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1

The Btu tax is dead, long live the Btu tax  

SciTech Connect

The energy industry is powerful. That is the only explanation for its ability to jettison a cornerstone of the Clinton Administration's proposed deficit reduction package, the Btu tax plan, expected to raise about $71.5 billion over a five-year period. Clinton had proposed a broad-based energy tax of 25.7 cents per million Btus, and a surcharge of 34.2 cents on petroleum products, to be phased in over three years starting July 1, 1994. House Democrats went along, agreeing to impose a tax of 26.8 cents per million Btus, along with the 34.2-cent petroleum surcharge, both effective July 1, 1994. But something happened on the way to the Senate. Their version of the deficit reduction package contains no broad-based energy tax. It does, however, include a 4.3 cents/gallon fuel tax. Clinton had backed down, and House Democrats were left feeling abandoned and angry. What happened has as much to do with politics-particularly the fourth branch of government, lobbyists-as with a President who wants to try to please everyone. It turns out that almost every lawmaker or lobbyist who sought an exemption from the Btu tax, in areas as diverse as farming or ship and jet fuel used in international commercial transportation, managed to get it without giving up much in return. In the end, the Btu tax was so riddled with exemptions that its effectiveness as a revenue-raiser was in doubt. Meanwhile, it turns out that the Btu tax is not dead. According to Budget Director Leon Panetta, the Administration has not given up on the Btu tax and will fight for it when the reconciliation bill goes to a joint House-Senate conference.

Burkhart, L.A.

1993-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

2

MSN YYYYMM Value Column Order Description Unit FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

MSN YYYYMM Value Column Order Description Unit MSN YYYYMM Value Column Order Description Unit FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu

3

Diagram 5. Electricity Flow, 2007 (Quadrillion Btu)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

generation. f Transmission and distribution losses (electricity losses that occur between the pointDiagram 5. Electricity Flow, 2007 (Quadrillion Btu) Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2007 221 Coal 20.99 Nuclear Electric Power 8.41 Energy Consumed To Generate Electricity 42

Bensel, Terrence G.

4

Utah Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Utah Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

5

Ohio Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Ohio Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

6

Idaho Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Idaho Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

7

Texas Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Texas Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

8

Table 2.1 Energy Consumption by Sector (Trillion Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review October 2013 23 Table 2.1 Energy Consumption by Sector (Trillion Btu) End-Use Sectors Electric

9

Table 2.4 Industrial Sector Energy Consumption (Trillion Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review October 2013 29 Table 2.4 Industrial Sector Energy Consumption (Trillion Btu) Primary Consumptiona

10

Table 1.1 Primary Energy Overview (Quadrillion Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review November 2013 3 Table 1.1 Primary Energy Overview (Quadrillion Btu) Production Trade

11

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: BTU Analysis Plus  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plus Plus BTU Analysis Plus logo. Heat load calculation program that performs comprehensive heat load studies with hardcopy printouts of the results. The BTU Analysi Plus program is designed for general heating, air-conditioning, and commerical studies. Since 1987, the BTU Analysis family of programs have been commercially distributed and are marketed through professional organizations, trade advertisements, and word of mouth. They are currently used in six (6) foriegn countries and the U.S. Used in temperate, tropic, artic, and arid climates. They have proved themselves easy to use, accurate and productive again and again. A version of BTU Analysis Plus was adopted for use in the revised HEATING VENTILATING AND AIR CONDITIONING FUNDAMENTALS by Raymond A. Havrella.

12

Figure 10.1 Renewable Energy Consumption (Quadrillion Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Figure 10.1 Renewable Energy Consumption (Quadrillion Btu) Total and Major Sources, 1949–2012 By Source, 2012 By Sector, 2012 Compared With Other Resources, 1949–2012

13

Cu  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... EAM/FS setfl, Mendelev_Cu2_2012.eam.fs, This file was provided by Mikhail Mendelev (Ames Laboratory) and posted with his permission on 25 Jul ...

2013-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

14

Property:Geothermal/AnnualGenBtuYr | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AnnualGenBtuYr AnnualGenBtuYr Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Pages using the property "Geothermal/AnnualGenBtuYr" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 4 4 UR Guest Ranch Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility + 5.3 + A Ace Development Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility + 72.5 + Agua Calientes Trailer Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility + 5 + Alive Polarity's Murrietta Hot Spring Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility + 7 + Americulture Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility + 17 + Aq Dryers Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility + 6.5 + Aqua Caliente County Park Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility + 1.8 +

15

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: BTU Analysis REG  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

REG REG BTU Analysis REG logo. Heat load calculation program that performs comprehensive heat load studies with hardcopy printouts of the results. The REG program is designed for general heating, air-conditioning, and light commercial studies. Since 1987, the BTU Analysis family of programs have been commercially distributed and are marketed through professional organizations, trade advertisements, and word of mouth. They are currently used in six (6) foriegn countries and the U.S. Used in temperate, tropic, artic, and arid climates. They have proved themselves easy to use, accurate and productive again and again. A version of BTU Analysis, was adopted for use in the revised HEATING VENTILATING AND AIR CONDITIONING FUNDAMENTALS by Raymond A. Havrella. Keywords

16

Property:Geothermal/CapacityBtuHr | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CapacityBtuHr CapacityBtuHr Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Pages using the property "Geothermal/CapacityBtuHr" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 4 4 UR Guest Ranch Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility + 0.8 + A Ace Development Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility + 10.3 + Agua Calientes Trailer Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility + 2 + Alive Polarity's Murrietta Hot Spring Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility + 1 + Americulture Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility + 2.4 + Aq Dryers Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility + 3 + Aqua Caliente County Park Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility + 0.3 +

17

Transportation and Handling of Medium Btu Gas in Pipelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal-derived medium btu gas can be safely transported by pipeline over moderate distances, according to this survey of current industrial pipeline practices. Although pipeline design criteria will be more stringent than for natural gas pipelines, the necessary technology is readily available.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Table PT2. Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, Oklahoma ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table PT2. Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, Oklahoma, 1960 - 2011 1960 33.9 902.0 1,118.9 0.0 NA 17.8 17.8 2,072.6 1961 26.1 976.9 1,119.9 0.0 NA 20.2 20 ...

19

Table PT2. Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, California ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table PT2. Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, California, 1960 - 2011 1960 0.0 589.7 1,771.0 (s) NA 270.2 270.2 2,630.9 1961 0.0 633.8 1,737.7 0.1 NA 248.2 ...

20

Table PT2. Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, Delaware ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table PT2. Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, Delaware, 1960 - 2011 1960 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 NA 5.0 5.0 5.0 1961 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 NA 5.1 5.1 5.1

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu cu ft" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Table PT2. Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, Texas ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table PT2. Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, Texas, 1960 - 2011 1960 26.4 6,610.7 5,379.4 0.0 NA 50.2 50.2 12,066.6 1961 26.5 6,690.2 5,447.3 0.0 NA 52.0 ...

22

Table PT2. Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, Indiana ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table PT2. Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, Indiana, 1960 - 2011 1960 346.3 0.3 69.9 0.0 NA 24.6 24.6 441.1 1961 336.7 0.4 66.7 0.0 NA 24.2 24.2 428.0

23

Table PT2. Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, Oregon ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table PT2. Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, Oregon, 1960 - 2011 1960 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 NA 190.5 190.5 190.5 1961 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 NA 188.9 188.9 188.9

24

Table PT2. Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, Arizona ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table PT2. Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, Arizona, 1960 - 2011 1960 0.1 0.0 0.4 0.0 NA 36.2 36.2 36.7 1961 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.0 NA 35.1 35.1 35.5

25

Environmental Permitting of a Low-BTU Coal Gasification Facility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The high price of natural gas and fuel oil for steam/power generation has alerted industry's decision makers to potentially more economical ways to provide the needed energy. Low-Btu fuel gas produced from coal appears to be an attractive alternate that merits serious consideration since only relatively small modifications to the existing oil or gas burner system may be required, and boiler derating can be minimized. The environmental permitting and planning process for a low-Btu coal gasification facility needs to address those items that are not only unique to the gasification process itself, but also items generic to conventional firing of coal. This paper will discuss the environmental data necessary for permitting a low-Btu gasification facility located in the State of Louisiana. An actual case study for a 500,000 lb/hr natural gas-fired process steam plant being converted to low Btu gas will be presented. Typical air, water and solid waste effluents that must be considered will also be described.

Murawczyk, C.; Stewart, J. T.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

BTU convergence spawning gas market opportunities in North America  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The so-called BTU convergence of US electric power and natural gas sectors is spawning a boom in market opportunities in the US Northeast that ensures the region will be North America`s fastest growing gas market. That`s the view of Catherine Good Abbott, CEO of Columbia Gas Transmission Corp., who told a Ziff Energy conference in Calgary that US Northeast gas demand is expected to increase to almost 10 bcfd in 2000 and more than 12 bcfd in 2010 from about 8 bcfd in 1995 and only 3 bcfd in 1985. The fastest growth will be in the US Northeast`s electrical sector, where demand for gas is expected to double to 4 bcfd in 2010 from about 2 bcfd in 1995. In other presentations at the Ziff Energy conference, speakers voiced concerns about the complexity and speed of the BTU convergence phenomenon and offered assurances about the adequacy of gas supplies in North American to meet demand growth propelled by the BTU convergence boom. The paper discusses the gas demand being driven by power utilities, the BTU convergence outlook, electric power demand, Canadian production and supply, and the US overview.

NONE

1998-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

27

"Economic","per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Characteristic(a)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 6.2;" 2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 6.2;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,"Consumption" " ",,"Consumption","per Dollar" " ","Consumption","per Dollar","of Value" "Economic","per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Characteristic(a)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)" ,"Total United States" "Value of Shipments and Receipts" "(million dollars)" " Under 20",3,3,3 " 20-49",5,5,4 " 50-99",6,5,4 " 100-249",5,5,4 " 250-499",7,9,7 " 500 and Over",3,2,2 "Total",2,2,2

28

Table 1.2 Primary Energy Production by Source (Quadrillion Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review November 2013 5 Table 1.2 Primary Energy Production by Source (Quadrillion Btu)

29

Table 1.4a Primary Energy Imports by Source (Quadrillion Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

10 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review October 2013 Table 1.4a Primary Energy Imports by Source (Quadrillion Btu) Imports

30

Table 1.3 Primary Energy Consumption by Source (Quadrillion Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review October 2013 7 Table 1.3 Primary Energy Consumption by Source (Quadrillion Btu)

31

Table 1.3 Primary Energy Consumption by Source (Quadrillion Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review November 2013 7 Table 1.3 Primary Energy Consumption by Source (Quadrillion Btu)

32

Table 1.1 Primary Energy Overview, 1949-2011 (Quadrillion Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table 1.1 Primary Energy Overview, 1949-2011 (Quadrillion Btu) Year: Production: Trade: Stock Change and Other 8: Consumption: Fossil Fuels 2

33

Table 1.2 Primary Energy Production by Source (Quadrillion Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review August 2013 5 Table 1.2 Primary Energy Production by Source (Quadrillion Btu) Fossil Fuels

34

Sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas  

SciTech Connect

A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is disclosed. The combustor includes several separately removable combustion chambers each having an annular sectoral cross section and a double-walled construction permitting separation of stresses due to pressure forces and stresses due to thermal effects. Arrangements are described for air-cooling each combustion chamber using countercurrent convective cooling flow between an outer shell wall and an inner liner wall and using film cooling flow through liner panel grooves and along the inner liner wall surface, and for admitting all coolant flow to the gas path within the inner liner wall. Also described are systems for supplying coal gas, combustion air, and dilution air to the combustion zone, and a liquid fuel nozzle for use during low-load operation. The disclosed combustor is fully air-cooled, requires no transition section to interface with a turbine nozzle, and is operable at firing temperatures of up to 3000.degree. F. or within approximately 300.degree. F. of the adiabatic stoichiometric limit of the coal gas used as fuel.

Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

FT Solutions LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

FT Solutions LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name FT Solutions LLC Place South Jordan, Utah Zip 84095 Product JV between Headwaters Technology Innovation Group and Rentech to focus...

36

"Economic","per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Characteristic(a)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 6.2;" 2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 6.2;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,"Consumption" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar" ,"Consumption","per Dollar","of Value" "Economic","per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Characteristic(a)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)" ,"Total United States" "Value of Shipments and Receipts" "(million dollars)" " Under 20",2.5,2.5,2.4 " 20-49",5,5,4.3 " 50-99",5.8,5.8,5.3 " 100-249",6.2,6.2,5.3 " 250-499",8.2,8,7.1 " 500 and Over",4.3,3,2.7

37

Expanded standards and codes case limits combined buildings delivered energy to 21 quadrillion Btu by 2035  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Erin Boedecker, Session Moderator Erin Boedecker, Session Moderator April 27, 2011 | Washington, DC Energy Demand. Efficiency, and Consumer Behavior 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2010 Technology Reference Expanded Standards Expanded Standards + Codes -7.6% ≈ 0 Expanded standards and codes case limits combined buildings delivered energy to 21 quadrillion Btu by 2035 2 Erin Boedecker, EIA Energy Conference, April 27, 2011 delivered energy quadrillion Btu Source: EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2011 -4.8% 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2010 Technology Reference High Technology High technology assumptions with more efficient consumer behavior keep buildings energy to just over 20 quadrillion Btu 3 Erin Boedecker, EIA Energy Conference, April 27, 2011 delivered energy quadrillion Btu

38

,"Weekly Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)" Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Weekly Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)",1,"Weekly","12/13/2013" ,"Release Date:","12/18/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","12/27/2013" ,"Excel File Name:","rngwhhdw.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/rngwhhdw.htm" ,"Source:" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/18/2013 12:22:22 PM"

39

The Mansfield Two-Stage, Low BTU Gasification System: Report of Operations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The least expensive way to produce gas from coal is by low Btu gasification, a process by which coal is converted to carbon monoxide and hydrogen by reacting it with air and steam. Low Btu gas, which is used near its point of production, eliminates the high costs of oxygen and methanation required to produce gas that can be transmitted over long distance. Standard low Btu fixed bed gasifiers have historically been plagued by three constraints; namely, the production of messy tars and oils, the inability to utilize caking coals, and the inability to accept coal fines. Mansfield Carbon Products, Inc., a subsidiary of A.T. Massey Coal Company, has developed an atmospheric pressure, two-stage process that eliminates these three problems.

