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1

Accurate BTU Measurement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 represents a typical arrangement in which heat is supplied to, or absorbed by the difference in temperatures of a working fluid, generally water. (See Ref. 1). Supply (TIl- Supply (Tl1 E E Heat (BTU) He.' ~ Exchange Exchange Relurn (T2... rate (BTU/unit time) ? m Mass flow rate (lb/unit time) hI' h2 = Specific enthalpy of supply and return liquid (BTU/lb) BTU C p - Average specific heat (--~----) IboF Equations 1, 2 are instantaneous values for heat flow or energy transferred...

Hosseini, S.; Rusnak, J. J.

2

BTU Accounting for Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, salesmen cars, over the highway trucks, facilities startup, waste used as fuel and fuels received for storage. This is a first step in the DOE's effort to establish usage guidelines for large industrial users and, we note, it requires BTU usage data...-generated electricity, heating, ventilating, air conditioning, in-plant transportation, ore hauling, raw material storage and finished product warehousing. Categories which are excluded are corporate and divisional offices, basic research, distribution centers...

Redd, R. O.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Problem 2.67: A gas undergoes a process from State 1, where p1 = 60 lbf/in2 & v1 = 6:0 ft3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Problem 2.67: A gas undergoes a process from State 1, where p1 = 60 lbf/in2 & v1 = 6:0 ft3 /lbm...c volume, & internal energy is u = 0:2651 BTU-in2 lbf-ft3 pv 95:436 BTU lbm where p is in lbf/in2 , v is in ft3 /lbm, & u is in BTU/lbm. The mass of gas is 10 lbm. Neglecting kinetic- and potential-energy e

4

A Requirement for Significant Reduction in the Maximum BTU Input...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

A Requirement for Significant Reduction in the Maximum BTU Input Rate of Decorative Vented Gas Fireplaces Would Impose Substantial Burdens on Manufacturers A Requirement for...

5

Cu  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phases on γ-Al2O3.WinterCrystalApplications | Energy FrontierCu

6

Lowest Pressure Steam Saves More BTU's Than You Think  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ABSTRACT Steam is the most transferring heat from But most steam systems LOWEST PRESSURE STEAM SAVES MORE BTU'S THAN YOU THINK Stafford J. Vallery Armstrong Machine Works Three Rivers, Michigan steam to do the process heating rather than...

Vallery, S. J.

7

Environmental Permitting of a Low-BTU Coal Gasification Facility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that merits serious consideration since only relatively small modifications to the existing oil or gas burner system may be required, and boiler derating can be minimized. The environmental permitting and planning process for a low-Btu coal gasification...

Murawczyk, C.; Stewart, J. T.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

EIS-0007: Low Btu Coal Gasification Facility and Industrial Park  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The U.S. Department of Energy prepared this environmental impact statement which evaluates the potential environmental impacts that may be associated with the construction and operation of a low-Btu coal gasification facility and the attendant industrial park in Georgetown, Scott County, Kentucky.

9

Property:Geothermal/AnnualGenBtuYr | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy ResourcesLoadingPenobscot County, Maine:Plug PowerAddressDataFormat JumpNercMroURL. PagesAnnualGenBtuYr

10

High Btu gas from peat. Existing social and economic conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1980, the Minnesota Gas Company (Minnegasco) submitted a proposal to the US Department of Energy entitled, A Feasibility Study - High Btu Gas from Peat. The proposed study was designed to assess the overall viability of the design, construction and operation of a commercial facility for the production of high-Btu substitute natural gas (SNG) from Minnesota peat. On September 30, 1980, Minnegasco was awarded a grant by the Department of Energy to perform the proposed study. In order to complete the study, Minnegasco assembled an experienced project team with the wide range of expertise required. In addition, the State of Minnesota agreed to participate in an advisory capacity. The items to be investigated by the project team during the feasibility study include peat harvesting, dewatering, gasification process design, economic and risk assessment, site evaluation, environmental and socioeconomic impact assessment. Ertec (The Earth Technology Corporation) was selected to conduct the site evaluation and environmental assessment portions of the feasibility study. The site evaluation was completed in March of 1981 with the submittal of the first of several reports to Minnegasco. This report describes the existing social and economic conditions of the proposed project area in northern Minnesota. The baseline data presented will be used to assess the significance of potential project impacts in subsequent phases of the feasibility study. Wherever possible, the data base was established using 1980 Bureau of Census statistics. However, where the 1980 data were not yet available, the most recent information is presented. 11 figures, 46 tables.

Not Available

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

The Mansfield Two-Stage, Low BTU Gasification System: Report of Operations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The least expensive way to produce gas from coal is by low Btu gasification, a process by which coal is converted to carbon monoxide and hydrogen by reacting it with air and steam. Low Btu gas, which is used near its point of production, eliminates...

Blackwell, L. T.; Crowder, J. T.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Vol. 30 no. 14 2014, pages 20912092 BIOINFORMATICS MESSAGE FROM THE ISCB doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btu117  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.1093/bioinformatics/btu117 Advance Access publication March 3, 2014 The automated function prediction SIG looks back

Radivojac, Predrag

13

Method for producing low and medium BTU gas from coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process for producing low and medium BTU gas from carbonizable material is described which comprises: partly devolatizing the material and forming hot incandescent coke therefrom by passing a bed of the same part way through a hot furnace chamber on a first horizontally moving grate while supplying a sub-stoichiometric quantity of air to the same and driving the reactions: C + O/sub 2/ = CO/sub 2/; 2C + O/sub 2/ = 2CO discharging the hot incandescent coke from the end of the first grate run onto a second horizontally moving grate run below the first grate run in the same furnace chamber so as to form a bed thereon, the bed formed on the second grate run being considerably thicker than the bed formed on the first grate run, passing the hot incandescent coke bed on the second grate run further through the furnace chamber in a substantially horizontal direction while feeding air and stream thereto so as to fully burn the coke and in ratio of steam to air driving the following reactions: 2C + O/sub 2/ = 2CO; C + H/sub 2/O = H/sub 2/ + CO; C + 2H/sub 2/O = 2H/sub 2/ + CO/sub 2/; CO + H/sub 2/O = H/sub 2/ + CO/sub 2/ taking off the ash residue of the burned coke and taking off the gaseous products of the reactions.

Mansfield, V.; Francoeur, C.M.

1988-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

14

Sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is disclosed. The combustor includes several separately removable combustion chambers each having an annular sectoral cross section and a double-walled construction permitting separation of stresses due to pressure forces and stresses due to thermal effects. Arrangements are described for air-cooling each combustion chamber using countercurrent convective cooling flow between an outer shell wall and an inner liner wall and using film cooling flow through liner panel grooves and along the inner liner wall surface, and for admitting all coolant flow to the gas path within the inner liner wall. Also described are systems for supplying coal gas, combustion air, and dilution air to the combustion zone, and a liquid fuel nozzle for use during low-load operation. The disclosed combustor is fully air-cooled, requires no transition section to interface with a turbine nozzle, and is operable at firing temperatures of up to 3000.degree. F. or within approximately 300.degree. F. of the adiabatic stoichiometric limit of the coal gas used as fuel.

Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Recent regulatory experience of low-Btu coal gasification. Volume III. Supporting case studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The MITRE Corporation conducted a five-month study for the Office of Resource Applications in the Department of Energy on the regulatory requirements of low-Btu coal gasification. During this study, MITRE interviewed representatives of five current low-Btu coal gasification projects and regulatory agencies in five states. From these interviews, MITRE has sought the experience of current low-Btu coal gasification users in order to recommend actions to improve the regulatory process. This report is the third of three volumes. It contains the results of interviews conducted for each of the case studies. Volume 1 of the report contains the analysis of the case studies and recommendations to potential industrial users of low-Btu coal gasification. Volume 2 contains recommendations to regulatory agencies.

Ackerman, E.; Hart, D.; Lethi, M.; Park, W.; Rifkin, S.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Vol. 30 ISMB 2014, pages i9i18 BIOINFORMATICS doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btu259  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vol. 30 ISMB 2014, pages i9­i18 BIOINFORMATICS doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btu259 Evaluating synteny

Moret, Bernard

17

Sandia National Laboratories: SWiFT Operations  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Operations SWiFT Operations wind-turbines The DOESNL SWiFT facility has three research-scale variable-speed variable-pitch modified wind turbines with full power conversion and an...

18

An analytical investigation of primary zone combustion temperatures and NOx production for turbulent jet flames using low-BTU fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The objective of this research project was to identify and determine the effect of jet burner operating variables that influence combustion of low-BTU gases. This was done by simulating the combustion of a low-BTU fuel in a jet flame and predicting...

Carney, Christopher Mark

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Sandia National Laboratories: Ft. Devens  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -theErik Spoerke SSLS Exhibit at Explora MuseumFloatingFront Edge Technology Inc.Ft.

20

UK FT PDU Facility Draft EA  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Process Development Unit Facility February 2014 The facility is sized as a small-scale pilot CBTL plant that would produce research quantities of FT liquid fuels at...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu cu ft" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Understanding Utility Rates or How to Operate at the Lowest $/BTU  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The lower the energy rating (KW/Ton or KW/HP or KW/BTU) the more efficient the equipment and the less demand draw on the electric power plants, thereby reducing the need to build new power plants. To encourage DSM, utilities give rebates for high...: Bob Allwein, Oklahoma Natural Gas Company. Dick Landry, Gulf States Utility. Curtis Williford, Entex Gas Company. Bret McCants, Central Power and Light Company. Frank Tanner, Southern Union. Patric Coon, West Texas utilities. ESL-IE-93...

Phillips, J. N.

22

High btu gas from peat. A feasibility study. Part 1. Executive summary. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In September, 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a Grant (No. DE-FG01-80RA50348) to the Minnesota Gas Company (Minnegasco) to evaluate the commercial viability - technical, economic and environmental - of producing 80 million standard cubic feet per day (SCFD) of substitute natural gas (SNG) from peat. The proposed product, high Btu SNG would be a suitable substitute for natural gas which is widely used throughout the Upper Midwest by residential, commercial and industrial sectors. The study team consisted of Dravo Engineers and Constructors, Ertec Atlantic, Inc., The Institute of Gas Technology, Deloitte, Haskins and Sells and Minnegasco. Preliminary engineering and operating and financial plans for the harvesting, dewatering and gasification operations were developed. A site in Koochiching County near Margie was chosen for detailed design purposes only; it was not selected as a site for development. Environmental data and socioeconomic data were gathered and reconciled. Potential economic data were gathered and reconciled. Potential impacts - both positive and negative - were identified and assessed. The peat resource itself was evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively. Markets for plant by-products were also assessed. In summary, the technical, economic, and environmental assessment indicates that a facility producing 80 billion Btu's per day SNG from peat is not commercially viable at this time. Minnegasco will continue its efforts into the development of peat and continue to examine other options.

Not Available

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Markets for low- and medium-Btu coal gasification: an analysis of 13 site specific studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1978 the US Department of Energy (DOE), through its Office of Resource Applications, developed a commercialization plan for low- and medium-Btu coal gasification. Several initial steps have been taken in that process, including a comprehensive study of industrial markets, issuance of a Notice of Program Interest, and funding of proposals under the Alternate Fuels Legislation (P.L. 96-126). To assist it in the further development and administration of the commercialization plan, the Office of Resource Applications has asked Booz, Allen and Hamilton to assess the market prospects for low- and medium-Btu coal gasification. This report covers the detailed findings of the study. Following the introduction which discusses the purpose of the study, approach used for the assignment and current market attitudes on coal gasification, there are three chapters on: systems configurations and applications; economic and finanical attractiveness; and summary of management decisions based on feasibility study results. The final chapter briefly assesses the management decisions. The general consensus seems to be that coal gasification is a technology that will be attractive in the future but is marginal now. 6 figures, 5 tables.

Not Available

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone: this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe: swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone: this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

1985-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

25

Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone; this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe; swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone; this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Table S1. Fuel Properties. JP-8 Blend-1 FT-1 Blend-2 FT-2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

58 45 51 H Content (% mass) 13.6 14.5 15.5 14.3 15.1 Heat of Combust. (MJ/kg) 43.3 43.8 44.4 43.8 441 Table S1. Fuel Properties. JP-8 Blend-1 FT-1 Blend-2 FT-2 Feedstock Petroleum Petroleum & Natural Gas Natural Gas Petroleum & Coal Coal Sulfur (ppm by mass) 1148 699 19 658 22 Alkanes (% vol.) 50

Meskhidze, Nicholas

27

Natural Disaster Survey Report Ft. Smith and Van Buren, Arkansas,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and conversations with volunteer amateur radio operators, members of the print and broadcast media in Ft. Smith to the U.S. Congress, to local government officials in Ft. Smith and Van Buren, and to the media on May 21Natural Disaster Survey Report Ft. Smith and Van Buren, Arkansas, Tornado of April 21, 1996 U

28

U.S. Army- Ft. Carson, Colorado  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Fort Carson U.S. Army Base is located south of Colorado Springs, Colorado. It was the first Federal facility to install a "solar wall"a solar ventilation air preheating system. The solar wall heats Ft. Carson's new high-bay aviation maintenance facility at Butts Army Airfield by pre-warming air as much as 54F and supplying the heated air to the building's central heating system. This collector system is especially advantageous for buildings that require large volumes of heated air.

29

FT Solutions LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address:011-DNA Jump37. It isInformationexplainsEnvironmental Assessments and Related| OpenFT

30

Commercial demonstration of atmospheric medium BTU fuel gas production from biomass without oxygen the Burlington, Vermont Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The first U.S. demonstration of a gas turbine operating on fuel gas produced by the thermal gasification of biomass occurred at Battelle Columbus Labs (BCL) during 1994 using their high throughput indirect medium Btu gasification Process Research Unit (PRU). Zurn/NEPCO was retained to build a commercial scale gas plant utilizing this technology. This plant will have a throughput rating of 8 to 12 dry tons per hour. During a subsequent phase of the Burlington project, this fuel gas will be utilized in a commercial scale gas turbine. It is felt that this process holds unique promise for economically converting a wide variety of biomass feedstocks efficiently into both a medium Btu (500 Btu/scf) gas turbine and IC engine quality fuel gas that can be burned in engines without modification, derating or efficiency loss. Others are currently demonstrating sub-commercial scale thermal biomass gasification processes for turbine gas, utilizing both atmospheric and pressurized air and oxygen-blown fluid bed processes. While some of these approaches hold merit for coal, there is significant question as to whether they will prove economically viable in biomass facilities which are typically scale limited by fuel availability and transportation logistics below 60 MW. Atmospheric air-blown technologies suffer from large sensible heat loss, high gas volume and cleaning cost, huge gas compressor power consumption and engine deratings. Pressurized units and/or oxygen-blown gas plants are extremely expensive for plant scales below 250 MW. The FERCO/BCL process shows great promise for overcoming the above limitations by utilizing an extremely high throughout circulation fluid bed (CFB) gasifier, in which biomass is fully devolitalized with hot sand from a CFB char combustor. The fuel gas can be cooled and cleaned by a conventional scrubbing system. Fuel gas compressor power consumption is reduced 3 to 4 fold verses low Btu biomass gas.

Rohrer, J.W. [Zurn/NEPCO, South Portland, MA (United States); Paisley, M. [Battelle Laboratories, Columbus, OH (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

31

High-temperature turbine technology program. Turbine subsystem design report: Low-Btu gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the US Department of Energy High-Temperature Turbine Technology (DOE-HTTT) program is to bring to technology readiness a high-temperature (2600/sup 0/F to 3000/sup 0/F firing temperature) turbine within a 6- to 10-year duration, Phase II has addressed the performance of component design and technology testing in critical areas to confirm the design concepts identified in the earlier Phase I program. Based on the testing and support studies completed under Phase II, this report describes the updated turbine subsystem design for a coal-derived gas fuel (low-Btu gas) operation at 2600/sup 0/F turbine firing temperature. A commercial IGCC plant configuration would contain four gas turbines. These gas turbines utilize an existing axial flow compressor from the GE product line MS6001 machine. A complete description of the Primary Reference Design-Overall Plant Design Description has been developed and has been documented. Trends in overall plant performance improvement at higher pressure ratio and higher firing temperature are shown. It should be noted that the effect of pressure ratio on efficiency is significally enhanced at higher firing temperatures. It is shown that any improvement in overall plant thermal efficiency reflects about the same level of gain in Cost of Electricity (COE). The IGCC concepts are shown to be competitive in both performance and cost at current and near-term gas turbine firing temperatures of 1985/sup 0/F to 2100/sup 0/F. The savings that can be accumulated over a thirty-year plant life for a water-cooled gas turbine in an IGCC plant as compared to a state-of-the-art coal-fired steam plant are estimated. A total of $500 million over the life of a 1000 MW plant is projected. Also, this IGCC power plant has significant environmental advantages over equivalent coal-fired steam power plants.

Horner, M.W.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Heat transfer pathways in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

coefficient, W/(m 2 ?K) (Btu/[h?ft 2 ?F]) downwardcoefficient, W/(m 2 ?K) (Btu/[h?ft 2 ? F]) forcedcoefficient, W/(m 2 ?K) (Btu/[h?ft 2 ?F]) slab thermal

Bauman, F.; Jin, H.; Webster, T.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

ISV FACT SHEET SINGLE ENSUITE: 198 sq.ft.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ISV FACT SHEET SINGLE ENSUITE: 198 sq.ft. STANDARD ROOM: (NO AIRCOND, NO WATER HEATER, FREE WIFI): RM 590 PER MONTH PER BED PREMIER ROOM: : (AIRCOND WITH WATER HEATER, FREE WIFI) : RM740 PER MONTH PER BED TWIN SHARING: 283 sq.ft. STANDARD ROOM: (NO AIRCOND, NO WATER HEATER, FREE WIFI): RM 490 PER MONTH

Southampton, University of

34

High Btu gas from peat. A feasibility study. Part 2. Management plans for project continuation. Task 10. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of this task, which was the responsibility of the Minnesota Gas Company, was to determine the needs of the project upon completion of the feasibility study and determine how to implement them most effectively. The findings of the study do not justify the construction of an 80 billion Btu/day SNG from peat plant. At the present time Minnegasco will concentrate on other issues of peat development. Other processes, other products, different scales of operation - these are the issues that Minnegasco will continue to study. 3 references.

Not Available

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

The effect of CO? on the flammability limits of low-BTU gas of the type obtained from Texas lignite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) . If the L. used are the lower limits of 1 the individual components, then Equation (1) will yield the lower flammability limit of the mixture (Zabetakis, 1965) . If the inert gases nitrogen or carbon dioxide are present, the Equation (1) may still... gas cylinders with the exception of the air which was atmospheric. The carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrogen came from commercial sources in high- pressure cylinders. The low-BTU gas consisting of 20. 89% CO, 2 . 65% CH4, 0 . 2% C2H6, 15 . 37% H2...

Gaines, William Russell

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

$f(T)$ Theories and Varying Fine Structure Constant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In analogy to $f(R)$ theory, recently $f(T)$ theory has been proposed to drive the current accelerated expansion without invoking dark energy. In the literature, the observational constraints on $f(T)$ theories were obtained mainly by using the cosmological data, such as type Ia supernovae (SNIa), baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO), and cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB). In this work, we instead try to constrain $f(T)$ theories with the varying fine structure "constant", $\\alpha\\equiv e^2/\\hbar c$. We find that the constraints on $f(T)$ theories from the observational $\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha$ data are very severe. In fact, they make $f(T)$ theories almost indistinguishable from $\\Lambda$CDM model.

Wei, Hao; Qi, Hao-Yu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Spherically symmetric static spacetimes in vacuum f(T) gravity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We show that Schwarzschild geometry remains as a vacuum solution for those four-dimensional f(T) gravitational theories behaving as ultraviolet deformations of general relativity. In the gentler context of three-dimensional gravity, we also find that the infrared-deformed f(T) gravities, like the ones used to describe the late cosmic speed up of the Universe, have as the circularly symmetric vacuum solution a Deser-de Sitter or a Banados, Teitelboim and Zanelli-like spacetime with an effective cosmological constant depending on the infrared scale present in the function f(T).

Ferraro, Rafael [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fiorini, Franco [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

38

Transition redshift in $f(T)$ cosmology and observational constraints  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We extract constraints on the transition redshift $z_{tr}$, determining the onset of cosmic acceleration, predicted by an effective cosmographic construction, in the framework of $f(T)$ gravity. In particular, employing cosmography we obtain bounds on the viable $f(T)$ forms and their derivatives. Since this procedure is model independent, as long as the scalar curvature is fixed, we are able to determine intervals for $z_{tr}$. In this way we guarantee that the Solar-System constraints are preserved and moreover we extract bounds on the transition time and the free parameters of the scenario. We find that the transition redshifts predicted by $f(T)$ cosmology, although compatible with the standard $\\Lambda$CDM predictions, are slightly smaller. Finally, in order to obtain observational constraints on $f(T)$ cosmology, we perform a Monte Carlo fitting using supernova data, involving the most recent union 2.1 data set.

Capozziello, Salvatore; Saridakis, Emmanuel N

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Ft Scott Community College Transfer Program to University of Kansas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

461 Probability & Statistics (Computer Engineering & Electrical Engineering)) 3 No Equivalent BASIC & Computer Science (Computer Engineering, Computer Science, Electrical Engineering, Information TechnologyFt Scott Community College Transfer Program to University of Kansas B.S. Electrical Engineering

40

Application of Printed Circuit Board Technology to FT-ICR MS...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to FT-ICR MS Analyzer Cell Construction and Prototyping. Abstract: Although Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICRMS) remains themass spectrometry...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu cu ft" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Advanced Mass Calibration and Visualization for FT-ICR Mass Spectromet...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry Imaging. Abstract: Mass spectrometry imaging by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) yields hundreds of unique peaks, many of which...

42

COMPCOAL{trademark}: A profitable process for production of a stable high-Btu fuel from Powder River Basin coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Western Research Institute (WRI) is developing a process to produce a stable, clean-burning, premium fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and other low-rank coals. This process is designed to overcome the problems of spontaneous combustion, dust formation, and readsorption of moisture that are experienced with PRB coal and with processed PRB coal. This process, called COMPCOAL{trademark}, results in high-Btu product that is intended for burning in boilers designed for midwestern coals or for blending with other coals. In the COMPCOAL process, sized coal is dried to zero moisture content and additional oxygen is removed from the coal by partial decarboxylation as the coal is contacted by a stream of hot fluidizing gas in the dryer. The hot, dried coal particles flow into the pyrolyzer where they are contacted by a very small flow of air. The oxygen in the air reacts with active sites on the surface of the coal particles causing the temperature of the coal to be raised to about 700{degrees}F (371{degrees}C) and oxidizing the most reactive sites on the particles. This ``instant aging`` contributes to the stability of the product while only reducing the heating value of the product by about 50 Btu/lb. Less than 1 scf of air per pound of dried coal is used to avoid removing any of the condensible liquid or vapors from the coal particles. The pyrolyzed coal particles are mixed with fines from the dryer cyclone and dust filter and the resulting mixture at about 600{degrees}F (316{degrees}C) is fed into a briquettor. Briquettes are cooled to about 250{degrees}F (121{degrees}C) by contact with a mist of water in a gas-tight mixing conveyor. The cooled briquettes are transferred to a storage bin where they are accumulated for shipment.

Smith, V.E.; Merriam, N.W.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

0.6 cu. ft. (17 litre) capacity microwave 700 watts of cooking power  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Installation/yearly maintenance not included. Danby ENERGY STAR Mini Fridge (DCR88WDD) Danby Microwave (DMW608W

Lotze, Heike K.

44

Cosmological viability conditions for f(T) dark energy models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recently f(T) modified teleparallel gravity where T is the torsion scalar has been proposed as the natural gravitational alternative for dark energy. We perform a detailed dynamical analysis of these models and find conditions for the cosmological viability of f(T) dark energy models as geometrical constraints on the derivatives of these models. We show that in the phase space exists two cosmologically viable trajectory which (i) The universe would start from an unstable radiation point, then pass a saddle standard matter point which is followed by accelerated expansion de sitter point. (ii) The universe starts from a saddle radiation epoch, then falls onto the stable matter era and the system can not evolve to the dark energy dominated epoch. Finally, for a number of f(T) dark energy models were proposed in the more literature, the viability conditions are investigated.

Setare, M.R.; Mohammadipour, N., E-mail: rezakord@ipm.ir, E-mail: N.Mohammadipour@uok.ac.ir [Department of Science, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Cosmological viability conditions for $f(T)$ dark energy models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recently $f(T)$ modified teleparallel gravity where T is the torsion scalar has been proposed as the natural gravitational alternative for dark energy. We perform a detailed dynamical analysis of these models and find conditions for the cosmological viability of $f(T)$ dark energy models as geometrical constraints on the derivatives of these models. We show that in the phase space exists two cosmologically viable trajectory which (i) The universe would start from an unstable radiation point, then pass a saddle standard matter point which is followed by accelerated expansion de sitter point. (ii) The universe starts from a saddle radiation epoch, then falls onto the stable matter era and the system can not evolve to the dark energy dominated epoch. Finally, for a number of $f(T)$ dark energy models were proposed in the more literature, the viability conditions are investigated.

M. R. Setare; N. Mohammadipour

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

46

SOME ANALYTIC MODELS OF PASSIVE SOLAR BUILDING PERFORMANCE: A THEORETICAL APPROACH TO THE DESIGN OF ENERGY-CONSERVING BUILDINGS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X) * Assumes ASHRAE materials properties K = .54 Btu h Btu p1bs Btu 144 -3)C = .156 of-lb. ft P F- ft-hr F-ft -hr Fig.Insulation is R - 8: ft 2 -hr-oF Btu Dr tAssumes p = 144 Ib/

Goldstein, David Baird

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Performance Criteria for Residential Zero Energy Windows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CA) MEC Zone MEC Pkg # Glz % Btu/h-ft2-F Fenestration U-factor W/m2-K (h-ft2-F)/Btu Ceiling R-value (m2-K)/W (h-ft2-F)/Btu Wall R-value (m2-K)/W (h-ft2-F)/Btu Floor

Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Huang, Joe; Kohler, Christian; Mitchell, Robin

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Generalized second law of thermodynamics in f(T) gravity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate the validity of the generalized second law (GSL) of gravitational thermodynamics in the framework of f(T) modified teleparallel gravity. We consider a spatially flat FRW universe containing only the pressureless matter. The boundary of the universe is assumed to be enclosed by the Hubble horizon. For two viable f(T) models containing f(T) = T+?{sub 1}((?T)){sup n} and f(T) = T??{sub 2}T(1?e{sup ?T{sub 0}/T}), we first calculate the effective equation of state and deceleration parameters. Then, (we investigate the null and strong energy conditions and conclude that a sudden future singularity appears in both models. Furthermore, using a cosmographic analysis we check the viability of two models. Finally, we examine the validity of the GSL and find that for both models it) is satisfied from the early times to the present epoch. But in the future, the GSL is violated for the special ranges of the torsion scalar T.

Karami, K.; Abdolmaleki, A., E-mail: KKarami@uok.ac.ir, E-mail: AAbdolmaleki@uok.ac.ir [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran St., Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

HydraNet-FT: network support for dependable servors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Net-FT infrastructure consists of two components: host servers and redirecting. Host servers are hosts that are specially equipped to act as servers for replicated and fault-tolerant services. The location of the host servers is known to the redirecting, specially...

Shenoy, Gurudatt

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

System and process for the abatement of casting pollution, reclaiming resin bonded sand, and/or recovering a low BTU fuel from castings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Air is caused to flow through the resin bonded mold to aid combustion of the resin binder to form a low BTU gas fuel. Casting heat is recovered for use in a waste heat boiler or other heat abstraction equipment. Foundry air pollution is reduced, the burned portion of the molding sand is recovered for immediate reuse and savings in fuel and other energy is achieved.

Scheffer, Karl D. (121 Governor Dr., Scotia, NY 12302)

1984-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

51

System and process for the abatement of casting pollution, reclaiming resin bonded sand, and/or recovering a low Btu fuel from castings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Air is caused to flow through the resin bonded mold to aid combustion of the resin binder to form a low Btu gas fuel. Casting heat is recovered for use in a waste heat boiler or other heat abstraction equipment. Foundry air pollutis reduced, the burned portion of the molding sand is recovered for immediate reuse and savings in fuel and other energy is achieved. 5 figs.

Scheffer, K.D.

1984-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

52

Anisotropic Compact Stars in $f(T)$ Gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper deals with the theoretical modeling of anisotropic compact stars in the framework of $f(T)$ theory of gravity, where $T$ is torsion scalar. To this end, we have used the exact solutions of Krori and Barua metric to a static spherically symmetric metric. The unknown constants involved in the Krori and Barua metric have been specified by using the masses and radii of compact stars 4$U$1820-30, Her X-1, SAX J 1808-3658. The physical properties of these stars have been analyzed in the framework of $f(T)$ theory. In this setting, we have checked the anisotropic behavior, regularity conditions, stability and surface redshift of the compact stars.

Abbas, G; Zubair, M

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Anisotropic Compact Stars in $f(T)$ Gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper deals with the theoretical modeling of anisotropic compact stars in the framework of $f(T)$ theory of gravity, where $T$ is torsion scalar. To this end, we have used the exact solutions of Krori and Barua metric to a static spherically symmetric metric. The unknown constants involved in the Krori and Barua metric have been specified by using the masses and radii of compact stars 4$U$1820-30, Her X-1, SAX J 1808-3658. The physical properties of these stars have been analyzed in the framework of $f(T)$ theory. In this setting, we have checked the anisotropic behavior, regularity conditions, stability and surface redshift of the compact stars.

G. Abbas; Afshan Kanwal; M. Zubair

2015-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

54

5 Hz Catalytic Emissions FT-IR Monitoring during Lean-Rich Engine...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Hz Catalytic Emissions FT-IR Monitoring during Lean-Rich Engine Cycles: Comparison to Reference Methods 5 Hz Catalytic Emissions FT-IR Monitoring during Lean-Rich Engine Cycles:...

55

High Mass Accuracy and High Mass Resolving Power FT-ICR Secondary...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

High Mass Accuracy and High Mass Resolving Power FT-ICR Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry for Biological Tissue Imaging. High Mass Accuracy and High Mass Resolving Power FT-ICR...

56

Ft Bidwell Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URIFrontier, North Dakota: EnergyInformation Ft

57

Can f(T) gravity theories mimic ?CDM cosmic history  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recently the teleparallel Lagrangian density described by the torsion scalar T has been extended to a function of T. The f(T) modified teleparallel gravity has been proposed as the natural gravitational alternative for dark energy to explain the late time acceleration of the universe. In order to reconstruct the function f(T) by demanding a background ?CDM cosmology we assume that, (i) the background cosmic history provided by the flat ?CDM (the radiation ere with ?{sub eff} = (1/3), matter and de Sitter eras with ?{sub eff} = 0 and ?{sub eff} = ?1, respectively) (ii) the radiation dominate in the radiation era with ?{sub 0r} = 1 and the matter dominate during the matter phases when ?{sub 0m} = 1. We find the cosmological dynamical system which can obey the ?CDM cosmic history. In each era, we find a critical lines that, the radiation dominated and the matter dominated are one points of them in the radiation and matter phases, respectively. Also, we drive the cosmologically viability condition for these models. We investigate the stability condition with respect to the homogeneous scalar perturbations in each era and we obtain the stability conditions for the fixed points in each eras. Finally, we reconstruct the function f(T) which mimics cosmic expansion history.

Setare, M.R.; Mohammadipour, N., E-mail: rezakord@ipm.ir, E-mail: N.Mohammadipour@uok.ac.ir [Department of Science, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Ft. Carson Army Base, Colorado Springs, Colorado | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGY TAX POLICIES7.pdf Flash2010-57.pdfDepartment(Fact6:21Education | DepartmentFt. Carson

59

10-ft Wave Flume Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartmentAUDIT REPORTOpenWende NewSowitec doWinvest Home Jweers's"Ghost"0-ft Wave

60

6-ft Wave Flume Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 East 300 SouthWater Rights, Substantive Jump to:Species |2008 |44Biosolids6-ft Wave

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu cu ft" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Ft. Carson Army Base, Colorado Springs, Colorado | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdf Flash2006-53.pdf0.pdfCost Savings | Department ofManagementofFront-end NuclearFt.

62

MARINE BIOMASS SYSTEM: ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AND PRODUCTION OF METHANE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Municipal Solid Waste-Sewage Sludge. b 4.15 SCF CH 4 / cu ftUP I j methane 31.5 scf sludge 18.61b water 161b Btu/scfsewer 65.3 lb ( 7.9 gal) sludge ash 1.74 lb stack emissions

Haven, Kendall F.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Starobinsky-like inflation induced by f(T) gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study a single fluid component in a flat like universe governed by $f(T)$ gravity theories. The flat like universe does not imply a vanishing sectional curvature $k$, but assuming a vanishing of the coefficient of $k$ in the modified Friedmann equations. This enables us to extract a compatible pair of a scale factor $a(t)$ and an inverse power series $f(T)$. The Equation of State (EoS) evolves similarly in all models $k=0, \\pm 1$. In large Hubble ($H$)-spacetime the theory is consistent with the inflationary universe scenario and respects the conservation principle. We study the case when the teleparallel torsion is made of a single scalar field. The theory produces Starobinsky model naturally at its zeroth order without using a conformal transformation. Higher order solutions continuously interpolate between Starobinsky and quadratic inflation models. The slow-roll analysis shows double solutions so that for a single value of the spectral index $n_{s}$ the theory can predict double tensor-to-scalar ratios $r$ of Planck and BICEP2 data.

W. El Hanafy; G. L. Nashed

2014-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

64

SESAM FT-IR: A Comparison of the R&D Workhorse to Standard Emission...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Workhorse to Standard Emission Benches Data for a number of regulated emissions and ethanol using the SESAM FT-IR compare favorably with standard emissions analyzers....

65

CdTe-Cu(OH){sub 2} nanocomposite: Aqueous synthesis and characterization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CdTe-Cu(OH){sub 2} nanocomposites were synthesized in aqueous solution by a seed-mediated growth approach. The effect of refluxing time and the concentration of Cu{sup 2+} on the preparation of these samples were measured using UV-visible absorption and photoluminescence analysis. The emission peak of the synthesized nanocomposites (CdTe-Cu(OH){sub 2}) was shifted from 605 (CdTe seed) to 621 nm. The size of CdTe nanoparticles were averaged about 3.22 nm, and the CdTe-Cu(OH){sub 2} nanocomposites were averaged as 5.19 nm. The synthesized CdTe-Cu(OH){sub 2} nanocomposite were characterized with XRD, EDAX, TEM, FT-IR, EPR, and thermal analysis (TG/DTG curves). The results indicate that as-prepared nanoparticles with core/shell structure exhibit interesting optical properties. -- Graphical Abstract: Schematic of aqueous synthesis route for CdTe-Cu(OH){sub 2} nanocomposite and The Stokes shift of CdTe nanocrystals and CdTe-Cu(OH){sub 2} Nanocomposites, (CdTe: emission at 605 nm, CdTe-Cu(OH){sub 2}: emission at 621 nm). Display Omitted Highlights: {yields} CdTe-Cu(OH){sub 2} nanocomposites were synthesized by a seed-mediated growth approach. {yields} The synthetic procedure is simple, and can be easily scaled up. {yields} The effect of refluxing time on the preparation of these samples was measured. {yields} The Cu(OH){sub 2} shell thickness was controlled by the amount of Cu in the solution. {yields} TEM images demonstrated homogeneous size distribution for these nanocomposites.

Abd El-sadek, M.S., E-mail: el_sadek_99@yahoo.co [Nanomaterial Laboratory, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, South Valley University, Qena 83523 (Egypt); Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University Chennai, Chennai 600025 (India); Moorthy Babu, S. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University Chennai, Chennai 600025 (India)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

66

Conversion Factor Table http://vertex42.com/edu/kinematics.html Copyright 2005 Jon Wittwer Multiply by To Get  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.696 psia bar 0.9869 atm, std bar 1x105 Pa Btu 778.169 ft·lbf Btu 1055.056 J Btu 5.40395 psia·ft3 Btu 2.928x10-4 kWh Btu 1x10-5 therm Btu / hr 1.055056 kJ / hr Btu / hr 0.216 ft·lbf / sec Btu / hr 3.929x10-4 hp Btu / hr 0.2931 W Btu / lbm 2.326* kJ / kg Btu / lbm 25,037 ft2 / s2 Btu / lbm·R 4.1868 kJ / kg

Kostic, Milivoje M.

67

Energy Data Sourcebook for the U.S. Residential Sector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

10 with: area in ft uvalue in Btu/hr-F-ft slope in F-day/yrperimeter in ft, uvalue in Btu/hr-F-ft slope in F-day/yrheater w/fan RM AFUE Btu/hr Gas RM 74 AFUE >42000

Wenzel, T.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Commercial low-Btu coal-gasification plant. Feasibility study: General Refractories Company, Florence, Kentucky. Volume I. Project summary. [Wellman-Galusha  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In response to a 1980 Department of Energy solicitation, the General Refractories Company submitted a Proposal for a feasibility study of a low Btu gasification facility for its Florence, KY plant. The proposed facility would substitute low Btu gas from a fixed bed gasifier for natural gas now used in the manufacture of insulation board. The Proposal from General Refractories was prompted by a concern over the rising costs of natural gas, and the anticipation of a severe increase in fuel costs resulting from deregulation. The proposed feasibility study is defined. The intent is to provide General Refractories with the basis upon which to determine the feasibility of incorporating such a facility in Florence. To perform the work, a Grant for which was awarded by the DOE, General Refractories selected Dravo Engineers and Contractors based upon their qualifications in the field of coal conversion, and the fact that Dravo has acquired the rights to the Wellman-Galusha technology. The LBG prices for the five-gasifier case are encouraging. Given the various natural gas forecasts available, there seems to be a reasonable possibility that the five-gasifier LBG prices will break even with natural gas prices somewhere between 1984 and 1989. General Refractories recognizes that there are many uncertainties in developing these natural gas forecasts, and if the present natural gas decontrol plan is not fully implemented some financial risks occur in undertaking the proposed gasification facility. Because of this, General Refractories has decided to wait for more substantiating evidence that natural gas prices will rise as is now being predicted.

none,

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Author's personal copy Unexpected new phase detected in FT30 type reverse osmosis membranes using  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Author's personal copy Unexpected new phase detected in FT30 type reverse osmosis membranes using Available online 13 July 2011 Keywords: Reverse osmosis membranes X-ray microscopy Poly phenylene diamine a b s t r a c t FT30 type thin film composite membranes used for reverse osmosis water purification

Hitchcock, Adam P.

70

Graceful Exit Inflation in $f(T)$ Gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We apply a quadratic teleparallel torsion scalar of the $f(T)=T+\\alpha T^{2}$ field equations to the spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) model. We assume two perfect fluid components, the matter component has a fixed equation of state (EoS) parameter $\\omega$, while the torsion component has a dynamical EoS. We obtain an effective scale factor allowing a graceful exit inflation model with no need to slow roll technique. We perform a standard cosmological study to examine the cosmic evolution. In addition, the effective EoS shows consistent results confirming a smooth phase transition from inflation to radiation dominant universe. We consider the case when the torsion is made of a scalar field. This treatment enables us to induce a scalar field sensitive to the spacetime symmetry with an effective potential constructed from the quadratic $f(T)$ gravity. The model is parameterized by two parameters ($\\alpha,\\omega$) both derive the universe to exit out of de Sitter expansion. The first is purely gravitational and works effectively at large Hubble regime of the early stage allowing a slow roll potential. The second parameter $\\omega$ is a thermal-like correction coupled to the kinetic term and works effectively at low Hubble regime of late stages. The slow roll analysis of the obtained potential can perform tensor-to-scalar ratio and spectral index parameters consistent with the recent Planck and BICEP2 data. Both cosmological and scalar field analyses show consistent results.

G. G. L. Nashed; W. El Hanafy; Sh. Kh. Ibrahim

2015-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

71

Distributed Energy Systems in California's Future: A Preliminary Report Volume 2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

kWh/m 2 , corresponds to a heat loss about 12 Btu/hr-sq.ft.cooling demand is about 18 Btu/hr-sq. ft. Similarly, TheseTOTALS Notes: 2 mUlinn BTU (')W'Jr,) of 8 r:J Ilion BTU (U"

Balderston, F.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

FT-IR spectroscopy technology, market evolution and future strategies of Bruker Optics Inc.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis explores the technology and market evolution of FT-IR spectroscopy over its nearly forty year history to aid in determining future product design and marketing strategies for an industry-leading firm, Bruker ...

Higdon, Thomas (Thomas Charles)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

FT-ICR studies of metal-carbon binary clusters for formation mechanism of endohedral fullerene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ion Mass [amu] C60 + Number of Carbon Atoms Intensity(arb.units) LaC44 + LaC50 + LaC60 + Figure 2FT-ICR studies of metal-carbon binary clusters for formation mechanism of endohedral fullerene-wall carbon nanotube), i.e. La, Y, Sc, Gd, Ce, Ca, and Ni-Y. An example of FT-ICR mass spectra is shown

Maruyama, Shigeo

74

FTIR and FT-PL spectroscopic analysis of TPV materials and devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fourier transform (FT) spectroscopic techniques are useful in determining properties of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) materials and devices. The III-V TPV absorber materials have energy bandgaps that can be optimized for conversion of the near-infrared radiation emitted by thermal sources in the 1000{degree}{endash}1200&hthinsp;{degree}C temperature range. The bandgaps of these materials can be measured at room temperature using FT-photoluminescence spectroscopy, which can be done with a modified FT-Raman spectrophotometer operating in the near-infrared spectral region. The intensities and bandwidths of the FT-PL spectra also provide information on the extent of non-radiative recombination and the compositional uniformity of the materials. To achieve adequate operating efficiencies, TPV converters must return sub-bandgap radiation to the thermal source. The percent reflectance of the device in the mid-infrared spectral region is therefore an important operating parameter that can be accurately measured using FT-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with total reflectance optical accessories. In this paper, we discuss applications of these techniques to TPV materials and devices, and variations on these approaches, such as scanning micro-FT-PL spectroscopy, that enable microanalysis of TPV device structures at the 1{endash}100-{mu}m scale. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Webb, J.D.; Gedvilas, L.M.; Olson, M.R.; Wu, X.; Duda, A.; Wanlass, M.W.; Jones, K.M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd., Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

7-55E An office that is being cooled adequately by a 12,000 Btu/h window air-conditioner is converted to a computer room. The number of additional air-conditioners that need to be installed is to be determined.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

7-20 7-55E An office that is being cooled adequately by a 12,000 Btu/h window air-conditioner is converted to a computer room. The number of additional air-conditioners that need to be installed/h. Then noting that each available air conditioner provides 4,000 Btu/h cooling, the number of air- conditioners

Bahrami, Majid

76

Energy performance of underfloor air distribution systems part IV: underfloor plenum testing and modeling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a bare panel is 1.359 Btu-in/hr-ft 2 -F (0.196 W/m-K)with carpet tiles is 1.002 Btu-in/hr-ft 2 -F (0.144 W/m-K).with thermal conductivity of 0.54 Btu/hr-ft-F (0.93 W/m-K).

Bauman, Fred; Jin, Hui

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Highly Insulating Glazing Systems using Non-Structural Center Glazing Layers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

low as 0.57 W/m 2 -K (0.10 Btu/h-ft 2 -F). Such units havevalues Btu/h-ft 2 -F), windows relatedA 0.57 W/m 2 -K (0.10 Btu/h-ft 2 -F) window is targeted as

Arasteh, Dariush

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

COMPARISON OF PROPORTIONAL AND ON/OFF SOLAR COLLECTOR LOOP CONTROL STRATEGIES USING A DYNAMIC COLLECTOR MODEL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

high gain: insolation = 2292 BTU/ft 2 -da~ 7224 watt-hrs/m -low gain: insolation= 1146 BTU/ft 2-dat 3612 watt-hrs/m -dayF (46.1C) capacitance= 0.7 BTU/ft 2-F {14.3 kJ;m 2- 0 c)

Schiller, Steven R.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF MANAGED WINDOW SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

plus .35 m2 K/W (2 hr ft 2 F/Btu) for single-glazing, and52 m2 -K/W (2 hr-ft 2 - F/Btu) for double-glazing, assumingthan .85 m -K/W (5 hr-ftL-F/Btu) diminish rapidly and would

Selkowitz, S. E.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

2.1E BDL Summary  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COND)(;0.0 to 30.0 Btu-ft/hr-ft -F) and DENSITY(DENS)(;HEAT(S-H)(;0.0 to 5.0 Btu/lb-F) or just RESISTANCE insteadRES)(;0.0 to 40.0 hr-ft -F/Btu) Note: for materials data

Winkelmann, F.C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu cu ft" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

DOE-1 BDL SUMMARY. DOE-1 GROUP.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CON)(-;0.0 to 30.0 Btu-ft/hr-ft 2-F) I DENSITY(DE)(-;0.0 toHEAT(SPH)(-;0.0 to 5.0 Btu/lb-F) or Ill{ RESISTANCE (O. 0 to 40.0 hr-ft 2-F /Btu) T 206 of 210 are used by the

Authors, Various

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF INSULATING WINDOW SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of .16 m2K/W (.91 hrft2.oF/Btu) for the combined thermalvalue of 6.25 ~;m2.K (1 .1 Btu/hrft F) might be reduced3.4- 4.5 w;m2K (.6- .8 Btu/hr'ft F). Some techniques for

Selkowitz, Stephen E.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Room air stratification in combined chilled ceiling and displacement ventilation systems.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

0 and 73 W/m 2 [0-23.1 Btu/(h ft 2 )](based on radiant panelbetween 0 and 28 W/m 2 [0-8.9 Btu/(h ft 2 )] (based on roomand 76 W/m 2 (97.8 and 239.7 Btu/(h ft 2 )), DV airflow rate

Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred; Tully, Brad; Rimmer, Julian

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

TRANSPARENT HEAT MIRRORS FOR PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING APPLICATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AND OPTICAL PERFORMANCE [Btu/ft -hr- OF] XBL 785-8986A isbalance thermal losses is .9 Btu/ft 2 -hr- o F on a clearto an equivalent U-value of 1.9 Btu/ft 2-hr- o F due to

Selkowitz, S.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Cooling load calculations for radiant systems: are they the same traditional methods?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FEATURE A Radiant Air Radiant Air COOLING RATE (BTU/H FT2 ) COOLING RATE (BTU/H FT 2 ) B HOUR HOUR FIGURE 2total internal heat gain (4.8 Btu/hft 2 [15 W/m 2 ]) during

Bauman, Fred; Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Measured energy performance of a US-China demonstration energy-efficient office building  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of 0.62 W/(m 2 K) (0.11 Btu/hft 2 o F). The windows areof 1.67 W/(m 2 K) (0.29 Btu/hft 2 o F) and a SHGC ofof 0.57 W/(m 2 K) (0.10 Btu/hft 2 o F ). The cooling

Xu, Peng; Huang, Joe; Jin, Ruidong; Yang, Guoxiong

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Geodesic Deviation Equation in GR equivalent theory of $f(T)$ gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work, we show that it is possible to study the GR equivalent notion of geodesic deviation in $f(T)$ gravity, in spite of the fact that in teleparallel gravity there is no notion of geodesics, and the torsion is responsible for the appearance of gravitational interaction. In this regard, we obtain the GR equivalent of $f(T)$ gravity whose equations are in the modified gravity form such as $f(R)$ gravity. Then, we obtain the GDE within the context of this modified gravity. In this way, the obtained geodesic deviation equation will correspond to the $f(T)$ gravity. Eventually, we extend the calculations to obtain the modification of Matting relation.

Darabi, F; Atazadeh, K

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Geodesic Deviation Equation in GR equivalent theory of $f(T)$ gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work, we show that it is possible to study the GR equivalent notion of geodesic deviation in $f(T)$ gravity, in spite of the fact that in teleparallel gravity there is no notion of geodesics, and the torsion is responsible for the appearance of gravitational interaction. In this regard, we obtain the GR equivalent of $f(T)$ gravity whose equations are in the modified gravity form such as $f(R)$ gravity. Then, we obtain the GDE within the context of this modified gravity. In this way, the obtained geodesic deviation equation will correspond to the $f(T)$ gravity. Eventually, we extend the calculations to obtain the modification of Matting relation.

