Sample records for btu distillate net

  1. Accurate BTU Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hosseini, S.; Rusnak, J. J.

    1 represents a typical arrangement in which heat is supplied to, or absorbed by the difference in temperatures of a working fluid, generally water. (See Ref. 1). Supply (TIl- Supply (Tl1 E E Heat (BTU) He.' ~ Exchange Exchange Relurn (T2... rate (BTU/unit time) ? m Mass flow rate (lb/unit time) hI' h2 = Specific enthalpy of supply and return liquid (BTU/lb) BTU C p - Average specific heat (--~----) IboF Equations 1, 2 are instantaneous values for heat flow or energy transferred...

  2. BTU Accounting for Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Redd, R. O.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , salesmen cars, over the highway trucks, facilities startup, waste used as fuel and fuels received for storage. This is a first step in the DOE's effort to establish usage guidelines for large industrial users and, we note, it requires BTU usage data...-generated electricity, heating, ventilating, air conditioning, in-plant transportation, ore hauling, raw material storage and finished product warehousing. Categories which are excluded are corporate and divisional offices, basic research, distribution centers...

  3. Rigorous Synthesis and Simulation of Complex Distillation Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linninger, Andreas A.

    Rigorous Synthesis and Simulation of Complex Distillation Networks Gerardo J. Ruiz, Seon B. Kim energy-efficient distillation net- works. Complex column networks have substantial potential for energy column, networks, temperature collocation, inverse design, Aspen validation Introduction Distillation

  4. Catalytic Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, L. A., Jr.; Hearn, D.; Wynegar, D. P.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalytic Distillation' refers to a chemical process which performs both a catalyzed reaction and primary fractionation of the reaction components simultaneously. A structured catalyst which also is an effective distillation component has been...

  5. Advanced Distillation Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena Fanelli; Ravi Arora; Annalee Tonkovich; Jennifer Marco; Ed Rode

    2010-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Distillation project was concluded on December 31, 2009. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded project was completed successfully and within budget during a timeline approved by DOE project managers, which included a one year extension to the initial ending date. The subject technology, Microchannel Process Technology (MPT) distillation, was expected to provide both capital and operating cost savings compared to conventional distillation technology. With efforts from Velocys and its project partners, MPT distillation was successfully demonstrated at a laboratory scale and its energy savings potential was calculated. While many objectives established at the beginning of the project were met, the project was only partially successful. At the conclusion, it appears that MPT distillation is not a good fit for the targeted separation of ethane and ethylene in large-scale ethylene production facilities, as greater advantages were seen for smaller scale distillations. Early in the project, work involved flowsheet analyses to discern the economic viability of ethane-ethylene MPT distillation and develop strategies for maximizing its impact on the economics of the process. This study confirmed that through modification to standard operating processes, MPT can enable net energy savings in excess of 20%. This advantage was used by ABB Lumus to determine the potential impact of MPT distillation on the ethane-ethylene market. The study indicated that a substantial market exists if the energy saving could be realized and if installed capital cost of MPT distillation was on par or less than conventional technology. Unfortunately, it was determined that the large number of MPT distillation units needed to perform ethane-ethylene separation for world-scale ethylene facilities, makes the targeted separation a poor fit for the technology in this application at the current state of manufacturing costs. Over the course of the project, distillation experiments were performed with the targeted mixture, ethane-ethylene, as well as with analogous low relative volatility systems: cyclohexane-hexane and cyclopentane-pentane. Devices and test stands were specifically designed for these efforts. Development progressed from experiments and models considering sections of a full scale device to the design, fabrication, and operation of a single-channel distillation unit with integrated heat transfer. Throughout the project, analytical and numerical models and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were validated with experiments in the process of developing this platform technology. Experimental trials demonstrated steady and controllable distillation for a variety of process conditions. Values of Height-to-an-Equivalent Theoretical Plate (HETP) ranging from less than 0.5 inch to a few inches were experimentally proven, demonstrating a ten-fold performance enhancement relative to conventional distillation. This improvement, while substantial, is not sufficient for MPT distillation to displace very large scale distillation trains. Fortunately, parallel efforts in the area of business development have yielded other applications for MPT distillation, including smaller scale separations that benefit from the flowsheet flexibility offered by the technology. Talks with multiple potential partners are underway. Their outcome will also help determine the path ahead for MPT distillation.

  6. Distill, Distill_roll Distill for CASP10

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollastri, Gianluca

    Distill, Distill_roll Distill for CASP10 C. Mirabello1, G. Tradigo1,2 , P.Veltri2, and G. Pollastri1 1 ­ UCD Dublin, Ireland, 2 ­ Università di Cosenza, Italy gianluca.pollastri@ucd.ie Distill has to the distance maps of templates rather than to predicted contact maps. The difference between Distill

  7. Distillation 29 Chem 355 Jasperse DISTILLATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jasperse, Craig P.

    Distillation 29 Chem 355 Jasperse DISTILLATION Background Distillation is a widely used technique for purifying liquids. The basic distillation process involves heating a liquid such that liquid molecules that is condensed and collected must be more pure than the original liquid mix. Distillation can be used to remove

  8. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalytic distillation structure for use in reaction distillation columns, a providing reaction sites and distillation structure and consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and being present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consist of at least 10 volume % open space.

  9. A Requirement for Significant Reduction in the Maximum BTU Input...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    A Requirement for Significant Reduction in the Maximum BTU Input Rate of Decorative Vented Gas Fireplaces Would Impose Substantial Burdens on Manufacturers A Requirement for...

  10. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid/vapor traffic that produce increased contact area and lead to substantial increases in separation efficiency – which translates to a 10% increase in energy efficiency on a BTU/bbl basis. The Flooding Predictor™ operates on the principle that between five to sixty minutes in advance of a flooding event, certain column variables experience an oscillation, a pre-flood pattern. The pattern recognition system of the Flooding Predictor™ utilizes the mathematical first derivative of certain column variables to identify the column’s pre-flood pattern(s). This pattern is a very brief, highly repeatable, simultaneous movement among the derivative values of certain column variables. While all column variables experience negligible random noise generated from the natural frequency of the process, subtle pre-flood patterns are revealed among sub-sets of the derivative values of column variables as the column approaches its hydraulic limit. The sub-set of column variables that comprise the pre-flood pattern is identified empirically through in a two-step process. First, 2ndpoint’s proprietary off-line analysis tool is used to mine historical data for pre-flood patterns. Second, the column is flood-tested to fine-tune the pattern recognition for commissioning. Then the Flooding Predictor™ is implemented as closed-loop advanced control strategy on the plant’s distributed control system (DCS), thus automating control of the column at its hydraulic limit.

  11. DistillationTheory.fm 2 September 1999 Distillation Theory.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    1 DistillationTheory.fm 2 September 1999 Distillation Theory. by Ivar J. Halvorsen and Sigurd, Norway #12;2 DistillationTheory.fm 2 September 1999 Table of Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Material Balance on a Distillation Stage

  12. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1984-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

  13. INNOVATION EDUCATION EXCELLENCE DISTILLATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Hue Sun

    INNOVATION · EDUCATION · EXCELLENCE DISTILLATIONS University of Toronto CHEMISTRY ALUMNI MAGAZINE.utoronto.ca / distillations 2012 MessagefromtheChair Our Department of Chemistry has one of the finest collection of peo- ple to a better, more sustain- able future. This issue of Distillations highlights the accomplishments last year

  14. Canonical Distillation of Entanglement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tamoghna Das; Asutosh Kumar; Amit Kumar Pal; Namrata Shukla; Aditi Sen De; Ujjwal Sen

    2015-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Distilling highly entangled quantum states from weaker ones is a process that is crucial for efficient and long-distance quantum communication, and has implications for several other quantum information protocols. We introduce the notion of distillation under limited resources, and specifically focus on the energy constraint. The corresponding protocol, which we call the canonical distillation of entanglement, naturally leads to the set of canonically distillable states. We show that for non-interacting Hamiltonians, almost no states are canonically distillable, while the situation can be drastically different for interacting ones. Several paradigmatic Hamiltonians are considered for bipartite as well as multipartite canonical distillability. The results have potential applications for practical quantum communication devices.

  15. Environmental Permitting of a Low-BTU Coal Gasification Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murawczyk, C.; Stewart, J. T.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that merits serious consideration since only relatively small modifications to the existing oil or gas burner system may be required, and boiler derating can be minimized. The environmental permitting and planning process for a low-Btu coal gasification...

  16. Environmental Permitting of a Low-BTU Coal Gasification Facility 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murawczyk, C.; Stewart, J. T.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that merits serious consideration since only relatively small modifications to the existing oil or gas burner system may be required, and boiler derating can be minimized. The environmental permitting and planning process for a low-Btu coal gasification...

  17. Distillation: The Efficient Workhorse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinmeyer, D.

    DISTILLATION: THE EFFICIENT WORKHORSE Dan Steinmeyer Monsanto Company St. Louis, Missouri Distillation is inherently highly efficient: phase separation is clean it is relatively easy to build a mUltistage countercurrent device equilibrium... is closely approached on each stage Given the right perspective; the right application; and the right design - distillation is difficult to beat from an efficiency standpoint. ? The right perspective is that efficiency is the ratio of the work...

  18. Generalized entanglement distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu-Bo Sheng; Lan Zhou

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a way for the entanglement distillation of genuine mixed state. Different from the conventional mixed state in entanglement purification protocol, each components of the mixed state in our protocol is a less-entangled state, while it is always a maximally entangled state. With the help of the weak cross-Kerr nonlinearity, this entanglement distillation protocol does not require the sophisticated single-photon detectors. Moreover, the distilled high quality entangled state can be retained to perform the further distillation. These properties make it more convenient in practical applications.

  19. MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION ­ EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION Bernd Wittgens and Sigurd Skogestad 1 The experimental verification of the operation of a multivessel batch distillation column, operated under total vessels, provides a generalization of previously proposed batch distillation schemes. We propose a simple

  20. Catalytic distillation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  1. Catalytic distillation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1982-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  2. Property:Geothermal/CapacityBtuHr | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal PwerPerkins County, Nebraska:PrecourtOid Jump to:Docket Number JumpAnnualGenBtuYrCapacityBtuHr

  3. Random multiparty entanglement distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben Fortescue; Hoi-Kwong Lo

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe various results related to the random distillation of multiparty entangled states - that is, conversion of such states into entangled states shared between fewer parties, where those parties are not predetermined. In previous work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 260501 (2007)] we showed that certain output states (namely Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs) could be reliably acquired from a prescribed initial multipartite state (namely the W state) via random distillation that could not be reliably created between predetermined parties. Here we provide a more rigorous definition of what constitutes ``advantageous'' random distillation. We show that random distillation is always advantageous for W-class three-qubit states (but only sometimes for Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)-class states). We show that the general class of multiparty states known as symmetric Dicke states can be readily converted to many other states in the class via random distillation. Finally we show that random distillation is provably not advantageous in the limit of multiple copies of pure states.

  4. EIS-0007: Low Btu Coal Gasification Facility and Industrial Park

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy prepared this environmental impact statement which evaluates the potential environmental impacts that may be associated with the construction and operation of a low-Btu coal gasification facility and the attendant industrial park in Georgetown, Scott County, Kentucky.

  5. Energy efficient distillation apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melton, J.D.

    1982-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An energy efficient distillation method is provided which is particularly adapted for use on a dairy farm, and which comprises a distilland evaporating receptacle, a distillate condensing receptacle, and a conduit interconnecting the evaporating receptacle and the condensing receptacle. A vacuum pump is provided for drawing a partial vacuum within the evaporating receptacle, and a vapor compression refrigeration system is provided which includes condenser coils disposed to heat and vaporize the distilland while it is within the evaporating receptacle, and evaporator coils for cooling and condensing the vaporized distilland in the condensing receptacle. A cooling distribution system is also provided whereby a variable portion of the cooling potential of the refrigeration system may be selectively directed to each of the condensing receptacle, a distillate receiver tank, or to a bulk milk container as utilized on a dairy farm or the like.

  6. Qutrit Magic State Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anwar, Hussain; Browne, Dan E

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magic state distillation (MSD) is a purification protocol that plays a central role in fault tolerant quantum computation. Repeated iteration of the steps of a MSD protocol, generates pure single non-stabilizer states, or magic states, from multiple copies of a mixed resource state using stabilizer operations only. Thus mixed resource states promote the stabilizer operations to full universality. Magic state distillation was introduced for qubit-based quantum computation, but little has been known concerning MSD in higher dimensional qudit-based computation. Here, we describe a general approach for studying MSD in higher dimensions. We use it to investigate the features of a qutrit MSD protocol based on the 5-qutrit stabilizer code. We show that this protocol distills non-stabilizer magic states, and identify two types of states, that are attractors of this iteration map. Finally, we show how these states may be converted, via stabilizer circuits alone, into a state suitable for state injected implementation ...

  7. Topological Quantum Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Bombin; M. A. Martin-Delgado

    2007-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct a class of topological quantum codes to perform quantum entanglement distillation. These codes implement the whole Clifford group of unitary operations in a fully topological manner and without selective addressing of qubits. This allows us to extend their application also to quantum teleportation, dense coding and computation with magic states.

  8. Low Energy Distillation Schemes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polley, G. T.

    of reducing energy consumption. We look at how the better integrated distillation schemes can be quickly identified. It is found that the design of integrated schemes is quicker than that of non-integrated schemes. We then look at how the use of heat pumps...

  9. Heteroazeotropic Batch Distillation Feasibility and Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Heteroazeotropic Batch Distillation Feasibility and Operation by Efstathios Skouras and distillation is the dominating unit operation for such separations. However, the presence of azeotropes and non distillation as the best suited process. Among, various techniques to enhance distillation, heterogeneous

  10. Renormalising entanglement distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephan Waeldchen; Janina Gertis; Earl T. Campbell; Jens Eisert

    2015-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Entanglement distillation refers to the task of transforming a collection of weakly entangled pairs into fewer highly entangled ones. It is a core ingredient in quantum repeater protocols, needed to transmit entanglement over arbitrary distances in order to realise quantum key distribution schemes. Usually, it is assumed that the initial entangled pairs are i.i.d. distributed and uncorrelated with each other, an assumption that might not be reasonable at all in any entanglement generation process involving memory channels. Here, we introduce a framework that captures entanglement distillation in the presence of natural correlations arising from memory channels. Conceptually, we bring together ideas from condensed-matter physics - that of renormalisation and of matrix-product states and operators - with those of local entanglement manipulation, Markov chain mixing, and quantum error correction. We identify meaningful parameter regions for which we prove convergence to maximally entangled states, arising as the fixed points of a matrix-product operator renormalisation flow.

  11. Reflux for multifeed distillation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, S.M.; Yaws, C.L.

    1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prior investigations have shown ways to determine minimum reflux for multicomponent distillation. This work extends earlier concepts in order to handle multifeeds. Reflux calculations for each feed, as though it were the only feed, are factored with the reflux effects of the other feeds to give an overall minimum reflux. Each factor has a finite value depending on the composition and thermal quality of the feed it represents.

  12. Intermediate Vapor Expansion Distillation and Nested Enrichment Cascade Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, D. C.

    INTERMEDIATE VAPOR EXPANSION DISTILLATION AND NESTED ENRICHMENT CASCADE DISTILLATION D.. C. Erickson Energy Concepts Company Annapolis, Maryland ABSTRACT Although it is known that incorporating an intermediate reboiler or reflux... condenser in a distillation ~olumn will improve column efficiency by 15 to 100%, there has been little use of this technique to date." Intermediate vapor compression heat pumping was recently introduced as one practical means of achieving this benefit...

  13. Property:Geothermal/AnnualGenBtuYr | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal PwerPerkins County, Nebraska:PrecourtOid Jump to:Docket Number JumpAnnualGenBtuYr Jump to:

  14. BTU International DUK International JV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation in Carbon CaptureAtria PowerAxeonBCHP ScreeningBLMBSABTBTR NewBTU

  15. High Btu gas from peat. Existing social and economic conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1980, the Minnesota Gas Company (Minnegasco) submitted a proposal to the US Department of Energy entitled, A Feasibility Study - High Btu Gas from Peat. The proposed study was designed to assess the overall viability of the design, construction and operation of a commercial facility for the production of high-Btu substitute natural gas (SNG) from Minnesota peat. On September 30, 1980, Minnegasco was awarded a grant by the Department of Energy to perform the proposed study. In order to complete the study, Minnegasco assembled an experienced project team with the wide range of expertise required. In addition, the State of Minnesota agreed to participate in an advisory capacity. The items to be investigated by the project team during the feasibility study include peat harvesting, dewatering, gasification process design, economic and risk assessment, site evaluation, environmental and socioeconomic impact assessment. Ertec (The Earth Technology Corporation) was selected to conduct the site evaluation and environmental assessment portions of the feasibility study. The site evaluation was completed in March of 1981 with the submittal of the first of several reports to Minnegasco. This report describes the existing social and economic conditions of the proposed project area in northern Minnesota. The baseline data presented will be used to assess the significance of potential project impacts in subsequent phases of the feasibility study. Wherever possible, the data base was established using 1980 Bureau of Census statistics. However, where the 1980 data were not yet available, the most recent information is presented. 11 figures, 46 tables.

  16. TOTAL REFLUX OPERATION OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    TOTAL REFLUX OPERATION OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION BERND WITTGENS, RAJAB LITTO, EVA SØRENSEN in this paper provides a generalization of previously proposed batch distillation schemes. A simple feedback been built and the experiments verify the simulations. INTRODUCTION Although batch distillation

  17. Minimum Energy Diagrams for Multieffect Distillation Arrangements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Minimum Energy Diagrams for Multieffect Distillation Arrangements Hilde K. Engelien and Sigurd distillation arrangements for separating a ternary mixture have been considered. The focus is on a heat-integrated complex distillation configuration, called a multieffect prefractionator arrangement. The comparison

  18. Multivessel Batch Distillation Potential Energy Savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Multivessel Batch Distillation ­ Potential Energy Savings Bernd Wittgens and Sigurd Skogestad 1, Norway ABSTRACT ­ A conventional batch distillation column operated under feedback control applying the proposed policy is compared to the multivessel batch distillation column. In some cases we found

  19. Multivessel Batch Distillation -Potential Energy Savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Multivessel Batch Distillation - Potential Energy Savings Bernd Wittgens and Sigurd Skogestad 1, Norway ABSTRACT - A conventional batch distillation column operated under feedback control applying the proposed policy is compared to the multivessel batch distillation column. In some cases we found

  20. The Mansfield Two-Stage, Low BTU Gasification System: Report of Operations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blackwell, L. T.; Crowder, J. T.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The least expensive way to produce gas from coal is by low Btu gasification, a process by which coal is converted to carbon monoxide and hydrogen by reacting it with air and steam. Low Btu gas, which is used near its point of production, eliminates...

  1. Vol. 30 no. 14 2014, pages 20912092 BIOINFORMATICS MESSAGE FROM THE ISCB doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btu117

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radivojac, Predrag

    .1093/bioinformatics/btu117 Advance Access publication March 3, 2014 The automated function prediction SIG looks back

  2. Subtask 3.16 - Low-BTU Field Gas Application to Microturbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darren Schmidt; Benjamin Oster

    2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-energy gas at oil production sites presents an environmental challenge to the sites owners. Typically, the gas is managed in flares. Microturbines are an effective alternative to flaring and provide on-site electricity. Microturbines release 10 times fewer NOx emissions than flaring, on a methane fuel basis. The limited acceptable fuel range of microturbines has prevented their application to low-Btu gases. The challenge of this project was to modify a microturbine to operate on gases lower than 350 Btu/scf (the manufacturer's lower limit). The Energy & Environmental Research Center successfully operated a Capstone C30 microturbine firing gases between 100-300 Btu/scf. The microturbine operated at full power firing gases as low as 200 Btu/scf. A power derating was experienced firing gases below 200 Btu/scf. As fuel energy content decreased, NO{sub x} emissions decreased, CO emissions increased, and unburned hydrocarbons remained less than 0.2 ppm. The turbine was self-started on gases as low as 200 Btu/scf. These results are promising for oil production facilities managing low-Btu gases. The modified microturbine provides an emission solution while returning valuable electricity to the oilfield.

  3. Optimal Control of Distillation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chatterjee, N.; Suchdeo, S. R.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The optimum performance of a distillation system can be evaluated by examining the product purities, the product recoveries, and the system's capability to respond to small or large, expected or unexpected, plant disturbances. An optimal control...

  4. EXPERIMENTAL SIMULATION OF DISTILLATION COLUMN PROFILE MAPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    EXPERIMENTAL SIMULATION OF DISTILLATION COLUMN PROFILE MAPS Tshepo Sehole David Modise A thesis or in combination, such as distillation, extraction, crystallization, ect. Among these, distillation is by far profiles for the preliminary design of distillation columns. Residue curves and column profile are not only

  5. Momentive Performance Materials Distillation Intercharger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boucher, N.; Baisley, T.; Beers, C.; Cameron, R.; Holman, K.; Kotkoskie, T.; Norris, K.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Care? Energy Efficiency Program Momentive Performance Materials Distillation Interchanger ESL-IE-13-05-20 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 Copyright 2013 Momentive Performance... Materials Inc. All rights reserved. CONFIDENTIAL IETC Energy Efficiency Award Winner Distillation Interchanger ? Waterford, NY Agenda ? Momentive Overview ? Waterford, NY Site Overview ? Project Overview ? Project Timeline ? NYSERDA ? Project Team...

  6. Distillation process using microchannel technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee (Dublin, OH); Simmons, Wayne W. (Dublin, OH); Silva, Laura J. (Dublin, OH); Qiu, Dongming (Carbondale, IL); Perry, Steven T. (Galloway, OH); Yuschak, Thomas (Dublin, OH); Hickey, Thomas P. (Dublin, OH); Arora, Ravi (Dublin, OH); Smith, Amanda (Galloway, OH); Litt, Robert Dwayne (Westerville, OH); Neagle, Paul (Westerville, OH)

    2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosed invention relates to a distillation process for separating two or more components having different volatilities from a liquid mixture containing the components. The process employs microchannel technology for effecting the distillation and is particularly suitable for conducting difficult separations, such as the separation of ethane from ethylene, wherein the individual components are characterized by having volatilities that are very close to one another.

  7. Quantum universality by state distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben W. Reichardt

    2009-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum universality can be achieved using classically controlled stabilizer operations and repeated preparation of certain ancilla states. Which ancilla states suffice for universality? This "magic states distillation" question is closely related to quantum fault tolerance. Lower bounds on the noise tolerable on the ancilla help give lower bounds on the tolerable noise rate threshold for fault-tolerant computation. Upper bounds show the limits of threshold upper-bound arguments based on the Gottesman-Knill theorem. We extend the range of single-qubit mixed states that are known to give universality, by using a simple parity-checking operation. For applications to proving threshold lower bounds, certain practical stability characteristics are often required, and we also show a stable distillation procedure. No distillation upper bounds are known beyond those given by the Gottesman-Knill theorem. One might ask whether distillation upper bounds reduce to upper bounds for single-qubit ancilla states. For multi-qubit pure states and previously considered two-qubit ancilla states, the answer is yes. However, we exhibit two-qubit mixed states that are not mixtures of stabilizer states, but for which every postselected stabilizer reduction from two qubits to one outputs a mixture of stabilizer states. Distilling such states would require true multi-qubit state distillation methods.

  8. The Mansfield Two-Stage, Low BTU Gasification System: Report of Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blackwell, L. T.; Crowder, J. T.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the high costs of oxygen and methanation required to produce gas that can be transmitted over long distance. Standard low Btu fixed bed gasifiers have historically been plagued by three constraints; namely, the production of messy tars and oils...

  9. Recent regulatory experience of low-Btu coal gasification. Volume III. Supporting case studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ackerman, E.; Hart, D.; Lethi, M.; Park, W.; Rifkin, S.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The MITRE Corporation conducted a five-month study for the Office of Resource Applications in the Department of Energy on the regulatory requirements of low-Btu coal gasification. During this study, MITRE interviewed representatives of five current low-Btu coal gasification projects and regulatory agencies in five states. From these interviews, MITRE has sought the experience of current low-Btu coal gasification users in order to recommend actions to improve the regulatory process. This report is the third of three volumes. It contains the results of interviews conducted for each of the case studies. Volume 1 of the report contains the analysis of the case studies and recommendations to potential industrial users of low-Btu coal gasification. Volume 2 contains recommendations to regulatory agencies.

  10. Sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is disclosed. The combustor includes several separately removable combustion chambers each having an annular sectoral cross section and a double-walled construction permitting separation of stresses due to pressure forces and stresses due to thermal effects. Arrangements are described for air-cooling each combustion chamber using countercurrent convective cooling flow between an outer shell wall and an inner liner wall and using film cooling flow through liner panel grooves and along the inner liner wall surface, and for admitting all coolant flow to the gas path within the inner liner wall. Also described are systems for supplying coal gas, combustion air, and dilution air to the combustion zone, and a liquid fuel nozzle for use during low-load operation. The disclosed combustor is fully air-cooled, requires no transition section to interface with a turbine nozzle, and is operable at firing temperatures of up to 3000.degree. F. or within approximately 300.degree. F. of the adiabatic stoichiometric limit of the coal gas used as fuel.

  11. Entanglement distillation using particle statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. L. Huang; L. H. Cheng; X. X. Yi

    2005-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We extend the idea of entanglement concentration for pure states(Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 88}, 187903) to the case of mixed states. The scheme works only with particle statistics and local operations, without the need of any other interactions. We show that the maximally entangled state can be distilled out when the initial state is pure, otherwise the entanglement of the final state is less than one. The distillation efficiency is a product of the diagonal elements of the initial state, it takes the maximum 50%, the same as the case for pure states.

  12. Distilling entanglement from arbitrary resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francesco Buscemi; Nilanjana Datta

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We obtain the general formula for the optimal rate at which singlets can be distilled from any given noisy and arbitrarily correlated entanglement resource, by means of local operations and classical communication (LOCC). Our formula, obtained by employing the quantum information spectrum method, reduces to that derived by Devetak and Winter, in the special case of an i.i.d. resource. The proofs rely on a one-shot version of the so-called "hashing bound," which in turn provides bounds on the one-shot distillable entanglement under general LOCC.

  13. Entanglement distillation by extendible maps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lukasz Pankowski; Fernando G. S. L. Brandao; Michal Horodecki; Graeme Smith

    2013-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    It is known that from entangled states that have positive partial transpose it is not possible to distill maximally entangled states by local operations and classical communication (LOCC). A long-standing open question is whether maximally entangled states can be distilled from every state with a non-positive partial transpose. In this paper we study a possible approach to the question consisting of enlarging the class of operations allowed. Namely, instead of LOCC operations we consider k-extendible operations, defined as maps whose Choi-Jamiolkowski state is k-extendible. We find that this class is unexpectedly powerful - e.g. it is capable of distilling EPR pairs even from product states. We also perform numerical studies of distillation of Werner states by those maps, which show that if we raise the extension index k simultaneously with the number of copies of the state, then the class of k-extendible operations is not that powerful anymore and provide a better approximation to the set of LOCC operations.

  14. Corrosion inhibition for distillation apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumert, Kenneth L. (Emmaus, PA); Sagues, Alberto A. (Lexington, KY); Davis, Burtron H. (Georgetown, KY); Schweighardt, Frank K. (Upper Macungie, PA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tower material corrosion in an atmospheric or sub-atmospheric distillation tower in a coal liquefaction process is reduced or eliminated by subjecting chloride-containing tray contents to an appropriate ion-exchange resin to remove chloride from such tray contents materials.