Blackwell, L. T.; Crowder, J. T.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Analysis of the market and product costs for coal-derived high Btu gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

DOE analyzed the market potential and economics of coal-derived high-Btu gas using supply and demand projections that reflect the effects of natural gas deregulation, recent large oil-price rises, and new or pending legislation designed to reduce oil imports. The results indicate that an increasingly large market for supplemental gas should open up by 1990 and that SNG from advanced technology will probably be as cheap as gas imports over a wide range of assumptions. Although several studies suggest that a considerable market for intermediate-Btu gas will also exist, the potential supplemental gas demand is large enough to support both intermediate - and high-Btu gas from coal. Advanced SNG-production technology will be particularly important for processing the US's abundant, moderately to highly caking Eastern coals, which current technology cannot handle economically.

Not Available

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu cu ft" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Released: February 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

"(billion","NGL(e)","(million","Other(f)" "Code(a)","End Use","(trillion Btu)","(million kWh)","(million bbl)","(million bbl)","cu ft)","(million bbl)","short tons)","(trillion Btu...

42

"NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code(a)","Economic Characteristic(b)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Relative Standard Errors for Table 6.3;" 3 Relative Standard Errors for Table 6.3;" " Unit: Percents." " "," ",,,"Consumption" " "," ",,"Consumption","per Dollar" " "," ","Consumption","per Dollar","of Value" "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code(a)","Economic Characteristic(b)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)" ,,"Total United States" " 311 - 339","ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES" ,"Value of Shipments and Receipts" ,"(million dollars)" ," Under 20",3,3,3

43

Table PT2. Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, Ohio, 1960 ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table PT2. Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, Ohio, 1960 - 2011 1960 796.6 36.9 31.3 0.0 NA 37.0 37.0 901.9 1961 756.0 37.3 32.7 0.0 NA 36.4 36.4 862.4

44

U.S. Natural Gas Liquid Composite Price (Dollars per Million BTU)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Natural Gas Liquid Composite Price (Dollars per Million BTU) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; 2000's: 12.91: 15.20 ...

45

Parametric Analysis of a 6500-Btu/kWh Heat Rate Dispersed Generator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cost and performance assessments of two alternative system designs for a 2-MW molten carbonate fuel cell power plant yielded encouraging results: a 6500-Btu/kWh heat rate and a total plant investment of $1200-$1300/kW. Differences between the two designs establish a permissible range of operating conditions for the fuel cell that will help guide its development.

1985-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

46

FT Duplication Coordinates Reproductive and Vegetative Growth  

SciTech Connect

Annual plants grow vegetatively at early developmental stages and then transition to the reproductive stage, followed by senescence in the same year. In contrast, after successive years of vegetative growth at early ages, woody perennial shoot meristems begin repeated transitions between vegetative and reproductive growth at sexual maturity. However, it is unknown how these repeated transitions occur without a developmental conflict between vegetative and reproductive growth. We report that functionally diverged paralogs FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (FT1) and FLOWERING LOCUS T2 (FT2), products of whole-genome duplication and homologs of Arabidopsis thaliana gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), coordinate the repeated cycles of vegetative and reproductive growth in woody perennial poplar (Populus spp.). Our manipulative physiological and genetic experiments coupled with field studies, expression profiling, and network analysis reveal that reproductive onset is determined by FT1 in response to winter temperatures, whereas vegetative growth and inhibition of bud set are promoted by FT2 in response to warm temperatures and long days in the growing season. The basis for functional differentiation between FT1 and FT2 appears to be expression pattern shifts, changes in proteins, and divergence in gene regulatory networks. Thus, temporal separation of reproductive onset and vegetative growth into different seasons via FT1 and FT2 provides seasonality and demonstrates the evolution of a complex perennial adaptive trait after genome duplication.

Hsu, Chuan-Yu [Mississippi State University (MSU); Adams, Joshua P. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Kim, Hyejin [Mississippi State University (MSU); No, Kyoungok [Mississippi State University (MSU); Ma, Caiping [Oregon State University, Corvallis; Strauss, Steven [Oregon State University, Corvallis; Drnevich, Jenny [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Wickett, Norman [Pennsylvania State University; Vandervelde, Lindsay [Mississippi State University (MSU); Ellis, Jeffrey D. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Rice, Brandon [Mississippi State University (MSU); Gunter, Lee E [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Brunner, Amy M. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Page, Grier P. [RTI International; Carlson, John E. [Pennsylvania State University; DePamphilis, Claude [Pennsylvania State University; Luthe, Dawn S. [Pennsylvania State University; Yuceer, Cetin [Mississippi State University (MSU)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Process designs and cost estimates for a medium Btu gasification plant using a wood feedstock  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A gasification plant to effect the conversion of wood to medium-Btu gas has been designed. The Purox gasifier and associated equipment were selected as a prototype, since this system is nearer to commercialization than others considered. The object was to determine the cost of those processing steps common to all gasification schemes and to identify specific research areas. A detailed flowsheet and mass-balance are presented. Capital investment statements for three plant sizes (400, 800, 1,600 oven-dry tons per day) are included along with manufacturing costs for each of these plants at three feedstock prices: $10, $20, $30 per green ton (or $20, $40, $60 per dry ton). The design incorporates a front-end handling system, package cryogenic oxygen plant, the Purox gasifier, a gas-cleaning train consisting of a spray scrubber, ionizing wet scrubber, and condenser, and a wastewater treatment facility including a cooling tower and a package activated sludge unit. Cost figures for package units were obtained from suppliers and used for the oxygen and wastewater treatment plants. The gasifier is fed with wood chips at 20% moisture (wet basis). For each pound of wood, 0.32 lb of oxygen are required, and 1.11 lb of gas are produced. The heating value of the gas product is 300 Btu/scf. For each Btu of energy input (feed + process energy) to the plant, 0.91 Btu exists with the product gas. Total capital investments required for the plants considered are $9, $15, and $24 million (1978) respectively. In each case, the oxygen plant represents about 50% of the total investment. For feedstock prices from $10 to $30 per green ton ($1.11 to $3.33 per MM Btu), break-even costs of fuel gas range from $3 to $7 per MM Btu. At $30/ton, the feedstock cost represents approximately 72% of the total product cost for the largest plant size; at $10/ton, it represents only 47% of product cost.

Desrosiers, R. E.

1979-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

,"U.S. Natural Gas Liquid Composite Price (Dollars per Million Btu)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly","8/2013" Monthly","8/2013" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","11/29/2013" ,"Excel File Name:","ngm_epg0_plc_nus_dmmbtum.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/ngm_epg0_plc_nus_dmmbtum.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/18/2013 12:22:47 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Natural Gas Liquid Composite Price (Dollars per Million Btu)" "Sourcekey","NGM_EPG0_PLC_NUS_DMMBTU" "Date","U.S. Natural Gas Liquid Composite Price (Dollars per Million Btu)"

49

,"U.S. Natural Gas Liquid Composite Price (Dollars per Million Btu)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual",2012 Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","11/29/2013" ,"Excel File Name:","ngm_epg0_plc_nus_dmmbtua.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/ngm_epg0_plc_nus_dmmbtua.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/18/2013 12:22:46 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Natural Gas Liquid Composite Price (Dollars per Million Btu)" "Sourcekey","NGM_EPG0_PLC_NUS_DMMBTU" "Date","U.S. Natural Gas Liquid Composite Price (Dollars per Million Btu)"

50

,"Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual",2012 Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/18/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","12/27/2013" ,"Excel File Name:","rngwhhda.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/rngwhhda.htm" ,"Source:" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/18/2013 12:22:19 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)" "Sourcekey","RNGWHHD" "Date","Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)" 35611,2.49 35976,2.09 36341,2.27 36707,4.31 37072,3.96 37437,3.38 37802,5.47 38168,5.89 38533,8.69 38898,6.73

51

,"Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Daily","12/16/2013" Daily","12/16/2013" ,"Release Date:","12/18/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","12/27/2013" ,"Excel File Name:","rngwhhdd.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/rngwhhdd.htm" ,"Source:" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/18/2013 12:22:24 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)" "Sourcekey","RNGWHHD" "Date","Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)" 35437,3.82 35438,3.8 35439,3.61 35440,3.92 35443,4 35444,4.01 35445,4.34 35446,4.71 35447,3.91

52

Production of Medium BTU Gas by In Situ Gasification of Texas Lignite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The necessity of providing clean, combustible fuels for use in Gulf Coast industries is well established; one possible source of such a fuel is to perform in situ gasification of Texas lignite which lies below stripping depths. If oxygen (rather than air) is used for gasification, the resulting medium Btu gas could be economically transported by pipeline from the gasification sites to the Gulf coast. Technical, environmental, and economic aspects of implementing this technology are discussed.

Edgar, T. F.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Development and testing of low-Btu fuel gas turbine combustors  

SciTech Connect

The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) concept represents a highly efficient and environmentally compatible advanced coal fueled power generation technology. When IGCC is coupled with high temperature desulfurization, or hot gas cleanup (HGCU), the efficiency and cost advantage of IGCC is further improved with respect to systems based on conventional low temperature gas cleanup. Commercialization of the IGCC/HGCU concept requires successful development of combustion systems for high temperature low Btu fuel in gas turbines. Toward this goal, a turbine combustion system simulator has been designed, constructed, and fired with high temperature low Btu fuel. Fuel is supplied by a pilot scale fixed bed gasifier and hot gas desulfurization system. The primary objectives of this project are: (1) demonstration of long term operability of the turbine simulator with high temperature low Btu fuel; (2) characterization of particulates and other contaminants in the fuel as well as deposits in the fuel nozzle, combustor, and first stage nozzle; and (3) measurement of NO{sub x}, CO, unburned hydrocarbons, trace element, and particulate emissions.

Bevan, S.; Abuaf, N.; Feitelberg, A.S.; Hung, S.L.; Samuels, M.S.; Tolpadi, A.K.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

An Evaluation of Low-BTU Gas from Coal as an Alternate Fuel for Process Heaters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As the price gap between oil and natural gas and coal continues to widen, Monsanto has carefully searched out and examined opportunities to convert fuel use to coal. Preliminary studies indicate that the low-btu gas produced by fixed-bed, air blown gasifiers could potentially replace the natural gas now used in process heaters. The technology is well established and requires less capital than the higher-btu process heaters. Low-btu gas has sufficient heating value and flame temperature to be acceptable fuel for most process heaters. Economics for gas production appear promising, but somewhat uncertain. Rough evaluations indicate rates of return of as much as 30-40%. However, the economics are very dependent on a number of site- specific considerations including: coal vs. natural gas prices, economic life of the gas-consuming facility, quantity of gas required, need for desulfurization, location of gasifiers in relation to gas users, existence of coal unloading and storage facilities, etc. Two of these factors, the difference between coal and natural gas prices and the project life are difficult to predict. The resulting uncertainty has caused Monsanto to pursue coal gasification for process heaters with cautious optimism, on a site by site basis.

Nebeker, C. J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

"NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code(a)","Economic Characteristic(b)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 Relative Standard Errors for Table 6.4;" 4 Relative Standard Errors for Table 6.4;" " Unit: Percents." " "," ",,,"Consumption" " "," ",,"Consumption","per Dollar" " "," ","Consumption","per Dollar","of Value" "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code(a)","Economic Characteristic(b)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)" ,,"Total United States" " 311 - 339","ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES" ,"Employment Size" ," Under 50",3,4,4 ," 50-99",5,5,5 ," 100-249",4,4,3

56

Low/medium-Btu coal-gasification assessment program for specific sites of two New York utilities  

SciTech Connect

The scope of this study is to investigate the technical and economic aspects of coal gasification to supply low- or medium-Btu gas to the two power plant boilers selected for study. This includes the following major studies (and others described in the text): investigate coals from different regions of the country, select a coal based on its availability, mode of transportation and delivered cost to each power plant site; investigate the effects of burning low- and medium-Btu gas in the selected power plant boilers based on efficiency, rating and cost of modifications and make recommendations for each; and review the technical feasibility of converting the power plant boilers to coal-derived gas. The following two coal gasification processes have been used as the basis for this Study: the Combustion Engineering coal gasification process produces a low-Btu gas at approximately 100 Btu/scf at near atmospheric pressure; and the Texaco coal gasification process produces a medium-Btu gas at 292 Btu/scf at 800 psig. The engineering design and economics of both plants are described. Both plants meet the federal, state, and local environmental requirements for air quality, wastewater, liquid disposal, and ground level disposal of byproduct solids. All of the synthetic gas alternatives result in bus bar cost savings on a yearly basis within a few years of start-up because the cost of gas is assumed to escalate at a lower rate than that of fuel oil, approximately 4 to 5%.

Not Available

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Design and Performance of a Low Btu Fuel Rich-Quench-Lean Gas Turbine Combustor  

SciTech Connect

General Electric Company is developing gas turbines and a high temperature desulfurization system for use in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants. High temperature desulfurization, or hot gas cleanup (HGCU), offers many advantages over conventional low temperature desulfurization processes, but does not reduce the relatively high concentrations of fuel bound nitrogen (FBN) that are typically found in low Btu fuel. When fuels containing bound nitrogen are burned in conventional gas turbine combustors, a significant portion of the FBN is converted to NO{sub x}. Methods of reducing the NO{sub x} emissions from IGCC power plants equipped with HGCU are needed. Rich-quench-lean (RQL) combustion can decrease the conversion of FBN to NO{sub x} because a large fraction of the FBN is converted into non-reactive N{sub 2} in a fuel rich stage. Additional air, required for complete combustion, is added in a quench stage. A lean stage provides sufficient residence time for complete combustion. Objectives General Electric has developed and tested a rich-quench-lean gas turbine combustor for use with low Btu fuels containing FBN. The objective of this work has been to design an RQL combustor that has a lower conversion of FBN to N{sub x} than a conventional low Btu combustor and is suitable for use in a GE heavy duty gas turbine. Such a combustor must be of appropriate size and scale, configuration (can-annular), and capable of reaching ``F`` class firing conditions (combustor exit temperature = 2550{degrees}F).