F. Darabi; M. Mousavi; K. Atazadeh

2014-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

89

CU | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartmentAUDIT REPORTOpenWendeGuo FengBoulder, CO)Burundi:Sales Seventeen LLCProjectCSP:CU

90

Ultra-clean Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Fuels Production and Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the DOE-NETL Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Production and Demonstration Program was to produce and evaluate F-T fuel derived from domestic natural gas. The project had two primary phases: (1) fuel production of ultra-clean diesel transportation fuels from domestic fossil resources; and (2) demonstration and performance testing of these fuels in engines. The project also included a well-to-wheels economic analysis and a feasibility study of small-footprint F-T plants (SFPs) for remote locations such as rural Alaska. During the fuel production phase, ICRC partnered and cost-shared with Syntroleum Corporation to complete the mechanical design, construction, and operation of a modular SFP that converts natural gas, via F-T and hydro-processing reactions, into hydrogensaturated diesel fuel. Construction of the Tulsa, Oklahoma plant started in August 2002 and culminated in the production of over 100,000 gallons of F-T diesel fuel (S-2) through 2004, specifically for this project. That fuel formed the basis of extensive demonstrations and evaluations that followed. The ultra-clean F-T fuels produced had virtually no sulfur (less than 1 ppm) and were of the highest quality in terms of ignition quality, saturation content, backend volatility, etc. Lubricity concerns were investigated to verify that commercially available lubricity additive treatment would be adequate to protect fuel injection system components. In the fuel demonstration and testing phase, two separate bus fleets were utilized. The Washington DC Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) and Denali National Park bus fleets were used because they represented nearly opposite ends of several spectra, including: climate, topography, engine load factor, mean distance between stops, and composition of normally used conventional diesel fuel. Fuel evaluations in addition to bus fleet demonstrations included: bus fleet emission measurements; F-T fuel cold weather performance; controlled engine dynamometer lab evaluation; cold-start test-cell evaluations; overall feasibility, economics, and efficiency of SFP fuel production; and an economic analysis. Two unexpected issues that arose during the project were further studied and resolved: variations in NOx emissions were accounted for and fuel-injection nozzle fouling issues were traced to the non-combustible (ash) content of the engine oil, not the F-T fuel. The F-T fuel domestically produced and evaluated in this effort appears to be a good replacement candidate for petroleum-based transportation fuels. However, in order for domestic F-T fuels to become a viable cost-comparable alternative to petroleum fuels, the F-T fuels will need to be produced from abundant U.S. domestic resources such as coal and biomass, rather than stranded natural gas.

Stephen P. Bergin

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

91

Thermally Enhanced Pipe for Geothermal Applications Stphane Gonthier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Geothermal Pipe · It's a thermally enhanced pipe · The pipe has a thermal conductivity of 0,40 BTU/hr ft °F Geoexchange Coalition 0,4 to 2,2 Btu hr-1 ft-1°F-1 (soil) 0,43 to 1,15 Btu hr-1 ft-1°F-1 (backfilling) 0,58 to 2,6 Btu hr-1 ft-1°F-1 (bedrock) 0,22 to 0,24 Btu hr-1 ft-1°F-1 (HDPE 3608) RESULT An insulator

92

MAE 3223 Thermodynamics II. Solutions for Special Problems on Exergy, the Availability of work, Chapter 7  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) - To (s1 - so)] + Vel2 1 2gc + g gc (z1 - zo) ¸ = ( [(168.07 - 48.09) - 539.67 (0.2940 - 0.09332)] BTU lbm + h 32.17 ft sec2 ¯ ¯ ¯ lbf-sec2 32.174 lbm-ft ¯ ¯ ¯ 5000 ft i BTU 778.17 lbf-ft ) = {[119.98 - 108.30] - [6.45]} BTU lbm = {[11.68] + [6.42]} BTU lbm = 18.10 BTU lbm = 14090 lbf-ft lbm Therefore 65

93

Chemical Reaction of Metal-Carbon Binary Cluster Anions by FT-ICR Mass Spectrometer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

45 48 51 54 57 60 Number of Carbon Atoms Intensity(arbitrary) (a) as injected (b) SWIFTed (c) NO 1sChemical Reaction of Metal-Carbon Binary Cluster Anions by FT-ICR Mass Spectrometer S. Maruyama, M- fullerene and single walled carbon nanotubes are investigated through experimental studies of interaction

Maruyama, Shigeo

94

FT-ICR ,,,Carbon Clusters and Metal/Carbon Binary Clusters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

60 70 80 720 760 800 Ion Mass [amu] ScC60 + C64 + Number of Carbon Atoms Intensity(arb.units) ScC60FT-ICR ,?,æ,éCarbon Clusters and Metal/Carbon Binary Clusters ·>Í­ì·³"¹1 ·C Masamichi Kohno1 , Tetsuya

Maruyama, Shigeo

95

Utility Assessment Report for SPIDERS Phase 2: Ft. Carson (Rev 1.0)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document contains the Utility Assessment Report (UAR) for the Phase 2 operational Demonstration (OD) of the Smart Power Infrastructure Demonstration for Energy Reliability and Security (SPIDERS) Joint Capability Technology Demonstration (JCTD). The UAR for Phase 2 shows that the SPIDERS system was able to meet the requirements of the Implementation Directive at Ft. Carson.

Barr, Jonathan L.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Hadley, Mark D.; Schneider, Kevin P.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

If*|lg1JEDIlls ,,ft-o-aS.2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

»-H a3UW ·3USi «c« «"22"5"35» If*|lg1JEDIlls pV) 232 *2*& yuo = OW O5oc ,,ft-o-aS.2 F.O-a-- o :§>£ £1 2 (genetic code) Eukaryotes Sexual populations Animals, plants, fungi (cell differentiation) Colonies (non

97

First BTU | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublicIDAPowerPlantSitingConstruction.pdfNotify98.pdf Jump to:Siting.pdf JumpFirelands Electric Coop,

98

Electrodeposited NiCo/Cu Superlattices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NiCo/Cu superlattices were electrodeposited on polycrystalline Cu substrates from a single electrolyte under potentiostatic control. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that NiCo/Cu superlattices have the same crystal structure and texture as in their substrates. The films exhibited giant magnetoresistance (GMR) or anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR), depending on the Cu layer thicknesses.

Safak, M.; Alper, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Literature, University of Uludag, Goeruekle, Bursa (Turkey)

2007-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

99

Microwave-assisted synthesis and photovoltaic measurements of CuInS{sub 2} nanoparticles prepared by using metalorganic precursors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: ? CuInS{sub 2} nanoparticles were prepared using complexes via a microwave-assisted method. ? The effect of preparation parameters on the morphology of CuInS{sub 2} was investigated. ? The as-deposited CdS/CuInS{sub 2} films were used for the photovoltaic measurements. -- Abstract: In this work, CuInS{sub 2} (CIS) nanoparticles have been synthesized with the aid of (1,8-diamino-3,6-dioxaoctan)copper(II) sulfate ([Cu(DADO)]SO{sub 4}) and bis(propylenediamine)copper(II) sulfate ([Cu(pn){sub 2}]SO{sub 4}) complexes as copper precursor in the presence of microwave irradiation. Besides, L-cystine, InCl{sub 3}, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were applied as sulfur source, indium precursor, and capping agent, respectively. To investigate the effect of preparation parameters like microwave power and irradiation time on the morphology and particle size of CuInS{sub 2}, the experiment was carried out at different conditions. The as-synthesized CuInS{sub 2} nanoparticles were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, PL, SEM, TEM, and EDS. The XRD results showed that pure tetragonal CuInS{sub 2} could be only obtained after annealing at 400 C for 2 h. The SEM images indicated that with decreasing the microwave power and irradiation time, particle size of CuInS{sub 2} nanoparticles decreased. To fabricate a solar cell, CdS film was directly deposited on top of the CIS film prepared by Doctor's blade method through chemical bath deposition. The as-deposited CdS/CuInS{sub 2} films were used for the photovoltaic measurements.

Hosseinpour-Mashkani, S. Mostafa [Center for Nanoscience and Technology, IST, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500 085, Andhra Pradesh (India)] [Center for Nanoscience and Technology, IST, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500 085, Andhra Pradesh (India); Mohandes, Fatemeh [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317-51167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317-51167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salavati-Niasari, Masoud, E-mail: salavati@kashanu.ac.ir [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317-51167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of) [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317-51167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317-51167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Venkateswara-Rao, K. [Center for Nanoscience and Technology, IST, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500 085, Andhra Pradesh (India)] [Center for Nanoscience and Technology, IST, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500 085, Andhra Pradesh (India)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

100

DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION OF A PROMISING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Refrigerant Tube Page 124, line 7: otr 70% (31,500 Btu) Lead 70% efficiency (31,500 Btu) line 10: 60o U = 500 Btu/hr F ft2 tead U = 500 Btu/hr F Page 125, line 12: dot 7 gallons tead Minimum (5 gallons) Page

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu cu ft" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

MASS AND DENSITY 1 kg = 2.2046 lb 1 lb = 0.4536 kg  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.m = 0.73756 ft.lbf 1 ft.lbf = 1.35582 J 1 kJ = 737.56 ft.lbf 1 Btu = 778.17 ft.lbf 1 kJ = 0.9478 Btu 1 Btu = 1.0551 kJ 1 kJ/kg = 0.42992 Btu/lb 1 Btu/lb = 2.326 kJ/kg 1 kcal = 4.1868 kJ ENERGY TRANSFER RATE 1 W = 1 J/s = 3.413 Btu/h 1 Btu/h = 0.293 W 1kW = 1.341 hp 1 hp =2545 Btu/h 1 hp = 550 ft.lbf/s 1

Kostic, Milivoje M.

102

Interacting Dark Energy in f(T) cosmology : A Dynamical System analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The present work deals with an interacting dark energy model in the framework of f(T) cosmology. A cosmologically viable form of f(T) is chosen (T is the torsion scalar in teleparallelism) in the background of flat homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) space-time model of the universe. The matter content of the universe is chosen as dust interacting with minimally coupled scalar field. The evolution equations are reduced to an autonomous system of ordinary differential equations by suitable transformation of variables. The nature of critical points are analyzed by evaluating the eigenvalues of the linearized Jacobi matrix and stable attractors are examined from the point of view of cosmology. Finally, both classical and quantum stability of the model have been discussed.

Biswas, Sujay Kr

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

A special exact spherically symmetric solution in f(T) gravity theories  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A non-diagonal spherically symmetric tetrad field, involving four unknown functions of radial coordinate $r$, is applied to the equations of motion of f(T) gravity theory. A special exact vacuum solution with one constant of integration is obtained. The scalar torsion related to this special solution vanishes. To understand the physical meaning of the constant of integration we calculate the energy associated with this solution and show how it is related to the gravitational mass of the system.

G. G. L. Nashed

2015-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

104

A special exact spherically symmetric solution in f(T) gravity theories  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A non-diagonal spherically symmetric tetrad field, involving four unknown functions of radial coordinate $r$, is applied to the equations of motion of f(T) gravity theory. A special exact vacuum solution with one constant of integration is obtained. The scalar torsion related to this special solution vanishes. To understand the physical meaning of the constant of integration we calculate the energy associated with this solution and show how it is related to the gravitational mass of the system.

Nashed, G G L

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Practical Analysis of materials with depth varying compositions using FT-IR photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

FT-IR photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is discussed as a nondestructive method to probe the molecular composition of materials versus depth on the basis of the analysis of layers of experimentally controllable thickness, which are measured from the sample surface to depths of some tens of micrometers, depending on optical and thermal properties. Computational methods are described to process photoacoustic amplitude and phase spectra for both semi-quantitative and quantitative depth analyses. These methods are demonstrated on layered and gradient samples.

J.F. McClelland; R.W. Jones; Siquan Luo

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

106

Trapped-ion cell with improved DC potential harmonicity for FT-ICR MS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The trapped-ion cell is a key component critical for optimal performance in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry (MS). We have upgraded our 12 Tesla FT-ICR instrument with a new open cylindrical cell that includes four additional cylindrical segments that serve as compensation electrodes. The DC potential on the additional segments can be set to specific pre-calculated values to suppress DC trapping field anharmonicity, in an effort to improve coherence of the ion cyclotron motion and minimize deviations from the calibration function of the ideal cell. Alternatively, the compensation potentials can be set equal to potentials of adjacent cell electrodes, which creates a DC potential distribution equivalent to that of a regular open cylindrical cell. The initial experimental characterization of both the compensated and open cell configurations was performed using ESI direct infusion of a peptide mixture. Operating the compensated cell at increased post-excitation radii resulted in improved mass measurement accuracy together with increased signal intensity, while the regular configuration exhibited peak splitting and reduced signal life time under these operating conditions. The observed improvement of the compensated cell performance was consistent with the expected behavior due to the improved DC potential harmonicity. These results confirm that the trapping DC potential harmonicity is significant for optimizing FT-ICR MS performance.

Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Robinson, Errol W.; Wu, Si; Kang, Hyuk; Lourette, Natacha M.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Smith, Richard D.

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Final technical report. In-situ FT-IR monitoring of a black liquor recovery boiler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project developed and tested advanced Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) instruments for process monitoring of black liquor recovery boilers. The state-of-the-art FT-IR instruments successfully operated in the harsh environment of a black liquor recovery boiler and provided a wealth of real-time process information. Concentrations of multiple gas species were simultaneously monitored in-situ across the combustion flow of the boiler and extractively at the stack. Sensitivity to changes of particulate fume and carryover levels in the process flow were also demonstrated. Boiler set-up and operation is a complex balance of conditions that influence the chemical and physical processes in the combustion flow. Operating parameters include black liquor flow rate, liquor temperature, nozzle pressure, primary air, secondary air, tertiary air, boiler excess oxygen and others. The in-process information provided by the FT-IR monitors can be used as a boiler control tool since species indicative of combustion efficiency (carbon monoxide, methane) and pollutant emissions (sulfur dioxide, hydrochloric acid and fume) were monitored in real-time and observed to fluctuate as operating conditions were varied. A high priority need of the U.S. industrial boiler market is improved measurement and control technology. The sensor technology demonstrated in this project is applicable to the need of industry.

James Markham; Joseph Cosgrove; David Marran; Jorge Neira; Chad Nelson; Peter Solomon

1999-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

108

Stretching and bending with flexible FT-IR process monitors, probes and software  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

FT-IR process analyzers continue to gain recognition for reliable and accurate on-line analyses on a broad variety of processes around the world. When fast analyses are required, on-line FT-IR analyzers offer speed and specificity for many applications. The use of FT-IR spectroscopy, either in the Mid-IR region or Near IR region offers fundamental advantages over other technologies. These advantages make calibrations exceptionally stable for an analyzer over time and offer improved ease of calibration transfer between similar analyzers. Spectral region selection criteria are reviewed, to help define when to use the Mid-IR region or the Near-IR region (or even when to use parts of both) for a given sample stream. New fiber optic sampling probes for transmission, attenuated total reflection, diffuse reflection and web sensing have solved nagging problems. What many process analyzer specialists are discovering is that new probes are becoming available each month, offering newer process tolerance (can tolerate higher temp or pressure) or even new sampling approaches altogether. This paper describes on-line applications in pharmaceuticals, specialty chemicals, polymer production and refinery production which demonstrate the range of techniques used to appropriately optimize the on-line analyzer. In addition, calibration transfer issues will be discussed, demonstrating the importance of the software tools to help sort out the causes for cal errors (spectral contamination, etc.).

Peters, D.C. [KVB/Analect, Utica, NY (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

109

SYNTHESIS GAS UTILIZATION AND PRODUCTION IN A BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION FACILITY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cost Estimates for a Medium BTU Gasification Plant Using A4.6 D /Dt / D Sus 0.7 (=) Btu/H 2 hr F h ~ _3_,.5. ,..-thennal conductivity (=) Btu-ft/ ft2 hroF l)_ "' p particle

Figueroa, C.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

THE MOBILE WINDOW THERMAL TEST FACILITY (MoWiTT)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

facilitieso For a 2 K/W (10 BTU- 1 ft 2 hr F) is reasonable;or 0005 W m- 2 K- l (0.01 BTU hr- 1 ft- 2 ). For a commonthis becomes 0.05 W/K (0.1 BTU hr- 1 F- 1 ). (approximately

Klems, J. H.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Adsorption of Cu21 Ions with Poly  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-scale particles showed much improved Cu ion adsorption efficiency, compared with the micro hydro- gels. The amountAdsorption of Cu21 Ions with Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-methacrylic acid) Micro

112

A case study, artificial insemination versus natural breeding at Overland Farms, Ft. Worth, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Ft. Worth, Texas. A total of 19 mares were bred by natural service by the Quarter Horse stallions, Tuffys Three Bars and The Ultimate Copy during the period beginning February 1, 1985 and ending July 5, 1985. As of the end of this period, 14 mares... at the case farm (Overland Farms). Presently, natural breeding is utilized. Considerations for using A. I. were: 1) number of mares and stallions to be used in the program, 2) start-up costs and 3) returns to capital investments by capital budgeting...

Migues, Loraine C.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Weak-Field Spherically Symmetric Solutions in $f(T)$ gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study weak-field solutions having spherical symmetry in $f(T)$ gravity; to this end, we solve the field equations for a non diagonal tetrad, starting from Lagrangian in the form $f(T)=T+\\alpha T^{n}$, where $\\alpha$ is a small constant, parameterizing the departure of the theory from GR. We show that the classical spherically symmetric solutions of GR, i.e. the Schwarzschild and Schwarzschild-de Sitter solutions, are perturbed by terms in the form $\\propto r^{2-2n}$ and discuss the impact of these perturbations in observational tests.

Ruggiero, Matteo Luca

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

ft. n. Both, Ohtef, RarourQb DWrion,Oak Ridgo  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartment ofDepartment ofof EnergyYou$0.C. 20545 OCTTO:March_ ,' .' ft. n. Both, Ohtef,

115

The optimization of the production of ??Cu  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. N. Kundu and M. L. Pool in 1950 and 1951. Based on these two investigations, C. M. Lederer, J. M. Hollander and I. Perlman have stated that the principal means of production of this isotope are through the Ni(a, p)s Cu, Zn(n, p) Cu and the Cu... the existence of the contaminating reaction ''Ni(a, p) 'Cu. This reaction becomes important in elemental or low enrichment sam- (~) ples. From Table 3 it was noted that another contam- inant isotope was ''Cu which has a half-life of S. l m and decays to 6...

Gauny, Ronnie Dean

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

116

Update of Horizontal Borehole Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.2 0.3 0.4 1 2 3 4 No Grout Rb(hr·ft·°F)/Btu Rb(hr·ft·°F)/Btu #12;Borehole #1 ­ Average Depth 11 Dimensionless Temperature Time (hr) Summer 2010 Fall 2012 #12;0 0.5 1 1.5 2 6 8 10 12 k (Btu/hr-ft-F) Average Depth (ft) Summer 2010 Fall 2012 Ground Thermal Conductivity With Depth #12;Rb(hr·ft·°F)/Btu

117

Phase transformations in Cu-Zr multilayers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study of phase transformations is reported for Cu-rich, Cu-Zr multilayer foils synthesized using magnetron sputter deposition and annealed using a differential scanning calorimeter. The foils range in composition from 1.6 to 9.0 at% Zr and consist of alternate layers of polycrystalline Cu and Zr. Differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray analysis and electron microscopy were used to three distinct reactions in the foils: a mixing and an amorphization of the Cu and die Zr, a crystallization on of this amorphous phase to the metastable intermetallic Cu{sub 5l}Zr{sub l4}, and a transformation of the Cu{sub 5l}Zr{sub l4} phase into the equilibrium phase Cu{sub 9}Zr{sub 2}. The as-deposited layering remained stable during the first two reactions and then broke down in the third reaction as large grains of Cu{sub 9}Zr{sub 2} encompassed the smaller Cu grains. Heats of the reactions and activation energies of these reactions are measured and are compared to values reported for bulk samples. The measured heats provide evidence that amorphous Cu-Zr alloys phase separate and that mixing and short range ordering produce 3.5 times more heat than long range ordering produces when Ca and Zr react and form Cu{sub 5l}Zr{sub l4}.

Weihs, T.P.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Wall, M.A.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Cyclohexene Photo-oxidation over Vanadia Catalyst Analyzed by Time Resolved ATR-FT-IR Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vanadia was incorporated in the 3-dimensional mesoporous material TUD-1 with a loading of 2percent w/w vanadia. The performance in the selective photo-oxidation of liquid cyclohexene was investigated using ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy. Under continuous illumination at 458 nm a significant amount of product, i.e. cyclohexenone, was identified. This demonstrates for the first time that hydroxylated vanadia centers in mesoporous materials can be activated by visible light to induce oxidation reactions. Using the rapid scan method, a strong perturbation of the vanadyl environment could be observed in the selective oxidation process induced by a 458 nm laser pulse of 480 ms duration. This is proposed to be caused by interaction of the catalytic centre with a cyclohexenyl hydroperoxide intermediate. The restoration of the vanadyl environment could be kinetically correlated to the rate of formation of cyclohexenone, and is explained by molecular rearrangement and dissociation of the peroxide to ketone and water. The ketone diffuses away from the active center and ATR infrared probing zone, resulting in a decreasing ketone signal on the tens of seconds time scale after initiation of the photoreaction. This study demonstrates the high potential of time resolved ATR FT-IR spectroscopy for mechanistic studies of liquid phase reactions by monitoring not only intermediates and products, but by correlating the temporal behavior of these species to molecular changes of the vanadyl catalytic site.

Frei, Heinz; Mul, Guido; Wasylenko, Walter; Hamdy, M. Sameh; Frei, Heinz

2008-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

119

Heat Transfer Derivation of differential equations for heat transfer conduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) or kW *h or Btu. U is the change in stored energy, in units of kW *h (kWh) or Btu. qx is the heat conducted (heat flux) into the control volume at surface edge x, in units of kW/m2 or Btu/(h-ft2). qx volume is positive), in kW/m3 or Btu/(h-ft3) (a heat sink, heat drawn out of the volume, is negative

Veress, Alexander

120

Rolling Thunder -- Integration of the Solo 161 Stirling engine with the CPG-460 solar concentrator at Ft. Huachuca  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Project Rolling Thunder is a dish/Stirling demonstration project at Ft. Huachuca, a US Army fort in southeastern Arizona (Huachuca means rolling thunder in Apache). It has been supported by the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), a cooperative program between the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Department of Energy (DOE). As part of a 1992 SERDP project, Cummins Power Generation, Inc. (CPG) installed a CPG 7 kW(c) dish/Stirling system at the Joint Interoperability Test Command (JITC) in Ft. Huachuca, Arizona. The primary objective of the SERDP Dish/Stirling for DoD Applications project was to demonstrate a CPG 7-kW(c) dish/Stirling system at a military facility. Unfortunately, Cummins Engine Company decided to divest its solar operations. As a direct result of Ft. Huachuca`s interest in the Cummins dish/Stirling technology, Sandia explored the possibility of installing a SOLO 161 Stirling power conversion unit (PCU) on the Ft. Huachuca CPG-460. In January 1997, a decision was made to retrofit a SOLO 161 Stirling engine on the CPG-460 at Ft. Huachuca. Project Rolling Thunder. The SOLO 161 Demonstration at Ft. Huachuca has been a challenge. Although, the SOLO 161 PCU has operated nearly flawlessly and the CPG-460 has been, for the most part, a solid and reliable component, integration of the SOLO PCU with the CPG-460 has required significant attention. In this paper, the integration issues and technical approaches of project Rolling Thunder are presented. Lessons of the project are also discussed.

Diver, R.B.; Moss, T.A.; Goldberg, V.; Thomas, G.; Beaudet, A.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu cu ft" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Qh Qwh Qrh+:= Qwh 2.07 10  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Qh Qwh Qrh+:= Qwh 2.07 10 8 ? BTU= Qrh 1.314 10 8 ? BTU= Qh 3.384 10 8 ? BTU= Qh 3.384 10 3 ? Therm Qrc+:= Qwc 2.228 10 7 ? BTU= Qrc 1.414 10 7 ? BTU= Qc 3.641 10 7 ? BTU= Qc 364.123 Therm= Qc 1.067 10 and Cooling Degree-Days for Rockford Area: HDD 6970 R day:= CDD 750 R day:= Therm 10 5 BTU:= a 270 ft:= b 150

Kostic, Milivoje M.

122

Top-Down Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Intact Proteins by LAESI FT-ICR MS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laser Ablation Electrospray Ionization is a recent development in mass spectrometry imaging. It has been shown that lipids and small metabolites can be imaged in various samples such as plant material, tissue sections or bacterial colonies without anysample pre-treatment. Further, laser ablation electrospray ionization has been shown to produce multiply charged protein ions from liquids or solid surfaces. This presents a means to address one of the biggest challenges in mass spectrometry imaging; the identification of proteins directly from biological tissue surfaces. Such identification is hindered by the lack of multiply charged proteins in common MALDI ion sources and the difficulty of performing tandem MS on such large, singly charged ions. We present here top-down identification of intact proteins from tissue with a LAESI ion source combined with a hybrid ion-trap FT-ICR mass spectrometer. The performance of the system was first tested with a standard protein with ECD and IRMPD fragmentation to prove the...

Kiss, Andrs; Reschke, Brent R; Powell, Matthew J; Heeren, Ron M A

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

$J/?$ Production in $p+p$, $d+Au$, and $Cu+Cu$ Collisions at RHIC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PHENIX results for $J/\\psi$ production in $p+p$, $d+Au$, and $Cu+Cu$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200$ GeV are presented.

Vince Cianciolo; for the PHENIX Collaboration

2006-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

124

Science DMZ Implemented at CU Boulder  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Studies Science DMZ @ CU Science Engagement Move your data Programs & Workshops Science Requirements Reviews Case Studies OSCARS Case Studies Science DMZ Case Studies Science...

125

Ice cap meltdown to cause 22ft floods Ice cap meltdown to cause 22ft floods -Telegraph http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/earthnews/3303624/Ice-cap-meltdow...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of no return and it were to melt then global sea levels would rise by 22ft and swallow up most of the world sheet. Likewise, global warming may cause a near-permanent El Nino in the Pacific, which would also over animal souvenirs (/earth/main.jhtml?xml=/earth/2007/08/16/eatrade116.xml) Rise of sea levels

Stevenson, Paul

126

AN ANALYSIS OF ENERGY USE ON COMMUNITY COLLEGE CAMPUSES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Base Load,A A= 1.98 xl0 Ul Q) BTU/sq. ft. month bO Q) r-r-l u 4-l $-I Q) il ;:l z o Base Load,A BTU/sq.ft. month) b.Performance,B B Ul Q) 14.0 BTU/sq. ft. HDD bO Q) r-l r-l U

York, C.M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Flexible Solar-Energy Harvesting System on Plastic with Thin-film LC Oscillators Operating Above ft for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Flexible Solar-Energy Harvesting System on Plastic with Thin-film LC Oscillators Operating Above ft- This paper presents an energy-harvesting system consisting of amorphous-silicon (a-Si) solar cells and thin of the energy-harvesting system. The solar module consists of solar cells in series operating at an output

128

FINLANDFINANCIAL TIMES SPECIAL REPORT | Wednesday May 30 2012 www.ft.com/finland-2012 | twitter.com/ftreports  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FINLANDFINANCIAL TIMES SPECIAL REPORT | Wednesday May 30 2012 www.ft.com/finland-2012 | twitter." Like Greece, Portugal and Ire- land, Finland is on the geo- graphical periphery of the euro- zone in the past two years. Richer, happier and better educated than the OECD rich nations' club average, Finland

Kaski, Samuel

129

Technology development for cobalt F-T catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this project is the development of a commercially viable, cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalyst for use in a slurry bubble column reactor. Cobalt-based catalysts have long been known as being active for F-T synthesis. They typically possess greater activity than iron-based catalysts, historically the predominant catalyst being used commercially for the conversion of syngas based on coal, but possess two disadvantages that somewhat lessen its value: (1) cobalt tends to make more methane than iron does, and (2) cobalt is less versatile with low H{sub 2}/CO ratio syngas due to its lack of water-gas shift activity. Therefore, the major objectives of this work are (1) to develop a cobalt-based F-T catalyst with low (< 5 %) methane selectivity, (2) to develop a cobalt-based F-T catalyst with water-gas shift activity, and (3) to combine both these improvements into one catalyst. It will be demonstrated that these catalysts have the desired activity, selectivity, and life, and can be made reproducibly. Following this experimental work, a design and a cost estimate will be prepared for a plant to produce sufficient quantities of catalyst for scale-up studies.

Singleton, A.H.

1994-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

130

Directory Home Directory Liaison List Server Help A-Z Index IFAS Main Pa Unit Name: Ft. Lauderdale -REC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Directory Home Directory Liaison List Server Help A-Z Index IFAS Main Pa Unit Name: Ft. Lauderdale, and Page 1 of 2Employee and Unit Directory - IFAS - Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Flor... 8/13/2013http://directory.ifas.ufl.edu/Dir/searchdir?pageID=2&uid=85 #12;Tampa) 1. Take US-27

Florida, University of

131

Comparative Analysis of the Production Costs and Life-Cycle GHG Emissions of FT-Liquid Fuels from Coal and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coal and Natural Gas Figure S1 shows a graphical description of the life cycle of coal-to-liquids (CTL) and gas-to-liquids (GTL). Figure S1: Life Cycle of Coal-Based and Natural Gas-Based Fischer-Tropsch LiquidComparative Analysis of the Production Costs and Life- Cycle GHG Emissions of FT-Liquid Fuels from

Jaramillo, Paulina

132

Technology development for cobalt F-T catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report No. 8, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to investigate the influence of various promoters, additives, and supports on minimizing the methane selectivity and increasing the water-gas shift (WGS) activity of cobalt (Co) Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalysts. The ultimate goal of this investigation is to identify and demonstrate a catalyst preparation procedure that will be scaled up for the reproducible synthesis of commercial quantities of supported Co catalysts with desired activity, selectivity, and lifetime for use in F-T synthesis in three-phase slurry bubble column reactors. Accomplishments for this quarter are: Four new catalysts were formulated and prepared during this period under both subtasks 1.2 and 1.3 and five more catalysts were prepared by Calsicat; The characterization of all the catalysts in order to determine their physical properties (BET surface area, pore volume, pore size diameter, particle size distribution), as well as the cobalt reducibility, extent of reduction, and dispersion) was continued; Seven new catalysts have been tested for their F-T synthesis performance; An investigation of the effect of pre-treatment (i.e. calcination in static air versus flowing air, direct reduction without prior calcination) of a selected number of catalysts upon their performance for F-T synthesis was continued during this period.

Singleton, A.H.

1995-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

133

Theoretical Electron Density Distributions for Fe- and Cu-Sulfide...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Electron Density Distributions for Fe- and Cu-Sulfide Earth Materials: A Connection between Bond Length, Bond Theoretical Electron Density Distributions for Fe- and Cu-Sulfide...

134

A Novel 9.4 Tesla FT-ICR Mass Spectrometer with Improved Sensitivity, Mass Resolution, and Mass Range, for Petroleum Heavy Crude Oil Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

organic mixtures. However, analysis of petroleum crude oil as well as upcoming biofuels requires continued NHMFL 9.4 T FT- species in petroleum crude oil and its products, extending to "heavy" crudes.4 tesla widebore FT-ICR mass spectrometer. Acknowledgements : Include all grant info; e.g. G.S. Boebinger

135

Unconventional energy - for a public-power utility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper describes a few of the hundreds of projects annually featured in the Public Power Innovation list published in the American Public Power Association's (APPA) Public Power magazine. These innovative approaches include feasibility studies, developments or demonstrations in the use of alternative fuels such as low-Btu corncob gas in a diesel generating set, the burning of corn waste in suitably modified steam boilers, anaerobic digestion of solid waste to produce methane, increasing the energy content of gas so produced from 350 Btu/cu ft to approximately 1000 Btu/cu ft by the Binax system, gasified peat for diesel power plants, the use of waste heat from diesel plants in a Rankine-cycle bottoming system, and the use of coal-derived liquid fuel in diesel engines. Other approaches include the phosphoric acid fuel cell, solar heating and cooling systems, photoelectric cell arrays, wind power, small low-head hydroelectric plants, and cogeneration systems. Other public electric utilities are providing free energy audits to their customers, and offering water-to-air heat pumps.

Leber, R.E.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Bifurcation and Global Dynamical Behavior of the $f(T)$ Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Usually, in order to investigate the evolution of a theory, one may find the critical points of the system and then perform perturbations around these critical points to see whether they are stable or not. This local method is very useful when the initial values of the dynamical variables are not far away from the critical points. Essentially, the nonlinear effects are totally neglected in such kind of approach. Therefore, one can not tell whether the dynamical system will evolute to the stable critical points or not when the initial values of the variables do not close enough to these critical points. Furthermore, when there are two or more stable critical points in the system, local analysis can not provide the informations that which one the system will finally evolute to. In this paper, we have further developed the nullcline method to study the bifurcation phenomenon and global dynamical behaviour of the $f(T)$ theory. We overcome the shortcoming of local analysis. And it is very clear to see the evolution of the system under any initial conditions.

Chao-Jun Feng; Xin-Zhou Li; Li-Yan Liu

2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

137

Experimental program for the development of peat gasification. Process designs and cost estimates for the manufacture of 250 billion Btu/day SNG from peat by the PEATGAS Process. Interim report No. 8  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents process designs for the manufacture of 250 billion Btu's per day of SNG by the PEATGAS Process from peats. The purpose is to provide a preliminary assessment of the process requirements and economics of converting peat to SNG by the PEATGAS Process and to provide information needed for the Department of Energy (DOE) to plan the scope of future peat gasification studies. In the process design now being presented, peat is dried to 35% moisture before feeding to the PEATGAS reactor. This is the basic difference between the Minnesota peat case discussed in the current report and that presented in the Interim Report No. 5. The current design has overall economic advantages over the previous design. In the PEATGAS Process, peat is gasified at 500 psig in a two-stage reactor consisting of an entrained-flow hydrogasifier followed by a fluidized-bed char gasifier using steam and oxygen. The gasifier operating conditions and performance are necessarily based on the gasification kinetic model developed for the PEATGAS reactor using the laboratory- and PDU-scale data as of March 1978 and April 1979, respectively. On the basis of the available data, this study concludes that, although peat is a low-bulk density and low heating value material requiring large solids handling costs, the conversion of peat to SNG appears competitive with other alternatives being considered for producing SNG because of its very favorable gasification characteristics (high methane formation tendency and high reactivity). As a direct result of the encouraging technical and economic results, DOE is planning to modify the HYGAS facility in order to begin a peat gasification pilot plant project.

Arora, J.L.; Tsaros, C.L.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

beta-decay study of Cu-77  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A beta-decay study of Cu-77 has been performed at the ISOLDE mass separator with the aim to deduce its beta-decay properties and to obtain spectroscopic information on Zn-77. Neutron-rich copper isotopes were produced by means of proton- or neutron-induced fission reactions on U-238. After the production, Cu-77 was selectively laser ionized, mass separated and sent to different detection systems where beta-gamma and beta-n coincidence data were collected. We report on the deduced half-live, decay scheme, and possible spin assignment of 77Cu.

N. Patronis; H. De Witte; M. Gorska; M. Huyse; K. Kruglov; D. Pauwels; K. Van de Vel; P. Van Duppen; J. Van Roosbroeck; J. -C. Thomas; S. Franchoo; J. Cederkall; V. N. Fedoseyev; H. Fynbo; U. Georg; O. Jonsson; U. Kster; T. Materna; L. Mathieu; O. Serot; L. Weissman; W. F. Mueller; V. I. Mishin; D. Fedorov

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Viscous hydrodynamics description of $?$ meson production in Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the Israel-Stewart's theory of 2nd order dissipative hydrodynamics, we have simulated $\\phi$ production in Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at $\\sqrt{s}_{NN}$=200 GeV. Evolution of QGP fluid with viscosity over the entropy ratio $\\eta/s$=0.25, thermalised at $\\tau_i$=0.2 fm, with initial energy density $\\epsilon_i$=5.1 $GeV/fm^3$ explains the experimental data on $\\phi$ multiplicity, integrated $v_2$, mean $p_T$, $p_T$ spectra and elliptic flow in central and mid-central Au+Au collisions. $\\eta/s$=0.25 is also consistent with centrality dependence of $\\phi$ $p_T$ spectra in Cu+Cu collisions. The central energy density in Cu+Cu collisions is $\\epsilon_i$=3.48 $GeV/fm^3$.

A. K. Chaudhuri

2009-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

140

Cu-Cu direct bonding achieved by surface method at room temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The metal bonding is a key technology in the processes for the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and the semiconductor devices to improve functionality and higher density integration. Strong adhesion between surfaces at the atomic level is crucial; however, it is difficult to achieve close bonding in such a system. Cu films were deposited on Si substrates by vacuum deposition, and then, two Cu films were bonded directly by means of surface activated bonding (SAB) at room temperature. The two Cu films, with the surface roughness Ra about 1.3nm, were bonded by using SAB at room temperature, however, the bonding strength was very weak in this method. In order to improve the bonding strength between the Cu films, samples were annealed at low temperatures, between 323 and 473 K, in air. As the result, the Cu-Cu bonding strength was 10 times higher than that of the original samples without annealing.

Utsumi, Jun [Advanced Technology Research Center, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 1-8-1 Sachiura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-8515 (Japan); Ichiyanagi, Yuko, E-mail: yuko@ynu.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)

2014-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu cu ft" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Accelerating Fatigue Testing for Cu Ribbon Interconnects (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation describes fatigue experiments and discusses dynamic mechanical loading for Cu ribbon interconnects.

Bosco, N.; Silverman, T.; Wohlgemuth , J.; Kurtz, S.; Inoue, M.; Sakurai, K.; Shioda, T.; Zenkoh, H.; Miyashita, M.; Tadanori, T.; Suzuki, S.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Zero Energy Windows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

impact of 4.1 quadrillion BTU (quads) of primary energy 1 .systems with U-factors of 0.1 Btu/hr-ft-F Dynamic windows:for 1 quadrillion (10 15 ) Btu = 1.056 EJ. percent (Apte,

Arasteh, Dariush; Selkowitz, Steve; Apte, Josh; LaFrance, Marc

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Energy performance of air distribution systems part II: room air stratification full scale testing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

wall: Door @ South wall: [Btu*h -1 *ft -2 *F -1 ] [W(mK)]plenum top: SA plenum bottom: [Btu*h -1 *F -1 ] [W K -1 ]and U-value of 2.8 W/(mK) (0.5 Btu/(hftF)). However, this

Webster, Tom; Lukaschek, Wolfgang; Dickeroff, Darryl; Bauman, Fred

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Gas Water Heater Energy Losses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hr) 2. Pilot Input Rate (Btu/hr) 3. Excess Air (%) 4. Off-atm) 14. Higher Heating Value (Btu/SCF) 1028.0 15. SpecificProtection Tubes R (hr*ft2*F/Btu)? Fitting Emissivity SCREEN

Biermayer, Peter

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Technology development for cobalt F-T catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report No. 9, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this Project is to investigate the influence of various promoters, additives, and supports on minimizing the methane selectivity and increasing the water-gas shift (WGS) activity of cobalt (Co) Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalysts. The ultimate goal of this investigation is to identify and demonstrate a catalyst preparation Procedure that will be scaled up for the reproducible synthesis of commercial quantities of supported CO catalysts with desired activity, sleectivity, and lifetime for use in F-T synthesis in three-phase slurry bubble column reactors. Seven new catalysts were formulated and prepared during this period under both subtasks 1.2 and 1.3. Two more catalysts were prepared by Calsicat. The characterization of all the catalysts in order to determine their physical properties (BET surface area, pore volume, pore size diameter, particle size distribution), as well as the cobalt reducibility, extent of reduction, and dispersion) was continued. Fixed-bed reactor testing of the catalysts was continued. Six new catalysts were tested for their F-T synthesis performance. An investigation of the effect of pretreatment in various atmospheres (calcination in air or nitrogen prior to reduction in hydrogen, direct reduction without prior calcination, and reductiono)ddation-reduction (ROR)) of a selected number of catalysts upon their performance for F-T synthesis was continued during this period. Under subtask 2.2 during this reporting period a total of 11 runs were made in the two slurry bubble column reactors with eleven catalysts, including five on alumina, two from Calsicat, one WGS blend, and three on silica support. Four high CO conversion runs were made. Data were compiled to compare the CO conversions and product selectivities of the-methane reduction catalysts.

Singleton, A.H.

1995-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

146

Technology development for cobalt F-T catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report number 10, January 1--March 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this project is the development of a commercially-viable, cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalyst for use in a slurry bubble column reactor. The major objectives of this work are (1) to develop a cobalt-based F-T catalyst with low (< 5%) methane selectivity, (2) to develop a cobalt-based F-T catalyst with water-gas shift activity, and (3) to combine both these improvements into one catalyst. The project consists of five major tasks: catalyst development; catalyst testing; catalyst reproducibility tests; catalyst aging tests; and preliminary design and cost estimate for a demonstrate scale catalyst production facility. Technical accomplishments during this reporting period include the following. It appears that the higher activity obtained for the catalysts prepared using an organic solution and reduced directly without prior calcination was the result of higher dispersions obtained under such pretreatment. A Ru-promoted Co catalyst on alumina with 30% Co loading exhibited a 4-fold increase in dispersion and a 2-fold increase in activity in the fixed-bed reactor from that obtained with the non-promoted catalyst. Several reactor runs have again focused on pushing conversion to higher levels. The maximum conversion obtained has been 49.7% with 26g catalyst. Further investigations of the effect of reaction temperature on the performance of Co catalysts during F-T synthesis were started using a low activity catalyst and one of the most active catalysts. The three 1 kg catalyst batches prepared by Calsicat for the reproducibility and aging studies were tested in both the fixed-bed and slurry bubble column reactors under the standard reaction conditions. The effects of adding various promoters to some cobalt catalysts have also been addressed. Results are presented and discussed.

Singleton, A.H.

1995-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

147

Microstructures of Si surface layers implanted with Cu  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microstructures of Si ion-implanted with Cu have been characterized by TEM after annealing. For 1.2 at.%, the Cu is trapped at planar defects, but for 10 at.%, {eta}-Cu{sub 3}Si forms and Cu diffuses at its equilibrium solubility. These observations allow proper evaluation of the binding energies of Cu to previously formed internal cavities (2.2 eV) and {eta}-Cu{sub 3}Si (1.7 eV). The 10 at.% Cu layer promotes oxidation of Si catalyzed by {eta}-Cu{sub 3}Si. The microstructures also indicate that Si implanted with {approximately}2 at.% Cu reforms epitaxially with embedded defects after 8 hr at 700C, but for {approximately}10 at.% Cu, epitaxy is not recovered after 6 hours at 600C.

Follstaedt, D.M.; Myers, S.M.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

148

Technology development for cobalt F-T catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report No. 12, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The investigation of the effect of certain promoters (Fe, Pd, and Ru) on the deactivation characteristics of Co catalysts during F-T synthesis was continued during this reporting period. All catalysts were tested first at 220{degrees}C, then at higher temperatures from 240 to 280{degrees}C, while monitoring their deactivation. The choice of these promoters was based on their intrinsic ability to enhance the hydrogenation reactions while slowing down the Boudouard reaction under the conditions used in F-T synthesis. Olefin hydrogenation and CO dissociation reactions were used individually to investigate further the nature of the deactivation process of these catalyst during F-T synthesis. Hydrogenation of isobutene (IB) was carried out in the presence of CO between 120 and 180{degrees}C and atmospheric pressure. CO dissociation activities of the catalysts were measured using a pulse technique at 2.5 atm and at temperatures between 180 and 280{degrees}C with intermittent H{sub 2} bracketing at 350{degrees}C. Promotion with high loadings of Fe or Pd resulted in catalysts with relatively lower activity and higher methane selectivity. The deactivation process and rate for catalysts containing Pd or Fe were similar to those of the non-promoted or Ru-promoted alumina-supported Co catalysts tested previously. The only exception was Co.068 with 1% Pd which had adequate activity and selectivity as well as lower deactivation rate at the various temperatures tested.

Singleton, A.H.

1996-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

149

Born-Infeld and Charged Black Holes with non-linear source in $f(T)$ Gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate $f(T)$ theory coupled with a nonlinear source of electrodynamics, for a spherically symmetric and static spacetime in $4D$. We re-obtain the Born-Infeld and Reissner-Nordstrom-AdS solutions. We generalize the no-go theorem for any content that obeys the relationship $\\mathcal{T}^{\\;\\;0}_{0}=\\mathcal{T}^{\\;\\;1}_{1}$ for the energy-momentum tensor and a given set of tetrads. Our results show new classes of solutions where the metrics are related through $b(r)=-Na(r)$. We do the introductory analysis showing that solutions are that of asymptotically flat black holes, with a singularity at the origin of the radial coordinate, covered by a single event horizon. We also reconstruct the action for this class of solutions and obtain the functional form $f(T) = f_0\\left(-T\\right)^{(N+3)/[2(N+1)]}$ and $\\mathcal{L}_{NED} = \\mathcal{L}_0\\left(-F\\right)^{(N+3)/[2(N+1)]}$. Using the Lagrangian density of Born-Infeld, we obtain a new class of charged black holes where the action reads $f(T) = -16\\beta_{BI} \\...

Junior, Ednaldo L B; Houndjo, Mahouton J S

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Special Problem for Chapter 4: Compare the Lower Heating Values of different fuel gases per Standard Cubic Foot, recalling that  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2 + 3.76N2) - 1H2Ovapor + 1.88N2 0 = 1 lbmolH2 O lbmolfuel ? 18.016 lbmH2 O lbmolH2 O µ -5774.6 BTU lbmH2 0 ¶ + Qout 0 = -104040 BTU/lbmolfuel + Qout Qout = 104040 BTU/lbmolfuel = 51607 BTU/lbmfuel = 266 BTU/ft3 fuel [274 BTU/SCF] For 16.043 lbm of Methane CH4 + 2 (O2 + 3.76N2) - 2H2O + CO2 + 7.52N2

151

Guidelines for Energy Efficient Schools  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Operational experience of several schools designed with energy efficiency as a design criteria is discussed in this paper. Actual monthly energy usage and cost are provided. Annual energy cost performance ($/ft^2-yr) and energy performance (BTU/FT^2...

McClure, J. D.; Estes, J. M.; Bicknell, K. N.; Estes, M. C.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Production of low BTU gas from biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

J. To utilize this untapped resource, several tech- nologies were proposed. Among them were pyrolysis, gasification and combustion. As the study group ' s objective was focused on actual farm usage, pyrolysis This thesis follows the style and format... for combustion is simple relative to the gasification or pyrolysis and construc- tion and operation of the necessary equipment should also be easier. However, the final product of com- bustion, steam energy, cannot be stored for long periods of time...

Lee, Yung N.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Catalytic reactor for low-Btu fuels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved catalytic reactor includes a housing having a plate positioned therein defining a first zone and a second zone, and a plurality of conduits fabricated from a heat conducting material and adapted for conducting a fluid therethrough. The conduits are positioned within the housing such that the conduit exterior surfaces and the housing interior surface within the second zone define a first flow path while the conduit interior surfaces define a second flow path through the second zone and not in fluid communication with the first flow path. The conduit exits define a second flow path exit, the conduit exits and the first flow path exit being proximately located and interspersed. The conduits define at least one expanded section that contacts adjacent conduits thereby spacing the conduits within the second zone and forming first flow path exit flow orifices having an aggregate exit area greater than a defined percent of the housing exit plane area. Lastly, at least a portion of the first flow path defines a catalytically active surface.