  15. Process Svstems Enaineerina Instability of Distillation Columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Process Svstems Enaineerina , Instability of Distillation Columns Elling W. Jacobsen and Sigurd recognized, distillation columns, operating with reflux and boilup as independent inputs, may have The dynamic behavior of distillation columns has been stud- ied quite extensively over the past decades

  16. POTENTIAL ENERGY SAVINGS OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    POTENTIAL ENERGY SAVINGS OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION Bernd Wittgens and Sigurd Skogestad 1, Norway ABSTRACT ­ A conventional batch distillation column operated under feedback control applying the proposed policy is compared to the multivessel batch distillation column. In some cases we found

  17. POTENTIAL ENERGY SAVINGS OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    POTENTIAL ENERGY SAVINGS OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION Bernd Wittgens and Sigurd Skogestad 1, Norway ABSTRACT - A conventional batch distillation column operated under feedback control applying the proposed policy is compared to the multivessel batch distillation column. In some cases we found

  18. Optimal distillation using thermodynamic geometry Bjarne Andresen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salamon, Peter

    Optimal distillation using thermodynamic geometry Bjarne Andresen Ørsted Laboratory, University of a distillation column may be improved by permitting heat exchange on every tray rather than only in the reboiler (temperature, pressure, etc.) define successive states in a sequence of equilibria. Fractional distillation [2

  19. Analysis and Control of Heteroazeotropic Batch Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Analysis and Control of Heteroazeotropic Batch Distillation S. Skouras and S. Skogestad Dept.interscience.wiley.com). The separation of close-boiling and azeotropic mixtures by heterogeneous azeotropic distillation is addressed. The results show that heteroazeotropic batch distillation exhibits substantial flexibility. The column profile

  20. Experimental entanglement distillation of mesoscopic quantum states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    LETTERS Experimental entanglement distillation of mesoscopic quantum states RUIFANG DONG1 , MIKAEL, entanglement distillation, a process of extracting a small set of highly entangled states from a large set of less entangled states, can be used4­14 . Here we report on the distillation of deterministically

  1. TOTAL REFLUX OPERATION OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    TOTAL REFLUX OPERATION OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION BERND WITTGENS, RAJAB LITTO, EVA S RENSEN a generalization of previously proposed batch distillation schemes. A simple feedback control strategy for total re verify the simulations. INTRODUCTION Although batch distillation generally is less energy e cient than

  2. Vol. 30 ISMB 2014, pages i9i18 BIOINFORMATICS doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btu259

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moret, Bernard

    Vol. 30 ISMB 2014, pages i9­i18 BIOINFORMATICS doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btu259 Evaluating synteny

  3. Refiner and Blender Net Production of Distillate Fuel Oil

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a evie _ =_ In7, 20116,650.0 Weekly7a.7.Nov-145,083 5,011

  4. An analytical investigation of primary zone combustion temperatures and NOx production for turbulent jet flames using low-BTU fuels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carney, Christopher Mark

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research project was to identify and determine the effect of jet burner operating variables that influence combustion of low-BTU gases. This was done by simulating the combustion of a low-BTU fuel in a jet flame and predicting...

  5. An analytical investigation of primary zone combustion temperatures and NOx production for turbulent jet flames using low-BTU fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carney, Christopher Mark

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research project was to identify and determine the effect of jet burner operating variables that influence combustion of low-BTU gases. This was done by simulating the combustion of a low-BTU fuel in a jet flame and predicting...

  6. An Evaluation of Low-BTU Gas from Coal as an Alternate Fuel for Process Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebeker, C. J.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As the price gap between oil and natural gas and coal continues to widen, Monsanto has carefully searched out and examined opportunities to convert fuel use to coal. Preliminary studies indicate that the low-btu gas produced by fixed-bed, air blown...

  7. Distillation of Bell states in open systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Isasi; D. Mundarain

    2009-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we review the entire classification of 2x2 distillable states for protocols with a finite numbers of copies. We show a distillation protocol that allows to distill Bell states with non zero probability at any time for an initial singlet in vacuum. It is shown that the same protocol used in non zero thermal baths yields a considerable recovering of entanglement.

  8. Heat Exchanger Technologies for Distillation Columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polley, G. T.

    Heat Exchanger Technologies for Distillation Columns G.T.Polley Pinchtechnology.com In this paper we look at the challenges that improvements in energy efficiency of distillation systems presents the heat exchanger designer. We examine... condensate sub-cooling. So, if this condensate subsequently requires re-heating both energy and capital have been wasted. If the condensate forms a feed to another distillation column it results in increased energy consumption if that separation...

  9. Reducing Energy Usage in Extractive Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saxena, A. C.; Bhandari, V. A.

    , .. ~ REDUCING ENERGY USAGE IN,EXTRACTIVE DISTILLATION A. C. Saxena V. A. Bhandari Polysar Limited Sarnia, Ontario, Canada Abstract Butadiene 1:3 is separated from other C. hydrocarbons by extractive distillation in a sieve plate tower.... To improve the energy efficiency, butadiene recovery and productivity of the extractive distillation process, many process changes have been made. Their rationale, the methodology used to implement the various changes, and how they affected the process...

  10. Entanglement distillation from quasifree Fermions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zoltan Kadar; Michael Keyl; Dirk Schlingemann

    2011-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a scheme to distill entanglement from bipartite Fermionic systems in an arbitrary quasifree state. It can be applied if either one system containing infinite one-copy entanglement is available or if an arbitrary amount of equally prepared systems can be used. We show that the efficiency of the proposed scheme is in general very good and in some cases even optimal. Furthermore we apply it to Fermions hopping on an infinite lattice and demonstrate in this context that an efficient numerical analysis is possible for more then 10^6 lattice sites.

  11. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In April 2008, Kentucky enacted legislation that expanded its net metering law by requiring utilities to offer net metering to customers that generate electricity with photovoltaic (PV), wind,...

  12. CLOSED OPERATION OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION -EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    1 CLOSED OPERATION OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION - EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION Submitted to AICheÆcient operation, multicomponent distillation, batch distillation, total re ux operation ABSTRACT. The multivessel batch distillation column, as well as conven- tional batch distillation, may be operated in a closed

  13. Locally Accessible Information and Distillation of Entanglement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibasish Ghosh; Pramod Joag; Guruprasad Kar; Samir Kunkri; Anirban Roy

    2004-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A new type of complementary relation is found between locally accessible information and final average entanglement for given ensemble. It is also shown that in some well known distillation protocol, this complementary relation is optimally satisfied. We discuss the interesting trade-off between locally accessible information and distillable entanglement for some states.

  14. Shell middle distillate hydrogenation process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucien, J.P. [Companie Rhenane de Raffinage Reichstett, Reichstett Vendenheim (France); Berg, J.P. van den; Hooijdonk, H.M.J.H. van; Thielemans, G.L.B. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Mij., The Hague (Netherlands); Germaine, G. [Shell Recherche SA, Grand-Couronne (France); Gjers, M. [Shell Raffinaderi AB, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The strive towards cleaner environment has lead to low sulfur specifications for middle distillate fuels. In addition compositional specifications are presently debated. Thus, to meet future emissions standards regarding, specifically, particulates emissions, the motor industry calls for improved automotive gasoil quality. Although automotive gasoil quality affects emissions from diesel engines it is considered less influential than engine design and maintenance. Sulfur, density and cetane number are the fuel properties having the greatest influence on diesel engine emissions although also aromatics and endpoint specifications have been defined in environmentally adopted government initiatives. This paper reviews the options which are available to tackle these new requirements. The high severity single stage concept (using conventional mixed sulfides catalysts) will be discussed in its potential to meet more severe product requirements as well as in terms of its limitations, especially at the point of aromatics saturation and cetaine upgrading. Furthermore, it is shown that the option of severe hydrotreating followed by hydrogenation with conventional noble metal catalysts is preferred if deep aromatics saturation is aimed at. However, this conventional two stage concept has limitations with respect to heaviness and sulfur and nitrogen content of feedstocks. The new Shell Middle Distillate Hydrogenation (SMDH) technology, applying a (semi) two stage approach based on the Shell developed hydrogenation catalyst is presented. The SMDH process will be discussed in its potential to break the limitations of the conventional options. The new catalyst is crucial in this process and allows a highly integrated mode of operation. A number of applications of this novel process will be discussed.

  15. atmospheric crude distillation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 September 1999 Distillation Theory. by Ivar J. Halvorsen and Sigurd, Norway 12;2 DistillationTheory.fm 2 September 1999 Table of Contents Introduction . . . . ....

  16. acrobat distiller job: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 September 1999 Distillation Theory. by Ivar J. Halvorsen and Sigurd, Norway 12;2 DistillationTheory.fm 2 September 1999 Table of Contents Introduction . . . . ....

  17. advanced distillation curve: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 September 1999 Distillation Theory. by Ivar J. Halvorsen and Sigurd, Norway 12;2 DistillationTheory.fm 2 September 1999 Table of Contents Introduction . . . . ....

  18. Determination of performance characteristics of a one-cylinder diesel engine modified to burn low-Btu (lignite) gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blacksmith, James Richard

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DETERMINATION OF PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF A ONE-CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE MODIFIED TO BURN LOW-BTU (LIGNITE) GAS A Thesis JAMES RICHARD BLACKSMITH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A86YI University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1979 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering DETERMINATION OF PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF A ONE-CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE MODIFIED TO BURN LOW-BTU (LIGNITE) GAS A Thesis by JAMES RICHARD BLACKSMITH...

  19. Distillation: Still towering over other options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunesh, J.G. [Fractionation Research, Inc., Stillwater, OK (United States); Kister, H.Z. [Brown and Root, Inc., Alhambra (Canada); Lockett, M.J. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States); Fair, J.R. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distillation dominates separations in the chemical process industries (CPI), at least for mixtures that normally are processed as liquids. The authors fully expect that distillation will continue to be the method of choice for many separations, and the method against which other options must be compared. So, in this article, they will put into some perspective just why distillation continues to reign as the king of separations, and what steps are being taken to improve its applicability and performance, as well as basic understanding of the technique.

  20. Low/medium-Btu coal-gasification assessment program for specific sites of two New York utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The scope of this study is to investigate the technical and economic aspects of coal gasification to supply low- or medium-Btu gas to the two power plant boilers selected for study. This includes the following major studies (and others described in the text): investigate coals from different regions of the country, select a coal based on its availability, mode of transportation and delivered cost to each power plant site; investigate the effects of burning low- and medium-Btu gas in the selected power plant boilers based on efficiency, rating and cost of modifications and make recommendations for each; and review the technical feasibility of converting the power plant boilers to coal-derived gas. The following two coal gasification processes have been used as the basis for this Study: the Combustion Engineering coal gasification process produces a low-Btu gas at approximately 100 Btu/scf at near atmospheric pressure; and the Texaco coal gasification process produces a medium-Btu gas at 292 Btu/scf at 800 psig. The engineering design and economics of both plants are described. Both plants meet the federal, state, and local environmental requirements for air quality, wastewater, liquid disposal, and ground level disposal of byproduct solids. All of the synthetic gas alternatives result in bus bar cost savings on a yearly basis within a few years of start-up because the cost of gas is assumed to escalate at a lower rate than that of fuel oil, approximately 4 to 5%.

  1. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In Massachusetts, the state's investor-owned utilities must offer net metering. Municipal utilities are not obligated to offer net metering, but they may do so voluntarily. (There are no electric...

  2. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission (IURC) adopted rules for net metering in September 2004, requiring the state's investor-owned utilities (IOUs) to offer net metering to all electric...

  3. Minimizing corrosion in coal liquid distillation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumert, Kenneth L. (Emmaus, PA); Sagues, Alberto A. (Lexington, KY); Davis, Burtron H. (Georgetown, KY)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an atmospheric distillation tower of a coal liquefaction process, tower materials corrosion is reduced or eliminated by introduction of boiling point differentiated streams to boiling point differentiated tower regions.

  4. Nonlocality Distillation for High-Dimensional System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Guo-Zhu; Chen, Zheng-Gen; Yang, Ming; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The intriguing and powerful capability of nonlocality in communication field ignites the research of the nonlocality distillation. The first protocol presented in Ref[Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 120401] shows that the nonlocality of bipartite binary-input and binary-output nonsignaling correlated boxes could be amplified by 'wiring' two copies of weaker-nonlocality boxes. Several optimized distillation protocols were presented later for bipartite binary-input and binary-output nonsignaling correlated boxes. In this paper, we focus on the bipartite binary-input and multi-nary-output nonsignaling correlated boxes---high-dimensional boxes, and design comparators-based protocols to achieve the distillation of high-dimensional nonlocality. The results show that the high-dimensional nonlocality can be distilled in different ways, and we find that the efficiencies of the protocols are influenced not only by the wirings but also by the classes the initial nonlocality boxes belongs to. Here, the initial nonlcalities may hav...

  5. Intelligent fuzzy supervisory control for distillation columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santhanam, Srinivasan

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    problem. Multivariable design techniques are used to control the column. Some of the different multivariable techniques which have been used in the distillation column control include decoupling control, optimal control and internal model control [5...

  6. Advanced Distillation: Programs Proposed to DOE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woinsky, S. G.

    EPRI has provided proposal preparation assistance and offered cost share funding assistance for two projects proposed in 2000. EPRI is highly interested, since this technology is applicable in all distillation systems, and since it will increase...

  7. An improved model for multiple effect distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mistry, Karan H.

    Increasing global demand for fresh water is driving research and development of advanced desalination technologies. As a result, a detailed model of multiple effect distillation (MED) is developed that is flexible, simple ...

  8. Development of energy efficient membrane distillation systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Summers, Edward K

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Membrane distillation (MD) has shown potential as a means of desalination and water purification. As a thermally driven membrane technology which runs at relatively low pressure, which can withstand high salinity feed ...

  9. Absorptive Recycle of Distillation Waste Heat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, D. C.; Lutz, E. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When the heat source available to a distillation process is at a significantly higher temperature than the reboiler temperature, there is unused availability (ability to perform work) in the heat supplied to the reboiler. Similarly, if the reflux...

  10. Complex Fluid Analysis with the Advanced Distillation Curve Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Complex Fluid Analysis with the Advanced Distillation Curve Approach Thomas J. Bruno, Lisa S. Ott for measuring distillation curves reveals the physicochemical properties of complex fluids such as fuels distillation curves of complex fluids. The distillation curve provides the only practical avenue to assess

  11. On the Communication Complexity of Correlation and Entanglement Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    On the Communication Complexity of Correlation and Entanglement Distillation Ke Yang May 4th, 2004 distillation, entanglement distillation, communication complexity, EPR pairs, quantum key distribution #12) information, and then engage in a protocol to \\distill" the correlation/entanglement via communication. We

  12. Blog Distillation via Sentiment-Sensitive Link Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sebastiani, Fabrizio

    Blog Distillation via Sentiment-Sensitive Link Analysis Giacomo Berardi, Andrea Esuli, Fabrizio blog distillation by adding a link analysis phase to the standard retrieval-by-topicality phase, where in blog distillation. 1 Introduction Blog distillation is a subtask of blog search. It is defined

  13. Solar Ethanol Distillation Oara Neumann,1,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O-9 Solar Ethanol Distillation Oara Neumann,1,3 Albert D. Neumann,2 Julius Müller,1 of separation, particularly distillation. The 40,000 commercial distillation columns in use in the U. S. consume or product purity. Distillation is the critical energy-consuming step accounting for 70-85% of the energy

  14. MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION 1 SIGURD SKOGESTAD 2 , BERND WITTGENS,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION 1 SIGURD SKOGESTAD 2 , BERND WITTGENS, EVA SØRENSEN 3 and RAJAB distillation schemes. A simple feedback control strategy for the total reflux operation of a multivessel column distillation generally is less energy efficient than continuous distillation, it has received increased

  15. MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION 1 SIGURD SKOGESTAD 2 , BERND WITTGENS,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION 1 SIGURD SKOGESTAD 2 , BERND WITTGENS, EVA S RENSEN 3 and RAJAB distillation schemes. A simple feedback control strategy for the total re ux operation of a multivessel column distillation generally is less energy e cient than continuous distillation, it has received increased attention

  16. Multipartite secret key distillation and bound entanglement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Remigiusz Augusiak; Pawel Horodecki

    2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently it has been shown that quantum cryptography beyond pure entanglement distillation is possible and a paradigm for the associated protocols has been established. Here we systematically generalize the whole paradigm to the multipartite scenario. We provide constructions of new classes of multipartite bound entangled states, i.e., those with underlying twisted GHZ structure and nonzero distillable cryptographic key. We quantitatively estimate the key from below with help of the privacy squeezing technique.

  17. Multipartite secret key distillation and bound entanglement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Augusiak, Remigiusz; Horodecki, Pawel [Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland) and ICFO-Institute Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently it has been shown that quantum cryptography beyond pure entanglement distillation is possible and a paradigm for the associated protocols has been established. Here we systematically generalize the whole paradigm to the multipartite scenario. We provide constructions of new classes of multipartite bound entangled states, i.e., those with underlying twisted Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) structure and nonzero distillable cryptographic key. We quantitatively estimate the key from below with the help of the privacy squeezing technique.

  18. Absorptive Recycle of Distillation Waste Heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, D. C.; Lutz, E. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSORPTIVE RECYCLE OF DISTILLATION WASTE HEAT Donald C. Erickson and Edward J. Lutz Jr. Energy Concepts Company Annapolis, Maryland ABSTRACT When the heat source available to a distillation process is at a significantly higher temperature... which conserve 60 to 70%. Also, there are ver sions which incorporate separate low tem perature waste heat streams and thereby conserve over 90% of the required dis tillation energy. The main limitations of the R/AHP are the need for sufficient...

  19. Understanding Utility Rates or How to Operate at the Lowest $/BTU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, J. N.

    . The lower the energy rating (KW/Ton or KW/HP or KW/BTU) the more efficient the equipment and the less demand draw on the electric power plants, thereby reducing the need to build new power plants. To encourage DSM, utilities give rebates for high...: Bob Allwein, Oklahoma Natural Gas Company. Dick Landry, Gulf States Utility. Curtis Williford, Entex Gas Company. Bret McCants, Central Power and Light Company. Frank Tanner, Southern Union. Patric Coon, West Texas utilities. ESL-IE-93...

  20. U.S. Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Other Sectors Consumers (BTU

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayNov-14 Dec-14 Jan-15 Feb-15(BTU perper

  1. Local purity distillation with bounded classical communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hari Krovi; Igor Devetak

    2007-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Local pure states are an important resource for quantum computing. The problem of distilling local pure states from mixed ones can be cast in an information theoretic paradigm. The bipartite version of this problem where local purity must be distilled from an arbitrary quantum state shared between two parties, Alice and Bob, is closely related to the problem of separating quantum and classical correlations in the state and in particular, to a measure of classical correlations called the one-way distillable common randomness. In Phys. Rev. A 71, 062303 (2005), the optimal rate of local purity distillation is derived when many copies of a bipartite quantum state are shared between Alice and Bob, and the parties are allowed unlimited use of a unidirectional dephasing channel. In the present paper, we extend this result to the setting in which the use of the channel is bounded. We demonstrate that in the case of a classical-quantum system, the expression for the local purity distilled is efficiently computable and provide examples with their tradeoff curves.

  2. MathNet MathNet Mathematical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MathNet MathNet MathNet Mathematical Preprint Servers Mathematical Preprint Servers Jonas Gomes Janeiro IMPA ­ Rio de Janeiro #12; MathNet MathNet MathNet Preprint Server Preprint Server . . What Atlas: Topology Atlas: http://www.unipissing.ca/topology/ http://www.unipissing.ca/topology/ #12; MathNet

  3. fi net

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, Weihong

    Electronic Publishing House. All rights reserved. http://www.cnki.net #12;, , , · » » , , , ¡¢ » ¡fi Journal Electronic Publishing House. All rights reserved. http://www.cnki.net #12;, ¡£¡£ , » , ¯ ¡/ ¡ , ¡¢ ¡¢ © 1994-2008 China Academic Journal Electronic Publishing House. All rights reserved. http://www.cnki.net

  4. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) - Usually at utility's avoided cost (a wholesale rate) or a negotiated rate * New Mexico o REC Ownership: Utility owns RECs o Net...

  5. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Jersey's net-metering rules apply to all residential, commercial and industrial customers of the state's investor-owned utilities and energy suppliers (and certain competitive municipal...

  6. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Wyoming enacted legislation in February 2001 that established statewide net metering. The law applies to investor-owned utilities, electric cooperatives and irrigation districts. Eligible...

  7. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Net metering has been available in Oklahoma since 1988 under Oklahoma Corporation Commission (OCC) Order 326195. The OCC's rules require investor-owned utilities and electric cooperatives under...

  8. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Missouri enacted legislation in June 2007 (S.B. 54)* requiring all electric utilities -- investor-owned utilities, municipal utilities and electric cooperatives -- to offer net metering to...

  9. High btu gas from peat. A feasibility study. Part 1. Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In September, 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a Grant (No. DE-FG01-80RA50348) to the Minnesota Gas Company (Minnegasco) to evaluate the commercial viability - technical, economic and environmental - of producing 80 million standard cubic feet per day (SCFD) of substitute natural gas (SNG) from peat. The proposed product, high Btu SNG would be a suitable substitute for natural gas which is widely used throughout the Upper Midwest by residential, commercial and industrial sectors. The study team consisted of Dravo Engineers and Constructors, Ertec Atlantic, Inc., The Institute of Gas Technology, Deloitte, Haskins and Sells and Minnegasco. Preliminary engineering and operating and financial plans for the harvesting, dewatering and gasification operations were developed. A site in Koochiching County near Margie was chosen for detailed design purposes only; it was not selected as a site for development. Environmental data and socioeconomic data were gathered and reconciled. Potential economic data were gathered and reconciled. Potential impacts - both positive and negative - were identified and assessed. The peat resource itself was evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively. Markets for plant by-products were also assessed. In summary, the technical, economic, and environmental assessment indicates that a facility producing 80 billion Btu's per day SNG from peat is not commercially viable at this time. Minnegasco will continue its efforts into the development of peat and continue to examine other options.

  10. Markets for low- and medium-Btu coal gasification: an analysis of 13 site specific studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1978 the US Department of Energy (DOE), through its Office of Resource Applications, developed a commercialization plan for low- and medium-Btu coal gasification. Several initial steps have been taken in that process, including a comprehensive study of industrial markets, issuance of a Notice of Program Interest, and funding of proposals under the Alternate Fuels Legislation (P.L. 96-126). To assist it in the further development and administration of the commercialization plan, the Office of Resource Applications has asked Booz, Allen and Hamilton to assess the market prospects for low- and medium-Btu coal gasification. This report covers the detailed findings of the study. Following the introduction which discusses the purpose of the study, approach used for the assignment and current market attitudes on coal gasification, there are three chapters on: systems configurations and applications; economic and finanical attractiveness; and summary of management decisions based on feasibility study results. The final chapter briefly assesses the management decisions. The general consensus seems to be that coal gasification is a technology that will be attractive in the future but is marginal now. 6 figures, 5 tables.

  11. Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

    1985-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone: this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe: swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone: this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

  12. Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone; this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe; swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone; this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

  13. Energy Saving in Distillation Using Structured Packing and Vapor Recompression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, J.H.

    "Distillation is a big consumer of energy in process plant operations. A first step to energy cost savings is the use of high efficiency structured packing in place of trays or dumped packings in conventionally operated distillation columns. Larger...

  14. Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) Geographic Area Month Kerosene No. 1 Distillate No. 2...

  15. Desalination Using Vapor-Compression Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lubis, Mirna R.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    the outgoing salt concentration was 1.5% and 7%, respectively. Distillation was performed at 439 K (331oF) and 722 kPa (105 psia) for both brackish water feed and seawater feed. Water costs of the various conditions were calculated for brackish water...

  16. Distillation: Present Status and Future Directions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -pressure steam as a heat source. The steam has, very likely, been sent through one or more users (turbi ne dri ves) before reaching the distillation reboiler. It seems almost characteristic of large chemical and refining complexes that there is a chronic...

  17. Complex Distillation Arrangements : Extending the Petlyuk Ideas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    to distillation columns ac- count for roughly 3 of the total energy consumption in the U.S. (Ognisty 1995 to reduce energy consumption at least two alternative approaches have been proposed both in the literature is also known as the Petlyuk column, due to a theoretical study of Pet- lyuk et al. (1965), or as a fully

  18. Forpeerreview Synthesis of Complex Thermally Coupled Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    consumption of 91 GW, or 54 million tons of crude oil. The distillation research is motivated by its major US energy consumption, which is equivalent to 2.87x10 18 J (2.87 million TJ) per year, or to a power

  19. Energy Conservation Options in Distillation Processes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, G. E.; Hearn, W. R.; Blythe, G. M.; Stuart, J. M.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I ENERGY CONSERVATION OPTIONS IN DISTILLATION PROCESSES G.E. Harris, W.R. Hearn, G.M. Blythe, and J.M. Stuart, Radian Corporation, Austin, Texas I This paper summarizes the results of a survey of energy conservation options applicable...

  20. Synthesis and design of optimal thermal membrane distillation networks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nyapathi Seshu, Madhav

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    of oil. An overview of Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD) reports the narrow range of applications of membrane distillation in the industry, such as desalination and water purification (Burgoyne and Vahdati, 2000; Cath et al., 2004). Gryta... crystalliser and air gap membrane distillation as a solution to geothermal water desalination. Desalination 152 (1-3), 237-244. Burgoyne, A, Vahdati, M.M. 2000. Direct contact membrane distillation.Separation Science and Technology 35 (8), 1257...

  1. Distilling one-qubit magic states into Toffoli states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryan Eastin

    2013-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    For certain quantum architectures and algorithms, most of the required resources are consumed during the distillation of one-qubit magic states for use in performing Toffoli gates. I show that the overhead for magic-state distillation can be reduced by merging distillation with the implementation of Toffoli gates. The resulting routine distills 8 one-qubit magic states directly to a Toffoli state, which can be used without further magic to perform a Toffoli gate.

  2. Integrated C3 Feedstock and Aggregated Distillation Model for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Polypropylene Propane return Reactor effluent Distillation Polymerization FeedTank Propylene (91%) Goal: Select rates Constraints on composition of Propane Return, Distillation Overhead & Reactor Feed Limits Distillation Model Relates overhead composition of propane with flowrate of propane feed to the splitter

  3. Asymptotic adaptive bipartite entanglement distillation protocol Erik Hostens,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to infinity. We call such protocols asymp- totic and the fraction of distilled Bell states per initial copy#12;#12;Asymptotic adaptive bipartite entanglement distillation protocol Erik Hostens, Jeroen: July 13, 2006) We present a new asymptotic bipartite entanglement distillation protocol

  4. Optimal Control of a Continuous Distillation Process under Probabilistic Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henrion, René

    Optimal Control of a Continuous Distillation Process under Probabilistic Constraints René Henrion1 Universität Berlin, Germany Abstract A continuous distillation process with random inflow rate is considered model including the dynamics of the distillation process and proba- bilistic constraints under different

  5. Bloggers as Experts Feed Distillation using Expert Retrieval Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Rijke, Maarten

    Bloggers as Experts Feed Distillation using Expert Retrieval Models Krisztian Balog kbalog Kruislaan 403, 1098 SJ Amsterdam ABSTRACT We address the task of (blog) feed distillation: to find blogs- ness as feed distillation strategies. The two models capture the idea that a human will often search

  6. DYNAMICS AND CONTROL OF DISTILLATION COLUMNS A CRITICAL SURVEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    DYNAMICS AND CONTROL OF DISTILLATION COLUMNS ­ A CRITICAL SURVEY Sigurd Skogestad \\Lambda Chemical, Identification and Control, 18, 177­217, 1997. Abstract Distillation column dynamics and control has been viewed these, the feasibility of using the distillate­bottom structure for control (which was believed

  7. CHEM333: Experiment 4: Steam Distillation of Essential Oils;

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taber, Douglass

    CHEM­333: Experiment 4: Steam Distillation of Essential Oils; Experiments A, C, D and below. Reading: For this experiment read Chapter 10. This week you will get to use steam distillation to isolate may wait until you come to lab to find out which spice you get. Steam distillation is not a common

  8. DYNAMICS AND CONTROL OF DISTILLATION COLUMNS -A CRITICAL SURVEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    DYNAMICS AND CONTROL OF DISTILLATION COLUMNS - A CRITICAL SURVEY Sigurd Skogestad Chemical cation and Control, 18, 177-217, 1997. Abstract Distillation column dynamics and control has been viewed, the feasibility of using the distillate-bottomstructure for control which was believed to be impossible

  9. Column Initialization 1 Initializing Distillation Column Models 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dundee, University of

    Column Initialization 1 Initializing Distillation Column Models 1 Roger Fletcher \\Lambda with the optimisation of distillation column models by non­ linear programming are considered. The paper presents of the distillation column model. A certain limiting case of the column model is examined, that of infinite reflux

  10. Energy efficient distillation Ivar J. Halvorsen a,*, Sigurd Skogestad b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Energy efficient distillation Ivar J. Halvorsen a,*, Sigurd Skogestad b a SINTEF ICT, Applied Keywords: Distillation Minimum energy Energy saving Dividing wall column Petlyuk arrangement Vmin-diagram a b s t r a c t Distillation is responsible for a significant amount of the energy consumption

  11. Many copies may be required for entanglement distillation John Watrous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watrous, John

    Many copies may be required for entanglement distillation John Watrous Department of Computer state shared between two parties is said to be distillable if, by means of a protocol involving only |+ = (|00 + |11 )/ 2. In this paper it is proved that there exist states that are distillable

  12. Active constraint regions for optimal operation of distillation columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Active constraint regions for optimal operation of distillation columns Magnus G. Jacobsen the control structure of distillation columns, with optimal operation in mind, it is important to know how for distillation columns change with variations in energy cost and feed flow rate. The production of the most

  13. Multiple copy distillation and purification of phase diffused squeezed states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petr Marek; Jaromir Fiurasek; Boris Hage; Alexander Franzen; James DiGugliemo; Roman Schnabel

    2007-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We provide a detailed theoretical analysis of multiple copy purification and distillation protocols for phase diffused squeezed states of light. The standard iterative distillation protocol is generalized to a collective purification of an arbitrary number of N copies. We also derive a semi-analytical expression for the asymptotic limit of the iterative distillation and purification protocol and discuss its properties.