Feitelberg, A.S.; Jackson, M.R.; Lacey, M.A.; Manning, K.S.; Ritter, A.M.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

58

Understanding Utility Rates or How to Operate at the Lowest $/BTU  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper is intended to give the reader knowledge into utility marketing strategies, rates, and services. Although water is a utility service, this paper will concern itself with the energy utilities, gas and electric. Commonality and diversity exist in the strategies and rates of the gas and electric utilities. Both provide services at no charge which make energy operation for their customers easier, safer and more economical. It is important to become familiar with utility strategies, rates, and services because energy knowledge helps your business operate at the lowest energy cost ($/BTU).

Phillips, J. N.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

2-ft Flume Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

2-ft Flume Facility 2-ft Flume Facility Jump to: navigation, search Basic Specifications Facility Name 2-ft Flume Facility Overseeing Organization United States Army Corp of Engineers (ERDC) Hydrodynamic Testing Facility Type Flume Length(m) 61.0 Beam(m) 0.6 Depth(m) 1.8 Water Type Freshwater Cost(per day) Contact POC Towing Capabilities Towing Capabilities None Wavemaking Capabilities Wavemaking Capabilities Yes Maximum Wave Height(m) 0.6 Maximum Wave Height(m) at Wave Period(s) 10.0 Wave Period Range(s) 10.0 Current Velocity Range(m/s) 0.0 Programmable Wavemaking Yes Simulated Beach No Channel/Tunnel/Flume Channel/Tunnel/Flume Yes Wind Capabilities Wind Capabilities None Control and Data Acquisition Description Automated data acquisition and control system Cameras None

60

Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas  

SciTech Connect

A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone; this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe; swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone; this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu cu ft" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas  

SciTech Connect

A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone: this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe: swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone: this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

1985-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

62

High btu gas from peat. A feasibility study. Part 1. Executive summary. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In September, 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a Grant (No. DE-FG01-80RA50348) to the Minnesota Gas Company (Minnegasco) to evaluate the commercial viability - technical, economic and environmental - of producing 80 million standard cubic feet per day (SCFD) of substitute natural gas (SNG) from peat. The proposed product, high Btu SNG would be a suitable substitute for natural gas which is widely used throughout the Upper Midwest by residential, commercial and industrial sectors. The study team consisted of Dravo Engineers and Constructors, Ertec Atlantic, Inc., The Institute of Gas Technology, Deloitte, Haskins and Sells and Minnegasco. Preliminary engineering and operating and financial plans for the harvesting, dewatering and gasification operations were developed. A site in Koochiching County near Margie was chosen for detailed design purposes only; it was not selected as a site for development. Environmental data and socioeconomic data were gathered and reconciled. Potential economic data were gathered and reconciled. Potential impacts - both positive and negative - were identified and assessed. The peat resource itself was evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively. Markets for plant by-products were also assessed. In summary, the technical, economic, and environmental assessment indicates that a facility producing 80 billion Btu's per day SNG from peat is not commercially viable at this time. Minnegasco will continue its efforts into the development of peat and continue to examine other options.

Not Available

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Cofiring of coal and dairy biomass in a 100,000 btu/hr furnace  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dairy biomass (DB) is evaluated as a possible co-firing fuel with coal. Cofiring of DB offers a technique of utilizing dairy manure for power/steam generation, reducing greenhouse gas concerns, and increasing financial returns to dairy operators. The effects of cofiring coal and DB have been studied in a 30 kW (100,000 BTU/hr) burner boiler facility. Experiments were performed with Texas Lignite coal (TXL) as a base line fuel. The combustion efficiency from co-firing is also addressed in the present work. Two forms of partially composted DB fuels were investigated: low ash separated solids and high ash soil surface. Two types of coal were investigated: TXL and Wyoming Powder River Basin coal (WYO). Proximate and ultimate analyses were performed on coal and DB. DB fuels have much higher nitrogen (kg/GJ) and ash content (kg/GJ) than coal. The HHV of TXL and WYO coal as received were 14,000 and 18,000 kJ/kg, while the HHV of the LA-PC-DBSepS and the HA-PC-DB-SoilS were 13,000 and 4,000 kJ/kg. The HHV based on stoichiometric air were 3,000 kJ/kg for both coals and LA-PC-DB-SepS and 2,900 kJ/kg for HA-PC-DB-SoilS. The nitrogen and sulfur loading for TXL and WYO ranged from 0.15 to 0.48 kg/GJ and from 0.33 to 2.67 for the DB fuels. TXL began pyrolysis at 640 K and the WYO at 660 K. The HA-PC-DB-SoilSs began pyrolysis at 530 K and the LA-PC-DB-SepS at 510 K. The maximum rate of volatile release occurred at 700 K for both coals and HA-PC-DB-SoilS and 750K for LA-PC-DB-SepS. The NOx emissions for equivalence ratio (?) varying from 0.9 to 1.2 ranged from 0.34 to 0.90 kg/GJ (0.79 to 0.16 lb/mmBTU) for pure TXL. They ranged from 0.35 to 0.7 kg/GJ (0.82 to 0.16 lb/mmBTU) for a 90:10 TXL:LA-PC-DB-SepS blend and from 0.32 to 0.5 kg/GJ (0.74 to 0.12 lb/mmBTU) for a 80:20 TXL:LA-PC-DB-SepS blend over the same range of ?. In a rich environment, DB:coal cofiring produced less NOx and CO than pure coal. This result is probably due to the fuel bound nitrogen in DB is mostly in the form of urea which reduces NOx to non-polluting gases such as nitrogen (N2).

Lawrence, Benjamin Daniel

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Combined compressed air storage-low BTU coal gasification power plant  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrical generating power plant includes a Compressed Air Energy Storage System (CAES) fueled with low BTU coal gas generated in a continuously operating high pressure coal gasifier system. This system is used in coordination with a continuously operating main power generating plant to store excess power generated during off-peak hours from the power generating plant, and to return the stored energy as peak power to the power generating plant when needed. The excess coal gas which is produced by the coal gasifier during off-peak hours is stored in a coal gas reservoir. During peak hours the stored coal gas is combined with the output of the coal gasifier to fuel the gas turbines and ultimately supply electrical power to the base power plant.

Kartsounes, George T. (Naperville, IL); Sather, Norman F. (Naperville, IL)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Materials exposure test facilities for varying low-Btu coal-derived gas  

SciTech Connect

As a part of the United States Department of Energy's High Temperature Turbine Technology Readiness Program, the Morgantown Energy Technology Center is participating in the Ceramics Corrosion/Erosion Materials Study. The objective is to create a technology base for ceramic materials which could be used by stationary gas power turbines operating in a high-temperature, coal-derived, low-Btu gas products of combustion environment. Two METC facilities have been designed, fabricated and will be operated simultaneously exposing ceramic materials dynamically and statically to products of combustion of a coal-derived gas. The current studies will identify the degradation of ceramics due to their exposure to a coal-derived gas combustion environment.

Nakaishi, C.V.; Carpenter, L.K.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Analysis of industrial markets for low and medium Btu coal gasification. [Forecasting  

SciTech Connect

Low- and medium-Btu gases (LBG and MBG) can be produced from coal with a variety of 13 existing and 25 emerging processes. Historical experience and previous studies indicate a large potential market for LBG and MBG coal gasification in the manufacturing industries for fuel and feedstocks. However, present use in the US is limited, and industry has not been making substantial moves to invest in the technology. Near-term (1979-1985) market activity for LBG and MBG is highly uncertain and is complicated by a myriad of pressures on industry for energy-related investments. To assist in planning its program to accelerate the commercialization of LBG and MBG, the Department of Energy (DOE) contracted with Booz, Allen and Hamilton to characterize and forecast the 1985 industrial market for LBG and MBG coal gasification. The study draws five major conclusions: (1) There is a large technically feasible market potential in industry for commercially available equipment - exceeding 3 quadrillion Btu per year. (2) Early adopters will be principally steel, chemical, and brick companies in described areas. (3) With no additional Federal initiatives, industry commitments to LBG and MBG will increase only moderately. (4) The major barriers to further market penetration are lack of economic advantage, absence of significant operating experience in the US, uncertainty on government environmental policy, and limited credible engineering data for retrofitting industrial plants. (5) Within the context of generally accepted energy supply and price forecasts, selected government action can be a principal factor in accelerating market penetration. Each major conclusion is discussed briefly and key implications for DOE planning are identified.

1979-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

67

Heavy duty gas turbine combustion tests with simulated low BTU coal gas  

SciTech Connect

There is an increasing industry interest in integrated gas turbine combined cycle plants in which coal gasifiers provide the fuel for the gas turbines. Some gasifier plant designs, including the air-blown processes, some integrated oxygen blown processes and some oxygen-blown processes followed by heavy moisturization, produce fuel gases which have lower heating values ranging from 130 to below 100 BTU/scf for which there is little gas turbine combustion experience. This program has the objectives to: Parametrically determine the effects of moisture, nitrogen and carbon dioxide as diluents so that the combustion characteristics of many varieties of gasification product gases can be reasonably predicted without physically testing each specific gas composition; determine emissions characteristics including NO[sub x], CO, levels etc. associated with each of the diluents; operate with two syngas compositions; DOE chosen air-blown and integrated oxygen-blown, to confirm that the combustion characteristics are in line with predictions; determine if logical'' refinements to the fuel nozzle will yield improved performance for LBTU fuels; determine the conversion rate of ammonia to NO[sub x]; determine the effects of methane inclusion in the fuel.

Ekstrom, T.E.; Battista, R.A.; Maxwell, G.P.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Heavy duty gas turbine combustion tests with simulated low BTU coal gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There is an increasing industry interest in integrated gas turbine combined cycle plants in which coal gasifiers provide the fuel for the gas turbines. Some gasifier plant designs, including the air-blown processes, some integrated oxygen blown processes and some oxygen-blown processes followed by heavy moisturization, produce fuel gases which have lower heating values ranging from 130 to below 100 BTU/scf for which there is little gas turbine combustion experience. This program has the objectives to: Parametrically determine the effects of moisture, nitrogen and carbon dioxide as diluents so that the combustion characteristics of many varieties of gasification product gases can be reasonably predicted without physically testing each specific gas composition; determine emissions characteristics including NO{sub x}, CO, levels etc. associated with each of the diluents; operate with two syngas compositions; DOE chosen air-blown and integrated oxygen-blown, to confirm that the combustion characteristics are in line with predictions; determine if ``logical`` refinements to the fuel nozzle will yield improved performance for LBTU fuels; determine the conversion rate of ammonia to NO{sub x}; determine the effects of methane inclusion in the fuel.

Ekstrom, T.E.; Battista, R.A.; Maxwell, G.P.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

69

Heavy duty gas turbine combustion tests with simulated low BTU coal gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There is an increasing industry interest in integrated gas turbine combined cycle plants in which coal gasifiers provide the fuel for the gas turbines. Some gasifier plant designs, including the air-blown processes, some integrated oxygen blown processes and some oxygen-blown processes followed by heavy moisturization, produce fuel gases which have lower heating values ranging from 130 to below 100 BTU/scf for which there is little gas turbine combustion experience. This program has the objectives to: Parametrically determine the effects of moisture, nitrogen and carbon dioxide as diluents so that the combustion characteristics of many varieties of gasification product gases can be reasonably predicted without physically testing each specific gas composition; determine emissions characteristics including NO[sub x], CO, levels etc. associated with each of the diluents; operate with two syngas compositions; DOE chosen air-blown and integrated oxygen-blown, to confirm that the combustion characteristics are in line with predictions; determine if logical'' refinements to the fuel nozzle will yield improved performance for LBTU fuels; determine the conversion rate of ammonia to NO[sub x]; determine the effects of methane inclusion in the fuel.

Ekstrom, T.E.; Battista, R.A.; Maxwell, G.P.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Analysis of medium-BTU gasification condensates, June 1985-June 1986  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report provides the final results of chemical and physical analysis of condensates from biomass gasification systems which are part of the US Department of Energy Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. The work described in detail in this report involves extensive analysis of condensates from four medium-BTU gasifiers. The analyses include elemental analysis, ash, moisture, heating value, density, specific chemical analysis, ash, moisture, heating value, density, specific chemical analysis (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, infrared spectrophotometry, Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry) and Ames Assay. This work was an extension of a broader study earlier completed of the condensates of all the gasifers and pyrolyzers in the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. The analytical data demonstrates the wide range of chemical composition of the organics recoverd in the condensates and suggests a direct relationship between operating temperature and chemical composition of the condensates. A continuous pathway of thermal degradation of the tar components as a function of temperature is proposed. Variations in the chemical composition of the organic in the tars are reflected in the physical properties of tars and phase stability in relation to water in the condensate. The biological activity appears to be limited to the tars produced at high temperatures as a result of formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in high concentrations. Future studies of the time/temperature relationship to tar composition and the effect of processing atmosphere should be undertaken. Further processing of the condensates either as wastewater treatment or upgrading of the organics to useful products is also recommended. 15 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Elliott, D.C.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Moessbauer spectroscopy studies of iron-catalysts used in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) processes. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Moessbauer spectroscopy investigations were carried out on 14 iron-based catalysts during the period under review. The catalyst 100Fe/4.4Si/0.71K (all atomic ratios) was subjected to activation first in syngas and subsequently in CO gas atmosphere. Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis was carried out on the above catalyst. Another catalyst 100Fe/4.4Si/2.6Cu/0.71K (all atomic ratios) activated in syngas and subjected to FT synthesis was also studied to understand the effect of added Cu on the phase distribution and its effect on the FT activity. The following trends were observed: (1) activation of the catalyst in syngas, H{sub 2}/CO, lead to the formation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and no carbides were formed, the FT activity was found to be low at 9--12% (H{sub 2}+CO) conversion; (2) activation of the catalyst in CO for 22hrs lead to the formation of 33% of {chi}-carbide and the FT activity was found to be high at 88% maximum; (3) addition of copper to the catalyst has improved the FT activity for those catalysts pretreated in syngas at elevated pressures.

