be easily characterized for a particular building application, few precise estimates exist of their aggregate impact on national or regional energy use. Policy-makers, utilities, researchers and the fenestration industry must better understand these products` ultimate conservation potential in order to determine the value of developing new products and initiating programs to accelerate their market acceptance. This paper presents a method to estimate the conservation potential of advanced window technologies, combining elements of two well-known modeling paradigms: supply curves of conserved energy and residential end-use forecasting. The unique features include: detailed descriptions of the housing stock by region and vintage, state-of-the-art thermal descriptions of window technologies, and incorporation of market effects to calculate achievable conservation potential and timing. We demonstrate the methodology by comparing, for all new houses built between 1990 and 2010, the conservation potential of very efficient, high R-value ``superwindows`` in the North Central federal region and spectrally-selective low-emissivity (moderate Revalue and solar transmittance) windows in California.

  3. Thermal Analysis of a Uranium Silicide Miniplate Irradiation Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna Post Guillen

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper outlines the thermal analysis for the irradiation of high density uranium-silicide (U3Si2 dispersed in an aluminum matrix and clad in aluminum) booster fuel for a Boosted Fast Flux Loop designed to provide fast neutron flux test capability in the ATR. The purpose of this experiment (designated as Gas Test Loop-1 [GTL-1]) is two-fold: (1) to assess the adequacy of the U3Si2/Al dispersion fuel and the aluminum alloy 6061 cladding, and (2) to verify stability of the fuel cladding boehmite pre-treatment at nominal power levels in the 430 to 615 W/cm2 (2.63 to 3.76 Btu/sin2) range. The GTL-1 experiment relies on a difficult balance between achieving a high heat flux, yet keeping fuel centerline temperature below a specified maximum value throughout an entire operating cycle of the reactor. A detailed finite element model was constructed to calculate temperatures and heat flux levels and to reveal which experiment parameters place constraints on reactor operations. Analyses were performed to determine the bounding lobe power level at which the experiment could be safely irradiated, yet still provide meaningful data under nominal operating conditions. Then, simulations were conducted for nominal and bounding lobe power levels under steady-state and transient conditions with the experiment in the reactor. Reactivity changes due to a loss of commercial power with pump coast-down to emergency flow or a standard in-pile tube pump discharge break were evaluated. The time after shutdown for which the experiment can be adequately cooled by natural convection cooling was determined using a system thermal hydraulic model. An analysis was performed to establish the required in-reactor cooling time prior to removal of the experiment from the reactor. The inclusion of machining tolerances in the numerical model has a large effect on heat transfer.

  4. Condensing economizers for thermal efficiency improvements and emissions control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heaphy, J.P.; Carbonara, J. [Consolidated Edison Co. of New York, Inc., New York, NY (United States); Litzke, W.; Butcher, T.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Flue gas condensing economizers improve the thermal efficiency of boilers by recovering sensible heat and water vapor latent heat from flue gas exhaust. In addition to improving thermal efficiency, condensing economizers also have the potential to act as control devices for emissions of particulates, SO{sub x}, and air toxics. Both Consolidated Edison of New York and Brookhaven National LaborAtory are currently working on condensing economizer technology with an emphasis on developing their potential for emissions control. Con Edison is currently conducting a condensing economizer demonstration at their oil-fired 74th Street Station in New York. Since installing this equipment in February of 1992 a heat rate improvement of 800 Btu/kWh has been seen. At another location, Ravenswood Station, a two stage condensing economizer has been installed in a pilot test. In this advanced configuration -the ``Integrated Flue Gas Treatment or IFGT system- two heat exchanger sections are installed and sprays of water with and without SO{sub 2} sorbents are included. Detailed studies of the removal of particulates, SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, and selected air toxics have been done for a variety of operating conditions. Removal efficiencies for SO{sub 2} have been over 98% and for SO{sub 3} over 65%. Brookhaven National Laboratory`s studies involve predicting and enhancing particulate capture in condensing economizers with an emphasis on small, coal-fired applications. This work is funded by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the Department of Energy. Flyash capture efficiencies as high as 97% have been achieved to date with a single stage economizer.

  5. Advanced thermal processing alternatives for solid waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niessen, W.R. [Camp Dresser & McKee Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1990`s have seen a resurgence of interest in the development of new thermal processing alternatives for municipal solid waste (MSW). Sparked by increasingly stringent environmental regulations, much of this creative energy has been applied to technologies for the gasification of MSW: converting the solid, hard to handle material into a clean, medium to high-Btu fuel gas. Other developers have focussed on full combustion technology but with a {open_quotes}twist{close_quotes} that lowers emissions or reduces cost. A comprehensive study of these new technologies was recently completed under the sponsorship of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy. The study characterized the state-of-the-art among emerging MSW thermal processing technologies that have reached the point of `incipient commercialization.` More than 45 technologies now under development were screened to develop a short list of seven processes that have passed through the idea stage, laboratory and benchscale testing, and have been prototyped at an MSW feed rate of at least several tons per hour. In-depth review of these seven included inspections of operating pilot or prototype units and a detailed analysis of technical, environmental and economic feasibility issues. No attempt was made to select `the best` technology since best can only be defined in the context of the constraints, aspirations and circumstances of a specific, local situation. The basic flowsheet, heat and material balances and available environmental data were summarized to help the reader grasp the underlying technical concepts and their embodiment in hardware. Remaining development needs, as seen by the study team are presented. Economic analysis shows the general balance of capital and operating costs.

  6. Reducing Thermal Losses and Gains With Buried and Encapsulated Ducts in Hot-Humid Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, C.; Magee, A.; Zoeller, W.

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) monitored three houses in Jacksonville, FL, to investigate the effectiveness of encapsulated and encapsulated/buried ducts in reducing thermal losses and gains from ductwork in unconditioned attics. Burying ductwork beneath loose-fill insulation has been identified as an effective method of reducing thermal losses and gains from ductwork in dry climates, but it is not applicable in humid climates where condensation may occur on the outside of the duct jacket. By encapsulating the ductwork in closed cell polyurethane foam (ccSPF) before burial beneath loose-fill mineral fiber insulation, the condensation potential may be reduced while increasing the R-value of the ductwork.

  7. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a better thermal conductance and when ceramic particles areor ceramic fillers that enhances thermal conductivity. Solid

  8. Production of low BTU gas from biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Yung N.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. To utilize this untapped resource, several tech- nologies were proposed. Among them were pyrolysis, gasification and combustion. As the study group ' s objective was focused on actual farm usage, pyrolysis This thesis follows the style and format... for combustion is simple relative to the gasification or pyrolysis and construc- tion and operation of the necessary equipment should also be easier. However, the final product of com- bustion, steam energy, cannot be stored for long periods of time...

  9. Catalytic reactor for low-Btu fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Lance (North Haven, CT); Etemad, Shahrokh (Trumbull, CT); Karim, Hasan (Simpsonville, SC); Pfefferle, William C. (Madison, CT)

    2009-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved catalytic reactor includes a housing having a plate positioned therein defining a first zone and a second zone, and a plurality of conduits fabricated from a heat conducting material and adapted for conducting a fluid therethrough. The conduits are positioned within the housing such that the conduit exterior surfaces and the housing interior surface within the second zone define a first flow path while the conduit interior surfaces define a second flow path through the second zone and not in fluid communication with the first flow path. The conduit exits define a second flow path exit, the conduit exits and the first flow path exit being proximately located and interspersed. The conduits define at least one expanded section that contacts adjacent conduits thereby spacing the conduits within the second zone and forming first flow path exit flow orifices having an aggregate exit area greater than a defined percent of the housing exit plane area. Lastly, at least a portion of the first flow path defines a catalytically active surface.

  10. BTU International Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 EastMaine: EnergyAustin Energy Place:Guidance DocumentsOperationsBSST LLC JumpBTMBTU

  11. Thermal Performance of Exterior Insulation and Finish Systems Containing Vacuum Insulation Panels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Childs, Kenneth W [ORNL; Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Carbary, Lawrence D [Dow Corning Corporation, Midland, MI

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-performance wall system is under development to improve wall thermal performance to a level of U-factor of 0.19 W/(m2 K) (R-30 [h ft2 F]/Btu) in a standard wall thickness by incorporating vacuum insulation panels (VIPs) into an exterior insulation finish system (EIFS). Such a system would be applicable to new construction and will offer a solution to more challenging retrofit situations as well. Multiple design options were considered to balance the need to protect theVIPs during construction and building operation, while minimizing heat transfer through the wall system. The results reported here encompass an indepth assessment of potential system performances including thermal modeling, detailed laboratory measurements under controlled conditions on the component, and system levels according to ASTM C518 (ASTM 2010). The results demonstrate the importance of maximizing the VIP coverage over the wall face. The results also reveal the impact of both the design and execution of system details, such as the joints between adjacent VIPs. The test results include an explicit modeled evaluation of the system performance in a clear wall.

  12. Holographic thermalization patterns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefan Stricker

    2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the behaviour of various correlators in N=4 super Yang Mills theory, taking finite coupling corrections into account. In the thermal limit we investigate the flow of the quasinormal modes as a function of the 't Hooft coupling. Then by using a specific model of holographic thermalization we investigate the deviation of the spectral densities from their thermal limit in an out-of-equilibrium situation. The main focus lies on the thermalization pattern with which the various plasma constituents of different energies approach their final thermal distribution as the coupling constant decreases from the infinite coupling limit. All results point towards the weakening of the usual top down thermalization pattern.

  13. HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-Es HEATS program, short for High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage, seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

  14. Non-thermal Plasma Chemistry Non-thermal Thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

    -thermal Plasma Chemical Flow Reactor #12;Werner von Siemens ,, ... construction of an apparatus generation (1857) pollution control volatile organic components, NOx reforming, ... radiation sources excimer;Leuchtstoffröhre Plasma-Bildschirm Energiesparlampe #12;electrical engineering light sources textile industry

  15. Thermal contact resistance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mikic, B. B.

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work deals with phenomena of thermal resistance for metallic surfaces in contact. The main concern of the work is to develop reliable and practical methods for prediction of the thermal contact resistance for various ...

  16. Thermal Processes | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydrogen Production Current Technology Thermal Processes Thermal Processes Some thermal processes use the energy in various resources, such as natural gas, coal, or biomass,...

  17. Multiwavelength Thermal Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Multiwavelength Astronomy NASA #12;Thermal Emission #12;Thermal Emission Non-thermal p-p collisions Optical IR Radio/ Microwave sources of emission massive stars, WHIM, Ly many dust, cool objects-ray ~GeV Gamma-ray ~TeV sources of emission AGN, clusters, SNR, binaries, stars AGN (obscured), shocks

  18. Thermal Performance Benchmarking (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreno, G.

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project will benchmark the thermal characteristics of automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Recent vehicle systems will be benchmarked to establish baseline metrics, evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management systems, and identify areas of improvement to advance the state-of-the-art.

  19. Thermal neutron detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peurrung, Anthony J. (Richland, WA); Stromswold, David C. (West Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the present invention, a system for measuring a thermal neutron emission from a neutron source, has a reflector/moderator proximate the neutron source that reflects and moderates neutrons from the neutron source. The reflector/moderator further directs thermal neutrons toward an unmoderated thermal neutron detector.

  20. Thermal comfort during surgery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manning, David Harold

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THERMAL COMFORT DURING SURGERY A Thesis by DAVID HAROLD MANNING Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1978 Major Subject: Industrial... Engineering THERMAL COMFORT DURING SURGERY A Thesis by DAVID HAROLD MANNING Approved as to style and content by: airman of C it ee Head of Department Member Me er December 1978 ABSTRACT Thermal Comfort During Surgery (December 1978) David Harold...

  1. Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing #12;0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4 and x-ray Ultraviolet Infrared Microwave and radio waves Wavelength in meters (m) Electromagnetic.77 700 red limit 30k0.041 2.48 green500 near-infrared far infrared ultraviolet Thermal Infrare refers

  2. Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Chilenskas, A.A.

    1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device is disclosed. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communication with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket. 10 figs.

  3. NANO REVIEW Open Access Thermal conductivity and thermal boundary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    NANO REVIEW Open Access Thermal conductivity and thermal boundary resistance of nanostructures and the thermal transport prop- erties is a key point to design materials with preferred thermal properties with the heat dissipation on them. The influence of the interfacial roughness on the thermal conductivity

  4. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, G.A.; Elder, M.G.; Kemme, J.E.

    1984-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for thermally protecting sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components such as electronics to a heat sink such as ice.

  5. Mechanical Engineering & Thermal Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Mechanical Engineering & Thermal Group The Mechanical Engineering (ME) & Thermal Group at LASP has, and ground- based mechanical systems. Instrument Design Building on decades of design experience that has evolved with the complexity of instrument design demands, LASP mechanical engineers develop advanced

  6. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Elder, Michael G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kemme, Joseph E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus which thermally protects sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components to a heat sink such as ice.

  7. Solar thermal aircraft

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  8. Tunable thermal link

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Majumdar, Arunava; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a device whereby the thermal conductance of a multiwalled nanostructure such as a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) can be controllably and reversibly tuned by sliding one or more outer shells with respect to the inner core. As one example, the thermal conductance of an MWCNT dropped to 15% of the original value after extending the length of the MWCNT by 190 nm. The thermal conductivity returned when the tube was contracted. The device may comprise numbers of multiwalled nanotubes or other graphitic layers connected to a heat source and a heat drain and various means for tuning the overall thermal conductance for applications in structure heat management, heat flow in nanoscale or microscale devices and thermal logic devices.

  9. Thermal Recovery Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, P.D.; Moss, J.T.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal Recovery Methods describes the basic concepts of thermal recovery and explains the injection patterns used to exploit reservoir conditions. Basic reservoir engineering is reviewed with an emphasis on changes in flow characteristics caused by temperature. The authors discuss an energy balance for steam and combustion drive, and they explain in situ reactions. Heat loss, combustion drive, and steam displacement also are examined in detail, as well as cyclic steam injection, downhole ignition, well heating, and low-temperature oxidation. Contents: Thermal processes; Formation and reservoir evaluations; Well patterns and spacing; Flow and process equations; Laboratory simulation of thermal recovery; Heat loss and transmission; Displacement and production; Equipment; Basic data for field selection; Laboratory evaluation of combustion characteristics; Thermal properties of reservoirs and fluids.

  10. Thermal treatment wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Newmark, Robin L. (Livermore, CA); Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.

  11. Microsecond switchable thermal antenna

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe, E-mail: pba@institutoptique.fr; Benisty, Henri; Besbes, Mondher [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, UMR 8501, Institut d'Optique, CNRS, Universit Paris-Sud 11, 2, Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a thermal antenna that can be actively switched on and off at the microsecond scale by means of a phase transition of a metal-insulator material, the vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}). This thermal source is made of a periodically patterned tunable VO{sub 2} nanolayer, which support a surface phonon-polariton in the infrared range in their crystalline phase. Using electrodes properly registered with respect to the pattern, the VO{sub 2} phase transition can be locally triggered by ohmic heating so that the surface phonon-polariton can be diffracted by the induced grating, producing a highly directional thermal emission. Conversely, when heating less, the VO{sub 2} layers cool down below the transition temperature, the surface phonon-polariton cannot be diffracted anymore so that thermal emission is inhibited. This switchable antenna could find broad applications in the domain of active thermal coatings or in those of infrared spectroscopy and sensing.

  12. High-Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production Award Number: DE-EE00025828 Report Date: March 15, 2013 PI: Stephen Obrey * Technical approach is focused on...

  13. Multilayer thermal barrier coating systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Sloan, Kelly M. (Longwood, FL)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally describes multilayer thermal barrier coating systems and methods of making the multilayer thermal barrier coating systems. The thermal barrier coating systems comprise a first ceramic layer, a second ceramic layer, a thermally grown oxide layer, a metallic bond coating layer and a substrate. The thermal barrier coating systems have improved high temperature thermal and chemical stability for use in gas turbine applications.

  14. Solar Thermal Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreith, F.; Meyer, R. T.

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal conversion process of solar energy is based on well-known phenomena of heat transfer (Kreith 1976). In all thermal conversion processes, solar radiation is absorbed at the surface of a receiver, which contains or is in contact with flow passages through which a working fluid passes. As the receiver heats up, heat is transferred to the working fluid which may be air, water, oil, or a molten salt. The upper temperature that can be achieved in solar thermal conversion depends on the insolation, the degree to which the sunlight is concentrated, and the measures taken to reduce heat losses from the working fluid.

  15. Fabrication and Characterization of Organic/Inorganic Photovoltaic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guvenc, Ali Bilge

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    4 Figure 1-3 World energy consumption (in British Thermal5 Figure 1-4 World energy consumption (in Btu) according toforms and (b) world energy consumption (in Btu) according to

  16. Thermal insulations using vacuum panels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glicksman, Leon R. (Lynnfield, MA); Burke, Melissa S. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1991-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal insulation vacuum panels are formed of an inner core of compressed low thermal conductivity powders enclosed by a ceramic/glass envelope evaluated to a low pressure.

  17. Manipulation of Thermal Phonons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Chung-Hao

    2013-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    to manipulate the behavior of phonons is crucial for both energy applications and the cooling of integrated circuits. A novel class of artificially periodic structured materials phononic crystals might make manipulation of thermal phonons possible. In many...

  18. Thermally Polymerized Rylene Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew, Trisha Lionel

    Rylene dyes functionalized with varying numbers of phenyl trifluorovinyl ether (TFVE) moieties were subjected to a thermal emulsion polymerization to yield shape-persistent, water-soluble chromophore nanoparticles. Perylene ...

  19. Thermal Insulation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, T. F.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal insulation systems are receiving a high degree of attention in view of increasing energy cost. Industrial, commercial and residential energy users are all well aware of energy cost increases and great emphasis is being directed to energy...

  20. Thermally driven circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelken, Haim

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several problems connected by the theme of thermal forcing are addressed herein. The main topic is the stratification and flow field resulting from imposing a specified heat flux on a fluid that is otherwise confined to a ...

  1. Contact thermal lithography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Aaron Jerome, 1979-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contact thermal lithography is a method for fabricating microscale patterns using heat transfer. In contrast to photolithography, where the minimum achievable feature size is proportional to the wavelength of light used ...

  2. Photovoltaic-thermal collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, III, Charles H. (Carlisle, MA)

    1984-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic-thermal solar cell including a semiconductor body having antireflective top and bottom surfaces and coated on each said surface with a patterned electrode covering less than 10% of the surface area. A thermal-absorbing surface is spaced apart from the bottom surface of the semiconductor and a heat-exchange fluid is passed between the bottom surface and the heat-absorbing surface.

  3. Dynamic modelling for thermal micro-actuators using thermal networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Dynamic modelling for thermal micro-actuators using thermal networks Beatriz L´opez-Wallea,1 and analytical calculations. Key words: Micro-actuators, Thermal modelling, Electrical analogy, Thermal network 1 and MicroMechatronic Systems Department (AS2M), 24 rue Alain Savary, 25000 Besan¸con, France Abstract

  4. Article for thermal energy storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    2000-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal energy storage composition is provided which is in the form of a gel. The composition includes a phase change material and silica particles, where the phase change material may comprise a linear alkyl hydrocarbon, water/urea, or water. The thermal energy storage composition has a high thermal conductivity, high thermal energy storage, and may be used in a variety of applications such as in thermal shipping containers and gel packs.

  5. THERMAL NEUTRON BACKSCATTER IMAGING.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VANIER,P.; FORMAN,L.; HUNTER,S.; HARRIS,E.; SMITH,G.

    2004-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Objects of various shapes, with some appreciable hydrogen content, were exposed to fast neutrons from a pulsed D-T generator, resulting in a partially-moderated spectrum of backscattered neutrons. The thermal component of the backscatter was used to form images of the objects by means of a coded aperture thermal neutron imaging system. Timing signals from the neutron generator were used to gate the detection system so as to record only events consistent with thermal neutrons traveling the distance between the target and the detector. It was shown that this time-of-flight method provided a significant improvement in image contrast compared to counting all events detected by the position-sensitive {sup 3}He proportional chamber used in the imager. The technique may have application in the detection and shape-determination of land mines, particularly non-metallic types.

  6. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selkowitz, Stephen E. (Piedmont, CA); Arasteh, Dariush K. (Oakland, CA); Hartmann, John L. (Seattle, WA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas.

  7. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selkowitz, S.E.; Arasteh, D.K.; Hartmann, J.L.

    1988-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas. 2 figs.

  8. Thermal trim for luminaire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel; Harrison, Robert; Jeswani, Anil

    2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A luminaire with a thermal pathway to reduce the junction temperature of the luminaire's light source, and methods for so doing, are disclosed. The luminaire includes a can, a light engine, and a trim, that define a substantially continuous thermal pathway from the light engine to a surrounding environment. The can defines a can cavity and includes a can end region. The light engine is within the can cavity and includes a light source and a heat sink, including a heat sink end region, coupled thereto. The trim is at least partially disposed within the can cavity and includes a first trim end region coupled to the heat sink end region and a second trim end region coupled to the can end region. Thermal interface material may be located between: the heat sink and the trim, the trim and the can, and/or the heat sink and the light source.

  9. Thermal test options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koski, J.A.; Keltner, N.R.; Sobolik, K.B.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Shipping containers for radioactive materials must be qualified to meet a thermal accident environment specified in regulations, such at Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. Aimed primarily at the shipping container design, this report discusses the thermal testing options available for meeting the regulatory requirements, and states the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. The principal options considered are testing with radiant heat, furnaces, and open pool fires. The report also identifies some of the facilities available and current contacts. Finally, the report makes some recommendations on the appropriate use of these different testing methods.