Smith, Lance (North Haven, CT); Etemad, Shahrokh (Trumbull, CT); Karim, Hasan (Simpsonville, SC); Pfefferle, William C. (Madison, CT)

2009-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

154

BTU International Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 EastMaine: EnergyAustin Energy Place:Guidance DocumentsOperationsBSST LLC JumpBTMBTU

155

M. Bahrami ENSC388 Tutorial #1 1 ENSC 388 Week #2, Tutorial #1 Dimensions and Units  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.0140 . Problem 2: A car goes with average velocity of 100 km/h. Find kinetic energy of the car in [Btu] and [J everything the question is asking for) Find: KE: kinetic energy of the car in [Btu] and [J] Step 2: Prepare (Eq2) Note: 2 1][1][1 s ft sluglbf Btu ftlbf Btu ftlbfKE 465 .778 1 ].[361400 (Eq3) Part

Bahrami, Majid

156

Comparative study of the alloying effect on the initial oxidation of Cu-Au(100) and Cu-Pt(100)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using in situ transmission electron microscopy, we show that the oxidation of the Cu-Au(100) results in the formation of Cu{sub 2}O islands that deeply embed into the Cu-Au substrate while the oxidation of the Cu-Pt(100) leads to the formation of Cu{sub 2}O islands that highly protrude above the Cu-Pt substrate. Their difference is attributed to the different mobilities of Pt and Au in the Cu base alloys for which the sluggish mobility of Pt in Cu results in trapped Pt atoms at the oxide/alloy interface while the faster mobility of Au in Cu leads to enhanced rehomogenization of the alloy composition.

Luo, Langli; Zhou, Guangwen, E-mail: gzhou@binghamton.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Multidisciplinary Program in Materials Science and Engineering, State University of New York, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Kang, Yihong [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261 (United States); Yang, Judith C. [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261 (United States); Su, Dong; Stach, Eric A. [Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

157

Decommissioning samples from the Ft. Lewis, WA, solvent refined coal pilot plant: chemical analysis and biological testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results from chemical analyses and limited biological assays of three sets of samples from the Ft. Lewis, WA solvent refined coal (SRC) pilot plant. The samples were collected during the process of decommissioning this facility. Chemical composition was determined for chemical class fractions of the samples by using high-resolution gas chromatography (GC), high-resolution GC/mass spectrometry (MS) and high-resolution MS. Biological activity was measuring using both the histidine reversion microbial mutagenicity assay with Salmonella typhimurium, TA98 and an initiation/promotion mouse-skin tumorigenicity assay. 19 refs., 7 figs., 27 tabs.

Weimer, W.C.; Wright, C.W.

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Isotopic effect study in the LHCD and LHH experiments in hydrogen/deuterium plasmas of the FT-2 tokamak  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results of comparative experimental studies of the efficiency of lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) and lower hybrid heating (LHH) in the FT-2 tokamak in hydrogen and deuterium plasmas are presented. In the new comparative experimental runs in deuterium/hydrogen plasmas suppression of the LHCD and beginning of the interaction of LH waves with ions is controlled by the plasma density rise. Role of parametric instabilities in CD switch-off is considered. In order to analyze the experimentally observed effect of LHCD the GRILL3D and FRTC codes has been used.

Lashkul, S. I.; Altukhov, A. B.; Gusakov, E. Z.; Dyachenko, V. V.; Esipov, L. A.; Irzak, M. A.; Kantor, M. Yu.; Kouprienko, D. V.; Saveliev, A. N. [A. F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Politekhnicheskaya 26, 194021, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Shatalin, S. V. [St. Petersburg State Polytekhnical University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Stepanov, A. Yu. [A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Politekhnicheskaya 26, 194021, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

159

PERFORMANCE OF AN EXPERIMENTAL SOLAR-DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONER--ANNUAL REPORT JULY 1975-SEPT. 1976  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

U. THW . In T HW out TSS Q UW (Btu/hr) LiT m U IllWS (Ibs/OF) (OF) (OF) (OF) (OF) (Btu/hr ft2.F 20A 20C 19A lIS 17BU Run number m HW (1bs/hr) (Btu/hr- ft2_F) mS == ! z(nlWS+

Dao, K.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Thermopower of Yba2cu3o7-X, Erba2cu3o7-X  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

negative room temperature thermo- power of 3.4 pV/K. Although the magnitude of S(300) of our ErBa2Cu307 ?(No. 2) agrees, the sign does not agree with that reported by Lee et al. Figure 1 shows the temperature dependence of S of YBa2Cu307 . It increases...?2 reannealed) does not go to zero at the zero value of the resistive transition. We interpret this as evidence of diffusion or a chemical reac- tion with the Ag epoxy at the contact region into the ErBa2Cu307 ? to form a doped region (presuma- bly with Ag...

BHATNAGAR, AK; PAN, R.; Naugle, Donald G.; GILBERT, GR; PANDEY, RK.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu cu ft" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Using Matlab at CUED July 24, 2006  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using Matlab at CUED Tim Love July 24, 2006 Abstract This document does not try to describe matlab-beginners to undocumented and/or local features of matlab. Suggestions and contributions for this document are welcomed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 7 User Interface Controls 7 8 Local Utilities 8 1http://www-h.eng.cam.ac.uk/help/tpl/programs/matlab

Talbot, James P.

162

Superconductivity in Zigzag CuO Chains  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Superconductivity has recently been discovered in Pr{sub 2}Ba{sub 4}Cu{sub 7}O{sub 15-{delta}} with a maximum T{sub c} of about 15K. Since the CuO planes in this material are believed to be insulating, it has been proposed that the superconductivity occurs in the double (or zigzag) CuO chain layer. On phenomenological grounds we propose a theoretical interpretation of the experimental results in terms of a new phase for the zigzag chain, labelled by C{sub 1}S{sub 3/2}. This phase has a gap in the relative charge mode and a partial gap in the relative spin mode. It has gapless uniform charge and spin excitations and can have a divergent superconducting susceptibility, even for repulsive interactions. A microscopic model for the zigzag CuO chain is proposed, and on the basis of density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) and bosonization studies, we adduce evidence that supports our proposal.

Berg, E.

2010-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

163

Preparation, optical and non-linear optical power limiting properties of Cu, CuNi nanowires  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metallic nanowires show excellent Plasmon absorption which is tunable based on its aspect ratio and alloying nature. We prepared Cu and CuNi metallic nanowires and studied its optical and nonlinear optical behavior. Optical properties of nanowires are theoretically explained using Gans theory. Nonlinear optical behavior is studied using a single beam open aperture z-scan method with the use of 5?ns Nd: YAG laser. Optical limiting is found to arise from two-photon absorption.

Udayabhaskar, R.; Karthikeyan, B., E-mail: bkarthik@nitt.edu [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620 015 (India); Ollakkan, Muhamed Shafi [Light and Matter Physics Group, Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560 080 (India)] [Light and Matter Physics Group, Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560 080 (India)

2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

164

Mechanism of methanol synthesis on Cu(100) and Zn/Cu(100) surfaces: Comparative dipped adcluster model study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mechanism of methanol synthesis from CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} on Cu(100) and Zn/Cu(100) surfaces was studied using the dipped adcluster model (DAM) combined with ab initio Hartree-Fock (HF) and second-order Moeller-Plesset (MP2) calculations. On clean Cu(100) surface, calculations show that five successive hydrogenations are involved in the hydrogenation of adsorbed CO{sub 2} to methanol, and the intermediates are formate, dioxomethylene, formaldehyde, and methoxy. The rate-limiting step is the hydrogenation of formate to formaldehyde, and the Cu-Cu site is responsible for the reaction on Cu(100). The roles of Zn on Zn/Cu(100) catalyst are to modify the rate-limiting step of the reaction: to lower the activation energies of this step and to stabilize the dioxomethylene intermediate at the Cu-Zn site. The present comparative results indicate that the Cu-Zn site is the active site, which cooperates with the Cu-Cu site to catalyze methanol synthesis on a Cu-based catalyst. Electron transfer from surface to adsorbates is the most important factor in affecting the reactivity of these surface catalysts.

Nakatsuji, Hiroshi; Hu, Zhenming

2000-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

165

Bi-Se doped with Cu, p-type semiconductor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A Bi--Se doped with Cu, p-type semiconductor, preferably used as an absorber material in a photovoltaic device. Preferably the semiconductor has at least 20 molar percent Cu. In a preferred embodiment, the semiconductor comprises at least 28 molar percent of Cu. In one embodiment, the semiconductor comprises a molar percentage of Cu and Bi whereby the molar percentage of Cu divided by the molar percentage of Bi is greater than 1.2. In a preferred embodiment, the semiconductor is manufactured as a thin film having a thickness less than 600 nm.

Bhattacharya, Raghu Nath; Phok, Sovannary; Parilla, Philip Anthony

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

166

Microstructure of electrodeposited Cu-Ni binary alloy films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The codeposition of Cu and Ni in the electrodeposition method without a complexing agent is difficult, since the standard electrode potentials of Cu and Ni differ by approximately 600 mV. In this study, the electrodeposited Cu-Ni alloy films with various compositions were obtained using glycine as the complexing agent. Consequently, composition of the deposited Cu-Ni alloy films can be controlled by bath composition and pH, and the crystallographic structure of all the deposited Cu-Ni alloy films consists of a single solid solution and is not influenced by pH.

Mizushima, Io; Chikazawa, Masatoshi; Watanabe, Tohru [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

CuO cauliflowers for supercapacitor application: Novel potentiodynamic deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: Schematic experimental setup used for the potentiodynamic mode of electrodeposition for the synthesis of CuO cauliflower onto stainless steel substrate. Highlights: ? Synthesis of CuO using potentiodynamic mode of electrodeposition. ? Uniformly spread cauliflower-like nanostructure. ? CuO cauliflowers provide high specific capacitance with good stability. ? CuO cauliflowers show high power and energy density values. -- Abstract: In present investigation, synthesis and characterization of novel cauliflower-like copper oxide (CuO) and its electrochemical properties have been performed. The utilized CuO cauliflowers were prepared by potentiodyanamic mode from an aqueous alkaline bath. X-ray diffraction pattern confirm the formation of monoclinic CuO cauliflowers. Scanning electron micrograph analysis reveals that CuO cauliflowers are uniformly spread all over the substrate surface with the surface area of 49 m{sup 2} g{sup ?1} with bimodal pore size distribution. Electrochemical analysis shows that CuO cauliflower exhibits high specific capacitance of 179 Fg{sup ?1} in 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte with 81% capacity retention after 2000 cycles. The Ragone plot discovers better power and energy densities of cauliflowers-like CuO sample. Present investigation illustrates that the potentiodynamic approach for the direct growth of cauliflower-like CuO is simple and cost-effective and can be applied for synthesis of other metal oxides, polymers etc.

Dubal, Deepak P., E-mail: deepak.dubal@chemie.tu-chemnitz.de [Technische Universitt Chemnitz, Institut fr Chemie, AG Elektrochemie, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Gund, Girish S.; Lokhande, Chandrakant D. [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, 416004 (M.S) (India)] [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, 416004 (M.S) (India); Holze, Rudolf, E-mail: rudolf.holze@chemie.tu-chemnitz.de [Technische Universitt Chemnitz, Institut fr Chemie, AG Elektrochemie, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany)] [Technische Universitt Chemnitz, Institut fr Chemie, AG Elektrochemie, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

168

Conceptual design report for the project to install leak detection in FAST-FT-534/548/549  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides conceptual designs and design recommendations for installing secondary containment and leak detection systems for three sumps at the Fluorinel and Storage Facility (FAST), CPP-666. The FAST facility is located at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The three sumps receive various materials from the FAST water treatment process. This project involves sump upgrades to meet appropriate environmental requirements. The steps include: providing sump modifications or designs for the installation of leak chases and/or leakage accumulation, coating the sump concrete with a chemical resistant sealant (except for sump VES-FT-534 which is already lined with stainless steel) to act as secondary containment, lining the sumps with a primary containment system, and providing a means to detect and remove primary containment leakage that may occur.

Galloway, K.J.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Electrical Characterization of Cu Composition Effects in CdS/CdTe Thin-Film Solar Cells with a ZnTe:Cu Back Contact: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the effects of Cu composition on the CdTe/ZnTe:Cu back contact and the bulk CdTe. For the back contact, its potential barrier decreases with Cu concentration while its saturation current density increases. For the bulk CdTe, the hole density increases with Cu concentration. We identify a Cu-related deep level at {approx}0.55 eV whose concentration is significant when the Cu concentration is high. The device performance, which initially increases with Cu concentration then decreases, reflects the interplay between the positive influences and negative influences (increasing deep levels in CdTe) of Cu.

Li, J. V.; Duenow, J. N.; Kuciauskas, D.; Kanevce, A.; Dhere, R. G.; Young, M. R.; Levi, D. H.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

LBNL/ Fall Protection Requirements for Boom Lift 2010 Requirements for boom lift operations is to tether an adjustable 6' lanyard to 3ft  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL/ Fall Protection Requirements for Boom Lift 2010 Requirements for boom lift operations. LBNL best practices requirements for boom lift Operations is to tether an adjustable 6' lanyard to 3ft protection system in required when anchor points are present in lift. It is LBNL best practices requirements

Eisen, Michael

171

PUTTING KNOWLEDGE TO WORK The University of Georgia and Ft. Valley State College, the U.S. Department of Agriculture and counties of the state cooperating.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, resulting in increased early mortality as well as decreased weights at the end of the grow out. Keeping in decreased weight gains, increased feed conversions, and possibly increased mortality. One environmental at a velocity of 400 - 500 ft/min over large birds can produce a wind chill effect of ten to twelve degrees

Navara, Kristen

172

Analysis of MALDI FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry Data: a Time Series Donald A. Barkauskasa, Scott R. Kronewitterb, Carlito B. Lebrillab, and David M. Rockec  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analysis of MALDI FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry Data: a Time Series Approach Donald A. Barkauskasa/ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry is a technique for high mass gamma distribution with varying scale parameter but constant shape parameter and exponent. This enables

Rocke, David M.

173

PUTTING KNOWLEDGE TO WORK The University of Georgia and Ft. Valley State College, the U.S. Department of Agriculture and counties of the state cooperating.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of surface waters, and can lead to changes in species composition within land and water ecosystems. AmmoniaPUTTING KNOWLEDGE TO WORK The University of Georgia and Ft. Valley State College, the U.S to the formation of acid rain, which can damage sensitive ecosystems. In areas where nitrogen is a limiting

Navara, Kristen

174

Detailed chemical kinetic models for large n-alkanes and iso-alkanes found in conventional and F-T diesel fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detailed chemical kinetic models are needed to simulate the combustion of current and future transportation fuels. These models should represent the various chemical classes in these fuels. Conventional diesel fuels are composed of n-alkanes, iso-alkanes, cycloalkanes and aromatics (Farrell et al. 2007). For future fuels, there is a renewed interest in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) processes which can be used to synthesize diesel and other transportation fuels from biomass, coal and natural gas. F-T diesel fuels are expected to be similar to F-T jet fuels which are commonly comprised of iso-alkanes with some n-alkanes (Smith and Bruno, 2008). Thus, n-alkanes and iso-alkanes are common chemical classes in these conventional and future fuels. This paper reports on the development of chemical kinetic models of large n-alkanes and iso-alkanes to represent these chemical classes in conventional and future fuels. Two large iso-alkanes are 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane, which is a primary reference fuel for diesel, and isooctane, a primary reference fuel for gasoline. Other iso-alkanes are branched alkanes with a single methyl side chain, typical of most F-T fuels. The chemical kinetic models are then used to predict the effect of these fuel components on ignition characteristics under conditions found in internal combustion engines.

Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Curran, H J; Mehl, M

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

175

PUTTING KNOWLEDGE TO WORK The University of Georgia and Ft. Valley State College, the U.S. Department of Agriculture and counties of the state cooperating.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the prices paid for energy in recent years. In the last 10 years electrical costs have ranged from $0.07 per costs associated with the live production of broilers on farms in Georgia and the United States. HeatingPUTTING KNOWLEDGE TO WORK The University of Georgia and Ft. Valley State College, the U

Navara, Kristen

176

Understanding ammonia selective catalytic reduction kinetics over Cu-SSZ-13 from motion of the Cu ions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cu-SSZ-13 catalysts with three Si/Al ratios, at 6, 12 and 35, are synthesized with solution ion exchange. Catalysts are characterized with surface area/pore volume measurements, temperature programmed reduction (TPR), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Catalytic properties are examined using NO oxidation, ammonia oxidation, and standard ammonia selective catalytic reduction (NH3-SCR) reactions. By varying Si/Al ratios and Cu loadings, it is possible to synthesize catalysts with one dominant type of isolated Cu2+ ion species. Prior to full dehydration of the zeolite catalyst, hydrated Cu2+ ions are found to be very mobile as judged from EPR. NO oxidation is catalyzed by O-bridged Cu-dimer species that form at relatively high Cu loadings and in the presence of O2. For NH3 oxidation and standard SCR reactions, transient Cu-dimers even form at much lower Cu loadings; and these are proposed to be the active sites for reaction temperatures ? 350 C. These dimer species can be viewed as in equilibrium with monomeric Cu ion complexes. Between ~250 and 350 C, these moieties become less stable causing SCR reaction rates to decrease. At temperatures above 350 C and at low Cu loadings, Cu-dimers completely dissociate to regenerate isolated Cu2+ monomers that then locate at ion-exchange sites of the zeolite lattice. At low Cu loadings, these Cu species are the high-temperature active SCR catalytic centers. At high Cu loadings, on the other hand, both Cu-dimers and monomers are highly active in the high temperature kinetic regime, yet Cu-dimers are less selective in SCR. Brnsted acidity is also very important for SCR reactivity in the high-temperature regime. The authors gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOEs Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle.

Gao, Feng; Walter, Eric D.; Kollar, Marton; Wang, Yilin; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Understanding the Deactivation Mechanisms of Cu/Zeolite SCR Catalysts...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

assessed by performance tests and multiple characterization techniques that included 27 Al NMR, XRD, and TEM. * The impacts of zeolite structure, Cu sites, and active sites on SCR...

178

J/{psi} Production in {radical}(s{sub NN})=200 GeV Cu+Cu Collisions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Yields for J/{psi} production in Cu+Cu collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=200 GeV have been measured over the rapidity range |y|<2.2 and compared with results in p+p and Au+Au collisions at the same energy. The Cu+Cu data offer greatly improved precision over existing Au+Au data for J/{psi} production in collisions with small to intermediate numbers of participants, in the range where the quark-gluon plasma transition threshold is predicted to lie. Cold nuclear matter estimates based on ad hoc fits to d+Au data describe the Cu+Cu data up to N{sub part}{approx}50, corresponding to a Bjorken energy density of at least 1.5 GeV/fm{sup 3}.

Adare, A.; Bickley, A. A.; Ellinghaus, F.; Glenn, A.; Kinney, E.; Nagle, J. L.; Seele, J.; Wysocki, M. [University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Afanasiev, S.; Isupov, A.; Litvinenko, A.; Malakhov, A.; Peresedov, V.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Zolin, L. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Aidala, C.; Chi, C. Y.; Cole, B. A.; D'Enterria, D.; Jia, J. [Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 and Nevis Laboratories, Irvington, New York 10533 (United States)] (and others)

2008-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

179

New Resolved Resonance Region Evaluation for 63Cu and 65Cu for Nuclear Criticality Safety Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new resolved resonance region evaluation of 63Cu and 65Cu was done in the energy region from 10-5 eV to 99.5 keV. The R-Matrix SAMMY method using the Reich-Moore approximation was used to create a new set of consistent resonance parameters. The new evaluation was based on three experimental transmission data sets; two measured at ORELA and one from MITR, and two radiative capture experimental data sets from GELINA. A total of 141 new resonances were identied for 63Cu and 117 for 65Cu. The corresponding set of external resonances for each isotope was based on the identied resonances above 99.5 keV from the ORELA transmission data. The negative external levels (bound levels) were determined to match the dierential thermal cross section measured at the MITR. Double dierential elastic scattering cross sections were calculated from the new set of resonance parameters. Benchmarking calculations were carried out on a set of ICSBEP benchmarks. This work is in support of the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program.

Sobes, Vladimir [ORNL] [ORNL; Leal, Luiz C [ORNL] [ORNL; Guber, Klaus H [ORNL] [ORNL; Forget, Benoit [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)] [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Kopecky, S. [EC-JRC-IRMM, Geel, Belgium] [EC-JRC-IRMM, Geel, Belgium; Schillebeeckx, P. [EC-JRC-IRMM, Geel, Belgium] [EC-JRC-IRMM, Geel, Belgium; Siegler, P. [EC-JRC-IRMM, Geel, Belgium] [EC-JRC-IRMM, Geel, Belgium

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Reduction of part-list cuing inhibition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . . . . . . . . . . - . . ~ ~ . ~ 23 Table 3: Total Number Recalled, Reminiscence, and Hypermnesia as a Function of Incubation Interval and List Type in Experiment 2 30 Table 4: Minute-by-Minute Reminiscence as a Function of Incubation Interval and List Type in Experiment 2 33... 2. 55 1. 37 1. 55 10. 47 10. 66 6. 02 0. 19 31 2. 52 3. 05 1. 08 1. 10 10. 77 2. 04 11. 23 2. 02 6. 10 0. 88 0. 47 1. 35 30 Cued Recall Total Test 1 Total retest Reminiscence Hypermnesia 10. 17 12. 42 8. 63 2. 27 30 4. 00 3. 98 1...

Brown, Jeffrey Michael

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu cu ft" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Science DMZ Implemented at CU Boulder  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmitted for USMaterialstheterahertzonExploreStudies » Science DMZ @ CU

182

CU-Boulder Faculty Awards Campus, School/College, and System Level  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Corporation Faculty Community Service Award CU System, Office of Academic Affairs https://www.cu.edu/content/chase-corporation/teaching.html February All Faculty Eaton Faculty Awards for Outstanding Achievement CU-Boulder, Center for Humanities

183

Completion of the ORNL Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) Level 4 Milestone Sigma Team Off-Gas ORNL FT-14OR031202, MS# M4FT-14OR0312027, Support to PNNL Kr-85 Preliminary Optimization Study, due May 30, 2014  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This letter and attached emails document the completion of the FCR&D Level 4 milestone for the Sigma Team Off-Gas ORNL work package (FT-14OR031202), Support to PNNL Kr-85 Preliminary Optimization Study (M4FT-14OR0312027), due May 30, 2014. Support to this effort included providing a literature search and providing a significant number of reference documents covering more than 30 years of past work on Kr recovery, recovery system designs, and past cost analyses. In addition, ORNL provided support on several conference calls to establish an analysis approach for the current study and to review progress.

Jubin, Robert T. [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

184

Photoelectrochemical reduction of aqueous protons with a CuO/CuBi2O4 heterojunction under visible light irradiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the H2 evolved at the former electrode. Note that the FTO|CuO|CuBi2O4|Pt electrode has a small electrode area and was largely covered by an insulating epoxy resin resulting in a small current in Figure S14. A H2 oxidation current was observed at the Pt...

Park, Hyun S.; Lee, Chong-Yong; Reisner, Erwin

2014-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

185

Longueur de diffusion des porteurs minoritaires et structure de jonction des diodes Cu/Cu2O (*)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

short circuit current and with the shift from cell to cell of the peak in the photovoltaic spectral cells are not sui- table for an efficient photovoltaic solar energy conversion. Revue Phys. Appl. 15, the photovoltaic spectrum and the electron beam induced current (EBIC) methods. In the two last cases, Cu/Cu2O

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

186

Application of cluster-plus-glue-atom model to barrierless CuNiTi and CuNiTa films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To improve the thermal stability of copper and avoid its diffusion into surrounding dielectrics or interfacial reactions with them, the authors applied the cluster-plus-glue-atom model to investigate barrierless CuNiM (M?=?Ti or Ta) seed layers. The dissolution of the third element (Ti or Ta) in the Cu lattice with the aid of Ni significantly improved the thermal stability of the Cu seed layer. The appropriate M/Ni (M?=?Ti or Ta) ratio was selected to obtain a low resistivity: the resistivity was as low as 2.5??? cm for the (Ti{sub 1.5/13.5}Ni{sub 12/13.5}){sub 0.3}Cu{sub 99.7} film and 2.8??? cm for the (Ta{sub 1.1/13.1}Ni{sub 12/13.1}){sub 0.4}Cu{sub 99.6} film after annealing at 500?C for 1?h. After annealing at 500?C for 40?h, the two films remained stable without forming a Cu{sub 3}Si compound. The authors confirmed that the range of applications of the cluster-plus-glue-atom model could be extended. Therefore, a third element M with negative enthalpies of mixing with both Cu and Ni could be selected, under the premise that the mixing enthalpy of MNi is more negative than that of MCu.

Li, Xiaona, E-mail: lixiaona@dlut.edu.cn; Ding, Jianxin; Wang, Miao; Dong, Chuang [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Dalian University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Dalian 116024 (China); Chu, Jinn P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China)

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

High resolution FT-ICR mass spectral analysis of bio-oil and residual water soluble organics produced by hydrothermal liquefaction of the marine microalga Nannochloropsis salina  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report a detailed compositional characterization of a bio-crude oil and aqueous by-product from hydrothermal liquefaction of Nannochloropsis salina by direct infusion Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) in both positive- and negative-ionization modes. The FT-ICR MS instrumentation approach facilitates direct assignment of elemental composition to >7000 resolved mass spectral peaks and three-dimensional mass spectral images for individual heteroatom classes highlight compositional diversity of the two samples and provide a baseline description of these materials. Aromatic nitrogen compounds and free fatty acids are predominant species observed in both the bio-oil and aqueous fraction. Residual organic compounds present in the aqueous fraction show distributions that are slightly lower in both molecular ring and/or double bond value and carbon number relative to those found in the bio-oil, albeit with a high degree of commonality between the two compositions.

Sudasinghe, Nilusha; Dungan, Barry; Lammers, Peter; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Hallen, Richard T.; Schaub, Tanner

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Comparative analysis of the production costs and life-cycle GHG emissions of FT liquid fuels from coal and natural gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid transportation fuels derived from coal and natural gas could help the United States reduce its dependence on petroleum. The fuels could be produced domestically or imported from fossil fuel-rich countries. The goal of this paper is to determine the life-cycle GHG emissions of coal- and natural gas-based Fischer-Tropsch (FT) liquids, as well as to compare production costs. The results show that the use of coal- or natural gas-based FT liquids will likely lead to significant increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to petroleum-based fuels. In a best-case scenario, coal- or natural gas-based FT-liquids have emissions only comparable to petroleum-based fuels. In addition, the economic advantages of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuels are not obvious: there is a narrow range of petroleum and natural gas prices at which GTL fuels would be competitive with petroleum-based fuels. CTL fuels are generally cheaper than petroleum-based fuels. However, recent reports suggest there is uncertainty about the availability of economically viable coal resources in the United States. If the U.S. has a goal of increasing its energy security, and at the same time significantly reducing its GHG emissions, neither CTL nor GTL consumption seem a reasonable path to follow. 28 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Civil and Environmental Engineering Department

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

189

A study of the minimum meniscus radius as a function of vapor temperature using heat pipes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/sec 2 latent heat of vaporization, BTU/lb m wick permeability, ft 2 length, ft molecular weight, ibm water parameter, hf pfof/uf fgff f pressure, lbf/ft 2 desorption pressure, lbf/ft 2 saturation pressure, lbf/ft 2 heat transfer rate, BTU... into Cosgrove's equation, assuming the temperature is uni- form inside the heat pipe, replacing the sum of the section lengths by the total length of the heat pipe, and combining the fluid prop- erties into one var1able there is obtained N = hf pfof/uf...

Sonnier, Ronald James

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Coupled skyrmion sublattices in Cu2OSeO3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the observation of a skyrmion lattice in the chiral multiferroic insulator Cu2OSeO3 using Cu L3-edge resonant soft x-ray diffraction. We observe the unexpected existence of two distinct skyrmion sub-lattices that arise from inequivalent Cu sites with chemically identical coordination numbers but different magnetically active orbitals . The skyrmion sublattices are rotated with respect to each other implying a long wavelength modulation of the lattice. The modulation vector is controlled with an applied magnetic field, associating this Moir'e-like phase with a continuous phase transition. Our findings will open a new class of science involving manipulation of quantum topological states.

Langner, M.C.; Roy,, S.; Mishra, S. K.; Lee, J. C. T.; Shi,, X. W.; Hossain, M. A.; Chuang, Y.-D.; Seki, S.; Tokura, Y.; Kevan, S. D.; Schoenlein, R. W.

2014-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

191

Characterization of Zr-Fe-Cu Alloys for an Inert Matrix Fuel for Nuclear Energy Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cu had the largest melting temperature (886.3C) while Zr-12Fe-10Cu had the smallest melting temperature (870C). The third alloy, Zr-12Fe-15Cu, had a melting point just below that of Zr-12Fe-5Cu at 882.7C. Light Flash Analysis (LFA...

Barnhart, Brian A.

2013-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

192

Development and implementation of a FT-ICR mass spectrometer for the investigation of ion conformations of peptide sequence isomers containing basic amino acid residues by gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange of protonated di- and tripeptides containing a basic amino acid residue has been studied with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. Bimolecular reactions...

Marini, Joseph Thomas

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

193

Crystallization of Zr2PdxCu(1-x) and Zr2NixCu(1-x) Metallic Glass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One interesting aspect of rretallic glasses is the numerous instances of the deviation of the phase selection from the amorphous state to thermodynamically stable phases during the crystallization process. Their devitrification pathways allow us to study the relationship between the original amorphous structure and their crystalline counter parts. Among the various factors of phase selections, size and electronic effects have been most extensively studied. Elucidating the phase selection process of a glassy alloy will be helpful to fill in the puzzle of the changes from disordered to ordered structures. In this thesis, Two model Zr{sub 2}Pd{sub x}Cu{sub (1-x)} and Zr{sub 2}Ni{sub x}Cu{sub (1-x)} (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1) glassy systems were investigated since: (1) All of the samples can be made into a homogenous metallic glass; (2) The atomic radii differ from Pd to Cu is by 11%, while Ni has nearly the identical atomic size compare to Cu. Moreover, Pd and Ni differ by only one valence electron from Cu. Thus, these systems are ideal to test the idea of the effects of electronic structure and size factors; (3) The small number of components in these pseudo binary systems readily lend themselves to theoretical modeling. Using high temperature X-ray diffraction {HTXRD) and thermal analysis, topological, size, electronic, bond and chemical distribution factors on crystallization selections in Zr{sub 2}Pd{sub x}Cu{sub (1-x)} and Zr{sub 2}Ni{sub x}Cu{sub (1-x)} metallic glass have been explored. All Zr{sub 2}Pd{sub x}Cu{sub (1-x)} compositions share the same Cu11b phase with different pathways of meta-stable, icosahedral quasicrystalline phase (i-phase), and C16 phase formations. The quasicrystal phase formation is topologically related to the increasing icosahedral short range order (SRO) with Pd content in Zr{sub 2}Pd{sub x}Cu{sub (1x)} system. Meta-stable C16 phase is competitive with C11b phase at x = 0.5, which is dominated by electronic structure rather than size effects. Cu-rich and Ni-rich compositions in Zr{sub 2}Ni{sub x}Cu{sub (1-x)} trend to divitrify to C11b or C16 phases respectively. In the proposed pseudo binary phase diagram, the domain of C16, C11b and co-existence phases are mainly related with the topology in the amorphous structure and formation enthalpies of crystalline phases.

Min Xu

2008-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

194

Energy Use and Costs in Texas Schools and Hospitals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

performance indices among the participating institutions. For participating elementary schools, the annual electrical energy use/area ranged from 5.52 to 16.84 kwh/ft^2, the gas use from 9,363 to 66,639 Btu/ft^2, the electrical cost/area from 0.29 to 0.98 $/ft...

Dunn, J. R.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Cu Electrochemical Mechanical Planarization Surface Quality Abhinav Tripathi,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

containing 5-phenyl-1-H-tetrazole. The results show that surface roughness increases following Cu ECMP slurries11 and ECMP electrolytes6 that contain 5-phenyl-1-H-tetrazole PTA at pH 3. Although the ECMP

Suni, Ian Ivar

196

Induced magnetism in Cu nanoparticles embedded in Co P. Swaminathan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the effects of changing the nature of confinement to three dimensions by embedding Cu nanoparticles in a Co.1063/1.2806236 Nonmagnetic spacer layers grown between layers of magnetic materials exhibit an induced magnetic moment.1

Weaver, John H.

197

The Parameter Space of Graphene CVD on Polycrystalline Cu  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Society. However, no copyright claim is made to original U.S. Government works, or works produced by employees of any Commonwealth realm Crown government in the course of their duties. Article The Parameter Space of Graphene CVD on Polycrystalline Cu Piran... for errors or consequences arising from the use of information contained in these Just Accepted manuscripts. 1 The Parameter Space of Graphene CVD on Polycrystalline Cu Piran R. Kidambi1, Caterina Ducati2, Bruno Dlubak1, Damian Gardiner1, Robert S...

Kidambi, Piran Ravichandran; Ducati, Caterina; Dlubak, Bruno; Gardiner, Damian; Weatherup, Robert S.; Martin, Marie-Blandine; Seneor, Pierre; Coles, Harry; Hofmann, Stephan

2012-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

198

Modified Ni-Cu catalysts for ethanol steam reforming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three Ni-Cu catalysts, having different Cu content, supported on ?-alumina were synthesized by wet co-impregnation method, characterized and tested in the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction. The catalysts were characterized for determination of: total surface area and porosity (N{sub 2} adsorption - desorption using BET and Dollimer Heal methods), Ni surface area (hydrogen chemisorption), crystallinity and Ni crystallites size (X-Ray Diffraction), type of catalytic active centers (Hydrogen Temperature Programmed Reduction). Total surface area and Ni crystallites size are not significantly influenced by the addition of Cu, while Ni surface area is drastically diminished by increasing of Cu concentration. Steam reforming experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure, temperature range 150-350C, and ethanol - water molar ration of 1 at 30, using Ar as carrier gas. Ethanol conversion and hydrogen production increase by the addition of Cu. At 350C there is a direct connection between hydrogen production and Cu concentration. Catalysts deactivation in 24h time on stream was studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) on used catalysts. Coke deposition was observed at all studied temperatures; at 150C amorphous carbon was evidenced, while at 350C crystalline, filamentous carbon is formed.

Dan, M.; Mihet, M.; Almasan, V.; Borodi, G. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath Street, 400293, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath Street, 400293, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Katona, G.; Muresan, L. [Univ. Babes Bolyai, Fac. Chem. and Chem. Eng.,11 Arany Janos, 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Univ. Babes Bolyai, Fac. Chem. and Chem. Eng.,11 Arany Janos, 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Lazar, M. D., E-mail: diana.lazar@itim-cj.ro [65-103 Donath Street (Romania)

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

199

Low Temperature 65 Cu NMR Spectroscopy of the Cu+ Site in Azurin. | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and InterfacesAdministration - RockyTemperature 65 Cu NMR Spectroscopy of

200

Cu--Pd--M hydrogen separation membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure provides an H2 separation membrane comprised of an allow having the composition Cu.Sub.(100-x-y)Pd.sub.xM.sub.y, where x is from about 35 to about 50 atomic percent and where y is from greater than 0 to about 20 atomic percent, and where M consists of magnesium, yttrium, aluminum, titanium, lanthanum, or combinations thereof. The M elements act as strong stabilizers for the B2 phase of the allow, and extend the critical temperature of the alloy for a given hydrogen concentration and pressure. Due to the phase stabilization and the greater temperature range over which a B2 phase can be maintained, the allow is well suited for service as a H2 separation membrane, particularly when applicable conditions are established or cycled above about 600.degree. C. over the course of expected operations. In certain embodiments, the B2 phase comprises at least 60 estimated volume percent of the allow at a steady-state temperature of 400.degree. C. The B2 phase stability is experimentally validated through HT-XRD.

Do{hacek over (g)}an, Omer N; Gao, Michael C; Young, Rongxiang Hu; Tafen, De Nyago

2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu cu ft" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Strangeness Enhancement in Cu+Cu and Au+Au Collisions at \\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200 GeV  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report new STAR measurements of mid-rapidity yields for the $\\Lambda$, $\\bar{\\Lambda}$, $K^{0}_{S}$, $\\Xi^{-}$, $\\bar{\\Xi}^{+}$, $\\Omega^{-}$, $\\bar{\\Omega}^{+}$ particles in Cu+Cu collisions at \\sNN{200}, and mid-rapidity yields for the $\\Lambda$, $\\bar{\\Lambda}$, $K^{0}_{S}$ particles in Au+Au at \\sNN{200}. We show that at a given number of participating nucleons, the production of strange hadrons is higher in Cu+Cu collisions than in Au+Au collisions at the same center-of-mass energy. We find that aspects of the enhancement factors for all particles can be described by a parameterization based on the fraction of participants that undergo multiple collisions.

STAR Collaboration; H. Agakishiev; M. M. Aggarwal; Z. Ahammed; A. V. Alakhverdyants; I. Alekseev; J. Alford; B. D. Anderson; C. D. Anson; D. Arkhipkin; G. S. Averichev; J. Balewski; L. S. Barnby; D. R. Beavis; N. K. Behera; R. Bellwied; M. J. Betancourt; R. R. Betts; A. Bhasin; A. K. Bhati; H. Bichsel; J. Bielcik; J. Bielcikova; B. Biritz; L. C. Bland; W. Borowski; J. Bouchet; E. Braidot; A. V. Brandin; A. Bridgeman; S. G. Brovko; E. Bruna; S. Bueltmann; I. Bunzarov; T. P. Burton; X. Z. Cai; H. Caines; M. Caldern de la Barca Snchez; D. Cebra; R. Cendejas; M. C. Cervantes; Z. Chajecki; P. Chaloupka; S. Chattopadhyay; H. F. Chen; J. H. Chen; J. Y. Chen; L. Chen; J. Cheng; M. Cherney; A. Chikanian; K. E. Choi; W. Christie; P. Chung; M. J. M. Codrington; R. Corliss; J. G. Cramer; H. J. Crawford; S. Dash; A. Davila Leyva; L. C. De Silva; R. R. Debbe; T. G. Dedovich; A. A. Derevschikov; R. Derradi de Souza; L. Didenko; P. Djawotho; S. M. Dogra; X. Dong; J. L. Drachenberg; J. E. Draper; J. C. Dunlop; L. G. Efimov; M. Elnimr; J. Engelage; G. Eppley; M. Estienne; L. Eun; O. Evdokimov; R. Fatemi; J. Fedorisin; R. G. Fersch; P. Filip; E. Finch; V. Fine; Y. Fisyak; C. A. Gagliardi; D. R. Gangadharan; A. Geromitsos; F. Geurts; P. Ghosh; Y. N. Gorbunov; A. Gordon; O. Grebenyuk; D. Grosnick; S. M. Guertin; A. Gupta; W. Guryn; B. Haag; O. Hajkova; A. Hamed; L-X. Han; J. W. Harris; J. P. Hays-Wehle; M. Heinz; S. Heppelmann; A. Hirsch; E. Hjort; G. W. Hoffmann; D. J. Hofman; B. Huang; H. Z. Huang; T. J. Humanic; L. Huo; G. Igo; P. Jacobs; W. W. Jacobs; P. G. Jones; C. Jena; F. Jin; J. Joseph; E. G. Judd; S. Kabana; K. Kang; J. Kapitan; K. Kauder; H. Ke; D. Keane; A. Kechechyan; D. Kettler; D. P. Kikola; J. Kiryluk; A. Kisiel; V. Kizka; A. G. Knospe; D. D. Koetke; T. Kollegger; J. Konzer; I. Koralt; L. Koroleva; W. Korsch; L. Kotchenda; V. Kouchpil; P. Kravtsov; K. Krueger; M. Krus; L. Kumar; P. Kurnadi; M. A. C. Lamont; J. M. Landgraf; S. LaPointe; J. Lauret; A. Lebedev; R. Lednicky; J. H. Lee; W. Leight; M. J. LeVine; C. Li; L. Li; N. Li; W. Li; X. Li; X. Li; Y. Li; Z. M. Li; M. A. Lisa; F. Liu; H. Liu; J. Liu; T. Ljubicic; W. J. Llope; R. S. Longacre; W. A. Love; Y. Lu; E. V. Lukashov; X. Luo; G. L. Ma; Y. G. Ma; D. P. Mahapatra; R. Majka; O. I. Mall; L. K. Mangotra; R. Manweiler; S. Margetis; C. Markert; H. Masui; H. S. Matis; Yu. A. Matulenko; D. McDonald; T. S. McShane; A. Meschanin; R. Milner; N. G. Minaev; S. Mioduszewski; A. Mischke; M. K. Mitrovski; B. Mohanty; M. M. Mondal; B. Morozov; D. A. Morozov; M. G. Munhoz; M. Naglis; B. K. Nandi; T. K. Nayak; P. K. Netrakanti; J. M. Nelson; L. V. Nogach; S. B. Nurushev; G. Odyniec; A. Ogawa; K. Oh; A. Ohlson; V. Okorokov; E. W. Oldag; D. Olson; M. Pachr; B. S. Page; S. K. Pal; Y. Pandit; Y. Panebratsev; T. Pawlak; H. Pei; T. Peitzmann; C. Perkins; W. Peryt; S. C. Phatak; P. Pile; M. Planinic; M. A. Ploskon; J. Pluta; D. Plyku; N. Poljak; A. M. Poskanzer; B. V. K. S. Potukuchi; C. B. Powell; D. Prindle; C. Pruneau; N. K. Pruthi; P. R. Pujahari; J. Putschke; H. Qiu; R. Raniwala; S. Raniwala; R. L. Ray; R. Redwine; R. Reed; H. G. Ritter; J. B. Roberts; O. V. Rogachevskiy; J. L. Romero; A. Rose; L. Ruan; J. Rusnak; N. R. Sahoo; S. Sakai; I. Sakrejda; T. Sakuma; S. Salur; J. Sandweiss; E. Sangaline; A. Sarkar; J. Schambach; R. P. Scharenberg; A. M. Schmah; T. R. Schuster; J. Seele; J. Seger; I. Selyuzhenkov; P. Seyboth; E. Shahaliev; M. Shao; M. Sharma; S. S. Shi; Q. Y. Shou; E. P. Sichtermann; F. Simon; R. N. Singaraju; M. J. Skoby; N. Smirnov; H. M. Spinka; B. Srivastava; T. D. S. Stanislaus; D. Staszak; S. G. Steadman; J. R. Stevens; R. Stock; M. Strikhanov; B. Stringfellow; A. A. P. Suaide; M. C. Suarez; N. L. Subba; M. Sumbera; X. M. Sun; Y. Sun; Z. Sun; B. Surrow; D. N. Svirida; T. J. M. Symons; A. Szanto de Toledo; J. Takahashi; A. H. Tang; Z. Tang; L. H. Tarini; T. Tarnowsky; D. Thein; J. H. Thomas; J. Tian; A. R. Timmins; D. Tlusty; M. Tokarev; V. N. Tram; S. Trentalange; R. E. Tribble; P. Tribedy; O. D. Tsai; T. Ullrich; D. G. Underwood; G. Van Buren; G. van Nieuwenhuizen; J. A. Vanfossen Jr.; R. Varma; G. M. S. Vasconcelos; A. N. Vasiliev; F. Videbk; Y. P. Viyogi; S. Vokal; M. Wada; M. Walker; F. Wang; G. Wang; H. Wang; J. S. Wang; Q. Wang; X. L. Wang; Y. Wang; G. Webb; J. C. Webb; G. D. Westfall; C. Whitten Jr.; H. Wieman; S. W. Wissink; R. Witt; W. Witzke; Y. F. Wu; Z. Xiao; W. Xie; H. Xu; N. Xu; Q. H. Xu; W. Xu; Y. Xu; Z. Xu; L. Xue; Y. Yang; P. Yepes; K. Yip; I-K. Yoo; M. Zawisza; H. Zbroszczyk; W. Zhan; J. B. Zhang; S. Zhang; W. M. Zhang; X. P. Zhang; Y. Zhang; Z. P. Zhang; J. Zhao; C. Zhong; W. Zhou; X. Zhu; Y. H. Zhu; R. Zoulkarneev; Y. Zoulkarneeva

2012-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

202

Analysis of the structure, configuration, and sizing of Cu and Cu oxide nanoparticles generated by fs laser ablation of solid target in liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the analysis of structure, configuration, and sizing of Cu and Cu oxide nanoparticles (Nps) produced by femtosecond (fs) laser ablation of solid copper target in liquids. Laser pulse energy ranged between 500 {mu}J and 50 {mu}J. Water and acetone were used to produce the colloidal suspensions. The study was performed through optical extinction spectroscopy using Mie theory to fit the full experimental spectra, considering free and bound electrons size dependent contributions to the metal dielectric function. Raman spectroscopy and AFM technique were also used to characterize the sample. Considering the possible oxidation of copper during the fabrication process, two species (Cu and Cu{sub 2}O) arranged in two structures (bare core or core-shell) and in two configuration types (Cu-Cu{sub 2}O or Cu{sub 2}O-Cu) were considered for the fitting depending on the laser pulse energy and the surrounding media. For water at high energy, it can be observed that a Cu-Cu{sub 2}O configuration fits the experimental spectra of the colloidal suspension, while for decreasing energy and below a certain threshold, a Cu{sub 2}O-Cu configuration needs to be included for the optimum fit. Both species coexist for energies below 170 {mu}J for water. On the other hand, for acetone at high energy, optimum fit of the full spectrum suggests the presence a bimodal Cu-Cu{sub 2}O core-shell Nps distribution while for decreasing energy and below a 70 {mu}J threshold energy value, Cu{sub 2}O-Cu core-shell Nps must be included, together with the former configuration, for the fit of the full spectrum. We discuss possible reasons for the changes in the structural configuration of the core-shell Nps.

Santillan, J. M. J. [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas (CIOp), (CONICET La Plata - CIC) (Argentina); Videla, F. A.; Schinca, D. C.; Scaffardi, L. B. [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas (CIOp), (CONICET La Plata - CIC) (Argentina); Departamento de Ciencias Basicas, Facultad de Ingenieria, UNLP (Argentina); Fernandez van Raap, M. B. [Departamento de Fisica-IFLP, Universidad Nacional de La Plata-CONICET, L. B. Scaffardi: CIOp CC3 (1897) Gonnet, La Plata (Argentina)

2013-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

203

Hydrothermal Liquefaction Oil and Hydrotreated Product from Pine Feedstock Characterized by Heteronuclear Two-Dimensional NMR Spectroscopy and FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) crude oil and hydrotreated product from pine tree farm waste (forest product residual, FPR) have been analyzed by direct infusion electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS) in both positive- and negative-ionization modes and high-resolution twodimensional heteronuclear 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy. FT-ICR MS resolves thousands of compounds in complex oils and provides unparalleled compositional details for individual molecules for identification of compound class (heteroatom content), type (number of rings plus double bonds to carbon or double bond equivalents (DBE) and carbon number (degree of alkylation). Heteronuclear 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy provides one-bond and multiple-bond correlations between pairs of 1H and 13C chemical shifts that are characteristic of different organic functional groups. Taken together this information provides a picture of the chemical composition of these oils. Pyrolysis crude oil product from pine wood was characterized for comparison. Generally, pyrolysis oil is comprised of a more diverse distribution of heteroatom classes with higher oxygen number relative to HTL oil as shown by both positive- and negative-ion ESI FT-ICR MS. A total of 300 N1, 594 O1 and 267 O2 compounds were observed as products of hydrotreatment. The relative abundance of N1O1, N1O2, N1O3, N2, N2O1, N2O2 and O3 compounds are reduced to different degrees after hydrotreatment and other higher heteroatom containing species (O4-O10, N1O4, N1O5 and N2O3) are completely removed by hydrotreatment.