  14. CHEM333: Lab Experiment 3: Distillation and Gas Chromatography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taber, Douglass

    CHEM­333: Lab Experiment 3: Distillation and Gas Chromatography: Prelab-Assignment: read Chapters 5 and 6. Distillation is one of the most powerful techniques for purifying volatile organic compounds. Distillation is used to isolate many of life's essentials such as gasoline from oil or brandy from wine

  15. Blog Distillation via Sentiment-Sensitive Link Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sebastiani, Fabrizio

    Blog Distillation via Sentiment-Sensitive Link Analysis Giacomo Berardi, Andrea Esuli, Fabrizio report a new approach to blog distillation, defined as the task in which, given a user query, the system of the TREC Blog Track. 1 Introduction Blog distillation is a subtask of the blog search task. It is defined

  16. MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION 1 SIGURD SKOGESTAD 2 , BERND WITTGENS,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION 1 SIGURD SKOGESTAD 2 , BERND WITTGENS, EVA S RENSEN 3 and RAJAB distillation schemes, including the inverted column and the middle vessel column. The total re ux operation of the multivessel batch distillation column was presented recently, and the main contribution of this paper

  17. Analysis of Closed Multivessel Batch Distillation of Ternary Azeotropic Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Analysis of Closed Multivessel Batch Distillation of Ternary Azeotropic Mixtures using Elementary) diagrams like distillation lines and isotherms maps may be used in analysis of the closed (total reflux) multivessel batch distillation column. An indirect level control strategy is implemented that eliminates

  18. Azeotropic Distillation as a Technique for Emulsion Size Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Azeotropic Distillation as a Technique for Emulsion Size Reduction Taylor Emanuelle Sweet 2013 Prism/PCCM #12;Overview -Intro- What is Microfluidics? What is Heterogeneous Azeotropic Distillation microns in size and use Binary Heterogeneous Azeotropic Distillation to shrink droplets to 5-10 microns

  19. Model Predictive Control of a Kaibel Distillation Column

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Model Predictive Control of a Kaibel Distillation Column Martin Kvernland Ivar Halvorsen Sigurd (e-mail: skoge@ntnu.no) Abstract: This is a simulation study on controlling a Kaibel distillation column with model predictive control (MPC). A Kaibel distillation column has several advantages compared

  20. Multiple Steady States in Ideal Two-Product Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Multiple Steady States in Ideal Two-Product Distillation Elling W. Jacobsen and Sigurd Skogestad Chemical Engineering Dept., University of Trondheim-NTH, N-7034 Trondheim, Norway Simple distillation and compositions in the column. Introduction Multiple steady states (multiplicity) in distillation columns have

  1. Separation of Azeotropic Mixtures in Closed Batch Distillation Arrangements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Separation of Azeotropic Mixtures in Closed Batch Distillation Arrangements S. Skouras and S, Norway SCOPE OF THE PROJECT ·How can we separate ternary mixtures in closed batch distillation-up period is required, followed by a heteroazeotropic distillation step (Figure 3) Modified: The separation

  2. Effect of Number of Fractionating Trays on Reactive Distillation Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

    Effect of Number of Fractionating Trays on Reactive Distillation Performance Muhammad A. Al and rectifying sec- tions of a reacti®e distillation column can degrade performance. This effect, if true®e distillation columns cannot use conser®ati®e estimates of tray numbers, that is, we cannot simply add excess

  3. MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION 1 SIGURD SKOGESTAD 2 , BERND WITTGENS,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION 1 SIGURD SKOGESTAD 2 , BERND WITTGENS, EVA SØRENSEN 3 and RAJAB distillation schemes, including the inverted column and the middle vessel column. The total reflux operation of the multivessel batch distillation column was presented recently, and the main contribution of this paper

  4. RIS0-M-2319 RISK ANALYSIS OF A DISTILLATION UNIT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RIS0-M-2319 RISK ANALYSIS OF A DISTILLATION UNIT J. R. Taylor**, 0. Hansen*, C. Jensen*, 0. F. A risk analysis of a batch distillation unit is de- scribed. The analysis has been carried out at several.2. Objectives and organisation 5 1.2.2. Philosophy and approach 6 1.3.1. The distillation unit 8 1

  5. Solar thermal powered desalination: membrane versus distillation technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar thermal powered desalination: membrane versus distillation technologies G. Burgess and K Canberra ACT 0200 AUSTRALIA E-mail: greg.burgess@anu.edu.au Multiple Effect Distillation (MED) is generally assisted) desalination has been conducted. Solar thermal driven Multiple Effect Distillation (MED) has been

  6. Human versus Machine in the Topic Distillation Task Mingfang Wu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Mingfang

    Human versus Machine in the Topic Distillation Task Mingfang Wu 1 , Gheorghe Muresan2 , Alistair Mc. The focus is on comparing humans and machine algorithms in terms of performance in a topic distillation task demonstrated that machines can perform nearly as well as people on the topic distillation task. Given a system

  7. Economically Optimal Control of Kaibel Distillation Column: Fixed boilup rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    : In this study, a control structure is designed for a 4-product dividing wall (Kaibel) distillation column, basedEconomically Optimal Control of Kaibel Distillation Column: Fixed boilup rate Maryam Ghadrdan distillation column; Vapour split manipulation; Self-optimizing control. 1. INTRODUCTION Thermally coupled

  8. Optimal Synthesis of Complex Distillation ColumnsUsing Rigorous Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    a review of recent work for the optimal design of distillation of individual columns using tray review of the area of optimal design and synthesis of distillation columns, emphasizing recentOptimal Synthesis of Complex Distillation ColumnsUsing Rigorous Models Ignacio E. Grossmann1 , Pío

  9. THE DOS AND DONTS OF DISTILLATION COLUMN CONTROL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    THE DOS AND DON·TS OF DISTILLATION COLUMN CONTROL S. Skogestadà Department of Chemical Engineering distillation column control within the general framework of plant- wide control. In addition, it aims at providing simple recommendations to assist the engineer in designing control systems for distillation

  10. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Net excess generation (NEG) is treated as a kilowatt-hour (kWh) credit or other compensation on the customer's following bill.* When an annual period ends, a utility will purchase unused credits...

  11. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Illinois enacted legislation in August 2007 (S.B. 680) requiring investor-owned utilities in Illinois to begin offering net metering by April 1, 2008. In May 2008, the Illinois Commerce Commissio...

  12. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NOTE: In December 15, 2014 the New York Public Service Commission (PSC) issued an order directing the investor owned utilities in the State to file net metering tariff revisions doubling the agg...

  13. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nevada's original net-metering law for renewable-energy systems was enacted in 1997 and amended in 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2011, 2013, and 2015. Systems up to one megawatt (MW) in capacity that...

  14. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: The program web site listed above links to the Maryland Public Service Commission's Net Metering Working Group page, which contains a variety of information resources related to the ongoing...

  15. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    [http://nebraskalegislature.gov/FloorDocs/101/PDF/Final/LB436.pdf LB 436], signed in May 2009, established statewide net metering rules for all electric utilities in Nebraska. The rules apply to...

  16. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The North Carolina Utilities Commission (NCUC) requires the state’s three investor-owned utilities -- Duke Energy, Progress Energy and Dominion North Carolina Power -- to make net metering...

  17. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Net metering is available to all "qualifying facilities" (QFs), as defined by the federal Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA)*, which pertains to systems up to 80 megawatts (MW)...

  18. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Montana's net-metering law, enacted in July 1999, applies to all customers of investor-owned utilities. Systems up to 50 kilowatts (kW) in capacity that generate electricity using solar, wind or...

  19. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Public Service Commission of Wisconsin (PSC) issued an order on January 26, 1982 requiring all regulated utilities to file tariffs allowing net metering to customers that generate electricity...

  20. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rhode Island allows net metering for systems up to five megawatts (MW) in capacity that are designed to generate up to 100% of the electricity that a home or other facility uses. Systems that...

  1. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    '''''Note: In March 2011, Virginia enacted HB 1983, which increased the residential net-metering limit to 20 kW. However, residential facilities with a capacity of greater than 10 kW must pay a...

  2. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Net metering in West Virginia is available to all retail electricity customers. System capacity limits vary depending on the customer type and electric utility type, according to the following...

  3. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    North Dakota's net-metering policy, adopted in 1991 by the state Public Service Commission (PSC), applies to renewable-energy systems and combined heat and power (CHP) systems up to 100 kilowatts ...

  4. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Oregon has established separate net-metering programs for the state's primary investor-owned utilities (PGE and PacifiCorp), and for its municipal utilities and electric cooperatives.

  5. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    '''''The MPSC is reviewing state interconnection and net metering policies in [http://efile.mpsc.state.mi.us/efile/viewcase.php?casenum=15919&submit.x=... Case U-15919].'''''...

  6. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    '''''NOTE: Legislation enacted in 2011 and 2012 (S.B. 1652, H.B. 3036, and S.B. 3811) has changed several aspects of net metering in Illinois. For customers in competitive classes as of July 1,...

  7. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Utah law requires their only investor-owned utility, Rocky Mountain Power (RMP), and most electric cooperatives* to offer net metering to customers who generate electricity using solar energy, wind...

  8. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Washington's net-metering law applies to systems up to 100 kilowatts (kW) in capacity that generate electricity using solar, wind, hydro, biogas from animal waste, or combined heat and power...

  9. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    '''''Note: H.F. 729, enacted in May 2013, includes many changes to Minnesota's net metering law. These changes are described above, but most will not take effect until rules are implemented at the...

  10. Object Petri Nets Using the Nets-within-Nets Paradigm.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamburg.Universit�¤t

    Object Petri Nets Using the Nets-within-Nets Paradigm. Rüdiger Valk. revised version from Jörg Desel, Wolfgang Reisig, and Grzegorz Rozenberg, editors, Advances in Petri Nets: Lectures on Concurrency and Petri Nets, volume 3098 of Lecture Notes in Compu- ter Science, pages 819-848. Springer-Verlag, Berlin

  11. Secret key distillation from shielded two-qubit states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joonwoo Bae

    2010-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The quantum states corresponding to a secret key are characterized using the so-called private states, where the key part consisting of a secret key is shielded by the additional systems. Based on the construction, it was shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states. In this work, I consider the shielded two-qubit states in a key-distillation scenario and derive the conditions under which a secret key can be distilled using the recurrence protocol or the two-way classical distillation, advantage distillation together with one-way postprocessing. From the security conditions, it is shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states in a much wider range. In addition, I consider the case that in which white noise is added to quantum states and show that the classical distillation protocol still works despite a certain amount of noise although the recurrence protocol does not.

  12. Qutrit Magic State Distillation Tight in Some Directions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hillary Dawkins; Mark Howard

    2015-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Magic state distillation is a crucial component in the leading approaches to implementing universal fault tolerant quantum computation, with existing protocols for both qubit and higher dimensional systems. Early work focused on determining the region of distillable states for qubit protocols, yet comparatively little is known about which states can be distilled and with what distillable region for d>2. Here we focus on d=3 and present new four-qutrit distillation schemes that improve upon the known distillable region, and achieve distillation tight to the boundary of undistillable states for some classes of state. As a consequence of recent results, this implies that there is a family of quantum states that enable universality if and only if they exhibit contextuality with respect to stabilizer measurements. We also identify a new routine whose fixed point is a magic state with maximal sum-negativity i.e., it is maximally non-stabilizer in a specific sense.

  13. Secret key distillation from shielded two-qubit states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bae, Joonwoo [School of Computational Sciences, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The quantum states corresponding to a secret key are characterized using the so-called private states, where the key part consisting of a secret key is shielded by the additional systems. Based on the construction, it was shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states. In this work, I consider the shielded two-qubit states in a key-distillation scenario and derive the conditions under which a secret key can be distilled using the recurrence protocol or the two-way classical distillation, advantage distillation together with one-way postprocessing. From the security conditions, it is shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states in a much wider range. In addition, I consider the case that in which white noise is added to quantum states and show that the classical distillation protocol still works despite a certain amount of noise although the recurrence protocol does not.

  14. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1984-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor, contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

  15. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1985-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

  16. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catatlyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

  17. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

  18. The attractor mechanism as a distillation procedure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Péter Lévay; Szilárd Szalay

    2010-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In a recent paper it has been shown that for double extremal static spherically symmetric BPS black hole solutions in the STU model the well-known process of moduli stabilization at the horizon can be recast in a form of a distillation procedure of a three-qubit entangled state of GHZ-type. By studying the full flow in moduli space in this paper we investigate this distillation procedure in more detail. We introduce a three-qubit state with amplitudes depending on the conserved charges the warp factor, and the moduli. We show that for the recently discovered non-BPS solutions it is possible to see how the distillation procedure unfolds itself as we approach the horizon. For the non-BPS seed solutions at the asymptotically Minkowski region we are starting with a three-qubit state having seven nonequal nonvanishing amplitudes and finally at the horizon we get a GHZ state with merely four nonvanishing ones with equal magnitudes. The magnitude of the surviving nonvanishing amplitudes is proportional to the macroscopic black hole entropy. A systematic study of such attractor states shows that their properties reflect the structure of the fake superpotential. We also demonstrate that when starting with the very special values for the moduli corresponding to flat directions the uniform structure at the horizon deteriorates due to errors generalizing the usual bit flips acting on the qubits of the attractor states.

  19. Palau- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Palau Net Metering Act of 2009 established net metering on the Island of Palau. Net metering was implemented in order to:

  20. Apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shishido, T.; Sato, Y.

    1984-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communication with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling chamber, a high-temperature gas blown into an oil shale distilling chamber passing horizontally through said oil shale in said oil shale treating chamber, thereby said oil shale is preheated in said oil shale preheating chamber, and a gaseous shale oil is distilled from said preheated oil shale in said oil shale distilling chamber; and a separator for separating by liquefaction a gaseous shale oil from a gas containing the gaseous shale oil discharged from the oil shale preheating chamber.

  1. Future perspectives of using hollow fibers as structured packings in light hydrocarbon distillation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Dali [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Orler, Bruce [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tornga, Stephanie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Welch, Cindy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Olefin and paraffin are the largest chemical commodities. Furthermore, they are major building blocks for the petrochemical industry. Each year, petroleum refining, consumes 4,500 TBtu/yr in separation energy, making it one of the most energy-intensive industries in the United States). Just considering liquefied petroleum gas (ethane/propane/butane) and olefins (ethylene and propylene) alone, the distillation energy consumption is about 400 TBtu/yr in the US. Since petroleum distillation is a mature technology, incremental improvements in column/tray design will only provide a few percent improvements in the performance. However, each percent saving in net energy use amounts to savings of 10 TBtu/yr and reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by 0.2 MTon/yr. In practice, distillation columns require 100 to 200 trays to achieve the desired separation. The height of a transfer unit (HTU) of conventional packings is typical in the range of 36-60 inch. Since 2006, we had explored using several non-selective membranes as the structured packings to replace the conventional packing materials used in propane and propylene distillation. We obtained the lowest HTU of < 8 inch for the hollow fiber column, which was >5 times shorter than that of the conventional packing materials. In 2008, we also investigated this type of packing materials in iso-/n-butane distillation. Because of a slightly larger relative volatility of iso-/n-butane than that of propane/propylene, a wider and a more stable operational range was obtained for the iso-/n-butane pair. However, all of the experiments were conducted on a small scale with flowrate of < 25 gram/min. Recently, we demonstrated this technology on a larger scale (<250 gram/min). Within the loading range of F-factor < 2.2 Pa{sup 0.5}, a pressure drop on the vapor side is below 50 mbar/m, which suggests that the pressure drop of hollow fibers packings is not an engineering barrier for the applications in distillations. The thermal stability study suggests that polypropylene hollow fibers are stable after a long time exposure to C{sub 2} - C{sub 4} mixtures. The effects of packing density on the separation efficiency will be discussed.

  2. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    '''''Note: In July 2012, the Public Utilities Commission of Ohio (PUCO) opened a docket ([http://dis.puc.state.oh.us/CaseRecord.aspx?CaseNo=12-2050-EL-ORD Case 12-0250-EL-RDR]) to review the net...

  3. Surface code implementation of block code state distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Austin G. Fowler; Simon J. Devitt; Cody Jones

    2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    State distillation is the process of taking a number of imperfect copies of a particular quantum state and producing fewer better copies. Until recently, the lowest overhead method of distilling states |A>=(|0>+e^{i\\pi/4}|1>)/\\sqrt{2} produced a single improved |A> state given 15 input copies. New block code state distillation methods can produce k improved |A> states given 3k+8 input copies, potentially significantly reducing the overhead associated with state distillation. We construct an explicit surface code implementation of block code state distillation and quantitatively compare the overhead of this approach to the old. We find that, using the best available techniques, for parameters of practical interest, block code state distillation does not always lead to lower overhead, and, when it does, the overhead reduction is typically less than a factor of three.

  4. Iterative Entanglement Distillation: Approaching full Elimination of Decoherence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boris Hage; Aiko Samblowski; James DiGuglielmo; Jaromír Fiurášek; Roman Schnabel

    2010-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The distribution and processing of quantum entanglement form the basis of quantum communication and quantum computing. The realization of the two is difficult because quantum information inherently has a high susceptibility to decoherence, i.e. to uncontrollable information loss to the environment. For entanglement distribution, a proposed solution to this problem is capable of fully eliminating decoherence; namely iterative entanglement distillation. This approach builds on a large number of distillation steps each of which extracts a number of weakly decohered entangled states from a larger number of strongly decohered states. Here, for the first time, we experimentally demonstrate iterative distillation of entanglement. Already distilled entangled states were further improved in a second distillation step and also made available for subsequent steps.Our experiment displays the realization of the building blocks required for an entanglement distillation scheme that can fully eliminate decoherence.

  5. The effect of CO? on the flammability limits of low-BTU gas of the type obtained from Texas lignite 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaines, William Russell

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. W. N. Heffington An experimental study was conducted to determine if relatively large amounts of CO in a low-BTU gas of the type 2 derived from underground gasification of Texas lignite would cause significant... time when I was in need. Finally, the Center for Energy and Mineral Resources and the Texas Engineering Experiment Station for support related to this research. TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES V1...

  6. Commercial demonstration of atmospheric medium BTU fuel gas production from biomass without oxygen the Burlington, Vermont Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohrer, J.W. [Zurn/NEPCO, South Portland, MA (United States); Paisley, M. [Battelle Laboratories, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The first U.S. demonstration of a gas turbine operating on fuel gas produced by the thermal gasification of biomass occurred at Battelle Columbus Labs (BCL) during 1994 using their high throughput indirect medium Btu gasification Process Research Unit (PRU). Zurn/NEPCO was retained to build a commercial scale gas plant utilizing this technology. This plant will have a throughput rating of 8 to 12 dry tons per hour. During a subsequent phase of the Burlington project, this fuel gas will be utilized in a commercial scale gas turbine. It is felt that this process holds unique promise for economically converting a wide variety of biomass feedstocks efficiently into both a medium Btu (500 Btu/scf) gas turbine and IC engine quality fuel gas that can be burned in engines without modification, derating or efficiency loss. Others are currently demonstrating sub-commercial scale thermal biomass gasification processes for turbine gas, utilizing both atmospheric and pressurized air and oxygen-blown fluid bed processes. While some of these approaches hold merit for coal, there is significant question as to whether they will prove economically viable in biomass facilities which are typically scale limited by fuel availability and transportation logistics below 60 MW. Atmospheric air-blown technologies suffer from large sensible heat loss, high gas volume and cleaning cost, huge gas compressor power consumption and engine deratings. Pressurized units and/or oxygen-blown gas plants are extremely expensive for plant scales below 250 MW. The FERCO/BCL process shows great promise for overcoming the above limitations by utilizing an extremely high throughout circulation fluid bed (CFB) gasifier, in which biomass is fully devolitalized with hot sand from a CFB char combustor. The fuel gas can be cooled and cleaned by a conventional scrubbing system. Fuel gas compressor power consumption is reduced 3 to 4 fold verses low Btu biomass gas.

  7. W-like bound entangled states and secure key distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Remigiusz Augusiak; Pawel Horodecki

    2009-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct multipartite entangled states with underlying W-type structure satisfying positive partial transpose (PPT) condition under any (N-1)|1 partition. Then we show how to distill N-partite secure key form the states using two different methods: direct application of local filtering and novel random key distillation scheme in which we adopt the idea form recent results on entanglement distillation. Open problems and possible implications are also discussed.

  8. Quantum states representing perfectly secure bits are always distillable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawel Horodecki; Remigiusz Augusiak

    2007-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    It is proven that recently introduced states with perfectly secure bits of cryptographic key (private states representing secure bit) [K. Horodecki et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 160502 (2005)] as well as its multipartite and higher dimension generalizations always represent distillable entanglement. The corresponding lower bounds on distillable entanglement are provided. We also present a simple alternative proof that for any bipartite quantum state entanglement cost is an upper bound on distillable cryptographic key in bipartite scenario.

  9. Energy Conservation Options in Distillation Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, G. E.; Hearn, W. R.; Blythe, G. M.; Stuart, J. M.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~itroo.? ':!OD.e~tell.,..ot!.k1 .'k..,.-.ottNltlu'..,. II ""'I'JI ..... ~I_ """-.4008l1"OO I ~.z.,. 1 ,1'1 (-frl-.'....u_~ R.da at AC~Ofllftl\\,J'ftlit...." ? I 5 "'-tlnc&! Tt.,.. ? 21.' \\lip Gilil.In31 j TnyE.'tIc>Mcy .11.1'llo I ~~TI""'.'2.at... I There are many options available to the engi*eer seeking to reduce the energy requirements of a distil lation process. The technology for most of these I, options has been available for many years, but it has only recently become economically...

  10. Use of computers for multicomponent distillation calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Samuel Lane

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The corrected values for the b 's are best cal- i culated by multiplying (b. /d ) by (d. ) The compositions for each component in the vapor and liquid streams leaving plate j are calculated by use of the following equations. ('i/ i)ca ( i)co y. ji c Z (v... . . /b. ) (b. ) ji i ca i co i=1 , f a j x N+1 C (47-b) A temperature profile may be calculated by making either bubble or dew point calculations based on the compositions obtained by use of Equations (46) and (47). The specified distillate rate must...

  11. New Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    CX-100137 Categorical Exclusion Determination ITP Chemicals: Hybripd SeparationsDistillation Technology. Research Opportunities for Energy and Emissions Reduction ITP Energy...

  12. Integrated Thermal and Hydraulic Analysis of Distillation Columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samant, K.; Sinclair, I.; Keady, G.

    . The paper outlines how bringing together the column thermal and hydraulics analysis provides significant additional insights to help screen the options for distillation column revamps....

  13. Local Gaussian operations can enhance continuous-variable entanglement distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ShengLi Zhang; Peter van Loock

    2011-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Entanglement distillation is a fundamental building block in long-distance quantum communication. Though known to be useless on their own for distilling Gaussian entangled states, local Gaussian operations may still help to improve non-Gaussian entanglement distillation schemes. Here we show that by applying local squeezing operations, both the performance and the efficiency of existing distillation protocols can be enhanced. We derive the optimal enhancement through local Gaussian unitaries, which can be obtained even in the most natural scenario when Gaussian mixed entangled states are shared after their distribution through a lossy-fiber communication channel.

  14. advanced distillation control: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Morari California.Eng., Norwegian Institute of Technology (NTH), N-7034 Trondheim, Norway Paper presented at Symposium Distillation Skogestad, Sigurd 14 CONTROL AND ENERGY...

  15. azeotropic distillation columns: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Azeotropic Mixtures in Closed Batch Distillation Arrangements S. Skouras and S, Norway SCOPE OF THE PROJECT How can we separate ternary mixtures in closed batch...

  16. Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Marketing Annual 1998 359 Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  17. Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Marketing Annual 1999 359 Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  18. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Marketing Annual 1996 401 Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  19. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Marketing Annual 1997 401 Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  20. Performance of an industrial type combustor burning simulated fuels of medium BTU content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goehring, Howard Lee

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    studied fuels were those produced by coal gasification (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). Other widely studied fuels include petroleum distillates, alcohol type fuel, fuel made from tar sands, fuel made from oil shale (1), petro- chemical process plants "off-gases" (2...). Harmful emissions can be reduced by using steam injection (8, 2, 9). Also the amount of equipment needed to produce and refine fuels, such as coal gas, is large; whereas, in the case of steam, the amount of' equipment needed is relatively small. Also...

  1. NONLINEAR MPC BASED ON MULTI-MODEL FOR DISTILLATION COLUMNS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foss, Bjarne A.

    NONLINEAR MPC BASED ON MULTI-MODEL FOR DISTILLATION COLUMNS Bjarne A. Foss1 , Song-Bo Cong established for a petroleum distillation column through first principle analysis, and its parameters have been-estimation and prediction in a MPC scheme. The controller has been applied to quality control of a FCCU fractionator

  2. High-temperature turbine technology program. Turbine subsystem design report: Low-Btu gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horner, M.W.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the US Department of Energy High-Temperature Turbine Technology (DOE-HTTT) program is to bring to technology readiness a high-temperature (2600/sup 0/F to 3000/sup 0/F firing temperature) turbine within a 6- to 10-year duration, Phase II has addressed the performance of component design and technology testing in critical areas to confirm the design concepts identified in the earlier Phase I program. Based on the testing and support studies completed under Phase II, this report describes the updated turbine subsystem design for a coal-derived gas fuel (low-Btu gas) operation at 2600/sup 0/F turbine firing temperature. A commercial IGCC plant configuration would contain four gas turbines. These gas turbines utilize an existing axial flow compressor from the GE product line MS6001 machine. A complete description of the Primary Reference Design-Overall Plant Design Description has been developed and has been documented. Trends in overall plant performance improvement at higher pressure ratio and higher firing temperature are shown. It should be noted that the effect of pressure ratio on efficiency is significally enhanced at higher firing temperatures. It is shown that any improvement in overall plant thermal efficiency reflects about the same level of gain in Cost of Electricity (COE). The IGCC concepts are shown to be competitive in both performance and cost at current and near-term gas turbine firing temperatures of 1985/sup 0/F to 2100/sup 0/F. The savings that can be accumulated over a thirty-year plant life for a water-cooled gas turbine in an IGCC plant as compared to a state-of-the-art coal-fired steam plant are estimated. A total of $500 million over the life of a 1000 MW plant is projected. Also, this IGCC power plant has significant environmental advantages over equivalent coal-fired steam power plants.