  10. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

    1988-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m C and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg C with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber. 8 figs.

  11. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "This fact sheet describes a scattering solar thermal concentrators project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by the Pennsylvania State University, is working to demonstrate a new, scattering-based approach to concentrating sunlight that aims to improve the overall performance and reliability of the collector field. The research team aims to show that scattering solar thermal collectors are capable of achieving optical performance equal to state-of-the-art parabolic trough systems, but with the added benefits of immunity to wind-load tracking error, more efficient land use, and utilization of stationary receivers."

  12. 7-84E The claim of an inventor about the operation of a heat engine is to be evaluated. Assumptions The heat engine operates steadily.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    efficiency would be 0.45 R1000 R550 11maxth, H L T T K 550 R 1000 R HE HQ 15,000 Btu/h 5 hp When the first law is applied to the engine above, Btu/h720,27Btu/h000,15 hp1 Btu/h2544.5 )hp5(net ¸¸ ¹ · ¨¨ © § LH QWQ The actual thermal efficiency of the proposed heat engine is then 459.0 hp1 Btu/h2544.5 Btu/h27

  13. Systems analysis of thermal storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Copeland, R.J.

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During FY 1981, analyses were conducted on thermal storage concepts for solar thermal applications. These studies include estimates of both the obtainable costs of thermal storage concepts and their worth to a user (i.e., value). Based on obtainable costs and performance, an in-depth study evaluated thermal storage concepts for water/steam, organic fluid, and gas/Brayton solar thermal receivers. Promising and nonpromising concepts were identified. A study to evaluate thermal storage concepts for a liquid metal receiver was initiated. The value of thermal storage in a solar thermal industrial process heat application was analyzed. Several advanced concepts are being studied, including ground-mounted thermal storage for parabolic dishes with Stirling engines.

  14. Analysis of the Production Cost for Various Grades of Biomass Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert S Cherry; Rick A. Wood; Tyler L Westover

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Process flow sheets were developed for the thermal treatment of southern pine wood chips at four temperatures (150, 180, 230, and 270 degrees C) and two different scales (20 and 100 ton/hour). The larger capacity processes had as their primary heat source hot gas assumed to be available in quantity from an adjacent biorefinery. Mass and energy balances for these flow sheets were developed using Aspen Plus process simulation software. The hot gas demands in the larger processes, up to 1.9 million lb/hour, were of questionable feasibility because of the volume to be moved. This heat was of low utility because the torrefaction process, especially at higher temperatures, is a net heat producer if the organic byproduct gases are burned. A thermal treatment flow sheet using wood chips dried in the biorefinery to 10% moisture content (rather than 30% for green chips) with transfer of high temperature steam from the thermal treatment depot to the biorefinery was also examined. The equipment size information from all of these cases was used in several different equipment cost estimating methods to estimate the major equipment costs for each process. From these, factored estimates of other plant costs were determined, leading to estimates (+ / - 30% accuracy) of total plant capital cost. The 20 ton/hour processes were close to 25 million dollars except for the 230 degrees C case using dried wood chips which was only 15 million dollars because of its small furnace. The larger processes ranged from 64-120 million dollars. From these capital costs and projections of several categories of operating costs, the processing cost of thermally treated pine chips was found to be $28-33 per ton depending on the degree of treatment and without any credits for steam generation. If the excess energy output of the two 20 ton/hr depot cases at 270 degrees C can be sold for $10 per million BTU, the net processing cost dropped to $13/ton product starting with green wood chips or only $3 per ton if using dried chips from the biorefinery. Including a 12% return on invested capital raised all of the operating cost results by about $20/ton.

  15. Thermal Reactor Safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information is presented concerning fire risk and protection; transient thermal-hydraulic analysis and experiments; class 9 accidents and containment; diagnostics and in-service inspection; risk and cost comparison of alternative electric energy sources; fuel behavior and experiments on core cooling in LOCAs; reactor event reporting analysis; equipment qualification; post facts analysis of the TMI-2 accident; and computational methods.

  16. Thermal management of nanoelectronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -state thermoelectric on- spot cooling, requiring efficient thermoelectric materials that can be integrated with the IC are further complicated by the fact that the material's ability to conduct heat deteriorates when at the packaging level but also at the nanoscale materials and device levels. THERMAL CHALLENGES AT NANOSCALE One

  17. Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to us, like reflective ("nearreflective ("near--" infrared (0.7" infrared (0.7 -- 3.03.0 m)m) andand near-infrared far infrared ultraviolet Thermal Infrared refers to region o EM spectrum from ~3 - 14 m.landscape. IMPORTANT: NEARIMPORTANT: NEAR--INFRARED is short enough wavelength toINFRARED is short enough wavelength

  18. Low thermal conductivity skutterudites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleurial, J.P.; Caillat, T.; Borshchevsky, A.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experimental results on semiconductors with the skutterudite crystal structure show that these materials possess attractive transport properties and have a good potential for achieving ZT values substantially larger than for state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials. Both n-type and p-type conductivity samples have been obtained, using several preparation techniques. Associated with a low hole effective mass, very high carrier mobilities, low electrical resistivities and moderate Seebeck coefficients are obtained in p-type skutterudites. For a comparable doping level, the carrier mobilities of n-type samples are about an order of magnitude lower than the values achieved on p-type samples. However, the much larger electron effective masses and Seebeck coefficients on p-type samples. However, the much larger electron effective masses and Seebeck coefficients make n-type skutterudite promising candidates as well. Unfortunately, the thermal conductivities of the binary skutterudites compounds are too large, particularly at low temperatures, to be useful for thermoelectric applications. Several approaches to the reduction of the lattice thermal conductivity in skutterudites are being pursued: heavy doping, formation of solid solutions and alloys, study of novel ternary and filled skutterudite compounds. All those approaches have already resulted in skutterudite compositions with substantially lower thermal conductivity values in these materials. Recently, superior thermoelectric properties in the moderate to high temperature range were achieved for compositions combining alloying and filling of the skutterudite structure. Experimental results and mechanisms responsible for low thermal conductivity in skutterudites are discussed.

  19. Thermal barrier coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowker, Jeffrey Charles (Gibsonia, PA); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal barrier coating for hot gas path components of a combustion turbine based on a zirconia-scandia system. A layer of zirconium scandate having the hexagonal Zr.sub.3 Sc.sub.4 O.sub.12 structure is formed directly on a superalloy substrate or on a bond coat formed on the substrate.

  20. High-Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    3 Q1 High-Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production - FY13 Q1 This document summarizes the progress of this Los Alamos National Laboratory...

  1. Preliminary requirements for thermal storage subsystems in solar thermal applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Copeland, R.J.

    1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methodologies for the analysis of value and comparing thermal storage concepts are presented. Value is a measure of worth and is determined by the cost of conventional fuel systems. Value data for thermal storage in large solar thermal electric power applications are presented. Thermal storage concepts must be compared when all are performing the same mission. A method for doing that analysis, called the ranking index, is derived. Necessary data to use the methodology are included.

  2. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE-A SURVEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High temperature underground thermal energy storage, inProceedings, Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers Workshop:underground thermal energy storage, in ATES newsletter:

  3. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Survey of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers Coupled withconcept of thermal energy storage in aquifers was suggestedLow Temperature Thermal Energy Storage Program of Oak Ridge

  4. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report Report about the Ocean Thermal...

  5. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M.Dale

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M.D. (editor) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Draftin Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology haveThe Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) 2rogrammatic

  6. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE-A SURVEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1978, High temperature underground thermal energy storage,in Proceedings, Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers Workshop:High temperature underground thermal energy storage, in ATES

  7. Liquid metal thermal electric converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

  8. Energy performance of underfloor air distribution systems part IV: underfloor plenum testing and modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, Fred; Jin, Hui

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of a bare panel is 1.359 Btu-in/hr-ft 2 -F (0.196 W/m-K)with carpet tiles is 1.002 Btu-in/hr-ft 2 -F (0.144 W/m-K).with thermal conductivity of 0.54 Btu/hr-ft-F (0.93 W/m-K).

  9. TRANSPARENT HEAT MIRRORS FOR PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AND OPTICAL PERFORMANCE [Btu/ft -hr- OF] XBL 785-8986A isbalance thermal losses is .9 Btu/ft 2 -hr- o F on a clearto an equivalent U-value of 1.9 Btu/ft 2-hr- o F due to

  10. Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings A Dissertation Presented to The Faculty of the School conductivity of the coatings. The minimum thermal conductivity occurs at a low rotation rate and is 0.8 W intrinsic thermal conductivity, good phase stability and greater resistance to sintering and CMAS attack

  11. Thermal Stabilization Blend Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RISENMAY, H.R.

    2000-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This Blend Plan documents the feed material items that are stored in 2736-2 vaults, the 2736-ZB 638 cage, the 192C vault, and the 225 vault that will be processed through the thermal stabilization furnaces. The purpose of thermal stabilization is to heat the material to 1000 degrees Celsius to drive off all water and leave the plutonium and/or uranium as oxides. The stabilized material will be sampled to determine the Loss On Ignition (LOI) or percent water. The stabilized material must meet water content or LOI of less than 0.5% to be acceptable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99 specifications. Out of specification material will be recycled through the furnaces until the water or LOI limits are met.

  12. Thermal synthesis apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for thermal conversion of one or more reactants to desired end products includes an insulated reactor chamber having a high temperature heater such as a plasma torch at its inlet end and, optionally, a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. In a thermal conversion method, reactants are injected upstream from the reactor chamber and thoroughly mixed with the plasma stream before entering the reactor chamber. The reactor chamber has a reaction zone that is maintained at a substantially uniform temperature. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle, which "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage, or is discharged through an outlet pipe without the convergent-divergent nozzle. The desired end products are then separated from the gaseous stream.

  13. Thermal reactor safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information is presented concerning new trends in licensing; seismic considerations and system structural behavior; TMI-2 risk assessment and thermal hydraulics; statistical assessment of potential accidents and verification of computational methods; issues with respect to improved safety; human factors in nuclear power plant operation; diagnostics and activities in support of recovery; LOCA transient analysis; unresolved safety issues and other safety considerations; and fission product transport.

  14. Cermet fuel thermal conductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvis, John Mark

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CERMET FUEL THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY A Thesis by JOHN MARK ALVIS, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&. M University in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1988 Major Subject: Nuclear... particles of low conductivity dispersed in a metal matrix of high conductivity. A computer code was developed in order to compute the conductivity of cermet fuels as predicted by existing models and an additional model derived in this work...

  15. Thermally actuated thermionic switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barrus, D.M.; Shires, C.D.

    1982-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermally actuated thermionic switch which responds to an increase of temperature by changing from a high impedance to a low impedance at a predictable temperature set point. The switch has a bistable operation mode switching only on temperature increases. The thermionic material may be a metal which is liquid at the desired operation temperature and held in matrix in a graphite block reservoir, and which changes state (ionizes, for example) so as to be electrically conductive at a desired temperature.

  16. Methods of forming thermal management systems and thermal management methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gering, Kevin L.; Haefner, Daryl R.

    2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal management system for a vehicle includes a heat exchanger having a thermal energy storage material provided therein, a first coolant loop thermally coupled to an electrochemical storage device located within the first coolant loop and to the heat exchanger, and a second coolant loop thermally coupled to the heat exchanger. The first and second coolant loops are configured to carry distinct thermal energy transfer media. The thermal management system also includes an interface configured to facilitate transfer of heat generated by an internal combustion engine to the heat exchanger via the second coolant loop in order to selectively deliver the heat to the electrochemical storage device. Thermal management methods are also provided.

  17. Multiscale thermal transport.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, Samuel Jr. (; .); Wong, C. C.; Piekos, Edward Stanley

    2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A concurrent computational and experimental investigation of thermal transport is performed with the goal of improving understanding of, and predictive capability for, thermal transport in microdevices. The computational component involves Monte Carlo simulation of phonon transport. In these simulations, all acoustic modes are included and their properties are drawn from a realistic dispersion relation. Phonon-phonon and phonon-boundary scattering events are treated independently. A new set of phonon-phonon scattering coefficients are proposed that reflect the elimination of assumptions present in earlier analytical work from the simulation. The experimental component involves steady-state measurement of thermal conductivity on silicon films as thin as 340nm at a range of temperatures. Agreement between the experiment and simulation on single-crystal silicon thin films is excellent, Agreement for polycrystalline films is promising, but significant work remains to be done before predictions can be made confidently. Knowledge gained from these efforts was used to construct improved semiclassical models with the goal of representing microscale effects in existing macroscale codes in a computationally efficient manner.

  18. Thermal control structure and garment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN); Cameron, Christopher Stan (Sanford, NC)

    2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A flexible thermally conductive structure. The structure generally includes a plurality of thermally conductive yarns, at least some of which are at least partially disposed adjacent to an elastomeric material. Typically, at least a portion of the plurality of thermally conductive yarns is configured as a sheet. The yarns may be constructed from graphite, metal, or similar materials. The elastomeric material may be formed from urethane or silicone foam that is at least partially collapsed, or from a similar material. A thermal management garment is provided, the garment incorporating a flexible thermally conductive structure.

  19. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF MANAGED WINDOW SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S. E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes ofof thermal loads resulting from the building envelope areThermal Test Facility, LhL-9653, prepared for the ASHRAE/DOE Conference-on"t:heThermal Performance the Exterior Envelope

  20. Thermal management systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gering, Kevin L.; Haefner, Daryl R.

    2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal management system for a vehicle includes a heat exchanger having a thermal energy storage material provided therein, a first coolant loop thermally coupled to an electrochemical storage device located within the first coolant loop and to the heat exchanger, and a second coolant loop thermally coupled to the heat exchanger. The first and second coolant loops are configured to carry distinct thermal energy transfer media. The thermal management system also includes an interface configured to facilitate transfer of heat generated by an internal combustion engine to the heat exchanger via the second coolant loop in order to selectively deliver the heat to the electrochemical storage device. Thermal management methods are also provided.

  1. Thermal and non-thermal energies in solar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pascal Saint-Hilaire; Arnold O. Benz

    2005-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy of the thermal flare plasma and the kinetic energy of the non-thermal electrons in 14 hard X-ray peaks from 9 medium-sized solar flares have been determined from RHESSI observations. The emissions have been carefully separated in the spectrum. The turnover or cutoff in the low-energy distribution of electrons has been studied by simulation and fitting, yielding a reliable lower limit to the non-thermal energy. It remains the largest contribution to the error budget. Other effects, such as albedo, non-uniform target ionization, hot target, and cross-sections on the spectrum have been studied. The errors of the thermal energy are about equally as large. They are due to the estimate of the flare volume, the assumption of the filling factor, and energy losses. Within a flare, the non-thermal/thermal ratio increases with accumulation time, as expected from loss of thermal energy due to radiative cooling or heat conduction. Our analysis suggests that the thermal and non-thermal energies are of the same magnitude. This surprising result may be interpreted by an efficient conversion of non-thermal energy to hot flare plasma.

  2. Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management Systems (VTMS) Analysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration Characterization and Development of Advanced Heat Transfer Technologies...

  3. Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline Diamond/Silicon...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline DiamondSilicon Carbide Nanocomposites for Drill Bits Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline DiamondSilicon Carbide...

  4. Report on workshop on thermal property measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, E.C.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of thermogravimetric analysis of basalt is discussed. Heat capacity, thermal conductivity and thermal expansion are specifically addressed. (CBS)

  5. Thermal indicator for wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaven, Jr., Joseph V. (Oakton, VA); Bak, Chan S. (Newbury Park, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Minute durable plate-like thermal indicators are employed for precision measuring static and dynamic temperatures of well drilling fluids. The indicators are small enough and sufficiently durable to be circulated in the well with drilling fluids during the drilling operation. The indicators include a heat resistant indicating layer, a coacting meltable solid component and a retainer body which serves to unitize each indicator and which may carry permanent indicator identifying indicia. The indicators are recovered from the drilling fluid at ground level by known techniques.

  6. Thermally switchable dielectrics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dirk, Shawn M.; Johnson, Ross S.

    2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Precursor polymers to conjugated polymers, such as poly(phenylene vinylene), poly(poly(thiophene vinylene), poly(aniline vinylene), and poly(pyrrole vinylene), can be used as thermally switchable capacitor dielectrics that fail at a specific temperature due to the non-conjugated precursor polymer irreversibly switching from an insulator to the conjugated polymer, which serves as a bleed resistor. The precursor polymer is a good dielectric until it reaches a specific temperature determined by the stability of the leaving groups. Conjugation of the polymer backbone at high temperature effectively disables the capacitor, providing a `built-in` safety mechanism for electronic devices.

  7. Thermal network reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is presented for reducing the number of elements required in a thermal network representation of a building. The method is based on matching the actual building response at two frequencies, the diurnal response and 3-day response. The procedure provides a straightforward methodology for combining all the various materials inside a discrete building zone into a few nodes while retaining a high degree of accuracy in the dynamic response. An example is given showing a comparison between a large network and the reduced network.

  8. Thermal network reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is presented for reducing the number of elements required in a thermal network representation of a building. The method is based on matching the actual building response at two frequencies, the diurnal response and 3-day response. The procedure provides a straightforward methodology for combining all the various materials inside a discrete building zone into a few nodes while retaining a high degree of accuracy in the dynamic response. An example is given showing a comparison between a large network and the reduced network.

  9. High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A 10% increase in shaft work is directly attributable to modified thermal heat capacity Engineering HTF Specific heat yields modified power output. 27 127 227 327 427 527...

  10. Electric Vehicle Battery Thermal Issues and Thermal Management Techniques (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J. P.; Pesaran, A.; Smith, K.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation examines the issues concerning thermal management in electric drive vehicles and management techniques for improving the life of a Li-ion battery in an EDV.

  11. Solar thermal power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar thermal power generator includes an inclined elongated boiler tube positioned in the focus of a solar concentrator for generating steam from water. The boiler tube is connected at one end to receive water from a pressure vessel as well as connected at an opposite end to return steam back to the vessel in a fluidic circuit arrangement that stores energy in the form of heated water in the pressure vessel. An expander, condenser, and reservoir are also connected in series to respectively produce work using the steam passed either directly (above a water line in the vessel) or indirectly (below a water line in the vessel) through the pressure vessel, condense the expanded steam, and collect the condensed water. The reservoir also supplies the collected water back to the pressure vessel at the end of a diurnal cycle when the vessel is sufficiently depressurized, so that the system is reset to repeat the cycle the following day. The circuital arrangement of the boiler tube and the pressure vessel operates to dampen flow instabilities in the boiler tube, damp out the effects of solar transients, and provide thermal energy storage which enables time shifting of power generation to better align with the higher demand for energy during peak energy usage periods.

  12. Systems analysis of thermal storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Copeland, R. J.

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During FY80 analyses were conducted on thermal storage concepts for solar thermal applications. These studies include both estimates of the obtainable costs of thermal storage concepts and their worth to a user (i.e., value). Based on obtainable costs and performance, promising thermal storage concepts are being identified. A preliminary screening was completed in FY80 and a more in-depth study was initiated. Value studies are being conducted to establish cost goals. A ranking of storage concepts based on value in solar thermal electric plants was conducted for both diurnal and long duration applications. Ground mounted thermal storage concepts for a parabolic dish/Stirling systtem are also being evaluated.

  13. Thermal desorption for passive dosimeter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Wen-Chen

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~ ~ ~ \\ ~ ~ ~ ~ Flare Tubes for Thermal Desorber . . . . . ~. . . . . . ~ ~ . 27 4. 5 ~ Thermal Desorber Manufactured by Century System Sample Flow from Thermal Desorber to Gas Chromatograph 29 6. Direct Injection Port for Therma1 Desorber . . . . . $2... the gas badges and. providing additional guidance in conducting the study. DEDICATZOil This thesis is cedicated to my parents and my wife, Unice, for their support during the last t', o years AHSTHACT ACKI;ODL DG~~. 'ITS D' DICATICI'. LIST OF TABL...

  14. Microviscometric studies on thermal diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reyna, Eddie

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    HICROVISCKStTRIC STUDIES THERMAL DIFFUSION A Thesis Eddie Reyfls Submitted to the Grsducte School of the Agricultursl sfld Mechanical College of Texas in partisl fulfillment of the requireeeflts far the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... microliter samples to 1'/ reproduceability, This equipment is used to observe the thermal diffusion effects of polystyrene in toluene solutions in c 01uslus-Dickel thermal diffusion column. An inversion in the values of concentration and molecular veight...

  15. Enhanced Thermal Conductivity Oxide Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvin Solomon; Shripad Revankar; J. Kevin McCoy

    2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    the purpose of this project was to investigate the feasibility of increasing the thermal conductivity of oxide fuels by adding small fractions of a high conductivity solid phase.

  16. Actively driven thermal radiation shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Norman W. (Livermore, CA); Cork, Christopher P. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Becker, John A. (Alameda, CA); Knapp, David A. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal radiation shield for cooled portable gamma-ray spectrometers. The thermal radiation shield is located intermediate the vacuum enclosure and detector enclosure, is actively driven, and is useful in reducing the heat load to mechanical cooler and additionally extends the lifetime of the mechanical cooler. The thermal shield is electrically-powered and is particularly useful for portable solid-state gamma-ray detectors or spectrometers that dramatically reduces the cooling power requirements. For example, the operating shield at 260K (40K below room temperature) will decrease the thermal radiation load to the detector by 50%, which makes possible portable battery operation for a mechanically cooled Ge spectrometer.