Sudasinghe, Nilusha; Cort, John R.; Hallen, Richard T.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Schaub, Tanner

2014-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

204

Technology development for cobalt F-T catalysts. Final quarterly technical progress report No. 11, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Preliminary results on the effect of reaction temperature on the performance of Co catalysts during F-T synthesis obtained during the last quarter confirmed that Co catalysts were very sensitive to temperature and deactivated significantly at temperatures above 240{degree}C both in the fixed bed and the slurry bubble column reactors. Following this preliminary investigation, a series of tests were carried out during this period in order to elucidate the nature of this deactivation process as well as determine possible means of preventing it. In order to elucidate the nature of this deactivation process, the catalysts which had undergone significant deactivation after high temperature (280{degree}C) reaction in either the fixed bed reactor or the slurry bubble column reactor were regenerated and retested in the fixed bed reactor. In both cases the catalysts recovered completely their initial activity. In addition, reactions at very high H{sub 2}CO ratios and high temperatures showed very little deactivation, suggesting that the deactivation of the Co catalysts during F-T synthesis at high temperatures was mainly due carbon formation via the Boudouard reaction. Due to the unreactive nature of this carbon, it could only be removed by calcination. A second series of experiments was carried out to investigate the effect of certain promoters (Zr, La, Cr, and Re) as well as the effect of another support such as silica on the deactivation characteristics of Co catalysts during F-T synthesis at high temperature. The results suggest that the deactivation process and rate for most of these catalysts are similar to those of the alumina-supported catalysts tested previously (Co.005 and Co-053), and that none of the promoters helps to slow down the rate of carbon formation at high temperatures above 240{degree}C.

Singleton, A.H.

1995-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

205

Moessbauer spectroscopy studies of iron-catalysts used in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) processes. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March, 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to carry out a Moessbauer spectroscopy study of Iron-based catalysts to identify iron phases present and correlate with water gas shift and FT activities. A total of 15 catalysts were evaluated so far. Results are presented on the amounts in each catalyst of the following phases: superparamagnetic phase, hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), Chi-carbide phase ({chi}-Fe{sub 5}C{sub 2}), and an epsilon-carbide phase ({var_epsilon}-Fe{sub 2.2}C).

Huffman, G.P.; Rao, K.R.P.M.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

206

Magnetic interactions in 3d metal chains on Cu[subscript 2]X/Cu(001) (X = N, O): Comparison with corresponding unsupported chains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work we present a systematic study of the magnetic interactions within 3d transition-metal chains adsorbed on Cu[subscript 2]N and Cu[subscript 2]O monolayers grown on Cu(001). We are interested in the particular ...

Urdaniz, M. C.

207

ANALYSIS OF THE CALIFORNIA ENERGY INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Al MUilE 16 MMTIVl COAL GASIFICATION - HIGH STU 1250 MMCF/Olfacilities, particularly coal gasification plants,coal-fired5 5T/yr ore) Coal Gasification (Hi BTU (80Xl0 9 ft 3/yr)

Authors, Various

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

FT-IR and thermoluminescence investigation of P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-BaO-K{sub 2}O glass system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 0.5P{sub 2}O{sub 5}?xBaO?(0.5?x)K{sub 2}O glass system (0?x?0.5mol%) is investigated by FT-IR and thermoluminescence as a possible dosimetic material. FT-IR spectra show structural network modifications with the composition variations of the studied glasses. The predominant absorption bands are characterized by two broad peaks near 500 cm{sup ?1}, two weak peaks around 740 cm{sup ?1} and three peaks in the 9001270 cm{sup ?1} region. The shift in the position of the band assigned to asymmetric stretching of PO{sub 2}{sup ?} group, ?{sub as}(PO{sub 2}{sup ?}) modes from ?1100 cm{sup ?1} to 1085 cm{sup ?1} and the decrease in its relative intensity with the increasing of K{sub 2}O content shows a network modifier role of this oxide.. Luminescence investigations show that by adding modifier oxides in the phosphate glass a dose dependent TL signals result upon irradiation. Thus P{sub 2}O{sub 5}BaOK{sub 2}O glass system is a possible candidate material for dosimetry in the dose 0 50 Gy range.

Ivascu, C. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Physics, Kogalniceanu 1, 400084 Cluj Napoca (Romania)] [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Physics, Kogalniceanu 1, 400084 Cluj Napoca (Romania); Timar-Gabor, A. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Environmental Science, Fantanele 30, 400294 Cluj Napoca (Romania)] [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Environmental Science, Fantanele 30, 400294 Cluj Napoca (Romania); Cozar, O. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Physics, Kogalniceanu 1, 400084 Cluj Napoca, Romania and Academy of Romanian Scientists, Splaiul Independentei 54, 050094, Bucharest (Romania)] [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Physics, Kogalniceanu 1, 400084 Cluj Napoca, Romania and Academy of Romanian Scientists, Splaiul Independentei 54, 050094, Bucharest (Romania)

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

209

Pb-free Sn-Ag-Cu ternary eutectic solder  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A Pb-free solder includes a ternary eutectic composition consisting essentially of about 93.6 weight % Sn-about 4.7 weight % Ag-about 1.7 weight % Cu having a eutectic melting temperature of about 217 C and variants of the ternary composition wherein the relative concentrations of Sn, Ag, and Cu deviate from the ternary eutectic composition to provide a controlled melting temperature range (liquid-solid ``mushy`` zone) relative to the eutectic melting temperature (e.g. up to 15 C above the eutectic melting temperature). 5 figs.

Anderson, I.E.; Yost, F.G.; Smith, J.F.; Miller, C.M.; Terpstra, R.L.

1996-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

210

Elucidating efficiency losses in cuprous oxide (Cu?O) photovoltaics and identifying strategies for efficiency improvement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, I fabricated and characterized a series of thin-film cuprous oxide (Cu?O) photovoltaic devices. I constructed several different device designs, using sputtered and electrochemically deposited Cu?O. ...

Brandt, Riley Eric

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Study of Martensitic Phase transformation in a NiTiCu Thin Film...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Phase transformation in a NiTiCu Thin Film Shape Memory Alloy Using Photoelectron Emission Microscopy. Study of Martensitic Phase transformation in a NiTiCu Thin Film Shape...

212

Mechanistic Studies of Methanol Synthesis over Cu from CO/CO2...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Methanol Synthesis over Cu from COCO2H2H2O Mixtures: the Source of C in Methanol and the Role of Water Mechanistic Studies of Methanol Synthesis over Cu from COCO2H2H2O...

213

Thermal Durability of Cu-CHA NH3-SCR Catalysts for Diesel NOx...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Durability of Cu-CHA NH3-SCR Catalysts for Diesel NOx Reduction. Thermal Durability of Cu-CHA NH3-SCR Catalysts for Diesel NOx Reduction. Abstract: Multiple catalytic functions...

214

E-Print Network 3.0 - alloy fracture cu-ni Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

fracture cu-ni Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: alloy fracture cu-ni Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Ris-R-1276(EN) Final Report...

215

NO Chemisorption on Cu/SSZ-13: a Comparative Study from Infrared...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Chemisorption on CuSSZ-13: a Comparative Study from Infrared Spectroscopy and DFT Calculations. NO Chemisorption on CuSSZ-13: a Comparative Study from Infrared Spectroscopy and...

216

Structure-Activity Relationships in NH3-SCR over Cu-SSZ-13 as...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Relationships in NH3-SCR over Cu-SSZ-13 as Probed by Reaction Kinetics and EPR Studies. Structure-Activity Relationships in NH3-SCR over Cu-SSZ-13 as Probed by...

217

Length Effects on the Reliability of Dual-Damascene Cu Interconnects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The effects of interconnect length on the reliability of dual-damascene Cu metallization have been investigated. As in Al-based interconnects, the lifetimes of Cu lines increase with decreasing length. However, unlike ...

Wei, F.

218

E-Print Network 3.0 - al fe cu Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of oxidized, S-rich mafic magmas for giant Cu mineralization: Evidence from Pinatubo, Bingham Canyon and El Teniente Summary: Role of oxidized, S-rich mafic magmas for giant Cu...

219

E-Print Network 3.0 - al cu fe Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of oxidized, S-rich mafic magmas for giant Cu mineralization: Evidence from Pinatubo, Bingham Canyon and El Teniente Summary: Role of oxidized, S-rich mafic magmas for giant Cu...

220

Three approaches to economical photovoltaics: conformal Cu2S, organic luminescent films, and PbSe nanocrystal superlattices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

approaches to economical photovoltaics: conformal Cu 2 S,routes to more efficient photovoltaics using conformal Cu 2on grid-parity. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and

Carbone, Ian Anthony

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu cu ft" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Hands-on Learning CU architectural engineering students learn their trade  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

science to increase comfort and energy efficiency. CU is home to state- of-the-art heating, ventilating

222

High strength-high conductivity Cu--Fe composites produced by powder compaction/mechanical reduction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A particulate mixture of Cu and Fe is compacted and mechanically reduced to form an "in-situ" Cu-Fe composite having high strength and high conductivity. Compaction and mechanical reduction of the particulate mixture are carried out at a temperature and time at temperature selected to avoid dissolution of Fe into the Cu matrix particulates to a harmful extent that substantially degrades the conductivity of the Cu-Fe composite.

Verhoeven, John D. (Ames, IA); Spitzig, William A. (Ames, IA); Gibson, Edwin D. (Ames, IA); Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA)

1991-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

223

Time evolution of the exponential wavenumber spectra of turbulence upon helium injection into a hydrogen discharge at the FT-2 tokamak  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of variations in the key parameter of short-wavelength turbulence-the ion-acoustic Larmor radius {rho}{sub s}, which determines the position of the maximum of the drift instability growth rate over poloidal wavenumbers-was studied experimentally at the FT-2 tokamak. For this purpose, helium was injected to hydrogen plasma, which resulted in a change in the electron temperature at the plasma edge. The universality of the exponential shape of the turbulence spectra over radial wavenumbers q and a substantial excess of the characteristic turbulence scale L over the ion-acoustic Larmor radius was confirmed with the help of correlative diagnostics of enhanced scattering. This excess at the discharge periphery reaches a value of 3-5 at a low electron temperature, apparently, due to an increase in the dissipation of drift waves upon their cascade transfer toward short scale-lengths.

Gurchenko, A. D.; Gusakov, E. Z.; Lashkul, S. I.; Altukhov, A. B.; Selyunin, E. P.; Esipov, L. A.; Kantor, M. Yu.; Kouprienko, D. V.; Stepanov, A. Yu. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

224

DISSERTATION DEVICE PHYSICS OF Cu(In,Ga)Se2 THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DISSERTATION DEVICE PHYSICS OF Cu(In,Ga)Se2 THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS Submitted by Markus Gloeckler PHYSICS OF Cu(In,Ga)Se2 THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS BE ACCEPTED AS FULFILLING IN PART REQUIREMENTS OF Cu(In,Ga)Se2 THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS Thin-film solar cells have the potential to be an important

Sites, James R.

225

Microstructural development and solidification cracking susceptibility of Cu deposits on steel: Part I  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microstructural development and solidification cracking susceptibility of Cu deposits on steel industry is interested in depositing Cu onto steel using direct metal deposition techniques in order to improve thermal management of mold dies manufactured from steel alloys. However, Cu is a known promoter

DuPont, John N.

226

Plasticity in Cu thin films: an experimental investigation of the effect of microstructure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Plasticity in Cu thin films: an experimental investigation of the effect of microstructure A thesis Author Joost J. Vlassak Yong Xiang Plasticity in Cu thin films: an experimental investigation is constructed. The elastic-plastic behavior of Cu films is studied with emphasis on the effects

227

Effect of CNTs on precipitation hardening behavior of CNT/AlCu composites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of CNTs on precipitation hardening behavior of CNT/Al­Cu composites Dong H. Nam a , Yun K June 2012 A B S T R A C T The precipitation hardening behavior of CNT/Al­Cu composites was investigated accelerated the precipitation hardening behavior of CNT/Al­Cu composites due to the generation of excess

Hong, Soon Hyung

228

Cu-X-bpy (X ) Cl, Br; bpy ) 4,4-bipyridine) Coordination Polymers: The Stoichiometric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the product formation, their structures and topology. Experimental Section Chemicals and Reagents. All with water and acetone and dried in air. I was isolated as a single-phase product. Synthesis of 2 [Cu2Br2 chemicals were used as purchased without further purification, including CuCl2,2H2O (99+%, Aldrich), CuBr2

Li, Jing

229

PMo or PW heteropoly acids supported on MCM-41 silica nanoparticles: Characterisation and FT-IR study of the adsorption of 2-butanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mesoporous silica, prepared in basic conditions, has been loaded (20% weight) with 12-molybdophosphoric (PMo) or 12-tungstophosphoric (PW) acid and calcined at different temperatures ranging between 250 and 550 deg. C. The samples have been characterised by N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption at -196 deg. C, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), UV-visible diffuse reflectance, Raman spectroscopy and temperature programmed reduction (TPR). The acidity and catalytic activity have been, respectively, examined by monitoring the adsorption of pyridine and 2-butanol by FT-IR spectroscopy. The results indicate that PW and PMo acids are highly dispersed on mesoporous silica MCM-41 spherical nanoparticles. While PMo retains its Keggin structure up to 550 deg. C, PW decomposes at this temperature into crystalline WO{sub 3} and phosphorous oxides. In both cases, the morphology, hexagonal symmetry and long-range order observed for the support are preserved with calcination up to 450 deg. C. The Broensted-type acid sites found in all samples, whose surface concentration decreases as the calcination temperature increases, are responsible for the selective formation of cis-butene detected upon adsorption of 2-butanol. The sample containing PW calcined at 450 deg. C also shows selectivity to methyl ethyl ketone. - Graphical abstract: Samples based in MCM-41 nanoparticles loaded with tungstophosphoric and molybdophosphoric acids have been synthesised. The uncalcined solids and that derived upon their calcination in the temperature range 250-550 deg. C have been characterised and evaluated in the decomposition of 2-butanol monitored by FT-IR spectroscopy.

Carriazo, Daniel [GIR-QUESCAT, Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008-Salamanca (Spain); Domingo, Concepcion [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, C.S.I.C., Serrano, 123, 28006-Madrid (Spain); Martin, Cristina [GIR-QUESCAT, Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008-Salamanca (Spain); Rives, Vicente [GIR-QUESCAT, Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008-Salamanca (Spain)], E-mail: vrives@usal.es

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

230

Cardiologists from CU testing revolutionary heart-attack treatment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cardiologists from CU testing revolutionary heart-attack treatment Compiled 4.12.2013 23 of the biologically degradable stent in the treatment of myocardial infarctions (heart-attacks). The results with a metal stent in their heart for the rest of their life; instead, the stent does its work then disappears

Cerveny, Vlastislav

231

Electric Fields and Chiral Magnetic Effect in Cu + Au Collisions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The non-central Cu + Au collisions can create strong out-of-plane magnetic fields and in-plane electric fields. By using the HIJING model, we study the general properties of the electromagnetic fields in Cu + Au collisions at 200 GeV and their impacts on the charge-dependent two-particle correlator $\\gamma_{q_1q_2}=$ (see main text for definition) which was used for the detection of the chiral magnetic effect (CME). Compared with Au + Au collisions, we find that the in-plane electric fields in Cu + Au collisions can strongly suppress the two-particle correlator or even reverse its sign if the lifetime of the electric fields is long. Combining with the expectation that if $\\gamma_{q_1q_2}$ is induced by elliptic-flow driven effects we would not see such strong suppression or reversion, our results suggest to use Cu + Au collisions to test CME and understand the mechanisms that underlie $\\gamma_{q_1q_2}$.

Wei-Tian Deng; Xu-Guang Huang

2015-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

232

CuRtin FoundAtion `Education is the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2010 AnnuAl RepoRt #12;CuRtin FoundAtion `Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.' nelson Mandela the Curtin Foundation was formed in 2010 to consolidate the existing university Foundations, to provide an efficient, single administrative vehicle for Curtin's philanthropic

233

Peter C. Chu Mail Code: OC/Cu  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Journal of Oceanography, 2008 - present · Editorial Board, the Open Ocean Engineering Journal, 2007Peter C. Chu Professor Mail Code: OC/Cu Department of Oceanography Graduate School of Engineering and Applied Sciences & Wayne E. Meyer Institute of Systems Engineering Monterey, CA 93943 Phone: 831

234

Temperature dependent effects during Ag deposition on Cu(110)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The composition, structure, and morphology of ultrathin films grown by Ag deposition on Cu(110) were monitored as a function of temperature using low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and medium energy ion scattering (MEIS). Aligned backscattering measurements with 150 keV He ions indicate that the Ag resides on top of the Cu and there is no significant surface compound formation. Measurements with LEED show that the Ag is initially confined to the substrate troughs. Further deposition forces the Ag out of the troughs and results in a split c(2 {times} 4) LEED pattern, which is characteristic of a distorted Ag(111) monolayer template. As verified by both AES and MEIS measurements, postmonolayer deposition of Ag on Cu(110) at 300K leads to a pronounced 3-dimensional clustering. Ion blocking analysis of the Ag clusters show that the crystallites have a (110)-like growth orientation, implying that the Ag monolayer template undergoes a rearrangement. These data are confirmed by low temperature LEED results in the absence of clusters, which indicate that Ag multilayers grow from a Ag--Cu interface where the Ag is captured in the troughs. Changes observed in the film structure and morphology are consistent with a film growth mechanism that is driven by overlayer strain response to the substrate corrugation. 16 refs., 4 figs.

Taylor, T.N.; Muenchausen, R.E.; Hoffbauer, M.A.; Denier van der Gon, A.W.; van der Veen, J.F. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA); FOM-Instituut voor Atoom-en Molecuulfysica, Amsterdam (Netherlands))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Influence of Al/CuO reactive multilayer films additives on exploding foil initiator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An investigation on the influence of Al/CuO reactive multilayer films (RMFs) additives on exploding foil initiator was performed in this paper. Cu film and Cu/Al/CuO RMFs were produced by using standard microsystem technology and RF magnetron sputtering technology, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy characterization revealed the distinct layer structure of the as-deposited Al/CuO RMFs. Differential scanning calorimetry was employed to ascertain the amount of heat released in the thermite reaction between Al films and CuO films, which was found to be 2024 J/g. Electrical explosion tests showed that 600 V was the most matching voltage for our set of apparatus. The explosion process of two types of films was observed by high speed camera and revealed that compared with Cu film, an extra distinct combustion phenomenon was detected with large numbers of product particles fiercely ejected to a distance of about six millimeters for Cu/Al/CuO RMFs. By using the atomic emission spectroscopy double line technique, the reaction temperature was determined to be about 6000-7000 K and 8000-9000 K for Cu film and Cu/Al/CuO RMFs, respectively. The piezoelectricity of polyvinylidene fluoride film was employed to measure the average velocity of the slapper accelerated by the explosion of the films. The average velocities of the slappers were calculated to be 381 m/s and 326 m/s for Cu film and Cu/Al/CuO RMFs, respectively, and some probable reasons were discussed with a few suggestions put forward for further work.

Zhou Xiang; Shen Ruiqi; Ye Yinghua; Zhu Peng; Hu Yan; Wu Lizhi [School of Chemical Engineeering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing (China)

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Simple Template-Free Solution Route for the Controlled Synthesis of Cu(OH)2 and CuO Nanostructures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, People's Republic of China ReceiVed: July 21, 2004; In Final Form: August 29, 2004 The controlled attracted considerable attention due to their fundamental importance and potential wide-ranging applications Orthorhombic Cu2(OH)3- Cl was recently found in living organisms as the first identified copper

Qi, Limin

237

Energy and system size dependence of ?meson production in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the beam-energy and system-size dependence of \\phi meson production (using the hadronic decay mode \\phi -- K+K-) by comparing the new results from Cu+Cu collisions and previously reported Au+Au collisions at \\sqrt{s_NN} = 62.4 and 200 GeV measured in the STAR experiment at RHIC. Data presented are from mid-rapidity (|y|energy, the transverse momentum distributions for \\phi mesons are observed to be similar in yield and shape for Cu+Cu and Au+Au colliding systems with similar average numbers of participating nucleons. The \\phi meson yields in nucleus-nucleus collisions, normalised by the average number of participating nucleons, are found to be enhanced relative to those from p+p collisions with a different trend compared to strange baryons. The enhancement for \\phi mesons is observed to be higher at \\sqrt{s_NN} = 200 GeV compared to 62.4 GeV. These observations for the produced \\phi(s\\bar{s}) mesons clearly suggest that, at these collision energies, the source of enhancement of strange hadrons is related to the formation of a dense partonic medium in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions and cannot be alone due to canonical suppression of their production in smaller systems.

STAR Collaboration

2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

238

Energy and system size dependence of phi meson production in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the beam-energy and system-size dependence of {phi} meson production (using the hadronic decay mode {phi} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}) by comparing the new results from Cu + Cu collisions and previously reported Au + Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 62.4 and 200 GeV measured in the STAR experiment at RHIC. Data presented are from midrapidity (|y| < 0.5) for 0.4 < p{sub T} < 5 GeV/c. At a given beam energy, the transverse momentum distributions for {phi} mesons are observed to be similar in yield and shape for Cu + Cu and Au + Au colliding systems with similar average numbers of participating nucleons. The {phi} meson yields in nucleus-nucleus collisions, normalized by the average number of participating nucleons, are found to be enhanced relative to those from p + p collisions with a different trend compared to strange baryons. The enhancement for {phi} mesons is observed to be higher at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV compared to 62.4 GeV. These observations for the produced {phi}(s{bar s}) mesons clearly suggest that, at these collision energies, the source of enhancement of strange hadrons is related to the formation of a dense partonic medium in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions and cannot be alone due to canonical suppression of their production in smaller systems.

STAR Coll

2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

239

POTENTIAL MARKETS FOR HIGH-BTU GAS FROM COAL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It has become increasilngly clear that the energy-related ilemna facing this nation is both a long-term and deepening problem. A widespread recognition of the critical nature of our energy balance, or imbalance, evolved from the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973. The seeds of this crisis were sown in the prior decade, however, as our consumption of known energy reserves outpaced our developing of new reserves. The resultant increasing dependence on foreign energy supplies hs triggered serious fuel shortages, dramatic price increases, and a pervsive sense of unertainty and confusion throughout the country.

Booz, Allen, and Hamilton, Inc.,

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Fumigation of a diesel engine with low Btu gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 0.5 liter single-cylinder, indirect-injection diesel engine has been fumigated with producer gas. Measurements of power, efficiency, cylinder pressure, and emissions were made. At each operating condition, engine load was held constant, and the gas-to-diesel fuel ratio was increased until abnormal combustion was encountered. This determined the maximum fraction of the input energy supplied by the gas, E/sub MAX/, which was found to be dependent upon injection timing and load. At light loads, E/sub MAX/ was limited by severe efficiency loss and missfire, while at heavy loads it was limited by knock or preignition. Fumigation generally increased ignition delay and heat release rates, but peak pressures were not strongly influenced. Efficiency was slightly decreased by fumigation as were NO/sub X/ and particle emissions while CO emissions were increased.

Ahmadi, M.; Kittelson, D.B.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu cu ft" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Natural Gas Futures Contract 2 (Dollars per Million Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 10 MECS Survey Data 2010 | 2006 | 2002 |J.MonthlyU.S.O F4.34

242

Natural Gas Futures Contract 3 (Dollars per Million Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 10 MECS Survey Data 2010 | 2006 | 2002 |J.MonthlyU.S.O F4.34Week Of

243

Natural Gas Futures Contract 4 (Dollars per Million Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 10 MECS Survey Data 2010 | 2006 | 2002 |J.MonthlyU.S.O F4.34Week

244

Natural Gas Futures Contract 1 (Dollars per Million Btu)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas Conchas recoveryLaboratory | NationalJohn Cyber Security NuclearNew testloading new

245

Natural Gas Futures Contract 1 (Dollars per Million Btu)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas Conchas recoveryLaboratory | NationalJohn Cyber Security NuclearNew testloading newYear Jan

246

Natural Gas Futures Contract 1 (Dollars per Million Btu)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas Conchas recoveryLaboratory | NationalJohn Cyber Security NuclearNew testloading newYear

247

Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun with Bigfront.jpgcommunity200cellHeat TransferHelping Make TheHenry C.Henry

248

Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs U.S.WyomingExpansionReservesFoot)ThousandDecade

249

Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs U.S.WyomingExpansionReservesFoot)ThousandDecadeYear

250

Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs

251

Natural Gas Futures Contract 2 (Dollars per Million Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs Year2per6.48(Millionthroughthroughthrough4.93

252

Natural Gas Futures Contract 2 (Dollars per Million Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs Year2per6.48(Millionthroughthroughthrough4.93Year Jan

253

Natural Gas Futures Contract 2 (Dollars per Million Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs Year2per6.48(Millionthroughthroughthrough4.93Year

254

Natural Gas Futures Contract 3 (Dollars per Million Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs Year2per6.48(Millionthroughthroughthrough4.93YearDecade

255

Natural Gas Futures Contract 3 (Dollars per Million Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs

256

Natural Gas Futures Contract 3 (Dollars per Million Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing ReservoirsYear-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date

257

Natural Gas Futures Contract 4 (Dollars per Million Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing ReservoirsYear-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End

258

Natural Gas Futures Contract 4 (Dollars per Million Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing ReservoirsYear-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 EndYear

259

Natural Gas Futures Contract 4 (Dollars per Million Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

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260

Natural Gas Futures Contract 2 (Dollars per Million Btu)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

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261

Natural Gas Futures Contract 3 (Dollars per Million Btu)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30 2013 Macroeconomic team: Kay6164,778,907throughthroughthroughWeek Of

262

Natural Gas Futures Contract 4 (Dollars per Million Btu)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30 2013 Macroeconomic team: Kay6164,778,907throughthroughthroughWeek OfWeek

263

Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam CoalReserves (Million Barrels)Reserves from%Year Jan Feb Mar Apr

264

Natural Gas Futures Contract 1 (Dollars per Million Btu)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest Regionat Cornell Batteries &NSTCurrent Issues & Trends See

265

Property:Geothermal/CapacityBtuHr | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy ResourcesLoadingPenobscot County, Maine:Plug PowerAddressDataFormat JumpNercMroURL.AwardeeCostShare

266

$J/?$ production in Au+Au/Cu+Cu collisions at $\\sqrt{s}_{NN}$=200 GeV and the threshold model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using the QGP motivated threshold model, where all the $J/\\psi$'s are suppressed above a threshold density, we have analyzed the preliminary PHENIX data on the centrality dependence of nuclear modification factor for $J/\\psi$'s in Cu+Cu and in Au+Au collisions, at RHIC energy, $\\sqrt{s}_{NN}$=200 GeV. Centrality dependence of $J/\\psi$ suppression in Au+Au collisions are well explained in the model for threshold densities in ranges of 3.6-3.7 $fm^{-2}$. $J/\\psi$ suppression in Cu+Cu collisions on the other hand are not explained in the model.

A. K. Chaudhuri

2006-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

267

Effect of CNTs dispersion on the thermal and mechanical properties of Cu/CNTs nanocomposites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Modified technique of metal injection molding (MIM) was used to fabricate multiwalled carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced Cu nanocomposites. The effect of adding different amount of CNTs (0-10 vol.%) on the thermal and mechanical behaviour of the fabricated nanocomposites is presented. Scanning electron microscope analysis revealed homogenous dispersion of CNTs in Cu matrices at different CNTs contents. The experimentally measured thermal conductivities of Cu/CNTs nanocomposites showed extraordinary increase (76% higher than pure sintered Cu) with addition of 10 vol.% CNTs. As compared to the pure sintered Cu, increase in modulus of elasticity (Young's modulus) of Cu/CNTs nanocomposites sintered at 1050C for 2.5 h was measured to be 48%. However, in case of 7.5 vol.% CNTs, Young's modulus was increased significantly about 51% compared to that of pure sintered Cu.

Muhsan, Ali Samer, E-mail: alisameer2007@gmail.com, E-mail: faizahmad@petronas.com.my; Ahmad, Faiz, E-mail: alisameer2007@gmail.com, E-mail: faizahmad@petronas.com.my; Yusoff, Puteri Sri Melor Megat Bt, E-mail: puteris@petronas.com.my [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP) (Malaysia); Mohamed, Norani M., E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my [Centre of Innovative Nanostructures and Nanodevices (COINN), UTP (Malaysia); Raza, M. Rafi, E-mail: rafirazamalik@gmail.com [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

2014-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

268

Utility of reactively sputtered CuN{sub x} films in spintronics devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have studied nitrified copper (CuN{sub x}) thin films grown by reactive sputtering in the context of spintronic devices. The Ar-to-N{sub 2} flow ratio enables tunability of the electrical resistivity and surface roughness of the CuN{sub x} films, with the former increasing to nearly 20 times that of Cu, and the latter reduced to the atomic scale. Incorporating this into a Ta/CuN{sub x}/Ta seed stack for spin valves improves the current-in-plane (CIP) magnetoresistance; maximum magnetoresistance results with CuN{sub x} seed layer and Cu interlayer. Finally, finite element modeling results are presented that suggest the use of CuN{sub x} in nanocontact spin torque oscillators can enhance current densities by limiting the current spread through the device. This may positively impact threshold currents, power requirements, and device reliability.

Fang Yeyu [Physics Department, Goeteborg University, 412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Persson, J. [Physics Department, Goeteborg University, 412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); NanOsc AB, Electrum 205, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Zha, C. [Materials Physics Department, Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Willman, J.; Miller, Casey W. [Department of Physics, Center for Integrated Functional Materials, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States); Aakerman, Johan [Physics Department, Goeteborg University, 412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); NanOsc AB, Electrum 205, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Materials Physics Department, Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

FT-ICR STUDIES OF METAL-CARBON BINARY CLUSTERS, MASAMICHI KOHNO (Eng. Res. Inst., Univ. Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656), SHUHEI INOUE (Dept. Mech. Eng., Univ.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, no pure carbon clusters were observed, whereas pure carbon clusters with almost the same intensity of MCn encapsulated inside. 50 60 70 Number of Carbon Atoms [Cm + ] Intensity(arb.units) (b) La:0.8% (a) Sc:0.8% LaAbstract FT-ICR STUDIES OF METAL-CARBON BINARY CLUSTERS, MASAMICHI KOHNO (Eng. Res. Inst., Univ

Maruyama, Shigeo

270

Comparative Study of the Defect Point Physics and Luminescence of the Kesterites Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4 and Chalcopyrite Cu(In,Ga)Se2: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this contribution, we present a comparative study of the luminescence of the kesterites Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) and Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) and their related chalcopyrite Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe). Luminescence spectroscopy suggests that the electronic properties of Zn-rich, Cu-poor kesterites (both CZTS and CZTSe) and Cu-poor CIGSe are dictated by fluctuations of the electrostatic and chemical potentials. The large redshift in the luminescence of grain boundaries in CIGSe, associated with the formation of a neutral barrier is clearly observed in CZTSe, and, to some extent, in CZTS. Kesterites can therefore replicate the fundamental electronic properties of CIGSe.

Romero, M. J.; Repins, I.; Teeter, G.; Contreras, M.; Al-Jassim, M.; Noufi, R.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

CuC1 thermochemical cycle for hydrogen production  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochemical cell for producing copper having a dense graphite anode electrode and a dense graphite cathode electrode disposed in a CuCl solution. An anion exchange membrane made of poly(ethylene vinyl alcohol) and polyethylenimine cross-linked with a cross-linking agent selected from the group consisting of acetone, formaldehyde, glyoxal, glutaraldehyde, and mixtures thereof is disposed between the two electrodes.

Fan, Qinbai (Chicago, IL); Liu, Renxuan (Chicago, IL)

2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

272

J/psi production at high transverse momenta in p plus p and Cu plus Cu collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The STAR Collaboration at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider presents measurements of J/psi e(+) e(-) at midrapidity and high transverse momentum (pT > 5 GeV/c) in p + p and central Cu + Cu collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV. The inclusive J...

Abelev, B. I.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Anderson, B. D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G. S.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L. S.; Baudot, J.; Baumgart, S.; Beavis, D. R.; Bellwied, R.; Benedosso, F.; Betancourt, M. J.; Betts, R. R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Biritz, B.; Bland, L. C.; Bombara, M.; Bonner, B. E.; Botje, M.; Bouchet, J.; Braidot, E.; Brandin, A. V.; Bruna, E.; Bueltmann, S.; Burton, T. P.; Bystersky, M.; Cai, X. Z.; Caines, H.; Sanchez, M. Calderon de la Barca; Catu, O.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, J. Y.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Choi, K. E.; Christie, W.; Clarke, R. F.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Corliss, R.; Cormier, T. M.; Cosentino, M. R.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, D.; Dash, S.; Daugherity, M.; De Silva, L. C.; Dedovich, T. G.; DePhillips, M.; Derevschikov, A. A.; de Souza, R. Derradi; Didenko, L.; Djawotho, P.; Dogra, S. M.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Mazumdar, M. R. Dutta; Edwards, W. R.; Efimov, L. G.; Elhalhuli, E.; Elnimr, M.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Eun, L.; Fachini, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, A.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Gagliardi, Carl A.; Gaillard, L.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganti, M. S.; Garcia-Solis, E. J.; Geromitsos, A.; Geurts, F.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gorbunov, Y. N.; Gordon, A.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Grube, B.; Guertin, S. M.; Guimaraes, K. S. F. F.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, N.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hallman, T. J.; Hamed, A.; Harris, J. W.; He, W.; Heinz, M.; Heppelmann, S.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffman, A. M.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Huang, H. Z.; Humanic, T. J.; Huo, L.; Igo, G.; Iordanova, A.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jakl, P.; Jena, C.; Jin, F.; Jones, C. L.; Jones, P. G.; Joseph, J.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kajimoto, K.; Kang, K.; Kapitan, J.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kettler, D.; Khodyrev, V. Yu; Kikola, D. P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Klein, S. R.; Knospe, A. G.; Kocoloski, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kopytine, M.; Korsch, W.; Kotchenda, L.; Kouchpil, V.; Kravtsov, P.; Kravtsov, V. I.; Krueger, K.; Krus, M.; Kuhn, C.; Kumar, L.; Kurnadi, P.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; LaPointe, S.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, C. -H; Lee, J. H.; Leight, W.; LeVine, M. J.; Li, C.; Li, N.; Li, Y.; Lin, G.; Lindenbaum, S. J.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Liu, J.; Liu, L.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Longacre, R. S.; Love, W. A.; Lu, Y.; Ludlam, T.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Mall, O. I.; Mangotra, L. K.; Manweiler, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Matis, H. S.; Matulenko, Yu A.; McDonald, D.; McShane, T. S.; Meschanin, A.; Milner, R.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, Saskia; Mischke, A.; Mohanty, B.; Morozov, D. A.; Munhoz, M. G.; Nandi, B. K.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Ng, M. J.; Nogach, L. V.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Okada, H.; Okorokov, V.; Olson, D.; Pachr, M.; Page, B. S.; Pal, S. K.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Perevoztchikov, V.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Phatak, S. C.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Plyku, D.; Poljak, N.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Potukuchi, B. V. K. S.; Prindle, D.; Pruneau, C.; Pruthi, N. K.; Pujahari, P. R.; Putschke, J.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Redwine, R.; Reed, R.; Ridiger, A.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Rose, A.; Roy, C.; Ruan, L.; Russcher, M. J.; Sahoo, R.; Sakrejda, I.; Sakuma, T.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarsour, M.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seyboth, P.; Shabetai, A.; Shahaliev, E.; Shao, M.; Sharma, M.; Shi, S. S.; Shi, X. -H; Sichtermann, E. P.; Simon, F.; Singaraju, R. N.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R.; Sorensen, P.; Sowinski, J.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stadnik, A.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Staszak, D.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Suarez, M. C.; Subba, N. L.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Symons, T. J. M.; de Toledo, A. Szanto; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarini, L. H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thein, D.; Thomas, J. H.; Tian, J.; Timmins, A. R.; Timoshenko, S.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trainor, T. A.; Tram, V. N.; Trattner, A. L.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, Robert E.; Tsai, O. D.; Ulery, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Van Buren, G.; Van Leeuwen, M.; Molen, A. M. Vander; Vanfossen, J. A., Jr.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G. M. S.; Vasilevski, I. M.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Videbaek, F.; Vigdor, S. E.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Spectra of identified high-p(T) pi(+/-) and p((p)over-bar ) in Cu + Cu collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report new results on identified (anti) proton and charged pion spectra at large transverse momenta (3 < p(T) < 10 GeV/c) from Cu + Cu collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV using the STAR detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC...

Abelev, B. I.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alakhverdyants, A. V.; Anderson, B. D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G. S.; Balewski, J.; Barnby, L. S.; Baumgart, S.; Beavis, D. R.; Bellwied, R.; Benedosso, F.; Betancourt, M. J.; Betts, R. R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Biritz, B.; Bland, L. C.; Bonner, B. E.; Bouchet, J.; Braidot, E.; Brandin, A. V.; Bridgeman, A.; Bruna, E.; Bueltmann, S.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Cai, X. Z.; Caines, H.; Sanchez, M. Calderon de la Barca; Catu, O.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, J. Y.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Choi, K. E.; Christie, W.; Chung, P.; Clarke, R. F.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Corliss, R.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, D.; Dash, S.; Leyva, A. Davila; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; DePhillips, M.; Derevschikov, A. A.; de Souza, R. Derradi; Didenko, L.; Djawotho, P.; Dogra, S. M.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Mazumdar, M. R. Dutta; Efimov, L. G.; Elhalhuli, E.; Elnimr, M.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Eun, L.; Evdokimov, O.; Fachini, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Fersch, R. G.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Gagliardi, Carl A.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganti, M. S.; Garcia-Solis, E. J.; Geromitsos, A.; Geurts, F.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gorbunov, Y. N.; Gordon, A.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Grube, B.; Guertin, S. M.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, N.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hallman, T. J.; Hamed, A.; Han, L. -X; Harris, J. W.; Hays-Wehle, J. P.; Heinz, M.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffman, A. M.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Huang, H. Z.; Humanic, T. J.; Huo, L.; Igo, G.; Iordanova, A.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jakl, P.; Jena, C.; Jin, F.; Jones, C. L.; Jones, P. G.; Joseph, J.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kajimoto, K.; Kang, K.; Kapitan, J.; Kauder, K.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kettler, D.; Kikola, D. P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Klein, S. R.; Knospe, A. G.; Kocoloski, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Konzer, J.; Kopytine, M.; Koralt, I.; Korsch, W.; Kotchenda, L.; Kouchpil, V.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Krus, M.; Kumar, L.; Kurnadi, P.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; LaPointe, S.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, C. -H; Lee, J. H.; Leight, W.; LeVine, M. J.; Li, C.; Li, L.; Li, N.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, Z.; Lin, G.; Lindenbaum, S. J.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Liu, H.; Liu, J.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Longacre, R. S.; Love, W. A.; Lu, Y.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Mall, O. I.; Mangotra, L. K.; Manweiler, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; Matulenko, Yu A.; McDonald, D.; McShane, T. S.; Meschanin, A.; Milner, R.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, Saskia; Mischke, A.; Mitrovski, M. K.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Munhoz, M. G.; Nandi, B. K.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Ng, M. J.; Nogach, L. V.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Okada, H.; Okorokov, V.; Olson, D.; Pachr, M.; Page, B. S.; Pal, S. K.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Perevoztchikov, V.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Phatak, S. C.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Ploskon, M. A.; Pluta, J.; Plyku, D.; Poljak, N.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Potukuchi, B. V. K. S.; Powell, C. B.; Prindle, D.; Pruneau, C.; Pruthi, N. K.; Pujahari, P. R.; Putschke, J.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Redwine, R.; Reed, R.; Rehberg, J. M.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Rose, A.; Roy, C.; Ruan, L.; Russcher, M. J.; Sahoo, R.; Sakai, S.; Sakrejda, I.; Sakuma, T.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sangaline, E.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmitz, N.; Schuster, T. R.; Seele, J.; Seger, J.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seyboth, P.; Shahaliev, E.; Shao, M.; Sharma, M.; Shi, S. S.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Simon, F.; Singaraju, R. N.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Sorensen, P.; Sowinski, J.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Staszak, D.; Stevens, J. R.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Suarez, M. C.; Subba, N. L.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Symons, T. J. M.; de Toledo, A. Szanto; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarini, L. H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thein, D.; Thomas, J. H.; Tian, J.; Timmins, A. R.; Timoshenko, S.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trainor, T. A.; Tram, V. N.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, Robert E.; Tsai, O. D.; Ulery, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vanfossen, J. A., Jr.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G. M. S.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Videbaek, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Wada, M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Novel approaches to low temperature transient liquid phase bonding in the In-Sn/Cu and In-Sn-Bi/Cu systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A fluxless low temperature transient liquid phase (LTTLP) bonding process was studied as a method of producing Cu/Cu joints below 125C and 75C using interlayer alloys from the In-Sn and In-Sn-Bi systems. Using thermodynamic ...

Fischer, David S., Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Adsorption-induced distortion of F16CuPc on Cu(111) and Ag(111): An x-ray standing wave study A. Gerlach,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

still fragmentary understanding of the complex interaction of aro- matic molecules with metal substrates-substrate interaction on metals organic compounds may undergo structural changes upon adsorption.3,6 In this context we chose to study perflu- orinated copper-phthalocyanine F16CuPc, see Fig. 1 a on Cu 111 and Ag 111 using

Schreiber, Frank

276

Magnetic structure of the low-dimensional magnet NaCu{sub 2}O{sub 2}: {sup 63,65}Cu and {sup 23}Na NMR studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The magnetic structure of a quasi-one-dimensional frustrated NaCu{sub 2}O{sub 2} magnet single crystal is studied by NMR. The spatial orientation of the planar spin spirals in the copper-oxygen Cu{sup 2+}-O chains is determined, and its evolution as a function of the applied magnetic field direction is analyzed.

Sadykov, A. F., E-mail: sadykov@imp.uran.ru; Gerashchenko, A. P.; Piskunov, Yu. V.; Ogloblichev, V. V.; Smolnikov, A. G.; Verkhovskii, S. V.; Buzlukov, A. L.; Arapova, I. Yu. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch (Russian Federation); Furukawa, Y. [Iowa State University, Ames Laboratory (United States); Yakubovskii, A. Yu. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Bush, A. A. [Moscow State Technical University of Radio Engineering, Electronics, and Automation (Russian Federation)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

277

Infrared vibrational studies of CO adsorption on Cu/Pt(lll) and CuPt(111) Jo& A. Rodriguez,@ Charles M. Truong, and D. Wayne Goodmanb)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Infrared vibrational studies of CO adsorption on Cu/Pt(lll) and CuPt(111) surfaces Jo& A. Rodriguez supported on Pt ( 111) has been studied using infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS). Our results indicate that the infrared intensities of adsorbed CO are not representative of the relative

Goodman, Wayne

278

Submillimeter and microwave residual losses in epitaxial films of Y-Ba-Cu-O and Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have used a novel bolometric technique and a resonant technique to obtain accurate submillimeter and microwave residual loss data for epitaxial thin films of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}, Tl{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 10} and Tl{sub 2}CaBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 8}. For all films we obtain good agreement between the submillimeter and microwave data, with the residual losses in both the Y-Ba-Cu-O and Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O films scaling approximately as frequency squared below {approximately} 1 THz. We are able to fit the losses in the Y-Ba-Cu-O films to a weakly coupled grain model for the a-b plane conductivity, in good agreement with results from a Kramers-Kronig analysis of the loss data. We observe strong phonon structure in the Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O films for frequencies between 2 and 21 THz, and are unable to fit these losses to the simple weakly coupled grain model. This is in strong contrast to the case for other high {Tc} superconductors such as YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}, where phonon structure observed in ceramic samples is absent in epitaxial oriented films and crystals because of the electronic screening due to the high conductivity of the a-b planes.

Miller, D.; Richards, P.L. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Garrison, S.M.; Newman, N. [Conductus, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Eom, C.B.; Geballe, T.H. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics; Etemad, S.; Inam, A.; Venkatesan, T. [Bell Communications Research, Inc., Red Bank, NJ (United States); Martens, J.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lee, W.Y. [International Business Machines Corp., San Jose, CA (United States); Bourne, L.C. [Superconductor Technologies, Inc., Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Synthesis of BiPbSrCaCuO superconductor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process and a precursor composition for preparing a lead-doped bismuth-strontium-calcium-copper oxide superconductor of the formula Bi.sub.a Pb.sub.b Sr.sub.c Ca.sub.d Cu.sub.e O.sub.f wherein a is from about 1.7 to about 1.9, b is from about 0.3 to about 0.45, c is from about 1.6 to about 2.2, d is from about 1.6 to about 2.2, e is from about 2.97 to about 3.2 and f is 10.+-.z by reacting a mixture of Bi.sub.4 Sr.sub.3 Ca.sub.3 Cu.sub.4 O.sub.16.+-.z, an alkaline earth metal cuprate, e.g., Sr.sub.9 Ca.sub.5 Cu.sub.24 O.sub.41, and an alkaline earth metal plumbate, e.g., Ca.sub.2-x Sr.sub.x PbO.sub.4 wherein x is about 0.5, is disclosed.

Hults, William L. (Los Alamos, NM); Kubat-Martin, Kimberly A. (Espanola, NM); Salazar, Kenneth V. (Espanola, NM); Phillips, David S. (Los Alamos, NM); Peterson, Dean E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Synthesis of BiPbSrCaCuO superconductor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process and a precursor composition for preparing a lead-doped bismuth-strontium-calcium-copper oxide superconductor of the formula Bi[sub a]Pb[sub b]Sr[sub c]Ca[sub d]Cu[sub e]O[sub f] wherein a is from about 1.7 to about 1.9, b is from about 0.3 to about 0.45, c is from about 1.6 to about 2.2, d is from about 1.6 to about 2.2, e is from about 2.97 to about 3.2 and f is 10[+-]z by reacting a mixture of Bi[sub 4]Sr[sub 3]Ca[sub 3]Cu[sub 4]O[sub 16[+-]z], an alkaline earth metal cuprate, e.g., Sr[sub 9]Ca[sub 5]Cu[sub 24]O[sub 41], and an alkaline earth metal plumbate, e.g., Ca[sub 2[minus]x]Sr[sub x]PbO[sub 4] wherein x is about 0.5, is disclosed.

Hults, W.L.; Kubat-Martin, K.A.; Salazar, K.V.; Phillips, D.S.; Peterson, D.E.

1994-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu cu ft" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Precipitation in 9Ni-12Cr-2Cu maraging steels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two maraging steels with the compositions 9Ni-12Cr-2Cu-4Mo (wt%) and 9Ni-12Cr-2Cu and with small additions of Al and Ti were investigated using atom probe field ion microscopy. Tomographic atom probe investigations were performed to clarify the spatial distribution of elements in and close to the precipitates. Materials heat treated at 475 C for 5, 25 min, 1, 2, 4 and 400 h were analyzed. Precipitates in the Mo-rich material were observed already after 5 min of aging, while in the material without MO, precipitation started later. In both materials precipitation begins with the formation of Cu-rich particles which work as nucleation sites for a Ni-rich phase of type Ni{sub 3}(Ti,Al). A Mo-rich phase was detected in the Mo-rich steel after 2 h of aging. The distribution of alloying elements in the precipitates, their role in the precipitation process, and the mechanism of hardening in the two materials are discussed.