Huffman, G.P.; Rao, K.R.P.M.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

FT-IR photoacoustic spectroscopy investigation of oxidized wool  

SciTech Connect

The Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectra (FT-IR/PAS) of wool, shrink-resist treated wool and corona discharge oxidized wool are reported. Products of the oxidation of wool by dichloroisocyanuric acid are discussed. The FT-IR/PAS results indicate the formation of a sulphinic acid residue during the wool treatment.

McKenna, W.P.; Gale, D.J.; Rivett, D.E.; Eyring, E.M.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Ft Bidwell Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ft Bidwell Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Ft Bidwell Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Ft Bidwell Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Ft Bidwell Sector Geothermal energy Type Space Heating Location Ft. Bidwell, California Coordinates Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[]}

74

U.S. Army - Ft. Carson, Colorado | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Army - Ft. Carson, Colorado Army - Ft. Carson, Colorado U.S. Army - Ft. Carson, Colorado October 7, 2013 - 10:01am Addthis Photo of High-Bay Aviation Maintenance Facility at Butts Army Airfield Fort Carson U.S. Army Base is located south of Colorado Springs, Colorado. It was the first Federal facility to install a "solar wall"-a solar ventilation air preheating system. The solar wall heats Ft. Carson's new high-bay aviation maintenance facility at Butts Army Airfield by pre-warming air as much as 54°F and supplying the heated air to the building's central heating system. This collector system is especially advantageous for buildings that require large volumes of heated air. The system cost $140,000 to design, build, and install. The unglazed collector consists of 7,800 ft.² of sheet metal dotted with tiny holes. It

75

Table A10. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Breeze)","Other(e)","Row" "Code(a)","End-Use Categories","(trillion Btu)","(million kWh)","(1000 bbls)","(1000 bbls)","(billion cu ft)","(1000 bbls)","(1000 short...

76

" Level: National Data and Regional Totals...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

(million","Other(e)","Row" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","(trillion Btu)","(million kWh)","(million bbl)","(million bbl)","cu ft)","(million bbl)","short tons)","short...

77

High Btu gas from peat. A feasibility study. Part 2. Management plans for project continuation. Task 10. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary objective of this task, which was the responsibility of the Minnesota Gas Company, was to determine the needs of the project upon completion of the feasibility study and determine how to implement them most effectively. The findings of the study do not justify the construction of an 80 billion Btu/day SNG from peat plant. At the present time Minnegasco will concentrate on other issues of peat development. Other processes, other products, different scales of operation - these are the issues that Minnegasco will continue to study. 3 references.

Not Available

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Spherically symmetric static spacetimes in vacuum f(T) gravity  

SciTech Connect

We show that Schwarzschild geometry remains as a vacuum solution for those four-dimensional f(T) gravitational theories behaving as ultraviolet deformations of general relativity. In the gentler context of three-dimensional gravity, we also find that the infrared-deformed f(T) gravities, like the ones used to describe the late cosmic speed up of the Universe, have as the circularly symmetric vacuum solution a Deser-de Sitter or a Banados, Teitelboim and Zanelli-like spacetime with an effective cosmological constant depending on the infrared scale present in the function f(T).

Ferraro, Rafael [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fiorini, Franco [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

79

COMPCOAL{trademark}: A profitable process for production of a stable high-Btu fuel from Powder River Basin coal  

SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute (WRI) is developing a process to produce a stable, clean-burning, premium fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and other low-rank coals. This process is designed to overcome the problems of spontaneous combustion, dust formation, and readsorption of moisture that are experienced with PRB coal and with processed PRB coal. This process, called COMPCOAL{trademark}, results in high-Btu product that is intended for burning in boilers designed for midwestern coals or for blending with other coals. In the COMPCOAL process, sized coal is dried to zero moisture content and additional oxygen is removed from the coal by partial decarboxylation as the coal is contacted by a stream of hot fluidizing gas in the dryer. The hot, dried coal particles flow into the pyrolyzer where they are contacted by a very small flow of air. The oxygen in the air reacts with active sites on the surface of the coal particles causing the temperature of the coal to be raised to about 700{degrees}F (371{degrees}C) and oxidizing the most reactive sites on the particles. This ``instant aging`` contributes to the stability of the product while only reducing the heating value of the product by about 50 Btu/lb. Less than 1 scf of air per pound of dried coal is used to avoid removing any of the condensible liquid or vapors from the coal particles. The pyrolyzed coal particles are mixed with fines from the dryer cyclone and dust filter and the resulting mixture at about 600{degrees}F (316{degrees}C) is fed into a briquettor. Briquettes are cooled to about 250{degrees}F (121{degrees}C) by contact with a mist of water in a gas-tight mixing conveyor. The cooled briquettes are transferred to a storage bin where they are accumulated for shipment.

Smith, V.E.; Merriam, N.W.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Table A23. Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3. Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas by Type" 3. Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas by Type" " of Supplier, Census Region, Industry Group, and Selected Industries, 1991" " (Estimates in Btu or Physical Units)" ,," Electricity",," Steam",," Natural Gas" ,," (Million kWh)",," (Billion Btu)",," (Billion cu ft)" ,," -------------------------",," -------------------------",," ---------------------------------------",,,"RSE" "SIC",,"Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Transmission","Other","Row"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu cu ft" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Table A27. Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas by Type" Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas by Type" " of Supplier, Census Region, and Economic Characteristics of the Establishment," 1991 " (Estimates in Btu or Physical Units)" " "," Electricity",," Steam",," Natural Gas" ," (Million (kWh)",," (Billion Btu)",," (Billion cu ft)" ," -----------------------",," -----------------------",," ------------------------------------",,,"RSE" ,"Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Transmission","Other","Row"

82

Carderock 2-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

2-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel 2-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel Jump to: navigation, search Basic Specifications Facility Name Carderock 2-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel Overseeing Organization United States Naval Surface Warfare Center Hydrodynamic Testing Facility Type Tunnel Beam(m) 0.6 Depth(m) 0.6 Water Type Freshwater Cost(per day) Contact POC Special Physical Features The 2-Foot Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel is a vertical plane, closed recirculating, variable-speed, variable-pressure, open jet test section, closed jet test section, and semi-rectangular test section. Towing Capabilities Towing Capabilities None Wavemaking Capabilities Wavemaking Capabilities None Channel/Tunnel/Flume Channel/Tunnel/Flume Yes Velocity(m/s) 17 Recirculating Yes

83

1.5-ft Wave Flume Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

-ft Wave Flume Facility -ft Wave Flume Facility Jump to: navigation, search Basic Specifications Facility Name 1.5-ft Wave Flume Facility Overseeing Organization United States Army Corp of Engineers (ERDC) Hydrodynamic Testing Facility Type Flume Length(m) 45.1 Beam(m) 0.5 Depth(m) 0.9 Water Type Freshwater Cost(per day) Contact POC Towing Capabilities Towing Capabilities None Wavemaking Capabilities Wavemaking Capabilities Yes Maximum Wave Height(m) 0.2 Maximum Wave Height(m) at Wave Period(s) 10.0 Wave Period Range(s) 10.0 Current Velocity Range(m/s) 0.0 Programmable Wavemaking Yes Simulated Beach No Channel/Tunnel/Flume Channel/Tunnel/Flume Yes Recirculating No Wind Capabilities Wind Capabilities None Control and Data Acquisition Description Automated data acquisition and control system

84

10-ft Wave Flume Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ft Wave Flume Facility ft Wave Flume Facility Jump to: navigation, search Basic Specifications Facility Name 10-ft Wave Flume Facility Overseeing Organization United States Army Corp of Engineers (ERDC) Hydrodynamic Testing Facility Type Flume Length(m) 63.4 Beam(m) 3.0 Depth(m) 1.5 Water Type Freshwater Cost(per day) Contact POC Towing Capabilities Towing Capabilities None Wavemaking Capabilities Wavemaking Capabilities Yes Maximum Wave Height(m) 0.5 Maximum Wave Height(m) at Wave Period(s) 10.0 Wave Period Range(s) 0.0 Current Velocity Range(m/s) 0.0 Programmable Wavemaking Yes Simulated Beach No Channel/Tunnel/Flume Channel/Tunnel/Flume Yes Recirculating No Wind Capabilities Wind Capabilities None Control and Data Acquisition Description Automated data acquisition and control system

85

~A four carbon alcohol. It has double the amount of carbon of ethanol, which equates to a substantial increase in harvestable energy (Btu's).  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to a substantial increase in harvestable energy (Btu's). ~Butanol is safer to handle with a Reid Value of 0.33 psi is easily recovered, increasing the energy yield of a bushel of corn by an additional 18 percent over the energy yield of ethanol produced from the same quantity of corn. ~Current butanol prices as a chemical

Toohey, Darin W.

86

Table A36. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,,,,,,,,"Coal" ,,,,,,,,"Coal" " Part 1",,,,,,,,"(excluding" " (Estimates in Btu or Physical Units)",,,,,"Distillate",,,"Coal Coke" ,,,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"and" ,,,"Net","Residual","and Diesel","Natural Gas",,"Breeze)",,"RSE" "SIC",,"Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel","(billion","LPG","(1000 Short","Other","Row" "Code(a)","End-Use Categories","(trillion Btu)","(million kWh)","(1000 bbls)","(1000 bbls)","cu ft)","(1000 bbls)","tons)","(trillion Btu)","Factors",

87

Table A11. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generatio  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1" 1" " (Estimates in Btu or Physical Units)" ,,,,"Distillate",,,"Coal" ,,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"(excluding" ,,"Net","Residual","and Diesel",,,"Coal Coke",,"RSE" ,"Total","Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Fuel(b)","Natural Gas(c)","LPG","and Breeze)","Other(d)","Row" "End-Use Categories","(trillion Btu)","(million kWh)","(1000 bbls)","(1000 bbls)","(billion cu ft)","(1000 bbls)","(1000 short tons)","(trillion Btu)","Factors" ,,,,,,,,,,, ,"Total United States"

88

Table A4. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 " 1 " " (Estimates in Btu or Physical Units)" " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Coke"," "," " " "," "," ","Net","Residual","Distillate","Natural Gas(d)"," ","Coal","and Breeze"," ","RSE" "SIC"," ","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","(billion","LPG","(1000","(1000","Other(e)","Row" "Code(a)","Industry Groups and Industry","(trillion Btu)","(million kWh)","(1000 bbls)","(1000 bbls)","cu ft)","(1000 bbls)","short tons)","short tons)","(trillion Btu)","Factors"

89

Table A37. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1",,,,,,,"Coal" 1",,,,,,,"Coal" " (Estimates in Btu or Physical Units)",,,,,,,"(excluding" ,,,,"Distillate",,,"Coal Coke" ,,"Net",,"Fuel Oil",,,"and" ,,"Electricity(a)","Residual","and Diesel","Natural Gas",,"Breeze)",,"RSE" ,"Total","(million","Fuel Oil","Fuel","(billion","LPG","(1000 short","Other","Row" "End-Use Categories","(trillion Btu)","kWh)","(1000 bbls)","(1000 bbls)","cu ft)","(1000 bbls)","tons)","(trillion Btu)","Factors"

90

" Electricity Generation by Census Region, Industry Group, and Selected"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1" 1" " (Estimates in Btu or Physical Units)" " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Coke"," "," " " "," "," "," ","Residual","Distillate","Natural Gas(d)"," ","Coal","and Breeze"," ","RSE" "SIC"," ","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","(billion","LPG","(1000","(1000","Other(e)","Row" "Code(a)","Industry Groups and Industry","(trillion Btu)","(million kWh)","(1000 bbls)","(1000 bbls)","cu ft)","(1000 bbls)","short tons)","short tons)","(trillion Btu)","Factors"

91

Langley 16-Ft. Transonic Tunnel Pressure Sensitive Paint System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the NASA Langley 16-Ft. Transonic Tunnel Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) System and presents results of a test conducted June 22-23, 2000 in the tunnel to validate the PSP system. The PSP system provides global surface pressure measurements ...

Sprinkle Danny R.; Obara Clifford J.; Amer Tahani R.; Leighty Bradley D.; Carmine Michael T.; Burkett Cecil G.; Sealey Bradley S.

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Microsoft Word - Draft Ft Yukon Biomass System EA_0220  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

FOR A COMBINED POWER AND BIOMASS HEATING SYSTEM FORT YUKON, ALASKA U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy GOLDEN FIELD OFFICE In Cooperation with USDA RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE DENALI COMMISSION FEBRUARY 2013 ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS ADEC Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation AFRPA Alaska Forest Resources Practices Act BFE Base Flood Elevation BMP best management practice BTU British Thermal Unit CATG Council of Athabascan Tribal Governments CEQ Council on Environmental Quality CFR Code of Federal Regulations CHP Combined Heat and Power CO carbon monoxide CO 2 carbon dioxide CWA Clean Water Act dBA A-weighted decibel DBH diameter at breast height DOE U.S. Department of Energy EA Environmental Assessment

93

Low NO{sub x} turbine power generation utilizing low Btu GOB gas. Final report, June--August 1995  

SciTech Connect

Methane, a potent greenhouse gas, is second only to carbon dioxide as a contributor to potential global warming. Methane liberated by coal mines represents one of the most promising under exploited areas for profitably reducing these methane emissions. Furthermore, there is a need for apparatus and processes that reduce the nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from gas turbines in power generation. Consequently, this project aims to demonstrate a technology which utilizes low grade fuel (CMM) in a combustion air stream to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in the operation of a gas turbine. This technology is superior to other existing technologies because it can directly use the varying methane content gases from various streams of the mining operation. The simplicity of the process makes it useful for both new gas turbines and retrofitting existing gas turbines. This report evaluates the feasibility of using gob gas from the 11,000 acre abandoned Gateway Mine near Waynesburg, Pennsylvania as a fuel source for power generation applying low NO{sub x} gas turbine technology at a site which is currently capable of producing low grade GOB gas ({approx_equal} 600 BTU) from abandoned GOB areas.

Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.V.; Gabrielson, J.; Glickert, R.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

5-ft Wave Flume Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

5-ft Wave Flume Facility 5-ft Wave Flume Facility Overseeing Organization United States Army Corp of Engineers (ERDC) Hydrodynamic Testing Facility Type Flume Length(m) 63.4 Beam(m) 1.5 Depth(m) 1.5 Water Type Freshwater Cost(per day) Contact POC Towing Capabilities Towing Capabilities None Wavemaking Capabilities Wavemaking Capabilities Yes Maximum Wave Height(m) 0.5 Maximum Wave Height(m) at Wave Period(s) 10.0 Wave Period Range(s) 10.0 Current Velocity Range(m/s) 0.0 Programmable Wavemaking Yes Simulated Beach No Channel/Tunnel/Flume Channel/Tunnel/Flume Yes Recirculating No Wind Capabilities Wind Capabilities None Control and Data Acquisition Description Automated data acquisition and control system Cameras None Available Sensors Flow, Pressure Range(psi), Turbulence, Velocity, Wave Probe

95

Carderock 3-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel Jump to: navigation, search Basic Specifications Facility Name Carderock 3-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel Overseeing Organization United States Naval Surface Warfare Center Hydrodynamic Testing Facility Type Tunnel Beam(m) 0.7 Depth(m) 0.7 Water Type Freshwater Cost(per day) Contact POC Special Physical Features The 3-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel is a vertical plane, closed recirculating with resorber, variable-speed, variable-pressure, two interchangeable circular test sections. Towing Capabilities Towing Capabilities None Wavemaking Capabilities Wavemaking Capabilities None Channel/Tunnel/Flume Channel/Tunnel/Flume Yes Velocity(m/s) 25.8 Recirculating Yes Wind Capabilities Wind Capabilities None

96

11-ft Wave Flume Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ft Wave Flume Facility ft Wave Flume Facility Jump to: navigation, search Basic Specifications Facility Name Wave Flume Facility Overseeing Organization United States Army Corp of Engineers (ERDC) Hydrodynamic Testing Facility Type Flume Length(m) 77.4 Beam(m) 3.4 Depth(m) 1.8 Water Type Freshwater Cost(per day) Contact POC Towing Capabilities Towing Capabilities None Wavemaking Capabilities Wavemaking Capabilities Yes Maximum Wave Height(m) 0.4 Maximum Wave Height(m) at Wave Period(s) 10.0 Wave Period Range(s) 10.0 Current Velocity Range(m/s) 0.0 Programmable Wavemaking Yes Simulated Beach No Channel/Tunnel/Flume Channel/Tunnel/Flume None Wind Capabilities Wind Capabilities Yes Control and Data Acquisition Description Automated data acquisition and control system Cameras None

97

3-ft Wave Flume Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

3-ft Wave Flume Facility 3-ft Wave Flume Facility Overseeing Organization United States Army Corp of Engineers (ERDC) Hydrodynamic Testing Facility Type Flume Length(m) 45.1 Beam(m) 0.9 Depth(m) 0.9 Water Type Freshwater Cost(per day) Contact POC Towing Capabilities Towing Capabilities None Wavemaking Capabilities Wavemaking Capabilities Yes Maximum Wave Height(m) 0.2 Maximum Wave Height(m) at Wave Period(s) 10.0 Wave Period Range(s) 10.0 Current Velocity Range(m/s) 0.0 Programmable Wavemaking Yes Simulated Beach No Channel/Tunnel/Flume Channel/Tunnel/Flume None Wind Capabilities Wind Capabilities None Control and Data Acquisition Description Automated data acquisition and control system Cameras None Available Sensors Flow, Pressure Range(psi), Turbulence, Velocity, Wave Probe

98

Technology development for iron F-T catalysts. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this work were twofold. The first objective was to design and construct a pilot plant for preparing precipitated iron oxide F-T precursors and demonstrate that the rate of production from this plant is equivalent to 100 lbs/day of dried metal oxide. Secondly, these precipitates were to be used to prepare catalysts capable of achieving 88% CO + H{sub 2} conversion with {le} 5 mole percent selectivity to methane + ethane.

Frame, R.R.; Gala, H.B.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Can $f(T)$ gravity theories mimic $?$CDM cosmic history  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recently the teleparallel Lagrangian density described by the torsion scalar T has been extended to a function of T. The $f(T)$ modified teleparallel gravity has been proposed as the natural gravitational alternative for dark energy to explain the late time acceleration of the universe. In order to reconstruct the function $f(T)$ by demanding a background $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology we assume that, (i) the background cosmic history provided by the flat $\\Lambda$CDM (the radiation ere with $\\omega_{eff}=1/3$, matter and de Sitter eras with $\\omega_{eff}=0$ and $\\omega_{eff}=-1$, respectively) (ii) the radiation dominate in the radiation era with $\\Omega_{0r}=1$ and the matter dominate during the matter phases when $\\Omega_{0m}=1$. We find the cosmological dynamical system which can obey the $\\Lambda$CDM cosmic history. In each era, we find a critical lines that, the radiation dominated and the matter dominated are one points of them in the radiation and matter phases, respectively. Also, we drive the cosmologically viability condition for these models. We investigate the stability condition with respect to the homogeneous scalar perturbations in each era and we obtain the stability conditions for the fixed points in each eras. Finally, we reconstruct the function $f(T)$ which mimics cosmic expansion history.

M. R. Setare; N. Mohammadipour

2013-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

100

The Impact of Codes, Regulations, and Standards on Split-Unitary Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps, 65,000 Btu/hr and Under  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document establishes a framework for understanding the technology and regulation of split-unitary air conditioners and heat pumps 65,000 Btu/hr and under. The reporting framework is structured so that it can be added to in the future. This study is broken into six chapters:The basic components, refrigeration cycle, operation, and efficiency ratings of split-unitary air conditioners and heat pumps are covered for background information.Equipment efficiency ...

2012-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu cu ft" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

System and process for the abatement of casting pollution, reclaiming resin bonded sand, and/or recovering a low Btu fuel from castings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Air is caused to flow through the resin bonded mold to aid combustion of the resin binder to form a low Btu gas fuel. Casting heat is recovered for use in a waste heat boiler or other heat abstraction equipment. Foundry air pollutis reduced, the burned portion of the molding sand is recovered for immediate reuse and savings in fuel and other energy is achieved. 5 figs.

Scheffer, K.D.

1984-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

102

System and process for the abatement of casting pollution, reclaiming resin bonded sand, and/or recovering a low BTU fuel from castings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Air is caused to flow through the resin bonded mold to aid combustion of the resin binder to form a low BTU gas fuel. Casting heat is recovered for use in a waste heat boiler or other heat abstraction equipment. Foundry air pollution is reduced, the burned portion of the molding sand is recovered for immediate reuse and savings in fuel and other energy is achieved.

Scheffer, Karl D. (121 Governor Dr., Scotia, NY 12302)

1984-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

103

Federal Energy Management Program: U.S. Army - Ft. Carson, Colorado  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

U.S. Army - Ft. U.S. Army - Ft. Carson, Colorado to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: U.S. Army - Ft. Carson, Colorado on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: U.S. Army - Ft. Carson, Colorado on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: U.S. Army - Ft. Carson, Colorado on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: U.S. Army - Ft. Carson, Colorado on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: U.S. Army - Ft. Carson, Colorado on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: U.S. Army - Ft. Carson, Colorado on AddThis.com... Energy-Efficient Products Technology Deployment Renewable Energy Federal Requirements Renewable Resources & Technologies Project Planning & Implementation Project Assistance

104

ABSOLUTE PROPERTIES OF THE ECCENTRIC ECLIPSING BINARY STAR FT ORIONIS  

SciTech Connect

Accurate absolute properties are determined for the first time for the 3.15 day period eccentric eclipsing binary star FT Ori based on new absolute photometry, five differential light curves, and a radial velocity curve. The stars appear to be normal for their spectral types, A0 + A2. The orbit is highly eccentric (e = 0.409) and shows apsidal motion with a period of 536 years. The absolute properties and the degree of central mass concentration of the stars are consistent with current theoretical models at an age of 190 Myr.

Sabby, Jeffrey A. [Physics Department, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, Edwardsville, IL 62025 (United States); Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg [Physics Department, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Ibanoglu, Cafer [Astronomy and Space Sciences Department, Science Faculty, Ege University, 35100 Boronova, Izmir (Turkey); Claret, Antonio, E-mail: jsabby@siue.edu, E-mail: clacy@uark.edu, E-mail: cafer.ibanoglu@ege.edu.tr, E-mail: claret@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, CSIC, Apdo. Postal 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

105

HydraNet-FT: network support for dependable servors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis proposes an infrastructure to dynamically replicate services across an internetwork and have them provide a single fault tolerant service access point to clients. For service replication, it relies on previous work for network support for large-scale service scaling within the HydraNet effort. The current work develops a means to combine service replication with TCP communication service to provide fault-tolerant services in a fully client-transparent fashion. The HydraNet-FT infrastructure consists of two components: host servers and redirecting. Host servers are hosts that are specially equipped to act as servers for replicated and fault-tolerant services. The location of the host servers is known to the redirecting, specially equipped routers that detect requests for replicated services and direct the requests to them. Host servers allow one-to-many message delivery from the client to servers and many-to-one message delivery from the servers to the clients. They also provide a low-latency failure estimator to determine server unavailability due to failure or congestion. A management protocol allows to dynamically install or remove service replica and reconfigure the system in case of failure or prolonged congestion of a server in the system. The thesis studies the results obtained by implementing the infrastructure on an experimental testbed. Throughput results indicate that the amount of overhead imposed by using the HydraNet-FT scheme is not unreasonably high.

Shenoy, Gurudatt

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Comparison of coal-based systems: marketability of medium-Btu gas and SNG (substitute natural gas) for industrial applications. Final report, July 1979-March 1982  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In assessing the marketability of synthetic fuel gases from coal, this report emphasizes the determination of the relative attractiveness of substitute natural gas (SNG) and medium-Btu gas (MBG) for serving market needs in eight industrial market areas. The crucial issue in predicting the marketability of coal-based synthetic gas is the future price level of competing conventional alternatives, particularly oil. Under a low oil-price scenario, the market outlook for synthetic gases is not promising, but higher oil prices would encourage coal gasification.

Olsen, D.L.; Trexel, C.A.; Teater, N.R.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

6-ft Wave Flume Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wave Flume Facility Wave Flume Facility Jump to: navigation, search Basic Specifications Facility Name 6-ft Wave Flume Facility Overseeing Organization United States Army Corp of Engineers (ERDC) Hydrodynamic Testing Facility Type Flume Length(m) 105.2 Beam(m) 1.8 Depth(m) 1.8 Water Type Freshwater Cost(per day) Contact POC Towing Capabilities Towing Capabilities None Wavemaking Capabilities Wavemaking Capabilities Yes Maximum Wave Height(m) 0.4 Maximum Wave Height(m) at Wave Period(s) 10.0 Wave Period Range(s) 10.0 Current Velocity Range(m/s) 0.0 Programmable Wavemaking Yes Simulated Beach No Channel/Tunnel/Flume Channel/Tunnel/Flume Yes Recirculating No Wind Capabilities Wind Capabilities None Control and Data Acquisition Description Automated data acquisition and control system

108

Feasibility study for aquaculture and space heating, Ft. Bidwell, California  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Expansion of the aquaculture facilities and geothermal space heating at Ft. Bidwell, California were investigated. The lack of cold water is the limiting factor for aquaculture expansion and is also a problem for the town domestic water supply. A new cold water well approximately 1200 feet deep would provide for the aquaculture expansion and additional domestic water. A 2900 foot test well can be completed to provide additional hot water at approximately 200/sup 0/F and an estimated artesian flow of 500 gpm. If these wells are completed, the aquaculture facility could be expanded to produce 6000 two pound catfish per month on a continuous basis and provide space heating of at least 20 homes. The design provided allows for heating 11 homes initially with possible future expansion. 9 figs.

Culver, G.

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Retrofit the 74,000 sq. ft Illinois National Guard State Headquarter...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

the 74,000 sq. ft Illinois National Guard State Headquarter's building's aging boilerchiller equipment with a geothermal system Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation,...

110

Low-cost CuInSe[sub 2] submodule development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Aim of this project is development and demonstration of processing steps necessary for fabrication of high efficiency CuInSe[sub 2] solar cells and sub-modules by the two-stage technique (also called the selenization method.) During this period, we have optimized the processing parameters of this method and demonstrated CuInSe[sub 2]/CdS/ZnO devices with a 1[endash]4 cm[sup 2] area and up to 12.4% active area efficiency. We have also developed a novel approach for the preparation of Cu/In precursors that improved the stoichiometric and morphological uniformity in these films. We have developed processing steps and tooling for handling up to 1 ft[sup 2] size substrates and as a result of these efforts demonstrated our first monolithically integrated sub-module of 1 ft[sup 2] area. 16 figs, 1 tab, 15 refs.

Basol, B.M.; Kapur, V.K.; Halani, A.; Leidholm, C. (International Solar Electric Technology, Inglewood, CA (United States))

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

CU | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CU CU Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home NEPA Casual Use Determination of NEPA Adequacy Categorical Exclusion Environmental Assessment Environmental Impact Statements Print PDF NEPA-Related Analysis: Casual Use (CU) General Document Collections (26) Documents Regulatory Roadmap Type of NEPA environmental analysis placeholder. This query has been included to allow you to use the black arrows in the table header cells to sort the table data. Document # Serial Number Applicant Lead Agency District Office Field Office Development Phase(s) Techniques NVN-084629 CU, CU Vulcan Energy BLM Nevada State Office BLM Winnemucca District Office BLM Humboldt River Field Office BLM BLM NVN-084630 CU Vulcan Energy BLM Nevada State Office BLM Winnemucca District Office BLM Humboldt River Field Office BLM

112

D0 Silicon Upgrade: Calculating Mass Flow Rates at Sub-Sonic Conditions Trhough Venturis (FT-4052-H & FT-4053-H) and an Orifice Plate (F)-2019-H)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this engineering note is to explain the method involved in calculating the mass flow rates through venturis and orifice plates at sub-sonic conditions. In particular, the mass flow rate calculations are required for two FLOW-DYNE venturi flow meters, serial no. 35821 and no. 35822, and an orifice plate flow meter, serial no. 35823. The two venturis, FT-4052-H and FT-4053-H, are located in the D-Zero VLPC valve box at the refrigerator and the orifice plate, FO-2019-H, is on the high pressure helium supply line in the assembly building.