  17. Measuring Thermal Transport in Extreme Environments: Thermal Conductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    Chen California Institute of Technology Jackie Li University of Michigan supported by CarnegieMeasuring Thermal Transport in Extreme Environments: Thermal Conductivity of Water Ice VII to 20 GPa David G. Cahill, Wen-Pin Hsieh, Dallas Trinkle, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Bin

  18. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardin, Corey Lee

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PHASE CHANGE THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATING SOLARChange Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in ConcentratedChange Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated

  19. Guide to Setting Thermal Comfort Criteria and Minimizing Energy Use in Delivering Thermal Comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regnier, Cindy

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    including cost, energy and thermal comfort analysis, whichfor greatest energy benefits, prioritize thermal comfortSetting Thermal Comfort Criteria and Minimizing Energy Use

  20. Thermally stabilized heliostat

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Alfred J. (Littleton, CO)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improvement in a heliostat having a main support structure and pivoting and tilting motors and gears and a mirror module for reflecting solar energy onto a collector, the improvement being characterized by an internal support structure within each mirror module and front and back sheets attached to the internal support structure, the front and back sheets having the same coefficient of thermal expansion such that no curvature is induced by temperature change, and a layer of adhesive adhering the mirror to the front sheet. The adhesive is water repellent and has adequate set strength to support the mirror but has sufficient shear tolerance to permit the differential expansion of the mirror and the front sheet without inducing stresses or currature effect. The adhesive also serves to dampen fluttering of the mirror and to protect the mirror backside against the adverse effects of weather. Also disclosed are specific details of the preferred embodiment.

  1. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Moore, Troy K. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for thermally protecting heat sensitive components of tools. The apparatus comprises a Dewar for holding the heat sensitive components. The Dewar has spaced-apart inside and outside walls, an open top end and a bottom end. An insulating plug is located in the top end. The inside wall has portions defining an inside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar and the outside wall has portions defining an outside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar. A bottom connector has inside and outside components. The inside component sealably engages the inside wall aperture and the outside component sealably engages the outside wall aperture. The inside component is operatively connected to the heat sensitive components and to the outside component. The connections can be made with optical fibers or with electrically conducting wires.

  2. Thermally induced photon splitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Per Elmfors; Bo-Sture Skagerstam

    1998-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate thermal corrections to the non-linear QED effective action for low-energy photon interactions in a background electromagnetic field. The high-temperature expansion shows that at $T \\gg m$ the vacuum contribution is exactly cancelled to all orders in the external field except for a non-trivial two-point function contribution. The high-temperature expansion derived reveals a remarkable cancellation of infrared sensitive contributions. As a result photon-splitting in the presence of a magnetic field is suppressed in the presence of an electron-positron QED-plasma at very high temperatures. In a cold and dense plasma a similar suppression takes place. At the same time Compton scattering dominates for weak fields and the suppression is rarely important in physical situations.

  3. Thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alvin, Mary Anne (Pittsburg, PA)

    2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This disclosure addresses the issue of providing a metallic-ceramic overlay coating that potentially serves as an interface or bond coat layer to provide enhanced oxidation resistance to the underlying superalloy substrate via the formation of a diffusion barrier regime within the supporting base material. Furthermore, the metallic-ceramic coating is expected to limit the growth of a continuous thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer that has been primarily considered to be the principal cause for failure of existing TBC systems. Compositional compatibility of the metallic-ceramic with traditional yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coats is provided to further limit debond or spallation of the coating during operational use. A metallic-ceramic architecture is disclosed wherein enhanced oxidation resistance is imparted to the surface of nickel-based superalloy or single crystal metal substrate, with simultaneous integration of the yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) within the metallic-ceramic overlayer.

  4. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Smith; M. Deo; E. Eddings; A. Sarofim; K. Gueishen; M. Hradisky; K. Kelly; P. Mandalaparty; H. Zhang

    2011-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal??s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO{sub 2} sequestration. Efforts focused on: ? Constructing a suite of three different coal pyrolysis reactors. These reactors offer the ability to gather heat transfer, mass transfer and kinetic data during coal pyrolysis under conditions that mimic in situ conditions (Subtask 6.1). ? Studying the operational parameters for various underground thermal treatment processes for oil shale and coal and completing a design matrix analysis for the underground coal thermal treatment (UCTT). This analysis yielded recommendations for terms of targeted coal rank, well orientation, rubblization, presence of oxygen, temperature, pressure, and heating sources (Subtask 6.2). ? Developing capabilities for simulating UCTT, including modifying the geometry as well as the solution algorithm to achieve long simulation times in a rubblized coal bed by resolving the convective channels occurring in the representative domain (Subtask 6.3). ? Studying the reactive behavior of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with limestone, sandstone, arkose (a more complex sandstone) and peridotite, including mineralogical changes and brine chemistry for the different initial rock compositions (Subtask 6.4). Arkose exhibited the highest tendency of participating in mineral reactions, which can be attributed to the geochemical complexity of its initial mineral assemblage. In experiments with limestone, continuous dissolution was observed with the release of CO{sub 2} gas, indicated by the increasing pressure in the reactor (formation of a gas chamber). This occurred due to the lack of any source of alkali to buffer the solution. Arkose has the geochemical complexity for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2} as carbonates and is also relatively abundant. The effect of including NH{sub 3} in the injected gas stream was also investigated in this study. Precipitation of calcite and trace amounts of ammonium zeolites was observed. A batch geochemical model was developed using Geochemists Workbench (GWB). Degassing effect in the experiments was corrected using the sliding fugacity model in GWB. Experimental and simulation results were compared and a reasonable agreement between the two was observed.

  5. Thermalization of isolated quantum systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergei Khlebnikov; Martin Kruczenski

    2014-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the evolution towards thermal equilibrium of an isolated quantum system is at the foundation of statistical mechanics and a subject of interest in such diverse areas as cold atom physics or the quantum mechanics of black holes. Since a pure state can never evolve into a thermal density matrix, the Eigenstate Thermalization Hypothesis (ETH) has been put forward by Deutsch and Srednicki as a way to explain this apparent thermalization, similarly to what the ergodic theorem does in classical mechanics. In this paper this hypothesis is tested numerically. First, it is observed that thermalization happens in a subspace of states (the Krylov subspace) with dimension much smaller than that of the total Hilbert space. We check numerically the validity of ETH in such a subspace, for a system of hard core bosons on a two-dimensional lattice. We then discuss how well the eigenstates of the Hamiltonian projected on the Krylov subspace represent the true eigenstates. This discussion is aided by bringing the projected Hamiltonian to the tridiagonal form and interpreting it as an Anderson localization problem for a finite one-dimensional chain. We also consider thermalization of a subsystem and argue that generation of a large entanglement entropy can lead to a thermal density matrix for the subsystem well before the whole system thermalizes. Finally, we comment on possible implications of ETH in quantum gravity.

  6. Peg supported thermal insulation panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowobilski, Jeffert J. (Orchard Park, NY); Owens, William J. (Kenmore, NY)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal insulation panel which is lightweight, load bearing, accommodates thermal stress, and has excellent high temperature insulation capability comprising high performance insulation between thin metal walls supported by high density, high strength glass pegs made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure.

  7. Peg supported thermal insulation panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowobilski, J.J.; Owens, W.J.

    1985-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal insulation panel which is lightweight, load bearing, accommodates thermal stress, and has excellent high temperature insulation capability comprises high performance insulation between thin metal walls supported by high density, high strength glass pegs made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure. 2 figs.

  8. Advanced thermal imaging of composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, H.; Dinwiddie, R.B.

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Composite materials were studied by Scanning Thermal Conductivity Microscope (STCM) and high speed thermography. The STCM is a qualitative technique which is used to study thermal conductivity variations on a sub-micrometer scale. High speed thermography is a quantitative technique for measuring thermal diffusivity with a variable spatial resolution from centimeters down to less than 25 gm. A relative thermal conductivity contrast map was obtained from a SiC/Si3N4 continuous fiber ceramic composite using the STCM. Temperature changes of a carbon/carbon composite after a heat pulse were captured by an IR camera to generate a thermal diffusivity map of the specimen. Line profiles of the temperature distribution showed significant variations as a result of fiber orientation.

  9. Thermal Conductivity and Noise Attenuation in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    .3.4 Corrosion-resistant and high-temperature filters 9 1.3.5 Acoustic Applications 9 2. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY 2.1 THERMAL RESISTANCE 2.1.1 Thermal Conductors in Series 12 2.1.2 Thermal conductors in parallel 13 2 difference RTH Thermal resistance of conductor sb Stefan's constant T4 Temperature difference K* Total

  10. Nanoscale Thermal Transport andMicrorefrigeratorsonaChip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are promising candidates as thermal vias and thermal interface materials due to their inherently high thermal; superlattices; thermal boundary resistance; thermionics; thermotunneling; thermoelectrics I. INTRODUCTIONINVITED P A P E R Nanoscale Thermal Transport andMicrorefrigeratorsonaChip Devices for cooling high

  11. MINIMIZING THE BONDLINE THERMAL RESISTANCE IN THERMAL INTERFACE MATERIALS WITHOUT AFFECTING RELIABILITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    MINIMIZING THE BONDLINE THERMAL RESISTANCE IN THERMAL INTERFACE MATERIALS WITHOUT AFFECTING microstructure, and bondline thermal resistance with the tradeoffs between material systems, manufacturability of devices to heat sinks using existing commercial thermal interface materials (TIMs). The present study

  12. Thermal to electricity conversion using thermal magnetic properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Phillip B [Idaho Falls, ID; Svoboda, John [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for the generation of Electricity from Thermal Energy using the thermal magnetic properties of a Ferromagnetic, Electrically Conductive Material (FECM) in one or more Magnetic Fields. A FECM is exposed to one or more Magnetic Fields. Thermal Energy is applied to a portion of the FECM heating the FECM above its Curie Point. The FECM, now partially paramagnetic, moves under the force of the one or more Magnetic Fields. The movement of the FECM induces an electrical current through the FECM, generating Electricity.

  13. Document (19k)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    information, see http:www.eia.govfuelrenewable.html. 7 Solar thermal and photovoltaic (PV) electricity net generation (converted to Btu using the fossil-fueled plants heat...

  14. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic solid-liquid system Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of British Columbia Collection: Engineering 3 www.manuremanagement.cornell.edu Biogas Casebook Summary: Transfer Institutions Btu British thermal unit SLS Solid-liquid...

  15. Solar Thermal Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biesinger, K.; Cuppett, D.; Dyer, D.

    2012-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    HVAC Retrofit and Energy Efficiency Upgrades at Clark High School, Las Vegas, Nevada The overall objectives of this project are to increase usage of alternative/renewable fuels, create a better and more reliable learning environment for the students, and reduce energy costs. Utilizing the grant resources and local bond revenues, the District proposes to reduce electricity consumption by installing within the existing limited space, one principal energy efficient 100 ton adsorption chiller working in concert with two 500 ton electric chillers. The main heating source will be primarily from low nitrogen oxide (NOX), high efficiency natural gas fired boilers. With the use of this type of chiller, the electric power and cost requirements will be greatly reduced. To provide cooling to the information technology centers and equipment rooms of the school during off-peak hours, the District will install water source heat pumps. In another measure to reduce the cooling requirements at Clark High School, the District will replace single pane glass and metal panels with ??Kalwall?? building panels. An added feature of the ??Kalwall? system is that it will allow for natural day lighting in the student center. This system will significantly reduce thermal heat/cooling loss and control solar heat gain, thus delivering significant savings in heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) costs.

  16. Microelectromechanical (MEM) thermal actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, Ernest J. (Albuquerque, NM); Fulcher, Clay W. G. (Sandia Park, NM)

    2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Microelectromechanical (MEM) buckling beam thermal actuators are disclosed wherein the buckling direction of a beam is constrained to a desired direction of actuation, which can be in-plane or out-of-plane with respect to a support substrate. The actuators comprise as-fabricated, linear beams of uniform cross section supported above the substrate by supports which rigidly attach a beam to the substrate. The beams can be heated by methods including the passage of an electrical current through them. The buckling direction of an initially straight beam upon heating and expansion is controlled by incorporating one or more directional constraints attached to the substrate and proximal to the mid-point of the beam. In the event that the beam initially buckles in an undesired direction, deformation of the beam induced by contact with a directional constraint generates an opposing force to re-direct the buckling beam into the desired direction. The displacement and force generated by the movement of the buckling beam can be harnessed to perform useful work, such as closing contacts in an electrical switch.

  17. The Human leading the Thermal Comfort Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeiler, W.; Boxem, G.; Van Houten, R.; Vissers, D.; Maaijen, R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2007 Zhang H., 2003, Human Thermal Sensation and Comfort in Transient and Non Uniform Thermal Environments; Phd Thesis Zhang H., Arens E., Huizinga C., Han T., 2010, Thermal sensations and comfort models for non-uniform and transient environments...

  18. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and J. Schwarz, Survey of Thermal Energy Storage in AquifersLow Temperature Thermal Energy Storage Program of Oak RidgeAquifers for Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage: An Overview of

  19. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M.Dale

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M.D. (editor) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Draftof ocean thermal energy conversion technology. U.S. Depart~June 1-11, 1980 OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC

  20. Advanced nanofabrication of thermal emission devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hurley, Fergus (Fergus Gerard)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanofabricated thermal emission devices can be used to modify and modulate blackbody thermal radiation. There are many areas in which altering thermal radiation is extremely useful, especially in static power conversion, ...

  1. CALIFORNIA SOLAR INITIATIVE-THERMAL PROGRAMHANDBOOK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA SOLAR INITIATIVE-THERMAL PROGRAMHANDBOOK CALIFORNIA PUBLIC UTILITIES California Solar Initiative Thermal Program Handbook i 1. Introduction to CSI-Thermal Program COMMISSION May 2010 #12; The California Public

  2. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M.Dale

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M.D. (editor) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Draftr:he comnercialization of ocean thermal energy conversionJune 1-11, 1980 OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC

  3. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and J. Schwarz, Survey of Thermal Energy Storage in AquifersB. Quale. Seasonal storage of thermal energy in water in theSecond Annual Thermal Energy Storage Contractors'

  4. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M.Dale

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sands, M.D. (editor) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)r:he comnercialization of ocean thermal energy conversionJune 1-11, 1980 OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC

  5. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    geo-thermal energy, ocean thermal energy, wasted heat ingeothermal energy, ocean thermal energy, wasted heat inthermal energy, geo/ocean-thermal energy, wasted heat in

  6. Ceramic thermal barrier coating for rapid thermal cycling applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scharman, Alan J. (Hebron, CT); Yonushonis, Thomas M. (Columbus, IN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal barrier coating for metal articles subjected to rapid thermal cycling includes a metallic bond coat deposited on the metal article, at least one MCrAlY/ceramic layer deposited on the bond coat, and a ceramic top layer deposited on the MCrAlY/ceramic layer. The M in the MCrAlY material is Fe, Ni, Co, or a mixture of Ni and Co. The ceramic in the MCrAlY/ceramic layer is mullite or Al.sub.2 O.sub.3. The ceramic top layer includes a ceramic with a coefficient of thermal expansion less than about 5.4.times.10.sup.-6 .degree.C.sup.-1 and a thermal conductivity between about 1 J sec.sup.-1 m.sup.-1 .degree.C.sup.-1 and about 1.7 J sec.sup.-1 m.sup.-1 .degree.C.sup.-1.

  7. Thermal performance of the Brookhaven natural thermal storage house

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghaffari, H.T.; Jones, R.F.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the Brookhaven natural thermal storage house, an energy-efficient envelope, passive solar collectors, and a variety of energy conservation methods are incorporated. The thermal characteristics of the house during the tested heating season are evaluated. Temperature distributions at different zones are displayed, and the effects of extending heating supply ducts only to the main floor and heating return ducts only from the second floor are discussed. The thermal retrievals from the structure and the passive collectors are assessed, and the total conservation and passive solar contributions are outlined. Several correlation factors relating these thermal behaviors are introduced, and their diurnal variations are displayed. Finally, the annual energy requirements, and the average load factors are analyzed and discussed.

  8. POTENTIAL MARKETS FOR HIGH-BTU GAS FROM COAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booz, Allen, and Hamilton, Inc.,

    1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It has become increasilngly clear that the energy-related ilemna facing this nation is both a long-term and deepening problem. A widespread recognition of the critical nature of our energy balance, or imbalance, evolved from the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973. The seeds of this crisis were sown in the prior decade, however, as our consumption of known energy reserves outpaced our developing of new reserves. The resultant increasing dependence on foreign energy supplies hs triggered serious fuel shortages, dramatic price increases, and a pervsive sense of unertainty and confusion throughout the country.

  9. Fumigation of a diesel engine with low Btu gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmadi, M.; Kittelson, D.B.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 0.5 liter single-cylinder, indirect-injection diesel engine has been fumigated with producer gas. Measurements of power, efficiency, cylinder pressure, and emissions were made. At each operating condition, engine load was held constant, and the gas-to-diesel fuel ratio was increased until abnormal combustion was encountered. This determined the maximum fraction of the input energy supplied by the gas, E/sub MAX/, which was found to be dependent upon injection timing and load. At light loads, E/sub MAX/ was limited by severe efficiency loss and missfire, while at heavy loads it was limited by knock or preignition. Fumigation generally increased ignition delay and heat release rates, but peak pressures were not strongly influenced. Efficiency was slightly decreased by fumigation as were NO/sub X/ and particle emissions while CO emissions were increased.

  10. Natural Gas Futures Contract 2 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 10 MECS Survey Data 2010 | 2006 | 2002 |J.MonthlyU.S.O F4.34

  11. Natural Gas Futures Contract 3 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 10 MECS Survey Data 2010 | 2006 | 2002 |J.MonthlyU.S.O F4.34Week Of

  12. Natural Gas Futures Contract 4 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 10 MECS Survey Data 2010 | 2006 | 2002 |J.MonthlyU.S.O F4.34Week

  13. Natural Gas Futures Contract 1 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas Conchas recoveryLaboratory | NationalJohn Cyber Security NuclearNew testloading new

  14. Natural Gas Futures Contract 1 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas Conchas recoveryLaboratory | NationalJohn Cyber Security NuclearNew testloading newYear Jan

  15. Natural Gas Futures Contract 1 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas Conchas recoveryLaboratory | NationalJohn Cyber Security NuclearNew testloading newYear

  16. Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun with Bigfront.jpgcommunity200cellHeat TransferHelping Make TheHenry C.Henry

  17. Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs U.S.WyomingExpansionReservesFoot)ThousandDecade

  18. Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs U.S.WyomingExpansionReservesFoot)ThousandDecadeYear

  19. Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs

  20. Natural Gas Futures Contract 2 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs Year2per6.48(Millionthroughthroughthrough4.93

  1. Natural Gas Futures Contract 2 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs Year2per6.48(Millionthroughthroughthrough4.93Year Jan

  2. Natural Gas Futures Contract 2 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs Year2per6.48(Millionthroughthroughthrough4.93Year

  3. Natural Gas Futures Contract 3 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs Year2per6.48(Millionthroughthroughthrough4.93YearDecade

  4. Natural Gas Futures Contract 3 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs

  5. Natural Gas Futures Contract 3 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing ReservoirsYear-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date

  6. Natural Gas Futures Contract 4 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing ReservoirsYear-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End

  7. Natural Gas Futures Contract 4 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing ReservoirsYear-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 EndYear

  8. Natural Gas Futures Contract 4 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing ReservoirsYear-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5

  9. Natural Gas Futures Contract 2 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30 2013 Macroeconomic team: Kay6164,778,907throughthroughthroughWeek Of Mon

  10. Natural Gas Futures Contract 3 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30 2013 Macroeconomic team: Kay6164,778,907throughthroughthroughWeek Of

  11. Natural Gas Futures Contract 4 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30 2013 Macroeconomic team: Kay6164,778,907throughthroughthroughWeek OfWeek

  12. Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam CoalReserves (Million Barrels)Reserves from%Year Jan Feb Mar Apr

  13. Natural Gas Futures Contract 1 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest Regionat Cornell Batteries &NSTCurrent Issues & Trends See

  14. Property:Geothermal/CapacityBtuHr | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy ResourcesLoadingPenobscot County, Maine:Plug PowerAddressDataFormat JumpNercMroURL.AwardeeCostShare

  15. Rapid thermal processing by stamping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stradins, Pauls; Wang, Qi

    2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A rapid thermal processing device and methods are provided for thermal processing of samples such as semiconductor wafers. The device has components including a stamp (35) having a stamping surface and a heater or cooler (40) to bring it to a selected processing temperature, a sample holder (20) for holding a sample (10) in position for intimate contact with the stamping surface; and positioning components (25) for moving the stamping surface and the stamp (35) in and away from intimate, substantially non-pressured contact. Methods for using and making such devices are also provided. These devices and methods allow inexpensive, efficient, easily controllable thermal processing.

  16. Integrated External Aerodynamic and Underhood Thermal Analysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    External Aerodynamic and Underhood Thermal Analysis for Heavy Vehicles Integrated External Aerodynamic and Underhood Thermal Analysis for Heavy Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel...

  17. Continuous Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Polyethylene...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Polyethylene Fibers and Sheets Continuous Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Polyethylene Fibers and Sheets Massachusetts Institute of...

  18. Materials Selection Considerations for Thermal Process Equipment...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Materials Selection Considerations for Thermal Process Equipment: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief Materials Selection Considerations for Thermal Process Equipment:...