  3. A Decision Mechanism for the Selective Combination of Evidence in Topic Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jose, Joemon M.

    A Decision Mechanism for the Selective Combination of Evidence in Topic Distillation Vassilis combination of evidence for Web Information Retrieval and particularly for topic distillation. We introduce. Keywords Web information retrieval, Topic distillation, decision mechanism, selective combination

  4. Temperature Collocation Algorithm for Fast and Robust Distillation Libin Zhang and Andreas A. Linninger*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linninger, Andreas A.

    Temperature Collocation Algorithm for Fast and Robust Distillation Design Libin Zhang and Andreas A mixtures that exhibit suitable volatility differences.1 Hence, continuous distillation columns, along commodity manufacturing. The common practice for distillation design often involves numerous trial

  5. Non-Gaussian entanglement distillation for continuous variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiroki Takahashi; Jonas S. Neergaard-Nielsen; Makoto Takeuchi; Masahiro Takeoka; Kazuhiro Hayasaka; Akira Furusawa; Masahide Sasaki

    2009-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Entanglement distillation is an essential ingredient for long distance quantum communications. In the continuous variable setting, Gaussian states play major roles in quantum teleportation, quantum cloning and quantum cryptography. However, entanglement distillation from Gaussian states has not yet been demonstrated. It is made difficult by the no-go theorem stating that no Gaussian operation can distill Gaussian states. Here we demonstrate the entanglement distillation from Gaussian states by using measurement-induced non-Gaussian operations, circumventing the fundamental restriction of the no-go theorem. We observed a gain of entanglement as a result of conditional local subtraction of a single photon or two photons from a two-mode Gaussian state. Furthermore we confirmed that two-photon subtraction also improves Gaussian-like entanglement as specified by the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlation. This distilled entanglement can be further employed to downstream applications such as high fidelity quantum teleportation and a loophole-free Bell test.

  6. Targeting Net Zero Energy at Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burman, K.; Kandt, A.; Lisell, L.; Booth, S.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes the results of an NREL assessment of Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Kaneohe Bay to appraise the potential of achieving net zero energy status through energy efficiency, renewable energy, and hydrogen vehicle integration. In 2008, the U.S. Department of Defense's U.S. Pacific Command partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assess opportunities for increasing energy security through renewable energy and energy efficiency at Hawaii military installations. DOE selected Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Kaneohe Bay, to receive technical support for net zero energy assessment and planning funded through the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI). NREL performed a comprehensive assessment to appraise the potential of MCBH Kaneohe Bay to achieve net zero energy status through energy efficiency, renewable energy, and hydrogen vehicle integration. This paper summarizes the results of the assessment and provides energy recommendations. The analysis shows that MCBH Kaneohe Bay has the potential to make significant progress toward becoming a net zero installation. Wind, solar photovoltaics, solar hot water, and hydrogen production were assessed, as well as energy efficiency technologies. Deploying wind turbines is the most cost-effective energy production measure. If the identified energy projects and savings measures are implemented, the base will achieve a 96% site Btu reduction and a 99% source Btu reduction. Using excess wind and solar energy to produce hydrogen for a fleet and fuel cells could significantly reduce energy use and potentially bring MCBH Kaneohe Bay to net zero. Further analysis with an environmental impact and interconnection study will need to be completed. By achieving net zero status, the base will set an example for other military installations, provide environmental benefits, reduce costs, increase energy security, and exceed its energy goals and mandates.

  7. Kansas- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Kansas adopted the Net Metering and Easy Connection Act in May 2009 (see K.S.A. 66-1263 through 66-1271), establishing net metering for customers of investor-owned utilities in Kansas. Net metering...

  8. High Btu gas from peat. A feasibility study. Part 2. Management plans for project continuation. Task 10. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this task, which was the responsibility of the Minnesota Gas Company, was to determine the needs of the project upon completion of the feasibility study and determine how to implement them most effectively. The findings of the study do not justify the construction of an 80 billion Btu/day SNG from peat plant. At the present time Minnegasco will concentrate on other issues of peat development. Other processes, other products, different scales of operation - these are the issues that Minnegasco will continue to study. 3 references.

  9. Multilevel distillation of magic states for quantum computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cody Jones

    2013-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a procedure for distilling magic states used in universal quantum computing that requires substantially fewer initial resources than prior schemes. Our distillation circuit is based on a family of concatenated quantum codes that possess a transversal Hadamard operation, enabling each of these codes to distill the eigenstate of the Hadamard operator. A crucial result of this design is that low-fidelity magic states can be consumed to purify other high-fidelity magic states to even higher fidelity, which we call "multilevel distillation." When distilling in the asymptotic regime of infidelity $\\epsilon \\rightarrow 0$ for each input magic state, the number of input magic states consumed on average to yield an output state with infidelity $O(\\epsilon^{2^r})$ approaches $2^r+1$, which comes close to saturating the conjectured bound in [Phys. Rev. A 86, 052329]. We show numerically that there exist multilevel protocols such that the average number of magic states consumed to distill from error rate $\\epsilon_{\\mathrm{in}} = 0.01$ to $\\epsilon_{\\mathrm{out}}$ in the range $10^{-5}$ to $10^{-40}$ is about $14\\log_{10}(1/\\epsilon_{\\mathrm{out}}) - 40$; the efficiency of multilevel distillation dominates all other reported protocols when distilling Hadamard magic states from initial infidelity 0.01 to any final infidelity below $10^{-7}$. These methods are an important advance for magic-state distillation circuits in high-performance quantum computing, and they provide insight into the limitations of nearly resource-optimal quantum error correction.

  10. Low-Btu coal-gasification-process design report for Combustion Engineering/Gulf States Utilities coal-gasification demonstration plant. [Natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil to natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil or low Btu gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrus, H E; Rebula, E; Thibeault, P R; Koucky, R W

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a coal gasification demonstration plant that was designed to retrofit an existing steam boiler. The design uses Combustion Engineering's air blown, atmospheric pressure, entrained flow coal gasification process to produce low-Btu gas and steam for Gulf States Utilities Nelson No. 3 boiler which is rated at a nominal 150 MW of electrical power. Following the retrofit, the boiler, originally designed to fire natural gas or No. 2 oil, will be able to achieve full load power output on natural gas, No. 2 oil, or low-Btu gas. The gasifier and the boiler are integrated, in that the steam generated in the gasifier is combined with steam from the boiler to produce full load. The original contract called for a complete process and mechanical design of the gasification plant. However, the contract was curtailed after the process design was completed, but before the mechanical design was started. Based on the well defined process, but limited mechanical design, a preliminary cost estimate for the installation was completed.

  11. Distillation and Dehydro Reactors Advanced Process Conrol Freeport Texas PLant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eisele, D.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distillation and Dehydro Reactors Advanced Process Control Freeport Texas Plant ESL-IE-14-05-16 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 G-KTI, Polyamide and Intermediates Distillation...-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 G-KTI, Polyamide and Intermediates Distillation APC – Control Matrix 6/2/2014 INTERNAL; CONFIDENTIAL 3 ESL-IE-14-05-16 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology...

  12. Construction and operation of a flash distillation apparatus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knezevich, Milan

    1940-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    VII HElPEL D1STILLATIONS OF FLASH DISTILLATES OF OKLAHOMA CITY CRUDE Flash Temperature of Distillate XII DoE. F, 260 308 342 392 Volume Distilled per oent Telsp e deE. F. Temp e deE ~ Fs Toslp e doge Fo Tolllp Tolsp e deg. F, doE ~ F..., and they lose much of their kinetio energy to the high boiling molocules ~ Therefore, the solution does not start to vaporise at tho normal boiling point of the low boiling components At low percentages vaporissd flash vaporisation requires a higher vapor...

  13. ,"Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;NetPrice (Dollars per+Nonassociated NaturalPrice

  14. ,"Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;NetPrice (Dollars per+Nonassociated

  15. Waste Heat Recovery and Recycling in Thermal Separation Processes: Distillation, Multi-Effect Evaporation (MEE) and Crystallization Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emmanuel A. Dada; Chandrakant B. Panchal; Luke K. Achenie; Aaron Reichl; Chris C. Thomas

    2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaporation and crystallization are key thermal separation processes for concentrating and purifying inorganic and organic products with energy consumption over 1,000 trillion Btu/yr. This project focused on a challenging task of recovering low-temperature latent heat that can have a paradigm shift in the way thermal process units will be designed and operated to achieve high-energy efficiency and significantly reduce the carbon footprint as well as water footprint. Moreover, this project has evaluated the technical merits of waste-heat powered thermal heat pumps for recovery of latent heat from distillation, multi-effect evaporation (MEE), and crystallization processes and recycling into the process. The Project Team has estimated the potential energy, economics and environmental benefits with the focus on reduction in CO2 emissions that can be realized by 2020, assuming successful development and commercialization of the technology being developed. Specifically, with aggressive industry-wide applications of heat recovery and recycling with absorption heat pumps, energy savings of about 26.7 trillion Btu/yr have been estimated for distillation process. The direct environmental benefits of this project are the reduced emissions of combustible products. The estimated major reduction in environmental pollutants in the distillation processes is in CO2 emission equivalent to 3.5 billion lbs/year. Energy consumption associated with water supply and treatments can vary between 1,900 kWh and 23,700 kWh per million-gallon water depending on sources of natural waters [US DOE, 2006]. Successful implementation of this technology would significantly reduce the demand for cooling-tower waters, and thereby the use and discharge of water treatment chemicals. The Project Team has also identified and characterized working fluid pairs for the moderate-temperature heat pump. For an MEE process, the two promising fluids are LiNO3+KNO3+NANO3 (53:28:19 ) and LiNO3+KNO3+NANO2(53:35:12). And for an H2O2 distillation process, the two promising fluids are Trifluoroethanol (TFE) + Triethylene Glycol Dimethyl ether (DMETEG) and Ammonia+ Water. Thermo-physical properties calculated by Aspen+ are reasonably accurate. Documentation of the installation of pilot-plants or full commercial units were not found in the literature for validating thermo-physical properties in an operating unit. Therefore, it is essential to install a pilot-scale unit to verify thermo-physical properties of working fluid pairs and validate the overall efficiency of the thermal heat pump at temperatures typical of distillation processes. For an HO2 process, the ammonia-water heat pump system is more compact and preferable than the TFE-DMETEG heat pump. The ammonia-water heat pump is therefore recommended for the H2O2 process. Based on the complex nature of the heat recovery system, we anticipated that capital costs could make investments financially unattractive where steam costs are low, especially where co-generation is involved. We believe that the enhanced heat transfer equipment has the potential to significantly improve the performance of TEE crystallizers, independent of the absorption heat-pump recovery system. Where steam costs are high, more detailed design/cost engineering will be required to verify the economic viability of the technology. Due to the long payback period estimated for the TEE open system, further studies on the TEE system are not warranted unless there are significant future improvements to heat pump technology. For the H2O2 distillation cycle heat pump waste heat recovery system, there were no significant process constraints and the estimated 5 years payback period is encouraging. We therefore recommend further developments of application of the thermal heat pump in the H2O2 distillation process with the focus on the technical and economic viability of heat exchangers equipped with the state-of-the-art enhancements. This will require additional funding for a prototype unit to validate enhanced thermal performances of heat transfer equipment, evaluat

  16. Energy Use in Distillation Operation: Nonlinear Economic Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, D. C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distillation operations are major consumers of energy, by some estimates comprising forty percent of the energy usage in the refining and chemicals industry. Obtaining the maximum energy efficiency from this unit operation is obviously very...

  17. Magic-state distillation with the four-qubit code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meier, Adam M; Knill, Emanuel

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The distillation of magic states is an often-cited technique for enabling universal quantum computing once the error probability for a special subset of gates has been made negligible by other means. We present a routine for magic-state distillation that reduces the required overhead for a range of parameters of practical interest. Each iteration of the routine uses a four-qubit error-detecting code to distill the +1 eigenstate of the Hadamard gate at a cost of ten input states per two improved output states. Use of this routine in combination with the 15-to-1 distillation routine described by Bravyi and Kitaev allows for further improvements in overhead.

  18. Heat Integrated Distillation through Use of Microchannel Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop a breakthrough distillation process using Microchannel Process Technology to integrate heat transfer and separation into a single unit operation.

  19. Magic-state distillation with the four-qubit code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adam M. Meier; Bryan Eastin; Emanuel Knill

    2012-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The distillation of magic states is an often-cited technique for enabling universal quantum computing once the error probability for a special subset of gates has been made negligible by other means. We present a routine for magic-state distillation that reduces the required overhead for a range of parameters of practical interest. Each iteration of the routine uses a four-qubit error-detecting code to distill the +1 eigenstate of the Hadamard gate at a cost of ten input states per two improved output states. Use of this routine in combination with the 15-to-1 distillation routine described by Bravyi and Kitaev allows for further improvements in overhead.

  20. Synthesis and design of optimal thermal membrane distillation networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nyapathi Seshu, Madhav

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal membrane distillation is one of the novel separation methods in the process industry. It involves the simultaneous heat and mass transfer through a hydrophobic semipermeable membrane through the use of thermal energy to bring about...

  1. Absorption Cycle Fundamentals and Applications Guidelines for Distillation Energy Savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, D. C.; Davidson, W. F.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The absorption cycle offers one of the most economic and widely applicable technologies for waste heat upgrading. It can use off-the-shelf hardware that is available now, at any required capacity rating. Fractional distillations, as a class...

  2. Membrane augmented distillation to separate solvents from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Yu; Baker, Richard W.; Daniels, Rami; Aldajani, Tiem; Ly, Jennifer H.; Alvarez, Franklin R.; Vane, Leland M.

    2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Processes for removing water from organic solvents, such as ethanol. The processes include distillation to form a rectified overhead vapor, compression of the rectified vapor, and treatment of the compressed vapor by two sequential membrane separation steps.

  3. Energy Use in Distillation Operation: Nonlinear Economic Effects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, D. C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distillation operations are major consumers of energy, by some estimates comprising forty percent of the energy usage in the refining and chemicals industry. Obtaining the maximum energy efficiency from this unit operation ...

  4. Reducing WWW Latency and Bandwidth Requirements by RealTime Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Reducing WWW Latency and Bandwidth Requirements by Real­Time Distillation Armando Fox and Eric A Distillation and Refinement Can Help 1. The Concept of Datatype­Specific Distillation 2. Refinement 3. Trading. Optimizing for Rendering on Impoverished Devices 3. An Implemented HTTP Proxy Based on Real­Time Distillation

  5. Control strategies for reactive batch distillation Eva Swensen and Sigurd Skogestad"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Control strategies for reactive batch distillation Eva Swensen and Sigurd Skogestad" Department be combined directly with a distillation column by distilling off the light component product in order a maximum value in order to avoid break-through of an intermediate component in the distillate. This maximum

  6. Dividing wall columns for heterogeneous azeotropic distillation Quang-Khoa Le1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Dividing wall columns for heterogeneous azeotropic distillation Quang-Khoa Le1 , Ivar J. Halvorsen2 of this work is to implement heterogeneous azeotropic distillation schemes in a dividing wall column (DWC distillation, Petlyuk arrangement, energy saving. 1. Introduction Distillation is one of the most energy

  7. Interferometric distillation and determination of unknown two-qubit entanglement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. -S. B. Lee; H. -S. Sim

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a scheme for both distilling and quantifying entanglement, applicable to individual copies of an arbitrary unknown two-qubit state. It is realized in a usual two-qubit interferometry with local filtering. Proper filtering operation for the maximal distillation of the state is achieved, by erasing single-qubit interference, and then the concurrence of the state is determined directly from the visibilities of two-qubit interference. We compare the scheme with full state tomography.

  8. Heat Recovery in Distillation by Mechanical Vapor Recompression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, F. E.; Zakak, A. I.

    tower energy requirements can be achieved by mechanical vapor recompression. Three design approaches for heating a distillation tower reboiler by mechanical vapor recompression are presented. The advantages of using a screw compressor are discussed... for lowering energy consumption in the distillation process through various heat recovery techniques. (3-8) One such technique utilizes mechanical vapor recompression. (9-12) The principle of this ap proach involves the use of a compressor to recycle...

  9. Single-step distillation protocol with generalized beam splitters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin-Delgado, M. A.; Navascues, M. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica I, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid, (Spain)

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a distillation protocol for multilevel qubits (qudits) using generalized beam splitters like in the proposal of Pan et al. for ordinary qubits. We find an acceleration with respect to the scheme of Bennet et al. when extended to qudits. It is also possible to distill entangled pairs of photons carrying orbital angular momenta states that conserve the total angular momenta as those produced in recent experiments.

  10. Key Distillation and the Secret-Bit Fraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nick S. Jones; Lluis Masanes

    2008-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider distillation of secret bits from partially secret noisy correlations P_ABE, shared between two honest parties and an eavesdropper. The most studied distillation scenario consists of joint operations on a large number of copies of the distribution (P_ABE)^N, assisted with public communication. Here we consider distillation with only one copy of the distribution, and instead of rates, the 'quality' of the distilled secret bits is optimized, where the 'quality' is quantified by the secret-bit fraction of the result. The secret-bit fraction of a binary distribution is the proportion which constitutes a secret bit between Alice and Bob. With local operations and public communication the maximal extractable secret-bit fraction from a distribution P_ABE is found, and is denoted by Lambda[P_ABE]. This quantity is shown to be nonincreasing under local operations and public communication, and nondecreasing under eavesdropper's local operations: it is a secrecy monotone. It is shown that if Lambda[P_ABE]>1/2 then P_ABE is distillable, thus providing a sufficient condition for distillability. A simple expression for Lambda[P_ABE] is found when the eavesdropper is decoupled, and when the honest parties' information is binary and the local operations are reversible. Intriguingly, for general distributions the (optimal) operation requires local degradation of the data.

  11. ,"Weekly Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and NaturalWellhead PriceNet WithdrawalsVolumeHenry

  12. South Carolina Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal StocksProvedFeet)Thousand Cubic7. Net5:EnergyCubic Foot) Decade

  13. MathNetMathNetMathNet Mathematical Preprint ServersMathematical Preprint Servers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MathNetMathNetMathNet Mathematical Preprint ServersMathematical Preprint Servers Jonas GomesIMPA - Rio de Janeiro #12;MathNetMathNetMathNet Preprint ServerPreprint Server ·· What is a Preprint server;MathNetMathNetMathNet Preprint ServerPreprint Server ·· DatabaseDatabase ·· Store preprints

  14. Refiner and Blender Net Production of Distillate Fuel Oil 15 ppm Sulfur and

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a evie _ =_ In7, 20116,650.0 Weekly7a.7.Nov-145,083

  15. Refiner and Blender Net Production of Distillate Fuel Oil > 15 pmm to 500

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a evie _ =_ In7, 20116,650.0 Weekly7a.7.Nov-145,083ppm

  16. Refiner and Blender Net Production of Distillate Fuel Oil > 500 ppm Sulfur

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a evie _ =_ In7, 20116,650.0 Weekly7a.7.Nov-145,083ppm

  17. Non-Locality Distillation is Impossible for Isotropic Quantum Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dejan D. Dukaric

    2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-locality is a powerful resource for various communication and information theoretic tasks, e.g., to establish a secret key between two parties, or to reduce the communication complexity of distributed computing. Typically, the more non-local a system is, the more useful it is as a resource for such tasks. We address the issue of non-locality distillation, i.e., whether it is possible to create a strongly non-local system by local operations on several weakly non-local ones. More specifically, we consider a setting where non-local systems can be realized via measurements on underlying shared quantum states. The hardest instances for non-locality distillation are the isotropic quantum systems: if a certain isotropic system can be distilled, then all systems of the same non-locality can be distilled as well. The main result of this paper is that non-locality cannot be distilled from such isotropic quantum systems. Our results are based on the theory of cross norms defined over the tensor product of certain Banach spaces. In particular, we introduce a single-parameter family of cross norms, which is used to construct a hierarchy of convex sets that are closed under local operations. This hierarchy interpolates between the set of local systems and an approximation to the set of quantum systems.

  18. Kinetics and thermodynamics of hydrotreating synthetic middle distillates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, I.P. (Petro-Canada R and D Dept., Sheridan Park, Ontario (Canada)); Wilson, M.F. (CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

    1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Middle distillates from the Tar Sands deposits in Alberta are an important component of diesel and jet fuels in the Canadian market. Commercial catalysts based on sulfided Ni-Mo and Ni-W are currently used to hydrogenate synthetic distillates to improve the cetane number and smoke point. In previous work {sup 13}C NMR was used to study the kinetics of overall hydrogenation of aromatics over sulfided Co-Mo, Ni-Mo and Ni-W catalysts. Arrhenius parameters were obtained for hydrogenation over sulfided Ni-W catalyst for a similar distillate feedstock. In the latter study, mass spectrometry was used to quantitate the three major aromatic hydrocarbon group types in the feed and products. In this study, liquid products from hydrotreating experiments with a hydrotreated distillate from delayed coking of Athabasca bitumen and sulfided Co-Mo and Ni-Mo catalysts have been analyzed by mass spectrometry. This completes a preliminary comparison of the kinetics of hydrogenation of alkylbenzenes, benzocycloparaffins and benzodicycloparaffins, the three major aromatic hydrocarbon types in these distillates.

  19. Avista Utilities- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Idaho does not have a statewide net-metering policy. However, each of the state's three investor-owned utilities -- Avista Utilities, Idaho Power and Rocky Mountain Power -- has developed a net...

  20. Idaho Power- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Idaho does not have a statewide net-metering policy. However, each of the state's three investor-owned utilities -- Avista Utilities, Idaho Power and Rocky Mountain Power -- has developed a net...

  1. Progress Energy- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In August 2009, the South Carolina Public Service Commission issued an order mandating net metering be made available by the regulated electric utilities; the order incorporates a net metering...

  2. Net Metering Rules (Arkansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Net Metering Rules are promulgated under the authority of the Arkansas Public Service Commission. These rules are created to establish rules for net energy metering and interconnection. These...

  3. Duke Energy- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In August 2009, the South Carolina Public Service Commission issued an order mandating net metering be made available by the regulating utilities; the order incorporates a net metering settlement...

  4. A New Protocol of Continuous-Variable Entanglement Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi Jin; Xian-Min Jin; Joshua Nunn; Animesh Datta; Ian Walmsley

    2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a new protocol in continuous variable entanglement distillation that requires only linear temporal and constant physical or spatial resources.Compared with the existing protocols, our protocol uses atom-photon entanglement to substitute for atom-atom entanglement in existing protol, which will not only save the number of quantum memories, but also has the advantages in operation efficiency and temporal saving. The distillation can be realized by a fixed model of iterations, in which only three quantum memories and photon detectors are required.

  5. "Distillation, Absorption and Extraction" April 5-6, 2001 in Bamberg,, Halvorsen NTNU Department of Chemical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    "Distillation, Absorption and Extraction" April 5-6, 2001 in Bamberg,, Halvorsen NTNU Department Distillation Arrangements by Ivar J. Halvorsen and Sigurd Skogestad Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) Department of Chemical Engineering Working Party on "Distillation, Absorption

  6. HYDROGEN DISTILLATION AT THE DEUTERIUM REMOVAL UNIT OF MuCap EXPERIMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Titov, Anatoly

    321 HYDROGEN DISTILLATION AT THE DEUTERIUM REMOVAL UNIT OF MuCap EXPERIMENT I.A. Alekseev, E for manufacturing of ultra pure protium from hydrogen [2]. A principle of hydrogen cryogenic distillation was used

  7. December 13, 2012 The steady state model of a reactive distillation column for ethylene glycol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumaier, Arnold

    December 13, 2012 The steady state model of a reactive distillation column for ethylene glycol in an ethylene glycol reactive distillation column. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 33:2738­2748, 1994. 3 #12;

  8. Application of a Plantwide Control Design Procedure to a Distillation Column with Heat Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    (Larsson & Skogestad 2001) to a distillation column heat-integrated by using a heatpump. Top-down analysis) and apply it to a distillation column with heatpump. Plantwide control design should start by formulating

  9. Table A3. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Distillate and Residual...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    A3. RefinerReseller Prices of Distillate and Residual Fuel Oils, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Geographic Area Year No. 1 Distillate No. 2...

  10. Separation of Azeotropic Mixtures in Closed Batch Distillation Arrangements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Separation of Azeotropic Mixtures in Closed Batch Distillation Arrangements S. Skouras and S to obtain a light and a heavy fraction simultaneously from the top and the bottom of the column, while an intermediate fraction may also be recovered in the middle vessel. Two modifications of the multivessel

  11. Optimal distillation of three-qubit W states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali Yildiz

    2010-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Some of the asymmetric three qubit $W$ states are used for perfect teleportation, superdense coding and quantum information splitting. We present the protocols for the optimal distillation of the asymmetric as well as the symmetric $W$ states from a single copy of any three qubit $W$ class pure state.

  12. The application of continuation methods in solving steady-state distillation problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellis, Mark Francis

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    80 101 105 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Distillation is the most common separ ation process in the chemical and petroleum industr ies. A ma]or tool in the design of distillation columns is steady-state distillation simulation. Also, steady-stat. e...'s Equation 98 B BIFURCATION AND TURNING POINTS ON CONTINUATION PATHS 100 C FORMULATION OF MATHEMATICAI MODELS USED IN EXAMPLE PROBLEMS 104 Problem 1 ? A Conventional Distillation Column Separating an Ideal Solution Problem 2 ? A Conventional...

  13. Integrated Column Designs for Minimum Energy and Entropy Requirements in Multicomponent Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Distillation Ivar J. Halvorsen1 and Sigurd Skogestad Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department at the Topical conference on Separations Technology, Session 23 - Distillation Modeling and Processes II. 2001 Column Designs for Minimum Energy and Entropy Requirements in Multicomponent Distillation Ivar J

  14. Control Study of Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether Reactive Distillation Muhammad A. Al-Arfaj

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

    Control Study of Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether Reactive Distillation Muhammad A. Al-Arfaj Department structures for ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) reactive distillation columns are studied. Two process The use of reactive distillation has grown in recent years because it results in less expensive and more

  15. Rejection and fate of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) during membrane distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rejection and fate of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) during membrane distillation Kaushalya COCs) Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) Volatility Fate and transport Hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity a b s t r a c t In this study, we examined the feasibility of membrane distillation (MD) for removing

  16. The dos and don'ts of distillation column control Sigurd Skogestad*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    The dos and don'ts of distillation column control Sigurd Skogestad* Department of Chemical discusses distillation column control within the general framework of plantwide control. In addition for distillation columns. The standard LV-configuration combined with a fast temperature loop is recommended

  17. Comparison of Alternative Control Structures for an Ideal Two-Product Reactive Distillation Column

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

    Comparison of Alternative Control Structures for an Ideal Two-Product Reactive Distillation Column distillation columns have been explored in many papers, very few papers have dealt with closed-loop control. Most of these control papers consider reactive distillation columns in which there is only one product

  18. MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION SIGURD SKOGESTAD 1 , BERND WITTGENS, EVA S RENSEN 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION SIGURD SKOGESTAD 1 , BERND WITTGENS, EVA S RENSEN 2 and RAJAB LITTO column presented in this paper provides a generalization of previously proposed batch distillation schemes. The economic potential of the multivessel batch distillation under total re ux is demon- strated

  19. Graphical Visualisation of Minimum Energy Requirements for Multi-Effect Distillation Arrangements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    1 Graphical Visualisation of Minimum Energy Requirements for Multi-Effect Distillation Arrangements-integrated multi-effect and three non-integrated distillation arrangements for separating a ternary mixture have been considered. The focus of the paper is on a heat-integrated complex distillation configuration

  20. Experimental and Theoretical Studies on the Start-Up Operation of a Multivessel Batch Distillation Column

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Experimental and Theoretical Studies on the Start-Up Operation of a Multivessel Batch DistillationVersity of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway Multivessel batch distillation is a promising alternative to conventional batch distillation. Earlier studies proved the feasibility of temperature control in a closed

  1. On the Dynamics of Batch Distillation : A Study of Parametric Sensitivity in Ideal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    On the Dynamics of Batch Distillation : A Study of Parametric Sensitivity in Ideal Binary Columns distillation processes. By considering the e ect of small changes in the operating parameters, e.g., initial-mail: jacobsen@elixir.e.kth.se 1 #12;1 Introduction Batch distillation has become of increasing importance

  2. Optimization of a Diabatic Distillation Column with Sequential Heat Edward Steven Jimenez and Peter Salamon*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salamon, Peter

    Optimization of a Diabatic Distillation Column with Sequential Heat Exchangers Edward Steven of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Diabatic distillation is a separation process in which heat is transferred is enormous because distillation is the single largest energy degrading unit operation worldwide. Introduction

  3. T. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Control of a industrial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    T. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Truls Larsson Sigurd Skogestad ÝDepartment of Chemical. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column The process QH column

  4. THE DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF CASCADE PROCESSES --WITH APPLICATION TO DISTILLATION COLUMNS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    THE DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF CASCADE PROCESSES --WITH APPLICATION TO DISTILLATION COLUMNS John Morud that a subsystem is influenced only by its nabor subsystems. An example of such a process is a distillation column in high purity distillation columns; in fact, the magnitude of these time constants may increase

  5. Topic Distillation with Query-Dependent Link Connections and Page Characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Mingfang

    6 Topic Distillation with Query-Dependent Link Connections and Page Characteristics MINGFANG WU about a topic. Finding such results is called topic distillation. Previous research has shown statistics. This article presents a new approach to improve topic distillation by exploring the use

  6. Use of Two Distillation Columns in Systems with Maximum Temperature Limitations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilchrist, James F.