Stiller, K.; Haettestrand, M. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Physics] [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Physics; Danoix, F. [Univ. de Rouen, Mont Saint Aignan (France). Lab. de Microscopie Ionique] [Univ. de Rouen, Mont Saint Aignan (France). Lab. de Microscopie Ionique

1998-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

282

In Vitro Assessment of the In Vivo Stability of Cu-64 Radiopharmaceuticals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research Plans: The successful development of Cu-64 radiopharmaceuticals depends upon retention of the Cu-64 atom in the radiopharmaceutical. To date, the focus has been on the development of chelators that better retain Cu-64, but there has been no effort to develop an effective method by which improved retention may be measured. In the absence of a suitable analytical method, the stability of Cu-64 radiopharmaceuticals is estimated indirectly, with decreased liver uptake suggesting higher in vivo complex stability. But this approach is inadequate for radiopharmaceuticals, such as radiolabeled antibodies, that are expected to accumulate in the liver even when there is no free Cu-64 present. The absence of such a method has also hampered efforts to systematically evaluate the chemical factors that may give rise to improved retention. The objective of this project is to develop and validate such a method. Accomplishments: The two primary accomplishments of this project will be 1) the development and validation of a method to measure the stability of Cu-64 radiopharmaceuticals and 2) the determination of the chemical factors that define the in vivo stability of Cu 64 radiopharmaceuticals. Because Cu(II) is extremely labile, the in vivo stability of Cu-64 radiopharmaceuticals is not primarily determined by the amount of ?¢????free?¢??? Cu that is present at any given time or by the thermodynamic stability constants, but rather by the rate at which Cu is lost from the complex, the dissociation rate constant, kd. The dissociation rate constants of the Cu-64 complexes from a series of bifunctional chelators (BFCs) will be measured using Free Ion Selective Radiotracer Extraction (FISRE), a technique originally developed to measure bioavailable Cu in environmental samples. FISRE will also be applied to the determination of the kd?¢????s of a series of reference Cu-64 complexes to determine the chemical factors that define the in vivo stability of Cu-64 radiopharmaceuticals. Potential Benefits: The FISRE method that will be used in this project, once validated, will provide researchers with a core technology by which the stability of Cu 64 radiopharmaceuticals can be accurately measured. In the short-term, we expect to produce extensive data regarding the stability of Cu-64 complexes of ligands of radiopharmaceutical interest, primarily those that are most commonly used as BFCs (e.g., DOTA, TETA). These data will provide a quantitative basis for deciding which ligands may be best suited for use as BFCs, data that is not currently available. In the intermediate term, we expect that these results will facilitate the development of new Cu-64 radiopharmaceuticals by providing a quantitative approach to assessing the stability of Cu-64 chelates. This innovative methodology will enable investigators to quantitatively compare the ability of different BFCs to retain Cu-64 in vivo. The benefits of this approach will be best seen in the development of Cu-64-labeled monoclonal antibodies where the accumulation of antibodies in the liver obviates liver uptake as an effective surrogate measure of Cu-64 lability. In the longer-term, we anticipate an improvement in the way in which various diseases (especially cancer) are detected, diagnosed, staged, and treated. This method will also enable researchers to distinguish differences in biodistribution that may arise from differences in charge, lipophilicity, etc. from those that may arise from loss of Cu-64 from the chelator. Last, this novel quantitative tool will allow investigators to evaluate the chemical factors that determine the in vivo stability of Cu-64 radiopharmaceuticals?¢????laying the groundwork for the future development of more effective Cu-64 radiopharmaceuticals. Once the feasibility of this method is established, it can also be used to evaluate the stability of other metalloradiopharmaceuticals including those based on Ga-68, a

Packard, Alan B.

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

283

Stripe-to-bubble transition of magnetic domains at the spin reorientation of (Fe/Ni)/Cu/Ni/Cu(001)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Magnetic domain evolution at the spin reorientation transition (SRT) of (Fe/Ni)/Cu/Ni/Cu(001) is investigated using photoemission electron microscopy. While the (Fe/Ni) layer exhibits the SRT, the interlayer coupling of the perpendicularly magnetized Ni layer to the (Fe/Ni) layer serves as a virtual perpendicular magnetic field exerted on the (Fe/Ni) layer. We find that the perpendicular virtual magnetic field breaks the up-down symmetry of the (Fe/Ni) stripe domains to induce a net magnetization in the normal direction of the film. Moreover, as the virtual magnetic field increases to exceed a critical field, the stripe domain phase evolves into a bubble domain phase. Although the critical field depends on the Fe film thickness, we show that the area fraction of the minority domain exhibits a universal value that determines the stripe-to-bubble phase transition.

Wu, J.; Choi, J.; Won, C.; Wu, Y. Z.; Scholl, A.; Doran, A.; Hwang, Chanyong; Qiu, Z.

2010-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

284

Determination of Mass Attenuation Coefficients for CuInSe2 and CuGaSe2 Semiconductors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work presents mass attenuation coefficients values of CuInSe2 and CuGaSe2 semiconductor thin films commonly used in photovoltaic devices. The mass attenuation coefficients were measured at different energies from 11.9 to 37.3 keV by using the secondary excitation method. Monochromatic photons were obtained using the Br, Sr, Mo, Cd, Te, Ba and Nd secondary targets. 59.5 keV gamma rays emitted from an annular Am-241 radioactive source were used to excite secondary targets. Characteristic X-rays emitted from secondary target were counted by a Si(Li) detector with a resolution of 0.16 keV at 5.9 keV. The measured values were compared with theoretical values calculated using WinXCOM program.

Celik, Ahmet; Cevik, Ugur; Baltas, Hasan; Bacaksiz, Emin [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

2007-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

285

Dynamics of Propane in Silica Mesopores Formed upon PropyleneHydrogenation over Pt Nanoparticles by Time-Resolved FT-IRSpectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Propylene hydrogenation over Pt nanoparticles supported onmesoporous silica type SBA-15 was monitored by time-resolved FT-IRspectroscopy at 23 ms resolution using short propylene gas pulses thatjoined a continuous flow of hydrogen in N2 (1 atm total pressure).Experiments were conducted in the temperature range 323-413 K. Propanewas formed within 100 milliseconds or faster. The CH stretching regionrevealed distinct bands for propane molecules emerging inside thenanoscale channels of the silica support. Spectral analysis gave thedistribution of the propane product between support and surrounding gasphase as function of time. Kinetic analysis showed that the escape ofpropane molecules from the channels occurred within hundreds ofmilliseconds (3.1 + 0.4 s-1 at 383 K). A steady state distribution ofpropane between gas phase and mesoporous support is established as theproduct is swept from the catalyst zone by the continuous flow ofhydrogen co-reactant. This is the first direct spectroscopic observationof emerging products of heterogeneous catalysis on nanoporous supportsunder reaction conditions.

Waslylenko, Walter; Frei, Heinz

2007-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

286

Systematic Study of Azimuthal Anisotropy in Cu$+$Cu and Au$+$Au Collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}} = 62.4$ and 200~GeV  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have studied the dependence of azimuthal anisotropy $v_2$ for inclusive and identified charged hadrons in Au$+$Au and Cu$+$Cu collisions on collision energy, species, and centrality. The values of $v_2$ as a function of transverse momentum $p_T$ and centrality in Au$+$Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$=200~GeV and 62.4~GeV are the same within uncertainties. However, in Cu$+$Cu collisions we observe a decrease in $v_2$ values as the collision energy is reduced from 200 to 62.4~GeV. The decrease is larger in the more peripheral collisions. By examining both Au$+$Au and Cu$+$Cu collisions we find that $v_2$ depends both on eccentricity and the number of participants, $N_{\\rm part}$. We observe that $v_2$ divided by eccentricity ($\\varepsilon$) monotonically increases with $N_{\\rm part}$ and scales as ${N_{\\rm part}^{1/3}}$. The Cu$+$Cu data at 62.4 GeV falls below the other scaled $v_{2}$ data. For identified hadrons, $v_2$ divided by the number of constituent quarks $n_q$ is independent of hadron species as a function of transverse kinetic energy $KE_T=m_T-m$ between $0.1Cu$+$Cu data at 62.4 GeV, of $v_2/(n_q\\cdot\\varepsilon\\cdot N^{1/3}_{\\rm part})$ vs $KE_T/n_q$ for all measured particles.

A. Adare; S. Afanasiev; C. Aidala; N. N. Ajitanand; Y. Akiba; H. Al-Bataineh; A. Al-Jamel; J. Alexander; K. Aoki; L. Aphecetche; R. Armendariz; S. H. Aronson; J. Asai; E. T. Atomssa; R. Averbeck; T. C. Awes; B. Azmoun; V. Babintsev; G. Baksay; L. Baksay; A. Baldisseri; K. N. Barish; P. D. Barnes; B. Bassalleck; S. Bathe; S. Batsouli; V. Baublis; F. Bauer; A. Bazilevsky; S. Belikov; R. Bennett; Y. Berdnikov; A. A. Bickley; M. T. Bjorndal; J. G. Boissevain; H. Borel; K. Boyle; M. L. Brooks; D. S. Brown; D. Bucher; H. Buesching; V. Bumazhnov; G. Bunce; J. M. Burward-Hoy; S. Butsyk; S. Campbell; J. -S. Chai; B. S. Chang; J. -L. Charvet; S. Chernichenko; C. Y. Chi; J. Chiba; M. Chiu; I. J. Choi; T. Chujo; P. Chung; A. Churyn; V. Cianciolo; C. R. Cleven; Y. Cobigo; B. A. Cole; M. P. Comets; P. Constantin; M. Csand; T. Csrg?; T. Dahms; K. Das; G. David; M. B. Deaton; K. Dehmelt; H. Delagrange; A. Denisov; D. d'Enterria; A. Deshpande; E. J. Desmond; O. Dietzsch; A. Dion; M. Donadelli; J. L. Drachenberg; O. Drapier; A. Drees; A. K. Dubey; A. Durum; V. Dzhordzhadze; Y. V. Efremenko; J. Egdemir; F. Ellinghaus; W. S. Emam; A. Enokizono; H. En'yo; B. Espagnon; S. Esumi; K. O. Eyser; D. E. Fields; M. Finger; M. Finger; \\, Jr.; F. Fleuret; S. L. Fokin; B. Forestier; Z. Fraenkel; J. E. Frantz; A. Franz; A. D. Frawley; K. Fujiwara; Y. Fukao; S. -Y. Fung; T. Fusayasu; S. Gadrat; I. Garishvili; F. Gastineau; M. Germain; A. Glenn; H. Gong; M. Gonin; J. Gosset; Y. Goto; R. Granier de Cassagnac; N. Grau; S. V. Greene; M. Grosse Perdekamp; T. Gunji; H. -. Gustafsson; T. Hachiya; A. Hadj Henni; C. Haegemann; J. S. Haggerty; M. N. Hagiwara; H. Hamagaki; R. Han; H. Harada; E. P. Hartouni; K. Haruna; M. Harvey; E. Haslum; K. Hasuko; R. Hayano; X. He; M. Heffner; T. K. Hemmick; T. Hester; J. M. Heuser; H. Hiejima; J. C. Hill; R. Hobbs; M. Hohlmann; M. Holmes; W. Holzmann; K. Homma; B. Hong; T. Horaguchi; D. Hornback; S. Huang; M. G. Hur; T. Ichihara; H. Iinuma; K. Imai; M. Inaba; Y. Inoue; D. Isenhower; L. Isenhower; M. Ishihara; T. Isobe; M. Issah; A. Isupov; B. V. Jacak; J. Jia; J. Jin; O. Jinnouchi; B. M. Johnson; K. S. Joo; D. Jouan; F. Kajihara; S. Kametani; N. Kamihara; J. Kamin; M. Kaneta; J. H. Kang; H. Kanou; T. Kawagishi; D. Kawall; A. V. Kazantsev; S. Kelly; A. Khanzadeev; J. Kikuchi; D. H. Kim; D. J. Kim; E. Kim; Y. -S. Kim; E. Kinney; . Kiss; E. Kistenev; A. Kiyomichi; J. Klay; C. Klein-Boesing; L. Kochenda; V. Kochetkov; B. Komkov; M. Konno; D. Kotchetkov; A. Kozlov; A. Krl; A. Kravitz; P. J. Kroon; J. Kubart; G. J. Kunde; N. Kurihara; K. Kurita; M. J. Kweon; Y. Kwon; G. S. Kyle; R. Lacey; Y. S. Lai; J. G. Lajoie; A. Lebedev; Y. Le Bornec; S. Leckey; D. M. Lee; M. K. Lee; T. Lee; M. J. Leitch; M. A. L. Leite; B. Lenzi; X. Li; X. H. Li; H. Lim; T. Lika; A. Litvinenko; M. X. Liu; B. Love; D. Lynch; C. F. Maguire; Y. I. Makdisi; A. Malakhov; M. D. Malik; V. I. Manko; Y. Mao; L. Maek; H. Masui; F. Matathias; M. C. McCain; M. McCumber; P. L. McGaughey; Y. Miake; P. Mike; K. Miki; T. E. Miller; A. Milov; S. Mioduszewski; G. C. Mishra; M. Mishra; J. T. Mitchell; M. Mitrovski; A. Morreale; D. P. Morrison; J. M. Moss; T. V. Moukhanova; D. Mukhopadhyay; J. Murata; S. Nagamiya; Y. Nagata; J. L. Nagle; M. Naglis; I. Nakagawa; Y. Nakamiya; T. Nakamura; K. Nakano; J. Newby; M. Nguyen; B. E. Norman; R. Nouicer; A. S. Nyanin; J. Nystrand; E. O'Brien; S. X. Oda; C. A. Ogilvie; H. Ohnishi; I. D. Ojha; M. Oka; K. Okada; O. O. Omiwade; A. Oskarsson; I. Otterlund; M. Ouchida; K. Ozawa; R. Pak; D. Pal; A. P. T. Palounek; V. Pantuev; V. Papavassiliou; J. Park; W. J. Park; S. F. Pate; H. Pei; J. -C. Peng; H. Pereira; V. Peresedov; D. Yu. Peressounko; C. Pinkenburg; R. P. Pisani; M. L. Purschke; A. K. Purwar; H. Qu; J. Rak; A. Rakotozafindrabe; I. Ravinovich; K. F. Read; S. Rembeczki; M. Reuter; K. Reygers; V. Riabov; Y. Riabov; G. Roche; A. Romana; M. Rosati; S. S. E. Rosendahl; P. Rosnet; P. Rukoyatkin; V. L. Rykov; S. S. Ryu; B. Sahlmueller; N. Saito; T. Sakaguchi; S. Sakai; H. Sakata; V. Samsonov; H. D. Sato; S. Sato; S. Sawada; J. Seele; R. Seidl; V. Semenov; R. Seto; D. Sharma; T. K. Shea; I. Shein; A. Shevel; T. -A. Shibata; K. Shigaki; M. Shimomura; T. Shohjoh; K. Shoji; A. Sickles; C. L. Silva; D. Silvermyr; C. Silvestre; K. S. Sim; C. P. Singh; V. Singh; S. Skutnik; M. Slune?ka; W. C. Smith; A. Soldatov; R. A. Soltz; W. E. Sondheim; S. P. Sorensen; I. V. Sourikova; F. Staley; P. W. Stankus; E. Stenlund; M. Stepanov; A. Ster; S. P. Stoll; T. Sugitate; C. Suire; J. P. Sullivan; J. Sziklai; T. Tabaru; S. Takagi; E. M. Takagui; A. Taketani; K. H. Tanaka; Y. Tanaka; K. Tanida; M. J. Tannenbaum; A. Taranenko; P. Tarjn; T. L. Thomas; T. Todoroki; M. Togawa; A. Toia; J. Tojo; L. Tomek; H. Torii; R. S. Towell; V-N. Tram; I. Tserruya; Y. Tsuchimoto; S. K. Tuli; H. Tydesj; N. Tyurin; C. Vale; H. Valle

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

287

Oxygen-induced Y surface segregation in a CuPdY ternary alloy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a comprehensive theoretical and experimental study of the segregation behavior of the ternary alloy CuPdY in vacuum (i.e., the clean surface) and in the presence of oxygen. Theoretical prediction shows that for clean surface, yttrium will substitute first for Cu and then for Pd at the subsurface lattice site before segregating to the surface where it substitutes for Cu. XRD characterization of the surface of CuPdY indicates the presence of two major phases, B2 CuPd and Pd{sub 3}Y. In the presence of adsorbed oxygen, theory predicts that Y preferentially occupies surface sites due to its stronger oxygen affinity compared to Cu and Pd. XPS experiments confirm the computational results in the adsorbed oxygen case, showing that surface segregation of yttrium is induced by the formation of Y-oxides at the top-surface of the alloy.

Tafen, D. N.; Miller, J. B.; Dogan, O. N.; Baltrus, J. P.; Kondratyuk, P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

BOSONS IN QUANTUM MAGNETS PURE COMPOUND IPA-CuCl3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BOSONS IN QUANTUM MAGNETS PURE COMPOUND IPA-CuCl3 BOSE GLASS PHASE DISCUSSION #12;Matsubara in the specific heat J 50K J 5K M. Jaime et al., PRL (2004),Bilayer geometry + 3D frustration... #12;PURE IPA ON COUPLINGS J WEAK FERRO J1 #12;PURE IPA-CuCl3 [(CH3)2CHNH3CuCl3] Gap Soft mode E(k)=c*k #12;BEC Order

Paris-Sud 11, Université de

289

Method of fabricating high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} thin films for solar cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for producing a slightly Cu-poor thin film of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} comprises depositing a first layer of (In,Ga){sub x} (Se,S){sub y} followed by depositing just enough Cu+(Se,S) or Cu{sub x} (Se,S) to produce the desired slightly Cu-poor material. In a variation, most, but not all, (about 90 to 99%) of the (In,Ga){sub x} (Se,S){sub y} is deposited first, followed by deposition of all the Cu+(Se,S) or Cu{sub x} (Se,S) to go near stoichiometric, possibly or even preferably slightly Cu-rich, and then in turn followed by deposition of the remainder (about 1 to 10%) of the (In,Ga){sub x} (Se,S){sub y} to end with a slightly Cu-poor composition. In yet another variation, a small portion (about 1 to 10%) of the (In,Ga){sub x} (Se,S){sub y} is first deposited as a seed layer, followed by deposition of all of the Cu+(Se,S) or Cu{sub x} (Se,S) to make a very Cu-rich mixture, and then followed deposition of the remainder of the (In,Ga){sub x} (Se,S){sub y} to go slightly Cu-poor in the final Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} thin film. 5 figs.

Noufi, R.; Gabor, A.M.; Tuttle, J.R.; Tennant, A.L.; Contreras, M.A.; Albin, D.S.; Carapella, J.J.

1995-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

290

Method of fabricating high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)(SeS).sub.2 thin films for solar cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for producing a slightly Cu-poor thin film of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S).sub.2 comprises depositing a first layer of (In,Ga).sub.x (Se,S).sub.y followed by depositing just enough Cu+(Se,S) or Cu.sub.x (Se,S) to produce the desired slightly Cu-poor material. In a variation, most, but not all, (about 90 to 99%) of the (In,Ga).sub.x (Se,S).sub.y is deposited first, followed by deposition of all the Cu+(Se,S) or Cu.sub.x (Se,S) to go near stoichiometric, possibly or even preferably slightly Cu-rich, and then in turn followed by deposition of the remainder (about 1 to 10%) of the (In,Ga).sub.x (Se,S).sub.y to end with a slightly Cu-poor composition. In yet another variation, a small portion (about 1 to 10%) of the (In,Ga).sub.x (Se,S).sub.y is first deposited as a seed layer, followed by deposition of all of the Cu+(Se,S) or Cu.sub.x (Se,S) to make a very Cu-rich mixture, and then followed deposition of the remainder of the (In,Ga).sub.x (Se,S).sub.y to go slightly Cu-poor in the final Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S).sub.2 thin film.

Noufi, Rommel (Golden, CO); Gabor, Andrew M. (Boulder, CO); Tuttle, John R. (Denver, CO); Tennant, Andrew L. (Denver, CO); Contreras, Miguel A. (Golden, CO); Albin, David S. (Denver, CO); Carapella, Jeffrey J. (Evergreen, CO)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Crystallization and glass formation in electron and laser beam irradiated Cu-Zr alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Four Cu-Zr alloys, Cu/sub 56/Zr/sub 44/, Cu/sub 50/Zr/sub 50/, Cu/sub 47/Zr/sub 53/, and Cu/sub 33/Zr/sub 67/, were surface melted with electron and pulsed laser beams to compare their kinetics of nucleation, growth and glass formation. It was observed that the ease of glass formation increased in the order: Cu/sub 33/Zr/sub 67/, Cu/sub 47/Zr/sub 53/, Cu/sub 56/Zr/sub 44/, and Cu/sub 50/Zr/sub 50/. The nucleation and regrowth produced different metastable phases. At the equiatomic composition, the preferred phase is a CsCl-type (B2) BCC structure. As the composition deviates from this, the preferred phase is either orthorhombic or tetragonal with a much larger unit cell not previously reported in the literature. The maximum growth velocity of these metastable phases was found to be about 0.025 m/s. The slow kinetics are responsible for the ease of glass formation in these systems. 4 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Huang, J.S.; Kaufmann, E.N.; Wall, M.A.; Olsen, B.L.

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Structural, optical and ethanol sensing properties of Cu-doped SnO{sub 2} nanowires  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In present work, one-dimensional nanostructure of Cu-doped Tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) was synthesized by using thermal evaporation method in a tubular furnace under Nitrogen (N{sub 2}) ambience. The growth was carried out at atmospheric pressure. SEM and TEM images reveal the growth of wire-like nanostructures of Cu-doped SnO{sub 2} on Si substrate. The XRD analysis confirms that the synthesized SnO{sub 2} nanowires have tetragonal rutile structure with polycrystalline nature and X-ray diffraction pattern also showed that Cu gets incorporated into the SnO{sub 2} lattice. EDX spectra confirm the doping of Cu into SnO{sub 2} nanowires and atomic fraction of Cu in nanowires is ? 0.5 at%. The Vapor Liquid Solid (VLS) growth mechanism for Cu-doped SnO{sub 2} nanowires was also confirmed by EDX spectra. The optical properties of as grown Cu-doped SnO{sub 2} nanowires were studied by using UV-vis spectra which concludes the band gap of about 3.7 eV. As synthesized single Cu-doped SnO{sub 2} nanowire based gas sensor exhibit relatively good performance to ethanol gas. This sensing behaviour offers a suitable application of the Cu-doped SnO{sub 2} nanowire sensor for detection of ethanol gas.

Johari, Anima, E-mail: animajohari@gmail.com; Sharma, Manish [Center for Applied Research in Electronics (CARE), IIT Delhi, Hauz khas, New Delhi-110016 (India); Johari, Anoopshi [THDC Institute of Hydropower Institute of Engineering and Technology, Tehri-249124 (India); Bhatnagar, M. C. [Physics Department, IIT Delhi, Hauz khas, New Delhi-110016 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

293

E-Print Network 3.0 - ag cu eu Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

surface roughness of the Cu80Ag15Au5 layers was ... Source: Wadley, Haydn - Intelligent Processing of Materials Laboratory & Department of Materials Science and Engineering,...

294

Temporal stability of Y Ba Cu O nano Josephson junctions from ion irradiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

planar high temperature Josephson junctions fabricated usingYBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-? Josephson junctions via nanolithography andsuperconductor Josephson junctions, J. Vac. Sci. Technol.

Cybart, Shane A.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

E-Print Network 3.0 - al-li-cu alloy part Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

molds. Materials investigated are Al-Li-Mg and Al-Li-Cu... . Compared with copper, magnesium gives a better combination of fluidity and ... Source: Ecole Polytechnique, Centre...

296

Rings sliding on a honeycomb network: Adsorption contours, interactions, and assembly of benzene on Cu(111)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by anthraquinone AQ on Cu 111 .3 The pore diameter is unprecedentally large, over 5 nm, and each cell encloses over

Einstein, Theodore L.

297

E-Print Network 3.0 - av zn cu Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and speciation in Arabidopsis halleri Arabidopsis lyrata progenies presenting Summary: ), copper (Cu) and Zn. Figure 7 compares the distribution of Zn, Mn and Ca in mature leaves...

298

Recrystallization method to selenization of thin-film Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 for semiconductor device applications  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for fabricating slightly Cu-poor thin-films of Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 on a substrate for semiconductor device applications includes the steps of forming initially a slightly Cu-rich, phase separated, mixture of Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 :Cu.sub.x Se on the substrate in solid form followed by exposure of the Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 :Cu.sub.x Se solid mixture to an overpressure of Se vapor and (In,Ga) vapor for deposition on the Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 :Cu.sub.x Se solid mixture while simultaneously increasing the temperature of the solid mixture toward a recrystallization temperature (about 550.degree. C.) at which Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 is solid and Cu.sub.x Se is liquid. The (In,Ga) flux is terminated while the Se overpressure flux and the recrystallization temperature are maintained to recrystallize the Cu.sub.x Se with the (In, Ga) that was deposited during the temperature transition and with the Se vapor to form the thin-film of slightly Cu-poor Cu.sub.x (In,Ga).sub.y Se.sub.z. The initial Cu-rich, phase separated large grain mixture of Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 :Cu.sub.x Se can be made by sequentially depositing or co-depositing the metal precursors, Cu and (In, Ga), on the substrate at room temperature, ramping up the thin-film temperature in the presence of Se overpressure to a moderate anneal temperature (about 450.degree. C.) and holding that temperature and the Se overpressure for an annealing period. A nonselenizing, low temperature anneal at about 100.degree. C. can also be used to homogenize the precursors on the substrates before the selenizing, moderate temperature anneal.

Albin, David S. (Denver, CO); Carapella, Jeffrey J. (Evergreen, CO); Tuttle, John R. (Denver, CO); Contreras, Miguel A. (Golden, CO); Gabor, Andrew M. (Boulder, CO); Noufi, Rommel (Golden, CO); Tennant, Andrew L. (Denver, CO)

1995-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

299

Effect of thermally stable Cu- and Mg-rich aluminides on the high temperature strength of an AlSi12CuMgNi alloy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The internal architecture of an AlSi12CuMgNi piston alloy, revealed by synchrotron tomography, consists of three dimensional interconnected hybrid networks of Cu-rich aluminides, Mg-rich aluminides and eutectic/primary Si embedded in an ?-Al matrix. The strength at room temperature and at 300C is studied as a function of solution treatment time at 490C and compared with results previously reported for an AlSi12Ni alloy. The addition of 1 wt% Cu and 1 wt% Mg to AlSi12CuMgNi increases the room temperature strength by precipitation hardening while the strength at 300C is similar for both alloys in as-cast condition. The strength of AlSi12CuMgNi decreases with solution treatment time and stabilizes at 4 h solution treatment. The effect of solution treatment time on the strength of the AlSi12CuMgNi alloy is less pronounced than for the AlSi12Ni alloy both at room temperature and at 300C. - Highlights: The 3D microstructure of AlSi12CuMgNi is revealed by synchrotron tomography. An imaging analysis procedure to segment phases with similar contrasts is presented. 1 wt% Cu and Mg results in the formation of 3D networks of rigid phases. AlSi12CuMgNi is stronger than AlSi12Ni owing to the stability of the 3D networks.

Asghar, Z., E-mail: zhdasghar@yahoo.com [Materials Division, Directorate of Technology, PINSTECH, P. O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Karlsplatz 13/308, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Requena, G. [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Karlsplatz 13/308, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Zahid, G.H.; Rafi-ud-Din [Materials Division, Directorate of Technology, PINSTECH, P. O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

300

Property:NEPA CU Document | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy ResourcesLoadingPenobscot County,ContAddr2 Jump to:ManagingFieldOffice JumpApplication Type JumpCU

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301

Characterization of Cu-ZSM-5 Prepared by Solid-State Ion Exchange of H-ZSM-5 with CuCl  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cl occlusion in the zeolite pores. After SSIE, the resulting Cu-ZSM-5 was characterized by XRD, 27 Al MAS NMR and nitriles,15 the desulfurization of diesel fuel,16 and the oxidative carbony- lation of methanol to dimethyl

Bell, Alexis T.

302

J/psi production at high transverse momenta in p+p and Cu+Cu collisions at sqrt sNN = 200 GeV  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The STAR collaboration at RHIC presents measurements of J/{psi} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -} at mid-rapidity and high transverse momentum (p{sub T} > 5 GeV/c) in p+p and central Cu+Cu collisions at {radical}sNN = 200 GeV. The inclusive J/{psi} production cross section for Cu+Cu collisions is found to be consistent at high p{sub T} with the binary collision-scaled cross section for p+p collisions, in contrast to previous measurements at lower p{sub T}, where a suppression of J/{psi} production is observed relative to the expectation from binary scaling. Azimuthal correlations of J/{psi} with charged hadrons in p+p collisions provide an estimate of the contribution of B-meson decays to J/{psi} production of 13% {+-} 5%.

STAR Collaboration; Abelev, B. I.

2009-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

303

$J/?$ production at low $p_T$ in Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$ = 200 GeV at STAR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The $\\jpsi$ $\\pt$ spectrum and nuclear modification factor ($\\raa$) are reported for $\\pt < 5 \\ \\gevc$ and $|y|<1$ from 0\\% to 60\\% central Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at $\\snn = 200 \\ \\gev$ at STAR. A significant suppression of $\\pt$-integrated $\\jpsi$ production is observed in central Au+Au events. The Cu+Cu data are consistent with no suppression, although the precision is limited by the available statistics. $\\raa$ in Au+Au collisions exhibits a strong suppression at low transverse momentum and gradually increases with $\\pt$. The data are compared to high-$\\pt$ STAR results and previously published BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider results. Comparing with model calculations, it is found that the invariant yields at low $\\pt$ are significantly above hydrodynamic flow predictions but are consistent with models that include color screening and regeneration.

STAR Collaboration; L. Adamczyk; J. K. Adkins; G. Agakishiev; M. M. Aggarwal; Z. Ahammed; I. Alekseev; J. Alford; C. D. Anson; A. Aparin; D. Arkhipkin; E. C. Aschenauer; G. S. Averichev; J. Balewski; A. Banerjee; Z. Barnovska; D. R. Beavis; R. Bellwied; A. Bhasin; A. K. Bhati; P. Bhattarai; H. Bichsel; J. Bielcik; J. Bielcikova; L. C. Bland; I. G. Bordyuzhin; W. Borowski; J. Bouchet; A. V. Brandin; S. G. Brovko; S. Bltmann; I. Bunzarov; T. P. Burton; J. Butterworth; H. Caines; M. Caldern de la Barca Snchez; D. Cebra; R. Cendejas; M. C. Cervantes; P. Chaloupka; Z. Chang; S. Chattopadhyay; H. F. Chen; J. H. Chen; L. Chen; J. Cheng; M. Cherney; A. Chikanian; W. Christie; J. Chwastowski; M. J. M. Codrington; R. Corliss; J. G. Cramer; H. J. Crawford; X. Cui; S. Das; A. Davila Leyva; L. C. De Silva; R. R. Debbe; T. G. Dedovich; J. Deng; A. A. Derevschikov; R. Derradi de Souza; S. Dhamija; B. di Ruzza; L. Didenko; C. Dilks; F. Ding; P. Djawotho; X. Dong; J. L. Drachenberg; J. E. Draper; C. M. Du; L. E. Dunkelberger; J. C. Dunlop; L. G. Efimov; J. Engelage; K. S. Engle; G. Eppley; L. Eun; O. Evdokimov; R. Fatemi; S. Fazio; J. Fedorisin; P. Filip; E. Finch; Y. Fisyak; C. E. Flores; C. A. Gagliardi; D. R. Gangadharan; D. Garand; F. Geurts; A. Gibson; M. Girard; S. Gliske; D. Grosnick; Y. Guo; A. Gupta; S. Gupta; W. Guryn; B. Haag; O. Hajkova; A. Hamed; L-X. Han; R. Haque; J. W. Harris; J. P. Hays-Wehle; S. Heppelmann; A. Hirsch; G. W. Hoffmann; D. J. Hofman; S. Horvat; B. Huang; H. Z. Huang; P. Huck; T. J. Humanic; G. Igo; W. W. Jacobs; H. Jang; E. G. Judd; S. Kabana; D. Kalinkin; K. Kang; K. Kauder; H. W. Ke; D. Keane; A. Kechechyan; A. Kesich; Z. H. Khan; D. P. Kikola; I. Kisel; A. Kisiel; D. D. Koetke; T. Kollegger; J. Konzer; I. Koralt; W. Korsch; L. Kotchenda; P. Kravtsov; K. Krueger; I. Kulakov; L. Kumar; R. A. Kycia; M. A. C. Lamont; J. M. Landgraf; K. D. Landry; J. Lauret; A. Lebedev; R. Lednicky; J. H. Lee; W. Leight; M. J. LeVine; C. Li; W. Li; X. Li; X. Li; Y. Li; Z. M. Li; L. M. Lima; M. A. Lisa; F. Liu; T. Ljubicic; W. J. Llope; R. S. Longacre; X. Luo; G. L. Ma; Y. G. Ma; D. M. M. D. Madagodagettige Don; D. P. Mahapatra; R. Majka; S. Margetis; C. Markert; H. Masui; H. S. Matis; D. McDonald; T. S. McShane; N. G. Minaev; S. Mioduszewski; B. Mohanty; M. M. Mondal; D. A. Morozov; M. G. Munhoz; M. K. Mustafa; B. K. Nandi; Md. Nasim; T. K. Nayak; J. M. Nelson; L. V. Nogach; S. Y. Noh; J. Novak; S. B. Nurushev; G. Odyniec; A. Ogawa; K. Oh; A. Ohlson; V. Okorokov; E. W. Oldag; R. A. N. Oliveira; M. Pachr; B. S. Page; S. K. Pal; Y. X. Pan; Y. Pandit; Y. Panebratsev; T. Pawlak; B. Pawlik; H. Pei; C. Perkins; W. Peryt; P. Pile; M. Planinic; J. Pluta; D. Plyku; N. Poljak; J. Porter; A. M. Poskanzer; N. K. Pruthi; M. Przybycien; P. R. Pujahari; H. Qiu; A. Quintero; S. Ramachandran; R. Raniwala; S. Raniwala; R. L. Ray; C. K. Riley; H. G. Ritter; J. B. Roberts; O. V. Rogachevskiy; J. L. Romero; J. F. Ross; A. Roy; L. Ruan; J. Rusnak; N. R. Sahoo; P. K. Sahu; I. Sakrejda; S. Salur; A. Sandacz; J. Sandweiss; E. Sangaline; A. Sarkar; J. Schambach; R. P. Scharenberg; A. M. Schmah; W. B. Schmidke; N. Schmitz; J. Seger; P. Seyboth; N. Shah; E. Shahaliev; P. V. Shanmuganathan; M. Shao; B. Sharma; W. Q. Shen; S. S. Shi; Q. Y. Shou; E. P. Sichtermann; R. N. Singaraju; M. J. Skoby; D. Smirnov; N. Smirnov; D. Solanki; P. Sorensen; U. G. deSouza; H. M. Spinka; B. Srivastava; T. D. S. Stanislaus; J. R. Stevens; R. Stock; M. Strikhanov; B. Stringfellow; A. A. P. Suaide; M. Sumbera; X. Sun; X. M. Sun; Y. Sun; Z. Sun; B. Surrow; D. N. Svirida; T. J. M. Symons; A. Szanto de Toledo; J. Takahashi; A. H. Tang; Z. Tang; T. Tarnowsky; J. H. Thomas; A. R. Timmins; D. Tlusty; M. Tokarev; S. Trentalange; R. E. Tribble; P. Tribedy; B. A. Trzeciak; O. D. Tsai; J. Turnau; T. Ullrich; D. G. Underwood; G. Van Buren; G. van Nieuwenhuizen; J. A. Vanfossen, Jr.; R. Varma; G. M. S. Vasconcelos; A. N. Vasiliev; R. Vertesi; F. Videbk; Y. P. Viyogi; S. Vokal; A. Vossen; M. Wada; M. Walker; F. Wang; G. Wang; H. Wang; J. S. Wang; X. L. Wang; Y. Wang; Y. Wang; G. Webb; J. C. Webb; G. D. Westfall; H. Wieman; S. W. Wissink; R. Witt; Y. F. Wu; Z. Xiao; W. Xie; K. Xin; H. Xu; N. Xu; Q. H. Xu; Y. Xu; Z. Xu; W. Yan; C. Yang; Y. Yang; Y. Yang; Z. Ye; P. Yepes; L. Yi; K. Yip; I-K. Yoo; Y. Zawisza; H. Zbroszczyk; W. Zha; Zhang; J. B. Zhang; S. Zhang; X. P. Zhang; Y. Zhang; Z. P. Zhang; F. Zhao; J. Zhao; C. Zhong; X. Zhu; Y. H. Zhu; Y. Zoulkarneeva; M. Zyzak

2014-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

304

Size-dependent catalytic performance of CuO on ?-Al2O3...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of NH3 on CuO?-Al2O3 catalysts during NH3 SCR reactions were investigated under oxygen-rich conditions. On 10% CuO?-Al2O3, NH3 reacted with oxygen to produce NOx. In...

305

Diffusion of indium and gallium in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Diffusion of indium and gallium in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells O. Lundberga,*, J. Lua , A. Rockettb , M. Edoffa , L. Stolta a A°ngstro¨m Solar Center, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Abstract The diffusion of indium and gallium in polycrystalline thin film Cu(In,Ga)Se2 layers has been

Rockett, Angus

306

Kinetic, Mechanistic, and Spectroscopic Studies of the Mo/Cu Containing CO dehydrogenase of Oligotropha carboxidovorans  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

et. al. where active site models [Tp iPr MoO(OAr)(?-S)Cu(triazacyclononane) (Tp iPr ) = hydrotris(3-isopropylpyrazol-of CO dehydrogenase: [Tp iPr Mo (V) (O)(OAr)(?-S)Cu (I) (Me

Wilcoxen, Jarett Michael

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Low Temperature Transient Liquid Phase (LTTLP) Bonding for Au/Cu  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 TheLow Temperature TransientLiquidPhase Diffusion Bonding (LTTLP) process has) ) M. M. Hou Low Temperature Transient Liquid Phase (LTTLP) Bonding for Au/Cu and Cu been bonded to copper heatsink.s at temperatures less than 160"C, using /n-Sn eutectic solders. After

Eagar, Thomas W.

308

Glass Forming Ability in Pr-(Cu, Ni)-Al Alloys  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Glass forming ability (GFA) in the Pr-rich Pr-(Cu, Ni)-Al alloys at or near the eutectic points was systematically studied. It was found that the GFA in the pseudo-ternary alloys of Pr-(Cu, Ni)-Al is higher than that of ...

Zhang, Yong

309

Ab-initio study of donor-acceptor codoping for n-type CuO  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Single n-type dopant in CuO has either a deep donor level or limited solubility, inefficient in generating free electrons. We have performed ab-initio study of the donor-acceptor codoping to obtain n-type CuO. Our results show that N codoping can slightly improve the donor level of Zr and In by forming shallower n-type complexes (Zr{sub Cu}-N{sub O} and 2In{sub Cu}-N{sub O}), but their formation energies are too high to be realized in experiments. However, Li codoping with Al and Ga is found to be relatively easy to achieve. 2Al{sub Cu}-Li{sub Cu} and 2Ga{sub Cu}-Li{sub Cu} have shallower donor levels than single Al and Ga by 0.14?eV and 0.08?eV, respectively, and their formation energies are reasonably low to act as efficient codopants. Moreover, Li codoping with both Al and Ga produce an empty impurity band just below the host conduction band minimum, which may reduce the donor ionization energy at high codoping concentrations.

Peng, Yuan; Wang, Junling, E-mail: jlwang@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Zheng, Jianwei [Institute of High Performance Computing, 1 Fusionopolis Way, #16-16 Connexis, Singapore 138632 (Singapore); Wu, Ping [Engineering Product Development, Singapore University of Technology and Design, 20 Dover Drive, Singapore 138682 (Singapore)

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

310

A MEDIEVAL WARM PERIOD l)13 C RECORD FROM THE GAURA CU MUSCA CAVE, SW ROMANIA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A MEDIEVAL WARM PERIOD l)13 C RECORD FROM THE GAURA CU MUSCA CAVE, SW ROMANIA Bogdan P. ONAC1 · 2, Romania (2) School of Geosciences, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., NES 107, Tampa, FL and Romania. B. Geological map of the region {modified fromlancu et al., 1995). The mapof the Gaura cu Musca

Forray, Ferenc

311

Effect of doping in Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor composites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The goal of this thesis is to analyze the solid solubility limit of dopants in Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductors. We have studied the effect of Mn doping Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O. The electrical resistivity and critical temperature were measured for samples...

Ertekin, Abdullah

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Ultrasound-assisted synthesis of CuO nanostructures templated by cotton fibers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: ? Flower-like and corn-like CuO nanostructures were synthesized by a simple method. ? Cotton fibers purchased from commercially are used as template. ? The concentration of Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solution is an important parameter. -- Abstract: Flower-like and corn-like CuO nanostructures composed of CuO nanoparticles were successfully synthesized via ultrasound-assisted template method, respectively, by controlling the initial concentration of Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solution. Here, cotton fibers were used as template agent. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. The results demonstrated that the initial concentration of Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solution was an important parameter for determining whether CuO nanoparticles assembled into flower-like structures or corn-like structures. The mechanism of forming different nanostructures of CuO was discussed.

Zou, Yunling, E-mail: zouyunling1999@126.com [College of Science, Civil Aviation University of China, Tianjin 300300 (China)] [College of Science, Civil Aviation University of China, Tianjin 300300 (China); Li, Yan; Guo, Ying; Zhou, Qingjun; An, Dongmin [College of Science, Civil Aviation University of China, Tianjin 300300 (China)] [College of Science, Civil Aviation University of China, Tianjin 300300 (China)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

313

Development of a Low Cost Insulated Foil Substrate for Cu(InGaSe)2 Photovoltaics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project validated the use of stainless steel flexible substrate coated with silicone-based resin dielectric, developed by Dow Corning Corporation, for Cu(InGa)Se2 based photovoltaics. The projects driving force was the high performance of Cu(InGa)Se2 based photovoltaics coupled with potential cost reduction that could be achieved with dielectric coated SS web substrate.

ERTEN ESER

2012-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

314

Unexpected magnetization enhancement in hydrogen plasma treated ferromagnetic (Zn,Cu)O film  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of H{sup +} incorporation on oxygen vacancies (H{sub O}{sup +}) on the giant ferromagnetic behavior (moment up to 3.26??{sub B}/Cu) in ZnO:Cu polycrystalline films have been closely examined using different microstructural and magnetic characterization tools. Fine thermal stability (up to 450?C) and low resistivity demonstrate a significant correlation between Cu 3d-states and H{sub O}{sup +} donor defects in H plasma treated ZnO:Cu films, analogous to dual-donor (V{sub O} and Zn{sub i}) defects mediated case. These H{sub O}{sup +} donors can delocalize their electrons to the orbits of Cu atoms and contribute to a stronger spin-orbit coupling interaction. Suitable H{sub O}{sup +} defect concentration and matched proportion between Cu{sup 2+} and Cu{sup +} species ensure that orbital momentum shall not be quenched. Hence, unexpected moment enhancement, less than spin-orbit coupling upper limit (3.55??{sub B}/Cu), can be also expected in this scenario. The manipulation from spin-only to spin-orbit coupling mode, using a facile thermally-mediated H plasma exposure way, will allow achieving spin transport based diluted magnetic semiconductor device.

Hu, Liang; Zhu, Liping, E-mail: zlp1@zju.edu.cn, E-mail: hphe@zju.edu.cn; He, Haiping, E-mail: zlp1@zju.edu.cn, E-mail: hphe@zju.edu.cn; Ye, Zhizhen [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, People's Republic of China and Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

315

Photoluminescence and Photoluminescence Excitation Spectroscopy of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

state with an ionization energy of ~16 meV is proposed to be a transition into band tail states rather resource concerns have spurred interest in renewable energy technologies, particularly in the area identified between defect spectra of CuInSe2 and CuGaSe2 ­ the transition energies are different

Rockett, Angus

316

Reduction of CuO and Cu2O with H2: H Embedding and Kinetic Effects in the Formation of Suboxides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OH + H2O),2b,9 the water-gas shift reaction (CO + H2O w CO2 + H2),10 methanol steam reReduction of CuO and Cu2O with H2: H Embedding and Kinetic Effects in the Formation of Suboxides. These results show the importance of kinetic effects for the formation of well-defined suboxides during

Frenkel, Anatoly

317

Deposition and characterization of YBa2Cu3O7 /LaMnO3 / MgO/TiN heterostructures on Cu metal substrates for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-on-cube epitaxy is observed. While the Cu/TiN and TiN/MgO interfaces are rough, the MgO and LaMnO3 layers . Reduced Jc of approximately 1 MA/cm2 on rolled Cu tapes is limited by damage to the tape surface during- ity of the coatings, reliability of these conductors against thermal transients, and limitation

Pennycook, Steve

318

Muon-spin spectroscopy of the organometallic spin-1/2 kagome-lattice compound Cu(1,3-benzenedicarboxylate)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using muon-spin resonance, we examine the organometallic hybrid compound Cu(1,3-benzenedicarboxylate) [Cu(1,3-bdc)], which has structurally perfect spin-1/2 copper kagome planes separated by pure organic linkers. This ...

Marcipar, Lital

319

Unusual Physical and Chemical Properties of Cu in Ce1-xCuxO2 Oxides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The structural and electronic properties of Ce{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 2} nano systems prepared by a reverse microemulsion method were characterized with synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and density functional calculations. The Cu atoms embedded in ceria had an oxidation state higher than those of the cations in Cu{sub 2}O or CuO. The lattice of the Ce{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 2} systems still adopted a fluorite-type structure, but it was highly distorted with multiple cation-oxygen distances with respect to the single cation-oxygen bond distance seen in pure ceria. The doping of CeO{sub 2} with copper introduced a large strain into the oxide lattice and favored the formation of O vacancies, leading to a Ce{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 2-y} stoichiometry for our materials. Cu approached the planar geometry characteristic of Cu(II) oxides, but with a strongly perturbed local order. The chemical activities of the Ce{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 2} nanoparticles were tested using the reactions with H2 and O2 as probes. During the reduction in hydrogen, an induction time was observed and became shorter after raising the reaction temperature. The fraction of copper that could be reduced in the Ce{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 2} oxides also depended strongly on the reaction temperature. A comparison with data for the reduction of pure copper oxides indicated that the copper embedded in ceria was much more difficult to reduce. The reduction of the Ce{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 2} nanoparticles was rather reversible, without the generation of a significant amount of CuO or Cu{sub 2}O phases during reoxidation. This reversible process demonstrates the unusual structural and chemical properties of the Cu-doped ceria materials.

Wang,X.; Rodriguez, J.; Hanson, J.; Gamarra, D.; Martinez-Arias, A.; Fernandez-Garcia, M.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Directed and elliptic flow of charged particles in Cu+Cu collisions at $\\sqrt{\\bm {s_{NN}}} =$ 22.4 GeV  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper reports results for directed flow $v_{1}$ and elliptic flow $v_{2}$ of charged particles in Cu+Cu collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=$ 22.4 GeV at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The measurements are for the 0-60% most central collisions, using charged particles observed in the STAR detector. Our measurements extend to 22.4 GeV Cu+Cu collisions the prior observation that $v_1$ is independent of the system size at 62.4 and 200 GeV, and also extend the scaling of $v_1$ with $\\eta/y_{\\rm beam}$ to this system. The measured $v_2(p_T)$ in Cu+Cu collisions is similar for $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 22.4-200$ GeV. We also report a comparison with results from transport model (UrQMD and AMPT) calculations. The model results do not agree quantitatively with the measured $v_1(\\eta), v_2(p_T)$ and $v_2(\\eta)$.