  19. Develop & evaluate materials & additives that enhance thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    evaluate materials & additives that enhance thermal & overcharge abuse Develop & evaluate materials & additives that enhance thermal & overcharge abuse 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program...

  20. Develop & Evaluate Materials & Additives that Enhance Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluate Materials & Additives that Enhance Thermal & Overcharge Abuse Develop & Evaluate Materials & Additives that Enhance Thermal & Overcharge Abuse 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel...

  1. Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2010 -- Washington D.C. ape016bennion2010o.pdf More Documents & Publications Motor Thermal Control Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric...

  2. REACTOR GROUT THERMAL PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steimke, J.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Guerrero, H.

    2011-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River Site has five dormant nuclear production reactors. Long term disposition will require filling some reactor buildings with grout up to ground level. Portland cement based grout will be used to fill the buildings with the exception of some reactor tanks. Some reactor tanks contain significant quantities of aluminum which could react with Portland cement based grout to form hydrogen. Hydrogen production is a safety concern and gas generation could also compromise the structural integrity of the grout pour. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a non-Portland cement grout to fill reactors that contain significant quantities of aluminum. Grouts generate heat when they set, so the potential exists for large temperature increases in a large pour, which could compromise the integrity of the pour. The primary purpose of the testing reported here was to measure heat of hydration, specific heat, thermal conductivity and density of various reactor grouts under consideration so that these properties could be used to model transient heat transfer for different pouring strategies. A secondary purpose was to make qualitative judgments of grout pourability and hardened strength. Some reactor grout formulations were unacceptable because they generated too much heat, or started setting too fast, or required too long to harden or were too weak. The formulation called 102H had the best combination of characteristics. It is a Calcium Alumino-Sulfate grout that contains Ciment Fondu (calcium aluminate cement), Plaster of Paris (calcium sulfate hemihydrate), sand, Class F fly ash, boric acid and small quantities of additives. This composition afforded about ten hours of working time. Heat release began at 12 hours and was complete by 24 hours. The adiabatic temperature rise was 54 C which was within specification. The final product was hard and displayed no visible segregation. The density and maximum particle size were within specification.

  3. Thermalization in External Magnetic Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali-Akbari, Mohammad

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the AdS/CFT framework meson thermalization in the presence of a constant external magnetic field in a strongly coupled gauge theory has been studied. In the gravitational description the thermalization of mesons corresponds to the horizon formation on the flavour D7-brane which is embedded in the AdS_5 x S^5 background in the probe limit. The apparent horizon forms due to the time-dependent change in the baryon number chemical potential, the injection of baryons in the gauge theory. We will numerically show that the thermalization happens even faster in the presence of the magnetic field on the probe brane. We observe that this reduction in the thermalization time sustains up to a specific value of the magnetic field.

  4. Thermal analysis of vascular reactivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deshpande, Chinmay Vishwas

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    dysfunction. Given the promising nature of thermal monitoring to study VR, this thesis focuses on the analysis of the underlying physics affecting fingertip temperature during vascular occlusion and subsequent hyperemia. I will quantify the contribution...

  5. Power Electronics Thermal Control (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narumanchi, S.

    2010-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal management plays an important part in the cost of electric drives in terms of power electronics packaging. Very promising results have been obtained by using microporous coatings and skived surfaces in conjunction with single-phase and two-phase flows. Sintered materials and thermoplastics with embedded fibers show significant promise as thermal interface materials, or TIMs. Appropriate cooling technologies depend on the power electronics package application and reliability.

  6. Lih thermal energy storage device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olszewski, Mitchell (Knoxville, TN); Morris, David G. (Knoxville, TN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal energy storage device for use in a pulsed power supply to store waste heat produced in a high-power burst operation utilizes lithium hydride as the phase change thermal energy storage material. The device includes an outer container encapsulating the lithium hydride and an inner container supporting a hydrogen sorbing sponge material such as activated carbon. The inner container is in communication with the interior of the outer container to receive hydrogen dissociated from the lithium hydride at elevated temperatures.

  7. Thermal Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: UT Austin will demonstrate a high-energy density and low-cost thermal storage system that will provide efficient cabin heating and cooling for EVs. Compared to existing HVAC systems powered by electric batteries in EVs, the innovative hot-and-cold thermal batteries-based technology is expected to decrease the manufacturing cost and increase the driving range of next-generation EVs. These thermal batteries can be charged with off-peak electric power together with the electric batteries. Based on innovations in composite materials offering twice the energy density of ice and 10 times the thermal conductivity of water, these thermal batteries are expected to achieve a comparable energy density at 25% of the cost of electric batteries. Moreover, because UT Austins thermal energy storage systems are modular, they may be incorporated into the heating and cooling systems in buildings, providing further energy efficiencies and positively impacting the emissions of current building heating/cooling systems.

  8. Advanced Thermal Simulator Testing: Thermal Analysis and Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Dixon, David; Reid, Robert; Adams, Mike; Davis, Joe [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Nuclear Systems Branch/ER24, MSFC, AL 35812 (United States)

    2008-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Work at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center seeks to develop high fidelity, electrically heated thermal simulators that represent fuel elements in a nuclear reactor design to support non-nuclear testing applicable to the potential development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. Comparison between the fuel pins and thermal simulators is made at the outer fuel clad surface, which corresponds to the outer sheath surface in the thermal simulator. The thermal simulators that are currently being tested correspond to a liquid metal cooled reactor design that could be applied for Lunar surface power. These simulators are designed to meet the geometric and power requirements of a proposed surface power reactor design, accommodate testing of various axial power profiles, and incorporate imbedded instrumentation. This paper reports the results of thermal simulator analysis and testing in a bare element configuration, which does not incorporate active heat removal, and testing in a water-cooled calorimeter designed to mimic the heat removal that would be experienced in a reactor core.

  9. NUMERICAL DESIGN TOOLS FOR THERMAL REPLICATION OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stokes, Yvonne

    by heating Ceramic block Glass workpiece before heating Figure 1: Thermal Replication (after Smith et al. [14NUMERICAL DESIGN TOOLS FOR THERMAL REPLICATION OF OPTICAL­QUALITY SURFACES Y.M. Stokes 1 Department. #12; Thermal replication of optical surfaces 1 1 Introduction Thermal replication is an industrial

  10. Thermal storage module for solar dynamic receivers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beatty, Ronald L. (Farragut, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal energy storage system comprising a germanium phase change material and a graphite container.

  11. Device for thermal transfer and power generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, Stanton Earl (Northville, NY); Arik, Mehmet (Niskayuna, NY)

    2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is provided. The system includes a device that includes top and bottom thermally conductive substrates positioned opposite to one another, wherein a top surface of the bottom thermally conductive substrate is substantially atomically flat and a thermal blocking layer disposed between the top and bottom thermally conductive substrates. The device also includes top and bottom electrodes separated from one another between the top and bottom thermally conductive substrates to define a tunneling path, wherein the top electrode is disposed on the thermal blocking layer and the bottom electrode is disposed on the bottom thermally conductive substrate.

  12. Active Thermal Extraction of Near-field Thermal Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ding, Ding

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiative heat transport between materials supporting surface-phonon polaritons is greatly enhanced when the materials are placed at sub-wavelength separation as a result of the contribution of near-field surface modes. However, the enhancement is limited to small separations due to the evanescent decay of the surface waves. In this work, we propose and numerically demonstrate an active scheme to extract these modes to the far-field. Our approach exploits the monochromatic nature of near-field thermal radiation to drive a transition in a laser gain medium, which, when coupled with external optical pumping, allows the resonant surface mode to be emitted into the far-field. Our study demonstrates a new approach to manipulate thermal radiation that could find applications in thermal management.

  13. Validation of thermal models for a prototypical MEMS thermal actuator.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert; Piekos, Edward Stanley; Serrano, Justin Raymond; Gorby, Allen D.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents technical work performed to complete the ASC Level 2 Milestone 2841: validation of thermal models for a prototypical MEMS thermal actuator. This effort requires completion of the following task: the comparison between calculated and measured temperature profiles of a heated stationary microbeam in air. Such heated microbeams are prototypical structures in virtually all electrically driven microscale thermal actuators. This task is divided into four major subtasks. (1) Perform validation experiments on prototypical heated stationary microbeams in which material properties such as thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity are measured if not known and temperature profiles along the beams are measured as a function of electrical power and gas pressure. (2) Develop a noncontinuum gas-phase heat-transfer model for typical MEMS situations including effects such as temperature discontinuities at gas-solid interfaces across which heat is flowing, and incorporate this model into the ASC FEM heat-conduction code Calore to enable it to simulate these effects with good accuracy. (3) Develop a noncontinuum solid-phase heat transfer model for typical MEMS situations including an effective thermal conductivity that depends on device geometry and grain size, and incorporate this model into the FEM heat-conduction code Calore to enable it to simulate these effects with good accuracy. (4) Perform combined gas-solid heat-transfer simulations using Calore with these models for the experimentally investigated devices, and compare simulation and experimental temperature profiles to assess model accuracy. These subtasks have been completed successfully, thereby completing the milestone task. Model and experimental temperature profiles are found to be in reasonable agreement for all cases examined. Modest systematic differences appear to be related to uncertainties in the geometric dimensions of the test structures and in the thermal conductivity of the polycrystalline silicon test structures, as well as uncontrolled nonuniform changes in this quantity over time and during operation.

  14. High Performance Thermal Interface Technology Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Linderman; T. Brunschwiler; B. Smith; B. Michel

    2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An overview on recent developments in thermal interfaces is given with a focus on a novel thermal interface technology that allows the formation of 2-3 times thinner bondlines with strongly improved thermal properties at lower assembly pressures. This is achieved using nested hierarchical surface channels to control the particle stacking with highly particle-filled materials. Reliability testing with thermal cycling has also demonstrated a decrease in thermal resistance after extended times with longer overall lifetime compared to a flat interface.

  15. High Performance Thermal Interface Technology Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linderman, R; Smith, B; Michel, B

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An overview on recent developments in thermal interfaces is given with a focus on a novel thermal interface technology that allows the formation of 2-3 times thinner bondlines with strongly improved thermal properties at lower assembly pressures. This is achieved using nested hierarchical surface channels to control the particle stacking with highly particle-filled materials. Reliability testing with thermal cycling has also demonstrated a decrease in thermal resistance after extended times with longer overall lifetime compared to a flat interface.

  16. Thermal-wave resonator cavity design and measurements of the thermal diffusivity of liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    Thermal-wave resonator cavity design and measurements of the thermal diffusivity of liquids J. A for the measurement of the thermal diffusivity of liquids. The thermal diffusivities of distilled water, glycerol the thermal diffusivity of gases, particularly air,8,9 and vapors10 to a high degree of precision. Although

  17. Ultralow thermal conductivity and the thermal d t f i t fconductance of interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    are critical at the nanoscale · Low thermal conductivity in nanostructured materials ­ improved thermoelectric to the thermal conductivity of materials. · Ultralow thermal conductivity: beating the amorphous limitUltralow thermal conductivity and the thermal d t f i t fconductance of interfaces David G. Cahill

  18. Thermal trim for a luminaire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel; Harrison, Robert; Jeswani, Anil

    2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A luminaire with a thermal pathway to reduce the junction temperature of the luminaire's light source, and methods for so doing, are disclosed. The luminaire includes a can, a light engine, and a trim, that define a substantially continuous thermal pathway from the light engine to a surrounding environment. The can defines a can cavity and includes a can end region. The light engine is within the can cavity and includes a light source and a heat sink, including a heat sink end region, coupled thereto. The trim is at least partially disposed within the can cavity and includes a first trim end region coupled to the heat sink end region and a second trim end region coupled to the can end region. Thermal interface material may be located between: the heat sink and the trim, the trim and the can, and/or the heat sink and the light source.

  19. Thermal degradation of cellulose in alkali

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, R.K.; Molton, P.M.; Russell, J.A.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass in an alkaline aqueous slurry can be liquefied by heat and pressure. Understanding the mechanisms of biomass liquefaction to improve the efficiency of converting biomass to useful products, particularly chemicals and synthetic fuels is discussed. To study the chemical mechanisms of this process, pure cellulose, the main component of biomass, was liquefied. The 78 cellulose liquefaction products that were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry include polyols, furans, ketones, hydrocarbons, and aromatic compounds. Polyols may be formed by hydrogenolytic cleavage. Furans an cyclic ketones may be cyclization products of dicarbonyl intermediates formed by aldol condensation of small initial degradation products such as acetone and acrolein. Several of these small carbonyl compounds were used as model compounds to test proposed mechanisms for furans and cyclic ketones and obtained products supporting five of the mechanisms. For the best case of 26 cellulose liquefaction experiments, 34% of the initial mass of the cellulose was converted to acetone-soluble oil with a heat of combustion of 14,000 Btu/lb.

  20. Thermal-spectrum recriticality energetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwinkendorf, K.N.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Large computer codes have been created in the past to predict the energy release in hypothetical core disruptive accidents (CDA), postulated to occur in liquid metal reactors (LMR). These codes, such as SIMMER, are highly specific to LMR designs. More recent attention has focused on thermal-spectrum criticality accidents, such as for fuel storage basins and waste tanks containing fissile material. This paper resents results from recent one-dimensional kinetics simulations, performed for a recriticality accident in a thermal spectrum. Reactivity insertion rates generally are smaller than in LMR CDAs, and the energetics generally are more benign. Parametric variation of input was performed, including reactivity insertion and initial temperature.

  1. Thermal treatment for VOC control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cloud, R.A. [Huntington Environmental Systems, Schaumburg, IL (United States)

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalytic and thermal oxidation are well-established technologies for controlling volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Oxidation destroys pollutants, rather than capturing them. Oxidation units can destroy nearly 100% of VOC and toxic emissions targeted by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990--some systems attain destruction efficiencies over 99.99%. To assist in the design of these systems, an engineer will often look a/t the heat of combustion of the gas stream, along with the type of pollutant, to best determine the correct type of oxidation device to use. The paper discusses catalytic and thermal oxidation, energy recovery, and equipment for these processes.

  2. Nanoscale thermal transport and the thermal conductance of interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    -8 2008 #12;Er-fiber laser system, UIUC Nov. 2007 #12;Solid-liquid interfaces: Two approaches · Transient-wide: ­ thermal interface materials ­ so-called "nanofluids" (suspensions in liquids) ­ polymer composites absorption depends on temperature of the nanotube · Assume heat capacity is comparable to graphite · Cooling

  3. Effective Thermal Conductivity of Graded Nanocomposites with Interfacial Thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulino, Glaucio H.

    .M. Yin", G. H. Paulino", W.G. Buttlar", and L.Z. Sun'' '^Department of Civil and Environmental the effective thermal conductivity distribution in functionally graded materials (FGMs) considering the Kapitza is developed to derive the averaged heat flux field of the particle phase. Then the temperature gradient can

  4. Proceedings of Thermal VII, Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Buildings,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-42871 BS-400 Proceedings of Thermal VII, Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes locations. The user describes the physical, thermal and optical properties of the windows in each

  5. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardin, Corey Lee

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    COST REDUCTION STUDY FOR SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANTS, Ottawa,Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants A ThesisStorage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants by Corey

  6. Practical Solar Thermal Chilled Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leavell, B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the potential to impact America's use of non-renewable energy beyond its own design capacity by applying it to the optimization of an existing building's system. Solar-thermal chilling systems are not new. However, few of them can be described as a practical...

  7. APPLIED THERMAL ENGINEERING Manuscript Draft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the heat pump from the grid during the two hours of electrical peak power · Design of a new heat exchangerAPPLIED THERMAL ENGINEERING Manuscript Draft TITLE: Experimental assessment of a PCM to air heat This paper presents a heat exchanger prototype containing PCM material designed to provide a 1kW heating

  8. Solar mechanics thermal response capabilities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobranich, Dean D.

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In many applications, the thermal response of structures exposed to solar heat loads is of interest. Solar mechanics governing equations were developed and integrated with the Calore thermal response code via user subroutines to provide this computational simulation capability. Solar heat loads are estimated based on the latitude and day of the year. Vector algebra is used to determine the solar loading on each face of a finite element model based on its orientation relative to the sun as the earth rotates. Atmospheric attenuation is accounted for as the optical path length varies from sunrise to sunset. Both direct and diffuse components of solar flux are calculated. In addition, shadowing of structures by other structures can be accounted for. User subroutines were also developed to provide convective and radiative boundary conditions for the diurnal variations in air temperature and effective sky temperature. These temperature boundary conditions are based on available local weather data and depend on latitude and day of the year, consistent with the solar mechanics formulation. These user subroutines, coupled with the Calore three-dimensional thermal response code, provide a complete package for addressing complex thermal problems involving solar heating. The governing equations are documented in sufficient detail to facilitate implementation into other heat transfer codes. Suggestions for improvements to the approach are offered.

  9. Thermo Tracer Infrared Thermal Imager

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, D. Greg

    such as production lines, electric power facilities, petrochemical plants and public institutions, etc. by thermal in electric power, petrochemical plant facilities G Intruder monitoring Important facilities (nuclear power, harbor, airport, dam, river, water purification plant, etc.) G Fire monitoring Important facilities, wide

  10. Space Science: Atmosphere Thermal Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    Space Science: Atmosphere Part -2 Thermal Structure Review tropospheres Absorption of Radiation Adiabatic Lapse Rate ~ 9 K/km Slightly smaller than our estimate Pressure ~3000ft under ocean surface thickness (positive up) is the solar zenith angle Fs is the solar energy flux at frequency (when

  11. Solar energy thermalization and storage device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McClelland, John F. (Ames, IA)

    1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A passive solar thermalization and thermal energy storage assembly which is visually transparent. The assembly consists of two substantial parallel, transparent wall members mounted in a rectangular support frame to form a liquid-tight chamber. A semitransparent thermalization plate is located in the chamber, substantially paralled to and about equidistant from the transparent wall members to thermalize solar radiation which is stored in a transparent thermal energy storage liquid which fills the chamber. A number of the devices, as modules, can be stacked together to construct a visually transparent, thermal storage wall for passive solar-heated buildings.

  12. Thermal Characterization of Graphitic Carbon Foams for Use in Thermal Storage Applications.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drummond, Kevin P.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?? Highly conductive graphitic foams are currently being studied for use as thermal conductivity enhancers (TCEs) in thermal energy storage (TES) systems. TES systems store (more)

  13. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardin, Corey Lee

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Experimental studies are presented that aim to utilize phase change materials (PCM's) to enhance thermal energy storage systems for concentrated solar thermal power (CSP) systems. (more)

  14. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardin, Corey Lee

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATING SOLAR POWER PLANTS, Eurosun 2010,COST REDUCTION STUDY FOR SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANTS, Ottawa,heat transfer in solar thermal power plants utilizing phase

  15. Waste Heat Recovery and Recycling in Thermal Separation Processes: Distillation, Multi-Effect Evaporation (MEE) and Crystallization Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emmanuel A. Dada; Chandrakant B. Panchal; Luke K. Achenie; Aaron Reichl; Chris C. Thomas

    2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaporation and crystallization are key thermal separation processes for concentrating and purifying inorganic and organic products with energy consumption over 1,000 trillion Btu/yr. This project focused on a challenging task of recovering low-temperature latent heat that can have a paradigm shift in the way thermal process units will be designed and operated to achieve high-energy efficiency and significantly reduce the carbon footprint as well as water footprint. Moreover, this project has evaluated the technical merits of waste-heat powered thermal heat pumps for recovery of latent heat from distillation, multi-effect evaporation (MEE), and crystallization processes and recycling into the process. The Project Team has estimated the potential energy, economics and environmental benefits with the focus on reduction in CO2 emissions that can be realized by 2020, assuming successful development and commercialization of the technology being developed. Specifically, with aggressive industry-wide applications of heat recovery and recycling with absorption heat pumps, energy savings of about 26.7 trillion Btu/yr have been estimated for distillation process. The direct environmental benefits of this project are the reduced emissions of combustible products. The estimated major reduction in environmental pollutants in the distillation processes is in CO2 emission equivalent to 3.5 billion lbs/year. Energy consumption associated with water supply and treatments can vary between 1,900 kWh and 23,700 kWh per million-gallon water depending on sources of natural waters [US DOE, 2006]. Successful implementation of this technology would significantly reduce the demand for cooling-tower waters, and thereby the use and discharge of water treatment chemicals. The Project Team has also identified and characterized working fluid pairs for the moderate-temperature heat pump. For an MEE process, the two promising fluids are LiNO3+KNO3+NANO3 (53:28:19 ) and LiNO3+KNO3+NANO2(53:35:12). And for an H2O2 distillation process, the two promising fluids are Trifluoroethanol (TFE) + Triethylene Glycol Dimethyl ether (DMETEG) and Ammonia+ Water. Thermo-physical properties calculated by Aspen+ are reasonably accurate. Documentation of the installation of pilot-plants or full commercial units were not found in the literature for validating thermo-physical properties in an operating unit. Therefore, it is essential to install a pilot-scale unit to verify thermo-physical properties of working fluid pairs and validate the overall efficiency of the thermal heat pump at temperatures typical of distillation processes. For an HO2 process, the ammonia-water heat pump system is more compact and preferable than the TFE-DMETEG heat pump. The ammonia-water heat pump is therefore recommended for the H2O2 process. Based on the complex nature of the heat recovery system, we anticipated that capital costs could make investments financially unattractive where steam costs are low, especially where co-generation is involved. We believe that the enhanced heat transfer equipment has the potential to significantly improve the performance of TEE crystallizers, independent of the absorption heat-pump recovery system. Where steam costs are high, more detailed design/cost engineering will be required to verify the economic viability of the technology. Due to the long payback period estimated for the TEE open system, further studies on the TEE system are not warranted unless there are significant future improvements to heat pump technology. For the H2O2 distillation cycle heat pump waste heat recovery system, there were no significant process constraints and the estimated 5 years payback period is encouraging. We therefore recommend further developments of application of the thermal heat pump in the H2O2 distillation process with the focus on the technical and economic viability of heat exchangers equipped with the state-of-the-art enhancements. This will require additional funding for a prototype unit to validate enhanced thermal performances of heat transfer equipment, evaluat

  16. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schobert, H.H.