    Use of Two Distillation Columns in Systems with Maximum Temperature Limitations Rebecca H. Masel, Pennsylvania 18015, United States ABSTRACT: Maximum temperature limitations are encountered in distillation of the bottoms product fixes the column base pressure and, hence, the condenser pressure. The distillate

  7. On the Dynamics of Batch Distillation : A Study of Parametric Sensitivity in Ideal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    On the Dynamics of Batch Distillation : A Study of Parametric Sensitivity in Ideal Binary Columns sensitivity in batch distillation processes. By considering the effect of small changes in the operating #12; 1 Introduction Batch distillation has become of increasing importance in industry during the last

  8. Know-Center at TREC 2009 Blog Distillation Task: A Notebook Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammerton, James

    Know-Center at TREC 2009 Blog Distillation Task: A Notebook Paper Elisabeth Lex, Michael Granitzer,mgrani,ajuffinger}@know-center.at Abstract. This paper outlines our experiments carried out at TREC 2009 Blog Distillation Task. Our system, specifically the blog distillation task, exactly this problem is addressed. The goal of the track is to rank

  9. MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION -EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION Bernd Wittgens and Sigurd Skogestad1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION -EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION Bernd Wittgens and Sigurd Skogestad1 The experimental veri cation of the operation of a multivessel batch distillation column, operated under total re vessels, provides a generalization of previously proposed batch distillation schemes. We propose a simple

  10. Optimal Allocation of Heat Exchanger Inventory in a Serial Type Diabatic Distillation Column

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salamon, Peter

    Optimal Allocation of Heat Exchanger Inventory in a Serial Type Diabatic Distillation Column Edward Abstract Diabatic distillation is a separation process in which heat is transferred on the trays inside savings is through diabatic distillation. Instead of just one heat source (the reboiler) and one heat sink

  11. Integrated Design, Operation and Control of Batch Extractive Distillation with a Middle Vessel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Integrated Design, Operation and Control of Batch Extractive Distillation with a Middle Vessel E. K distillation for separating homogeneous minimum-boiling azeotropic mixtures, where the extractive agent and a control structure for the batch extractive middle vessel distillation is proposed. In extractive

  12. Optimization of Distillation Processes. Jos A. Caballero* and Ignacio E. Grossmann**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Optimization of Distillation Processes. José A. Caballero* and Ignacio E. Grossmann** *Dept and a single condenser in the entire sequence. We also review the rigorous design of distillation columns, or column sequences. In all the cases we focus on mathematical programming approaches. Keywords Distillation

  13. Enhanced Topic Distillation using Text, Markup Tags, and Hyperlinks Soumen Chakrabarti

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarti, Soumen

    Enhanced Topic Distillation using Text, Markup Tags, and Hyperlinks Soumen Chakrabarti Mukul Joshi Vivek Tawde IIT Bombay ABSTRACT Topic distillation is the analysis of hyperlink graph structure to authorities). Topic distillation is becoming common in Web search engines, but the best-known algorithms model

  14. Design of Extraction Column Methanol Recovery System for the TAME Reactive Distillation Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

    Design of Extraction Column Methanol Recovery System for the TAME Reactive Distillation Process system for TAME reactive distillation process using extraction column with water as a solvent. The design distillation column which was optimized to recover methanol and recycle water to the extraction column. Other

  15. DISTILLATION DES LIQUIDES SOUS L'INFLUENCE DE L'LECTRICIT STATIQUE; PAR M. D. GERNEZ.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    36I DISTILLATION DES LIQUIDES SOUS L'INFLUENCE DE L'ÉLECTRICITÉ STATIQUE; PAR M. D. GERNEZ. La décharge, la distillation se produit aussitôt en sens in- verse (2). Ce phénomène est extrêmemen t n e sens suivant lequel se produit cette distillation est contraire à celui que sem- bleraient indiquer les

  16. Non-interactive correlation distillation, inhomogeneous Markov chains, and the reverse Bonami-Beckner inequality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Donnell, Ryan

    Non-interactive correlation distillation, inhomogeneous Markov chains, and the reverse Bonami In this paper we study non-interactive correlation distillation (NICD), a generalization of noise sen- sitivity distillation (NICD), previously considered in [5, 31, 39]. In its most general form the problem involves k

  17. Retrieval and Feedback Models for Blog Distillation Jonathan Elsas, Jaime Arguello, Jamie Callan, Jaime Carbonell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbonell, Jaime

    Retrieval and Feedback Models for Blog Distillation Jonathan Elsas, Jaime Arguello, Jamie Callan and results for the Feed Distillation task in the Blog track at TREC 2007. Our experiments focus on two Wikipedia. 1 Introduction Blog distillation (or "feed search") is the task of finding blog feeds

  18. Assured Information Distillation in Social Sensing University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garibaldi, Skip

    Colloquium Assured Information Distillation in Social Sensing Dong Wang University of Illinois. This opens up unprecedented challenges and opportunities in social sensing, where the goal is to distill, social and physical networks. The talk will also introduce a new information distillation system we built

  19. MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION SIGURD SKOGESTAD 1 , BERND WITTGENS, EVA SRENSEN 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION SIGURD SKOGESTAD 1 , BERND WITTGENS, EVA SØRENSEN 2 and RAJAB LITTO column presented in this paper provides a generalization of previously proposed batch distillation schemes. The economic potential of the multivessel batch distillation under total reflux is demon­ strated

  20. Non-interactive correlation distillation, inhomogeneous Markov chains, and the reverse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regev, Oded

    Non-interactive correlation distillation, inhomogeneous Markov chains, and the reverse Bonami In this paper we study non-interactive correlation distillation (NICD), a generalization of noise sensitivity in this paper is the problem of non-interactive correlation distil- lation (NICD), previously considered in [5

  1. Optimal Operation of a Petlyuk Distillation Column: Energy Savings by Over-fractionating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Optimal Operation of a Petlyuk Distillation Column: Energy Savings by Over-fractionating Vidar Trondheim, Norway Keywords: Distillation, Petlyuk, Divided-wall, Minimum energy Abstract This paper shows the unexpected result that over-fractionating one of the product streams in a Petlyuk distillation column may

  2. Sustainable operation of membrane distillation for enhancement of mineral recovery from hypersaline solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sustainable operation of membrane distillation for enhancement of mineral recovery from hypersaline December 2013 Available online 25 December 2013 Keywords: Membrane distillation Desalination Hypersaline brine Scaling Membrane cleaning Evaporation pond a b s t r a c t Membrane distillation (MD

  3. Noisy Processing and the Distillation of Private States Joseph M. Renes1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noisy Processing and the Distillation of Private States Joseph M. Renes1 and Graeme Smith2 1 general private state is distilled. Besides a more general target state, the usual entanglement distillation tools are employed (in par- ticular, Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS)-like codes), with the crucial

  4. THE DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF CASCADE PROCESSES WITH APPLICATION TO DISTILLATION COLUMNS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    THE DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF CASCADE PROCESSES WITH APPLICATION TO DISTILLATION COLUMNS John Morud that a subsystem is in uenced only by its nabor subsystems. An example of such a process is a distillation column in high purity distillation columns; in fact, the magnitude of these time constants may increase

  5. A globally convergent method for finding all steady-state solutions of distillation columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumaier, Arnold

    A globally convergent method for finding all steady-state solutions of distillation columns Ali distillation column with 7 steady-states show the robustness of the method. No published software known to the steady-state model of distillation columns as it returns the original system as a single large block

  6. Distillation Codes and Applications to DoS Resistant Multicast Authentication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perrig, Adrian

    Distillation Codes and Applications to DoS Resistant Multicast Authentication Chris Karlof UC We introduce distillation codes, a method for streaming and storing data. Like erasure codes, distillation codes allow information to be decoded from a sufficiently large quorum of symbols. In contrast

  7. Synthesizing Representative I/O Workloads Using Iterative Distillation Zachary Kurmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurmas, Zachary

    Synthesizing Representative I/O Workloads Using Iterative Distillation Zachary Kurmas College proper- ties are "key" for a given workload and storage system. We have developed a tool, the Distiller, that automati- cally identifies the key properties ("attribute-values") of the workload. The Distiller then uses

  8. Integrated Design, Operation and Control of Batch Extractive Distillation with a Middle Vessel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Integrated Design, Operation and Control of Batch Extractive Distillation with a Middle Vessel E. K distillation for separating homogeneous minimum­boiling azeotropic mixtures, where the extractive agent and a control structure for the batch extractive middle vessel distillation is proposed. In extractive

  9. Integrating the Document Object Model with Hyperlinks for Enhanced Topic Distillation and Information Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarti, Soumen

    Integrating the Document Object Model with Hyperlinks for Enhanced Topic Distillation://www.cse.iitb.ernet.in/~soumen ABSTRACT Topic distillation is the process of finding authoritative Web pages and comprehensive "hubs distillation has been traditionally applied to a macroscopic Web model where documents are nodes in a directed

  10. SEPARATION OF TERNARY HETEROAZEOTROPIC MIXTURES IN A CLOSED MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION-DECANTER HYBRID

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    SEPARATION OF TERNARY HETEROAZEOTROPIC MIXTURES IN A CLOSED MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION, Trondheim, Norway The feasibility of a novel multivessel batch distillation-decanter hybrid for simultaneous enables us to make direct use of the distillation line (or residue curve) map. Simple rules for predicting

  11. Endorsements and rebuttals in blog distillation q Giacomo Berardi, Andrea Esuli, Fabrizio Sebastiani

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sebastiani, Fabrizio

    Endorsements and rebuttals in blog distillation q Giacomo Berardi, Andrea Esuli, Fabrizio in revised form 10 May 2013 Accepted 30 May 2013 Available online 14 June 2013 Keywords: Blog distillation to blog distillation, defined as the task in which, given a user query, the system ranks the blogs

  12. Complex Distillation Arrangements 23.May 2001 by I.Halvorsen NTNU Department of Chemical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Complex Distillation Arrangements 23.May 2001 by I.Halvorsen NTNU Department of Chemical Engineering 1 Minimum Energy Requirements in Complex Distillation Arrangements A thesis submitted for the degree of dr. ing. 23. May 2001 by Ivar J. Halvorsen #12;Complex Distillation Arrangements 23.May 2001

  13. T. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Control of a industrial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    T. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Truls Larsson Sigurd Skogestad y Department of Chemical. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column The process Q H column

  14. Manifold-based starting point generation and its application to distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumaier, Arnold

    Manifold-based starting point generation and its application to distillation Ali Baharev*, Ferenc-states in homogeneous azeotropic distillation . . . . . . . . . . 11 5.2 Multiple steady-states in ideal two-product distillation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 6 Conclusion 13 A Ordering sparse matrices 14 A.1 Ordering to block

  15. Distillation Absorption 2010 A.B. de Haan, H. Kooijman and A. Grak (Editors)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    structure design. Keywords: Kaibel column, thermally coupled distillation columns, optimal operation 1J.Halvorsen@sintef.no Abstract The objective of this paper is to study the Kaibel distillation column from operability point. Introduction The thermally-coupled Petlyuk 1 distillation column separates the feed into three products

  16. Distillation Absorption 2010 A.B. de Haan, H. Kooijman and A. Grak (Editors)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    is a viable option in present case. Keywords: Distillation, Energy saving, Dividing wall column, Thermal challenge is to design distillation systems that at the same time are sustainable and economically feasibleDistillation Absorption 2010 A.B. de Haan, H. Kooijman and A. Górak (Editors) All rights reserved

  17. Optimal Synthesis of Thermally Coupled Distillation Sequences Using a Novel MILP Approach.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    . Pittsburgh, PA. USA. Abstract This paper introduces a novel MILP approach for the design of distillation Column; Superstructure optimization; GDP. Introduction Distillation is the most widely used method distillation (TCD), in which heat is directly transferred between columns through two streams (liquid a vapor

  18. Active Constraint Regions for Optimal Operation of Distillation Magnus G. Jacobsen and Sigurd Skogestad*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    , NTNU, N-7491, Trondheim, Norway ABSTRACT: When designing the control structure of distillation columnsActive Constraint Regions for Optimal Operation of Distillation Columns Magnus G. Jacobsen presented in an earlier paper, to find how the active constraints for distillation columns change

  19. Model predictive control of a pilot-scale distillation column using a programmable automation controller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Model predictive control of a pilot-scale distillation column using a programmable automation). The controller is tested on a pilot-scale binary distillation column to track reference temperatures. A majorRIO) to control a pilot-scale binary distillation col- umn. Both the PI-controllers and the supervising online MPC

  20. System and process for the abatement of casting pollution, reclaiming resin bonded sand, and/or recovering a low BTU fuel from castings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scheffer, Karl D. (121 Governor Dr., Scotia, NY 12302)

    1984-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Air is caused to flow through the resin bonded mold to aid combustion of the resin binder to form a low BTU gas fuel. Casting heat is recovered for use in a waste heat boiler or other heat abstraction equipment. Foundry air pollution is reduced, the burned portion of the molding sand is recovered for immediate reuse and savings in fuel and other energy is achieved.

  1. System and process for the abatement of casting pollution, reclaiming resin bonded sand, and/or recovering a low Btu fuel from castings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scheffer, K.D.

    1984-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Air is caused to flow through the resin bonded mold to aid combustion of the resin binder to form a low Btu gas fuel. Casting heat is recovered for use in a waste heat boiler or other heat abstraction equipment. Foundry air pollutis reduced, the burned portion of the molding sand is recovered for immediate reuse and savings in fuel and other energy is achieved. 5 figs.

  2. Low NO{sub x} turbine power generation utilizing low Btu GOB gas. Final report, June--August 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.V.; Gabrielson, J.; Glickert, R.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane, a potent greenhouse gas, is second only to carbon dioxide as a contributor to potential global warming. Methane liberated by coal mines represents one of the most promising under exploited areas for profitably reducing these methane emissions. Furthermore, there is a need for apparatus and processes that reduce the nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from gas turbines in power generation. Consequently, this project aims to demonstrate a technology which utilizes low grade fuel (CMM) in a combustion air stream to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in the operation of a gas turbine. This technology is superior to other existing technologies because it can directly use the varying methane content gases from various streams of the mining operation. The simplicity of the process makes it useful for both new gas turbines and retrofitting existing gas turbines. This report evaluates the feasibility of using gob gas from the 11,000 acre abandoned Gateway Mine near Waynesburg, Pennsylvania as a fuel source for power generation applying low NO{sub x} gas turbine technology at a site which is currently capable of producing low grade GOB gas ({approx_equal} 600 BTU) from abandoned GOB areas.

  3. Net Energy Metering (NEM)

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the Arizona Public Service Co. (APS) request for a charge on future rooftop solar panel installations connected to the grid under the state's net energy metering (NEM)...

  4. Net Energy Billing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    All of Maine's electric utilities -- investor-owned utilities (IOUs), consumer-owned utilities (COUs), which include municipal utilities and electric cooperatives -- must offer net energy billing...

  5. kpro-net.inf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ... us and help promote the Kaypro as the best portable computer today. Any Sysop's wishing to join the K-Net please contact Steve Sanders through this system.

  6. Distillation and purification of symmetric entangled Gaussian states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaromir Fiurasek

    2010-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose an entanglement distillation and purification scheme for symmetric two-mode entangled Gaussian states that allows to asymptotically extract a pure entangled Gaussian state from any input entangled symmetric Gaussian state. The proposed scheme is a modified and extended version of the entanglement distillation protocol originally developed by [Browne et al., Phys. Rev. A 67, 062320 (2003)]. A key feature of the present protocol is that it utilizes a two-copy de-Gaussification procedure that involves a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with single-mode non-Gaussian filters inserted in its two arms. The required non-Gaussian filtering operations can be implemented by coherently combining two sequences of single-photon addition and subtraction operations.

  7. Distillation of entanglement by projection on permutationally invariant subspaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Czechlewski, Miko?aj; Horodecki, Micha?; Mozrzymas, Marek; Studzi?ski, Micha?

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider distillation of entanglement from two qubit states which are mixtures of three mutually orthogonal states: two pure entangled states and one pure product state. We distill entanglement from such states by projecting n copies of the state on permutationally invariant subspace and then applying one-way hashing protocol. We find analytical expressions for the rate of the protocol. We also generalize this method to higher dimensional systems. To get analytical expression for two qubit case, we faced a mathematical problem of diagonalizing a family of matrices enjoying some symmetries w.r.t. to symmetric group. We have solved this problem in two ways: (i) directly, by use of Schur-Weyl decomposition and Young symmetrizers (ii) showing that the problem is equivalent to a problem of diagonalizing adjacency matrices in a particular instance of a so called algebraic association scheme.

  8. Hydroconversion of heavy oils. [Residue of tar sand bitumen distillation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garg, D.

    1986-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for hydroconversion of feedstocks consisting essentially of at least one heavy hydrocarbon oil selected from the group consisting of residue of petroleum oil distillation and the residue of tar sand bitumen distillation to enhance the recovery of 350/sup 0/-650/sup 0/F boiling product fraction. The method comprises treating such feed stock with hydrogen at superatmospheric pressure and in the presence of finely divided active hydrogenation catalyst in consecutive reaction stages. An initial reaction stage is carried out at a temperature in the range of 780/sup 0/-825/sup 0/F, and a subsequent reaction stage is directly carried out after the initial reaction stage at a higher temperature in the range of 800/sup 0/F-860/sup 0/F, the temperature of the subsequent reaction stage being at least 20/sup 0/F higher than that of the initial reaction stage.

  9. Reducing the quantum computing overhead with complex gate distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillaume Duclos-Cianci; David Poulin

    2014-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In leading fault-tolerant quantum computing schemes, accurate transformation are obtained by a two-stage process. In a first stage, a discrete, universal set of fault-tolerant operations is obtained by error-correcting noisy transformations and distilling resource states. In a second stage, arbitrary transformations are synthesized to desired accuracy by combining elements of this set into a circuit. Here, we present a scheme which merges these two stages into a single one, directly distilling complex transformations. We find that our scheme can reduce the total overhead to realize certain gates by up to a few orders of magnitude. In contrast to other schemes, this efficient gate synthesis does not require computationally intensive compilation algorithms, and a straightforward generalization of our scheme circumvents compilation and synthesis altogether.

  10. Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD target

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Ohta; S. Bouchigny; J. -P. Didelez; M. Fujiwara; K. Fukuda; H. Kohri; T. Kunimatsu; C. Morisaki; S. Ono; G. Rouill'; M. Tanaka; K. Ueda; M. Uraki; M. Utsuro; S. Y. Wang; M. Yosoi

    2011-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for a polarized HD target in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H$_2$ ($\\sim$0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1$\\sim$5% impurities of H$_2$ and D$_2$ in commercially available HD gases, it is inevitable that the HD gas is purified up to $\\sim$99.99%. The distillation system has a cryogenic pot (17$\\sim$21 K) containing many small stainless steel cells called Heli-pack. Commercial HD gas with an amount of 5.2 mol is fed into the pot. We carried out three distillation runs by changing temperatures (17.5 K and 20.5 K) and gas extraction speeds (1.3 ml/min and 5.2 ml/min). The extracted gas was analyzed by using a gas analyzer system combining a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a gas chromatograph. The HD gas of 1 mol with a purity better than 99.99% has been successfully obtained. The effective NTS (Number of Theoretical Stages), which is an indicator of the distillator performances, is obtained as 37.2$\\pm$0.6. This value is in reasonable agreement with a designed value of 37.9. The HD target is expected to be efficiently polarized under a well-controlled condition by doping an optimal amount of ortho-H$_2$ to the purified HD gas.

  11. Enhanced Separation Efficiency in Olefin/Paraffin Distillation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a research project whose main objective is to develop technologies to enhance separation efficiencies by replacing the conventional packing materials with hollow fiber membranes, which have a high specific area and separated channels for both liquid and vapor phases. The use of hollow fibers in distillation columns can help refineries decrease operating costs, reduce greenhouse gas emissions through reduced heating costs, and help expand U.S. refining capacity through improvements to existing sites, without large scale capital investment.

  12. An experimental and mathematical investigation of hydrocarbon steam distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langhoff, John Allan

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Holland and Welch method was very good. The agreement between experimental and predicted separation data indicated the Holland and Welch method could be extended to calculate crude oil-water -vapor separations. A practical procedure using the Holland... and Welch method and simulated distillation data was developed to predict crude oil-water-vapor separations. The method was compared to experimental crude oil-water-vapor separation data obtained at saturated steam conditions of 378 F and 456 F...

  13. Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.

    2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential Equilibrium and Dynamics) method.

  14. PSEG Long Island- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Although PSEG Long Island’s net metering policy is not governed by the State’s net metering law, the provisions are similar to the State law. Net metering is available for residential, non-reside...

  15. Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD target

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, T; Didelez, J -P; Fujiwara, M; Fukuda, K; Kohri, H; Kunimatsu, T; Morisaki, C; Ono, S; Rouill', G; Tanaka, M; Ueda, K; Uraki, M; Utsuro, M; Wang, S Y; Yosoi, M

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for a polarized HD target in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H$_2$ ($\\sim$0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1$\\sim$5% impurities of H$_2$ and D$_2$ in commercially available HD gases, it is inevitable that the HD gas is purified up to $\\sim$99.99%. The distillation system has a cryogenic pot (17$\\sim$21 K) containing many small stainless steel cells called Heli-pack. Commercial HD gas with an amount of 5.2 mol is fed into the pot. We carried out three distillation runs by changing temperatures (17.5 K and 20.5 K) and gas extraction speeds (1.3 ml/min and 5.2 ml/min). The extracted gas was analyzed by using a gas analyzer system combining a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a gas chromatograph. The HD gas of 1 mol with a purity better than 99.99% has been successfully obtained. The effective NTS (Number of Theoretical Stages), which is...

  16. Washington City Power- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Washington City adopted a net-metering program, including interconnection procedures, in January 2008.* Net metering is available to residential and commercial customers that generate electricity...

  17. Feasibility of Achieving a Zero-Net-Energy, Zero-Net-Cost Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Beaini, S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    9000 BTU Daiking Micro?Split Heat pump system with two Sizing Storage and Heat Pump  (with Tank) Water Heaters."  the  use of a geothermal heat pump, are the only measures 

  18. Bound States for Magic State Distillation in Fault-Tolerant Quantum Computation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Earl T. Campbell; Dan E. Browne

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magic state distillation is an important primitive in fault-tolerant quantum computation. The magic states are pure non-stabilizer states which can be distilled from certain mixed non-stabilizer states via Clifford group operations alone. Because of the Gottesman-Knill theorem, mixtures of Pauli eigenstates are not expected to be magic state distillable, but it has been an open question whether all mixed states outside this set may be distilled. In this Letter we show that, when resources are finitely limited, non-distillable states exist outside the stabilizer octahedron. In analogy with the bound entangled states, which arise in entanglement theory, we call such states bound states for magic state distillation.

  19. Multiple steady states during reactive distillation of methyl tert-butyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nijhuis, S.A. (Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). Chemical Engineering Dept.); Kerkhof, F.P.J.M.; Mak, A.N.S. (Comprimo Engineers and Contractors, Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents results of computer simulations of the synthesis of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in a fixed-bed reactor and in a reactive distillation column. These calculations clearly showed the advantages of MTBE synthesis in a catalytic distillation tower. Furthermore, the computer simulations showed that multiple steady states may occur in the reactive distillation column during MTBE synthesis in a broad range of operating conditions. An analysis of some sensitivity studies is presented.

  20. Guam- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Guam's Public Utilities Commission (PUC) reviewed net metering and interconnection during a regular meeting in February 2009 (Docket 08-10). Please contact the [http://www.guampuc.com/ Guam PUC]...

  1. LADWP- Net Metering (California)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    LADWP allows its customers to net meter their photovoltaic (PV), wind, and hybrid systems with a capacity of not more than one megawatt. LADWP will provide the necessary metering equipment unless...

  2. Net Metering (Ontario, Canada)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ontario's net metering regulation allows you to send electricity generated from renewable sources to the electrical grid for a credit toward your energy costs. Here's how it works. Your utility...

  3. Puerto Rico- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Puerto Rico enacted net-metering legislation in August 2007, allowing customers of Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) to use electricity generated by solar, wind or "other" renewable...

  4. LADWP- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    LADWP allows its customers to net meter their photovoltaic (PV), wind, and hybrid systems with a capacity of not more than one megawatt. LADWP will provide the necessary metering equipment unless...

  5. Ashland Electric- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 1996, Ashland adopted a net-metering program that includes simple interconnection guidelines. The program encourages the adoption of renewable-energy systems by committing the city to purchase,...

  6. Timeline for Net Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    x By July 31 of each Forecast Year, BPA publishes all Load Following customers' Net Requirements data for the two years of the upcoming Rate Period. 17.6.1 7312010 Yes...

  7. N=2 superconformal nets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sebastiano Carpi; Robin Hillier; Yasuyuki Kawahigashi; Roberto Longo; Feng Xu

    2014-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We provide an Operator Algebraic approach to N=2 chiral Conformal Field Theory and set up the Noncommutative Geometric framework. Compared to the N=1 case, the structure here is much richer. There are naturally associated nets of spectral triples and the JLO cocycles separate the Ramond sectors. We construct the N=2 superconformal nets of von Neumann algebras in general, classify them in the discrete series cnets with cnet representations.

  8. An approach for solvent selection in extractive distillation systems including safety considerations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    of bioethanol, for which solvents that offer the best cost-safety compromise are identified. Keywords. Extractive distillation; Multiobjective optimization; Process safety; Solvents; Bioethanol 1. Introduction

  9. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 1998 295 Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  10. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 337 Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  11. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 1999 295 Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  12. Table A3. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Distillate and Residual...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Marketing Annual 1999 441 Table A3. RefinerReseller Prices of Distillate and Residual Fuel Oils, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued...