G. Agakishiev; M. M. Aggarwal; Z. Ahammed; A. V. Alakhverdyants; I. Alekseev; J. Alford; B. D. Anderson; C. D. Anson; D. Arkhipkin; G. S. Averichev; J. Balewski; D. R. Beavis; N. K. Behera; R. Bellwied; M. J. Betancourt; R. R. Betts; A. Bhasin; A. K. Bhati; H. Bichsel; J. Bielcik; J. Bielcikova; L. C. Bland; I. G. Bordyuzhin; W. Borowski; J. Bouchet; E. Braidot; A. V. Brandin; A. Bridgeman; S. G. Brovko; E. Bruna; S. Bueltmann; I. Bunzarov; T. P. Burton; X. Z. Cai; H. Caines; M. Caldern de la Barca Snchez; D. Cebra; R. Cendejas; M. C. Cervantes; P. Chaloupka; S. Chattopadhyay; H. F. Chen; J. H. Chen; J. Y. Chen; L. Chen; J. Cheng; M. Cherney; A. Chikanian; K. E. Choi; W. Christie; P. Chung; M. J. M. Codrington; R. Corliss; J. G. Cramer; H. J. Crawford; Cui; A. Davila Leyva; L. C. De Silva; R. R. Debbe; T. G. Dedovich; J. Deng; A. A. Derevschikov; R. Derradi de Souza; L. Didenko; P. Djawotho; S. M. Dogra; X. Dong; J. L. Drachenberg; J. E. Draper; C. M. Du; J. C. Dunlop; L. G. Efimov; M. Elnimr; J. Engelage; G. Eppley; M. Estienne; L. Eun; O. Evdokimov; R. Fatemi; J. Fedorisin; R. G. Fersch; P. Filip; E. Finch; V. Fine; Y. Fisyak; C. A. Gagliardi; D. R. Gangadharan; F. Geurts; P. Ghosh; Y. N. Gorbunov; A. Gordon; O. G. Grebenyuk; D. Grosnick; A. Gupta; S. Gupta; W. Guryn; B. Haag; O. Hajkova; A. Hamed; L-X. Han; J. W. Harris; J. P. Hays-Wehle; M. Heinz; S. Heppelmann; A. Hirsch; E. Hjort; G. W. Hoffmann; D. J. Hofman; B. Huang; H. Z. Huang; T. J. Humanic; L. Huo; G. Igo; P. Jacobs; W. W. Jacobs; C. Jena; F. Jin; J. Joseph; E. G. Judd; S. Kabana; K. Kang; J. Kapitan; K. Kauder; H. W. Ke; D. Keane; A. Kechechyan; D. Kettler; D. P. Kikola; J. Kiryluk; A. Kisiel; V. Kizka; S. R. Klein; A. G. Knospe; D. D. Koetke; T. Kollegger; J. Konzer; I. Koralt; L. Koroleva; W. Korsch; L. Kotchenda; V. Kouchpil; P. Kravtsov; K. Krueger; M. Krus; L. Kumar; M. A. C. Lamont; J. M. Landgraf; S. LaPointe; J. Lauret; A. Lebedev; R. Lednicky; J. H. Lee; W. Leight; M. J. LeVine; C. Li; L. Li; N. Li; W. Li; X. Li; X. Li; Y. Li; Z. M. Li; 1 L. M. Lima; M. A. Lisa; F. Liu; H. Liu; J. Liu; T. Ljubicic; W. J. Llope; R. S. Longacre; Y. Lu; E. V. Lukashov; X. Luo; G. L. Ma; Y. G. Ma; D. P. Mahapatra; R. Majka; O. I. Mall; R. Manweiler; S. Margetis; C. Markert; H. Masui; H. S. Matis; D. McDonald; T. S. McShane; A. Meschanin; R. Milner; N. G. Minaev; S. Mioduszewski; M. K. Mitrovski; Y. Mohammed; B. Mohanty; M. M. Mondal; B. Morozov; D. A. Morozov; M. G. Munhoz; M. K. Mustafa; M. Naglis; B. K. Nandi; T. K. Nayak; L. V. Nogach; S. B. Nurushev; G. Odyniec; A. Ogawa; K. Oh; A. Ohlson; V. Okorokov; E. W. Oldag; R. A. N. Oliveira; D. Olson; M. Pachr; B. S. Page; S. K. Pal; Y. Pandit; Y. Panebratsev; T. Pawlak; H. Pei; T. Peitzmann; C. Perkins; W. Peryt; P. Pile; M. Planinic; M. A. Ploskon; J. Pluta; D. Plyku; N. Poljak; J. Porter; A. M. Poskanzer; B. V. K. S. Potukuchi; C. B. Powell; D. Prindle; C. Pruneau; N. K. Pruthi; P. R. Pujahari; J. Putschke; H. Qiu; R. Raniwala; S. Raniwala; R. L. Ray; R. Redwine; R. Reed; H. G. Ritter; J. B. Roberts; O. V. Rogachevskiy; J. L. Romero; L. Ruan; J. Rusnak; N. R. Sahoo; I. Sakrejda; S. Salur; J. Sandweiss; E. Sangaline; A. Sarkar; J. Schambach; R. P. Scharenberg; J. Schaub; A. M. Schmah; N. Schmitz; T. R. Schuster; J. Seele; J. Seger; I. Selyuzhenkov; P. Seyboth; N. Shah; E. Shahaliev; M. Shao; M. Sharma; S. S. Shi; Q. Y. Shou; E. P. Sichtermann; F. Simon; R. N. Singaraju; M. J. Skoby; N. Smirnov; D. Solanki; P. Sorensen; U. G. deSouza; H. M. Spinka; B. Srivastava; T. D. S. Stanislaus; S. G. Steadman; J. R. Stevens; R. Stock; M. Strikhanov; B. Stringfellow; A. A. P. Suaide; M. C. Suarez; N. L. Subba; M. Sumbera; X. M. Sun; Y. Sun; Z. Sun; B. Surrow; D. N. Svirida; T. J. M. Symons; A. Szanto de Toledo; J. Takahashi; A. H. Tang; Z. Tang; L. H. Tarini; T. Tarnowsky; D. Thein; J. H. Thomas; J. Tian; A. R. Timmins; D. Tlusty; M. Tokarev; S. Trentalange; R. E. Tribble; P. Tribedy; B. A. Trzeciak; O. D. Tsai; T. Ullrich; D. G. Underwood; G. Van Buren; G. van Nieuwenhuizen; J. A. Vanfossen, Jr.; R. Varma; G. M. S. Vasconcelos; A. N. Vasiliev; F. Videbk; Y. P. Viyogi; S. Vokal; S. A. Voloshin; M. Wada; M. Walker; F. Wang; G. Wang; H. Wang; J. S. Wang; Q. Wang; X. L. Wang; Y. Wang; G. Webb; J. C. Webb; G. D. Westfall; C. Whitten Jr.; H. Wieman; S. W. Wissink; R. Witt; W. Witzke; Y. F. Wu; Z. Xiao; W. Xie; H. Xu; N. Xu; Q. H. Xu; W. Xu; Y. Xu; Z. Xu; L. Xue; Y. Yang; Y. Yang; P. Yepes; K. Yip; I-K. Yoo; M. Zawisza; H. Zbroszczyk; W. Zhan; J. B. Zhang; S. Zhang; W. M. Zhang; X. P. Zhang; Y. Zhang; Z. P. Zhang; F. Zhao; J. Zhao; C. Zhong; X. Zhu; Y. H. Zhu; Y. Zoulkarneeva

2011-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu cu ft" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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321

Evaluation of photovoltaic materials within the Cu-Sn-S family  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Next-generation thin film solar cell technologies require earth abundant photovoltaic absorber materials. Here we demonstrate an alternative approach to design of such materials, evaluating candidates grouped by constituent elements rather than underlying crystal structures. As an example, we evaluate thermodynamic stability, electrical transport, electronic structure, optical and defect properties of Cu-Sn-S candidates using complementary theory and experiment. We conclude that Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} avoids many issues associated with the properties of Cu{sub 4}SnS{sub 4}, Cu{sub 4}Sn{sub 7}S{sub 16}, and other Cu-Sn-S materials. This example demonstrates how this element-specific approach quickly identifies potential problems with less promising candidates and helps focusing on the more promising solar cell absorbers.

Zawadzki, Pawel; Peng, Haowei; Ginley, David S.; Tumas, W.; Zakutayev, Andriy, E-mail: andriy.zakutayev@nrel.gov; Lany, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.lany@nrel.gov [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)] [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Baranowski, Lauryn L.; Toberer, Eric S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States) [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Physics Department, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

322

Identified high-pT spectra in Cu+Cu collisions at sqrt sNN=200 GeV  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report new results on identified (anti)proton and charged pion spectra at large transverse momenta (3 < p{sub T} < 10 GeV/c) from Cu+Cu collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV using the STAR detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This study explores the system size dependence of two novel features observed at RHIC with heavy ions: the hadron suppression at high-p{sub T} and the anomalous baryon to meson enhancement at intermediate transverse momenta. Both phenomena could be attributed to the creation of a new form of QCD matter. The results presented here bridge the system size gap between the available pp and Au+Au data, and allow the detailed exploration for the on-set of the novel features. Comparative analysis of all available 200 GeV data indicates that the system size is a major factor determining both the magnitude of the hadron spectra suppression at large transverse momenta and the relative baryon to meson enhancement.

STAR Collaboration; Abelev, Betty

2010-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

323

High-strength high-conductivity Cu-Nb microcomposite sheet fabricated via multiple roll bonding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Copper-niobium microcomposites are a new class of high-strength high-conductivity materials that have attractive properties for room- and elevated-temperature applications. Since Nb has little solid solubility in Cu, addition of Nb to Cu does not affect its conductivity. Copper-niobium microcomposites are melted and cast so that the microstructure of cast Cu-Nb ingots consists of 1- to 10 [mu]m Nb dendrites uniformly distributed within the copper matrix. Extensive wire drawing with a true processing strain ([eta][gt] 12) of Cu-Nb alloy leads to refinement and elongation of Nb dendrites into 1- to 10 nm-thick filaments. The presence of such fine Nb filaments causes a significant increase in the strength of Cu-Nb wires. The tensile strength of heavily drawn Cu-Nb wires was determined to be significantly higher than the values predicted by the rule of mixtures. This article reports the fabrication of high-strength Cu-Nb microcomposite sheet by multiple roll bonding. It is difficult and impractical to attain high processing strains ([eta][gt]3) by simple cold rolling. In most practical cold-rolling operation, the thickness reduction does not exceed 90 pct ([eta] [approx equal]2). Therefore, innovative processing is required to generate high strength in Cu-Nb microcomposite sheet. Multiple roll bonding of Cu-Nb has been utilized to store high processing strain ( [eta][gt]10) in the material and refine the Nb particle size within the copper matrix. This article describes the microstructure, mechanical properties, and thermal stability of roll-bonded Cu-Nb microcomposite sheet.

Jha, S.C.; Delagi, R.G.; Forster, J.A. (Texas Instruments Materials and Control Group, Attleboro, MA (United States)); Krotz, P.D. (Rockwell International Corp., Huntsville, AL (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Water-gas Shift Reaction on oxide/Cu(111): Rational Catalyst Screening from Density Functional Theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Developing improved catalysts based on a fundamental understanding of reaction mechanism has become one of the grand challenges in catalysis. A theoretical understanding and screening the metal-oxide composite catalysts for the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction is presented here. Density functional theory was employed to identify the key step for the WGS reaction on the Au, Cu-oxide catalysts, where the calculated reaction energy for water dissociation correlates well with the experimental measured WGS activity. Accordingly, the calculated reaction energy for water dissociation was used as the scaling descriptor to screen the inverse model catalysts, oxide/Cu(111), for the better WGS activity. Our calculations predict that the WGS activity increases in a sequence: Cu(111), ZnO/Cu(111) < TiO{sub 2}/Cu(111), ZrO{sub 2}/Cu(111) < MoO{sub 3}/Cu(111). Our results imply that the high performances of Au, Cu-oxide nanocatalysts in the WGS reaction rely heavily on the direct participation of both oxide and metal sites. The degree that the oxide is reduced by Cu plays an important role in determining the WGS activity of oxide/Cu catalysts. The reducible oxide can be transformed from the fully oxidized form to the reduced form due to the interaction with Cu and, therefore, the transfer of electron density from Cu, which helps in releasing the bottleneck water dissociation and, therefore, facilitating the WGS reaction on copper.

Liu, P.

2010-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

325

Adsorption and Reaction of NO on Cu(100): An Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopic Study at 25 K  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adsorption and Reaction of NO on Cu(100): An Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopic Study oxide (NO) on a Cu(100) surface at 25 K has been studied using infrared reflection absorption to the Cu(100) surface. Heating to 55 K leads to reorientation of the dimer molecules in the multilayer

Goodman, Wayne

326

Effect of Y-211 particle size on the growth of single grain YBaCuO bulk superconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The engineering of fine Y2Ba1Cu1O5 (Y-211) inclusions of average particle size 1?2 ?m within the continuous, superconducting YBa2Cu3O7?? (Y-123) phase matrix of single-grain, bulk high temperature YBaCuO (YBCO) superconductors is fundamental...

Thoma, Max; Shi, Yunhua; Dennis, Tony; Durrell, John; Cardwell, David

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Influence of nanoscale Cu precipitates in -Fe on dislocation core structure and strengthening Zhengzheng Chen and Nicholas Kioussis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the bowing out of the dislocation line. The calculated bow-out angle and resolved shear stress required at low temperatures, Cu-rich precipitates can easily nucleate and grow under thermal aging. Although Cu- tion of small Cu-rich precipitate diameter d 4 nm from the bcc to the 9R phase in a thermally aged

Ghoniem, Nasr M.

328

High yield Cu-Co CPP GMR multilayer sensors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have fabricated and tested GMR magnetic flux sensors that operate in the CPP mode. This work is a continuation of the ultra-high density magnetic sensor research introduced at INTERMAG 96. We have made two significant modifications to the process sequence. First, contact to the sensor is made through a metal conduit deposited in situ with the multilayers. This deposition replaces electroplating. This configuration ensures a good electrical interface between the top of multilayer stack and the top contact, and a continuous, conductive current path to the sensor. The consequences of this modification are an increase in yield of operational devices to {ge}90% per wafer and a significant reduction of the device resistance to {le}560 milliohms and of the uniformity of the device resistance to {le}3%. Second, the as-deposited multilayer structure has been changed from [Cu 30 {angstrom}/Co 20 {angstrom}]{sub 18} (third peak) to [Cu 20.5 {angstrom}/Co 12 {angstrom}]{sub 30} (second peak) to increase the CPP and CIP responses. The sheet film second peak CIP GMR response is 18% and the sensitivity is 0.08 %/Oe. The sheet film third peak CIP GMR response is 8% and the sensitivity is 0. 05 %/Oe. The second peak CPP GMR response averaged over twenty devices on a four inch silicon substrate is 28% {+-} 6%. The response decreases radially from the substrate center. The average response at the center of the substrate is 33% {+-} 4%. The average second peak CPP sensitivity is 0.09 %/Oe {+-} 0.02 %/Oe. The best second peak CPP response from a single device is 39%. The sensitivity of that device is 0.13 %/Oe. The third peak CPP GMR response is approximately 14 %. The third peak CPP response sensitivity is 0.07 %/Oe. 6 refs., 3 figs.

Spallas, J., Mao, M., Law, B., Grabner, F., Cerjan, C., O`Kane, O.

1997-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

329

Studies on Cu/CeO{sub 2}: A new NO reduction catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fine particle and large surface area Cu/CeO{sub 2} catalysts of crystallite sizes in the range of 100--200 {angstrom} synthesized by the solution combustion method have been investigated for NO reduction. Five percent Cu/CeO{sub 2} catalyst shows nearly 100% conversion of NO by NH{sub 3} below 300 C, whereas pure ceria and Zr, Y, and Ca doped ceria show 85--95% NO conversion above 600 C. Similarly NO reduction by CO has been observed over 5% Cu/CeO{sub 2} with nearly 100% conversion below 300 C. Hydrocarbon (n-butane) oxidation by NO to CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O has also been demonstrated over this catalyst below 350 C making Cu/CeO{sub 2} a new NO reduction catalyst in the low temperature window of 150--350 C. Kinetics of NO reduction over 5% Cu/CeO{sub 2} have also been investigated. The rate constants are in the range of 1.4 {times} 10{sup 4} to 2.3 {times} 10{sup 4} cm{sup 3}/g s between 170 and 300 C. Cu/CeO{sub 2} catalysts are characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy where Cu{sup 2+} ions are shown to be dispersed on the CeO{sub 2} surface.

Bera, P.; Aruna, S.T.; Patil, K.C.; Hegde, M.S. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India)] [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India)

1999-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

330

Quantitative texture analysis of free-standing electrodeposited Cu- and Ni-line patterns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Free-standing line patterns of Cu and Ni were manufactured by applying photo-lithography and subsequent electrodeposition on glass wafers covered with either a polycrystalline Au-layer or an X-ray amorphous Ni-P layer. Several pattern geometries varying in line width, line separation and line length were studied by X-ray diffraction. Quantitative texture analysis revealed that crystallographic texture depends on the type of substrate-layer: while substrate unbiased growth was observed for Cu-lines on amorphous Ni-P, the highly-textured and fine-grained Au-layer strongly favored nucleation of Cu-crystallites of a preferred orientation. For particular pattern geometries, experimental evidence for an epitaxial orientation relation between Cu and Au was found and discussed with respect to various concepts of epitaxial growth. While crystallographic texture of Ni-electrodeposits was independent on the pattern geometry, for Cu-electrodeposits a pronounced pattern dependence of both type and strength of crystallographic texture as well as differences between Cu-lines and non-patterned Cu-films were observed.

Pantleon, Karen [Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet Building 204, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)]. E-mail: pantleon@ipl.dtu.dk; Somers, Marcel A.J. [Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet Building 204, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

2004-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

331

Thermal chemistry of the Cu-KI5 atomic layer deposition precursor on a copper surface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermal chemistry of a Cu(I) ketoiminate complex, Cu-KI5, resulting from the modification of the known Air Products CupraSelect{sup } copper CVD precursor Cu(hfac)(tmvs) designed to tether the two ligands via an isopropoxide linker, was studied under ultrahigh vacuum on a Cu(110) single-crystal surface by using a combination of temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Adsorption at low temperatures was determined to take place via the displacement of the vinyl ligand by the surface. Molecular desorption was seen at 210?K, and the evolution of Cu(II)-KI5{sub 2} was established to take place at 280?K, presumably from a disproportionation reaction that also leads to the deposition of Cu(0). Other sets of desorption products were seen at 150, 250, and 430?K, all containing copper atoms and small organic moieties with molecular masses below 100 amu. The latter TPD peak in particular indicates significant fragmentation of the ligands, likely at the CN bond that holds the vinylsilane-isopropoxide moiety tethered to the ketoimine fragment, and possibly also at the union between the vinylsilane and the alkoxide linker. The 430?K temperature measured for this chemistry may set an upper limit for clean Cu film deposition, but since reactivity on the surface was also found to be inhibited at higher surface coverages, it may be delayed to higher temperatures under atomic layer deposition conditions.

Ma, Qiang; Zaera, Francisco, E-mail: zaera@ucr.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of the Cu-Pd-X Ternary Alloys for Hydrogen Separation Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CuPd alloys are among the most promising candidate materials for hydrogen separation membranes and membrane reactor applications due to their high hydrogen permeability and better sulfur resistance. In order to reduce the Pd content and, therefore, the cost of the membrane materials, efforts have been initiated to develop CuPdM ternary alloys having a bcc structure. The advantages of having Pd as a hydrogen separation membrane are: (1) high hydrogen selectivity; and (2) high hydrogen permeability. The disadvantages are: (1) high cost; (2) hydrogen embrittlement ({alpha} {yields} {beta} Pd hydride); and (3) sulfur poisoning. Experiments (XRD, SEM/EDS) verified that Mg, Al, La, Y and Ti are promising alloying elements to expand the B2 phase region in Cu-Pd binary system. HT-XRD showed that the B2 to FCC transition temperatures for Cu-Pd-X (X = Mg, Al, La, Y and Ti) are higher than that of Cu-Pd binary alloys. While the Cu-50Pd alloy had the highest corrosion resistance to the H2S containing syngas, the Cu-Pd-Mg alloy had a comparable resistance.

O.N. Dogan; M.C. Gao; B.H. Howard

2012-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

333

Effect of prior cold work on age hardening of Cu-3Ti-1Cr alloy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The influence of 50%, 75% and 90% cold work on the age hardening behavior of Cu-3Ti-1Cr alloy has been investigated by hardness and tensile tests, and light optical and transmission electron microscopy. Hardness increased from 118 Hv in the solution-treated condition to 373 Hv after 90% cold work and peak aging. Cold deformation reduced the peak aging time and temperature of the alloy. The yield strength and ultimate tensile strength reached a maximum of 1090 and 1110 MPa, respectively, following 90% deformation and peak aging. The microstructure of the deformed alloy exhibited elongated grains and deformation twins. The maximum strength on peak aging was obtained due to precipitation of the ordered, metastable and coherent {beta}'-Cu{sub 4}Ti phase, in addition to high dislocation density and deformation twins. Over-aging resulted in decreases in hardness and strength due to the formation of incoherent and equilibrium {beta}-Cu{sub 3}Ti phase in the form of a cellular structure. However, the morphology of the discontinuous precipitation changed to a globular form on high deformation. The mechanical properties of Cu-3Ti-1Cr alloy are superior to those of Cu-2.7Ti, Cu-3Ti-1Cd and the commercial Cu-0.5Be-2.5Co alloys in the cold-worked and peak-aged condition.

Markandeya, R. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, College of Engineering, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kukatpally, Hyderabad-500 072 (India); Nagarjuna, S. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad-500 058 (India)]. E-mail: snagarjuna1@rediffmail.com; Sarma, D.S. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005 (India)

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

334

Unraveling the Active Site in Copper-Ceria Systems for the Water-Gas Shift Reaction: In Situ Characterization of an Inverse Powder CeO2-x/CuO-Cu Catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An inverse powder system composed of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles dispersed over a CuO-Cu matrix is proposed as a novel catalyst for the water-gas shift reaction. This inverse CeO{sub 2}/CuO-Cu catalyst exhibits a higher activity than standard Cu/CeO{sub 2} catalysts. In situ synchrotron characterization techniques were employed to follow the structural changes of CeO{sub 2}/CuO-Cu under reaction conditions. Time-resolved X-ray diffraction experiments showed the transformation of CuO to metallic Cu via a Cu{sub 2}O intermediate. Short-order structural changes were followed by pair distribution function analysis and corroborated the results obtained by diffraction. Moreover, X-ray absorption spectroscopy also revealed oxidation state changes from Cu{sup 2+} to Cu{sup 0} and the partial reduction of CeO{sub x} nanoparticles. The activity data obtained by mass spectrometry revealed that hydrogen production starts once the copper has been fully reduced. The strong interaction of ceria and copper boosted the catalytic performance of the sample. The inverse catalyst was active at low temperatures, stable to several reaction runs and to redox cycles. These characteristics are highly valuable for mobile fuel cell applications. The active phases of the inverse CeO{sub 2}/CuO-Cu catalyst are partially reduced ceria nanoparticles strongly interacting with metallic copper. The nature and structure of the ceria nanoparticles are of critical importance because they are involved in processes related to water dissociation over the catalyst surface.

Barrio, L.; Estrella, M; Zhou, G; Wen, W; Hanson, J; Hungria, A; Hornes, A; Fernandez-Garcia, M; Martinez-Arias, A; Rodriguez, J

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Unraveling the Active Site in Copper-ceria Systems for the Water Gas Shift Reaction: In-situ Characterization of an Inverse Powder CeO2-x/CuO-Cu Catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An inverse powder system composed of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles dispersed over a CuO-Cu matrix is proposed as a novel catalyst for the water-gas shift reaction. This inverse CeO{sub 2}/CuO-Cu catalyst exhibits a higher activity than standard Cu/CeO{sub 2} catalysts. In situ synchrotron characterization techniques were employed to follow the structural changes of CeO{sub 2}/CuO-Cu under reaction conditions. Time-resolved X-ray diffraction experiments showed the transformation of CuO to metallic Cu via a Cu{sub 2}O intermediate. Short-order structural changes were followed by pair distribution function analysis and corroborated the results obtained by diffraction. Moreover, X-ray absorption spectroscopy also revealed oxidation state changes from Cu{sup 2+} to Cu{sup 0} and the partial reduction of CeOx nanoparticles. The activity data obtained by mass spectrometry revealed that hydrogen production starts once the copper has been fully reduced. The strong interaction of ceria and copper boosted the catalytic performance of the sample. The inverse catalyst was active at low temperatures, stable to several reaction runs and to redox cycles. These characteristics are highly valuable for mobile fuel cell applications. The active phases of the inverse CeO{sub 2}/CuO-Cu catalyst are partially reduced ceria nanoparticles strongly interacting with metallic copper. The nature and structure of the ceria nanoparticles are of critical importance because they are involved in processes related to water dissociation over the catalyst surface.

Rodriguez, J.A.; Barrio, L.; Estrella, M.; Zhou, G.; Wen, W.; Hanson, J.C.; Hungra, A.B.; Horns, A.; Fernndez-Garca, M.; Arturo Martnez-Arias, A.

2010-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

336

Morphological and Structural Changes During the Reduction and Reoxidation of CuO/CeO(2) and Ce(1-x)Cu(x)O(2) Nanocatalysts: In-situ Studies with Environmental TEM, XRD and XAS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have studied the structural, morphological, and electronic properties of CuO/CeO{sub 2} and Ce{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 2} nanocatalysts during reduction/oxidation cycles using H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} as chemical probes. Time-resolved in situ characterization was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) as well as aberration-corrected environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM). We have found that both types of nanocatalysts reduce to a Cu/CeO{sub 2} biphase system with significant oxygen vacancies in CeO{sub 2}. Important variations are seen in the Cu particle size and metal dispersion depending on the initial state of the copper oxide-ceria systems. During subsequent in situ oxygen annealing, the Cu precipitated from the CuO/CeO{sub 2} system reoxidized to form CuO through a Cu{sub 2}O intermediate phase as expected. However, the Cu precipitated from the Ce{sub 0.8}Cu{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} solid solution behaved rather differently under oxidizing conditions, and neither oxidized to form CuO nor fully returned to a bulk Ce{sub 0.8}Cu{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} phase in solid solution. We found that {approx} 50% of the Cu returned to a Ce{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 2} solid solution, while the remainder was observed by in situ ETEM to form an amorphous copper oxide phase with a Cu oxidation state similar to Ce{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 2}, but with a local bonding environment similar to CuO. The behavior of the reduced Ce{sub 0.8}Cu{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} reflects strong interactions between Cu and the ceria matrix and illustrates the advantages of working with solid solutions of mixed oxides.

Rodriguez, J.A.; Ciston, J.; Si, R.; Hanson, J.C.; Martnez-Arias, A.; Fernandez-Garca, M.; Zhu, Y.

2011-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

337

Investigations of CuInSe sub 2 thin films and contacts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes research into electrical contacts for copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}) polycrystalline thin films used for solar cell applications. Molybdenum contacts have historically been the most promising for heterojunction solar cells. This program studied contact stability by investigating thermally induced bilayer reactions between molybdenum and copper, indium, and selenium. Because selenization is widely used to fabricate CuInSe{sub 2} thin films for photovoltaic cells, a second part of the program investigated how the morphologies, phases, and reactions of pre-selenization Cu-In structures are affected by the deposition process and heat treatments. 7 refs., 6 figs.

Nicolet, M.A. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States))

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Phosphorescence quenching by mechanical stimulus in CaZnOS:Cu  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have found that phosphorescence intensity of CaZnOS:Cu decreased visibly under an applied load. This mechanical quenching (MQ) of phosphorescence in CaZnOS:Cu corresponded to the mechanical stimuli. We have thus demonstrated that the MQ of CaZnOS:Cu could be used for visualizing stress distributions in practical applications. We propose that MQ arises from non-radiative recombination due to electron-transfer from trap levels to non-radiative centers as a result of the mechanical load.

Tu, Dong; Kamimura, Sunao [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Saga 841-0052 (Japan); Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Xu, Chao-Nan, E-mail: cn-xu@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Saga 841-0052 (Japan); Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Fujio, Yuki; Sakata, Yoshitaro [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Saga 841-0052 (Japan); Ueno, Naohiro [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Saga 841-0052 (Japan); Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saga University, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

339

Crystal structure and magnetic properties of NaCu{sup II}[(Cu{sup II}{sub 3}O)(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}Cl  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new copper(II) oxide phosphate chloride, NaCu{sup II}[(Cu{sup II}{sub 3}O)(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}Cl], has been synthesized by flux synthesis. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction data show that the title compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P2{sub 1}/c (No. 14), with lattice parameters a=8.392(2) A, b=6.3960(10) A, c=16.670(2) A, {beta}=109.470(10) Degree-Sign , V=843.6(3) A{sup 3}, Z=4. The crystal structure is characterized by a complex chain of copper-centered polyhedra running along [0 1 0] which are connected by phosphate tetrahedra. The resulting three-dimensional polyhedra framework exhibits channels filled by additional copper and sodium atoms. Field and temperature dependent measurements of the specific heat and the magnetic susceptibility reveal low-dimensional magnetic behavior. The compound starts to decompose at 700 K under release of oxygen and evaporation of Cu{sup I}Cl as shown by simultaneous thermogravimetry and mass spectrometry. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structure of the new copper(II) phosphate chloride, NaCu{sup II}[(Cu{sup II}{sub 3}O)(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}Cl], exhibits linear chains of copper tetrahedra which show low-dimensional magnetic behavior proven by specific heat and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new copper(II) oxide phosphate chloride, NaCu{sup II}[(Cu{sup II}{sub 3}O)(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}Cl], has been synthesized by flux synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystal structure comprises chains of Cu{sub 4}O tetrahedra. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low-dimensional behavior has been proven by magnetic and specific heat measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer On heating, Cu{sup I}Cl and oxygen are released shown by simultaneous thermogravimetry and mass spectrometry.

Jin Tengteng [Key Laboratory of Transparent Opto-Functional Inorganic Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dingxi Rd. 1295, Shanghai 200050 (China); Liu Wei [Institute of Science and Engineering of Materials, Ocean University of China, Qingdao (China); Chen Shuang; Prots, Yurii; Schnelle, Walter [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Noethnitzer Str. 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Zhao Jingtai [Key Laboratory of Transparent Opto-Functional Inorganic Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dingxi Rd. 1295, Shanghai 200050 (China); Kniep, Ruediger [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Noethnitzer Str. 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Hoffmann, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.hoffmann@cpfs.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Noethnitzer Str. 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

340

Local structure of Cu{sub x}Zn{sub 2?x}TiO{sub 4} inverse spinel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Structural and vibrational changes due to the incorporation of Cu in the Cu{sub x}Zn{sub 2?x}TiO{sub 4} inverse spinel solid solution have been investigated by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations. Both X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy show that the structure remains cubic while the unit-cell volume decreases on Cu{sup 2+} incorporation. The compositional dependencies of the Raman frequencies and linewidths indicate the incorporation of Cu{sup 2+} into tetrahedral sites. The A{sub 1g} tetrahedral mode frequency becomes independent on composition for x?>?0.6. This is attributed to the limited incorporation of Cu{sup 2+} in the tetrahedral sites at Cu-rich compositions. Ab initio calculations with quasi-random structures reveal only a slight energetic preference of Cu{sup 2+} for octahedral over tetrahedral sites.

Ruiz-Fuertes, J., E-mail: ruiz-fuertes@kristall.uni-frankfurt.de; Bernert, T.; He, M.; Winkler, B. [Geowissenschaften, Goethe-Universitt, Altenhferallee 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Vinograd, V. L. [Forschungszentrum Jlich GmbH, 52425 Jlich (Germany); Milman, V. [Dassault Systmes BIOVIA, 334 Science Park, Cambridge CB4 0WN (United Kingdom)

2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu cu ft" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Adsorption and chemical reaction of Cu(hfac)(vtms) on Young Su Chung, Hyoo Suk Lee, Yoon Sup Lee, Sehun Kim *  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adsorption and chemical reaction of Cu(hfac)(vtms) on Cu(1 1 1) Young Su Chung, Hyoo Suk Lee, Yoon the adsorption and reaction of Cu(hfac) (vtms) (hexa¯uoroacetylacetonate, hfac; vinyl tri- methyl silane, vtms between adsorbed Cu(hfac) molecules were observed to occur between 240 and 400 K. The adsorption geo

Kim, Sehun

342

A Theoretical Study of Methanol Synthesis from CO(2) Hydrogenation on Metal-doped Cu(111) Surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Density functional theory (DFT) calculations and Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations were employed to investigate the methanol synthesis reaction from CO{sub 2} hydrogenation (CO{sub 2} + 3H{sub 2} {yields} CH{sub 3}OH + H{sub 2}O) on metal-doped Cu(111) surfaces. Both the formate pathway and the reverse water-gas shift (RWGS) reaction followed by a CO hydrogenation pathway (RWGS + CO-Hydro) were considered in the study. Our calculations showed that the overall methanol yield increased in the sequence: Au/Cu(111) < Cu(111) < Pd/Cu(111) < Rh/Cu(111) < Pt/Cu(111) < Ni/Cu(111). On Au/Cu(111) and Cu(111), the formate pathway dominates the methanol production. Doping Au does not help the methanol synthesis on Cu(111). Pd, Rh, Pt, and Ni are able to promote the methanol production on Cu(111), where the conversion via the RWGS + CO-Hydro pathway is much faster than that via the formate pathway. Further kinetic analysis revealed that the methanol yield on Cu(111) was controlled by three factors: the dioxomethylene hydrogenation barrier, the CO binding energy, and the CO hydrogenation barrier. Accordingly, two possible descriptors are identified which can be used to describe the catalytic activity of Cu-based catalysts toward methanol synthesis. One is the activation barrier of dioxomethylene hydrogenation, and the other is the CO binding energy. An ideal Cu-based catalyst for the methanol synthesis via CO{sub 2} hydrogenation should be able to hydrogenate dioxomethylene easily and bond CO moderately, being strong enough to favor the desired CO hydrogenation rather than CO desorption but weak enough to prevent CO poisoning. In this way, the methanol production via both the formate and the RWGS + CO-Hydro pathways can be facilitated.

Liu P.; Yang, Y.; White, M.G.

2012-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

343

Age hardening and creep resistance of cast AlCu alloy modified by praseodymium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of praseodymium on age hardening behavior and creep resistance of cast AlCu alloy were investigated. The results indicated that praseodymium facilitated the formation of the ?? precipitates during the age process and improved the hardness of the AlCu alloy. Besides, praseodymium resulted in the formation of the Al{sub 11}Pr{sub 3} phase in the grain boundaries and among the dendrites of the modified alloy. Because of the good thermal stability of Al{sub 11}Pr{sub 3} phase, it inhibits grain boundary migration and dislocation movement during the creep process, which contributes to the improvement in the creep resistance of the modified alloy at elevated temperatures. - Highlights: Pr addition enhances the hardness and creep resistance of the AlCu alloy. Pr addition facilitates the formation of the ?? precipitates. Pr addition results in the formation of the Al11Pr3 phase in the AlCu alloy.

Bai, Zhihao; Qiu, Feng; Wu, Xiaoxue; Liu, Yingying; Jiang, Qichuan, E-mail: jqc@jlu.edu.cn

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

344

Effect of Cu doping on Hole Mobility in CdTe  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High quality CdTe thin films grown by laser deposition technique and heavily doped with Cu have recently been reported to have resistivity and hole mobility comparable to those of bulk single crystals. To explain the experimental results we have calculated the effect of Cu on the band structure and phonon spectrum of CdTe using the density functional theory (DFT) and the linearized augmented plane wave (LAPW) method. We found that the introduction of a high density of Cu can lead to a reduction in the hole-LO phonon scattering. In addition, Cu doping can remove Cd vacancies in CdTe and thereby enhance the hole mobility in CdTe.

Ma Zhixun; Mao, Samuel S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Liu Lei; Yu, Peter Y. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2010-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

345

Effects of Cu Content and Preaging on Precipitation Characteristics in Aluminum Alloy 6022  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effects of Cu Content and Preaging on Precipitation Characteristics in Aluminum Alloy 6022 W and artificial aging response in aluminum alloy 6022 were investigated using transmission electron microscopy automotive paint bake condition, suitable preaging treatments were found to significantly reduce

Laughlin, David E.

346

Investigation of Cu(II)/2',3'-isopropylidene adenosine complex  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The UV spectrum and polarographic behavior of Cu(II)/IpA complex was investigated, in an aqueous solution of Cu(II)/IpA complex, in Britton Robinson buffer solution at a pH from 5.0 to 8.0. At a low concentration of Cu(II)/IpA complex, maximum absorbance was shown to be 532 nm. Only one polarographic wave was found dependent on a two electron reduction. The composition ratio of the complex was obtained by both UV spectrum and polarography, it was found that the ratio of Cu(II) to IpA was 1:2. The polarography was shown by a two-electron reduction wave.

Hatano, A.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Structure, Magnetism, and Transport of CuCr2Se4 Thin Films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Structure, Magnetism, and Transport of CuCr 2 Se 4 Thindichroism shows that the magnetism persists to the surfacesuch as the nature of magnetism at surfaces and interfaces.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Evaluation of Quasicrystal Al-Cu-Fe Alloys for Tribological Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This research investigated the tribological performance of a composite material, formed from an ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) matrix and quasicrystalline Al-Cu-Fe alloy powders. An evaluation was conducted for the microstructure...

Nabelsi, Nezar

2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

349

E-Print Network 3.0 - al cu sn Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Batteries Summary: to avoid it. One of the strategies is to alloy Sn with Cu. 2003 The Electrochemical Society. DOI: 10... -purity Sn was also used. Films were typi- cally...

350

Microstructure and Strengthening Mechanisms of Highly Textured Cu/Ni Multilayers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, I planned to fabricate Cu/Ni metallic multilayers with equal layer thicknesses on different substrates by using magnetic sputtering technique. My objective was to characterize the texture, structure and hardness, in order to study...

Liu, Yue

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

351

Zn3P2 and Cu2O substrates for solar energy conversion.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Zinc phosphide (Zn3P2) and cuprous oxide (Cu2O) are promising and earth-abundant alternatives to traditional thin film photovoltaics materials such as CIGS, CdTe, and a-Si. We (more)

Kimball, Gregory Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Rapid synthesis and size control of CuInS2 semi-conductor nanoparticle...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

semi-conductor nanoparticles make them attractive materials for use in next-generation photovoltaics. We have prepared CuInS2 nanoparticles from single source precursors via...

353

Rapid Synthesis and Size Control of CuInS2 Semi-Conductor Nanoparticle...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

semi-conductor nanoparticles make them attractive materials for use in next-generation photovoltaics. We have prepared CuInS2 nanoparticles from single source precursors via...

354

Electronic properties and morphology of Cu-phthalocyanineC{sub 60} composite mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Phthalocyanines in combination with C{sub 60} are benchmark materials for organic solar cells. Here, we have studied the morphology and electronic properties of co-deposited mixtures (blends) of these materials forming a bulk heterojunction as a function of the concentration of the two constituents. For a concentration of 1:1 of Cu-Phthalocyanine (CuPc):C{sub 60}, a phase separation into about 100?nm size domains is observed, which results in electronic properties similar to layered systems. For low C{sub 60} concentrations (10:1 CuPc:C{sub 60}), the morphology, as indicated by Low-Energy Electron Microscopy images, suggests a growth mode characterized by (amorphous) domains of CuPC, whereby the domain boundaries are decorated with C{sub 60}. Despite of these markedly different growth modes, the electronic properties of the heterojunction films are essentially unchanged.

Roth, Friedrich [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science/DESY, Notkestrae 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Lupulescu, Cosmin [Institute of Optics and Atomic Physics, TU Berlin, Strae des 17. Juni 135, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Arion, Tiberiu [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science/DESY, Notkestrae 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Institut fr Experimentalphysik, Universitt Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Darlatt, Erik; Gottwald, Alexander [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestrae 2-12, D-10587 Berlin (Germany); Eberhardt, Wolfgang [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science/DESY, Notkestrae 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Institute of Optics and Atomic Physics, TU Berlin, Strae des 17. Juni 135, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

355

Electronic structure and conductivity of nanocomposite metal (Au,Ag,Cu,Mo)-containing amorphous carbon films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dual-cathode arc deposition (PDC-FCVA) source containingand metal cathodes [2]. The PDC-FCVA system in combinationCu,Mo) incorporation in a-C by PDC-FCVA. The modification of

Endrino, Jose L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Effects of mechanical properties on the reliability of Cu/low-k metallization systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cu and low-dielectric-constant (k) metallization schemes are critical for improved performance of integrated circuits. However, low elastic moduli, a characteristic of the low-k materials, lead to significant reliability ...

Wei, Frank L. (Frank Lili), 1977-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Comparison of CsBr and KBr coated Cu photocathodes: Effects of...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Comparison of CsBr and KBr coated Cu photocathodes: Effects of laser irradiation and work function changes. Abstract: Thin films (7 nm layers) of CsBr and KBr were deposited...

358

Theoretical investigation of the magnetic structure in YBa_2Cu_3O_6  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

As experimentally well established, YBa_2Cu_3O_6 is an antiferromagnet with the magnetic moments lying on the Cu sites. Starting from this experimental result and the assumption, that nearest-neighbor Cu atoms within a layer have exactly antiparallel magnetic moments, the orientation of the magnetic moments has been determined within a nonadiabatic extension of the Heisenberg model of magnetism, called nonadiabatic Heisenberg model. Within this group-theoretical model there exist four stable magnetic structures in YBa_2Cu_3O_6, two of them are obviously identical with the high- and low-temperature structure established experimentally. However, not all the magnetic moments which appear to be antiparallel in neutron-scattering experiments are exactly antiparallel within this group-theoretical model. Furthermore, within this model the magnetic moments are not exactly perpendicular to the orthorhombic c axis.

Ekkehard Krger

2006-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

359

E-Print Network 3.0 - al cu pb Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

gaps, Pb... error.'' LDA U methods 7-9 are some ways to correct for this, and here copper aluminate, CuAlO2... value. The corrected bands were used as input to calculations...

360

Bi-antimony capped Keggin polyoxometalate modified with Cu-ligand fragment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three polyoxometalates consisting of bi-antimony capped Keggin-type clusters: [Cu(mbpy){sub 2}]{sub 2}[PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}Sb{sub 2}]{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O (1), [Cu(mbpy){sub 2}][PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}Sb{sub 2}] (2) and {l_brace}Cu(mbpy)[Cu(mbpy){sub 2}]{sub 2}{r_brace}[VMo{sub 8}V{sub 4}O{sub 40}Sb{sub 2}]{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O (3) (mbpy=4,4 Prime -dimethyl-2,2 Prime - dipyridyl in 1 and 2; 5,5 Prime -dimethyl-2,2 Prime -dipyridyl in 3) have been synthesized and characterized by IR, X-ray powder diffraction, TG analysis and electrochemical property. Single-crystal analysis revealed that all of three compounds are built upon bi-antimony capped Keggin-type polyoxoanions and Cu-mbpy cations. In 1-3, two Sb{sup III} centers located at the two opposite of anionic surface adopt fundamentally tetragonal pyramidal coordination geometry. Both compounds 1 and 2 consist of P-centered Keggin structure, while compound 3 presents a V-centered Keggin anion. The Keggin-type anions present different structural features: isolated cluster in 1 and Cu-ligand-supported cluster in 2 and 3. - Graphical abstract: Three hybrid compounds consisting of bi-antimony capped Keggin-type clusters modified with Cu-ligand cations have been synthesized and characterized. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three hybrid compounds consisting of bi-antimony capped Keggin-type clusters have been synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two Sb{sup III} centers located at the two opposite of anionic surface adopt tetragonal pyramidal coordination geometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The anions present different structural features: isolated and Cu-ligand-supported cluster.

Huang, Jiao [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hebei Normal University, No. 20 Road East of 2nd Ring South, Yuhua District, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024 (China)] [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hebei Normal University, No. 20 Road East of 2nd Ring South, Yuhua District, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024 (China); Han, Zhangang, E-mail: hanzg116@yahoo.com.cn [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hebei Normal University, No. 20 Road East of 2nd Ring South, Yuhua District, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024 (China)] [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hebei Normal University, No. 20 Road East of 2nd Ring South, Yuhua District, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024 (China); Zhang, Heng; Yu, Haitao [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hebei Normal University, No. 20 Road East of 2nd Ring South, Yuhua District, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024 (China)] [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hebei Normal University, No. 20 Road East of 2nd Ring South, Yuhua District, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024 (China); Zhai, Xueliang, E-mail: xlzhai253@mail.hebtu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hebei Normal University, No. 20 Road East of 2nd Ring South, Yuhua District, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024 (China)] [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hebei Normal University, No. 20 Road East of 2nd Ring South, Yuhua District, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024 (China)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu cu ft" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Understanding of catalytic behaviors of TiO2/CuOx catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aiming to reveal the catalysis at the metal-oxide and oxide-oxide interfaces,1,2 the water-gas shift reaction (WGS, CO + H2O and #61664; CO2 + H2) and CO oxidation (2CO + O2 and #61664; 2CO2) at the interface of the Cu(111) and Cu2O(111) supported TiO2 clusters were studied based on DFT calculations

Kim H. Y.; Liu, P.

2013-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

362

Effects of context encoding and cuing: tests of the outshining and overshadowing hypotheses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EFFECTS OF CONTEXT ENCODING AND CUING: TESTS OF THE OUTSHINING AND OVERSHADOWING HYPOTHESES A Thesis by ISABEL MANZANO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2008 Major Subject: Psychology EFFECTS OF CONTEXT ENCODING AND CUING: TESTS OF THE OUTSHINING AND OVERSHADOWING HYPOTHESES A Thesis by ISABEL MANZANO Submitted to the Office...

Manzano, Isabel

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

363

DISSERTATION Role of the Cu-O Defect in CdTe Solar Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF THE CU-O DEFECT COMPLEX IN CDTE SOLAR CELLS Thin-film CdTe is one of the leading materials used the defects present in thin-film CdTe deposited for solar cells. One key defect seen in the thin-film CdDISSERTATION Role of the Cu-O Defect in CdTe Solar Cells Submitted by Caroline R. Corwine

Sites, James R.

364

Thin-film polycrystalline n-ZnO/p-CuO heterojunction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results of X-ray diffraction and spectral-optical studies of n-ZnO and p-CuO films deposited by gas-discharge sputtering with subsequent annealing are presented. It is shown that, despite the difference in the crystal systems, the polycrystallinity of n-ZnO and p-CuO films enables fabrication of a heterojunction from this pair of materials.

Lisitski, O. L.; Kumekov, M. E.; Kumekov, S. E. [Satpaev Kazakh National Technical University (Kazakhstan)], E-mail: skumekov@mail.ru; Terukov, E. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

365

Doping Cu{sub 2}O in Electrolyte Solution: Dopant Incorporation, Atomic Structures and Electrical Properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have pursued a number of research activities between April 2010 and April 2011: ? A detailed study on n-type doping in Cu2O by Br; ? An analysis of natural resource limitations to terawatt-scale solar cells; ? Attempt to achieve a 1.4-eV direct band gap in Ni sulfides (NiSx); ? First-principles studies of doping in Cu2O and electronic structures of NiSx.

Tao, Meng; Zhang, Qiming

2013-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

366

Pion Interferometry in Au+Au and Cu+Cu Collisions at sqrt sNN = 62.4 and 200 GeV  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a systematic analysis of two-pion interferometry in Au+Au collisions at {radical}sNN = 62.4 GeV and Cu+Cu collisions at {radical}sNN = 62.4 and 200 GeV using the STAR detector at RHIC. The multiplicity and transverse momentum dependences of the extracted correlation lengths (radii) are studied. The scaling with charged particle multiplicity of the apparent system volume at final interaction is studied for the RHIC energy domain. The multiplicity scaling of the measured correlation radii is found to be independent of colliding system and collision energy.

STAR Collaboration; Abelev, B.I.

2009-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

367

Characterization of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic powders produced by water atomization and powder heat treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic shows its importance in industrial applications, the Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic-containing powders, produced by a powder processing route with a high production rate, were characterized. The route consisted of water atomization of an alloy melt (Cu61 wt.% Sn) and subsequent heat treatment of the water-atomized powders. Characterization of the water-atomized powders and their heated forms was conducted by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Fine water-atomized powder microstructures consisted of primary hexagonal ?-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} dendrites coexisting with interdendritic ?-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} + ?-Sn eutectic. Solidification of fine melt droplets was governed by surface nucleation and growth of the primary hexagonal ?-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} dendrites followed by ?-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} + ?-Sn eutectic solidification of the remnant liquid. In coarse melt droplets, nucleation and growth of primary ?-Cu{sub 3}Sn dendrites were followed by peritectic reaction (?-Cu{sub 3}Sn + liquid ? ?-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5}) or direct crystallization of ?-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} phase from the undercooled melt. Finally, the ?-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} + ?-Sn eutectic solidification of the remnant liquid occurred. Heating of the water-atomized powders at different temperatures resulted in microstructural homogenization. The water-atomized powders with mixed phases were transformed to powders with single monoclinic ?-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} phase. - Highlights: The Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic powder production route was proposed. Single phase Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} powders could be by water atomization and heating. Water-atomized CuSn powders contained mixed CuSn phases. Solidification and heat treatment of water-atomized CuSn powders are explained.