    1999-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume (Sections 1 through 5).

  17. INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-MECH-01 Domestic Hot Water (DHW) (Page 1 of 2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,000 Btu/hr), electric resistance and heat pump water heaters, list Energy Factor (EF). For large gas storage water heaters (rated input of greater than 75,000 Btu/hr), list Recovery Efficiency (RE), Thermal Efficiency, Standby Loss and Rated Input. For instantaneous gas water heaters, list the Thermal Efficiency

  18. STATE OF CALIFORNIA DOMESTIC HOT WATER (DHW)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,000 Btu/hr), electric resistance and heat pump water heaters, list Energy Factor (EF). For large gas storage water heaters (rated input of greater than 75,000 Btu/hr), list Recovery Efficiency (RE), Thermal Efficiency, Standby Loss and Rated Input. For instantaneous gas water heaters, list the Thermal Efficiency

  19. Reduced Thermal Conductivity of Compacted Silicon Nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuen, Taylor S.

    Thermal-Barrier-Coating Applications, Journa of American Ceramicthermal conductivity materials are typically found among ceramicsThermal Conductivity of Porous Materials: Application to Thick Barrier Coatings, Journal of the European Ceramic

  20. City of Dubuque- Solar Thermal Licensing Requirement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The City of Dubuque requires a Solar Thermal License in order for a person to install a solar thermal project on a home or business. The requirement does not apply to solar photovoltaics. The...

  1. Absorption Cooling Optimizes Thermal Design for Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hufford, P. E.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contrary to popular concept, in most cases, thermal energy is the real VALUE in cogeneration and not the electricity. The proper consideration of the thermal demands is equal to or more important than the electrical demands. High efficiency two...

  2. Successfully Marketing Thermal Storage in Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, C.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper first reviews the key hurdles to thermal energy storage. Next, case studies of three electric utility thermal storage marketing programs are reviewed. The results of these case studies. as well as advice and experiences from other...

  3. A COMPUTATIONAL STUDY ON THERMAL CONDUCITIVITY OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    aspect ratio, weight fraction, and thermal resistance at the interface between the SWNTsA COMPUTATIONAL STUDY ON THERMAL CONDUCITIVITY OF CARBON NANOTUBE DISPERSED BIOLOGICAL NANOFLUIDS: Massachusetts Institute of Technology 2: School of Chemical, Biological and Materials Engineering, Oklahoma

  4. Thermal pumping of light-emitting diodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Dodd (Dodd J.)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The work presented here is a study of thermally enhanced injection in light-emitting diodes (LEDs). This effect, which we refer to as "thermal pumping", results from Peltier energy exchange from the lattice to charge ...

  5. Commercial thermal distribution systems, Final report for CIEE/CEC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, T.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    thermal envelope..Branch Duct -Hot-Air Duct Outside Thermal Envelope. - - -Cold-Air Duct Outside Thermal Envelope =="-"Hot-Air Duct

  6. Polymer-Ceramic MEMS Bimorphs as Thermal Infrared Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warren, Clinton Gregory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of thermal expansion between polymers and ceramics. However,of thermal expansion for selected ceramics, metals, andof thermal expansion for selected ceramics, metals, and

  7. SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT Thomas F.CENTRAL RECEIVER SOLAR THERMAL POWER SYSTEM, PHASE progressCorporation, RECEIVER SOLAR THERMAL POWER SYSTEM, PHASE I,

  8. SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ADVANCED THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE CONCEPT DEFINITION STUDY FORSchilling. F. E. , Thermal Energy Storage Using PrestressedNo ~cumulate thermal energy storage. Estimate ESTrof2(

  9. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    density, making direct thermal energy storage methods, e.g.reduced. Conventional thermal energy harvesting and storageharvesting, storage, and utilization of thermal energy has

  10. Thermal Energy Storage for Cooling of Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, H.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Commercial Building Thermal Energy _Storage in ASEANGas Electric Company, "Thermal Energy Storage for Cooling,"LBL--25393 DE91 ,THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE FOR COOLING OF

  11. DRAFT. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, S.M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial ocean thermal energy conversion ( OTEC) plants byand M.D. Sands. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) pilotfield of ocean thermal energy conversion discharges. I~. L.

  12. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M. D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of ocean thermal energy conversion technology. U.S. DOE.Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion. A preliminaryof the Fifth Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Conference,

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, S.M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sands. 1980. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) pilotCommercial ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plants byof the Fifth Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Conference,

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, S.M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fifth Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Conference, FebruarySixth Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Conference, June 19-Fifth Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Conference, February

  15. DRAFT. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, S.M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fifth Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Conference, Februarythe Sixth Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Conference. OceanSixth Ocean Thermal Energy conversion Conference. June 19-

  16. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M. D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fifth Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Conference, FebruaryFifth Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Conference, FebruarySixth Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Conference. June 19-

  17. Thermal Energy Storage for Cooling of Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, H.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Building Thermal Energy _Storage in ASEAN Countries,"Company, "Thermal Energy Storage for Cooling," SeminarTHERMAL FOR COOLING ENERGY STORAGE BUILDINGS OF COMMERCIAL

  18. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermally-Chargeable Supercapacitor Fluctuating Low-GradeThermally-Chargeable Supercapacitor for Fluctuating Low-Thermally-Chargeable Supercapacitor for Fluctuating Low-

  19. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION: AN OVERALL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M.Dale

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1980 :. i l OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION: ENVIRONMENTALM.D. (editor). 1980. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion DraftDevelopment Plan. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion. U.S. DOE

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, S.M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plants byof the Fifth Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Conference,Sands. 1980. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) pilot

  1. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M. D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of ocean thermal energy conversion technology. U.S. DOE.Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion. A preliminaryCompany. Ocean thermal energy conversion mission analysis

  2. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Potential Environmental Impacts and Fisheries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

    Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Potential Environmental Impacts and Fisheries Christina M Comfort Institute #12;Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) · Renewable energy ­ ocean thermal gradient · Large

  3. DRAFT. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, S.M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial ocean thermal energy conversion ( OTEC) plants byfield of ocean thermal energy conversion discharges. I~. L.II of the Sixth Ocean Thermal Energy conversion Conference.

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, S.M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plants bySands. 1980. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) pilotof the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Biofouling,

  5. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M. D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Biofouling,development of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plant-impact assessment ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC)

  6. DRAFT. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, S.M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial ocean thermal energy conversion ( OTEC) plants bySands. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) pilot plantof the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Biofouling,

  7. DRAFT. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, S.M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1979. Commercial ocean thermal energy conversion ( OTEC)field of ocean thermal energy conversion discharges. I~. L.II of the Sixth Ocean Thermal Energy conversion Conference.

  8. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the portion of thermal energy that can be converted toof high-performance thermal energy harvesting systems, butreferred to as the thermal energy from low- temperature heat

  9. A Magnetomechanical Thermal Energy Harvester With A Reversible Liquid Interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Hong

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Mechanical Model of a Thermal Energy Harvesting Device,M, and Ferrari V. , Thermal energy harvesting throughand G. P. Carman, Thermal energy harvesting device using

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, S.M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1979. Commercial ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC)of the Fifth Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Conference,Sands. 1980. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) pilot

  11. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION: AN OVERALL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M.Dale

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M.D. (editor). 1980. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Draft1980 :. i l OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION: ENVIRONMENTALDevelopment Plan. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion. U.S. DOE

  12. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M. D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the commercialization of ocean thermal energy conversionE. Hathaway. Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion. AElectric Company. Ocean thermal energy conversion mission

  13. DRAFT. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, S.M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1979. Commercial ocean thermal energy conversion ( OTEC)the intermediate field of ocean thermal energy conversionII of the Sixth Ocean Thermal Energy conversion Conference.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, S.M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1979. Commercial ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC)of the Fifth Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Conference,and M.D. Sands. 1980. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC)

  15. Thermal Conductivity of Polycrystalline Semiconductors and Ceramics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhaojie

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Brown, C. M. ; Zhang, Q. ; Tritt, T. M. Nano Letters 2010,Monteiro, O. Microelectronics journal Tritt, T. M. , Thermal

  16. Battery Thermal Modeling and Testing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation summarizes NREL battery thermal modeling and testing work for the DOE Annual Merit Review, May 9, 2011.

  17. Thermal Storage Options for HVAC Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, R. F.; Gidwani, B. N.

    THERMAL STORAGE OPTIONS FOR HVAC SYSTEMS B. N. Gidwani, P.E. Roy F. Weston, Inc. West Chester, Pennsylvania ABSTRACT With the ever-increasing cost of electricity and the high demand charges levied by utility compa nies, thermal storage... for cooling is rapidly becom ing a widely recognized method to lower cooling costs. There are three maior types of thermal stor age systems: ? Ice Storage: This utilizes the latent heat of fusion of ice for thermal storage. During off Deak periods...

  18. Battery Thermal Management System Design Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Looks at the impact of cooling strategies with air and both direct and indirect liquid cooling for battery thermal management.

  19. Measurements of the Thermal Neutron Scattering Kernel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danon, Yaron

    Measurements of the Thermal Neutron Scattering Kernel Li (Emily) Liu, Yaron Danon, Bjorn Becker and discussions Problems and Future study Questions #12;3 M. Mattes and J. Keinert, Thermal Neutron Scattering experimental data used was from 1973-1974! M. Mattes and J. Keinert, Thermal Neutron Scattering Data

  20. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion LUIS A. VEGA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion LUIS A. VEGA Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, School of Ocean depths of 20 m (surface water) and 1,000 m. OTEC Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion, the process of converting the ocean thermal energy into electricity. OTEC transfer function The relationship between

  1. Microwavable thermal energy storage material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene-vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments.

  2. Microwavable thermal energy storage material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments. 3 figs.

  3. Coshcous turbulence and its thermalization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Jian-zhou [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Mark [SNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dissipation rate {mu}[cosh(k/k{sub c}) - 1] in Fourier space, which reduces to the Newtonian viscosity dissipation rate {nu}k{sup 2} for small k/k{sub c}, can be scaled to make a hydrodynamic system either actually or potentially converge to its Galerkin truncation. The former case acquires convergence to the truncation at a finite wavenumber k{sub G}; the latter realizes as the wavenumber grows to infinity. Intermittency reduction and vitiation of extended self-similarity (ESS) in the partially thermalized regime of turbulence are confirmed and clarified. Onsager's pictures of intermittent versus nonintermittent flows are visualized from thermalized numerical fields, showing cleanly spotty versus mistily uniform properties, the latter of which destroys self-organization and so the ESS property.

  4. Solar Thermal Reactor Materials Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lichty, P. R.; Scott, A. M.; Perkins, C. M.; Bingham, C.; Weimer, A. W.

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current research into hydrogen production through high temperature metal oxide water splitting cycles has created a need for robust high temperature materials. Such cycles are further enhanced by the use of concentrated solar energy as a power source. However, samples subjected to concentrated solar radiation exhibited lifetimes much shorter than expected. Characterization of the power and flux distributions representative of the High Flux Solar Furnace(HFSF) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory(NREL) were compared to ray trace modeling of the facility. In addition, samples of candidate reactor materials were thermally cycled at the HFSF and tensile failure testing was performed to quantify material degradation. Thermal cycling tests have been completed on super alloy Haynes 214 samples and results indicate that maximum temperature plays a significant role in reduction of strength. The number of cycles was too small to establish long term failure trends for this material due to the high ductility of the material.

  5. Calculate thermal-expansion coefficients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To properly design and use process equipment, an engineer needs a sound knowledge of physical and thermodynamic property data. A lack of such knowledge can lead to design or operating mistakes that can be dangerous, costly or even fatal. One useful type of property data is the thermal-expansion coefficient. This article presents equations and tables to find the thermal-expansion coefficients of many liquids that contain carbon. These data are useful in process-engineering applications, including the design of relief systems which are crucial to safeguarding process equipment. Data are provided for approximately 350 compounds. A computer software program, which contains the thermophysical property data for all of the compounds discussed in this article, is available for $43 prepaid from the author (Carl L. Yaws, Box 10053, Lamar University, beaumont, TX 77710; Tel. 409-880-8787; fax 409-880-8404). The program is in ASCII format, which can be accessed by most other types of computer software.

  6. Permanent magnet thermal energy system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerard, F.

    1985-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved rotary magnet thermal generator system of the type having an array of magnets in alternating disposition coaxially disposed about and parallel with the shaft of a motor driving the rotary array and having a copper heat absorber and a ferro-magnetic plate fixed on a face of the heat absorber, includes as efficiency improver a plurality of heat sink plates extending beyond the ferro-magnet plate into a plenum through a respective plurality of close-fitting apertures. In a further embodimetn the heat sink plates are in thermal contact with sinusoidally convoluted tubing that both increases surface area and provides for optional heating of gases and/or fluids at the same time.

  7. Electric thermal storage demonstration program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In early 1989, MMWEC, a joint action agency comprised of 30 municipal light departments in Massachusetts and one affiliate in Rhode Island, responded to a Department of Energy request to proposal for the Least Cost Utility Planning program. The MMWEC submission was for the development of a program, focused on small rural electric utilities, to promote the use of electric thermal storage heating systems in residential applications. In this progress report, cost savings at Bolyston light department is discussed. (JL)

  8. Electric thermal storage demonstration program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In early 1989, MMWEC, a joint action agency comprised of 30 municipal light departments in Massachusetts and one affiliate in Rhode Island, responded to a Department of Energy request to proposal for the Least Cost Utility Planning program. The MMWEC submission was for the development of a program, focused on small rural electric utilities, to promote the use of electric thermal storage heating systems in residential applications. In this progress report, cost savings at Bolyston light department is discussed. (JL)

  9. GCFR thermal-hydraulic experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlueter, G.; Baxi, C.B.; Dalle Donne, M.; Gat, U.; Fenech, H.; Hanson, D.; Hudina, M.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal-hydraulic experimental studies performed and planned for the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) core assemblies are described. The experiments consist of basic studies performed to obtain correlations, and bundle experiments which provide input for code validation and design verification. These studies have been performed and are planned at European laboratories, US national laboratories, Universities in the US, and at General Atomic Company

  10. W-320 Project thermal modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathyanarayana, K., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of thermal analysis performed to provide a technical basis in support of Project W-320 to retrieve by sluicing the sludge in Tank 241-C-106 and to transfer into Tank 241-AY-102. Prior theraml evaluations in support of Project W-320 safety analysis assumed the availability of 2000 to 3000 CFM, as provided by Tank Farm Operations, for tank floor cooling channels from the secondary ventilation system. As this flow availability has no technical basis, a detailed Tank 241-AY-102 secondary ventilation and floor coating channel flow model was developed and analysis was performed. The results of the analysis show that only about 150 cfm flow is in floor cooLing channels. Tank 241-AY-102 thermal evaluation was performed to determine the necessary cooling flow for floor cooling channels using W-030 primary ventilation system for different quantities of Tank 241-C-106 sludge transfer into Tank 241-AY-102. These sludge transfers meet different options for the project along with minimum required modification of the ventilation system. Also the results of analysis for the amount of sludge transfer using the current system is presented. The effect of sludge fluffing factor, heat generation rate and its distribution between supernatant and sludge in Tank 241-AY-102 on the amount of sludge transfer from Tank 241-C-106 were evaluated and the results are discussed. Also transient thermal analysis was performed to estimate the time to reach the steady state. For a 2 feet sludge transfer, about 3 months time will be requirad to reach steady state. Therefore, for the purpose of process control, a detailed transient thermal analysis using GOTH Computer Code will be required to determine transient response of the sludge in Tank 241-AY-102. Process control considerations are also discussed to eliminate the potential for a steam bump during retrieval and storage in Tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102 respectively.

  11. Thermal well-test method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin-Fu (Albany, CA); Doughty, Christine A. (Berkeley, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A well-test method involving injection of hot (or cold) water into a groundwater aquifer, or injecting cold water into a geothermal reservoir. By making temperature measurements at various depths in one or more observation wells, certain properties of the aquifer are determined. These properties, not obtainable from conventional well test procedures, include the permeability anisotropy, and layering in the aquifer, and in-situ thermal properties. The temperature measurements at various depths are obtained from thermistors mounted in the observation wells.

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: solar thermal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1developmentturbineredox-activeNational Solar Thermal Test Facilitysolarsolar

  13. Odne Stokke Burheim Thermal Signature and Thermal Conductivities of PEM Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    Odne Stokke Burheim Thermal Signature and Thermal Conductivities of PEM Fuel Cells Thesis-Holst for believing in me and for giving me the opportunity to join the work on the "Thermal Effects in Fuel cell The work presented here gives estimates on thermal gradients within the PEM fuel cell, an experimental

  14. Simple, accurate, and precise measurements of thermal diffusivity in liquids using a thermal-wave cavity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    Simple, accurate, and precise measurements of thermal diffusivity in liquids using a thermal, and its application to the evaluation of the thermal diffusivity of liquids is described. The simplicity agreement was found with reported results in the literature. The accuracy of the thermal diffusivity

  15. The Need for a Full-Chip and Package Thermal Model for Thermally Optimized IC Designs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skadron, Kevin

    ceramic ball-grid array (CBGA) pack- age consisting of the chip (die), thermal interface material, heatThe Need for a Full-Chip and Package Thermal Model for Thermally Optimized IC Designs Wei Huang detailed die temperature with a full-chip thermal model at early design stages is important to discover

  16. Thermal recovery from a fractured medium in local thermal non-equilibrium Rachel Geleta,b,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    effective stress is tensile near the injection well, illustrating the thermal contraction of the rock, whileThermal recovery from a fractured medium in local thermal non-equilibrium Rachel Geleta, Australia Abstract Thermal recovery from a hot dry rock reservoir viewed as a deformable fractured medium

  17. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardin, Corey Lee

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA RIVERSIDE Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar

  18. Thermal Stability Of Formohydroxamic Acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fondeur, F. F.; Rudisill, T. S.

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal stability of formohydroxamic acid (FHA) was evaluated to address the potential for exothermic decomposition during storage and its use in the uranium extraction process. Accelerating rate calorimetry showed rapid decomposition at a temperature above 65 {degree}?C; although, the rate of pressure rise was greater than two orders of magnitude less than the lower bound for materials which have no explosive properties with respect to transportation. FHA solutions in water and nitric acid did not reach runaway conditions until 150 {degree}?C. Analysis by differential scanning calorimetry showed that FHA melted at 67 {degree}?C and thermally decomposed at 90 {degree}?C with an enthalpy of -1924 J/g. The energics of the FHA thermal decomposition are comparable to those measured for aqueous solutions of hydroxylamine nitrate. Solid FHA should be stored in a location where the temperature does not exceed 20-25 {degree}?C. As a best practice, the solid material should be stored in a climate-controlled environment such as a refrigerator or freezer. FHA solutions in water are not susceptible to degradation by acid hydrolysis and are the preferred way to handle FHA prior to use.

  19. Thermal wake/vessel detection technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roskovensky, John K. (Albuquerque, NM); Nandy, Prabal (Albuquerque, NM); Post, Brian N (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A computer-automated method for detecting a vessel in water based on an image of a portion of Earth includes generating a thermal anomaly mask. The thermal anomaly mask flags each pixel of the image initially deemed to be a wake pixel based on a comparison of a thermal value of each pixel against other thermal values of other pixels localized about each pixel. Contiguous pixels flagged by the thermal anomaly mask are grouped into pixel clusters. A shape of each of the pixel clusters is analyzed to determine whether each of the pixel clusters represents a possible vessel detection event. The possible vessel detection events are represented visually within the image.

  20. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Other LGH sources include solar thermal energy, geo-thermalThe heat source can be solar thermal energy, biologicalsources include the coolants in coal and nuclear power plants, solar thermal energy,

  1. Nanoscale thermal transport. II. 20032012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cahill, David G., E-mail: d-cahill@illinois.edu; Braun, Paul V. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and the Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Chen, Gang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Clarke, David R. [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Fan, Shanhui [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Goodson, Kenneth E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Keblinski, Pawel [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); King, William P. [Department of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Mahan, Gerald D. [Department of Physics, Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Majumdar, Arun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Maris, Humphrey J. [Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States); Phillpot, Simon R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainseville, Florida 32611 (United States); Pop, Eric [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Shi, Li [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas, Autin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A diverse spectrum of technology drivers such as improved thermal barriers, higher efficiency thermoelectric energy conversion, phase-change memory, heat-assisted magnetic recording, thermal management of nanoscale electronics, and nanoparticles for thermal medical therapies are motivating studies of the applied physics of thermal transport at the nanoscale. This review emphasizes developments in experiment, theory, and computation in the past ten years and summarizes the present status of the field. Interfaces become increasingly important on small length scales. Research during the past decade has extended studies of interfaces between simple metals and inorganic crystals to interfaces with molecular materials and liquids with systematic control of interface chemistry and physics. At separations on the order of ?1?nm, the science of radiative transport through nanoscale gaps overlaps with thermal conduction by the coupling of electronic and vibrational excitations across weakly bonded or rough interfaces between materials. Major advances in the physics of phonons include first principles calculation of the phonon lifetimes of simple crystals and application of the predicted scattering rates in parameter-free calculations of the thermal conductivity. Progress in the control of thermal transport at the nanoscale is critical to continued advances in the density of information that can be stored in phase change memory devices and new generations of magnetic storage that will use highly localized heat sources to reduce the coercivity of magnetic media. Ultralow thermal conductivitythermal conductivity below the conventionally predicted minimum thermal conductivityhas been observed in nanolaminates and disordered crystals with strong anisotropy. Advances in metrology by time-domain thermoreflectance have made measurements of the thermal conductivity of a thin layer with micron-scale spatial resolution relatively routine. Scanning thermal microscopy and thermal analysis using proximal probes has achieved spatial resolution of 10?nm, temperature precision of 50 mK, sensitivity to heat flows of 10 pW, and the capability for thermal analysis of sub-femtogram samples.