  13. 2007 NET SYSTEM POWER REPORT STAFFREPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION 2007 NET SYSTEM POWER REPORT STAFFREPORT April 2008 CEC-200 .................................................................................................................. 1 Net System Power Findings.............................................................................................. 4 Net System Power and Sources of California Electric Generation

  14. Effects of Ruminally Degradable Nitrogen in Diets Containing Wet Distiller’s Grains with Solubles and Steam-flaked Corn on Feedlot Cattle Performance and Carcass Characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponce, Christian

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    plants, certain deviations of methods due to technologies employed at specific plants might explain some of the variation in nutritive value of the co-products. Holt and Pritchard (2004) determined nutrient variations of wet distiller?s grains... disappearance was 3.9%/h, and 47% of the CP present was ruminal escape protein. Crude protein values of up to 37.6% have been determined on samples collected directly from 4 plants (Holt and Pritchard, 2004). One nutritional limitation of WDGS...

  15. Optimal operation of a Petlyuk Distillation Column: Energy Savings by Over-fractionation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Optimal operation of a Petlyuk Distillation Column: Energy Savings by Over-fractionation · The Petlyuk distillation column, see Figure 1(a), with a pre-fractionator (C1) and a main column (C21 and C22) N-7465 Trondheim, Norway Abstract This work shows the unexpected result that over-fractionating one

  16. Study of the Distillability of Werner States Using Entanglement Witnesses and Robust Semidefinite Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reinaldo O. Vianna; Andrew C. Doherty

    2006-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We use Robust Semidefinite Programs and Entanglement Witnesses to study the distillability of Werner states. We perform exact numerical calculations which show 2-undistillability in a region of the state space which was previously conjectured to be undistillable. We also introduce bases which yield interesting expressions for the {\\em distillability witnesses} and for a tensor product of Werner states with arbitrary number of copies.

  17. Use of Short-cut Methods to Analyse Optimal Operation of Petlyuk Distillation Columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Use of Short-cut Methods to Analyse Optimal Operation of Petlyuk Distillation Columns Ivar J: Petlyuk distillation column, dividing wall column, optimizing control, minimum energy 1. INTRODUCTION- ments for the level of automatic control and to the design of number of stages in each column section. 2

  18. Use of Shortcut Methods to Analyse Optimal Operation of Petlyuk Distillation Columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Use of Short­cut Methods to Analyse Optimal Operation of Petlyuk Distillation Columns Ivar J: Petlyuk distillation column, dividing wall column, optimizing control, minimum energy 1. INTRODUCTION­ ments for the level of automatic control and to the design of number of stages in each column section. 2

  19. Quantum distillation: Dynamical generation of low-entropy states of strongly correlated fermions in an optical lattice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennessee, University of

    Quantum distillation: Dynamical generation of low-entropy states of strongly correlated fermions of double occupancies. We promote the notion of quantum distillation: during the expansion and in the case

  20. Low capital implementation of distributed distillation in ethylene recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reyneke, Rian; Foral, Michael J.; Lee, Guang-Chung

    2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for recovering ethylene from a hydrocarbon feed stream, where the apparatus is a single distillation column pressure shell encasing an upper region and a lower region. The upper region houses an ethylene distributor rectifying section and the lower region houses a C2 distributor section and an ethylene distributor stripping section. Vapor passes from the lower region into the upper region, and liquid passes from the upper region to the lower region. The process for recovering the ethylene is also disclosed. The hydrocarbon feed stream is introduced into the C2 distributor section, and after a series of stripping and refluxing steps, distinct hydrocarbon products are recovered from the C2 distributor section, the ethylene distributor stripping section, and the ethylene distributor rectifying section, respectively.

  1. Comparison of advanced distillation control methods. Third annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riggs, J.B.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed dynamic simulations of three industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter, a xylene/toluene column, and a depropanizer) have been used to study the issue of configuration selection for diagonal PI dual composition controls, feedforward from a feed composition analyzer, and decouplers. Auto Tune Variation (ATV) identification with on-line detuning for setpoint changes was used for tuning the diagonal proportional integral (PI) composition controls. In addition, robustness tests were conducted by inducting reboiler duty upsets. For single composition control, the (L, V) configuration was found to be best. For dual composition control, the optimum configuration changes from one column to another. Moreover, the use of analysis tools, such as RGA, appears to be of little value in identifying the optimum configuration for dual composition control. Using feedforward from a feed composition analyzer and using decouplers are shown to offer significant advantages for certain specific cases.

  2. Effects of system densities on distillation column performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fasesan, S.O.; Sanni, S.A.; Taiwo, E.A. [Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ile-Ife (Nigeria). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distillation experiments were carried out on three binary systems (ethanol-butanol, ethanol-propan-2-ol, and propan-2-ol-butanol) in a 0.1-m internal diameter glass column packed with 8 mm diameter Raschig rings. The experiments were performed under total reflux conditions and at atmospheric pressure. The data collected on column performance showed that performance declined with increasing average bulk liquid density. The results also lend credence to earlier reports on the behavior of column performance with respect to component concentration in the feed mixtures. The system densities of the three binary systems were measured at four different temperatures, 30, 40, 50, and 60 C. The data were compared with the predicted data of Yen-Woods and Multifluid models. The accuracy of the predictions of the Yen-Woods model was rather poor while that of the Multifluid model was very encouraging.

  3. N. Mariana Islands- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: The Commonwealth Utility Corporation issued a moratorium on net metering. However, Public Law 18-62 signed September 6, 2014 states that net metering should be available to all residential...

  4. Rocky Mountain Power- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Idaho does not have a statewide net-metering policy. However, each of the state's three investor-owned utilities -- Avista Utilities, Idaho Power and Rocky Mountain Power -- has a net-metering...

  5. SCE&G- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In August 2009, the South Carolina Public Service Commission issued an order mandating net metering be made available by the regulated electric utilities; the order incorporates a net metering...

  6. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 1996,34, 4395-4405 4396 Multiple Steady States and Instability in Distillation. Implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 1996,34, 4395-4405 4396 Multiple Steady States and Instability in Distillation-7034 Trondheim, Norway The fact that distillation columns, even in the ideal binary case, may display addresses some implications of these phenomena for the operation and control of distillation columns. Under

  7. Design of Hybrid Distillation-Vapor Membrane Separation Systems. Jose A. Caballero*; Ignacio E. Grossmann **; Majid Keyvani+

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Design of Hybrid Distillation-Vapor Membrane Separation Systems. Jose A. Caballero*; Ignacio E (ethane, propane) on a commercial scale is performed almost exclusively by cryogenic distillation to optimize and retrofit a hybrid separation system consisting of a distillation column and a parallel

  8. LA DISTILLATION a t introduite en Occident avec l'alchimie au cours du XIIe sicle. Par convention, on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    LA DISTILLATION a été introduite en Occident avec l'alchimie au cours du XIIe siècle. Par Pseudo-Geber, distingue plusieurs façons de distiller et propose même une classi- fication de ces distillat (per descensum). La distillation par élévation des vapeurs, ou per ascensum, nécessite l

  9. MODELING, IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL, 2000, VOL. 21, NO. 2, 83103 Evaluation of Dynamic Models of Distillation Columns with Emphasis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    of Distillation Columns with Emphasis on the Initial Response BERND WITTGENS and SIGURD SKOGESTAD* Keywords: Distillation dynamics, tray hydraulics, experimental response The flow dynamics (tray hydraulics) are of key importance for the initial dynamic response of distillation columns. The most important parameters

  10. JMLR: Workshop and Conference Proceedings 29:116, 2014 ACML 2014 Sample Distillation for Object Detection and Image

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleuret, François

    JMLR: Workshop and Conference Proceedings 29:1­16, 2014 ACML 2014 Sample Distillation for Object different computer vision problems. First, we show that distillation can be used to improve the traditional bootstrap- ping approach to object detection. Second, we apply distillation to a classification problem

  11. Can the Operating Leaves of a Distillation Column Really Be Tshepo S. Modise, Michaela Tapp, Diane Hildebrandt,* and David Glasser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Can the Operating Leaves of a Distillation Column Really Be Expanded? Tshepo S. Modise, Michaela to determine the operation leaves and hence the feasible region for distillation columns operating at a specific distillate and bottoms composition for all possible constant reflux and reboil ratios

  12. Measurement Reconciliation and Interpretation in Packed Distillation Column Operation Teck C. Lee and Colin S. Howat, Ph.D.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howat, Colin S. "Chip"

    . To overcome this limitation, a pilot plant scale, packed distillation column was designed, built, and tested plant scale, packed distillation column was designed, built, and tested. This column can be operatedMeasurement Reconciliation and Interpretation in Packed Distillation Column Operation Teck C. Lee

  13. Petri Nets (for Planners) ICAPS 2009 --

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haslum, Patrik

    Petri Nets (for Planners) ICAPS 2009 -- Introduction 1-Safe Petri Nets: Basic Definitions Transition Systems Petri Nets Petri Nets for Planning Unfolding Transition Systems Products and Petri Nets in Product Systems Directed Unfolding Planning via Unfolding & Concurrency From Planning Problem to Petri Net

  14. An Adaptive Entanglement Distillation Scheme Using Quantum Low Density Parity Check Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. H. Ho; H. F. Chau

    2008-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum low density parity check (QLDPC) codes are useful primitives for quantum information processing because they can be encoded and decoded efficiently. Besides, the error correcting capability of a few QLDPC codes exceeds the quantum Gilbert-Varshamov bound. Here, we report a numerical performance analysis of an adaptive entanglement distillation scheme using QLDPC codes. In particular, we find that the expected yield of our adaptive distillation scheme to combat depolarization errors exceed that of Leung and Shor whenever the error probability is less than about 0.07 or greater than about 0.28. This finding illustrates the effectiveness of using QLDPC codes in entanglement distillation.

  15. Lower Bound of Concurrence and Distillation for Arbitrary Dimensional Bipartite Quantum States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Ming-Jing; Fei, Shao-Ming; Li-Jost, Xianqing; 10.1103/PhysRevA.84.062322

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a lower bound of concurrence for arbitrary dimensional bipartite quantum states. This lower bound may be used to improve all the known lower bounds of concurrence. Moreover, the lower bound gives rise to an operational sufficient criterion of distillability of quantum entanglement. The significance of our result is illustrated by quantitative evaluation of entanglement for entangled states that fail to be identified by the usual concurrence estimation method, and by showing the distillability of mixed states that can not be recognized by other distillability criteria.

  16. On the distillation and purification of phase-diffused squeezed states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Hage; A. Franzen; J. DiGuglielmo; P. Marek; J. Fiurášek; R. Schnabel

    2007-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently it was discovered that non-Gaussian decoherence processes, such as phase-diffusion, can be counteracted by purification and distillation protocols that are solely built on Gaussian operations. Here, we make use of this experimentally highly accessible regime, and provide a detailed experimental and theoretical analysis of several strategies for purification/distillation protocols on phase-diffused squeezed states. Our results provide valuable information for the optimization of such protocols with respect to the choice of the trigger quadrature, the trigger threshold value and the probability of generating a distilled state.

  17. Lower Bound of Concurrence and Distillation for Arbitrary Dimensional Bipartite Quantum States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ming-Jing Zhao; Xue-Na Zhu; Shao-Ming Fei; Xianqing Li-Jost

    2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a lower bound of concurrence for arbitrary dimensional bipartite quantum states. This lower bound may be used to improve all the known lower bounds of concurrence. Moreover, the lower bound gives rise to an operational sufficient criterion of distillability of quantum entanglement. The significance of our result is illustrated by quantitative evaluation of entanglement for entangled states that fail to be identified by the usual concurrence estimation method, and by showing the distillability of mixed states that can not be recognized by other distillability criteria.

  18. Quantum repeaters and quantum key distribution: the impact of entanglement distillation on the secret key rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sylvia Bratzik; Silvestre Abruzzo; Hermann Kampermann; Dagmar Bruß

    2013-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate quantum repeaters in the context of quantum key distribution. We optimize the secret key rate per memory per second with respect to different distillation protocols and distillation strategies. For this purpose, we also derive an analytical expression for the average number of entangled pairs created by the quantum repeater, including classical communication times for entanglement swapping and entanglement distillation. We investigate the impact of this classical communication time on the secret key rate. We finally study the effect of the detector efficiency on the secret key rate.

  19. Main Street Net-Zero Energy Buildings: The Zero Energy Method in Concept and Practice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torcellini, P.; Pless, S.; Lobato, C.; Hootman, T.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Until recently, large-scale, cost-effective net-zero energy buildings (NZEBs) were thought to lie decades in the future. However, ongoing work at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) indicates that NZEB status is both achievable and repeatable today. This paper presents a definition framework for classifying NZEBs and a real-life example that demonstrates how a large-scale office building can cost-effectively achieve net-zero energy. The vision of NZEBs is compelling. In theory, these highly energy-efficient buildings will produce, during a typical year, enough renewable energy to offset the energy they consume from the grid. The NREL NZEB definition framework classifies NZEBs according to the criteria being used to judge net-zero status and the way renewable energy is supplied to achieve that status. We use the new U.S. Department of Energy/NREL 220,000-ft{sub 2} Research Support Facilities (RSF) building to illustrate why a clear picture of NZEB definitions is important and how the framework provides a methodology for creating a cost-effective NZEB. The RSF, scheduled to open in June 2010, includes contractual commitments to deliver a Leadership in Energy Efficiency and Design (LEED) Platinum Rating, an energy use intensity of 25 kBtu/ft{sub 2} (half that of a typical LEED Platinum office building), and net-zero energy status. We will discuss the analysis method and cost tradeoffs that were performed throughout the design and build phases to meet these commitments and maintain construction costs at $259/ft{sub 2}. We will discuss ways to achieve large-scale, replicable NZEB performance. Many passive and renewable energy strategies are utilized, including full daylighting, high-performance lighting, natural ventilation through operable windows, thermal mass, transpired solar collectors, radiant heating and cooling, and workstation configurations allow for maximum daylighting.

  20. Distillation sequence for the purification and recovery of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reyneke, Rian (Katy, TX); Foral, Michael (Aurora, IL); Papadopoulos, Christos G. (Naperville, IL); Logsdon, Jeffrey S. (Naperville, IL); Eng, Wayne W. Y. (League City, TX); Lee, Guang-Chung (Houston, TX); Sinclair, Ian (Warrington, GB)

    2007-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is an improved distillation sequence for the separation and purification of ethylene from a cracked gas. A hydrocarbon feed enters a C2 distributor column. The top of the C2 distributor column is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the bottoms liquid of a C2 distributor column feeds a deethanizer column. The C2 distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The top of the ethylene distributor is thermally coupled with a demethanizer column, and the bottoms liquid of the ethylene distributor feeds a C2 splitter column. The ethylene distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The deethanizer and C2 splitter columns are also thermally coupled and operated at a substantially lower pressure than the C2 distributor column, the ethylene distributor column, and the demethanizer column. Alternatively, a hydrocarbon feed enters a deethanizer column. The top of the deethanizer is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the ethylene distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The top of the ethylene distributor column is thermally coupled with a demethanizer column, and the bottoms liquid of the ethylene distributor column feeds a C2 splitter column. The C2 splitter column operates at a pressure substantially lower than the ethylene distributor column, the demethanizer column, and the deethanizer column.

  1. Comparison of advanced distillation control methods. Second annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed dynamic simulations of three industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter, a xylene/toluene column, and a depropanizer) have been used to study the issue of configuration selection for diagonal PI dual composition controls. ATV identification with on-line detuning was used for tuning the diagonal PI composition controllers. Each configuration was evaluated with respect to steady-state RGA values, sensitivity to feed composition changes, and open loop dynamic performance. Each configuration was tuned using setpoint changes over a wider range of operation for robustness and tested for feed composition upsets. Overall, configuration selection was shown to have a dominant effect upon control performance. Configuration analysis tools (e.g., RGA, condition number, disturbance sensitivity), were found to reject configuration choices that are obviously poor choices, but were unable to critically differentiate between the remaining viable choices. Configuration selection guidelines are given although it is demonstrated that the most reliable configuration selection approach is based upon testing the viable configurations using dynamic column simulators.

  2. Comparison of advanced distillation control methods. Second annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riggs, J.B.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed dynamic simulations of two industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter and a xylene/toluene column) have been used to study the issue of configuration selection for diagonal PI dual composition controls. Auto Tune Variation (ATV) identification with on-line detuning was used for tuning the diagonal proportional integral (PI) composition controls. Each configuration was evaluated with respect to steady-state relative gain array (RGA) values, sensitivity to feed composition changes, and open loop dynamic performance. Each configuration was tuned using setpoint changes over a wider range of operation for robustness and tested for feed composition upsets. Overall, configuration selection was shown to have a dominant effect upon control performance. Configuration analysis tools (e.g., RGA, condition number, disturbance sensitivity) were found to reject configuration choices that are obviously poor choices, but were unable to critically differentiate between the remaining viable choices. Configuration selection guidelines are given although it is demonstrated that the most reliable configuration selection approach is based upon testing the viable configurations using dynamic column simulators.

  3. Experimental and analytical studies of hydrocarbon yields under dry-, steam-, and steam-with-propane distillation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaiswal, Namit

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Simulation study has shown oil production is accelerated when propane is used as an additive during steam injection. To better understand this phenomenon, distillation experiments were performed using San Ardo crude oil (12oAPI). For comparison...

  4. Water distillation using waste engine heat from an internal combustion engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mears, Kevin S

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To meet the needs of forward deployed soldiers and disaster relief personnel, a mobile water distillation system was designed and tested. This system uses waste engine heat from the exhaust flow of an internal combustion ...

  5. Multipartite continuous-variable entanglement distillation using local squeezing and only one photon-subtraction operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song Yang; XuBo Zou; ShengLi Zhang; Bao-Sen Shi; Peter van Loock; GuangCan Guo

    2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we study entanglement distillation of multipartite continuous-variable Gaussian entangled states. Following Opatrn\\'{y} \\emph{et al.}'s photon subtraction (PS) scheme, the probability of successful distillation decreases exponentially with the number of parties $N$. However, here, we shall propose an entanglement distillation scheme whose success probability scales as a constant with $N$. Our protocol employs several local squeezers, but it requires only a single PS operation. Using the logarithmic negativity as a measure of entanglement, we find that both the success probability and the distilled entanglement can be improved at the same time. Moreover, an $N$-mode transfer theorem (transferring states from phase space to Hilbert space) is presented.

  6. Feeding Value of Wet Sorghum Distillers Grains for Growing and Finishing Beef Cattle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feeding Value of Wet Sorghum Distillers Grains for Growing and Finishing Beef Cattle Ethanol, but sorghum grain is commonly either blended with corn before use or used as the sole grain for ethanol

  7. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    132.9 1,418.3 See footnotes at end of table. 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State Energy Information Administration ...

  8. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    839.2 135.0 1,251.9 See footnotes at end of table. 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State Energy Information Administration ...

  9. DYNAMIC MODELING AND CONTROL OF REACTIVE DISTILLATION FOR HYDROGENATION OF BENZENE 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aluko, Obanifemi

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This work presents a modeling and control study of a reactive distillation column used for hydrogenation of benzene. A steady state and a dynamic model have been developed to investigate control structures for the column. The most important aspects...

  10. Distillation: Energy Savings and Other Benefits From the Use of High Efficiency Packings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bravo, J. L.; Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

    DISTILLATION: ENERGY SAVINGS AND OTHER BENEFITS. FROM THE USE OF HIGH-EFFICIENCY PACKINGS -. Jose L. Bravo, James R. Fair, and Jimmy L. Humpnrey The University of Texas at Austin Austin, Texas ABSTRACT A great deal of attention has been... focused lately on the use of high-efficiency packings for distillation applications. This paper discusses benefits that can be derived from the use of these devices. In parti~ular, the reduction in energy requirements for a given separation...

  11. Experimental and analytical studies of hydrocarbon yields under dry-, steam-, and steam-with-propane distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaiswal, Namit

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    EXPERIMENTAL AND ANALYTICAL STUDIES OF HYDROCARBON YIELDS UNDER DRY-, STEAM-, AND STEAM-WITH- PROPANE DISTILLATION A Dissertation by NAMIT JAISWAL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University...-WITH- PROPANE-DISTILLATION A Dissertation by NAMIT JAISWAL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved...

  12. Utilization of Structured Packing for Energy Savings in Distillation and Absorption Columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berven, O. J.; Howard, W. E.

    "UTILIZATION OF STRUCTURED PACKING FOR ENERGY SAVINGS IN DISTILLATION AND ABSORPTION COLUMNS" O. Jeffrey Berven and Wendell E. Howard Koch Engineering Company, Inc. Wi chita, Kansas As the need to reduce production costs causes... manufacturers to re-evaluate process ing schemes, hi gh efficiency structured packings are increasingly recognized as an effective alternative for reducing energy consumption in heat and mass transfer operations. In distillation, the high efficiency and low...

  13. The Scaleup of Structured Packing from Distillation Pilot Plant Testing to Commercial Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berven, O. J.; Ulowetz, M. A.

    The Scaleup of Structured Packing From Distillation Pilot Plant Testing to Commercial Application O. Jeffrey'Berven and Michael A. Ulowetz Koch Engineering Company, Inc. Wichita, Kansas Structured packing is being utilized more and more... in the process industry for increased efficiency, greater capacity, and energy savings in distillation columns. Pilot plant testing of the actual chemical system using commercially available structured packing is invaluable, but years of experience in pilot...

  14. PILOT-SCALE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE FROM LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS USING VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, R. A.; Pak, D. J.

    2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. In 2011, SRNL adapted the technology for the removal of fluoride from fluoride-bearing salts. The method involved an in situ reaction between potassium hydroxide (KOH) and the fluoride salt to yield potassium fluoride (KF) and the corresponding oxide. The KF and excess KOH can be distilled below 1000{deg}C using vacuum salt distillation (VSD). The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated by a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attaned, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile material in the feed boat. Studies discussed in this report were performed involving the use of non-radioactive simulants in small-scale and pilot-scale systems as well as radioactive testing of a small-scale system with plutonium-bearing materials. Aspects of interest include removable liner design considerations, boat materials, in-line moisture absorption, and salt deposition.

  15. Net Metering (New Brunswick, Canada)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The NB Power Net Metering program provides customers with the option to connect their own environmentally sustainable generation unit to NB Power's distribution system. The program allows customers...

  16. Road to Net Zero (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glover, B.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A PowerPoint presentation on NREL's Research Support Facility (RSF) and the road to achieving net zero energy for new construction.

  17. Interleaving Semantics of Petri Nets Concurrency Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ábrahám, Erika

    Interleaving Semantics of Petri Nets Concurrency Theory Interleaving Semantics of Petri Nets Joost/47 Interleaving Semantics of Petri Nets Overview 1 Introduction 2 Basic net concepts 3 The interleaving semantics of Petri nets 4 Sequential runs 5 Summary Joost-Pieter Katoen and Thomas Noll Concurrency Theory 2

  18. Weekly Blender Net Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 Oil demand expected toallBlender Net

  19. Comparison of Advanced Distillation Control Methods, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. James B. Riggs

    2000-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed dynamic simulations of three industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter, a xylene/toluene column, and a depropanizer) have been used to evaluate configuration selections for single-ended and dual-composition control, as well as to compare conventional and advanced control approaches. In addition, a simulator of a main fractionator was used to compare the control performance of conventional and advanced control. For each case considered, the controllers were tuned by using setpoint changes and tested using feed composition upsets. Proportional Integral (PI) control performance was used to evaluate the configuration selection problem. For single ended control, the energy balance configuration was found to yield the best performance. For dual composition control, nine configurations were considered. It was determined that the use of dynamic simulations is required in order to identify the optimum configuration from among the nine possible choices. The optimum configurations were used to evaluate the relative control performance of conventional PI controllers, MPC (Model Predictive Control), PMBC (Process Model-Based Control), and ANN (Artificial Neural Networks) control. It was determined that MPC works best when one product is much more important than the other, while PI was superior when both products were equally important. PMBC and ANN were not found to offer significant advantages over PI and MPC. MPC was found to outperform conventional PI control for the main fractionator. MPC was applied to three industrial columns: one at Phillips Petroleum and two at Union Carbide. In each case, MPC was found to significantly outperform PI controls. The major advantage of the MPC controller is its ability to effectively handle a complex set of constraints and control objectives.

  20. Feasibility of Achieving a Zero-Net-Energy, Zero-Net-Cost Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feasibility of Achieving a Zero-Net-Energy, Zero-Net-Cost Homes 1 fey, 1David Feasibility of Achieving a ZeroNetEnergy, ZeroNetCost Homes 1 #12;2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The material reduction, by requiring design entries to meet "zero net energy" and "zero net cost" criteria

  1. EHS-Net Cooling Study EHS-Net Cooling Study Protocol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EHS-Net Cooling Study 1 EHS-Net Cooling Study Protocol 1. Title EHS-Net Cooling Study 2. Research (EHS-Net) special study. EHS-Net is a collaboration involving the Centers for Disease Control confirmed foodborne outbreaks in the US (unpublished FoodNet data). These data clearly indicate

  2. 1, 275309, 2004 Net ecosystem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    respiration rates are 5 µmol m-2 s-1 . Net annual sequestration of carbon (C) was estimated at 1.7 (±0.5) ton the short intense growing season. The associated cost to the sequestration of carbon may be another C ha-1 in 2001. The net carbon exchange of the forest was extremely sensitive to small changes

  3. 7-55E An office that is being cooled adequately by a 12,000 Btu/h window air-conditioner is converted to a computer room. The number of additional air-conditioners that need to be installed is to be determined.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    7-20 7-55E An office that is being cooled adequately by a 12,000 Btu/h window air-conditioner is converted to a computer room. The number of additional air-conditioners that need to be installed/h. Then noting that each available air conditioner provides 4,000 Btu/h cooling, the number of air- conditioners

  4. DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT OF VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, R.; Pak, D.; Edwards, T.

    2010-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site has a mission to dissolve fissile materials and disposition them. The primary fissile material is plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}). To support dissolution of these materials, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) designed and demonstrated a vacuum salt distillation (VSD) apparatus using both representative radioactive samples and non-radioactive simulant materials. Vacuum salt distillation, through the removal of chloride salts, increases the quantity of materials suitable for processing in the site's HB-Line Facility. Small-scale non-radioactive experiments at 900-950 C show that >99.8 wt % of the initial charge of chloride salt distilled from the sample boat with recovery of >99.8 wt % of the ceric oxide (CeO{sub 2}) - the surrogate for PuO{sub 2} - as a non-chloride bearing 'product'. Small-scale radioactive testing in a glovebox demonstrated the removal of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl) from 13 PuO{sub 2} samples. Chloride concentrations were distilled from a starting concentration of 1.8-10.8 wt % to a final concentration <500 mg/kg chloride. Initial testing of a non-radioactive, full-scale production prototype is complete. A designed experiment evaluated the impact of distillation temperature, time at temperature, vacuum, product depth, and presence of a boat cover. Significant effort has been devoted to mechanical considerations to facilitate simplified operation in a glovebox.

  5. The cough response to ultrasonically nebulized distilled water in heart-lung transplantation patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higenbottam, T.; Jackson, M.; Woolman, P.; Lowry, R.; Wallwork, J.

    1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a result of clinical heart-lung transplantation, the lungs are denervated below the level of the tracheal anastomosis. It has been questioned whether afferent vagal reinnervation occurs after surgery. Here we report the cough frequency, during inhalation of ultrasonically nebulized distilled water, of 15 heart-lung transplant patients studied 6 wk to 36 months after surgery. They were compared with 15 normal subjects of a similar age and sex. The distribution of the aerosol was studied in five normal subjects using /sup 99m/technetium diethylene triamine pentaacetate (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) in saline. In seven patients, the sensitivity of the laryngeal mucosa to instilled distilled water (0.2 ml) was tested at the time of fiberoptic bronchoscopy by recording the cough response. Ten percent of the aerosol was deposited onto the larynx and trachea, 56% on the central airways, and 34% in the periphery of the lung. The cough response to the aerosol was strikingly diminished in the patients compared with normal subjects (p less than 0.001), but all seven patients coughed when distilled water was instilled onto the larynx. As expected, the laryngeal mucosa of heart-lung transplant patients remains sensitive to distilled water. However, the diminished coughing when the distilled water is distributed by aerosol to the central airways supports the view that vagal afferent nerves do not reinnervate the lungs after heart-lung transplantation, up to 36 months after surgery.