Tongsri, Ruangdaj, E-mail: ruangdt@mtec.or.th [Powder Metallurgy Research and Development Unit (PM-RDU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Yotkaew, Thanyaporn, E-mail: thanyy@mtec.or.th [Powder Metallurgy Research and Development Unit (PM-RDU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Krataitong, Rungtip, E-mail: rungtipk@mtec.or.th [Powder Metallurgy Research and Development Unit (PM-RDU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Wila, Pongsak, E-mail: pongsakw@mtec.or.th [Powder Metallurgy Research and Development Unit (PM-RDU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Sir-on, Autcharaporn, E-mail: autchars@mtec.or.th [Materials Characterization Research Unit (MCRU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Muthitamongkol, Pennapa, E-mail: pennapm@mtec.or.th [Materials Characterization Research Unit (MCRU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Tosangthum, Nattaya, E-mail: nattayt@mtec.or.th [Powder Metallurgy Research and Development Unit (PM-RDU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

368

Enhanced thermoelectric performance in Cd doped CuInTe{sub 2} compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CuIn{sub 1?x}Cd{sub x}Te{sub 2} materials (x?=?0, 0.02, 0.05, and 0.1) are prepared using melting-annealing method and the highly densified bulk samples are obtained through Spark Plasma Sintering. The X-ray diffraction data confirm that nearly pure chalcopyrite structures are obtained in all the samples. Due to the substitution of Cd at In sites, the carrier concentration is greatly increased, leading to much enhanced electrical conductivity and power factor. The single parabolic band model is used to describe the electrical transport properties of CuInTe{sub 2} and the low temperature Hall mobility is also modeled. By combing theoretical model and experiment data, the optimum carrier concentration in CuInTe{sub 2} is proposed to explain the greatly enhanced power factors in the Cd doped CuInTe{sub 2}. In addition, the thermal conductivity is reduced by extra phonon scattering due to the atomic mass and radius fluctuations between Cd and In atoms. The maximum zTs are observed in CuIn{sub 0.98}Cd{sub 0.02}Te{sub 2} and CuIn{sub 0.9}Cd{sub 0.1}Te{sub 2} samples, which are improved by over 100% at room temperature and around 20% at 600?K.

Cheng, N. [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, R. [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Bai, S. [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shi, X., E-mail: xshi@mail.sic.ac.cn; Chen, L. [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)

2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

369

Solvent-dependent luminescent Cu(I) framework based on 5-(4-pyridyl)tetrazole  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new Cu(IOTA) coordination compound, Cu{sub 4}(L){sub 4}.2EtOH (1), has been obtained from the solvothermal reaction of CuBr, HL (L=5-(4-pyridyl) tetrazole), EtOH and NH{sub 3}.H{sub 2}O. The structure determination reveals that 1 has a 2D network, where each Cu(I) atom adopts a trigonal coordination mode. The 2D networks stacked in an ABAB sequence through the pi-pi interaction to form a 3D supramolecular framework, giving a 1D channel along the b-axis. The TGA and powder XRD measurements reveal that the framework is stable after removal of the guest molecules. Gas (N{sub 2}) adsorption measurement was carried out for the framework. Framework 1 shows II sorption profile with N{sub 2}, which indicates that N{sub 2} molecules cannot diffuse into the micropore and only surface adsorption occurs. The photoluminescent research shows that compound 1 displays an interesting solvent-dependent luminescence. - Abstract: A new Cu(I) compound, Cu{sub 4}(L){sub 4}.2EtOH (1) (L=5-(4-pyridyl) tetrazole), was synthesized under solvothermal method, which displays an interesting solvent-dependent luminescence. Display Omitted

Wang Fei; Yu Rongmin; Zhang Qisheng; Zhao Zhenguo; Wu Xiaoyuan; Xie Yiming; Qin Li; Chen Shanci [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 35002 (China); Lu Canzhong, E-mail: czlu@fjirsm.ac.c [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 35002 (China)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

370

Spray Deposition of High Quality CuInSe2 and CdTe Films: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A number of different ink and deposition approaches have been used for the deposition of CuInSe2 (CIS), Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS), and CdTe films. For CIS and CIGS, soluble precursors containing Cu, In, and Ga have been developed and used in two ways to produce CIS films. In the first, In-containing precursor films were sprayed on Mo-coated glass substrates and converted by rapid thermal processing (RTP) to In2Se3. Then a Cu-containing film was sprayed down on top of the In2Se3 and the stacked films were again thermally processed to give CIS. In the second approach, the Cu-, In-, and Ga-containing inks were combined in the proper ratio to produce a mixed Cu-In-Ga ink that was sprayed on substrates and thermally processed to give CIGS films directly. For CdTe deposition, ink consisting of CdTe nanoparticles dispersed in methanol was prepared and used to spray precursor films. Annealing these precursor films in the presence of CdCl2 produced large-grained CdTe films. The films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Optimized spray and processing conditions are crucial to obtain dense, crystalline films.

Curtis, C. J.; van Hest, M.; Miedaner, A.; Leisch, J.; Hersh, P.; Nekuda, J.; Ginley, D. S.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Cyclotron production of {sup 61}Cu using natural Zn and enriched {sup 64}Zn targets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Copper-61 ({sup 61}Cu) shares with {sup 64}Cu certain advantages for PET diagnostic imaging, but has a shorter half-life (3.4hr vs. 12.7hr) and a greater probability of positron production per disintegration (61% vs. 17.9%). One important application is for in vivo imaging of hypoxic tissue. In this study {sup 61}Cu was produced using the {sup 64}Zn(p,{alpha}){sup 61}Cu reaction on natural Zn or enriched {sup 64}Zn targets. The enriched {sup 64}Zn (99.82%) was electroplated onto high purity gold or silver foils or onto thin Al discs. A typical target bombardment used 30{mu}A; at 11.7, 14.5 or 17.6MeV over 30-60min. The {sup 61}Cu (radiochemical purity of >95%) was separated using a combination of cation and anion exchange columns. The {sup 64}Zn target material was recovered after each run, for re-use. In a direct comparison with enriched {sup 64}Zn-target results, {sup 61}Cu production using the cheaper {sup nat}Zn target proved to be an effective alternative.

Asad, A. H.; Smith, S. V.; Chan, S.; Jeffery, C. M.; Morandeau, L.; Price, R. I. [RAPID PET Labs, Medical Technology and Physics, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, Australia, Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University, Perth, Australia, and Center of Excellence in Anti-matter Matter Studies, Australian National University, Can (Australia); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States) and Center of Excellence in Anti-matter Matter Studies, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); RAPID PET Labs, Medical Technology and Physics, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth (Australia); RAPID PET Labs, Medical Technology and Physics, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth (Australia); Center of Excellence in Anti-matter Matter Studies, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia, and Chemistry, University of Western Australia, Pe (Australia); RAPID PET Labs, Medical Technology and Physics, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth (Australia); RAPID PET Labs, Medical Technology and Physics, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, Australia and Physics, University of Western Australia, Perth (Australia)

2012-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

372

Magnetic order tuned by Cu substitution in Fe1.1zCuzTe  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

We study the effects of Cu substitution in Fe?.?Te, the nonsuperconducting parent compound of the iron-based superconductor, Fe??yTe??xSex, utilizing neutron scattering techniques. It is found that the structural and magnetic transitions, which occur at ~60 K without Cu, are monotonically depressed with increasing Cu content. By 10% Cu for Fe, the structural transition is hardly detectable, and the system becomes a spin glass below 22 K, with a slightly incommensurate ordering wave vector of (0.5?, 0, 0.5) with ? being the incommensurability of 0.02, and correlation length of 12 along the a axis and 9 along the c axis. With 4% Cu, both transition temperatures are at 41 K, though short-range incommensurate order at (0.42, 0, 0.5) is present at 60 K. With further cooling, the incommensurability decreases linearly with temperature down to 37 K, below which there is a first-order transition to a long-range almost-commensurate antiferromagnetic structure. A spin anisotropy gap of 4.5 meV is also observed in this compound. Our results show that the weakly magnetic Cu has a large effect on the magnetic correlations; it is suggested that this is caused by the frustration of the exchange interactions between the coupled Fe spins.

Wen, Jinsheng; Xu, Zhijun; Xu, Guangyong; Lumsden, M. D.; Valdivia, P. N.; Bourret-Courchesne, E.; Gu, Genda; Lee, Dung-Hai; Tranquada, J. M.; Birgeneau, R. J.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Metallic glass alloys of Zr, Ti, Cu and Ni  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

At least quaternary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10.sup.3 K/s. Such alloys comprise titanium from 19 to 41 atomic percent, an early transition metal (ETM) from 4 to 21 atomic percent and copper plus a late transition metal (LTM) from 49 to 64 atomic percent. The ETM comprises zirconium and/or hafnium. The LTM comprises cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is further constrained such that the product of the copper plus LTM times the atomic proportion of LTM relative to the copper is from 2 to 14. The atomic percentage of ETM is less than 10 when the atomic percentage of titanium is as high as 41, and may be as large as 21 when the atomic percentage of titanium is as low as 24. Furthermore, when the total of copper and LTM are low, the amount of LTM present must be further limited. Another group of glass forming alloys has the formula (ETM.sub.1-x Ti.sub.x).sub.a Cu.sub.b (Ni.sub.1-y Co.sub.y).sub.c wherein x is from 0.1 to 0.3, y.cndot.c is from 0 to 18, a is from 47 to 67, b is from 8 to 42, and c is from 4 to 37. This definition of the alloys has additional constraints on the range of copper content, b.

Lin, Xianghong (Pasadena, CA); Peker, Atakan (Pasadena, CA); Johnson, William L. (Pasadena, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Novel Approaches to Wide Bandgap CuInSe2 Based Absorbers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project targeted the development of high performance wide bandgap solar cells based on thin film alloys of CuInSe2 to relax constraints on module design and enable tandem solar cell structures. This addressed goals of the Solar Energy Technologies Program for Next Generation PV to develop technology needed for higher thin film module efficiency as a means to reduce costs. Specific objectives of the research project were: 1) to develop the processes and materials required to improve the performance of wide bandgap thin film solar cells based on alloys of CuInSe2, and 2) to provide the fundamental science and engineering basis for the material, electronic, and device properties required to effectively apply these processes and materials to commercial manufacture. CuInSe2-based photovoltaics have established the highest efficiencies of the thin film materials at both the cell and module scales and are actively being scaled up to commercialization. In the highest efficiency cells and modules, the optical bandgap, a function of the CuInSe2-based alloy composition, is relatively low compared to the optimum match to the solar spectrum. Wider bandgap alloys of CuInSe2 produce higher cell voltages which can improve module performance and enable the development of tandem solar cells to boost the overall efficiency. A focus for the project was alloying with silver to form (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 pentenary thin films deposited by elemental co-evaporation which gives the broadest range of control of composition and material properties. This alloy has a lower melting temperature than Ag-free, Cu-based chalcopyrite compounds, which may enable films to be formed with lower defect densities and the (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 films give improved material properties and better device performance with increasing bandgap. A comprehensive characterization of optical, structural, and electronic properties of (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 was completed over the complete compositional range 0 ? Ga/(In+Ga) ? 1 and 0 ? Ag/(Ag+Cu) ? 1. Evidence of improved material quality includes reduced sub-bandgap optical absorption, sharper bandtails, and increased grain size with Ag addition. The Ag alloying was shown to increase the range of bandgaps over which solar cells can be fabricated without any drop-off in performance. With bandgap greater than 1.6 eV, in the range needed for tandem solar cells, (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 gave higher efficiency than other CuInSe2-based alloys. Using a simple single-stage co-evaporation process, a solar cell with 17.6% efficiency using a film with bandgap = 1.3 eV was achieved, demonstrating the viability of (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 for high efficiency devices. With a three-stage co-evaporation process for (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 deposition a device with efficiency = 13.0 % and VOC = 890 mV with JSC = 20.5 mA/cm2, FF = 71.3% was achieved. This surpasses the performance of other wide bandgap CuInSe2-based solar cells. Detailed characterization of the electronic properties of the materials and devices including the application of advanced admittance-based easements was completed.

William N. Shafarman

2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

375

An Energy Analysis Of A Large, Multipurpose Educational Building In A Hot Climate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

building The number of occupants for each zone has been calculated using the following equation: Number of occupants g3404 g4670Area of interior zoneg4666ft^2g4667/ maximum occupantsg4666ft^2/persong4667 g4671 g3400 percent of occupants during... occupied period Sensible load for each zone has been calculated by using the following equation: Sensible Loadg4666Btu/hrg4667 g3404 Sensible load per persong4666Btu/hr persong4667 g3400 Interior zone occupants during occupied period g4666persong4667...

Kamranzadeh, Vahideh

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

376

Evalutaion of Energy Efficiency Measures for K-12  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Station school district Methodology N Classroom Admin Cafe Gym Energy Efficiency/Renewable Energy (EE/RE) Measures for K-12 Schools CATEE 2011 Nov. 7 ? 9, 2011 Characteristics of Base-Case Model ? Building Envelope - 1-story, 79,430 ft2... Power Density (W/ft^2) AEDG HVAC System Type EnergyPlus Benchmark Air Conditioning System Efficiency ASHRAE 90.1-1999 Table 6.2.1 A Heating System Efficiency (%) ASHRAE 90.1-1999 Table 6.2.1F Cooling Capacity (Btu/hr) Heating Capacity (Btu...

Hyojin, K; Haberl, J. S.; Baltazar, J.C.; Mukhopadhyay, J.; Do, S.; Kim, K.; Lewis, C.; Yazdani, B.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Modeling Cu Migration in CdTe Solar Cells Under Device-Processing and Long-Term Stability Conditions (Poster)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An impurity migration model for systems with material interfaces is applied to Cu migration in CdTe solar cells. In the model, diffusion fluxes are calculated from the Cu chemical potential gradient. Inputs to the model include Cu diffusivities, solubilities, and segregation enthalpies in CdTe, CdS and contact materials. The model yields transient and equilibrium Cu distributions in CdTe devices during device processing and under field-deployed conditions. Preliminary results for Cu migration in CdTe PV devices using available diffusivity and solubility data from the literature show that Cu segregates in the CdS, a phenomenon that is commonly observed in devices after back-contact processing and/or stress conditions.

Teeter, G.; Asher, S.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Measurement of electrons from heavy-flavor decays from $p$+$p$, $d$+Au, and Cu+Cu collisions in the PHENIX experiment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Charm and bottom quarks are formed predominantly by gluon fusion in the initial hard scatterings at RHIC, making them good probes of the full medium evolution. Previous measurements at RHIC have shown large suppression and azimuthal anisotropy of open heavy-flavor hadrons in Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200~{\\rm GeV}$. Explaining the simultaneously large suppression and flow of heavy quarks has been challenging. To further understand the heavy-flavor transport in the hot and dense medium, it is imperative to also measure cold nuclear matter effects which affect the initial distribution of heavy quarks as well as the system size dependence of the final state suppression. In this talk, new measurements by the PHENIX collaboration of electrons from heavy-flavor decays in $p$+$p$, $d$+Au, and Cu+Cu collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200~{\\rm GeV}$ are presented. In particular, a surprising enhancement of intermediate transverse momentum heavy-flavor decay leptons in $d$+Au at mid and backward rapidity are also seen in mid-central Cu+Cu collisions. This enhancement is much larger than the expectation from anti-shadowing of the parton distributions and is theoretically unexplained.

Sanghoon Lim

2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

379

arXiv:0904.0439v1[nucl-ex]2Apr2009 J/ production at high transverse momenta in p+p and Cu+Cu collisions at  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

+Cu collisions at sNN = 200 GeV B. I. Abelev,8 M. M. Aggarwal,30 Z. Ahammed,47 B. D. Anderson,18 D. Arkhipkin,12

Llope, William J.

380

DISSERTATION IMPACT OF SECONDARY BARRIERS ON CuIn1-xGaxSe2 SOLAR-CELL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Impact of Secondary Barriers on CuIn1-xGaxSe2 Solar-Cell Operation Thin-film solar cells based on CuInSe2 of thin-film solar-cell tandems. Since the bottom cells are exposed to practically only "red" photonsDISSERTATION IMPACT OF SECONDARY BARRIERS ON CuIn1-xGaxSe2 SOLAR-CELL OPERATION Submitted by Alexei

Sites, James R.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu cu ft" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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381

Role of spin mixing conductance in spin pumping: Enhancement of spin pumping efficiency in Ta/Cu/Py structures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

From spin pumping measurements in Ta/Py devices for different thicknesses of Ta, we determine the spin Hall angle to be 0.0210.033 and spin diffusion length to be 8?nm in Ta. We have also studied the effect of changing the properties of non-magnet/ferromagnet interface by adding a Cu interlayer. The experimental results show that the effective spin mixing conductance increases in the presence of Cu interlayer for Ta/Cu/Py devices whereas it decreases in Pt/Cu/Py devices. Our findings allow the tunability of the spin pumping efficiency by adding a thin interlayer at the non-magnet/ferromagnet interface.

Deorani, Praveen; Yang, Hyunsoo, E-mail: eleyang@nus.edu.sg [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 Singapore (Singapore)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 Singapore (Singapore)

2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

382

Plastic deformation in Al (Cu) interconnects stressed by electromigration and studied by synchrotron polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Plastic deformation in Al (Cu) interconnects stressed bygrain orientation [7], study plastic deformation [12-15] andThis aspect of EM-induced plastic deformation in grains

Chen, Kai; Advanced Light Source; UCLA

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Sulfur Poisoning and Regeneration of NOx Storage-Reduction Cu/K2Ti2O5 Qiang Wang,*,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Lamar UniVersity, Beaumont, Texas 77710 A new Cu/K2Ti2O5 catalyst has been developed recently to remove

Guo, John Zhanhu

384

Ab initio cluster studies of La sub 2 CuO sub 4  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper we examine the properties of small cluster models of La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4}. In Section 2, the Madelung/Pauli background potential used to imbed the primary cluster and the basis sets used to expand the cluster wavefunction are discussed. Section 3 presents the results of calculations on CuO{sub 6} in which the optical absorption and the photoemission spectrum are examined. The calculation on CuO{sub 6} and our earlier work on larger clusters suggest that a single-band Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) model be developed. Therefore, in Section 4 the PPP model and extensions which relax the zero-differential-overlap (ZDO) approximation upon which it is based are reviewed. Calculations on the states of Cu{sub 2}O{sub 7} necessary to parameterize the PPP model are presented in Section 5 and compared with analogous calculations for Cu{sub 2}O{sub 11}. Section 6 discusses the problems associated with the direct ab initio determination of the anti-ferromagnetic exchange interaction, examines the magnitudes of the occupation-dependent hopping and direct exchange interactions which arise when the ZDO approximation is relaxed, and provides estimates of the uncertainties in the parameters due to electron correlation and polarization effects not recoverable with the present basis sets and finite clusters. A comparison of the parameters with those extracted from constrained LDF theory concludes Section 6. Finally, Section 7 summarizes the conclusions of this research.

Martin, R.L.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Electroslag surfacing of steel shafting with Ni alloy 625 and 70Cu-30Ni strip  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A comprehensive study of electroslag surfacing (ESS) of steel with Ni Alloy 625 and 70Cu-30Ni strip electrodes was conducted to establish the feasibility of replacing forged bearing sleeves on propulsion shafting with integral weld surfacing. The base material was MIL-S-23284, Class 1 steel in the form of 41--66 cm (16--26 in.) diameter shafting and 76 mm (3 in.) thick flat plate. All ESS was carried out at a heat input level of approximately 5.9kJ/mm (150 kJ/in.) using 30 x 0.5 mm (1.2 x 0.02 in.) strip electrodes. Assessments of mechanical properties and microstructure of Ni Alloy 625 surfacing and 70Cu-30Ni surfacing were conducted to establish the structure-property relationships in these complex alloy systems. In addition, a solidification cracking test was developed to determine the relative cracking susceptibilities of these strip surfacing alloys. Although the Ni Alloy 625 surfacing contained small islands of interdendritic MC type carbides and Laves phase, the mechanical properties of this surfacing were satisfactory. The 70Cu-30Ni surfacing required a buttering layer of 30Cu-70Ni or pure Ni to prevent solidification cracking. The inherent ductility-dip sensitivity of 70Cu-30Ni surfacing was overcome by the development of a suitable ESS procedure.

Devletian, J.H.; Gao, Y.P.; Wood, W.E. [Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Portland, OR (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

386

Density functional study of CaN mono and bilayer on Cu(001)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Density functional - pseudopotential calculations are performed to provide first-principles insights into magnetic behaviour of bulk CaN and CaN monolayers on Cu(001) in the rock-salt (RS) and zinc-blende (ZB) structures. Our results indicate that both RS- and ZB-CaN exhibit half-metallic ferromagnetism originated from the incomplete 2p shell of the nitrogen ion. In contrast to the bulk CaN, the CaN monolayers on Cu(001) generally favor ZB structure. We argue that the more stable ZB-CaN thin films on Cu(001) are nonmagnetic, because of strong Cu-N bonding at the interface, while the less stable Ca terminated ZB-CaN thin films exhibit half-metallic ferromagnetism. The transition path between the high energy ferromagnetic and the stable nonmagnetic configurations of the ZB-CaN monolayer on Cu(001) are studied by using the nudged elastic band method. We observe a two stages transition and an activation barrier of about 1.18 eV in the minimum energy path of this transition.

Zahedifar, Maedeh; Hashemifar, S. Javad, E-mail: hashemifar@cc.iut.ac.ir; Akbarzadeh, Hadi [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

387

CuAl{sub 2} revisited: Composition, crystal structure, chemical bonding, compressibility and Raman spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The structure of CuAl{sub 2} is usually described as a framework of base condensed tetragonal antiprisms [CuAl{sub 8/4}]. The appropriate symmetry governed periodic nodal surface (PNS) divides the space of the structure into two labyrinths. All atoms are located in one labyrinth, whereas the second labyrinth seems to be 'empty'. The bonding of the CuAl{sub 2} structure was analyzed by the electron localization function (ELF), crystal orbital Hamiltonian population (COHP) analysis and Raman spectroscopy. From the ELF representation it is seen, that the 'empty' labyrinth is in fact the place of important covalent interactions. ELF, COHP in combination with high-pressure X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy show that the CuAl{sub 2} structure is described best as a network built of interpenetrating graphite-like nets of three-bonded aluminum atoms with the copper atoms inside the tetragonal-antiprismatic cavities. - Graphical abstract: Atomic interactions in the crystal structure of the intermetallic compound CuAl{sub 2}: Three-bonded aluminum atoms form interpenetrating graphite-like nets. The copper atoms are located in the channels of aluminum network by means of three-center bonds. The bonding model is in agreement with the result of polarized Raman spectroscopy and high-pressure X-ray powder diffraction.

Grin, Yuri [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Noethnitzer Strasse 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany)]. E-mail: grin@cpfs.mpg.de; Wagner, Frank R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Noethnitzer Strasse 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Armbruester, Marc [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Noethnitzer Strasse 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Kohout, Miroslav [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Noethnitzer Strasse 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Leithe-Jasper, Andreas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Noethnitzer Strasse 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Schwarz, Ulrich [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Noethnitzer Strasse 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Wedig, Ulrich [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstr. 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Georg von Schnering, Hans [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstr. 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

388

Three-dimensional local structure of photoexcited Cu diimine complex refined by quantitative XANES analysis.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The structural details of [Cu(dmp){sub 2}]{sup +} (dmp = 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline) at its metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) excited-state in acetonitrile were extracted using quantitative analysis of Cu K-edge X-ray adsorption near edge structure (XANES). The study combines two techniques: fitting experimental XANES spectra with a multidimensional interpolation approximation, and calculating theoretical XANES spectra with molecular potentials beyond the muffin-tin approximation. The results of the study show that the best fit of the experimental XANES data must include a solvent molecule binding to the Cu with a short Cu-N distance of 2.00 {angstrom}. This confirms that the formation of an exciplex is responsible for the excited-state quenching in coordinating solvents, such as acetonitrile. Moreover, the calculations suggest that the formation of this exciplex state is accompanied by significant rocking distortions of the dmp ligands resulting in a 108{sup o} angle between the N(solvent)-Cu bond and the C{sub 2} symmetry axis of the dmp ligand. This combined approach allows us to extract molecular configurations that would otherwise be missed in a conventional qualitative XANES analysis.

Smolentsev, G.; Soldatov, A. V.; Chen, L. X.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Southern Federal Univ.; Northwestern Univ.

2008-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

389

Application Of Ti-Based Self-Formation Barrier Layers To Cu Dual-Damascene Interconnects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cu interconnects have been used extensively in ULSI devices. However, large resistance-capacitance delay and poor device reliability have been critical issues as the device feature size has reduced to nanometer scale. In order to achieve low resistance and high reliability of Cu interconnects, we have applied a thin Ti-based self-formed barrier (SFB) using Cu(Ti) alloy seed to 45nm-node dual damascene interconnects and evaluated its performance. The line resistance and via resistance decreased significantly, compared with those of conventional Ta/TaN barriers. The stress migration performance was also drastically improved using the SFB process. A performance of time dependent dielectric breakdown revealed superior endurance. These results suggest that the Ti-based SFB process is one of the most promising candidates for advanced Cu interconnects. TEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy observations for characterization of the Ti-based SFB structure were also performed. The Ti-based SFB consisted of mainly amorphous Ti oxides. Amorphous or crystalline Ti compounds such as TiC, TiN, and TiSi formed beneath Cu alloy films, and the formation varied with dielectric.

Ito, Kazuhiro; Kohama, Kazuyuki [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Ohmori, Kazuyuki; Mori, Kenichi; Maekawa, Kazuyoshi; Asai, Koyu [Process Technology Div., Renesas Electronics Corporation, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 312-8504 (Japan); Murakami, Masanori [The Ritsumeikan Trust, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8520 (Japan)

2010-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

390

USE OF CUTTING-EDGE HORIZONTAL AND UNDERBALANCED DRILLING TECHNOLOGIES AND SUBSURFACE SEISMIC TECHNIQUES TO EXPLORE, DRILL AND PRODUCE RESERVOIRED OIL AND GAS FROM THE FRACTURED MONTEREY BELOW 10,000 FT IN THE SANTA MARIA BASIN OF CALIFORNIA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area by Temblor Petroleum with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper curved sections were drilled and lined through the problematic shale member without major stability problems. The top of the targeted Monterey was thought to be seen at the expected TVD of 10,000 ft where the 7-in. liner was set at a 60{sup o} hole angle. Significant oil and gas shows suggested the fractured interval anticipated at the heel location had been penetrated. A total of 2572 ft of 6.-in. near-horizontal interval was placed in the shale section, extending planned well length by approximately 470 ft. Very little hydrocarbon in-flow was observed from fractures along the productive interval. This may be a result of the well trajectory falling underneath the Monterey fractured zone. Hydrocarbon observations, cuttings analysis and gamma-ray response indicated additional fractured intervals were accessed along the last {+-}900 ft of well length. The well was completed with a 2 7/8-in. tubing string set in a production packer in preparation for flow and swab tests to be conducted later by a service rig. The planned well time was estimated as 39 days and overall cost as $2.4 million. The actual results are 66 days at a total cost of $3.4 million. Well productivity responses during subsequent flow and swabbing tests were negative. The well failed to inflow and only minor amounts (a few barrels) of light oil were recovered. The lack of production may suggest that actual sustainable reservoir pressure is far less than anticipated. Temblor is currently investigating the costs and operational viability of re-entering the well and conducting an FMI (fracture detection) log and/or an acid stimulation. No final decision or detailed plans have been made regarding these potential interventions at this time.

George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Use of Cutting-Edge Horizontal and Underbalanced Drilling Technologies and Subsurface Seismic Techniques to Explore, Drill and Produce Reservoired Oil and Gas from the Fractured Monterey Below 10,000 ft in the Santa Maria Basin of California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper curved sections were drilled and lined through the problematic shale member without major stability problems. The top of the targeted Monterey was thought to be seen at the expected TVD of 10,000 ft where the 7-in. liner was set at a 60{sup o} hole angle. Significant oil and gas shows suggested the fractured interval anticipated at the heel location had been penetrated. A total of 2572 ft of 6{Delta}-in. near-horizontal interval was placed in the shale section, extending planned well length by approximately 470 ft. Very little hydrocarbon in-flow was observed from fractures along the productive interval. This may be a result of the well trajectory falling underneath the Monterey fractured zone. Hydrocarbon observations, cuttings analysis and gamma-ray response indicated additional fractured intervals were accessed along the last {+-}900 ft of well length. The well was completed with a 2 and 7/8-in. tubing string set in a production packer in preparation for flow and swab tests to be conducted later by a service rig. The planned well time was estimated as 39 days and overall cost as $2.4 million. The actual results are 66 days at a total cost of $3.4 million. Well productivity responses during subsequent flow and swabbing tests were negative. The well failed to inflow and only minor amounts (a few barrels) of light oil were recovered. The lack of production may suggest that actual sustainable reservoir pressure is far less than anticipated. Temblor attempted in July, 2006, to re-enter and clean out the well and run an Array Induction log (primarily for resistivity and correlation purposes), and an FMI log (for fracture detection). Application of surfactant in the length of the horizontal hole, and acid over the fracture zone at 10,236 was also planned. This attempt was not successful in that the clean out tools became stuck and had to be abandoned.

George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

392

Use of Cutting-Edge Horizontal and Underbalanced Drilling Technologies and Subsurface Seismic Techniques to Explore, Drill and Produce Reservoired Oil and Gas from the Fractured Monterey Below 10,000 ft in the Santa Maria Basin of California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper curved sections were drilled and lined through the problematic shale member without major stability problems. The top of the targeted Monterey was thought to be seen at the expected TVD of 10,000 ft where the 7-in. liner was set at a 60{sup o} hole angle. Significant oil and gas shows suggested the fractured interval anticipated at the heel location had been penetrated. A total of 2572 ft of 6 1/8-in. near-horizontal interval was placed in the shale section, extending planned well length by approximately 470 ft. Very little hydrocarbon in-flow was observed from fractures along the productive interval. This may be a result of the well trajectory falling underneath the Monterey fractured zone. Hydrocarbon observations, cuttings analysis and gamma-ray response indicated additional fractured intervals were accessed along the last {+-}900 ft of well length. The well was completed with a 2 7/8-in. tubing string set in a production packer in preparation for flow and swab tests to be conducted later by a service rig. The planned well time was estimated as 39 days and overall cost as $2.4 million. The actual results are 66 days at a total cost of $3.4 million. Well productivity responses during subsequent flow and swabbing tests were negative. The well failed to inflow and only minor amounts (a few barrels) of light oil were recovered. The lack of production may suggest that actual sustainable reservoir pressure is far less than anticipated. Temblor is currently planning to re-enter and clean out the well and run an Array Induction log (primarily for resistivity and correlation purposes), and an FMI log (for fracture detection). Depending on the results of these logs, an acidizing or re-drill program will be planned.

George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

2005-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

393

IPA-CuCl3: a S=1/2 Ladder with Ferromagnetic Rungs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The spin gap material IPA-CuCl{sub 3} has been extensively studied as a ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic bond-alternating S = 1/2 chain. This description of the system was derived from structural considerations and bulk measurements. New inelastic neutron scattering experiments reveal a totally different picture: IPA-CuCl{sub 3} consists of weakly coupled spin ladders with antiferromagnetic legs and ferromagnetic rungs. The ladders run perpendicular to the originally supposed bond-alternating chain direction. The ferromagnetic rungs make this system equivalent to a Haldane S = 1 antiferromagnet. With a gap energy of 1.17(1) meV, a zone-boundary energy of 4.1(1) meV, and almost no magnetic anisotropy, IPA-CuCl{sub 3} may be the best Haldane-gap material yet, in terms of suitability for neutron scattering studies in high magnetic fields.

Masuda, Takatsugu [ORNL] [ORNL; Zheludev, Andrey I [ORNL] [ORNL; Manaka, H. [Kagoshima University, Kagoshima JAPAN] [Kagoshima University, Kagoshima JAPAN; Chung, J.-H. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)] [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

INTERFACE DISORDER CONTROLLED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY YBa2Cu3O7 / SrTiO3 SUPERLATTICES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the coherent growth of ultrathin YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) layers on SrTiO3 (STO) in YBCO/STO superlattices. The termination plane of the STO is TiO2 and the CuO chains are missing at the interface. Disorder (steps) at the STO interface cause alterations of the stacking sequence of the intra-cell YBCO atomic layers. Stacking faults give rise to antiphase boundaries which break the continuity of the CuO2 planes and depress superconductivity. We show that superconductivity is directly controlled by interface disorder outlining the importance of pair breaking and localization by disorder in ultrathin layers.

Garcia-Barriocanal, Javier [Universidad Complutense, Spain; Rivera-Calzada, Alberto [Universidad Complutense, Spain; Sefrioui, Z. [Universidad Complutense, Spain; Arias, D [Universidad Complutense, Spain; Varela del Arco, Maria [ORNL; Leon, C. [Universidad Complutense, Spain; Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL; Santamaria, J. [Universidad Complutense, Spain

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Stable N-CuInSe.sub.2 /iodide-iodine photoelectrochemical cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a photoelectrochemical solar cell, stable output and solar efficiency in excess of 10% are achieved with a photoanode of n-CuInSe.sub.2 electrode material and an iodine/iodide redox couple used in a liquid electrolyte. The photoanode is prepared by treating the electrode material by chemical etching, for example in Br.sub.2 /MeOH; heating the etched electrode material in air or oxygen; depositing a surface film coating of indium on the electrode material after the initial heating; and thereafter again heating the electrode material in air or oxygen to oxidize the indium. The electrolyte is treated by the addition of Cu.sup.+ or Cu.sup.2+ salts and In.sup.3+ salts.

Cahen, David (Rehovot, IL); Chen, Yih W. (Lakewood, CO)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Dual-bath electrodeposition of Cu/Ni compositionally modulated multilayers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electrodeposition of Cu/Ni compositionally modulated multilayers with sublayer thickness in the nanometer range has been carried out. The deposition was conducted under galvanostatic conditions using dual-bath technique. The structure of the multilayers was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, and conventional and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Cu/Ni multilayers with distinct and continuous sublayers in the range of 100 to < 5 nm can be produced by dual-bath electrodeposition. Cu and Ni sublayers grow epitaxially on top of one another. The local variation in the growth rate of copper leads to a faceted morphology of the multilayers. The extent of this faceting is reduced as the sublayer thickness is decreased. A surface reaction like oxidation during transfer of the substrate does not adversely affect the crystallographic continuity at the interfaces between sublayers. The thin-film formation is discussed based on available growth models.

Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Celis, J.P.; Roos, J.R. [Katholieke Univ. Leuven de Croylaan (Belgium). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Determination of Na submonolayer adsorption site on Cu(111) by low-energy ion blocking  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The structure of a submonolayer coverage of sodium adsorbed on a Cu(111) surface at room temperature has been investigated using time-of-flight scattering and recoiling spectrometry. The effect of the adsorbed Na atoms on the angular distribution of scattered 2 keV H{sup +} ions is analyzed by molecular dynamics and scattering and recoiling imaging code simulations. It is shown that at a coverage {theta}=0.25 monolayer, Na atoms preferentially populate the fcc threefold surface sites with a height of 2.7{+-}0.1 A above the first-layer Cu atoms. At a lower coverage of {theta}=0.10 ML, there is no adsorption site preference for the Na atoms on the Cu(111) surface.

Zhang, R.; Makarenko, B. [Department of Chemistry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States); Bahrim, B. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Lamar University, Beaumont, Texas 77710 (United States); Rabalais, J. W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Physics, Lamar University, Beaumont, Texas 77710 (United States)

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

398

Thermoelectric properties of chalcopyrite type CuGaTe2 and chalcostibite CuSbS2 Vijay Kumar Gudelli, V. Kanchana, G. Vaitheeswaran, A. Svane, and N. E. Christensen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of zT ¼ 1.4, confirming that CuGaTe2 is a promising material for high temperature thermoelectric and concentration suggests that CuSbS2 will be a good thermoelectric material at low temperatures, similarly Thermoelectric (TE) materials with potential applica- tions within power generation and refrigeration have repre

Svane, Axel Torstein

399

Microstructural evolutions in converting epitaxial Tl2Ba2CaCu2Ox thin films to epitaxial HgBa2CaCu2O6+delta thin films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Superconducting HgBa2CaCu2O6+delta (Hg-1212) thin films were obtained from Tl2Ba2CaCu2Ox (Tl-2212) precursor films using a cation-exchange process. In this process, Tl cations on the precursor lattice were thermally excited and then replaced with Hg...

Wu, Judy; Siegal, M. P.; Xie, Y. Y.; Aytug, T.; Fang, L.

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

"Economic","per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Characteristic(a)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 10 MECSPropaneResidential"Total"2.4 Relative4 Relative2

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu cu ft" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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401

"Economic","per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Characteristic(a)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 10 MECSPropaneResidential"Total"2.4 Relative4 Relative22

402

XPS and AES Studies of Cu/CdTe(111)-B  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Copper is frequently used as a p-type dopant to improve the performance of back contacts in CdTe thin-film solar cells. In this study, surface-analysis techniques are used to probe fundamental interactions between Cu and the CdTe(111)-B surface. The results presented here were facilitated by the newly constructed surface-analysis cluster tool in the Measurements and Characterization Division at NREL; they reveal a host of fundamental phenomena that occur in the Cu/CdTe system.

Teeter, G.; Gessert, T. A.; Asher, S. E.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Synthesis of highly phase pure (Bi, Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An article and method of manufacture of (Bi,Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor are disclosed. The superconductor is manufactured by preparing a first powdered mixture of bismuth oxide, lead oxide, strontium carbonate, calcium carbonate and copper oxide. A second powdered mixture is then prepared of strontium carbonate, calcium carbonate and copper oxide. The mixtures are calcined separately with the two mixtures then combined. The resulting combined mixture is then subjected to a powder in tube deformation and thermal processing to produce a substantially phase pure (Bi,Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor. 5 figs.

Dorris, S.E.; Poeppel, R.B.; Prorok, B.C.; Lanagan, M.T.; Maroni, V.A.

1994-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

404

Synthesis of highly phase pure (Bi, Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An article and method of manufacture of (Bi,Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor. The superconductor is manufactured by preparing a first powdered mixture of bismuth oxide, lead oxide, strontium carbonate, calcium carbonate and copper oxide. A second powdered mixture is then prepared of strontium carbonate, calcium carbonate and copper oxide. The mixtures are calcined separately with the two mixtures then combined. The resulting combined mixture is then subjected to a powder in tube deformation and thermal processing to produce a substantially phase pure (Bi,Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor.

Dorris, Stephen E. (La Grange Park, IL); Poeppel, Roger B. (Glen Ellyn, IL); Prorok, Barton C. (Harrisville, PA); Lanagan, Michael T. (Woodridge, IL); Maroni, Victor A. (Naperville, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Characterization of spin pumping effect in Permalloy/Cu/Pt microfabricated lateral devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We studied ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) for microfabricated lateral devices consisting of a Permalloy (Py) rectangular element and a Pt nano-element bridged by a Cu wire, which were located on a coplanar waveguide. A change in the resonance linewidth (?f) was observed in the FMR spectra when the distance between Py and Pt (d) was varied. For devices with d?Cu due to the spin absorption of the attached Pt.

Yamamoto, Tatsuya, E-mail: tyamamoto@imr.tohoku.ac.jp; Seki, Takeshi; Takanashi, Koki [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Ono, Shimpei [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan)

2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

406

A study of magnetic anisotropy energy in CuMn spin glass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A STUDY OF MAGNETIC ANISOTROPY ENERGY IN CuMn SPIN GLASS A Thesis by CHRISTINE ADELE ALLEN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1986... Major Subject: Physics A STUDY OF MAGNETIC ANISOTROPY ENERGY IN CuMn SPIN GLASS A Thesis by CHRISTINE ADELE ALLEN Approved as to style and content by: Thomas W. Adair, III (Chai man of Committee) Robert A. enefick (Member) Donald L. Parker...

Allen, Christine Adele

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Semiconductor bridge, SCB, ignition studies of Al/CuO thermite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors briefly summarize semiconductor bridge operation and review their ignition studies of Al/CuO thermite as a function of the capacitor discharge unit (CDU) firing set capacitance, charge holder material and morphology of the CuO. Ignition thresholds were obtained using a brass charge holder and a non-conducting fiber-glass-epoxy composite material, G10. At - 18 C and a charge voltage of 50V, the capacitance thresholds were 30.1 {mu}F and 2.0 {mu}F respectively. They also present new data on electrostatic discharge (ESD) and radio frequency (RF) vulnerability tests.

Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Wackerbarth, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mohler, J.H. [Energetic Materials Associates, Inc., Vero Beach, FL (United States)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Growth, Structure, and Magnetic Properties of CuFeTe{sub 2} Single Crystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CuFeTe{sub 2} single crystals were grown and the temperature dependence of their magnetic susceptibility in the temperature range 1.8-400 K was investigated. It is found that the magnetic susceptibility shows anomalies at temperatures T{sub s} = 65 and T{sub N} = 125 K. At T > 125 K, the crystal is in the paramagnetic state controlled by Fe{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+} ions with an effective magnetic moment of 1.44 {mu}B.

Dzhabbarov, A.I.; Orudzhev, S.K.; Guseinov, G.G.; Gakhramanov, N.F. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, pr. Dzhavida 33, Baku, 370143 (Azerbaijan)

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Knudsen number, ideal hydrodynamic limit for elliptic flow and QGP viscosity in $\\sqrt{s}$=62 and 200 GeV Cu+Cu/Au+Au collisions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Taking into account of entropy generation during evolution of a viscous fluid, we have estimated inverse Knudsen number, ideal hydrodynamic limit for elliptic flow and QGP viscosity to entropy ratio in $\\sqrt{s}$=62 and 200 GeV Cu+Cu/Au+Au collisions. Viscosity to entropy ratio is estimated as $\\eta/s=0.17\\pm 0.10\\pm 0.20$, the first error is statistical, the second one is systematic. In a central Au+Au collision, inverse Knudsen number is $\\approx 2.80\\pm 1.63$, which presumably small for complete equilibration. In peripheral collisions it is even less. Ideal hydrodynamic limit for elliptic flow is $\\sim$40% more than the experimental flow in a central collision.

A. K. Chaudhuri

2010-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

410

Anisotropic Flow in sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at PHENIX  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report the measurement of anisotropic flow at RHIC - PHENIX experiment. We present the v_4 results at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV in Au+Au collision. The scaling ratio of v_4/(v_2)^2 is about 1.5 and it is found to be smaller than the prediction from simple coalescence model. The v_2 for high p_T identified particles ($\\sim$ 5 GeV/c) measured with Aerogel Cherenkov Counter are presented. We discuss the constituent quark scaling of v_2 for identified particles. We also report the first observation of v_2 for inclusive charged hadrons as well as identified hadrons at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV in Cu+Cu collisions. The system size dependence of v_2 and scaling properties are discussed.

H. Masui

2005-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

411

Magnetic properties of HITPERM ,,Fe,Co...88Zr7B4Cu1 magnets M. A. Willard,a)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

power applications requires new bulk soft magnetic materials that 1 are capable of operating at higher magnetization that persists to the phase transformation at 980 C. Alternating current permeability experiments nanocrystalline FeSiBNbCu alloys and nanocrystalline FeMBCu M Zr, Nb, Hf, etc. alloys have been optimized

Laughlin, David E.

412

Temperature dependence of magnetic behaviour in very fine grained, spark plasma sintered NiCuZn Ferrites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CuZn Ferrites Behzad Ahmadi,1, a) Karim Zehani,1 Martino LoBue,1 Vincent Loyau,1 and Frederic Mazaleyrat1 SATIE spark plasma sintering technique, a family of very fine grained, fully dense NiCuZn ferrites have been produced which show constant permeability up to several 10 MHz. These Ferrites can be used for filtering

Boyer, Edmond

413

Correlation between corrosion performance and surface wettability in ZrTiCuNiBe bulk metallic glasses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Correlation between corrosion performance and surface wettability in ZrTiCuNiBe bulk metallic June 2010 The corrosion properties of two Zr-based bulk metallic glass, Zr41Ti14Cu12Ni10Be23 LM1 and Zr potential, LM1b showed superior corrosion resistance to LM1. Under identical sample preparation and testing

Zheng, Yufeng

414

THE PERFORMANCE OF THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS EMPLOYING PHOTOVOLTAIC Cu22014x Te-CdTe HETEROJUNCTIONS (1)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

195 THE PERFORMANCE OF THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS EMPLOYING PHOTOVOLTAIC Cu22014x Te This paper is a short status report on the continuing development of Cu22014xTe-CdTe thin film solar cells Company has had a conti- nuous effort on thin film solar cells for the past four and a half years

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

415

Mass Transport Investigated with the Electrochemical and Electrogravimetric Impedance Techniques. 1. Water Transport in PPy/CuPTS Films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mass Transport Investigated with the Electrochemical and Electrogravimetric Impedance Techniques. 1. Water Transport in PPy/CuPTS Films Haesik Yang and Juhyoun Kwak* Department of Chemistry, Korea AdVember 18, 1996X Water transport in poly(pyrrole/copper phthalocyaninetetrasulfonate) (PPy/CuPTS) films

Kwak, Juhyoun

416

Influence of oxygen on the interfacial stability of Cu on Co,,0001... thin films Hongmei Wen,1 Matthew Neurock,1,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Influence of oxygen on the interfacial stability of Cu on Co,,0001... thin films Hongmei Wen,1 of oxygen, which can impact the quality of film and its properties. Previously we found that oxygen to examine the effects of surface atomic oxygen on the stability of the Cu 111 /Co 0001 interface

Wadley, Haydn

417

Vacancy ordered phases in AlCuNi as average lattices Anandh Subramaniam a,*, S. Ranganathan b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vacancy ordered phases in Al­Cu­Ni as average lattices Anandh Subramaniam a,*, S. Ranganathan b, Bangalore 560012, India Abstract Vacancy ordered phases (VOP) in the Al­Cu­Ni system have an arrangement. Introduction Vacancy ordered phases (VOP) in Al-TM (transition metal) systems are a special class of structures

Subramaniam, Anandh

418

Vacancy diffusion in the Cu001 surface I: an STM study R. van Gastel a,*, E. Somfai b,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vacancy diffusion in the Cuð001? surface I: an STM study R. van Gastel a,*, E. Somfai b,1 , S Abstract We have used the indium/copper surface alloy to study the dynamics of surface vacancies on the Cu, are used as probes to detect the rapid diffusion of surface vacancies. STM measurements show

van Saarloos, Wim

419

Optical transitions and multiphonon Raman scattering of Cu doped ZnO and MgZnO ceramics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the Cu ion, Cu doped ZnO is a p-type semiconductor.13 Additionally, ferromagnetic behavior due were then dried and cold pressed at up to 3 tons for approximately 30 min, followed by annealing at a temperature of 10 K using a Bomem DA8 Fourier transform IR spectrometer and InSb detector. The micro

McCluskey, Matthew

420

Strong Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction and Origin of Ferroelectricity in Cu2OSeO3 J. H. Yang,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-8204, USA 3 National Renewable Energy Laboratory-magnetic-resonance (NMR) study [6] with a single crystal Cu2OSeO3 also suggested a transition from the high the transition temperature, and that Cu2OSeO3 shows no measurable structural distortion down to 10 K

Gong, Xingao

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu cu ft" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

In-situ coal-gasification data look promising  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

According to a report given at the 6th Underground Coal Conversion Symposium (Afton, Oklahoma 1980), the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal-gasification experiments Oil Gas J. 77 sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Gas Research Institute and directed by the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory demonstrated the feasibility of in-situ coal conversion and featured the use of a directionally drilled channel to connect the injection and production wells rather than the reverse-burn ordinarily used to produce the connecting channel. In the test, 2816 cu m of coal weighing (APPROX) 4200 tons was consumed, with (APPROX) 18% of the product gas escaping through the overburden or elsewhere. When air injection was used, the average heating value was 217 Btu/std cu ft. The average thermal efficiency of the burn was 65%, and the average gas composition was 35% hydrogen, 5% methane, 11% carbon monoxide, and 44% carbon dioxide. Subsidence occurred after completion of the test. The Uniwell gasification method, scheduled for use in the final experiment in the Deep-1 series of underground coal-gasification tests in Wyoming, seeks to prevent subsidence by use of concentric pipes which are inserted into the vertical well to control the combustion zone. Underground coal-gasification prospects and the mechanics of subsidence are discussed.