  2. Thermal Strategies for High Efficiency Thermoelectric Power Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal Strategies for High Efficiency Thermoelectric Power Generation Thermal Strategies for High Efficiency Thermoelectric Power Generation Developing integrated TE system...

  3. Molecular Dynamic Study of Thermal Conductivity of Amorphous Nanoporous Silica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coquil, Thomas; Fang, Jin; Pilon, Laurent

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as a thermal isolation layer. Ceramics International, 34(Thermal conductivity of highly porous zirconia. Journal of the European Ceramic

  4. Optimized Structures for Low-Profile Phase Change Thermal Spreaders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharratt, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of High-Thermal-Conductivity Aluminum Nitride Ceramics,for a ceramic isolating material and the associated thermal

  5. Thermal Interface Materials for Power Electronics Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narumanchi, S.; Mihalic, M.; Kelly, K.; Eesley, G.

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal resistance of the thermal interface material layer greatly affects the maximum temperature of the power electronics.

  6. Thermal Performance of Phase Change Wallboard for Residential Cooling Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feustel, H.E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the discharge of thermal energy storage without releasingto low-energy cooling sources. Large thermal storage devices

  7. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Recycling of Wasted Energy : ThermalOF THE DISSERTATION Recycling of Wasted Energy : Thermal to

  8. Thermal blooming experiments. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goals of this program were to design an experiment for determining the effect of stimulated thermal Brillouin scattering (STBS) on single pulse laser propagation and to establish the ability of both a wave optics code and of linearized theory to predict the results of the experiment accurately. The second goal is particularly important because no experimental verification of analytical tools currently in use for single pulse high power laser propagation is available. When a high power laser propagates through the atmosphere, a small fraction of the laser energy is absorbed, creating acoustic waves that may move a significant distance transverse to the propagation direction during the pulse. Such waves lead to the well-known t{sup 3}-blooming refractive-index variations. When such blooming is sufficiently strong, the induced refractive-index alters the intensity profile of the beam farther along the propagation path. This altered intensity profile induces a somewhat different refractive-index profile that may reinforce the path-integrated t{sup 3} blooming. This self-enhancement may be called near-forward stimulated thermal Brillouin scattering (STBS). The design effort described here was carried out much like the proposed experimental program, which calls for the interaction of experimental work with analytical theory and with a wave optics code, A linearized theory of STBS was developed. Results from this theory were compared to output from a wave optics propagation code for several well defined sets of operating conditions. Once good agreement between theory and code simulation was obtained for these test conditions, the theory was used to define and operating regime for a laboratory scale thermal blooming experiment that would provide information relevant to high power laser propagation. A conceptual design for this experiment was then generated and, finally, and experimental set-up, including diagnostics, was proposed.

  9. Thermal Shock-resistant Cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Gill, S.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We studied the effectiveness of sodium silicate-activated Class F fly ash in improving the thermal shock resistance and in extending the onset of hydration of Secar #80 refractory cement. When the dry mix cement, consisting of Secar #80, Class F fly ash, and sodium silicate, came in contact with water, NaOH derived from the dissolution of sodium silicate preferentially reacted with Class F fly ash, rather than the #80, to dissociate silicate anions from Class F fly ash. Then, these dissociated silicate ions delayed significantly the hydration of #80 possessing a rapid setting behavior. We undertook a multiple heating -water cooling quenching-cycle test to evaluate the cements resistance to thermal shock. In one cycle, we heated the 200 and #61616;C-autoclaved cement at 500 and #61616;C for 24 hours, and then the heated cement was rapidly immersed in water at 25 and #61616;C. This cycle was repeated five times. The phase composition of the autoclaved #80/Class F fly ash blend cements comprised four crystalline hydration products, boehmite, katoite, hydrogrossular, and hydroxysodalite, responsible for strengthening cement. After a test of 5-cycle heat-water quenching, we observed three crystalline phase-transformations in this autoclaved cement: boehmite and #61614; and #61543;-Al2O3, katoite and #61614; calcite, and hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite. Among those, the hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite transformation not only played a pivotal role in densifying the cementitious structure and in sustaining the original compressive strength developed after autoclaving, but also offered an improved resistance of the #80 cement to thermal shock. In contrast, autoclaved Class G well cement with and without Class F fly ash and quartz flour failed this cycle test, generating multiple cracks in the cement. The major reason for such impairment was the hydration of lime derived from the dehydroxylation of portlandite formed in the autoclaved cement, causing its volume to expand.

  10. Photon Clusters in Thermal Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aleksey Ilyin

    2014-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the framework of Bose-Einstein statistics, it is shown that the blackbody radiation, in addition to single photons, contains photon clusters, or coalescent photons. The probability to find a k-photon cluster versus radiation frequency and temperature is found, as well as the statistics of clusters. Spectra of photon-cluster radiation are calculated as functions of blackbody temperature. The Planck's radiation law is derived based on the existence of photon clusters. The possibility of experimental observation of photon clusters in thermal radiation is discussed.

  11. Thermal well-test method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.F.; Doughty, C.A.

    1984-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A well-test method involving injection of hot (or cold) water into a groundwater aquifer, or injecting cold water into a geothermal reservoir is disclosed. By making temperature measurements at various depths in one or more observation wells, certain properties of the aquifer are determined. These properties, not obtainable from conventional well test procedures, include the permeability anisotropy, and layering in the aquifer, and in-situ thermal properties. The temperature measurements at various depths are obtained from thermistors mounted in the observation wells.

  12. Neutrino Physics with Thermal Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nucciotti, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano Bicocca and INFN Sezione di Milano-Bicocca Piazza della Scienza, 3, 20126 Milano (Italy)

    2009-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The investigation of fundamental neutrino properties like its mass and its nature calls for the design of a new generation of experiments. High sensitivity, high energy resolution, and versatility together with the possibility of a simple multiplexing scheme are the key features of future detectors for these experiments. Thermal detectors can combine all these features. This paper reviews the status and the perspectives for what concerns the application of this type of detectors to neutrino physics, focusing on direct neutrino mass measurements and neutrinoless double beta decay searches.

  13. Ocean Thermal | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's HeatMexico:CommunityNorthwest BasinOahu, Hawaii:EnergyOpenTheOceanThermal

  14. Westinghouse thermal barrier coatings development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goedjen, J.G.; Wagner, G. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Westinghouse, in conjunction with the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, has embarked upon a program for the development of advanced thermal barrier coatings for industrial gas turbines. Development of thermal barrier coatings (TBC`s) for industrial gas turbines has relied heavily on the transfer of technology from the aerospace industry. Significant differences in the time/temperature/stress duty cycles exist between these two coating applications. Coating systems which perform well in aerospace applications may not been optimized to meet power generation performance requirements. This program will focus on development of TBC`s to meet the specific needs of power generation applications. The program is directed at developing a state-of-the-art coating system with a minimum coating life of 25,000 hours at service temperatures required to meet increasing operating efficiency goals. Westinghouse has assembled a team of university and industry leaders to accomplish this goal. Westinghouse will coordinate the efforts of all program participants. Chromalloy Turbine Technologies, Inc. and Sermatech International, Inc. will be responsible for bond coat and TBC deposition technology. Praxair Specialty Powders, Inc. will be responsible for the fabrication of all bond coat and ceramic powders for the program. Southwest Research Institute will head the life prediction modelling effort; they will also be involved in coordinating nondestructive evaluation (NDE) efforts. Process modelling will be provided by the University of Arizona.

  15. Measurements of thermal accommodation coefficients.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rader, Daniel John; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Torczynski, John Robert; Grasser, Thomas W.; Trott, Wayne Merle

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A previously-developed experimental facility has been used to determine gas-surface thermal accommodation coefficients from the pressure dependence of the heat flux between parallel plates of similar material but different surface finish. Heat flux between the plates is inferred from measurements of temperature drop between the plate surface and an adjacent temperature-controlled water bath. Thermal accommodation measurements were determined from the pressure dependence of the heat flux for a fixed plate separation. Measurements of argon and nitrogen in contact with standard machined (lathed) or polished 304 stainless steel plates are indistinguishable within experimental uncertainty. Thus, the accommodation coefficient of 304 stainless steel with nitrogen and argon is estimated to be 0.80 {+-} 0.02 and 0.87 {+-} 0.02, respectively, independent of the surface roughness within the range likely to be encountered in engineering practice. Measurements of the accommodation of helium showed a slight variation with 304 stainless steel surface roughness: 0.36 {+-} 0.02 for a standard machine finish and 0.40 {+-} 0.02 for a polished finish. Planned tests with carbon-nanotube-coated plates will be performed when 304 stainless-steel blanks have been successfully coated.

  16. Improved Calculation of Thermal Fission Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, X B; Wang, L Z; Chen, Y X; Cao, J

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal fission energy is one of the basic parameters needed in the calculation of antineutrino flux for reactor neutrino experiments. It is useful to improve the precision of the thermal fission energy calculation for current and future reactor neutrino experiments, which are aimed at more precise determination of neutrino oscillation parameters. In this article, we give new values for thermal fission energies of some common thermal reactor fuel iso-topes, with improvements on two aspects. One is more recent input data acquired from updated nuclear databases. The other, which is unprecedented, is a consideration of the production yields of fission fragments from both thermal and fast incident neutrons for each of the four main fuel isotopes. The change in calculated antineutrino flux due to the new values of thermal fission energy is about 0.33%, and the uncertainties of the new values are about 30% smaller.

  17. Ultra low thermal expansion, highly thermal shock resistant ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Limaye, Santosh Y. (1440 Sandpiper Cir. #38, Salt Lake City, UT 84117)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three families of ceramic compositions having the given formula: .phi..sub.1+X Zr.sub.4 P.sub.6-2X Si.sub.2X O.sub.24, .phi..sub.1+X Zr.sub.4-2X Y.sub.2X P.sub.6 O.sub.24 and .phi..sub.1+X Zr.sub.4-X Y.sub.X P.sub.6-2X Si.sub.X O.sub.24 wherein .phi. is either Strontium or Barium and X has a value from about 0.2 to about 0.8 have been disclosed. Ceramics formed from these compositions exhibit very low, generally near neutral, thermal expansion over a wide range of elevated temperatures.

  18. Ultra low thermal expansion, highly thermal shock resistant ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Limaye, S.Y.

    1996-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Three families of ceramic compositions having the given formula: {phi}{sub 1+X}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 6{minus}2X}Si{sub 2X}O{sub 24}, {phi}{sub 1+X}Zr{sub 4{minus}2X}Y{sub 2X}P{sub 6}O{sub 24} and {phi}{sub 1+X}Zr{sub 4{minus}X}Y{sub X}P{sub 6{minus}2X}Si{sub X}O{sub 24} wherein {phi} is either strontium or barium and X has a value from about 0.2 to about 0.8 have been disclosed. Ceramics formed from these compositions exhibit very low, generally near neutral, thermal expansion over a wide range of elevated temperatures. 7 figs.

  19. Decoherence of multimode thermal squeezed coherent states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeh, L.

    1992-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    It is well known that any multimode positive definite quadratic Hamiltonian can be transformed into a hamiltonian of uncoupled harmonic oscillators. Based on this theorem, the multimode thermal squeezed coherent states are constructed in terms of density operators. Decoherence of multimode thermal squeezed coherent states in investigated via the characteristic function and it is shown that the decohered (reduced) states are still thermal squeezed coherent states in general.

  20. Why Granular Media Are, After All, Thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yimin Jiang; Mario Liu

    2014-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Granular media are considered "athermal", because the grains are too large to display Brownian type thermal fluctuations. Yet being macroscopic, every grain undergoes thermal expansion, possesses a temperature that may be measured with a thermometer, and consists of many, many internal degrees of freedom that in their sum do affect granular dynamics. Therefore, including them in a comprehensive approach to account for granular behavior entails crucial advantages. The pros and cons of thermal versus athermal descriptions are considered.

  1. NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WATER EFFICIENCY AND MANAGEMENT .......................................................26 POLLUTION Agent BBTU ­ Billion British Thermal Units BTU ­ British Thermal Units CD ­ Construction Document CEDR ­ Industrial, Landscaping, and Agricultural IPCC ­ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ISMS ­ Integrated

  2. Advanced Reactor Thermal Hydraulic Modeling | Argonne Leadership...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Reactor Thermal Hydraulic Modeling PI Name: Paul Fischer PI Email: fischer@mcs.anl.gov Institution: Argonne National Laboratory Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation Hours...

  3. Advanced Reactor Thermal Hydraulic Modeling | Argonne Leadership...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fischer (ANL), Aleks Obabko (ANL), and Hank Childs (LBNL) Advanced Reactor Thermal Hydraulic Modeling PI Name: Paul Fischer PI Email: fischer@mcs.anl.gov Institution: Argonne...

  4. Chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor can be used to accurately measure fluid flow rate in a microanalytical system. The thermal flow sensor can be operated in either constant temperature or constant power mode and variants thereof. The chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor can be fabricated with the same MEMS technology as the rest of the microanlaytical system. Because of its low heat capacity, low-loss, and small size, the chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor is fast and efficient enough to be used in battery-powered, portable microanalytical systems.

  5. Dish Stirling High Performance Thermal Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    metrology for development and production Glint and glare Design tools National Solar Thermal Test Facility: Rich Dish Stirling Tradition Involvement with most Dish...

  6. Thermal Conductivity of Polycrystalline Semiconductors and Ceramics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhaojie

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    semiconductors and ceramics with desired thermalthermal conductivity of several polycrystalline semiconductors and ceramics,Thermal Conductivity of Polycrystalline Semiconductors and Ceramics

  7. Thermal conductivity and heat transfer in superlattices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, G.; Neagu, M.; Borca-Tasciuc, T.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the thermal conductivity and heat transfer processes in superlattice structures is critical for the development of thermoelectric materials and devices based on quantum structures. This work reports progress on the modeling of thermal conductivity of superlattice structures. Results from the models established based on the Boltzmann transport equation could explain existing experimental results on the thermal conductivity of semiconductor superlattices in both in plane and cross-plane directions. These results suggest the possibility of engineering the interfaces to further reduce thermal conductivity of superlattice structures.

  8. PCM energy storage during defective thermal cycling:.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koekenbier, S.F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Incomplete thermal cycling affects storage capacities of phase change materials (PCMs). Existing PCM measuring methods are presented with their drawbacks. A new device named the (more)

  9. Thermal Energy Storage in Adsorbent Beds .

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ugur, Burcu

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Total produced energy in the world is mostly consumed as thermal energy which is used for space or water heating. Currently, more than 85% of (more)

  10. Thermal Energy Storage:Analysis and Application.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ogunkoya, Dolanimi Olugbenga

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??The purpose of this paper is to analyze and determine the feasibility of a cold thermal storage system in manufacturing Industries. Cooling loads and actual (more)

  11. Performance evaluation of thermal energy storage systems;.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramana A S

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Solar thermal technologies are promising, given the fact that solar newlineenergy is the cheapest and most widely available of all renewable energy newlinetechnologies. The recent (more)

  12. Thermal and Electrical Transport in Oxide Heterostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ravichandran, Jayakanth

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2.3.1 Electrical transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.5 Controlling electrical conductivity and opticalthe variation of electrical and thermal con- ductivity and

  13. Geothermal Reconnaissance From Quantitative Analysis Of Thermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    From Quantitative Analysis Of Thermal Infrared Imagery Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Reference: Geothermal Reconnaissance From Quantitative...

  14. Thermal processing systems for TRU mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents preliminary ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated wastes (TRUW) buried at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Anticipated waste stream components and problems are considered. Thermal processing conditions required to obtain a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic final waste form are considered. Five practical thermal process system designs are compared. Thermal processing of mixed waste and soils with essentially no presorting and using incineration followed by high temperature melting is recommended. Applied research and development necessary for demonstration is also recommended.

  15. Thermal processing systems for TRU mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents preliminary ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated wastes (TRUW) buried at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Anticipated waste stream components and problems are considered. Thermal processing conditions required to obtain a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic final waste form are considered. Five practical thermal process system designs are compared. Thermal processing of mixed waste and soils with essentially no presorting and using incineration followed by high temperature melting is recommended. Applied research and development necessary for demonstration is also recommended.

  16. Thermal Energy Storage Potential in Supermarkets.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohannessian, Roupen

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?? The objective of this research is to evaluate the potential of thermal energy storage in supermarkets with CO2 refrigeration systems. Suitable energy storage techniques (more)

  17. Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -- Washington D.C. ape13bennion.pdf More Documents & Publications Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration Integrated Power Module Cooling Vehicle...

  18. Computational Study on Thermal Properties of HVAC System with Building Structure Thermal Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sato, Y.; Sagara, N.; Ryu, Y.; Maehara, K.; Nagai, T.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Building structure thermal storage (BSTS) HVAC systems can store heat during nighttime thermal storage operation (nighttime operation hours) by using off-peak electricity and release it in the daytime air-conditioning operation (daytime operation...

  19. UNH Thermal WorkshopUNH Thermal Workshop or how important isor how important is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) EPA grants to UNH for thermal regimes of Northeast g g Streams and Thermal Impacts of Stormwater BMPs response curves Ecological targets Enviro. flow targets Implement program River types alteration Statewide

  20. Building envelope thermal anomaly analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melton, B.S.; Mulroney, P.; Scott, T.; Childs, K.W.

    1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed study has been made of building energy thermal anomalies (BETA's) in a large modern office building using computer simulation, on-site inspections, and infrared thermography. The goal was to better understand the heat and moisture flow through these ''bridges,'' develop the beginnings of a classification scheme, and establish techniques for assessing the potential for retrofit or initial design modifications. In terms of presently available analytical techniques, a one-dimensional equivalent of the bridge and its affected area can be created from a steady-state computer simulation. This equivalent, combined with a degree day model, yields good estimates of the bridge behavior in buildings employing heating only. With heating and cooling, the equivalent must be used with an hour-by-hour simulation. A classification scheme based on the one-dimensional equivalent is proposed which should make it possible to create a catalog of basic bridge types that can be used to estimate their effects without requiring a complete hour-by-hour simulation of each building. The classification relates both energy loss and moisture condensation potential to the bridge configuration and the building envelope. The potential for moisture condensation on interior surfaces near a BETA was found to be as significant as the energy loss and this factor needds to be considered in assessing the complete detrimental effects of a bridge. With such a catalog, building designers and analysts would be able to determine and estimate the advantages or disadvantages of modifying the building envelope to reduce the impact of a thermal bridge. 18 refs., 31 figs., 17 tabs.

  1. Disk Drive Roadmap from the Thermal Perspective: A Case for Dynamic Thermal Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gurumurthi, Sudhanva

    to the thermal envelope of drive design. We present two mechanisms for buying back some of this IDR loss allowing higher RPMs than the thermal envelope, and employs dynamic throttling of disk drive activities to remain within this envelope. Keywords: Disk Drives, Thermal Management, Technology Scaling. 1

  2. Disk Drive Roadmap from the Thermal Perspective: A Case for Dynamic Thermal Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sivasubramaniam, Anand

    the thermal envelope, and employs dynamic throttling of disk drive activities to remain within this envelopeDisk Drive Roadmap from the Thermal Perspective: A Case for Dynamic Thermal Management Sudhanva The importance of pushing the performance envelope of disk drives continues to grow, not just in the server

  3. J. of Thermal Science Vol.3, No.3 Journal of Thermal Science Science Press 1994

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yuwen

    more and more at- tractive to mankind. The solar energy is one of the most interesting one, because of its periodical nature, the problem of thermal energy storage becomes im- portant. The phase changeJ. of Thermal Science Vol.3, No.3 Journal of Thermal Science Science Press 1994 Analysis

  4. Thermal Sciences The thermal sciences area involves the study of energy conversion and transmission, power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    Thermal Sciences The thermal sciences area involves the study of energy conversion and transmission, power generation, the flow of liquids and gases, and the transfer of thermal energy (heat) by means in virtually all energy conversion devices and systems. One may think of the jet engine as a mechanical device

  5. Ocean Thermal Resource and Site Selection Criteria (January 2011) luisvega@hawaii.edu Ocean Thermal Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ocean Thermal Resource and Site Selection Criteria (January 2011) luisvega@hawaii.edu 1 Ocean Thermal Resources The vast size of the ocean thermal resource and the baseload capability of OTEC systems of Hawaii throughout the year and at all times of the day. This is an indigenous renewable energy resource

  6. Update of Horizontal Borehole Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .2 0.3 0.4 1 2 3 4 No Grout Rb(hr·ft·°F)/Btu Rb(hr·ft·°F)/Btu #12;Borehole #1 ­ Average Depth 11 Dimensionless Temperature Time (hr) Summer 2010 Fall 2012 #12;0 0.5 1 1.5 2 6 8 10 12 k (Btu/hr-ft-F) Average Depth (ft) Summer 2010 Fall 2012 Ground Thermal Conductivity With Depth #12;Rb(hr·ft·°F)/Btu

  7. Thermal neutron shield and method of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metzger, Bert Clayton; Brindza, Paul Daniel

    2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal neutron shield comprising boron shielding panels with a high percentage of the element Boron. The panel is least 46% Boron by weight which maximizes the effectiveness of the shielding against thermal neutrons. The accompanying method discloses the manufacture of boron shielding panels which includes enriching the pre-cursor mixture with varying grit sizes of Boron Carbide.