  6. Courtesy of Sandro Ierovante Distributed by WWW.LENSINC.NET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kleinfeld, David

    Courtesy of Sandro Ierovante Distributed by WWW.LENSINC.NET #12;Distributed by WWW.LENSINC.NET #12;Distributed by WWW.LENSINC.NET #12;Distributed by WWW.LENSINC.NET #12;Distributed by WWW.LENSINC.NET #12;Distributed by WWW.LENSINC.NET #12;Distributed by WWW.LENSINC.NET #12;Distributed by WWW.LENSINC.NET #12

  7. First Commissioning of a Cryogenic Distillation Column for Low Radioactivity Underground Argon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Back, Henning O; Alton, Andrew; Condon, Christopher; de Haas, Ernst; Galbiati, Cristiano; Goretti, Augusto; Hohmann, Tristan; Ianni, Andrea; Kendziora, Cary; Loer, Ben; Montanari, David; Mosteiro, Pablo; Pordes, Stephen

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the performance and commissioning of a cryogenic distillation column for low radioactivity underground argon at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The distillation column is designed to accept a mixture of argon, helium, and nitrogen and return pure argon with a nitrogen contamination less than 10 ppm. In the first commissioning, we were able to run the distillation column in a continuous mode and produce argon that is 99.9% pure. After running in a batch mode, the argon purity was increased to 99.95%, with 500 ppm of nitrogen remaining. The efficiency of collecting the argon from the gas mixture was between 70% and 81%, at an argon production rate of 0.84-0.98 kg/day.

  8. First Commissioning of a Cryogenic Distillation Column for Low Radioactivity Underground Argon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. O. Back; T. Alexander; A. Alton; C. Condon; E. de Haas; C. Galbiati; A. Goretti; T. Hohmann; An. Ianni; C. Kendziora; B. Loer; D. Montanari; P. Mosteiro; S. Pordes

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the performance and commissioning of a cryogenic distillation column for low radioactivity underground argon at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The distillation column is designed to accept a mixture of argon, helium, and nitrogen and return pure argon with a nitrogen contamination less than 10 ppm. In the first commissioning, we were able to run the distillation column in a continuous mode and produce argon that is 99.9% pure. After running in a batch mode, the argon purity was increased to 99.95%, with 500 ppm of nitrogen remaining. The efficiency of collecting the argon from the gas mixture was between 70% and 81%, at an argon production rate of 0.84-0.98 kg/day.

  9. Magic state distillation in all prime dimensions using quantum Reed-Muller codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campbell, Earl T; Browne, Dan E

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose families of protocols for magic state distillation -- important components of fault tolerance schemes --- for systems of odd prime dimension. Our protocols utilize quantum Reed-Muller codes with transversal non-Clifford gates. We find that in higher dimensions smaller codes can be used than one might expect based on qubit codes. All our protocols produce magic states at a resource cost that increases only polynomially with the inverse of the final ouput error probability. We give specific details for 3-dimensional systems, where we find that certain magic states can be distilled provided an initial error probability of less than 20.02% or a depolarizing noise rate of less than 31.7%. This is the largest error probability threshold of all known protocols with polynomial resource cost. For a depolarizing noise model we also give distillation thresholds for odd prime dimensions up-to 19.

  10. Source book for planning nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, S.A.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A source book on nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants was prepared to assist government and other planners in preparing broad evaluations of proposed applications of dual-purpose plants. The document is divided into five major sections. Section 1 presents general discussions relating to the benefits of dual-purpose plants, and spectrum for water-to-power ratios. Section 2 presents information on commercial nuclear plants manufactured by US manufacturers. Section 3 gives information on distillation desalting processes and equipment. Section 4 presents a discussion on feedwater pretreatment and scale control. Section 5 deals with methods for coupling the distillation and electrical generating plants to operate in the dual mode.

  11. SESILwww.nordSESIL.net NordSESIL.net

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;Nord SESILwww.nordSESIL.net Many communities in the Nordic region have: · remote locations · small populations · isolated energy systems · high enegy costs · high relative energy demands (heating

  12. Conformal nets II: conformal blocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arthur Bartels; Christopher L. Douglas; André Henriques

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  13. New Design Methods And Algorithms For High Energy-Efficient And Low-cost Distillation Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, Rakesh

    2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This project sought and successfully answered two big challenges facing the creation of low-energy, cost-effective, zeotropic multi-component distillation processes: first, identification of an efficient search space that includes all the useful distillation configurations and no undesired configurations; second, development of an algorithm to search the space efficiently and generate an array of low-energy options for industrial multi-component mixtures. Such mixtures are found in large-scale chemical and petroleum plants. Commercialization of our results was addressed by building a user interface allowing practical application of our methods for industrial problems by anyone with basic knowledge of distillation for a given problem. We also provided our algorithm to a major U.S. Chemical Company for use by the practitioners. The successful execution of this program has provided methods and algorithms at the disposal of process engineers to readily generate low-energy solutions for a large class of multicomponent distillation problems in a typical chemical and petrochemical plant. In a petrochemical complex, the distillation trains within crude oil processing, hydrotreating units containing alkylation, isomerization, reformer, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) and NGL (natural gas liquids) processing units can benefit from our results. Effluents from naphtha crackers and ethane-propane crackers typically contain mixtures of methane, ethylene, ethane, propylene, propane, butane and heavier hydrocarbons. We have shown that our systematic search method with a more complete search space, along with the optimization algorithm, has a potential to yield low-energy distillation configurations for all such applications with energy savings up to 50%.

  14. Systems and methods for reactive distillation with recirculation of light components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stickney, Michael J. (Nassau Bay, TX); Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

    2011-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods for producing gas-to-liquids products using reactive distillation are provided. The method for producing gas-to-liquids products can include reacting a feedstock in a column having a distillation zone and a reaction zone to provide a bottoms stream and an overhead stream. A first portion of the overhead stream can be recycled to the column at the top of the reaction zone and second portion of the overhead stream can be recycled to the column at the bottom of the reaction zone.

  15. Z-States Algebra for a Tunable Multi-Party Entanglement-Distillation Protocol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Exman, Iaakov

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    W-States have achieved the status of the standard fully symmetric entangled states, for many entanglement application purposes. Z-States are a generalization of W-States that display an elegant algebra, enabling short paths to desired results. This paper describes Z-States algebra starting from neat definitions and laying down explicitly some fundamental theorems on composition and distillation, needed for applications. These theorems are synthesized into a generic tunable Entanglement-Distillation Protocol. Applications are readily developed based upon the tunable protocol. A few examples are provided to illustrate the approach generality. A concomitant graphical representation allows fast comprehension of the protocol inputs, operations and outcomes.

  16. Process for converting heavy oil deposited on coal to distillable oil in a low severity process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ignasiak, Teresa (417 Heffernan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Strausz, Otto (13119 Grand View Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw (417 heffernan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Janiak, Jerzy (17820 - 76 Ave., Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Pawlak, Wanda (3046 - 11465 - 41 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Szymocha, Kazimierz (3125 - 109 Street, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Turak, Ali A. (Edmonton, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing oil from coal fines that have been agglomerated or blended with heavy oil comprises the steps of heating the coal fines to temperatures over 350.degree. C. up to 450.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere, such as steam or nitrogen, to convert some of the heavy oil to lighter, and distilling and collecting the lighter oils. The pressure at which the process is carried out can be from atmospheric to 100 atmospheres. A hydrogen donor can be added to the oil prior to deposition on the coal surface to increase the yield of distillable oil.

  17. The Products of the Destructive Distillation of Keratin in the Form of Leather

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Reed Phillips

    1913-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ure to the air. After this came a white crystal­ line solid, fourth a reddish fciquid, fifth a red­ dish crystalline compound and sixth the black oil spoken of abovd. A volume of the distillate, equaling about a liter was collected and the two... the material the temperature rose to 200° C. and then reduction started and the temperature fell rapidly. The tar or oil constitutes from 3 to 4 per cent of the weight of the leather used. The aqueous portion of the distillate was subjected to a fractional...

  18. 2004 NET SYSTEM POWER CALCULATION COMMISSIONREPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION 2004 NET SYSTEM POWER CALCULATION COMMISSIONREPORT April 2005 CEC-300 on net system power [Senate Bill 1305, (Sher), Chapter 796, Statute of 1997]1 . Net system power in California. Net system power plays a role in California's retail disclosure program, which requires every

  19. Valley Electric Association- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Board of Directors for Valley Electric Association (VEA) approved net metering in April 2008. The rules apply to systems up to 30 kW, though owners of larger systems may be able to negotiate...

  20. Net Zero Energy Installations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booth, S.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A net zero energy installation (NZEI) is one that produces as much energy from on-site renewable sources as it consumes. NZEI assessment provides a systematic approach to energy projects.

  1. Austin Energy- Net Metering (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Austin Energy, the municipal utility of Austin Texas, offers net metering for renewable energy systems up to 20 kilowatts (kW) to its non-residential retail electricity customers. The definition of...

  2. NET-ZERO CARBON MANUFACTURING AT NET-ZERO COST Dustin Pohlman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kissock, Kelly

    1 NET-ZERO CARBON MANUFACTURING AT NET-ZERO COST Dustin Pohlman Industrial Assessment Center energy in manufacturing plants that results in net-zero carbon emissions at net-zero costs. The paper begins by reviewing the economics of net- zero energy buildings and discussing why a different approach

  3. EHS-Net Tomato Handling Study EHS-Net Tomato Handling Study Protocol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EHS-Net Tomato Handling Study 1 EHS-Net Tomato Handling Study Protocol I. Project Overview Title EHS-Net Tomato Handling Study Protocol Summary Few studies have examined in detail the nature Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) special study. EHS- Net is a collaboration involving the Centers

  4. Generating Code Structures for Petri NetBased Agent Interaction Protocols Using Net Components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamburg.Universit�¤t

    Generating Code Structures for Petri Net­Based Agent Interaction Protocols Using Net Components@informatik.uni­hamburg.de July 31, 2003 Abstract In this paper we introduce a straight forward approach for generating Petri Net of net components which provide basic tasks and the structure for Petri Nets. Agent interaction protocol

  5. Generating Code Structures for Petri Net-Based Agent Interaction Protocols Using Net Components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamburg.Universit�¤t

    Generating Code Structures for Petri Net-Based Agent Interaction Protocols Using Net Components@informatik.uni-hamburg.de March 31, 2004 Abstract In this paper we introduce a straight forward approach for generating Petri Net of net components which provide basic tasks and the structure for Petri Nets. Agent interaction protocol

  6. Entanglement Distillation; A Discourse on Bound Entanglement in Quantum Information Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lieven Clarisse

    2006-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    PhD thesis (University of York). The thesis covers in a unified way the material presented in quant-ph/0403073, quant-ph/0502040, quant-ph/0504160, quant-ph/0510035, quant-ph/0512012 and quant-ph/0603283. It includes two large review chapters on entanglement and distillation.

  7. Hybrid magic state distillation for universal fault-tolerant quantum computation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenqiang Zheng; Yafei Yu; Jian Pan; Jingfu Zhang; Jun Li; Zhaokai Li; Dieter Suter; Xianyi Zhou; Xinhua Peng; Jiangfeng Du

    2014-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A set of stabilizer operations augmented by some special initial states known as 'magic states', gives the possibility of universal fault-tolerant quantum computation. However, magic state preparation inevitably involves nonideal operations that introduce noise. The most common method to eliminate the noise is magic state distillation (MSD) by stabilizer operations. Here we propose a hybrid MSD protocol by connecting a four-qubit H-type MSD with a five-qubit T-type MSD, in order to overcome some disadvantages of the previous MSD protocols. The hybrid MSD protocol further integrates distillable ranges of different existing MSD protocols and extends the T-type distillable range to the stabilizer octahedron edges. And it provides considerable improvement in qubit cost for almost all of the distillable range. Moreover, we experimentally demonstrate the four-qubit H-type MSD protocol using nuclear magnetic resonance technology, together with the previous five-qubit MSD experiment, to show the feasibility of the hybrid MSD protocol.

  8. Distillation Absorption 2010 A.B. de Haan, H. Kooijman and A. Grak (Editors)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lucia, Angelo

    .al. The focus of this study is the stripping column. Table 1 gives some typical design results for the strippingDistillation Absorption 2010 A.B. de Haan, H. Kooijman and A. Górak (Editors) All rights reserved by authors as per DA2010 copyright notice ENERGY EFFICIENT SYNTHESIS AND DESIGN FOR CARBON CAPTURE Angelo

  9. Minimum Energy Consumption in Multicomponent Distillation. 3. More Than Three Products and Generalized Petlyuk Arrangements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Minimum Energy Consumption in Multicomponent Distillation. 3. More Than Three Products products (where normally M e N). We derive the expressions for a generalized extended Pet- lyuk arrangement for the generalized Pet- lyuk column with more than three products. The Vmin diagram was presented in part 1

  10. Effects of petroleum distillate on viscosity, density and surface tension of intermediate and heavy crude oils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdullayev, Azer

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    : San Francisco oil from Columbia with specific gravity of 28o-29o API, Duri oil with gravity of 19o-21o API, Jobo oil with gravity of 8o-9o API and San Ardo oil gravity of 11o-13o API. The additive used in all of the experiments is petroleum distillate...

  11. Distillate fuel-oil processing for phosphoric acid fuel-cell power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ushiba, K. K.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The current efforts to develop distillate oil-steam reforming processes are reviewed, and the applicability of these processes for integration with the fuel cell are discussed. The development efforts can be grouped into the following processing approaches: high-temperature steam reforming (HTSR); autothermal reforming (ATR); autothermal gasification (AG); and ultra desulfurization followed by steam reforming. Sulfur in the feed is a key problem in the process development. A majority of the developers consider sulfur as an unavoidable contaminant of distillate fuel and are aiming to cope with it by making the process sulfur-tolerant. In the HTSR development, the calcium aluminate catalyst developed by Toyo Engineering represents the state of the art. United Technology (UTC), Engelhard, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are also involved in the HTSR research. The ATR of distillate fuel is investigated by UTC and JPL. The autothermal gasification (AG) of distillate fuel is being investigated by Engelhard and Siemens AG. As in the ATR, the fuel is catalytically gasified utilizing the heat generated by in situ partial combustion of feed, however, the goal of the AG is to accomplish the initial breakdown of the feed into light gases and not to achieve complete conversion to CO and H/sub 2/. For the fuel-cell integration, a secondary reforming of the light gases from the AG step is required. Engelhard is currently testing a system in which the effluent from the AG section enters the steam-reforming section, all housed in a single vessel. (WHK)

  12. Black-Box Identification for PLC based MPC of a Binary Distillation Column

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Black-Box Identification for PLC based MPC of a Binary Distillation Column B. Huyck ,, F. Logist J is to upgrade the control system with a linear MPC running on a PLC. However, before a model based controller can be used on a PLC, an accurate (but simple) process model has to be constructed. Hence, the aim

  13. Effect of Narrow Cut Oil Shale Distillates on HCCI Engine Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eaton, Scott J [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Fairbridge, Craig [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Canada

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this investigation, oil shale crude obtained from the Green River Formation in Colorado using Paraho Direct retorting was mildly hydrotreated and distilled to produce 7 narrow boiling point fuels of equal volumes. The resulting derived cetane numbers ranged between 38.3 and 43.9. Fuel chemistry and bulk properties strongly correlated with boiling point.

  14. Factors associated with mosquito net use by individuals in households owning nets in Ethiopia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graves, Patricia M; Ngondi, Jeremiah M; Hwang, Jimee; Getachew, Asefaw; Gebre, Teshome; Mosher, Aryc W; Patterson, Amy E; Shargie, Estifanos B; Tadesse, Zerihun; Wolkon, Adam; Reithinger, Richard; Emerson, Paul M; Richards, Frank O Jr

    2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract Background Ownership of insecticidal mosquito nets has dramatically increased in Ethiopia since 2006, but the proportion of persons with access to such nets who use them has declined. It is important to understand individual level net use...

  15. Net ecosystem production: A comprehensive measure of net carbon accumulation by ecosystems. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Randerson, J. T; Chapin, F. S; Harden, J. W; Neff, J. C; Harmon, M. E

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and F A. Bazzaz. August 2002 NET ECOSYSTEM PRODUCTION 1993.Net exchange of CO2 in a mid-latitude forest. ScienceN. , and E. -D. Schulze. 1999. Net CO, and H,O fluxes from

  16. import java.io.IOException; import java.net.URI;

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ricci, Laura

    import java.io.IOException; import java.net.URI; import java.util.Enumeration; import net.jxta.discovery.DiscoveryService; import net.jxta.document.AdvertisementFactory; import net.jxta.document.Element; import net.jxta.document.MimeMediaType; import net.jxta.document.StructuredDocument; import net.jxta.document.StructuredDocumentFactory; import

  17. Submitted to special issue ChERD. This version revised 22 Nov. 2006 The dos and don'ts of distillation column control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    'ts of distillation column control Sigurd Skogestad* Department of Chemical Engineering Norwegian University of Science and Technology N-7491 Trondheim, Norway Abstract The paper discusses distillation column control recommendations to assist the engineer in designing control systems for distillation columns. The standard LV

  18. Start | Grid View | Browse by Day OR Group/Topical | Author Index | Keyword Index | Personal Scheduler Active Constraint Regions for Economically Optimal Operation of Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Scheduler Active Constraint Regions for Economically Optimal Operation of Distillation Columns Tuesday and operation of distillation columns has been widely studied, as illustrated by for example Skogestad (1993 operation of distillation columns has been studied relatively little. The issue of active constraints

  19. Distillation of Bose-Einstein condensates in a double-well potential The characteristic feature of Bose-Einstein condensation is the accumulation of a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Distillation of Bose-Einstein condensates in a double-well potential The characteristic feature by preparing a Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical dipole trap and distilling it into a second empty dipole trap adjacent to the first one [2]. The distillation was driven by thermal atoms spilling over

  20. Wang Feng (2006). Comparison of languages in contact: The distillation method and the case of Bai. Language and linguistics monograph series B, Frontiers in linguistics III.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wang Feng (2006). Comparison of languages in contact: The distillation method and the case of Bai; Zhengzhang 2003). Wang Feng's Comparison of languages in contact: The distillation method and the case of Bai 2001). In Comparison of languages in contact: The distillation method and the case of Bai, Wang

  1. Start | Grid View | Browse by Day OR Group/Topical | Author Index | Keyword Index | Personal Scheduler Optimal Design of Energy-Efficient Integrated Distillation Processes for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Scheduler Optimal Design of Energy-Efficient Integrated Distillation Processes for Multicomponent Ideal Optimal design of energy-efficient integrated distillation processes for multicomponent ideal and non, The Netherlands The dividing wall distillation columns (DWC) find increased use in industrial practice

  2. World Net Nuclear Electric Power Generation, 1980-2007 - Datasets...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    U.S. Energy Information ... World Net Nuclear Electric ... Dataset Activity Stream World Net Nuclear Electric Power Generation, 1980-2007 International data showing world net...

  3. First BTU | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdf Jump to:ar-80m.pdfFillmore County, Minnesota:Island, NewFirmGreen

  4. BTU LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation in Carbon CaptureAtria PowerAxeonBCHP ScreeningBLMBSABTBTR

  5. The Goal of Net Zero

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ronquillo, M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Goal of Net Zero CATEE 2014 Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference Andrew T. Cronberg, PE Interim Water Director City of Fort Worth, Texas November 19, 2014 Dallas, Texas ESL-KT-14-11-47 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency... Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 •10 Journey to Net Zero began in the 1960’s •Digester Gas fueled Engine Blowers & Generators •Some heat recovery for anaerobic digesters ESL-KT-14-11-47 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas...

  6. NetCDF at NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated CodesTransparency VisitSilverNepheline crystallization inNetCDF NetCDF

  7. APPLICATION OF VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, R.; Pak, D.

    2011-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Vacuum distillation of chloride salts from plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) and simulant PuO{sub 2} has been previously demonstrated at Department of Energy (DOE) sites using kilogram quantities of chloride salt. The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated using a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attained, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile materials in the feed boat. The application of vacuum salt distillation (VSD) is of interest to the HB-Line Facility and the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Both facilities are involved in efforts to disposition excess fissile materials. Many of these materials contain chloride and fluoride salt concentrations which make them unsuitable for dissolution without prior removal of the chloride and fluoride salts. Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. Subsequent efforts are attempting to adapt the technology for the removal of fluoride. Fluoride salts of interest are less-volatile than the corresponding chloride salts. Consequently, an alternate approach is required for the removal of fluoride without significantly increasing the operating temperature. HB-Line Engineering requested SRNL to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of an alternate approach using both non-radioactive simulants and plutonium-bearing materials. Whereas the earlier developments targeted the removal of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl), the current activities are concerned with the removal of the halide ions associated with plutonium trifluoride (PuF{sub 3}), plutonium tetrafluoride (PuF{sub 4}), calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}), and calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}). This report discusses non-radioactive testing of small-scale and pilot-scale systems and radioactive testing of a small-scale system. Experiments focused on demonstrating the chemistry for halide removal and addressing the primary engineering questions associated with a change in the process chemistry.

  8. Long Island Power Authority- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    : Note: In October 2012 the LIPA Board of Trustees adopted changes to the utility's net metering tariff that permit remote net metering for non-residential solar and wind energy systems, and farm...

  9. AN ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF NET INVESTMENT IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NOTES AN ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF NET INVESTMENT IN GULF SHRIMP FISHING VESSELS1 The major capital to the Gulf shrimp fishery. The purpose of this study is to estimate an econometric model of annual real net

  10. City of St. George- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The St. George City Council adopted a [http://www.sgcity.org/wp/power/NetMeteringPolicy.pdf net-metering program for area utilities], including interconnection procedures, in October 2005.* The...

  11. Feasibility of Achieving Net-Zero-Energy Net-Zero-Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Feasibility of Achieving Net- Zero-Energy Net-Zero-Cost Homes I.S. Walker, Al-Beaini, SSimjanovic,JohnStanley,BretStrogen,IainWalker FeasibilityofAchieving ZeroNetEnergy,Zero NetCostHomes #12;4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

  12. Using WordNet to Extend FrameNet Coverage Richard Johansson and Pierre Nugues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nugues, Pierre

    Using WordNet to Extend FrameNet Coverage Richard Johansson and Pierre Nugues Department to address the prob- lem of sparsity in the FrameNet lexical database. The first method is based on the idea using a WordNet- based variant of the Lesk metric. The sec- ond method uses the sequence of synsets

  13. .NET DEVELOPER PROGRAM A ten-week comprehensive program covering Microsoft .NET technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaefer, Marcus

    .NET DEVELOPER PROGRAM A ten-week comprehensive program covering Microsoft® .NET technologies DePaul University's .NET Developer Program is designed to provide programmers with an intensive and comprehensive introduction to all essential aspects of the technologies, techniques and principles of Microsoft .NET

  14. Algebraic Higher-Order Nets: Graphs and Petri Nets as Tokens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mossakowski, Till - Deutschen Forschungszentrum für Künstliche Intelligenz & Fachbereich 3

    Algebraic Higher-Order Nets: Graphs and Petri Nets as Tokens Kathrin Hoffmann1 and Till Mossakowski 2 BISS, Department of Computer Science University of Bremen Abstract. Petri nets and Algebraic High-Level Nets are well-known to model parallel and concurrent systems. In this paper, we introduce the concept

  15. Reconfigurable Nets, a Class of High Level Petri Nets Supporting Dynamic Changes?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpuente, María

    Reconfigurable Nets, a Class of High Level Petri Nets Supporting Dynamic Changes. E-mail: fjoliver@dsic.upv.es. Abstract.We introduce a class of high level Petri nets, called reconfig- urable nets, that can dynamically modify their own structure by rewrit- ing

  16. Algebraic HigherOrder Nets: Graphs and Petri Nets as Tokens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mossakowski, Till - Deutschen Forschungszentrum für Künstliche Intelligenz & Fachbereich 3

    Algebraic Higher­Order Nets: Graphs and Petri Nets as Tokens Kathrin Ho#mann 1 and Till Mossakowski 2 BISS, Department of Computer Science University of Bremen Abstract. Petri nets and Algebraic High­Level Nets are well­known to model parallel and concurrent systems. In this paper, we introduce the concept

  17. Spinodal instabilities and the distillation effect in nuclear matter under strong magnetic fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Rabhi; C. Providencia; J. Da Providencia

    2008-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the effect of strong magnetic fields, of the order of $10^{18}$-$10^{19}$ G, on the instability region of nuclear matter at subsaturation densities. Relativistic nuclear models both with constant couplings and with density dependent parameters are considered. It is shown that a strong magnetic field can have large effects on the instability regions giving rise to bands of instability and wider unstable regions. As a consequence we predict larger transition densities at the inner edge of the crust of compact stars with strong magnetic field. The direction of instability gives rise to a very strong distillation effect if the last Landau level is only partially filled. However, for almost completed Landau levels an anti-distillation effect may occur.

  18. Negative Quasi-Probability Representation is a Necessary Resource for Magic State Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veitch, Victor; Emerson, Joseph

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The magic state model of quantum computation gives a recipe for universal quantum computation using perfect Clifford operations and repeat preparations of a noisy ancilla state. It is an open problem to determine which ancilla states enable universal quantum computation in this model. Here we show that for systems of odd dimension a necessary condition for a state to enable universal quantum computation is that it have negative representation in a particular quasi-probability representation which is a discrete analogue to the Wigner function. This condition implies the existence of a large class of bound states for magic state distillation: states which cannot be prepared using Clifford operations but do not enable universal quantum computation. This condition also enables an efficient experimental test for distillability.

  19. The CloudNets Network Virtualization Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmid, Stefan

    Nets Network Virtualization Architecture Johannes Grassler jgrassler@inet.tu-berlin.de 05. Februar, 2014 Johannes Grassler jgrassler@inet.tu-berlin.de The CloudNets Network Virtualization Architecture #12;..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . Johannes Grassler jgrassler@inet.tu-berlin.de The CloudNets Network Virtualization Architecture #12

  20. 2006 NET SYSTEM POWER REPORT COMMISSIONREPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION 2006 NET SYSTEM POWER REPORT COMMISSIONREPORT April 2007 CEC-300 This report provides the California Energy Commission's annual calculation of net system power as required by state law (Public Utilities Code, § 398.1 - 398.5). The report also defines net system power

  1. Representations of Petri net interactions Pawel Sobocinski

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sobocinski, Pawel

    Representations of Petri net interactions Pawel Soboci´nski ECS, University of Southampton, UK Abstract. We introduce a novel compositional algebra of Petri nets, as well as a stateful extension In part owing to their intuitive graphical representation, Petri nets [28] are of- ten used both

  2. Generalised Soundness of Workflow Nets is Decidable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sidorova, Natalia

    Generalised Soundness of Workflow Nets is Decidable Kees van Hee, Natalia Sidorova, and Marc investigate the decidability of the problem of generalised soundness for Workflow nets: ``Every marking with considering simple correctness criteria for Workflow nets and reduce them to the check of structural

  3. NET SYSTEM POWER: A SMALL SHARE OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION NET SYSTEM POWER: A SMALL SHARE OF CALIFORNIA'S POWER MIX IN 2005 the California Energy Commission's annual calculation of net system power as required by state law (Public Utilities Code, § 398.1 - 398.5). The report also defines net system power and explains how

  4. An evaluation of the potential end uses of a Utah tar sand bitumen. [Tar sand distillate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, K.P.; Harnsberger, P.M.; Guffey, F.D.