Zaczek, Mauiusz; /Fermilab

1996-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

113

Cu-Fe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Ternary Fe-Cu-Ni many-body potential to model reactor pressure vessel ... alloy, This file was provided by Giovanni Bonny (Nuclear Materials Science ...

2013-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

114

Cu-Ni  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Ternary Fe-Cu-Ni many-body potential to model reactor pressure vessel ... alloy, This file was provided by Giovanni Bonny (Nuclear Materials Science ...

2013-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

115

FT-IR spectroscopy technology, market evolution and future strategies of Bruker Optics Inc.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis explores the technology and market evolution of FT-IR spectroscopy over its nearly forty year history to aid in determining future product design and marketing strategies for an industry-leading firm, Bruker ...

Higdon, Thomas (Thomas Charles)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Automated on-line determination of PPB levels of sodium and potassium in low-Btu coal gas and fluidized bed combustor exhaust by atomic emission spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), US Department of Energy, is involved in the development of processes and equipment for production of low-Btu gas from coal and for fluidized bed combustion of coal. The ultimate objective is large scale production of electricity using high temperature gas turbines. Such turbines, however, are susceptible to accelerated corrosion and self-destruction when relatively low concentrations of sodium and potassium are present in the driving gas streams. Knowledge and control of the concentrations of those elements, at part per billion levels, are critical to the success of both the gas cleanup procedures that are being investigated and the overall energy conversion processes. This presentation describes instrumentation and procedures developed at the Ames Laboratory for application to the problems outlined above and results that have been obtained so far at METC. The first Ames instruments, which feature an automated, dual channel flame atomic emission spectrometer, perform the sodium and potassium determinations simultaneously, repetitively, and automatically every two to three minutes by atomizing and exciting a fraction of the subject gas sample stream in either an oxyhydrogen flame or a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame. The analytical results are printed and can be transmitted simultaneously to a process control center.

Haas, W.J. Jr.; Eckels, D.E.; Kniseley, R.N.; Fassel, V.A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Nonnative Lizards Nile Monitor 4 to 6 ft. Brown/yellow body bands; forked black/blue tongue; long sharp claws  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Constrictor 6 to 9 ft. Tan oval spots; reddish-brown tail Green Anaconda 13 to 15 ft. Green body; large, round, dark spots; eye stripes Yellow Anaconda 6 to 9 ft. Yellow body; large, dark spots; five dark stripes

Mazzotti, Frank

118

" Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;" 1 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." ,,,,,"Distillate",,,"Coal" ,,,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"(excluding Coal" ,,,"Net","Residual","and","Natural Gas(d)","LPG and","Coke and Breeze)" "NAICS",,"Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(c)","(billion","NGL(e)","(million","Other(f)" "Code(a)","End Use","(trillion Btu)","(million kWh)","(million bbl)","(million bbl)","cu ft)","(million bbl)","short tons)","(trillion Btu)"

119

" Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2010;" 1 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2010;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." ,,,,,,,,,"Coke" ,,,,"Residual","Distillate","Natural Gas(d)","LPG and","Coal","and Breeze" "NAICS",,"Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","(billion","NGL(e)","(million","(million","Other(f)" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","(trillion Btu)","(million kWh)","(million bbl)","(million bbl)","cu ft)","(million bbl)","short tons)","short tons)","(trillion Btu)"

120

"Table A32. Total Quantity of Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region,"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Quantity of Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region," Quantity of Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region," " Census Division, Industry Group, and Selected Industries, 1994" " (Estimates in Btu or Physical Units)" ,,,,,,"Natural",,,"Coke" " "," ","Total","Electricity","Residual","Distillate","Gas(c)"," ","Coal","and Breeze"," ","RSE" "SIC"," ","(trillion","(million","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","(billion","LPG","(1000","(1000","Other(d)","Row" "Code(a)","Industry Group and Industry","Btu)","kWh)","(1000 bbl)","(1000 bbl)","cu ft)","(1000 bbl)","short tons)","short tons)","(trillion Btu)","Factors"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu cu ft" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

" Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006;" 1 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." ,,,,,"Distillate",,,"Coal" ,,,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"(excluding Coal" ,,,"Net","Residual","and","Natural Gas(d)","LPG and","Coke and Breeze)" "NAICS",,"Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(c)","(billion","NGL(e)","(million","Other(f)" "Code(a)","End Use","(trillion Btu)","(million kWh)","(million bbl)","(million bbl)","cu ft)","(million bbl)","short tons)","(trillion Btu)"

122

" Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 Fuel Consumption, 2006;" 1 Fuel Consumption, 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." ,,,,,,,,,,,,"Coke" ,,,,"Net",,"Residual","Distillate","Natural Gas(d)",,"LPG and","Coal","and Breeze" "NAICS",,"Total",,"Electricity(b)",,"Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","(billion",,"NGL(e)","(million","(million","Other(f)" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","(trillion Btu)",,"(million kWh)",,"(million bbl)","(million bbl)","cu ft)",,"(million bbl)","short tons)","short tons)","(trillion Btu)"

123

"Table A22. Total Quantity of Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region,"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Total Quantity of Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region," 2. Total Quantity of Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region," " Industry Group, and Selected Industries, 1991" " (Estimates in Btu or Physical Units)" ,,,,,,"Natural",,,"Coke" " "," ","Total","Electricity","Residual","Distillate","Gas(c)"," ","Coal","and Breeze"," ","RSE" "SIC"," ","(trillion","(million","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","(billion","LPG","(1000","(1000","Other(d)","Row" "Code(a)","Industry Groups and Industry","Btu)","kWh)","(1000 bbls)","(1000 bbls)","cu ft)","(1000 bbls)","short tons)","short tons)","(trillion Btu)","Factors"

124

Originally Released: July 2009  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 2006;" 1 Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." ,,,,,,,,,,,"Coke" ,,,,"Residual","Distillate","Natural Gas(c)",,"LPG and",,"Coal","and Breeze" "NAICS",,"Total",,"Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","(billion",,"NGL(d)",,"(million","(million","Other(e)" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","(trillion Btu)",,"(million bbl)","(million bbl)","cu ft)",,"(million bbl)",,"short tons)","short tons)","(trillion Btu)"

125

Table A9. Total Primary Consumption of Energy for All Purposes by Census  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

A9. Total Primary Consumption of Energy for All Purposes by Census" A9. Total Primary Consumption of Energy for All Purposes by Census" " Region and Economic Characteristics of the Establishment, 1991" " (Estimates in Btu or Physical Units)" ,,,,,,,,"Coke" " "," ","Net","Residual","Distillate","Natural Gas(d)"," ","Coal","and Breeze"," ","RSE" " ","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","(billion","LPG","(1000","(1000","Other(e)","Row" "Economic Characteristics(a)","(trillion Btu)","(million kWh)","(1000 bbls)","(1000 bbls)","(cu ft)","(1000 bbls)","short tons)","short tons)","(trillion Btu)","Factors"

126

"Table A33. Total Quantity of Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region, Census Division,"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Quantity of Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region, Census Division," Quantity of Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region, Census Division," " and Economic Characteristics of the Establishment, 1994" " (Estimates in Btu or Physical Units)" ,,,,,"Natural",,,"Coke" " ","Total","Electricity","Residual","Distillate","Gas(c)"," ","Coal","and Breeze","Other(d)","RSE" " ","(trillion","(million","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","(billion","LPG","(1000 ","(1000","(trillion","Row" "Economic Characteristics(a)","Btu)","kWh)","(1000 bbl)","(1000 bbl)","cu ft)","(1000 bbl)","short tons)","short tons)","Btu)","Factors"

127

Moessbauer spectroscopy studies of iron-catalysts used in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) processes. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

University of Kentucky has been developing Fischer-Tropsch catalysts which are active at a low H{sub 2}/CO ratio. It is of interest to find out any relationships that may exist between the iron phases that are produced during activation and FT synthesis and the activity of the catalysts. Moessbauer spectroscopy investigations were carried out on 16 iron-based catalysts during the period under review. Moessbauer measurements on two of the samples were also carried out at 13.5 K. The composition of one set of the catalysts studied consists of 100Fe/3.6Si/0.71K (all atomic % relative to Fe). Activation was carried out in syngas at a low pressure of 1 atm to investigate the effect of low pressure activation as compared to high pressure activation. The composition of a second set of catalysts consisted of 100Fe/3.6Si/2.6Cu/0.71K (all atomic % relative to Fe) and activation was carried out in syngas at a relatively high pressure of 12 atm. The composition of a third set of catalysts consisted of 100Fe/4.4Si/2.6Cu/1.0K (all atomic % relative to Fe) and activation was carried out in H{sub 2} at 1 atm. In all the cases the temperature was kept at 270 C and space velocity at 3.3nL/hr-g(Fe) for 24hrs. Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis was carried out at 13 atm at 270 C, 3.4nL/hr-g(Fe) syngas/g-Fe/hrs.

Huffman, G.P.; Rao, K.R.P.M.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

"Table A49. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas" 9. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas" " by Type of Supplier, Census Region, and Economic Characteristics of the" " Establishment, 1991" " (Estimates in Dollars per Physical Units)" ," Electricity",," Steam",," Natural Gas" ," (Million kWh)",," (Billion Btu)",," (1000 cu ft)" ,"-","-----------","-","-----------","-","-","-","RSE" " ","Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Transmission","Other","Row"

129

Dilaton Dark Energy Model in f(R), f(T) and Horava-Lifshitz Gravities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, we have considered dilaton dark energy model in Weyl-scaled induced gravitational theory in presence of barotropic fluid. It is to be noted that the dilaton field behaves as a quintessence. Here we have discussed the role of dilaton dark energy in modified gravity theories namely, f(R); f(T) and Horava-Lifshitz gravities and analyzed the behaviour of the dilaton field and the corresponding potential in respect to these modified gravity theories instead of Einstein's gravity. In f(R) and f(T) gravities, we have considered some particular forms of f(R) and f(T) and we have shown that the potentials always increase with the dilaton fields. But in Horava-Lifshitz gravity, it has been seen that the potential always decreases as dilation field increases.

Khatua, Piyali Bagchi; Debnath, Ujjal

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Reconstruction of f(T) gravity from the Holographic dark energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Among different candidates to play the role of Dark Energy (DE), modified gravity has emerged as offering a possible unification of Dark Matter (DM) and DE. The purpose of this work is to develop a reconstruction scheme for the modified gravity with $f(T)$ action using holographic energy density. In the framework of the said modified gravity we have considered the equation of state of the Holographic DE (HDE) density. Subsequently we have developed a reconstruction scheme for modified gravity with $f(T)$ action. Finally we have obtained a modified gravity action consistent with the HDE scenario.

Chattopadhyay, Surajit

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Reconstruction of f(T) gravity from the Holographic dark energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Among different candidates to play the role of Dark Energy (DE), modified gravity has emerged as offering a possible unification of Dark Matter (DM) and DE. The purpose of this work is to develop a reconstruction scheme for the modified gravity with $f(T)$ action using holographic energy density. In the framework of the said modified gravity we have considered the equation of state of the Holographic DE (HDE) density. Subsequently we have developed a reconstruction scheme for modified gravity with $f(T)$ action. Finally we have obtained a modified gravity action consistent with the HDE scenario.

Surajit Chattopadhyay; Antonio Pasqua

2012-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

132

Ultra-clean Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Fuels Production and Demonstration Project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of the DOE-NETL Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Production and Demonstration Program was to produce and evaluate F-T fuel derived from domestic natural gas. The project had two primary phases: (1) fuel production of ultra-clean diesel transportation fuels from domestic fossil resources; and (2) demonstration and performance testing of these fuels in engines. The project also included a well-to-wheels economic analysis and a feasibility study of small-footprint F-T plants (SFPs) for remote locations such as rural Alaska. During the fuel production phase, ICRC partnered and cost-shared with Syntroleum Corporation to complete the mechanical design, construction, and operation of a modular SFP that converts natural gas, via F-T and hydro-processing reactions, into hydrogensaturated diesel fuel. Construction of the Tulsa, Oklahoma plant started in August 2002 and culminated in the production of over 100,000 gallons of F-T diesel fuel (S-2) through 2004, specifically for this project. That fuel formed the basis of extensive demonstrations and evaluations that followed. The ultra-clean F-T fuels produced had virtually no sulfur (less than 1 ppm) and were of the highest quality in terms of ignition quality, saturation content, backend volatility, etc. Lubricity concerns were investigated to verify that commercially available lubricity additive treatment would be adequate to protect fuel injection system components. In the fuel demonstration and testing phase, two separate bus fleets were utilized. The Washington DC Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) and Denali National Park bus fleets were used because they represented nearly opposite ends of several spectra, including: climate, topography, engine load factor, mean distance between stops, and composition of normally used conventional diesel fuel. Fuel evaluations in addition to bus fleet demonstrations included: bus fleet emission measurements; F-T fuel cold weather performance; controlled engine dynamometer lab evaluation; cold-start test-cell evaluations; overall feasibility, economics, and efficiency of SFP fuel production; and an economic analysis. Two unexpected issues that arose during the project were further studied and resolved: variations in NOx emissions were accounted for and fuel-injection nozzle fouling issues were traced to the non-combustible (ash) content of the engine oil, not the F-T fuel. The F-T fuel domestically produced and evaluated in this effort appears to be a good replacement candidate for petroleum-based transportation fuels. However, in order for domestic F-T fuels to become a viable cost-comparable alternative to petroleum fuels, the F-T fuels will need to be produced from abundant U.S. domestic resources such as coal and biomass, rather than stranded natural gas.