  8. Thermal neutron shield and method of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brindza, Paul Daniel; Metzger, Bert Clayton

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal neutron shield comprising concrete with a high percentage of the element Boron. The concrete is least 54% Boron by weight which maximizes the effectiveness of the shielding against thermal neutrons. The accompanying method discloses the manufacture of Boron loaded concrete which includes enriching the concrete mixture with varying grit sizes of Boron Carbide.

  9. Thermodynamics of nuclei in thermal contact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karl-Heinz Schmidt; Beatriz Jurado

    2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The behaviour of a di-nuclear system in the regime of strong pairing correlations is studied with the methods of statistical mechanics. It is shown that the thermal averaging is strong enough to assure the application of thermodynamical methods to the energy exchange between the two nuclei in contact. In particular, thermal averaging justifies the definition of a nuclear temperature.

  10. GCFR core thermal-hydralic design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schleuter, G.; Baxi, C.B.; Bennett, F.O.

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The approach for developing the thermal-hydraulic core assembly designs for the gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) is reviewed, and key considerations for improving the core performance at all power and flow conditions are discussed. It is shown how the thermal-hydraulic core assembly designs evolve from evaluations of plant size, material limitations, safety criteria, and structural performance considerations.

  11. Thermal Imaging Control of Furnaces and Combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David M. Rue; Serguei Zelepouga; Ishwar K. Puri

    2003-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The object if this project is to demonstrate and bring to commercial readiness a near-infrared thermal imaging control system for high temperature furnaces and combustors. The thermal imaging control system, including hardware, signal processing, and control software, is designed to be rugged, self-calibrating, easy to install, and relatively transparent to the furnace operator.

  12. Ghabezloo: Micromechanics analysis of thermal expansion and thermal pressurization of a hardened cement paste Micromechanics analysis of thermal expansion and thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    pore fluid is anomalously higher than the one of pure bulk water. The micromechanics model water-to-cement ratios. It permits also to calculate the pore volume thermal expansion coefficient expansion and thermal pressurization of a hardened cement paste, Cement and Concrete Research, DOI 10.1016/j

  13. Thermal Correlation Functions of Twisted Quantum Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prasad Basu; Rahul Srivastava; Sachindeo Vaidya

    2010-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive the thermal correlators for twisted quantum fields on noncommutative spacetime. We show that the thermal expectation value of the number operator is same as in commutative spacetime, but that higher correlators are sensitive to the noncommutativity parameters $\\theta^{\\mu\

  14. Thermal correlation functions of twisted quantum fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basu, Prasad; Srivastava, Rahul; Vaidya, Sachindeo [Centre for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560012 (India)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive the thermal correlators for twisted quantum fields on noncommutative spacetime. We show that the thermal expectation value of the number operator is same as in commutative spacetime, but that higher correlators are sensitive to the noncommutativity parameters {theta}{sup {mu}{nu}.}

  15. Liquid cooled fiber thermal radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, B.L.

    1985-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation-to-thermal receiver apparatus for collecting radiation and converting it to thermal energy is disclosed. The invention includes a fibrous mat material which captures radiation striking the receiver. Captured radiation is removed from the fibrous mat material by a transparent fluid within which the material is bathed.

  16. NUMERICAL APPROACHES TO THERMALLY COUPLED PERFECT PLASTICITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartels, Soeren

    NUMERICAL APPROACHES TO THERMALLY COUPLED PERFECT PLASTICITY SOREN BARTELS AND TOMAS ROUB at small strains exhibiting also stress-driven Prandtl-Reuss perfect plasticity are considered limit passage. Keywords: Thermodynamics, Prandtl-Reuss plasticity, Kelvin-Voigt rheology, thermal

  17. Hard thermal loops in static external fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Frenkel; S. H. Pereira; N. Takahashi

    2009-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We study, in the imaginary-time formalism, the high temperature behavior of n-point thermal loops in static Yang-Mills and gravitational fields. We show that in this regime, any hard thermal loop gives the same leading contribution as the one obtained by evaluating the loop at zero external energies and momenta.

  18. Thermal disconnect for high-temperature batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jungst, Rudolph George (Albuquerque, NM); Armijo, James Rudolph (Albuquerque, NM); Frear, Darrel Richard (Austin, TX)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new type of high temperature thermal disconnect has been developed to protect electrical and mechanical equipment from damage caused by operation at extreme temperatures. These thermal disconnects allow continuous operation at temperatures ranging from 250.degree. C. to 450.degree. C., while rapidly terminating operation at temperatures 50.degree. C. to 150.degree. C. higher than the continuous operating temperature.

  19. A boron nitride nanotube peapod thermal rectifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loh, G. C., E-mail: jgloh@mtu.edu [Department of Physics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan 49931 (United States); Institute of High Performance Computing, 1 Fusionopolis Way, #16-16 Connexis, Singapore 138632 (Singapore); Baillargeat, D. [CNRS-International-NTU-Thales Research Alliance (CINTRA), 50 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637553 (Singapore)

    2014-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The precise guidance of heat from one specific location to another is paramount in many industrial and commercial applications, including thermal management and thermoelectric generation. One of the cardinal requirements is a preferential conduction of thermal energy, also known as thermal rectification, in the materials. This study introduces a novel nanomaterial for rectifying heatthe boron nitride nanotube peapod thermal rectifier. Classical non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations are performed on this nanomaterial, and interestingly, the strength of the rectification phenomenon is dissimilar at different operating temperatures. This is due to the contingence of the thermal flux on the conductance at the localized region around the scatterer, which varies with temperature. The rectification performance of the peapod rectifier is inherently dependent on its asymmetry. Last but not least, the favourable rectifying direction in the nanomaterial is established.

  20. Improvements of the Variable Thermal Resistance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szkely, V; Kollar, E

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A flat mounting unit with electronically variable thermal resistance [1] has been presented in the last year [2]. The design was based on a Peltier cell and the appropriate control electronics and software. The device is devoted especially to the thermal characterization of packages, e.g. in dual cold plate arrangements. Although this design meets the requirements of the static measurement we are intended to improve its parameters as the settling time and dynamic thermal impedance and the range of realized thermal resistance. The new design applies the heat flux sensor developed by our team as well [3], making easier the control of the device. This development allows even the realization of negative thermal resistances.

  1. Improvements of the Variable Thermal Resistance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Szekely; S. Torok; E. Kollar

    2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A flat mounting unit with electronically variable thermal resistance [1] has been presented in the last year [2]. The design was based on a Peltier cell and the appropriate control electronics and software. The device is devoted especially to the thermal characterization of packages, e.g. in dual cold plate arrangements. Although this design meets the requirements of the static measurement we are intended to improve its parameters as the settling time and dynamic thermal impedance and the range of realized thermal resistance. The new design applies the heat flux sensor developed by our team as well [3], making easier the control of the device. This development allows even the realization of negative thermal resistances.

  2. Low thermal stress ceramic turbine nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glezer, Boris (Del Mar, CA); Bagheri, Hamid (San Diego, CA); Fierstein, Aaron R. (San Diego, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A turbine nozzle vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The metallic components having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine nozzle vane assembly. The turbine nozzle vane assembly includes an outer shroud and an inner shroud having a plurality of vanes therebetween. Each of the plurality of vanes have a device for heating and cooling a portion of each of the plurality of vanes. Furthermore, the inner shroud has a plurality of bosses attached thereto. A cylindrical member has a plurality of grooves formed therein and each of the plurality of bosses are positioned in corresponding ones of the plurality of grooves. The turbine nozzle vane assembly provides an economical, reliable and effective ceramic component having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the other component.

  3. Thermal and Structural Analysis of Targets and Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Thermal and Structural Analysis of Targets and Windows Materials, Irradiation Data and Fracture) = EDD/Cp Applied Thermal Stress Pa CTE*E*DeltaT Thermal Resistance Rts=UTS/(CTE*E *DeltaT) Thermal Shock 1147 1.16E+09 0.984 7445 Candidate Materials - Young's Modulus, UTS, Delta T, Thermal Stress

  4. Thermal transport in boron nitride nanotorustowards a nanoscopic thermal shield

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loh, G. C., E-mail: jgloh@mtu.edu [Institute of High Performance Computing, 1 Fusionopolis Way, 16-16 Connexis, Singapore 138632 (Singapore); Department of Physics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan 49931 (United States); Baillargeat, D. [CNRS-International-NTU-Thales Research Alliance (CINTRA), 50 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637553 (Singapore)

    2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanotori, or nanorings, are topological variants of nanotubes and are conceived to have different properties from their tubular form. In this study, the toroidal arrangement of boron nitride is introduced. Using classical molecular dynamics simulations, the thermal behaviour (thermal conductivity and thermal stability) of the boron nitride nanotorus and its relationship with the structural characteristics are investigated. Its circumferential thermal rectification strength displays a linear dependence on the bending coefficient of the nanostructure. Surface kinks are relatively inconsequential on its circumferential mode of conduction, as compared to its axial sense. The circumferential conductivity in the diffusive regime is calculated to be approximately 10?W/m K, while the axial conductivity is more than tenfold of this value. All nanotori with different toroidal characters show excellent thermal stability at extremely high temperatures approaching 3400?K. With consideration to its favourable properties, a thermal shield made up of a parallel row of nanotori is proposed as a nanoscale thermal insulation device.

  5. Determination of Thermal Diffusivities, Thermal Conductivities, and Sound Speeds of Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids by the Transient Grating Technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    Determination of Thermal Diffusivities, Thermal Conductivities, and Sound Speeds of Room. The experiments give thermal diffusivities from which thermal conductivities can be determined, sound speeds not only on the sound speed but also on the thermal diffusivity and acoustic damping of the RTILs

  6. Plates for vacuum thermal fusion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for effectively bonding arbitrary size or shape substrates. The process incorporates vacuum pull down techniques to ensure uniform surface contact during the bonding process. The essence of the process for bonding substrates, such as glass, plastic, or alloys, etc., which have a moderate melting point with a gradual softening point curve, involves the application of an active vacuum source to evacuate interstices between the substrates while at the same time providing a positive force to hold the parts to be bonded in contact. This enables increasing the temperature of the bonding process to ensure that the softening point has been reached and small void areas are filled and come in contact with the opposing substrate. The process is most effective where at least one of the two plates or substrates contain channels or grooves that can be used to apply vacuum between the plates or substrates during the thermal bonding cycle. Also, it is beneficial to provide a vacuum groove or channel near the perimeter of the plates or substrates to ensure bonding of the perimeter of the plates or substrates and reduce the unbonded regions inside the interior region of the plates or substrates.

  7. Thermal dileptons at SPS energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Damjanovic; for the NA60 Collaboration

    2008-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Clear signs of excess dileptons above the known sources were found at the SPS since long. However, a real clarification of these observations was only recently achieved by NA60, measuring dimuons with unprecedented precision in 158A GeV, In-In collisions. The excess mass spectrum in the region M rho -> mu+mu- annihilation. The associated rho spectral function shows a strong broadening, but essentially no shift in mass. In the region M>1 GeV, the excess is found to be prompt, not due to enhanced charm production. The inverse slope parameter Teff associated with the transverse momentum spectra rises with mass up to the rho, followed by a sudden decline above. While the initial rise, coupled to a hierarchy in hadron freeze-out, points to radial flow of a hadronic decay source, the decline above signals a transition to a low-flow source, presumably of partonic origin. The mass spectra show at low transverse momenta the steep rise towards low masses characteristic for Planck-like radiation. The polarization of the excess referred to the Collins Soper frame is found to be isotropic. All observations are consistent with the interpretation of the excess as thermal radiation.

  8. Design optimization of thermal paths in spacecraft systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stout, Kevin Dale

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis introduces a thermal design approach to increase thermal control system performance and decrease reliance on system resources, e.g., mass. Thermal design optimization has lagged other subsystems because the ...

  9. Investigation and Analysis of Winter Classroom Thermal Environment in Chongqing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, J.; Li, B.; Yao, R.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the thermal sense value of the occupants, the winter classroom thermal environment was evaluated. Measures for improving the classroom indoor thermal environmental quality were also given. The lower limit air temperature of the non-air conditioned classrooms...

  10. Thermal Transport in Nanoporous Materials for Energy Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Jin

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Theory of thermal conduction in thin ceramic ?lms,Thermal resistance of grain boundaries in alumina ceramicsThermal conduc- tivity of highly porous zirconia, Journal of the European Ceramic

  11. Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Philip Robert

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the ceramic wafers have a high thermal conductivity,easily altered ceramic blocks all had a thermal conductivityCeramics. Available Online: http://www.dynacer.com/thermal_

  12. A NEW SOLAR THERMAL RECEIVER UTILIZING SMALL PARTICLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    iuision, Ext. 6782 A New Solar Thermal Receiver UtilizingI \\D \\. }J F--' A NEW SOLAR THERMAL RECEIVER UTILIZING SMALL94720 ABSTRACT A new type of solar thermal receiver is being

  13. Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Philip Robert

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    13 2.2.2. Solar Thermal Versus Photovoltaic ....doi:10.1038/nmat2090. 17. Solar Thermal Technology on anFigure 2.5: An eSolar solar thermal system in Burbank,

  14. EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL STUDIES OF THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Proceed- ings of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers Work-Mathematical Modeling of Thermal Energy storage in Aquifers.In Proceed- ings of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers Work-

  15. Assessment of Hypothermia Blankets Using an Advanced Thermal Manikin: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J. P.; Barazanji, K.

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal manikin developed at NREL helped to assess thermal blankets used to treat U.S. Army personnel suffering from hypothermia. The chemical blanket showed the best thermal performance.

  16. Molecular dynamics simulation of thermal energy transport in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Tengfei

    Heat transfer across thermal interface materials is a critical issue for microelectronics thermal management. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), one of the most important components of thermal interface materials presents a large ...

  17. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M. D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the commercialization of ocean thermal energy conversionOpen cycle ocean thermal energy conversion. A preliminary1978. 'Open cycle thermal energy converS1on. A preliminary

  18. Thermal properties of organic and inorganic aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrubesh, L.W.; Pekala, R.W. (Chemistry and Material Science Department, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551-9900 (United States))

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aerogels are open-cell foams that have already been shown to be among the best thermal insulating solid materials known. This paper examines the three major contributions to thermal transport through porous materials; solid, gaseous, and radiative, to identify how to reduce the thermal conductivity of air-filled aerogels. We find that significant improvements in the thermal insulation property of aerogels are possible by; (i) employing materials with a low intrinsic solid conductivity, (ii) reducing the average pore size within aerogels, and (iii) affecting an increase of the infrared extinction in aerogels. Theoretically, polystyrene is the best of the organic materials and zirconia is the best inorganic material to use for the lowest achievable conductivity. Significant reduction of the thermal conductivity for all aerogel varieties is predicted with only a modest decrease of the average pore size. This might be achieved by modifying the sol-gel chemistry leading to aerogels. For example, a thermal resistance value of [ital R]=20 per inch would be possible for an air-filled resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogel at a density of 156 kg/m[sup 3], if the average pore size was less than 35 nm. An equation is included which facilitates the calculation of the optimum density for the minimum total thermal conductivity, for all varieties of aerogels.

  19. Thermal sensitivity of the commercial sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Z.T.

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examined the thermal sensitivity of building total loads and heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) loads in all nine commercial building types. In groceries and restaurants, refrigeration loads were also studied. The data indicated that the thermal sensitivity of building total and HVAC loads is small for all types of buildings. We found the thermal sensitivity of refrigeration loads also to be small for groceries and restaurants. These findings led us to conclude that, although corrections for weather might improve forecasted loads, the improvement is probably too small to justify the effort required to do so. We next examined the effects of building size, age, and primary heating fuel on thermal sensitivity. We compared our results with common expectations that small buildings are more thermally sensitive than larger buildings, old buildings are more thermally sensitive than new buildings, and electrically-heated buildings are more thermally sensitive than those heated by other fuels. As expected, small buildings were found to be more sensitive to the weather because of the higher ratios of envelope area to conditioned volume. However, neither vintage nor fuel type was found to affect HVAC loads. We investigated the use of hearing and cooling degree-days calculated to a base temperature of 65{degree}F as the basis for a weather-adjustment procedure. We concluded that a simple degree-day correlation is a promising prospect because it would be easy to develop and implement.

  20. Thermal conductivity measurements of Summit polycrystalline silicon.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clemens, Rebecca; Kuppers, Jaron D.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A capability for measuring the thermal conductivity of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) materials using a steady state resistance technique was developed and used to measure the thermal conductivities of SUMMiT{trademark} V layers. Thermal conductivities were measured over two temperature ranges: 100K to 350K and 293K to 575K in order to generate two data sets. The steady state resistance technique uses surface micromachined bridge structures fabricated using the standard SUMMiT fabrication process. Electrical resistance and resistivity data are reported for poly1-poly2 laminate, poly2, poly3, and poly4 polysilicon structural layers in the SUMMiT process from 83K to 575K. Thermal conductivity measurements for these polysilicon layers demonstrate for the first time that the thermal conductivity is a function of the particular SUMMiT layer. Also, the poly2 layer has a different variation in thermal conductivity as the temperature is decreased than the poly1-poly2 laminate, poly3, and poly4 layers. As the temperature increases above room temperature, the difference in thermal conductivity between the layers decreases.

  1. Thermal loading study for FY 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides the results of sensitivity analyses designed to assist the test planners in focusing their in-situ measurements on parameters that appear to be important to waste isolation. Additionally, the study provides a preliminary assessment of the feasibility of certain thermal management options. A decision on thermal loading is a critical part of the scientific and engineering basis for evaluating regulatory compliance of the potential repository for waste isolation. To show, with reasonable assurance, that the natural and engineered barriers will perform adequately under expected repository conditions (thermally perturbed) will require an integrated approach based on thermal testing (laboratory, and in-situ), natural analog observations, and analytic modeling. The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management needed input to assist in the planning of the thermal testing program. Additionally, designers required information on the viability of various thermal management concepts. An approximately 18-month Thermal Loading Study was conducted from March, 1994 until September 30, 1995 to address these issues. This report documents the findings of that study. 89 refs., 71 figs., 33 tabs.

  2. A NEW MEASUREMENT STRATEGY FOR in situ TESTING OF WALL THERMAL PERFORMANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Condon, P.E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    conservation, Dynamic thermal envelope thermal performanceTHERHAL TEST UNIT The envelope thermal test unit (ETTU) is athe thermal resistance of building envelope systems through

  3. Project Profile: High-Temperature Thermal Array for Next-Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal Array for Next-Generation Solar Thermal Power Production Project Profile: High-Temperature Thermal Array for Next-Generation Solar Thermal Power Production Los Alamos...

  4. Hard-thermal-loop QED thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nan Su; Jens O. Andersen; Michael Strickland

    2009-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The weak-coupling expansion for thermodynamic quantities in thermal field theories is poorly convergent unless the coupling constant is tiny. We discuss the calculation of the free energy for a hot gas of electrons and photons to three-loop order using hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory (HTLpt). We show that the hard-thermal-loop perturbation reorganization improves the convergence of the successive approximations to the QED free energy at large coupling, e ~ 2. The reorganization is gauge invariant by construction, and due to the cancellations among various contributions, we obtain a completely analytic result for the resummed thermodynamic potential at three loops.

  5. Thermalization of Strongly Coupled Field Theories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balasubramanian, V. [David Rittenhouse Laboratory, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Bernamonti, A.; Copland, N.; Craps, B.; Staessens, W. [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, and International Solvay Institutes, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Boer, J. de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam, 1090 GL Amsterdam (Netherlands); Keski-Vakkuri, E. [Helsinki Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Mueller, B. [Department of Physics and CTMS, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Schaefer, A. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Shigemori, M. [Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2011-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the holographic mapping to a gravity dual, we calculate 2-point functions, Wilson loops, and entanglement entropy in strongly coupled field theories in d=2, 3, and 4 to probe the scale dependence of thermalization following a sudden injection of energy. For homogeneous initial conditions, the entanglement entropy thermalizes slowest and sets a time scale for equilibration that saturates a causality bound. The growth rate of entanglement entropy density is nearly volume-independent for small volumes but slows for larger volumes. In this setting, the UV thermalizes first.

  6. Method of making thermally removable epoxies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Russick, Edward M. (Rio Rancho, NM); McElhanon, James R. (Albuquerque, NM); Saunders, Randall S. (late of Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making a thermally-removable epoxy by mixing a bis(maleimide) compound to a monomeric furan compound containing an oxirane group to form a di-epoxy mixture and then adding a curing agent at temperatures from approximately room temperature to less than approximately 90.degree. C. to form a thermally-removable epoxy. The thermally-removable epoxy can be easily removed within approximately an hour by heating to temperatures greater than approximately 90.degree. C. in a polar solvent. The epoxy material can be used in protecting electronic components that may require subsequent removal of the solid material for component repair, modification or quality control.