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To date the commercial application of tar sand deposits in the United States has been limited to their use as paving materials for county roads, parking lots, and driveways because the material, as obtained from the quarries, does not meet federal highway specifications. The bitumen in these deposits has also been the subject of upgrading and refining studies to produce transportation fuels, but the results have not been encouraging from an economic standpoint. The conversion of tar sand bitumen to transportation fuels cannot compete with crude oil refining. The purposes of this study were two-fold. The first was to produce vacuum distillation residues and determine if their properties met ASTM asphalt specifications. The second was to determine if the distillates could serve as potential feedstocks for the production of aviation turbine fuels. The bitumen used for this study was the oil produced during an in situ steamflood project at the Northwest Asphalt Ridge (Utah) tar sand deposit. Two distillation residues were produced, one at +316/sup 0/C and one at +399/sup 0/C. However, only the lower boiling residue met ASTM specifications, in this case as an AC-30 asphalt. The original oil sample met specifications as an AC-5 asphalt. These residue samples showed some unique properties in the area of aging; however, these properties need to be investigated further to determine the implications. It was also suggested that the low aging indexes and high flow properties of the asphalts may be beneficial for pavements that require good low-temperature performance. Two distillate samples were produced, one at IBP-316/sup 0/C and one at IBP-399/sup 0/C. The chemical and physical properties of these samples were determined, and it was concluded that both samples appear to be potential feedstocks for the production of aviation turbine fuels. However, hydrogenation studies need to be conducted and the properties of the finished fuels determined to verify the prediction. 14 refs., 12 tabs.

  5. Experimental and analytical studies of hydrocarbon yields under dry-, steam-, and steam with propane-distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramirez Garnica, Marco Antonio

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    from Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo (IMP), Dr. Fernando Rodriguez de la Garza, and Dr. Jose Luis Sanchez Bujanos from Petróleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), and Lawyer Rolando Rueda de Leon from Diario de Mexico, for their help and valuable advice. I would...-, and Steam with Propane-Distillation. (May 2004) Marco Antonio Ramírez-Garnica, B.S., Instituto Politécnico Nacional; M.S., Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Daulat D. Mamora Recent experimental and simulation...

  6. Middle distillate hydrotreatment zeolite catalysts containing Pt/Pd or Ni

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marin-Rosas, Celia

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    was financially supported by Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico. As a scholarship student, I would like to thank all managers for their help and services. The support provided by Dr. Kenneth Hall in the final step of my research when he was the department....S., Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico; M.S., Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico Co-Chairs of Advisory Committee: Dr. Gilbert F. Froment Dr. Rayford G. Anthony A study on middle distillate hydrotreatment zeolite catalysts containing Pt...

  7. ,"U.S. Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePrice SoldPlantGrossDistillateReserves+

  8. Energy Savings Accomplished by Replacing Steam Ejectors with Electric Driven Vacuum Pumps in Crude Distillation Vacuum Towers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, R. E.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The low cost of steam combined with the maintenance free operation of steam ejectors has assured their unquestioned use in providing the necessary vacuum for crude distillation vacuum towers. However, the cost of steam production has risen...

  9. Hydrogenation of aromatics in synthetic crude distillates catalyzed by platinum supported in molecular sieves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimbara, N.; Charland, J.P. [CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)] [CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Wilson, M.F. [CANMET, Devon, Alberta (Canada)] [CANMET, Devon, Alberta (Canada)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalytic hydrogenation of synthetic crude distillates from Canadian oil sands was carried out over platinum metal supported in pillared interlayered clay (PILC) and Y-zeolite. The molecular sieve supports were employed to modify the properties of dispersed platinum particles and improve their resistance to poisoning by sulfur. The objective was to reduce the distillate aromatic content to meet diesel emission control standards and cetane number requirements. Catalysts were prepared in a series of steps, and metal precursor was loaded using ion-exchange procedures. Characterization was done using X-ray diffraction, hydrogen chemisorption, and proton-induced X-ray emission elemental analysis. Catalytic hydrogenation reactions were carried out by processing distillate feedstocks both high (>100 ppm) and low (<10 ppm) in sulfur using a continuous-flow automated microreactor system. Experimental runs were performed to determine the reaction kinetics and Arrhenius parameters as a means of evaluating and comparing catalyst performance. Significant differences in catalyst activity were found. The Pt/Y-zeolite-alumina catalyst showed a much superior hydrogenation performance under conditions of high sulfur content. The extent of cracking and ring opening was also evaluated and was shown to be minimal under the operating conditions employed.

  10. A novel proportional--integral-derivative control configuration with application to the control of batch distillation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez-Ramirez, J.; Monroy-Loperena, R.; Cervantes, I.; Morales, A.

    2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this paper is to propose a novel proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control configuration based on an observer structure. Batch distillation is used as the base case study where the regulated output is the distillate composition. The proposed PID control law is derived in the framework of robust nonlinear control with modeling error compensation techniques. A reduced-order observer is proposed to estimate both the derivative of the regulated output and the underlying modeling error. These observations are subsequently used in a control loop to feedback variations of distillate composition (derivative feedback) and to counteract the effects of modeling errors. It is shown that, under certain conditions, the resulting control law is equivalent to a classical PID controller with an antireset windup scheme. Moreover, the tuning of the controller is performed very easily in terms of a prescribed closed-loop time constant and an estimation time constant. Numerical results are provided for binary and multicomponent separations. Sampled/delayed measurements and several sources of uncertainties are considered in order to provide a realistic test scenario for the proposed control design procedure.

  11. Magnetocaloric properties of distilled gadolinium: Effects of structural inhomogeneity and hydrogen impurity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burkhanov, G. S.; Kolchugina, N. B.; Chzhan, V. B.; Chistyakov, O. D. [Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science RAS, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Tereshina, E. A. [Institute of Physics ASCR, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic); Tereshina, I. S. [Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science RAS, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures PAS, 53-421 Wroclaw (Poland); Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Politova, G. A. [Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science RAS, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures PAS, 53-421 Wroclaw (Poland); Badurski, D.; Drulis, H. [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research PAS, 50-950 Wroclaw (Poland); Paukov, M.; Havela, L. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, 12116 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    High-purity Gd prepared by distillation is a structurally inhomogeneous system consisting of needle-shaped crystals of cross section 0.5–2.5??m with near-c-axis orientation embedded in a matrix of nanosized (30–100?nm) grains. By measuring the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) directly, we find that the MCE values differ markedly for the plate-shaped samples cut out of a distillate along and perpendicular to the crystals. The effect of small controlled amounts of impurity (hydrogen) on the properties of distilled Gd is further studied. We observe opposite trends in the MCE response to hydrogen charging with respect to the crystal's orientation within the samples and discuss mechanisms interrelating the unique structural morphology with the impurity behavior. As an overall assessment, the Curie temperatures of ?-GdH{sub x} solid solutions increase from 291?K up to 294?K when increasing hydrogen concentration x from 0 to 0.15. Hydrogenation is found to broaden the ferromagnetic-to-paramagnetic phase transition. Hydrogen-containing specimens demonstrate reversibility of MCE at these temperatures.

  12. EXTENDED SIMPLE COLORED PETRI NETS: A TOOL FOR PLANT SIMULATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coglio, Alessandro

    EXTENDED SIMPLE COLORED PETRI NETS: A TOOL FOR PLANT SIMULATION Antonio Camurri and Alessandro, I­16145 Genova, Italy {music, tokamak}@dist.unige.it ABSTRACT Extended Simple Colored Petri Nets (ESCP­nets) are a new class of High­level Petri Nets conceived as a good trade­off between Petri Nets (P­nets

  13. DIAGNOSING, BENCHMARKING AND TRANSFORMING THE LEED CERTIFIED FIU SIPA BUILDING INTO A NET-ZERO-ENERGY BUILDING (NET-ZEB)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pala, Nezih

    INTO A NET-ZERO-ENERGY BUILDING (NET-ZEB) Thomas Spiegelhalter Florida International University-neutral or Net-Zero-Energy buildings until 2030. (1) The topic of Net-Zero-Energy-Buildings (Net-ZEBs) has the performance with passive and active strategies towards a Net-Zero-Energy Building. (Fig. 1, 2) 1.1 SIPA

  14. Vacuum Distillation

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear JanYear JanPropane, No.1Decade6,393 6,810 6,51540 235Day)

  15. A blending problem (Taha, Example 2.3-7, almost) An oil refinery has three stages of production: a distillation tower, which

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galvin, David

    : a distillation tower, which takes in crude oil, up to a maximum of 650,000 barrels per day (bbl/day) and produces that maximizes profit. Note: Taha's Example 2.3-7 has distillation tower capacity 1,500,000 bbl/day, and is otherwise the same. 1 #12;Solution Let x1 be daily input to distillation tower Constraint: 0 x1 650000

  16. Isospin Distillation with Radial Flow: a Test of the Nuclear Symmetry Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Colonna; V. Baran; M. Di Toro; H. H. Wolter

    2007-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss mechanisms related to isospin transport in central collisions between neutron-rich systems at Fermi energies. A fully consistent study of the isospin distillation and expansion dynamics in two-component systems is presented in the framework of a stochastic transport theory. We analyze correlations between fragment observables, focusing on the study of the average N/Z of fragments, as a function of their kinetic energy. We identify an EOS-dependent relation between these observables, allowing to better characterize the fragmentation path and to access new information on the low density behavior of the symmetry energy.

  17. Design, start up, and three years operating experience of an ammonia scrubbing, distillation, and destruction plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gambert, G.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    When the rebuilt Coke Plant started operations in November of 1992, it featured a completely new closed circuit secondary cooler, ammonia scrubbing, ammonia distillation, and ammonia destruction plants. This is the second plant of this type to be built in North America. To remove the ammonia from the gas, it is scrubbed with three liquids: Approximately 185 gallons/minute of cooled stripped liquor from the ammonia stills; Light oil plant condensate; and Optionally, excess flushing liquor. These scrubbers typically reduce ammonia content in the gas from 270 Grains/100 standard cubic feet to 0.2 Grains/100 standard cubic feet.

  18. ,"U.S. Adjusted Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePrice SoldPlantGrossDistillate Fuel Oil by End

  19. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pless, S.; Scheib, J.; Torcellini, P.; Hendron, B.; Slovensky, M.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In preparation for the time-phased net zero energy requirement for new federal buildings starting in 2020, set forth in Executive Order 13514, NASA requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a roadmap for NASA's compliance. NASA detailed a Statement of Work that requested information on strategic, organizational, and tactical aspects of net zero energy buildings. In response, this document presents a high-level approach to net zero energy planning, design, construction, and operations, based on NREL's first-hand experience procuring net zero energy construction, and based on NREL and other industry research on net zero energy feasibility. The strategic approach to net zero energy starts with an interpretation of the executive order language relating to net zero energy. Specifically, this roadmap defines a net zero energy acquisition process as one that sets an aggressive energy use intensity goal for the building in project planning, meets the reduced demand goal through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, then adds renewable energy in a prioritized manner, using building-associated, emission- free sources first, to offset the annual energy use required at the building; the net zero energy process extends through the life of the building, requiring a balance of energy use and production in each calendar year.

  20. Farmington Electric Utility System- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Net metering rules developed by the New Mexico Public Regulation Commission (PRC) apply to the state's investor-owned utilities and electric cooperatives. Municipal utilities, which are not...

  1. Zero-Safe Nets: Modeling Transactions via Transition Synchronization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruni, Roberto

    Zero-Safe Nets: Modeling Transactions via Transition Synchronization Roberto Bruni and Ugo of the same zero-safe net. Zero-safe nets (ZS nets) have been introduced in [BM97] to provide a basic called stable places), ZS nets include a set of zero places. These are idealized resources that remain in

  2. Presented by SensorNet: The New Science of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .S. Department of Energy DeNap_SensorNet_SC10 SensorNet Collection Processing DisseminationSecurity Knowledge requirements Regulations Technology Intelligent Real world #12;3 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy DeNap_SensorNet_SC10 SensorNet SensorNet is ORNL's research in sensor network interoperability

  3. Overfitting in Neural Nets: Backpropagation, Conjugate Gradient, and Early Stopping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caruana, Rich

    Overfitting in Neural Nets: Backpropagation, Conjugate Gradient, and Early Stopping Rich Caruana is that backprop nets with excess hidden units generalize poorly. We show that nets with excess capacity generalize) Regardless of size, nets learn task subcomponents in similar sequence. Big nets pass through stages similar

  4. Partial Order Semantics of Types of Nets Robert Lorenz1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desel, Jörg

    Partial Order Semantics of Types of Nets Robert Lorenz1 , Gabriel Juh´as2 , and Sebastian Mauser3 1 of types of nets. Types of nets are a parametric definition of Petri nets originally developed for a general presentation of the synthesis of Petri nets from (step) transition systems. Partial order

  5. Structural and Dynamic Changes in Concurrent Systems: Reconfigurable Petri Nets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpuente, María

    Structural and Dynamic Changes in Concurrent Systems: Reconfigurable Petri Nets Marisa Llorens subject to dynamic changes using extensions of Petri nets. We begin by introducing the notion of net rewriting system. In a net rewriting system, a system configuration is described as a Petri net and a change

  6. Executability of Scenarios in Petri Nets Robert Lorenz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desel, Jörg

    Executability of Scenarios in Petri Nets Robert Lorenz Lehrstuhl f¨ur Angewandte Informatik whether a scenario is an execution of a Petri net. This holds for a wide variety of Petri net classes, ranging from elementary nets to general inhibitor nets. Scenarios are given by causal structures

  7. EHS-Net Hand Hygiene Study EHS-Net Hand Hygiene Study Protocol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EHS-Net Hand Hygiene Study 1 EHS-Net Hand Hygiene Study Protocol I. Project Overview Title EHS-Net Hand Hygiene Study Protocol Summary Good hand hygiene is of critical importance in preventing of personal hygiene policies and practices in food service establishments. The purpose of this study

  8. Magic State Distillation and Gate Compilation in Quantum Algorithms for Quantum Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colin J. Trout; Kenneth R. Brown

    2015-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum algorithms for quantum chemistry map the dynamics of electrons in a molecule to the dynamics of a coupled spin system. To reach chemical accuracy for interesting molecules, a large number of quantum gates must be applied which implies the need for quantum error correction and fault-tolerant quantum computation. Arbitrary fault-tolerant operations can be constructed from a small, universal set of fault-tolerant operations by gate compilation. Quantum chemistry algorithms are compiled by decomposing the dynamics of the coupled spin-system using a Trotter formula, synthesizing the decomposed dynamics using Clifford operations and single-qubit rotations, and finally approximating the single-qubit rotations by a sequence of fault-tolerant single-qubit gates. Certain fault-tolerant gates rely on the preparation of specific single-qubit states referred to as magic states. As a result, gate compilation and magic state distillation are critical for solving quantum chemistry problems on a quantum computer. We review recent progress that has improved the efficiency of gate compilation and magic state distillation by orders of magnitude.

  9. Optimum Requirements for the Synthesis of Biodiesel Using Fatty Acid Distillates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akunna E. Ejele

    The optimum requirements of temperature, retention time, mole ratio of reactants and catalyst for the direct synthesis of biodiesel from fatty acid distillates of palm kernel oil using tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid as catalyst was studied. The following parameters were used for the efficient and economic production of biodiesel: eight (8) moles of methanol per mole of fatty acid, 0.06 mole of tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid per mole of fatty acid, a retention time of sixty (60) minutes and reaction temperature of 65 OC. And this gave a maximum percentage yield of 98.4. Other parameters obtained include: an acid value of 0.1683 mg KOH/g, iodine value of 15.3549, flash point of 209 OC, viscosity of 3.7957 mm2s-1, density of 0.8776 g cm-3, water content of 400.05 mg kg-1, soap content of 2.30 mg/kg, and ester content of 98.804 %. From the obtained parameters, the biodiesel produced from fatty acid distillates of palm kernel oil reaches prescribed international standards for biodiesel production.

  10. Net alkalinity and net acidity 2: Practical considerations Carl S. Kirby a,*, Charles A. Cravotta III b,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirby, Carl S.

    Net alkalinity and net acidity 2: Practical considerations Carl S. Kirby a,*, Charles A. Cravotta of the sample. The Hot Acidity directly measures net acidity (=Ã?net alkalinity). Samples that had near-neutral p in their alkalinities and dissolved Fe, Mn, and Al concentrations. Hot Acidity was approximately equal to net acidity

  11. Net Benefits to Agriculture from the Trinity River Project, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fish, B.; Williford, G.; Elling, H.; Lacewell, R. D.; Hosch, P.; Griffin, W.; Reddell, D. L.; Hiler, E. A.; Bausch, W.

    by applying published seasonal flood damage factors and flood frequency as developed from a producer survey to annual gross returns. Annual net benefits were calculated as net returns with flood protection less net returns without flood protection...

  12. New constraints on Northern Hemisphere growing season net flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AL. : LARGER NORTH HEMISPHERE NET ECOSYSTEM EXCHANGE L12807AL. : LARGER NORTH HEMISPHERE NET ECOSYSTEM EXCHANGE Levin,Northern Hemisphere growing season net flux Z. Yang, 1 R. A.

  13. A .NET ASSEMBLY FOR EPICS SIMPLE CHANNEL ACCESS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timossi, Christopher A.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Application Development Using .NET”, PCAPAC [5] H. NishimuraA .NET ASSEMBLY FOR EPICS SIMPLE CHANNEL ACCESS* C. Timossi,interface software using the .NET platform and the C#

  14. Particle Tracking and Simulation on the .NET Framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nishimura, Hiroshi; Scarvie, Tom

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    can use IronPython[10] to access .NET assemblies directly atTRACKING AND SIMULATION ON THE .NET FRAMEWORK * H. Nishimurathe effectiveness of the .NET framework by converting a C++

  15. EPICS SCA CLIENTS ON THE .NET X64 PLATFORM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timossi, Chris; Nishimura, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EPICS SCA CLIENTS ON THE .NET X64 PLATFORM* C. Timossi 1 andAbstract We have developed a .NET assembly, which we callCa.dll) are categorized by .NET as unmanaged because they

  16. Supported by GreenNet-EU27

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Figueiredo Integration costs of wind due to changed system operation and investment decisions in GermanySupported by GreenNet-EU27 EIE/04/049/S07.38561 GreenNet-EU27 GUIDING A LEAST COST GRID INTEGRATION cost and grid extension cost caused by intermittent RES-E grid integration Derk Jan Swider (Ed

  17. THalumni.net Trinity Hall's online community

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lasenby, Joan

    THalumni.net Trinity Hall's online community Joining THalumni.net allows members to: · Check or location and send a private message to other Trinity Hall members. · Join the careers directory if you or loca- tion and send Trinity Hall members a private message. · Book and pay for events online and see

  18. Net Zero Design Yields Positive Results "Net zero" is used to describe a building designed to provide as

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waliser, Duane E.

    Net Zero Design Yields Positive Results "Net zero" is used to describe a building designed federal buildings in the planning process as of 2020 or later must be designed to meet net zero standards

  19. Energy Department Helps University of California Develop Net...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Transition Initiative Energy Department Helps University of California Develop Net-Zero Campus Energy Department Helps University of California Develop Net-Zero Campus...

  20. Best Practices for Controlling Capital Costs in Net Zero Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Best Practices for Controlling Capital Costs in Net Zero Energy Design and Construction - 2014 BTO Peer Review Best Practices for Controlling Capital Costs in Net Zero Energy...

  1. Designing Hawaii's First LEED Platinum Net Zero Community: Kaupuni...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Designing Hawaii's First LEED Platinum Net Zero Community: Kaupuni Village Designing Hawaii's First LEED Platinum Net Zero Community: Kaupuni Village U.S. Department of Energy...

  2. Net Zero Waste - Tools and Technical Support ...and other observations...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Net Zero Waste - Tools and Technical Support ...and other observations Net Zero Waste - Tools and Technical Support ...and other observations Presentation at Waste-to-Energy using...

  3. NREL: Continuum Magazine - Net-Zero Building Technologies Create...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Net-Zero Building Technologies Create Substantial Energy Savings Issue 6 Print Version Share this resource Net-Zero Building Technologies Create Substantial Energy Savings...

  4. Aspinall Courthouse: GSA's Historic Preservation and Net-Zero...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aspinall Courthouse: GSA's Historic Preservation and Net-Zero Renovation Aspinall Courthouse: GSA's Historic Preservation and Net-Zero Renovation Aspinall Courthouse: GSA's...

  5. Lessons Learned from Net Zero Energy Assessments and Renewable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lessons Learned from Net Zero Energy Assessments and Renewable Energy Projects at Military Installations Lessons Learned from Net Zero Energy Assessments and Renewable Energy...

  6. U-074: Microsoft .NET Bugs Let Remote Users Execute Arbitrary...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    4: Microsoft .NET Bugs Let Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Commands, Access User Accounts, and Redirect Users U-074: Microsoft .NET Bugs Let Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Commands,...

  7. US Crude Oil Production Surpasses Net Imports | Department of...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    US Crude Oil Production Surpasses Net Imports US Crude Oil Production Surpasses Net Imports Source: Energy Information Administration Short Term Energy Outlook. Chart by Daniel...

  8. assessing bed net: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Net Environmental Benefit Analysis: A New Assessment Methodology R. A. Efroymson 4 Assessing Debris Flow Hazard by Credal Nets A. Antonucci1 Computer Technologies and...

  9. Experimental study of oil yields and properties of light and medium Venezuelan crude oils under steam and steam-propane distillation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plazas Garcia, Joyce Vivia

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Six experimental runs were carried out to study the yields for a light crude oil (34.2°API) and an intermediate crude oil (25.1°API) under steam distillation and steam-propane distillation. Yields, were measured at five temperatures, 110, 150, 200...

  10. A Novel Control Methodology for a Pilot Plant Azeotropic Distillation Column Lina M. Rueda, Thomas F. Edgar,* and Robert B. Eldridge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eldridge, R. Bruce

    A Novel Control Methodology for a Pilot Plant Azeotropic Distillation Column Lina M. Rueda, Thomas challenges to the design and operation of a separation process. Heterogeneous Azeotropic Distillation Most as entrainer. The study concluded that optimum design of the two column approach is more economical than

  11. Experimental study of oil yields and properties of light and medium Venezuelan crude oils under steam and steam-propane distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plazas Garcia, Joyce Vivia

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Six experimental runs were carried out to study the yields for a light crude oil (34.2°API) and an intermediate crude oil (25.1°API) under steam distillation and steam-propane distillation. Yields, were measured at five temperatures, 110, 150, 200...

  12. Bull. U. 5. F. C.1892. Fykc Nets. (To face page 299.) PLATELXXII. &-THE FYKE NETS AND FYKE-NET FISHERIES OF THE UNITED STATES,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bull. U. 5. F. C.1892. Fykc Nets. (To face page 299.) PLATELXXII. ti P W n W a Y .- W Y >LL a 0 0: n W Y tLL Y 0 0 n m #12;&-THE FYKE NETS AND FYKE-NET FISHERIES OF THE UNITED STATES, WITH NOTES ON THE FYKE NETS OF OTHER COUNTRIES. BY HUGH M. SMITH, M. D. DEFINITION OF THE FYKE NET. The inquirer who goes

  13. The Role of the Flexicoking Process in Heavy Oil Processing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, R. I.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a clean product slate composed of low Btu gas, high Btu gas, LPG, naphtha, distillate and gas oil. The low Btu gas falls within the definition of an "Alternate Fuel" under current legislation (PL 95-620). Originally developed for refinery bottoms...

  14. The robustness of magic state distillation against errors in Clifford gates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jochym-O'Connor, Tomas; Helou, Bassam; Laflamme, Raymond

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum error correction and fault-tolerance have provided the possibility for large scale quantum computations without a detrimental loss of quantum information. A very natural class of gates for fault-tolerant quantum computation is the Clifford gate set and as such their usefulness for universal quantum computation is of great interest. Clifford group gates augmented by magic state preparation give the possibility of simulating universal quantum computation. However, experimentally one cannot expect to perfectly prepare magic states. Nonetheless, it has been shown that by repeatedly applying operations from the Clifford group and measurements in the Pauli basis, the fidelity of noisy prepared magic states can be increased arbitrarily close to a pure magic state [1]. We investigate the robustness of magic state distillation to perturbations of the initial states to arbitrary locations in the Bloch sphere due to noise. Additionally, we consider a depolarizing noise model on the quantum gates in the decoding ...

  15. Why methyl tert-butyl ether production by reactive distillation may yield multiple solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauan, S.; Hertzberg, T.; Lien, K.M. [Univ. of Trondheim (Norway)

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an explanation of why methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) production by reactive distillation may yield multiple solutions. Widely different composition profiles and conversions may, as already reported by Krishna and others, results with identical column specifications, depending on the initial estimates provided. A hypothesis yielding a qualitative understanding of this phenomenon has been developed. The inert n-butene plays a key role in the proposed explanation: As the reaction mixture is diluted with n-butene, the activity coefficient of methanol increases substantially and the temperature decreases. This dilution has a profound effect on the equilibrium conversion, enabling MTBE to escape from the reactive zone without decomposition. When methanol is fed below or in the lower part of the reactive zone of the column, the ``lifting capacity`` of the minimum boiling point MTBE-methanol azeotrope will also be important.

  16. Upgrading of middle distillate fractions of syncrudes from athabasca oil sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, M.F.; Kriz, J.F.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Middle distillate fractions of syncrudes from Athabasca Oil Sands were evaluated for suitability as feedstocks in the catalytic conversion to diesel fuel meeting cetane number specifications. Hydrogenation of aromatic components to napthenes under severe conditions (380 to 400/sup 0/C, 2500 psig) using sulfided CoO/MoO/sub 3/ and NiO/WO/sub 3/ over ..cap alpha.. . Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ in a previously described catalyst testing system. Reaction products were analyzed for aromatic carbon content using C/sup 13/ NMR spectroscopy and pseudo first order rate constants and activation energies (15.0 and 14.2 kcal 1 g-mole, respectively) were determined by regression analysis. At optimum conditions 97% aromatic conversion was obtained with the Ni-W catalyst. Product diesel fuel cetane number (42) was within specifications. Co-Mo catalyst was significantly less active.

  17. Re-refining of Waste Oil Solvent Is Used in Treatment/Distillation Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION. A combination solvent treatment/distillation process has been designed for re-refining industrial waste oil (such as equipment lubricants, metal-working oil, and process oil) and used automotive lubricants (engine oil, hydraulic oil, and gear oil) for reuse. WASTE ENERGY RECOVERY. Recycling of waste oil in the United States has the potential to save the energy equivalent of 7-12 million bbl of crude oil annually.1 WASTE OIL RECOVERY. Prior to 1960, a significant portion of the demand for automotive lubricating oil was met by re-relined used oil. At the time, 150 re-refineries produced 300 million gal of motor oil annually. Since 1960, however, the production of re-refined oil has steadily declined. In 1981, for example, out of about 1.2 billion gal of automobile lubricating oil and 1.6 billion gal of industrial lubricating oils purchased, 25 U.S. rerefineries

  18. On local indistinguishability of orthogonal pure states by using a bound on distillable entanglement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibasish Ghosh; Guruprasad Kar; Anirban Roy; Debasis Sarkar; Aditi Sen De; Ujjwal Sen

    2001-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the four states a|00>+b|11>, b^*|00>-a^*|11>, c|01>+d|10> and d^*|01>-c^*|10> cannot be discriminated with certainty if only local operations and classical communication (LOCC) are allowed and if only a single copy is provided, except in the case when they are simply |00>, |11>, |01> and |10> (in which case they are trivially distinguishable with LOCC). We go on to show that there exists a continuous range of values of a, b, c and d such that even three states among the above four are not locally distinguishable, if only a single copy is provided. The proof follows from the fact that logarithmic negativity is an upper bound of distillable entanglement.

  19. 2094 Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 1995,34,2094-2103 Operation of Integrated Three-Product(Petlyuk)Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    studied the design of such columns,very little work has been done on the operation and control the Petlyuk column, compared to an ordinary distillation column,has many more degrees of freedomin both op- eration and design. This undoubtablymakes the design of both the column and its control system more

  20. Colorimetric Determination of Nitrite in Foods Principle: The sample is extracted with distilled water and the aqueous extract clarified

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nazarenko, Alexander

    water and the aqueous extract clarified with zinc hydroxide. Sulfanilic acid is diazotisedColorimetric Determination of Nitrite in Foods Principle: The sample is extracted with distilled/50 mL. The absorbance range should extend from 0 to 0.6 approx. E. Extraction Procedure Weigh ca 100g