Not Available

1980-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

422

ZnO/Cu(InGa)Se2 solar cells prepared by vapor phase Zn doping  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for making a thin film ZnO/Cu(InGa)Se2 solar cell without depositing a buffer layer and by Zn doping from a vapor phase, comprising: depositing Cu(InGa)Se2 layer on a metal back contact deposited on a glass substrate; heating the Cu(InGa)Se2 layer on the metal back contact on the glass substrate to a temperature range between about 100.degree. C. to about 250.degree. C.; subjecting the heated layer of Cu(InGa)Se2 to an evaporant species from a Zn compound; and sputter depositing ZnO on the Zn compound evaporant species treated layer of Cu(InGa)Se2.

Ramanathan, Kannan; Hasoon, Falah S.; Asher, Sarah E.; Dolan, James; Keane, James C.

2007-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

423

Morphology and properties of a hybrid organic-inorganic system: Al nanoparticles embedded into CuPc thin film  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The evolution of the morphology and the electronic structure of the hybrid organic-inorganic system composed of aluminum nanoparticles (NPs) distributed in an organic semiconductor matrixcopper phthalocyanine (CuPc)as a function of nominal aluminum content was studied by transmission electron microscopy and by photoemission spectroscopy methods. The aluminum atoms deposited onto the CuPc surface diffuse into the organic matrix and self-assemble to NPs in a well-defined manner with a narrow diameter distribution, which depends on the amount of aluminum that is evaporated onto the CuPc film. We find clear evidence of a charge transfer from Al to CuPc and we have been able to determine the lattice sites where Al ions sit. The finally at high coverage about 64? the formation of metallic aluminum overlayer on CuPc thin film takes place.

Molodtsova, O. V.; Babenkov, S. V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrae 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Aristova, I. M. [Institute of Solid State Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka 142432 (Russian Federation); Vilkov, O. V. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) fr Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein-Strae 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Aristov, V. Yu., E-mail: aristov@issp.ac.ru [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrae 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Institute of Solid State Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka 142432 (Russian Federation); Institut fr Theoretische Physik, Universitt Hamburg, Jungiusstrae 9, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany)

2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

424

Composition dependence of the in-plane Cu-O bond-stretching LO phonon mode in YBa2Cu3O6+x  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An inelastic pulsed neutron scattering study was performed on the dependence of the dispersion and spectral intensity of the in-plane Cu-O bond-stretching LO phonon mode on doped charge density. The measurements were made in the time-of-flight mode with the multiangle position sensitive spectrometer of the ISIS facility on single crystals of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x} (x=0.15, 0.35, 0.6, 0.7, and 0.95). The focus of the study is the in-plane Cu-O bond-stretching LO phonon mode, which is known for strong electron-phonon coupling and unusual dependence on composition and temperature. It is shown that the dispersions for the samples with x=0.35, 0.6, and 0.7 are similar to the superposition of those for x=0.15 and 0.95 samples, and cannot be explained in terms of the structural anisotropy. It is suggested that the results are consistent with the model of nanoscale electronic phase separation, with the fraction of the phases being dependent on the doped charge density.

Stercil, F. [University of Pennsylvania; Egami, T. [University of Pennsylvania; Mook Jr, Herbert A [ORNL; Yethiraj, Mohana [ORNL; Chung, J.-H. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Arai, M. [Institute of Materials Structure Science, Japan; Frost, C. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory; Dogan, F. [University of Washington, Seattle

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Segregation of copper to (100) and (111) silicon surfaces from internal Cu{sub 3}Si precipitates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Segregation of transition metal impurities to surfaces or interfaces can have detrimental or beneficial effects in silicon-based microelectronic devices. Controlled segregation of impurities to regions remote from device structures, i.e. gettering is routinely used to prevent uncontrolled segregation to critical regions which may cause failure. Internal gettering is a widely used process in which oxide precipitates and associated lattice defects provide sites for precipitation of metal-silicide phases. Segregation of impurities onto surfaces of internal microcavities has also been examined as a potential gettering process. It was observed that gettering to cavities can dissolve pre-existing internal metal silicide precipitates of Cu, Au and Ni. The energetics of copper segregation to silicon surfaces were examined by measuring the Cu coverage after equilibration between Cu on the surface and internal Cu{sub 3}Si, for which the Cu chemical potential is known. For oxide-free surfaces the Cu coverage was close to one monolayer on (111) surfaces but was much smaller on (100) surfaces. The Cu coverage was greatly reduced by oxide passivation of the surface. LEED showed the 7 x 7 structure of the clean (111) silicon surface converted to a quasiperiodic 5 x 5 structure after equilibrating with Cu{sub 3}Si. The 2 x 1 LEED patterns for (100) surfaces indicated no change in surface structure due to the Cu{sub 3}Si. These results show that the free energy of copper in Cu{sub 3}Si is higher than that of copper on (111) surfaces but lower than that of copper on (100) surfaces.

Wampler, W.R.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Kinetics of thin-film reactions of Cu/a-Ge bilayers Z. Wang, G. Ramanath, L. H. Allen, and A. Rocketta)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

metallizations in Si-based ultra-large- scale integrated circuits.2,3 Direct contact between Cu and Si generally rapid oxidation in air.9 These behaviors have made Cu metallizations on Si rela- tively unattractive. However, preliminary results have re- cently suggested that Cu germanides may provide superior

Allen, Leslie H.

427

07/14/2005 03:15 PMEBSCOhost Page 1 of 9https://sslvpn.pitt.edu/DeliveryPrintSave.asp,DanaInfo=weblinks2.ep...a&ev=CA&fd=&fi=aph_4562569_AN&del_submit=Print&est=&ft=on&ff=s&df=2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.pitt.edu/DeliveryPrintSave.asp,DanaInfo=weblinks2.ep...a&ev=CA&fd=&fi=aph_4562569_AN&del_submit=Print&est=&ft=on&ff=s&df=2 11 page://sslvpn.pitt.edu/DeliveryPrintSave.asp,DanaInfo=weblinks2.ep...a&ev=CA&fd=&fi=aph_4562569_AN

Spirtes, Peter

428

11/06/09 6:48 PMFT.com / UK -'Jamitons' slow the traffic flow Page 1 of 2http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/6bc9841e-56e7-11de-9a1c-00144feabdc0.html  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In Facebook Delicious Mixx Propeller stumbleupon Financial Breadcrumb Yahoo! Buzz SEARCH Global Account Business Jobs Enter keywords UK Business for sale Contracts & tendersJobs #12;11/06/09 6:48 PMFT.com / UK of The Financial Times Ltd. Privacy policy Terms RECRUITERS FT Bespoke Forums Annual reports Market research Growth

Flynn, Morris R.

429

Effect of the Keggin anions on assembly of Cu{sup I}-bis(tetrazole) thioether complexes containing multinuclear Cu{sup I}-cluster  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to investigate the effect of polyoxometalate (POM) on the assembly of transition metal-bis(tetrazole) thioether complexes, three new complexes based on different Keggin anions and multinuclear Cu{sup I}-cluster [Cu{sup I}{sub 12}(bmtr){sub 9}(HSiMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}){sub 4}] (1), [Cu{sup I}{sub 3}(bmtr){sub 3}(PM{sub 12}O{sub 40})] (M=W for 2; Mo for 3) (bmtr=1,3-bis(1-methyl-5-mercapto-1,2,3,4-tetrazole)propane), have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by routine physical methods and single crystal X-ray diffraction. In compound 1, two kinds of nanometer-scale tetranuclear subunits linked by [SiMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 4-} polyanions assemble a (3, 4)-connected three-dimensional (3D) self-penetrating framework. Compounds 2 and 3 are isostructural, exhibiting a 1D chain with [PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 3-}/[PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 3-} polyanions and trinuclear clusters arranging alternately. The distinct structural differences between these POM-based Cu{sup I}-bmtr complexes of 1 and 2/3 maybe rest on the contrast of Keggin-type polyoxometalate with different central heteroatoms, which have been discussed in detail. In addition, the electrochemical properties of the title complexes have been investigated. - Graphical abstract: Three new complexes based on different Keggin anions and multinuclear Cu{sup I}-cluster have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The Keggin polyanions with different central heteroatoms play a key role. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The flexible bis(tetrazole)-based thioether ligand with some advantages have been used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of Keggin anions with different central heteroatoms has been discussed in detail. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electrochemical behaviors and electrocatalysis property have been investigated.

Wang Xiuli, E-mail: wangxiuli@bhu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Bohai University, Liaoning Province Silicon Materials Engineering Technology Research Centre, Jinzhou 121000 (China); Gao Qiang; Tian Aixiang; Hu Hailiang; Liu Guocheng [Department of Chemistry, Bohai University, Liaoning Province Silicon Materials Engineering Technology Research Centre, Jinzhou 121000 (China)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

430

Ab initio atomistic thermodynamics study of the early stages of Cu(100) oxidation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

­3 catalytic conversion of nitrogen oxides,4 water-gas shift,5,6 and preventing CO poisoning in fuel cells.7 the nucleation limit of Cu2O, they are likely to exist due to kinetic hindrance. 1 #12;I. INTRODUCTION Oxidation

McGaughey, Alan

431

Kinetics of CO adsorption on epitaxial (111)Cu on (111)Pd thin films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CO adsorption has been studied on (111)Cu/Pd thin-film surfaces grown epitaxially on mica in UHV of base pressure 5 x 10/sup -11/ Torr. Auger electron spectroscopy investigations of the growth of Cu on (111)Pd films showed that layer growth occurred. The Kelvin probe, work function method was used to monitor the CO adsorption at 298 K as a function of Cu overlayer thickness. It was found that very thin Cu overlayers had a drastic effect on saturation CO coverage: one monolayer of copper reduced the saturation CO coverage by /similar to/95%. For the pure (111)Pd thin-film surface, the data showed that the rate of CO adsorption changes when the CO fractional coverage approaches /similar to/0.4. This result is most likely due to the previously reported change in CO superlattice structure that occurs with increasing coverage. The kinetic adsorption data for various bilayers were interpreted in terms of a first-order Kisliuk mobile precursor model.

Oral, B.; Kothari, R.; Vook, R.W.

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Preparation of Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductors from oxide-glass precursors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A superconductor and precursor therefor from oxide mixtures of Ca, Sr, Bi and Cu. Glass precursors quenched to elevated temperatures result in glass free of crystalline precipitates having enhanced mechanical properties. Superconductors are formed from the glass precursors by heating in the presence of oxygen to a temperature below the melting point of the glass.

Hinks, David G. (Lemont, IL); Capone, II, Donald W. (Northbridge, MA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Effect of O2 adsorption on electron scattering at Cu,,001... surfaces J. S. Chawla,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

solar conversion,19 and may become important for gas sensing applications. The increase­5 and adsorption of for- eign atoms and molecules,5­9 and have gained interest due to their importance and oxidation of Cu sur- faces is particularly important to microelectronics and nano- electronics

Gall, Daniel

434

Evolution of Graphene Growth on Ni and Cu by Carbon Isotope Labeling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evolution of Graphene Growth on Ni and Cu by Carbon Isotope Labeling Xuesong Li, Weiwei Cai, Luigi Instruments Incorporated, Dallas, Texas 75243 Received August 3, 2009 ABSTRACT Large-area graphene growth) of hydrocarbons has shown some promise in growing large-area graphene or few-layer graphene films on metal

435

Transition metal interaction and Ni-Fe-Cu-Si phases in silicon T. Buonassisi,b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

precipitation may reduce the lattice mismatch compared to single-metal precipitates, rendering mixed-metal-silicide recombination activity of metal silicide clusters. Common solar cell materials are not contaminated with justTransition metal interaction and Ni-Fe-Cu-Si phases in silicon M. Heuer,a T. Buonassisi,b A. A

436

Physicochemical Characterization of the Bacterial Cu(I) Sensor CsoR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

H) or Beta- (2-thiazolyl)-alanine (Thz) using a native chemical ligation strategy. The CsoO binding affinities of the resultant H61MeH and H61Thz CsoRs are both refractory to inhibition by Cu(I) binding despite the fact that each forms a high affinity 3...

Ma, Zhen

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

437

IAA-CU-13-11-06 Using independent combinations of CubeSat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IAA-CU-13-11-06 Using independent combinations of CubeSat solar panels as sun sensors. Using solar panels on 5 of 6 sides of the NUTS CubeSat, we have a lot of atti- tude determinating information readily available during much of the periodical orbit. Using three or more solar panels

Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

438

Equilibrium crystal shape of Bi-saturated Cu crystals at 1223K Dominique Chatain1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) embrittlement [8,9] and grain boundary facetting [10,11] due to Bi GB segregation, as well as liquid metal embrittlement [12,13] as a result of wetting of Cu grain boundaries by Bi-containing liquid. A recent study for 18h at 1223K in an atmosphere of flowing hydrogen, in the presence of a Bi drop saturated with copper

Rohrer, Gregory S.

439

The CU Aerospace / VACCO CubeSat High Impulse Propulsion System (CHIPS) offers a miniaturized and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

· Overall control authority: roll, pitch, yaw, +/- Z · On-orbit update of system parameters, including · System two-failure-tolerant against leakage · Life span: 2+ years from propellant load. · HighThe CU Aerospace / VACCO CubeSat High Impulse Propulsion System (CHIPS) offers a miniaturized

Carroll, David L.

440

Strong and ductile nanostructured Cu-carbon nanotube composite Hongqi Li,1,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Strong and ductile nanostructured Cu-carbon nanotube composite Hongqi Li,1,a Amit Misra,1 Zenji composite grain size 25 nm with high strength and good ductility was developed. Pillar testing reveals properties make CNTs an ideal nanoscale reinforcement to tailor multifunctional composites with optimal

Zhu, Yuntian T.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu cu ft" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Selected materials development for the 100 T magnet: Cu-Nb conductors with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Selected materials development for the 100 T magnet: Cu-Nb conductors with nanocomposite components (PBO) based composite for reinforcement Materials R&D for the 100-Tesla Pulsed Magnet Gregory S for this achievement was the long-term and painstaking research and development of high strength materials

Weston, Ken

442

CU-CAS-97-09 CENTER FOR AEROSPACE STRUCTURES THE CONSTRUCTION OF FREE-FREE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CU-CAS-97-09 CENTER FOR AEROSPACE STRUCTURES THE CONSTRUCTION OF FREE-FREE FLEXIBILITY MATRICES OF ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO CAMPUS BOX 429 BOULDER, COLORADO 80309 #12;The Construction of Free-Free­418, of that journal) #12;The Construction of Free-Free Flexibility Matrices as Generalized Stiffness Inverses C. A

Felippa, Carlos A.

443

Polarized Luminescence of Defects in CuGaSe2 Susanne Siebentritt1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). But for the whole group of I-III-VI2 chalcopyrite semiconductors no reliable identification of native defects by ESR been found in CuInSe2. [14] In the effort of relating the energy positions of the defects to defect. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 1012 2007 Materials Research Society 1012-Y13-01 #12;the experiment

Rockett, Angus

444

Semimetallic antiferromagnetism in the half-Heusler compound CuMnSb Ruben Weht,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CuMnSb, the first antiferromagnet AFM in the Mn-based class of Heuslers and half-Heuslers that contains several conventional and half metallic ferromagnets, shows a peculiar stability of its magnetic order in high magnetic fields. Density functional based studies reveal an unusual nature of its unstable

Pickett, Warren

445

Selective Chemical Vapor Deposition of Manganese Self-Aligned Capping Layer for Cu Interconnections  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

could not be broken apart. This Mn-enhanced binding strength of Cu to insulators is observed for all and nitrides. An adhesive tape is usually sufficient to remove copper films from these surfaces. Quantitative reliability because cobalt on the dielectric can increase leakage and lower the breakdown voltage.4 Cobalt

446

CU scientists amongst recipients of awards and grants bestowed by Neuron  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the only one of the recipients who is resident in the Czech Republic, working at the CU Faculty aspects of Professor Velický's works ­ his research into semiconductors, disorganised substances of the creation of its grants agency). "Theoretical solid-state physics is a somewhat unheralded field," said

Cerveny, Vlastislav

447

Cu(In,Ga)Se2based Photovoltaics: Challenges and Opportunities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cu(In,Ga)Se2based Photovoltaics: Challenges and Opportunities William Shafarman Institute of Energy Conversion University of Delaware #12;Thin Film Photovoltaics Potential for low cost PV using a Thickness K.Kim, et al., IEEE J. Photovoltaics, 3, 446 (2013). 2 m, 60 min reaction 1 m, 25 min reaction 0

Firestone, Jeremy

448

Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystals and graphene quantum dots for photovoltaics Xukai Xinab  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystals and graphene quantum dots for photovoltaics Jun Wang,a Xukai Xinab advances in the synthesis and utilization of CZTS nanocrystals and colloidal GQDs for photovoltaics emerged to achieve low cost, high perfor- mance photovoltaics, including organic solar cells,26 dye

Lin, Zhiqun

449

The crystal structure and growth direction of nanowire arraysCu fabricated on a copper surface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The crystal structure and growth direction of nanowire arraysCu 2 S fabricated on a copper surface We examine the crystal structure and growth direction of nanowire arrays grown from copper surfaces10 On this line, we have recently discovered that by exposing a surfactant-treated copper surface

Wang, Zhong L.

450

Vacancy diffusion in the Cu(001) surface II: Random walk theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vacancy diffusion in the Cu(001) surface II: Random walk theory E. Somfai a,*,1 , R. van Gastel b Abstract We develop a version of the vacancy mediated tracer diffusion model, which follows the properties for the vacancy, and (iii) the diffusion rate of the vacancy is different, in our case strongly enhanced

van Saarloos, Wim

451

Effect of Via Separationand Low-k Dielectric Materials on the Thermal Characteristics of Cu Interconnects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of Via Separationand Low-k Dielectric Materials on the Thermal Characteristics of Cu in low-k based interconnect structures by providing lower thermal resistance paths. In this paper that the temperature is highly dependent on the via separation. A 3-D electro-thermal simulation methodology using

452

Cu-Bi as a Model System For Liquid Phase Sintered Thermal Interface Management Materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

relates electrical resistivity to thermal conductivity for materials where electrons are principleCu-Bi as a Model System For Liquid Phase Sintered Thermal Interface Management Materials P to produce composite materials. A high melting phase (HMP) and low melting phase (LMP) are mixed

Collins, Gary S.

453

Author's personal copy Fate of CuO-derived lignin oxidation products during plant combustion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Author's personal copy Fate of CuO-derived lignin oxidation products during plant combustion natural chars originating from combustion of angiosperm/gymnosperm and woody/non-woody plants. The lignin to study the impact of combustion on lignins and their commonly used parameters. Our results show

Louchouarn, Patrick

454

Electronic and structural properties at the interface between iron-phthalocyanine and Cu(110)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electronic structure and adsorption geometry of Iron-Phthalocyanine (FePc) adsorbed on Cu(110) were investigated by using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The emission features ?, ?, ?, and ? originating from the FePc molecules in UPS spectra are located at 3.42, 5.04, 7.36, and 10.28 eV below Fermi level. The feature ? is mostly deriving from Fe 3d orbital with some contributions from C 2p orbital. A considerable charge transfer from the Cu substrate to the Fe 3d orbital occurs upon the adsorption of FePc molecules. The angle-resolved UPS measurements indicate that FePc molecules adopt lying-down configurations with their molecular plane nearly parallel to the Cu(110) substrate at monolayer stage. In combination with the DFT calculations, the adsorption structure is determined to be that FePc molecule adsorbs on the top site of Cu(110) with an angle of 45 between the lobes of FePc and the [11{sup }0] azimuth of the substrate.

Hu, Fang [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China) [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Fundamental Department, Ningbo Institute of Technology, Ningbo 315100 (China); Mao, Hongying [Department of Physics, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China)] [Department of Physics, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); Zhang, Hanjie; Wu, Ke; Cai, Yiliang; He, Pimo, E-mail: phypmhe@zju.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)] [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

2014-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

455

Evaluation of high strength, high conductivity CuNiBe alloys for fusion energy applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The unirradiated tensile properties for several different heats and thermomechanical treatment conditions of precipitation strengthened Hycon 3HPTM CuNiBe (Cu-2%Ni-0.35%Be in wt.%) have been measured over the temperature range of 20-500 C for longitudinal and long transverse orientations. The room temperature electrical conductivity has also been measured for several heats, and the precipitate microstructure was characterized using transmission electron microscopy. The CuNiBe alloys exhibit very good combination of strength and conductivity at room temperature, with yield strengths of 630-725 MPa and electrical conductivities of 65-72% International Annealed Copper Standard (IACS). The strength remained relatively high at all test temperatures, with yield strengths of 420-520 MPa at 500 C. However, low levels of ductility (<5% uniform elongation) were observed at test temperatures above 200-250 C, due to flow localization near grain boundaries (exacerbated by having only 10-20 grains across the gage thickness of the miniaturized sheet tensile specimens). Scanning electron microscopy observation of the fracture surfaces found a transition from ductile transgranular to ductile intergranular fracture with increasing test temperature. Fission neutron irradiation to a dose of ~0.7 displacements per atom (dpa) at temperatures between 100 and 240 C produced a slight increase in strength and a significant decrease in ductility. The measured tensile elongation increased with increasing irradiation temperature, with a uniform elongation of ~3.3% observed at 240 C. The electrical conductivity decreased slightly following irradiation, due to the presence of defect clusters and Ni, Zn, Co transmutation products. Considering also previously published fracture toughness data, this indicates that CuNiBe alloys have irradiated tensile and electrical properties comparable or superior to CuCrZr and oxide dispersion strengthened copper at temperatures <250 C, and may be an attractive candidate for certain fusion energy structural applications. Conversely, CuNiBe may not be preferred at intermediate temperatures of 250-500 C due to the poor ductility and fracture toughness of CuNiBe alloys at temperatures >250 C. The potential deformation mechanisms responsible for the transition from transgranular to intergranular fracture are discussed. The possible implications for other precipitation hardened alloys such as nickel based superalloys are briefly discussed.

Zinkle, Steven J [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Small (5 million Btu/h) and large (300 million Btu/h) thermal test rigs for coal and coal slurry burner development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NEI International Combustion Ltd. of Derby, England, now operates two thermal test rigs for the development of burners capable of handling coal-water slurries (CWS). A general description of the large rig and its capacity was given. Also, the necessary conversions of the equipment to handle CWS were described. Information on the properties of the CWS was included. This consisted of chemical analysis of the parent coal and the slurry, sieve analysis of a dry sample, and viscosity versus temperature data of the CWS. The process of design development of the burner was outlined. Ten illustrations were presented, including schematic diagrams of equipment and graphs of data.

Allen, J.W.; Beal, P.R.; Hufton, P.F.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Synthesis, crystal and electronic structure, and physical properties of the new lanthanum copper telluride La{sub 3}Cu{sub 5}Te{sub 7}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The new lanthanum copper telluride La{sub 3}Cu{sub 5-x}Te{sub 7} has been obtained by annealing the elements at 1073 K. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the title compound crystallizes in a new structure type, space group Pnma (no. 62) with lattice dimensions of a=8.2326(3) A, b=25.9466(9) A, c=7.3402(3) A, V=1567.9(1) A{sup 3}, Z=4 for La{sub 3}Cu{sub 4.86(4)}Te{sub 7}. The structure of La{sub 3}Cu{sub 5-x}Te{sub 7} is remarkably complex. The Cu and Te atoms build up a three-dimensional covalent network. The coordination polyhedra include trigonal LaTe{sub 6} prisms, capped trigonal LaTe{sub 7} prisms, CuTe{sub 4} tetrahedra, and CuTe{sub 3} pyramids. All Cu sites exhibit deficiencies of various extents. Electrical property measurements on a sintered pellet of La{sub 3}Cu{sub 4.86}Te{sub 7} indicate that it is a p-type semiconductor in accordance with the electronic structure calculations. -- Graphical abstract: Oligomeric unit comprising interconnected CuTe{sub 3} pyramids and CuTe{sub 4} tetrahedra. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} La{sub 3}Cu{sub 5-x}Te{sub 7} adopts a new structure type. {yields} All Cu sites exhibit deficiencies of various extents. {yields} The coordination polyhedra include trigonal LaTe{sub 6} prisms, capped trigonal LaTe{sub 7} prisms, CuTe{sub 4} tetrahedra and CuTe{sub 3} pyramids. {yields} La{sub 3}Cu{sub 5-x}Te{sub 7} is a p-type semiconductor.

Zelinska, Mariya; Assoud, Abdeljalil [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Kleinke, Holger, E-mail: kleinke@uwaterloo.c [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

458

Grain growth behavior of Pb-Cu-Te cable sheathing alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lead alloys are extensively used as sheathing material for power and telecommunication cables. Excellent extrusion properties, high ductility, extremely low recrystallization temperature, good fatigue and creep resistance, make these alloys ideal for cable sheathing application. Though the thickness of the lead sheath is only a few hundred {mu}m, it is a critical component of the cable. The lead layer in the cable is often the limiting factor both during the cable production and during its service phase. Up to several hundred miles of long single piece cables may be required for underground and underwater cables. Cracking in the lead sheath during the cable sheathing extrusion limits the production of such long cables while cracking of the lead sheath due to repeated vibration, creep and recrystallization limits the service life of these cables. The purpose of the present research is to increase the duration of cable extrusion time without compromising sheath integrity by minimizing deleterious precipitate formation and growth. Concentrations of Cu and Te in the commercial alloy are too small to contribute to precipitation strengthening. Therefore their positive influence on mechanical strength should mainly result from the influence of Cu and Te in solution on interdiffusivity and grain boundary mobility. The formation of large precipitates observed in Pb-Cu-Te alloys can be minimized and extrusion times increased without negatively affecting mechanical properties if the solute content is reduced to near solid solubility levels. In order to examine the effect of lowering solute content on microstructural stability and mechanical properties, compressive stress-strain behavior of a Pb-50 wt ppm Cu-100 wt ppm Te alloy with solute contents close to the solubility limits and a Pb-400 wt ppm Cu-400 wt ppm Te alloy was examined at room temperature. The grain growth kinetics in these alloys were studied in a temperature range of 100 to 225 C.

Sahay, S.S.; Guruswamy, S. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering] [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering; Goodwin, F. [International Lead Zinc Research Organization, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)] [International Lead Zinc Research Organization, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Composition and grain size effects on the structural and mechanical properties of CuZr nanoglasses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanoglasses (NGs), metallic glasses (MGs) with a nanoscale grain structure, have the potential to considerably increase the ductility of traditional MGs while retaining their outstanding mechanical properties. We investigated the effects of composition on the structural and mechanical properties of CuZr NG films with grain sizes between 3 to 15?nm using molecular dynamics simulations. Results indicate a transition from localized shear banding to homogeneous superplastic flow with decreasing grain size, although the critical average grain size depends on composition: 5?nm for Cu{sub 36}Zr{sub 64} and 3?nm for Cu{sub 64}Zr{sub 36}. The flow stress of the superplastic NG at different compositions follows the trend of the yield stress of the parent MG, i.e., Cu{sub 36}Zr{sub 64} yield/flow stress: 2.54?GPa/1.29?GPa and Cu{sub 64}Zr{sub 36} yield/flow stress: 3.57?GPa /1.58?GPa. Structural analysis indicates that the differences in mechanical behavior as a function of composition are rooted at the distinct statistics of prominent atomic Voronoi polyhedra. The mechanical behavior of NGs is also affected by the grain boundary thickness and the fraction of atoms at interfaces for a given average grain size. The results suggest that the composition dependence of the mechanical behavior of NGs follows that of their parent MGs, e.g., a stronger MG will generate a stronger NG, while the intrinsic tendency for homogeneous deformation occurring at small grain size is not affected by composition.

Adibi, Sara [Institute of High Performance Computing, A*STAR, 138632 Singapore (Singapore); Mechanical Engineering Department, National University of Singapore, 117576 Singapore (Singapore); Branicio, Paulo S., E-mail: branicio@ihpc.a-star.edu.sg; Zhang, Yong-Wei [Institute of High Performance Computing, A*STAR, 138632 Singapore (Singapore); Joshi, Shailendra P., E-mail: Shailendra@nus.edu.sg [Mechanical Engineering Department, National University of Singapore, 117576 Singapore (Singapore)

2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

460

Nanopattering in CeOx/Cu(111): A New Type of Surface Reconstruction and Enhancement of Catalytic Activity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our results indicate that small amounts of an oxide deposited on a stable metal surface can trigger a massive surface reconstruction under reaction conditions. In low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) experiments, no reconstruction of Cu(111) is observed after chemisorbing oxygen or after reducing O/Cu(111) in a CO atmosphere. On the other hand, LEEM images taken in situ during the reduction of CeO{sub 2}/CuO{sub 1-x}/Cu(111) show a complex nonuniform transformation of the surface morphology. Ceria particles act as nucleation sites for the growth of copper microterraces once CuO{sub 1-x} is reduced. Can this reconstructed surface be used to enhance the catalytic activity of inverse oxide/metal catalysts? Indeed, CeO{sub x} on reconstructed Cu(111) is an extremely active catalyst for the water-gas shift process (CO + H{sub 2}O {yields} H{sub 2} + CO{sub 2}), with the Cu microterraces providing very efficient sites for the dissociation of water and subsequent reaction with CO.

Rodriguez J. A.; Senanayake, S.D.; Sadowski, J.; Evans, J.; Kundu, S.; Agnoli, S.; Yang, F.; Stacchiola, D.; Flege, J.I.; Hrbek, J.

2012-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu cu ft" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Preliminary study of CdTe and CdTe:Cu thin films nanostructures deposited by using DC magnetron sputtering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Growth and properties of CdTe and CdTe:Cu thin films nanostrucures deposited by using dc magnetron sputtering are reported. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the surface morphologies of the thin films. At growth conditions of 250 C and 14 W, CdTe films did not yet evenly deposited. However, at growth temperature and plasma power of 325 C and 43 W, both CdTe and CdTe:Cu(2%) have deposited on the substrates. In this condition, the morphology of the films indicate that the films have a grain-like nanostructures. Grain size diameter of about 200 nm begin to appear on top of the films. Energy Dispersive X-rays spectroscopy (EDX) was used to investigate chemical elements of the Cu doped CdTe film deposited. It was found that the film deposited consist of Cd, Te and Cu elements. XRD was used to investigate the full width at half maximum (FWHM) values of the thin films deposited. The results show that CdTe:Cu(2%) thin film has better crystallographic properties than CdTe thin film. The UV-Vis spectrometer was used to investigate the optical properties of thin films deposited. The transmittance spectra showed that transmittance of CdTe:Cu(2%) film is lower than CdTe film. It was found that the bandgap energy of CdTe and CdTe:Cu(2%) thin films of about 1.48 eV.

Marwoto, Putut; Made, D. P. Ngurah; Sugianto [Departement of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Gunungpati, Semarang 50229 Jawa Tengah (Indonesia)] [Departement of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Gunungpati, Semarang 50229 Jawa Tengah (Indonesia); Wibowo, Edy; Astuti, Santi Yuli; Aryani, Nila Prasetya [Materials Research Group, Laboratory of Thin Film, Department of Physics, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Gunungpati, Semarang 50229 Jawa Tengah (Indonesia)] [Materials Research Group, Laboratory of Thin Film, Department of Physics, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Gunungpati, Semarang 50229 Jawa Tengah (Indonesia); Othaman, Zulkafli [Departement of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, Johor Bahru (Malaysia)] [Departement of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, Johor Bahru (Malaysia)

2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

462

Electrodeposition, characterization and morphological investigations of NiFe/Cu multilayers prepared by pulsed galvanostatic, dual bath technique  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NiFe/Cu multilayers were grown sequentially by pulsed electrodeposition on copper (Cu) substrates. The layers were prepared in galvanostatic mode using a dual bath technique. The morphology, thickness, roughness and composition of the layers were studied using scanning electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Analysis showed that the resulting multilayers were continuous layers with a root mean square roughness of 30 nm and a grain size of 20-60 nm. The Cu substrate and the electrodeposited Cu layer were preferentially (200) oriented while the NiFe layers were polycrystalline but with a preferred (200) texture. The thinnest multilayers produced were 20/40, NiFe/Cu, respectively. - Research Highlights: {yields} Thin MLs of Cu and Py can be ED utilizing a pulsed-galvanostatic, DBT. {yields} The resulting multilayers were continuous layers with an rms of 30 nm. {yields} The smallest average thickness achieved by DBT was 40 nm/20 nm for Cu/NiFe.

Esmaili, S., E-mail: esmaili@shiraz.ac.ir [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bahrololoom, M.E. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kavanagh, K.L. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Colombia (Canada)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

463

Synthesis and Evaluation of Cu/SAPO-34 Catalysts for NH3-SCR 2: Solid-state Ion Exchange and One-pot Synthesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cu-SAPO-34 catalysts are synthesized using two methods: solid-state ion exchange (SSIE) and one-pot synthesis. SSIE is conducted by calcining SAPO-34/CuO mixtures at elevated temperatures. For the one-pot synthesis method, Cu-containing chemicals (CuO and CuSO4) are added during gel preparation. A high-temperature calcination step is also needed for this method. Catalysts are characterized with surface area/pore volume measurements, temperature programmed reduction (TPR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Catalytic properties are examined using standard ammonia selective catalytic reduction (NH3-SCR) and ammonia oxidation reactions. In Cu-SAPO-34 samples formed using SSIE, Cu presents both as isolated Cu2+ ions and unreacted CuO. The former is highly active and selective in NH3-SCR, while the latter catalyzes a side reaction; notably, the non-selective oxidation of NH3 above 350 C. Using the one-pot method followed by a high-temperature aging treatment, it is possible to form Cu SAPO-34 samples with predominately isolated Cu2+ ions at low Cu loadings. However at much higher Cu loadings, isolated Cu2+ ions that bind weakly with the CHA framework and CuO clusters also form. These Cu moieties are very active in catalyzing non-selective NH3 oxidation above 350 C. Low-temperature reaction kinetics indicate that Cu-SAPO-34 samples formed using SSIE have core-shell structures where Cu is enriched in the shell layers; while Cu is more evenly distributed within the one-pot samples. Reaction kinetics also suggest that at low temperatures, the local environment next to Cu2+ ion centers plays little role on the overall catalytic properties. The authors gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOEs Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle under contract number DE-AC05-76RL01830. The authors also thank Shari Li (PNNL) for surface area/pore volume measurements, and Bruce W. Arey (PNNL) for SEM measurements. Discussions with Drs. A. Yezerets, K. Kamasamudram, J.H. Li, N. Currier and J.Y. Luo from Cummins, Inc. and H.Y. Chen and H. Hess from Johnson-Matthey are greatly appreciated.

Gao, Feng; Walter, Eric D.; Washton, Nancy M.; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Structure Sensitivity of the Low-temperature Water-gas Shift Reaction on CuCeO2 catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have investigated the structure sensitivity of the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction on Cu-CeO{sub 2} catalysts prepared at the nanoscale by different techniques. On the surface of ceria, different CuO{sub x} structures exist. We show here that only the strongly bound Cu-[O{sub x}]-Ce species, probably associated with the surface oxygen vacancies of ceria, are active for catalyzing the low-temperature WGS reaction. Weakly bound CuO{sub x} clusters and CuO nanoparticles are spectator species in the reaction. Isolated Cu{sup 2+} ions doping the ceria surface are not active themselves, but they are important in that they create oxygen vacancies and can be used as a reservoir of copper to replenish surface Cu removed by leaching or sintering. Accordingly, synthesis techniques such as coprecipitation that allow for extensive solubility of Cu in ceria should be preferred over impregnation, deposition-precipitation, ion exchange or another two-step method whereby the copper precursor is added to already made ceria nanocrystals. For the synthesis of different structures, we have used two methods: a homogeneous coprecipitation (CP), involving hexamethylenetetramine as the precipitating agent and the pH buffer; and a deposition-precipitation (DP) technique. In the latter case, the ceria supports were first synthesized at the nanoscale with different shapes (rods, cubes) to investigate any potential shape effect on the reaction. Cu-CeO{sub 2} catalysts with different copper contents up to ca. 20 at.% were prepared. An indirect shape effect of CeO{sub 2}, manifested by the propensity to form oxygen vacancies and strongly bind copper in the active form, was established; i.e. the water-gas shift reaction is not structure-sensitive. The apparent activation energy of the reaction on all samples was similar, 50 {+-} 10 kJ/mol, in a product-free (2% CO-10% H{sub 2}O) gas mixture.

Si, R.; Zhang, L.; Raitano, J.; Yi, N.; Chan, S.-W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.

2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

465

Application of Target Value Design to Energy Efficiency Investments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DC, 29 pp. DOE (2010b). Net-Zero Energy Commercial Buildingrecently launched its Net-Zero Energy Commercial Buildingenergy use of 16.4 kBtu/ft 2 , while its design goal had been set to net-zero,

Lee, Hyun Woo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Heat Exchanger Fouling- Prediction, Measurement and Mitigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

wall. The fouling probe has been successfully tested in the laboratory at flue gas temperatures up to 2200F and a local heat flux up to 41,000 BTU/hr-ft2. The probe has been field tested at a coal-fired boiler plant. Future tests at a municipal waste...

Peterson, G. R.

467

FLASTAR: Measured Savings of a Comprehensive Energy Retrofit in a Florida Elementary School  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.000 square foot facility was approximately 775,000 kWh (60 kBtu/ft^2) or $55,200 in the base year (1994). During the summer of 1995, replacement of aging chillers resulted in 30% reduction to cooling energy use. The second retrofit was occupancy sensor...

Sherwin, J. R.; Parker, D. S.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Maintenance and Operations of Schools for Energy Efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Maintenance and operations of schools with energy efficiency as a priority can reduce annual utility costs 3 to 30 percent. Most school districts do not have an organized plan for tracking energy usage or cost. Energy performance (e.g. Btu/ft^2-yr...

McClure, J. D.; Estes, J. M.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Heat transfer and pressure drop data for high heat flux densities to water at high subcritical pressures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Local surface ooeffioients of heat t-ansfer, overall pressure drop data and mean friction factor are presented for heat flamms up to 3.52106 BtuAr ft2 for water flowing in a nickel tabe isder the following conditions: mass ...

Rohsenow, Warren M.

1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Regenerative Boiler Feedwater Heater Economics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

O- REFEREWCE (,\\SI:: J CURRENT CASE I CHANGE INCR or DEeR 7JTAL FUEL M 10?E. BTU/HR 842.44 827. 9~ -14.50 .i) .. ft!::.::r COUPLED SHAFT P()I,oIER 8HP 4700 4700 0 TuTAl ELECTRICAL GENERATION 8AC... PRESSURE TURBINES CONDENSING TURBI HES 5TE...

Viar, W. L.

471

(ENFORCEMENT AGENCY CAN CUSTOMIZE WITH LETTERHEAD/SEAL)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). 2. Central air conditioners & heat pumps less than 65,000 Btu/hr must have a minimum 13 SEER. 3 permits include, but are not limited to: · New HVAC installation · HVAC Changeout · Replacement of furnace, coil, FAU, or condenser · Relocation of an existing HVAC unit · Adding or replacing more than 40ft

472

Method for preparation of textured YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x superconductor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relate to textured YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x (Y-123) superconductors and a process of preparing them by directional recrystallization of compacts fabricated from quenched YBCO powders at temperatures about 100.degree. C. below the peritectic temperature to provide a superconductor where more than 75% of the YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x phase is obtained without any Y.sub.2 BaCuO.sub.5 .

Selvamanickam, Venkat (Guilderland, NY); Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN); Kroeger, Donald M. (Knoxville, TN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

A study of the anodic polarization behavior of Zr(50)Cu(40-x)Al(10)Pd(x) BMG with scanning Auger microanalysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The anodic-polarization behaviors of Zr50Cu40-XAl10PdX (x = 0 and 7 atomic %) BMGs were investigated in 0.6 M NaCl electrolytes. Initial anodic polarization of both alloys yielded regions where small increases in the applied potential induced significant increases in the current density. Continued polarization of both BMGs resulted in diffusion controlled regimes. However, the limiting diffusion current density of Zr50Cu33Al10Pd7 was higher than that of Zr50Cu40Al10. Scanning Auger microanalysis was used to investigate the oxide formed during polarization and to analyze the chemistry within corrosion pits. The pits formed on both BMGs were enriched with Cu and Cl. Corrosion pits on Zr50Cu33Al10Pd7 were additionally enriched with Pd. A corrosion mechanism relating to the formation of CuCl and Cu2O is proposed based on both the polarization and microanalysis results.

Green, Brandice [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Benson, Roberto S [ORNL; Yokoyama, Y [Institute for Materials Research; Liaw, Peter K [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Liu, Chain T [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Devitrification kinetics and phase selection mechanisms in Cu-Zr metallic glasses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metallic glasses have been a promising class of materials since their discovery in the 1960s. Indeed, remarkable chemical, mechanical and physical properties have attracted considerable attention, and several excellent reviews are available. Moreover, the special group of glass forming alloys known as the bulk metallic glasses (BMG) become amorphous solids even at relatively low cooling rates, allowing them to be cast in large cross sections, opening the scope of potential applications to include bulk forms and net shape structural applications. Recent studies have been reported for new bulk metallic glasses produced with lower cooling rates, from 0.1 to several hundred K/s. Some of the application products of BMGs include sporting goods, high performance springs and medical devices. Several rapid solidification techniques, including melt-spinning, atomization and surface melting have been developed to produce amorphous alloys. The aim of all these methods is to solidify the liquid phase rapidly enough to suppress the nucleation and growth of crystalline phases. Furthermore, the production of amorphous/crystalline composite (ACC) materials by partial crystallization of amorphous precursor has recently given rise to materials that provide better mechanical and magnetic properties than the monolithic amorphous or crystalline alloys. In addition, these advances illustrate the broad untapped potential of using the glassy state as an intermediate stage in the processing of new materials and nanostructures. These advances underlie the necessity of investigations on prediction and control of phase stability and microstructural dynamics during both solidification and devitrification processes. This research presented in this dissertation is mainly focused on Cu-Zr and Cu-Zr-Al alloy systems. The Cu-Zr binary system has high glass forming ability in a wide compositional range (35-70 at.% Cu). Thereby, Cu-Zr based alloys have attracted much attention according to fundamental research on the behaviors of glass forming alloys. Further motivation arising from the application of this system as a basis for many BMGs and ACC materials; the Cu-Zr system warrants this attention and offers great potential for the development of new materials. However, the prediction and control of microstructural evolution during devitrification remains challenging because of the complex devitrification behavior of the Cu-Zr binary alloy which is arising from the competition of metastable and stable phases and diversity of crystal structures. This dissertation details a systematic fundamental investigation into the mechanisms and kinetics of the various crystallization transformation processes involved in the overall devitrification response of Cu-Zr and Cu-Zr-Al glasses. Various isothermal and nonisothermal treatments are employed, and the structural response is characterized using bulk X-ray and thermal analysis methods as well as nanoscale microscopic analysis methods, revealing structural and chemical details down to the atomic-scale. By carefully combining techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), in-situ synchrotron high energy X-ray diffraction (HEXRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to quantify the characterization transformations, this research has uncovered numerous details concerning the atomistic mechanisms of crystallization and has provided much new understanding related to the dominant phases, the overall reaction sequences, and the rate-controlling mechanisms. As such this work represents a substantial step forward in understanding these transformations and provides a clear framework for further progress toward ultimate application of controlled devitrification processing for the production of new materials with remarkable properties.

Kalay, Ilkay

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

475

Charged and strange hadron elliptic flow in Cu+Cu collisions at sqrt sNN = 62.4 and 200 GeV  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the results of an elliptic flow, v{sub 2}, analysis of Cu+Cu collisions recorded with the STAR detector at RHIC at {radical}s{sub NN} = 62.4 and 200 GeV. Elliptic flow as a function of transverse momentum, v{sub 2}(p{sub T}), is reported for different collision centralities for charged hadrons h{sup {+-}}, and strangeness containing hadrons K{sub S}{sup 0}, {Lambda}, {Xi}, {phi} in the midrapidity region |{eta}| < 1.0. Significant reduction in systematic uncertainty of the measurement due to non-flow effects has been achieved by correlating particles at midrapidity, |{eta}| < 1.0, with those at forward rapidity, 2.5 < |{eta}| < 4.0. We also present azimuthal correlations in p+p collisions at {radical}s = 200 GeV to help estimating non-flow effects. To study the system-size dependence of elliptic flow, we present a detailed comparison with previously published results from Au+Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV. We observe that v{sub 2}(p{sub T}) of strange hadrons has similar scaling properties as were first observed in Au+Au collisions, i.e.: (i) at low transverse momenta, p{sub T} < 2 GeV/c, v{sub 2} scales with transverse kinetic energy, m{sub T} - m, and (ii) at intermediate p{sub T}, 2 < p{sub T} < 4 GeV/c, it scales with the number of constituent quarks, n{sub q}. We have found that ideal hydrodynamic calculations fail to reproduce the centrality dependence of v{sub 2}(p{sub T}) for K{sub S}{sup 0} and {Lambda}. Eccentricity scaled v{sub 2} values, v{sub 2}/{var_epsilon}, are larger in more central collisions, suggesting stronger collective flow develops in more central collisions. The comparison with Au+Au collisions which go further in density shows v{sub 2}/{var_epsilon} depend on the system size, number of participants N{sub part}. This indicates that the ideal hydrodynamic limit is not reached in Cu+Cu collisions, presumably because the assumption of thermalization is not attained.

STAR Collaboration; Abelev, Betty

2010-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

476

(n,n?[gamma]) reactions in 6?3?,?6?5?Cu and background in 0[nu] [beta] [beta] experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measurements of (n, xn?[gamma]) reactions in Cu are important for understanding neutroninduced background for certain underground double beta decay experiments. Neutroninduced gammas are a contribution to background for ...

Perepelitsa, Dennis V

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Systematic study of the Taylor method for production of cu-based shape memory alloy microwires : a master's thesis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Taylor method is a proven way to produce Cu-based shape memory microwires that aren't plagued by problems typical in polycrystalline copper SMAs produced by other methods. Here we set out to expand and refine this ...

Szablinski, Eric (Eric Allen)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Millimeter size single crystals of superconducting YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub x  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of growing large, up to 1 mm size single crystals of superconducting YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub x], wherein x equals from 6.5 to 7.2 is disclosed.

Damento, M.A.; Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.

1989-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

479

Three approaches to economical photovoltaics: conformal Cu2S, organic luminescent films, and PbSe nanocrystal superlattices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Degradation in CDS-Cu2S photovoltaic cells. Semiconductorcell with cuins2: A photovoltaic cell concept using an ex-and the the photovoltaic action in solar cell devices. The

Carbone, Ian Anthony

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy study of HgBa[subscript 2]CuO[subscript 4+?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HgBa[subscript 2]CuO[subscript 4+?]. (Hg1201) has been shown to be a model cuprate for scattering, optical, and transport experiments, but angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) data are still lacking owing to ...

Chan, M. K.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu cu ft" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.