  7. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton; Stecher, Thomas; Seeley, Charles; Kuenzler, Glenn; Wolfe, Jr., Charles; Utturkar, Yogen; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  8. Lattice Boltzmann approach to thermal transpiration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sofonea, Victor [Center for Fundamental and Advanced Technical Research, Romanian Academy, Bd. Mihai Viteazul 24, RO - 300223 Timisoara (Romania)

    2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Diffuse reflection boundary conditions are introduced in a thermal lattice Boltzmann model to allow for variable fluid density and temperature along the walls. The capability of this model to capture the main characteristics of the thermal transpiration phenomenon in a box at nonvanishing Knudsen numbers is demonstrated. The thermal creep velocity is found to be proportional to the temperature gradient imposed at the wall, whereas the accuracy of the simulation results are found to be of first or second order, depending on the numerical scheme.

  9. Electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faussurier, G., E-mail: gerald.faussurier@cea.fr; Blancard, C.; Combis, P.; Videau, L. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Expressions for the electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas are derived combining the Chester-Thellung-Kubo-Greenwood approach and the Kramers approximation. The infrared divergence is removed assuming a Drude-like behaviour. An analytical expression is obtained for the Lorenz number that interpolates between the cold solid-state and the hot plasma phases. An expression for the electrical resistivity is proposed using the Ziman-Evans formula, from which the thermal conductivity can be deduced using the analytical expression for the Lorenz number. The present method can be used to estimate electrical and thermal conductivities of mixtures. Comparisons with experiment and quantum molecular dynamics simulations are done.

  10. Thermal conductivity of bulk nanostructured lead telluride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hori, Takuma [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Chen, Gang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Shiomi, Junichiro, E-mail: shiomi@photon.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

    2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal conductivity of lead telluride with embedded nanoinclusions was studied using Monte Carlo simulations with intrinsic phonon transport properties obtained from first-principles-based lattice dynamics. The nanoinclusion/matrix interfaces were set to completely reflect phonons to model the maximum interface-phonon-scattering scenario. The simulations with the geometrical cross section and volume fraction of the nanoinclusions matched to those of the experiment show that the experiment has already reached the theoretical limit of thermal conductivity. The frequency-dependent analysis further identifies that the thermal conductivity reduction is dominantly attributed to scattering of low frequency phonons and demonstrates mutual adaptability of nanostructuring and local disordering.

  11. Coating thermal noise for arbitrary shaped beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richard O'Shaughnessy

    2006-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced LIGO's sensitivity will be limited by coating noise. Though this noise depends on beam shape, and though nongaussian beams are being seriously considered for advanced LIGO, no published analysis exists to compare the quantitative thermal noise improvement alternate beams offer. In this paper, we derive and discuss a simple integral which completely characterizes the dependence of coating thermal noise on shape. The derivation used applies equally well, with minor modifications, to all other forms of thermal noise in the low-frequency limit.

  12. Increased thermal conductivity monolithic zeolite structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James (Knoxville, TN); Klett, Lynn (Knoxville, TN); Kaufman, Jonathan (Leonardtown, MD)

    2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A monolith comprises a zeolite, a thermally conductive carbon, and a binder. The zeolite is included in the form of beads, pellets, powders and mixtures thereof. The thermally conductive carbon can be carbon nano-fibers, diamond or graphite which provide thermal conductivities in excess of about 100 W/mK to more than 1,000 W/mK. A method of preparing a zeolite monolith includes the steps of mixing a zeolite dispersion in an aqueous colloidal silica binder with a dispersion of carbon nano-fibers in water followed by dehydration and curing of the binder is given.

  13. In Situ Photoelectron Emission Microscopy of a Thermally Induced...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photoelectron Emission Microscopy of a Thermally Induced Martensitic Transformation in a CuZnAI Shape Memory Alloy. In Situ Photoelectron Emission Microscopy of a Thermally Induced...

  14. Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    D.C. ape017okeefe2010o.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermal Performance and Reliability of Bonded Interfaces Physics of Failure of Electrical Interconnects Thermal Stress...

  15. Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Washington D.C. ape14okeefe.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines Power Electronic Thermal...

  16. Electro-thermal-mechanical Simulation and Reliability for Plug...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Electro-thermal-mechanical Simulation and Reliability for Plug-in Vehicle Converters and Inverters Electro-thermal-mechanical Simulation...

  17. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chargeable Double-Layer Supercapacitors to be submitted toon Thermally-Chargeable Double- Layer Supercapacitors 2.1.of Thermally-Chargeable Supercapacitors in Various Solvents

  18. Project Profile: Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants Project Profile: Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage for Parabolic Trough Solar Power...

  19. Project Profile: Novel Thermal Energy Storage Systems for Concentratin...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Power Project Profile: Novel Thermal Energy Storage Systems for Concentrating Solar Power University of Connecticut logo The University of Connecticut, under the Thermal...

  20. Advanced Powertrain Research Facility Vehicle Test Cell Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Powertrain Research Facility Vehicle Test Cell Thermal Upgrade Advanced Powertrain Research Facility Vehicle Test Cell Thermal Upgrade 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen...

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Thermal Control...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal Control of Power Electronics of Electric Vehicles with Small Channel Coolant Boiling Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Thermal Control of Power Electronics of...

  2. advanced spaceborne thermal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from and is used to measure volcanic thermal radiance. ASTER provides relatively high spatial resolution (90 m Wright, Robert 6 Advanced nanofabrication of thermal emission...

  3. Sandia National Laboratories: National Solar Thermal Test Facility...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FacilityNational Solar Thermal Test Facility Interest Survey National Solar Thermal Test Facility Interest Survey Company Name * Contact Name * Email * Phone Number * Nature of...

  4. Direct observations of thermally induced structural changes in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    observations of thermally induced structural changes in amorphous silicon carbide. Direct observations of thermally induced structural changes in amorphous silicon carbide....

  5. Polymer-Ceramic MEMS Bimorphs as Thermal Infrared Sensors.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warren, Clinton Gregory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Thermal infrared detectors based on MEMS bimorph beams have the potential to exceed the performance of current uncooled thermal infrared cameras both in terms of (more)

  6. Continuous Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Fibers and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    We are developing a continuous fabrication process for high thermal conductivity polyethylene (PE) films While high thermal conductivity in (PE) has been shown in isolated...

  7. Towards Understanding the Poor Thermal Stability of V5+ Electrolyte...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Poor Thermal Stability of V5+ Electrolyte Solution in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries. Towards Understanding the Poor Thermal Stability of V5+ Electrolyte Solution in...

  8. Thermal Energy Storage in Metal Foams filled with Paraffin Wax.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vadwala, Pathik

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Phase change materials (PCM) such as paraffin wax are known to exhibit slow thermal response due to their relatively low thermal conductivity. In this study, (more)

  9. Project Profile: Degradation Mechanisms for Thermal Energy Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Degradation Mechanisms for Thermal Energy Storage and Heat Transfer Fluid Containment Materials Project Profile: Degradation Mechanisms for Thermal Energy Storage and Heat Transfer...

  10. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solar radiation, and the geothermal energy. [16] Fig. 1.1.thermal energy, geothermal energy, wasted heat from athermal energy, geothermal energy, ocean thermal energy,

  11. Develop and Evaluate Materials and Additives that Enhance Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Additives that Enhance Thermal & Overcharge Abuse Develop & Evaluate Materials & Additives that Enhance Thermal & Overcharge Abuse High Voltage Electrolyte for Lithium Batteries...

  12. High-Temperature Air-Cooled Power Electronics Thermal Design

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    * Thermal Design: Sub-module testing and model validation; fanducting testing; optimization * Thermal System Design: Balance- of-system analysis; full system models *...

  13. Evaluation of Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of High Temperature Skutterudite-Based Thermoelectric Modules Evaluation of Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of High Temperature...

  14. Thermoelectric HVAC and Thermal Comfort Enablers for Light-Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectric HVAC and Thermal Comfort Enablers for Light-Duty Vehicle Applications Thermoelectric HVAC and Thermal Comfort Enablers for Light-Duty Vehicle Applications 2012 DOE...

  15. Geothermal Exploration in Eastern California Using Aster Thermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    A particular application is the use of satellite thermal infrared (TIR) imagery from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument aboard...

  16. Heavy-Duty Engine Combustion Optimization for High Thermal Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Optimization for High Thermal Efficiency Targeting EPA 2010 Emissions Heavy-Duty Engine Combustion Optimization for High Thermal Efficiency Targeting EPA 2010 Emissions...

  17. Development of Advanced Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Development of Advanced Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) Modeling Capabilities for Enhanced Geothermal Systems Development of Advanced Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanica...

  18. Microscale Electrode Design Using Coupled Kinetic, Thermal and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Microscale Electrode Design Using Coupled Kinetic, Thermal and Mechanical Modeling Microscale Electrode Design Using Coupled Kinetic, Thermal and Mechanical Modeling 2010 DOE...

  19. Microscale Electrode Design Using Coupled Kinetic, Thermal and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Microscale Electrode Design Using Coupled Kinetic, Thermal and Mechanical Modeling Microscale Electrode Design Using Coupled Kinetic, Thermal and Mechanical Modeling 2009 DOE...

  20. Coupled Kinetic, Thermal, and Mechanical Modeling of FIB Micro...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coupled Kinetic, Thermal, and Mechanical Modeling of FIB Micro-machined Electrodes Coupled Kinetic, Thermal, and Mechanical Modeling of FIB Micro-machined Electrodes 2010 DOE...

  1. Project Profile: Innovative Phase Change Thermal Energy Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Phase Change Thermal Energy Storage Solution for Baseload Power Project Profile: Innovative Phase Change Thermal Energy Storage Solution for Baseload Power Infinia logo Infinia,...

  2. Project Profile: Sensible Heat, Direct, Dual-Media Thermal Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sensible Heat, Direct, Dual-Media Thermal Energy Storage Module Project Profile: Sensible Heat, Direct, Dual-Media Thermal Energy Storage Module Acciona logo Acciona Solar, under...

  3. IN SEARCH FOR THERMAL ANOMALIES IN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL FIELD...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AND FIELD DATA Abstract We attempt to identify thermal anomalies using thermal infrared (TIR) data collected over the Coso Geothermal Power Project with the spaceborne ASTER...

  4. Project Profile: Innovative Thermal Energy Storage for Baseload...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal Energy Storage for Baseload Solar Power Generation Project Profile: Innovative Thermal Energy Storage for Baseload Solar Power Generation University of South Florida logo...

  5. Karnataka Power Corporation Limited and National Thermal Power...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited and National Thermal Power Corporation JV Jump to: navigation, search Name: Karnataka Power Corporation Limited and National Thermal Power Corporation JV Place: India...

  6. Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient n-type Skutterudites Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient n-type Skutterudites Work on...

  7. Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical Model and Experiments...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical Model and Experiments for Optimization of Enhanced Geothermal System Development and Production Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechan...

  8. Sandia National Laboratories: Sandia-AREVA Commission Solar Thermal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ClimateECResearch & CapabilitiesCapabilitiesSandia-AREVA Commission Solar ThermalMolten Salt Energy-Storage Demonstration Sandia-AREVA Commission Solar ThermalMolten Salt...

  9. Carbon Nanostructures As Thermal Interface Materials: Processing And Properties.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Memon, Muhammad Omar

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??The power density of electronic packages has substantially increased. The thermal interface resistance involves more than 50% of the total thermal resistance in current high-power (more)

  10. Future Diesel Engine Thermal Efficiency Improvement andn Emissions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Future Diesel Engine Thermal Efficiency Improvement andn Emissions Control Technology Future Diesel Engine Thermal Efficiency Improvement andn Emissions Control Technology 2005...

  11. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    biological thermal energy, geothermal energy, wasted heatpower plants, solar thermal energy, geothermal energy, oceansolar radiation, and the geothermal energy. [16] Fig. 1.1.

  12. Performance Evaluation of the Delphi Non-Thermal Plasma System...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Performance Evaluation of the Delphi Non-Thermal Plasma System Under Transient and Steady State Conditions Performance Evaluation of the Delphi Non-Thermal Plasma System Under...

  13. Non-thermal plasma based technologies for the aftertreatment...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Non-thermal plasma based technologies for the aftertreatment of diesel exhaust particulates and NOx Non-thermal plasma based technologies for the aftertreatment of diesel exhaust...

  14. TCS 2014 Symposium on Thermal and Catalytic Sciences for Biofuels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    TCS 2014 Symposium on Thermal and Catalytic Sciences for Biofuels and Biobased Products TCS 2014 Symposium on Thermal and Catalytic Sciences for Biofuels and Biobased Products...

  15. Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric materials Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric materials Discusses strategies to...

  16. Advanced Thermal Interface Materials (TIMs) for Power Electronics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal Interface Materials (TIMs) for Power Electronics Advanced Thermal Interface Materials (TIMs) for Power Electronics 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies...

  17. Develop and Evaluate Materials and Additives that Enhance Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Develop & evaluate materials & additives that enhance thermal & overcharge abuse Cell Comp't Thermal Reactivity & Improvements Develop & Evaluate...

  18. Thermal Gradient Holes At Lightning Dock Geothermal Area (Cunniff...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thermal Gradient Holes At Lightning Dock Geothermal Area (Cunniff & Bowers, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Lightning Dock Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Thermal...

  19. Thermal Bypass Air Barriers in the 2009 International Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal Bypass Air Barriers in the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code - Building America Top Innovation Thermal Bypass Air Barriers in the 2009 International Energy...

  20. Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Philip Robert

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Electrical Cogeneration . 16 2.4.OptimalELECTRICAL AND THERMAL COGENERATION A thesis submitted inFOR ELECTRICAL AND THERMAL COGENERATION A solar tracker and

  1. Thermal decomposition of charring materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nurbakhsh, S.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental techniques and methods were developed to investigate the transient process of wood pyrolysis under different levels of external radiation, moisture content of the wood sample, and oxygen concentration of the ambient atmosphere. A unique small-scale combustion-wind tunnel was constructed to conduct the pyrolysis experiments and to obtain the time dependent gasification mass flux, surface and in-depth temperatures, and evolved products of pyrolysis (CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and total hydrocarbons (THC)) for thermally thick samples of Douglas-fir. Experiments were performed both in inert atmosphere (nitrogen), and in air at several different heat fluxes and three different moisture contents of wood. Time dependent empirical chemical composition, char yield, and the heat of combustion of the pyrolysis products were determined. The experimental results indicate that the presence of moisture reduces the pyrolysis mass flux and delays the occurrence of its maxima. Presence of oxygen drastically increases the pyrolysis mass flux but its effect specially at lower temperatures depends on the experimental conditions such as the boundary layer thickness over the wood surface. Char yield, chemical composition of the volatiles, and the heat of combustion were found to vary during the pyrolysis process and with changes in the environmental conditions and wood moisture content. The pyrolysis temperature assumption often used for the simplified modeling of wood pyrolysis was examined in detail by considering two otherwise identical models; one with infinitely fast decomposition kinetics and the other with finite rate chemistry. It was concluded that the pyrolysis temperature is not a material property and different pyrolysis temperatures are needed for every problem.

  2. REVIEW ARTIC LE MICROSCALE THERMAL BUBBLE FORMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Liwei

    8 C a thermal diffusivity, m r s 8 C 2 F excess heat conduction shape factor e variable in the heat, and this article discusses microscale bubble formation by using polysilicon microheaters. Figure 1a shows

  3. Thermal Storage with Ice Harvesting Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knebel, D. E.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Application of Harvesting Ice Storage Systems. Thermal storage systems are becoming widely accepted techniques for utility load management. This paper discusses the principles of ice harvesting equipment and their application to the multi...

  4. Thermal transport properties of grey cast irons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hecht, R.L. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States). Ford Research Lab.; Dinwiddie, R.B.; Porter, W.D.; Wang, Hsin [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of grey cast iron have been measured as a function of graphite flake morphology, chemical composition, and position in a finished brake rotor. Cast iron samples used for this investigation were cut from ``step block`` castings designed to produce iron with different graphite flake morphologies resulting from different cooling rates. Samples were also machined from prototype alloys and from production brake rotors representing a variation in foundry practice. Thermal diffusivity was measured at room and elevated temperatures via the flash technique. Heat capacity of selected samples was measured with differential scanning calorimetry, and these results were used to calculate the thermal conductivity. Microstructure of the various cast iron samples was quantified by standard metallography and image analysis, and the chemical compositions were determined by optical emission spectroscopy.

  5. Degradation of Structural Alloys Under Thermal Insulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McIntyre, D. R.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wet thermal insulation may actively degrade steel and stainless steel structures by general corrosion or stress-corrosion cracking. Two different mechanisms of water ingress into insulation are discussed; flooding from external sources...

  6. Thermal Conductivity in Nanocrystalline Ceria Thin Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marat Khafizov; In-Wook Park; Aleksandr Chernatynskiy; Lingfeng He; Jianliang Lin; John J. Moore; David Swank; Thomas Lillo; Simon R. Phillpot; Anter El-Azab; David H. Hurley

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal conductivity of nanocrystalline ceria films grown by unbalanced magnetron sputtering is determined as a function of temperature using laser-based modulated thermoreflectance. The films exhibit significantly reduced conductivity compared with stoichiometric bulk CeO2. A variety of microstructure imaging techniques including X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron analysis, and electron energy loss spectroscopy indicate that the thermal conductivity is influenced by grain boundaries, dislocations, and oxygen vacancies. The temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity is analyzed using an analytical solution of the Boltzmann transport equation. The conclusion of this study is that oxygen vacancies pose a smaller impediment to thermal transport when they segregate along grain boundaries.

  7. Urban solarium : thermal performance in Boston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Juliet Chia-Wen

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis addresses the issue of energy efficiency through the lens of thermal performance in the context of urban housing in the city of Boston. Located in the historic brick row house neighborhood of the South End, the ...

  8. Assessment of ocean thermal energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muralidharan, Shylesh

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a promising renewable energy technology to generate electricity and has other applications such as production of freshwater, seawater air-conditioning, marine culture and chilled-soil ...

  9. Thermal barrier coating for alloy systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); White, Rickey L. (Harriman, TN); Dinwiddie, Ralph B. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An alloy substrate is protected by a thermal barrier coating formed from a layer of metallic bond coat and a top coat formed from generally hollow ceramic particles dispersed in a matrix bonded to the bond coat.

  10. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE-A SURVEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solid-fluid heat storage systems in the ground; extractions0 Thermal storage of cold water in ground water aquifers forA. 8 1971, Storage of solar energy in a sandy-gravel ground:

  11. Thermal design through space and time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feldgoise, Jeffrey

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the primary roles of architecture is to control the environment at the service of a building's inhabitants. Thermal qualities are a significant factor in the overall experience one has inside and outside a building. ...

  12. Thermal Storage with Conventional Cooling Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kieninger, R. T.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The newly opened Pennsylvania Convention Center in Philadelphia, PA; Exxon's Computer Facility at Florham Park, NJ; The Center Square Building in Philadelphia, are success stories for demand shifting through thermal storage. These buildings employ a...

  13. Adiabatic thermal Child-Langmuir flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mok, Rachel V. (Rachel Verla)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simulation model is presented for the verification of the recently developed steady-state one-dimensional adiabatic thermal Child-Langmuir flow theory. In this theory, a self-consistent Poisson equation is developed ...

  14. Thermal chemistry and photochemistry of hexafluoroacetone on...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    chemistry and photochemistry of hexafluoroacetone on rutile TiO2(110) . Thermal chemistry and photochemistry of hexafluoroacetone on rutile TiO2(110) . Abstract: The ultraviolet...

  15. Graphene optical-to-thermal converter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manjavacas, Alejandro; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; de Abajo, F Javier Garca

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared plasmons in doped graphene nanostructures produce large optical absorption that can be used for narrow-band thermal light emission at tunable frequencies that strongly depend on the doping charge. By virtue of Kirchhoff's law, thermal light emission is proportional to the absorption, thus resulting in narrow emission lines associated with the electrically controlled plasmons of heated graphene. Here we show that realistic designs of graphene plasmonic structures can release over 90% of the emission through individual infrared lines with 1% bandwidth. We examine anisotropic graphene structures in which efficient heating can be produced upon optical pumping tuned to a plasmonic absorption resonance situated in the blue region relative to the thermal emission. An incoherent thermal light converter is thus achieved. Our results open a radically different approach for designing tunable nanoscale infrared light sources.

  16. Thermal Storage with Conventional Cooling Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGee, E. E.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    demand which results in lower electrical costs. The effectiveness of this 'Thermal Retention System" is determined by its design characteristics, its operational efficiency and comparative system analysis. Today's computer technology has provided...

  17. Determination of thermal neutron capture gamma yields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harper, Thomas Lawrence

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of analysing Ge(Li) thermal neutron capture gamma spectra to obtain total gamma yields has been developed. Tie method determines both the yields from the well resolved gamma peaks in a spectrum as well as the gamma ...

  18. Determination of thermal neutron capture gamma yields.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harper, Thomas Lawrence

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of analysing Ge(Li) thermal neutron capture gamma spectra to obtain total gamma yields has been developed. Tie method determines both the yields from the well resolved gamma peaks in a spectrum as well as the gamma ...

  19. Automated rapid thermal imaging systems technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phan, Long N., 1976-

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A major source of energy savings occurs on the thermal envelop of buildings, which amounts to approximately 10% of annual energy usage in the United States. To pursue these savings, energy auditors use closed loop energy ...

  20. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Thermal Energy Energy Sources o Solar Heat o Winter Coldusual Solar Energy System which uses only a heat source andsources and heat sinks not found anywhere else. Furthermore even where Solar energy