Stephen P. Bergin

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

133

The distinctions between $?$CDM and $f(T)$ gravity according Noether symmetry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Noether's theory offers us a useful tool to research the conserved quantities and symmetries of the modified gravity theories, among which the $f(T)$ theory, a generally modified teleparallel gravity, has been proposed to account for the dark energy phenomena. By the Noether symmetry approach, we investigate the power-law, exponential and polynomial forms of $f(T)$ theories. All forms of $f(T)$ concerned in this work possess the time translational symmetry, which is related with energy condition or Hamilton constraint. In addition, we find out that the performances of the power-law and exponential forms are not pleasing. It is rational adding a linear term $T$ to $T^n$ as the most efficient amendment to resemble the teleparallel gravity or General Relativity on small scales, ie., the scale of the solar system. The corresponding Noether symmetry indicates that only time translational symmetry remains. Through numerically calculations and observational data-sets constraining, the optimal form $\\alpha T + \\beta T^{-1}$ is obtained, whose cosmological solution resembles the standard $\\Lambda$CDM best with lightly reduced cosmic age which can be alleviated by introducing another $T^m$ term. More important is that we find the significant differences between $\\Lambda$CDM and $f(T)$ gravity. The $\\Lambda$CDM model has also two additional symmetries and corresponding positive conserved quantities, except the two negative conserved quantities.

Han Dong; Jiaxin Wang; Xinhe Meng

2013-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

134

Low-cost CuInSe{sub 2} submodule development. Final subcontract report, 9 July 1990--31 January 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Aim of this project is development and demonstration of processing steps necessary for fabrication of high efficiency CuInSe{sub 2} solar cells and sub-modules by the two-stage technique (also called the selenization method.) During this period, we have optimized the processing parameters of this method and demonstrated CuInSe{sub 2}/CdS/ZnO devices with a 1{endash}4 cm{sup 2} area and up to 12.4% active area efficiency. We have also developed a novel approach for the preparation of Cu/In precursors that improved the stoichiometric and morphological uniformity in these films. We have developed processing steps and tooling for handling up to 1 ft{sup 2} size substrates and as a result of these efforts demonstrated our first monolithically integrated sub-module of 1 ft{sup 2} area. 16 figs, 1 tab, 15 refs.

Basol, B.M.; Kapur, V.K.; Halani, A.; Leidholm, C. [International Solar Electric Technology, Inglewood, CA (United States)

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Shape selective catalysts for F-T chemistry. Interim report : January 2001 - December 2002.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is carrying out a research program to create, prepare, and evaluate catalysts to promote Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) chemistry, specifically the reaction of hydrogen with carbon monoxide to form long-chain hydrocarbons. In addition to F-T catalysts needing high activity, it is desirable that they have high selectivity and stability with respect to both mechanical strength and aging properties. In this project, selectivity is directed toward the production of diesel fraction components and avoiding excess yields of both light hydrocarbons and heavy waxes. Shape-selective catalysts have the potential to both limit the formation of long-chain products and yet retain the active metal sites in a protected ''cage.'' This cage also restricts their loss by attrition during use in slurry-bed reactors. Experimentation has included evaluation of samples of (1) iron-based F-T catalysts prepared at Argonne National Laboratory, (2) iron-based F-T catalysts prepared by B.H. Davis of the Center of Applied Energy Research (CAER), (3) the Davis catalyst that were sized by differential gravity separation, and (4) the Davis catalyst onto which inorganic or catalytic ''shells'' were deposited. The ANL-prepared samples had a wide range of particle size and were irregular in shape. A sizeable portion of the samples provided by Davis were spherical, because they had been prepared by spray-drying. To compare the catalytic activities of the samples, we used a micro-scale fixed-bed reactor system for F-T runs of low conversion to avoid thermal and mass transfer effects. In summary, the highest activity was that of the original Davis catalyst; additional research must be carried out to generate more permeable surface cages. A number of approaches that have been published for other applications will be tested.

Cronauer, D. C.

2003-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

136

Million Cu. Feet  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 Alaska - Natural Gas 2010 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table 29. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas - Alaska, 2006-2010 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year................................................... 231 239 261 261 269 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells .............................................. 193,654 165,624 150,483 137,639 127,417 From Oil Wells ................................................ 3,012,097 3,313,666 3,265,401

137

Variability of biomass chemical composition and rapid analysis using FT-NIR techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A quick method for analyzing the chemical composition of renewable energy biomass feedstock was developed by using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis. The study presents the broad-based model hypothesis that a single FT-NIR predictive model can be developed to analyze multiple types of biomass feedstock. The two most important biomass feedstocks corn stover and switchgrass were evaluated for the variability in their concentrations of the following components: glucan, xylan, galactan, arabinan, mannan, lignin, and ash. A hypothesis test was developed based upon these two species. Both cross-validation and independent validation results showed that the broad-based model developed is promising for future chemical prediction of both biomass species; in addition, the results also showed the method's prediction potential for wheat straw.

Liu, Lu [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Ye, Philip [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

·ies for solar heating and cooling of buildings," Energy andsolar radiation intensity)building heating load and buildingsolar radiation intensity (Btu/ft2-hr), heating load (Btu/hr) and cooling load (Btu/hr) for a building

Cairns, E.L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Requirements for boom lift operations is to tether an adjustable 6' lanyard to 3ft while operating a boom lift  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fall Protection Requirements for Boom Lift Fall Protection Requirements for Boom Lift 2010 Requirements for boom lift operations is to tether an adjustable 6' lanyard to 3ft while operating a boom lift. While operating a JLG Aerial lift. LBNL best practices requirements for boom lift Operations is to tether an adjustable 6' lanyard to 3ft while operating a boom lift. January 14, 2009 OSHA Letter # 20070823-7896 - Whether a manufacturer stipulated minimum anchor point elevation of 18½ feet precludes the use of a shock absorbing lanyard in an aerial lift. (See attached Letter) An adjustable 6' lanyard to 3ft will keep the operator from protected from being ejected out of the lift. If a non-adjustable 6ft lanyard is used for fall restraint it is required that fall distance from the anchor point must be at a height not under

140

RiPed_By_ILookImager*p* #e?**íüç??ií /ft*rp-A,dçåST?L ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

RiPed_By_ILookImager*p*?#e?**íüç??ií /ft*rp-A,dçåST?L*6?É¢?î?OÉ? 42^¢*aÇå ? ????òl*¼ex?fAá7?«?ü?*?4TE?u\\?±«?X ...

2005-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu cu ft" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Improved prediction of biomass composition for switchgrass using reproducing kernel methods with wavelet compressed FT-NIR spectra  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) technique is an effective approach to predict chemical properties and can be applied to online monitoring in bio-energy industry. High dimensionality and collinearity of the FT-NIR spectral data makes it difficult ... Keywords: Fourier transform near-infrared spectra, Kernel partial least squares regression, Kernel ridge regression, Reproducing kernel Hilbert space, Vertical energy thresholding technique, Wavelet transform

Jong I. Park; Lu Liu; X. Philip Ye; Myong K. Jeong; Young-Seon Jeong

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

On the Gravitational Energy-Momentum Vector in f(T) Theories  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work is devoted to analyze the energy of the Universe in the context of f(T) theories. Such theories are the analogous counterpart of the well known f(R) theories that, however, uses torsion instead of curvature. We obtain a general expression for the gravitational energy-momentum vector in this framework. Using the hypothesis of the isotropy of spacetime, we find the energy of the Universe and compare it with the energy obtained in the realm of teleparallelism equivalent to general relativity (TEGR).

Ulhoa, S C

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Moessbauer spectroscopy studies of iron-catalysts used in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) processes. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Texas A and M University has been developing Fischer-Tropsch catalysts which are active at a low H{sub 2}/CO ratio of 0.67. It is of interest to find out any relationships that may exist between the iron phases that are produced during activation and FT synthesis and the activity of the catalysts. Moessbauer spectroscopy investigations were carried out on 13 iron-based catalysts during the period under review. The catalysts were taken from fixed bed reactors at the end of the tests. All the catalysts were mixed with glass beads. The glass beads were removed to a large extent by a hand held magnet. For each run, samples were taken from both top and bottom of the reactor to find out whether there are any differences between the two samples taken from different regions of the reactor. The catalysts with 24 parts of SiO{sub 2} were reduced with H{sub 2} at 250C for 24h, and the catalysts with 16 parts of SiO{sub 2} were reduced with H{sub 2} at 240C for 2h. All the test were carried out at 250C, 200 psig, 2.0nL(syngas)/g-cat/h with H{sub 2}/CO feed ratio of 0.67. The compositions of the catalysts studied are given in a table. Three catalysts consisted of Ca in addition to Cu and K.

Huffman, G.P.; Rao, K.R.P.M.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Table 1.1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2010; 1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Coke and Shipments Net Residual Distillate Natural Gas(e) LPG and Coal Breeze of Energy Sources NAICS Total(b) Electricity(c) Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(d) (billion NGL(f) (million (million Other(g) Produced Onsite(h) Code(a) Subsector and Industry (trillion Btu) (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) short tons) (trillion Btu) (trillion Btu) Total United States 311 Food 1,162 75,407 2 4 567 2 8 * 96 * 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 355 16,479 * * 119 Q 6 0 47 * 311221 Wet Corn Milling 215 7,467 * * 51 * 5 0 26 0 31131 Sugar Manufacturing

145

Can $f(T)$ gravity theories mimic $\\Lambda$CDM cosmic history  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recently the teleparallel Lagrangian density described by the torsion scalar T has been extended to a function of T. The $f(T)$ modified teleparallel gravity has been proposed as the natural gravitational alternative for dark energy to explain the late time acceleration of the universe. In order to reconstruct the function $f(T)$ by demanding a background $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology we assume that, (i) the background cosmic history provided by the flat $\\Lambda$CDM (the radiation ere with $\\omega_{eff}=1/3$, matter and de Sitter eras with $\\omega_{eff}=0$ and $\\omega_{eff}=-1$, respectively) (ii) the radiation dominate in the radiation era with $\\Omega_{0r}=1$ and the matter dominate during the matter phases when $\\Omega_{0m}=1$. We find the cosmological dynamical system which can obey the $\\Lambda$CDM cosmic history. In each era, we find a critical lines that, the radiation dominated and the matter dominated are one points of them in the radiation and matter phases, respectively. Also, we drive the cosmologically...

Setare, M R

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

The influence of dietary Cu and diabetes on tissue sup 67 Cu retention kinetics in rats  

SciTech Connect

Compared to controls, diabetes results in higher plasma, liver and kidney Cu concentrations. Since alterations in Cu metabolism may be associated with diabetic pathology, the authors investigated how Cu metabolism is affected by diabetes and dietary Cu intake. Nondiabetic and STZ diabetic rats were fed Cu suppl. or Cu def. diets for 5 wks. Rats were intubated with 28 {mu}Ci {sup 67}Cu and killed after 8, 16, 24, 32, 64, or 128 h. There were marked effects of both diet and diabetes on {sup 67}Cu metabolism. Independent of diabetes, deficient rats had a higher % of retained {sup 67}Cu, in liver, plasma, RBC, muscle, spleen, brain, lung, uterus, and intestine than adequate Cu rats. Independent of dietary Cu, diabetic rats had a lower % of retained {sup 67}Cu in liver, plasma, RBC, muscle, spleen, lung, bone, pancreas, skin, uterus and heart than controls. Differential effects were noted for kidney; adequate Cu diabetic rats had a higher % of retained {sup 67}Cu than all other groups. Marked effects of both diet and diabetes were evident when tissue Cu turnover was examined. Compared to Cu suppl. rats, Cu def. rats had a slower turnover of {sup 67}Cu, in liver, plasma, intestine, pancreas, eye, brain, muscle, spleen, lung and heart. Diabetic rats had a slower turnover of {sup 67}Cu than nondiabetic rats in liver, plasma, intestine, pancreas, eye, kidney, RBC and uterus. The data imply that a focus on Cu metabolism with regard to cellular Cu trafficking and pathology may be warranted.

Uriu-Hare, J.Y.; Rucker, R.B.; Keen, C.L. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States))

1991-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

147

I CLASSiFtCArlON CHANiED FAIJC-ABC-286  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Y ~L.ho-I . Y ~L.ho-I . I CLASSiFtCArlON CHANiED FAIJC-ABC-286 : This dooumetlt consists 0.f 3 pages E end p. t' &ures. No. a of &copies. a Seriee A. 7 Novembar 6, 1944 Subject: Visit to Fansteel Netallurgical Corporaticn, North Chicago, Novembar 4, 1944 - AwAlabilityof~lnmbium!kkl Chapin, Simmons end I discussed witb~. C. N. B&e (ResearchDirector) . end LIr. F.L.Hunter (Chief&ineer, TanteInmDivision) availability, purity, and @co of columbiwn,metel. columbium metal is of particular interest to the Project because tuballoy-columbium alloys containing about 4$ or more of columbium are remarkably corrosion resistant. An 'order has &ready been &.ced for 30 lbs. of columbium metal, end it is cerW that large qutnititicsof them&al willbeneededin order that

148

Behaviour of interacting Ricci dark energy in logarithmic f(T) gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the present work we have considered a modified gravity dubbed as "logarithmic $f(T)$ gravity" and investigated the behavior of Ricci dark energy interacting with pressureless dark matter. We have chosen the interaction term in the form $Q\\propto H\\delta\\rho_{m}$ and investigated the behavior of the Hubble parameter $H$ as a function of the redshift $z$. For this reconstructed $H$ we have investigated the behavior of the density of the Ricci dark energy $\\rho_{RDE}$ and density contribution due to torsion $\\rho_{T}$. All of the said cosmological parameters are seen to have increasing behavior from higher to lower redshifts for all values of $c^{2}$ pertaining to the Ricci dark energy. Subsequently, we observed the equation of state parameter $w_{RDE}$ in this situation. The equation of state parameter is found to behave like phantom for all choices of $c^{2}$ in the Ricci dark energy.

Rahul Ghosh; Surajit Chattopadhyay

2012-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

149

Electrodeposited NiCo/Cu Superlattices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NiCo/Cu superlattices were electrodeposited on polycrystalline Cu substrates from a single electrolyte under potentiostatic control. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that NiCo/Cu superlattices have the same crystal structure and texture as in their substrates. The films exhibited giant magnetoresistance (GMR) or anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR), depending on the Cu layer thicknesses.

Safak, M.; Alper, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Literature, University of Uludag, Goeruekle, Bursa (Turkey)

2007-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

150

Released: March 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.5;" 5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.5;" " Unit: Percents." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ","Coal"," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"(excluding Coal" " "," ","Net","Residual","and","Natural Gas(c)","LPG and","Coke and Breeze)"," " " ","Total","Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","(billion","NGL(d)","(million","Other(e)" "End Use","(trillion Btu)","(million kWh)","(million bbl)","(million bbl)","cu ft)","(million bbl)","short tons)","(trillion Btu

151

Released: June 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.6;" 6 Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.6;" " Unit: Percents." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," " " "," ",,,,,,,,"Coke" " "," "," ",,"Residual","Distillate","Natural Gas(c)","LPG and","Coal","and Breeze"," " "NAICS"," ","Total","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","(billion","NGL(d)","(million","(million","Other(e)" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","(trillion Btu)","(million kWh)","(million bbl)","(million bbl)","cu ft)","(million bbl)","short tons)","short tons)","(trillion Btu)"

152

Released: July 2009  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 Relative Standard Errors for Table 4.1, 2006;" 1 Relative Standard Errors for Table 4.1, 2006;" " Unit: Percents." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," " " "," ",,,,,,,,"Coke" " "," "," ",,"Residual","Distillate","Natural Gas(d)","LPG and","Coal","and Breeze"," " "NAICS"," ","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","(billion","NGL(e)","(million","(million","Other(f)" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","(trillion Btu)","(million kWh)","(million bbl)","(million bbl)","cu ft)","(million bbl)","short tons)","short tons)","(trillion Btu)"

153

Released: July 2009  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.1, 2006;" 1 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.1, 2006;" " Unit: Percents." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," " " "," ",,,,,,,,"Coke" " "," "," ","Net","Residual","Distillate","Natural Gas(d)","LPG and","Coal","and Breeze"," " "NAICS"," ","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","(billion","NGL(e)","(million","(million","Other(f)" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","(trillion Btu)","(million kWh)","(million bbl)","(million bbl)","cu ft)","(million bbl)","short tons)","short tons)","(trillion Btu)"

154

Rolling Thunder -- Integration of the Solo 161 Stirling engine with the CPG-460 solar concentrator at Ft. Huachuca  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Project Rolling Thunder is a dish/Stirling demonstration project at Ft. Huachuca, a US Army fort in southeastern Arizona (Huachuca means rolling thunder in Apache). It has been supported by the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), a cooperative program between the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Department of Energy (DOE). As part of a 1992 SERDP project, Cummins Power Generation, Inc. (CPG) installed a CPG 7 kW(c) dish/Stirling system at the Joint Interoperability Test Command (JITC) in Ft. Huachuca, Arizona. The primary objective of the SERDP Dish/Stirling for DoD Applications project was to demonstrate a CPG 7-kW(c) dish/Stirling system at a military facility. Unfortunately, Cummins Engine Company decided to divest its solar operations. As a direct result of Ft. Huachuca`s interest in the Cummins dish/Stirling technology, Sandia explored the possibility of installing a SOLO 161 Stirling power conversion unit (PCU) on the Ft. Huachuca CPG-460. In January 1997, a decision was made to retrofit a SOLO 161 Stirling engine on the CPG-460 at Ft. Huachuca. Project Rolling Thunder. The SOLO 161 Demonstration at Ft. Huachuca has been a challenge. Although, the SOLO 161 PCU has operated nearly flawlessly and the CPG-460 has been, for the most part, a solid and reliable component, integration of the SOLO PCU with the CPG-460 has required significant attention. In this paper, the integration issues and technical approaches of project Rolling Thunder are presented. Lessons of the project are also discussed.

Diver, R.B.; Moss, T.A.; Goldberg, V.; Thomas, G.; Beaudet, A.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

The effect of dietary Cu and diabetes on indices of Cu nutriture in the rat  

SciTech Connect

The uptake-retention of 67Cu is affected by dietary Cu and diabetes. Consequently, the functional activities of select enzymes and tissue Cu status were assessed. STZ-diabetic and control rats were fed Cu suppl. or def. diets. Rats were gavaged with 28 {mu}Ci 67Cu, and killed 8, 16, 24, 32, 64, or 128 h later. Diabetic rats were hyperphagic, hyperglycemic and hypoinsulinemic; with no effect of diet. Plasma ceruloplasmin activity (Cp) was lower in Cu def. rats; diabetic rats tended to have higher Cp than controls. Cu def. rats had low Cu levels in liver, kidney and plasma. Cu suppl. diabetic rats had higher liver and kidney Cu compared to Cu def. diabetic rats. Gel chromatography of liver showed that with time, there was a transfer of 67Cu from low to higher MW ligands. In nondiabetic rats, more 67Cu was associated with the higher MW ligands. The converse was observed for diabetic rats. There was no effect of diabetes on liver 67Cu localization. Diabetic rats had higher metallothionein (MT) concentrations in liver and kidney compared to controls Cu deficiency lowered MT values in both diabetic and control rats. CuZn SOD Cu activity was lowered with Cu def. and diabetes, while Mn SOD activity was similar among groups. Plasma lipid peroxide levels were lower in diabetic rats than controls. The results show that Cu metabolism is affected in diabetes, and the changes are functionally significant.

Rucker, R.B.; Uriu-Hare, J.Y.; Tinker, D.; Keen, C.L. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States))

1991-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

156

A Novel 9.4 Tesla FT-ICR Mass Spectrometer with Improved Sensitivity, Mass Resolution, and Mass Range, for Petroleum Heavy Crude Oil Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Novel 9.4 Tesla FT-ICR Mass Spectrometer with Improved Sensitivity, Mass Resolution, and Mass advances in instrument speed and sensitivity. We have redesigned our custom built 9 4 tesla FT ICR New 9 = 800 000 [C32H55S1+H]+ [C35H51+H]+ We have redesigned our custom-built 9.4 tesla FT-ICR mass

Weston, Ken

157

Driving Force of EM-Induced Cu Dissolution in Cu-Sn Compound  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Both forces would simultaneously result in Cu dissolution fluxes from the Cu-Sn ... Method of Selective Electroplating having Strong Adhesion and Exceptional ...

158

Technology development for cobalt F-T catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this project is the development of a commercially viable, cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalyst for use in a slurry bubble column reactor. Cobalt-based catalysts have long been known as being active for F-T synthesis. They typically possess greater activity than iron-based catalysts, historically the predominant catalyst being used commercially for the conversion of syngas based on coal, but possess two disadvantages that somewhat lessen its value: (1) cobalt tends to make more methane than iron does, and (2) cobalt is less versatile with low H{sub 2}/CO ratio syngas due to its lack of water-gas shift activity. Therefore, the major objectives of this work are (1) to develop a cobalt-based F-T catalyst with low (< 5 %) methane selectivity, (2) to develop a cobalt-based F-T catalyst with water-gas shift activity, and (3) to combine both these improvements into one catalyst. It will be demonstrated that these catalysts have the desired activity, selectivity, and life, and can be made reproducibly. Following this experimental work, a design and a cost estimate will be prepared for a plant to produce sufficient quantities of catalyst for scale-up studies.

Singleton, A.H.

1994-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

159

Technology development for cobalt F-T catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report No. 8, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to investigate the influence of various promoters, additives, and supports on minimizing the methane selectivity and increasing the water-gas shift (WGS) activity of cobalt (Co) Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalysts. The ultimate goal of this investigation is to identify and demonstrate a catalyst preparation procedure that will be scaled up for the reproducible synthesis of commercial quantities of supported Co catalysts with desired activity, selectivity, and lifetime for use in F-T synthesis in three-phase slurry bubble column reactors. Accomplishments for this quarter are: Four new catalysts were formulated and prepared during this period under both subtasks 1.2 and 1.3 and five more catalysts were prepared by Calsicat; The characterization of all the catalysts in order to determine their physical properties (BET surface area, pore volume, pore size diameter, particle size distribution), as well as the cobalt reducibility, extent of reduction, and dispersion) was continued; Seven new catalysts have been tested for their F-T synthesis performance; An investigation of the effect of pre-treatment (i.e. calcination in static air versus flowing air, direct reduction without prior calcination) of a selected number of catalysts upon their performance for F-T synthesis was continued during this period.

Singleton, A.H.

1995-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

160

Technology development for cobalt F-T catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this project is the development of a commercially viable, cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalyst for use in a slurry bubble column reactor. Cobalt-based catalysts have long been known as being active for F-T synthesis. They typically possess greater activity than iron-based catalysts, historically the predominant catalyst being used commercially for the conversion of syngas based on coal, but possess two disadvantages that somewhat lessen its value: (1) cobalt tends to make more methane than iron does, and (2) cobalt is less versatile with low H2/CO ratio syngas due to its lack of water-gas shift activity. Therefore, the major objectives of this work are (1) to develop a cobalt-based F-T catalyst with low ( < 5 %) methane selectivity, (2) to develop a cobalt-based F-T catalyst with water-gas shift activity, and (3) to combine both these improvements into one catalyst. It will be demonstrated that these catalysts have the desired activity, selectivity, and life, and can be made reproducibly. Following this experimental work, a design and a cost estimate will be prepared for a plant to produce sufficient quantities of catalyst for scale-up studies.

Singleton, A.H.

1993-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

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161

Table A38. Selected Combustible Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1" 1" " (Estimates in Btu or Physical Units)",,,,,,,"Coal" ,,,,"Distillate",,,"(excluding" ,,"Net Demand",,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal Coke" ,,"for","Residual","and","Natural Gas(d)",,"and Breeze)","RSE" "SIC",,"Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(c)","(billion","LPG","(1000 short","Row" "Code(a)","End-Use Categories","(million kWh)","(1000 bbls)","(1000 bbls)","cu ft)","(1000 bbls)","tons)","Factors" "20-39","ALL INDUSTRY GROUPS"

162

Table A12. Selected Combustible Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Type and End Use," Type and End Use," " 1994: Part 1" " (Estimates in Btu or Physical Units)" ,,,,,,,"Coal" ,,,,"Distillate",,,"(excluding" ,,"Net Demand",,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal Coke" ,,"for","Residual","and","Natural Gas(d)",,"and Breeze)","RSE" "SIC",,"Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(c)","(billion","LPG","(1000 short","Row" "Code(a)","End-Use Categories","(million kWh)","(1000 bbls)","(1000 bbls)","cu ft)","(1000 bbls)","tons)","Factors"

163

Table 7.3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2010; 3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units. Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Electricity Natural Gas Steam Electricity from Sources Natural Gas from Sources Steam from Sources Electricity from Local Other than Natural Gas from Local Other than Steam from Local Other than NAICS Total Utility(b) Local Utility(c) Total Utility(b) Local Utility(c) Total Utility(b) Local Utility(c) Code(a) Subsector and Industry (kWh) (kWh) (kWh) (1000 cu ft) (1000 cu ft) (1000 cu ft) (million Btu)

164

Experimental program for the development of peat gasification. Process designs and cost estimates for the manufacture of 250 billion Btu/day SNG from peat by the PEATGAS Process. Interim report No. 8  

SciTech Connect

This report presents process designs for the manufacture of 250 billion Btu's per day of SNG by the PEATGAS Process from peats. The purpose is to provide a preliminary assessment of the process requirements and economics of converting peat to SNG by the PEATGAS Process and to provide information needed for the Department of Energy (DOE) to plan the scope of future peat gasification studies. In the process design now being presented, peat is dried to 35% moisture before feeding to the PEATGAS reactor. This is the basic difference between the Minnesota peat case discussed in the current report and that presented in the Interim Report No. 5. The current design has overall economic advantages over the previous design. In the PEATGAS Process, peat is gasified at 500 psig in a two-stage reactor consisting of an entrained-flow hydrogasifier followed by a fluidized-bed char gasifier using steam and oxygen. The gasifier operating conditions and performance are necessarily based on the gasification kinetic model developed for the PEATGAS reactor using the laboratory- and PDU-scale data as of March 1978 and April 1979, respectively. On the basis of the available data, this study concludes that, although peat is a low-bulk density and low heating value material requiring large solids handling costs, the conversion of peat to SNG appears competitive with other alternatives being considered for producing SNG because of its very favorable gasification characteristics (high methane formation tendency and high reactivity). As a direct result of the encouraging technical and economic results, DOE is planning to modify the HYGAS facility in order to begin a peat gasification pilot plant project.

Arora, J.L.; Tsaros, C.L.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Technology development for cobalt F-T catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report No. 9, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this Project is to investigate the influence of various promoters, additives, and supports on minimizing the methane selectivity and increasing the water-gas shift (WGS) activity of cobalt (Co) Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalysts. The ultimate goal of this investigation is to identify and demonstrate a catalyst preparation Procedure that will be scaled up for the reproducible synthesis of commercial quantities of supported CO catalysts with desired activity, sleectivity, and lifetime for use in F-T synthesis in three-phase slurry bubble column reactors. Seven new catalysts were formulated and prepared during this period under both subtasks 1.2 and 1.3. Two more catalysts were prepared by Calsicat. The characterization of all the catalysts in order to determine their physical properties (BET surface area, pore volume, pore size diameter, particle size distribution), as well as the cobalt reducibility, extent of reduction, and dispersion) was continued. Fixed-bed reactor testing of the catalysts was continued. Six new catalysts were tested for their F-T synthesis performance. An investigation of the effect of pretreatment in various atmospheres (calcination in air or nitrogen prior to reduction in hydrogen, direct reduction without prior calcination, and reductiono)ddation-reduction (ROR)) of a selected number of catalysts upon their performance for F-T synthesis was continued during this period. Under subtask 2.2 during this reporting period a total of 11 runs were made in the two slurry bubble column reactors with eleven catalysts, including five on alumina, two from Calsicat, one WGS blend, and three on silica support. Four high CO conversion runs were made. Data were compiled to compare the CO conversions and product selectivities of the-methane reduction catalysts.

Singleton, A.H.

1995-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

166

Effective Dark Energy Models and Dark Energy Models with Bounce in frames of $F(T)$ Gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Various cosmological models in frames of $F(T)$ gravity are considered. The general scheme of constructing effective dark energy models with various evolution is presented. It is showed that these models in principle are compatible with $\\Lambda$CDM model. The dynamics of universe governed by $F(T)$ gravity can mimics $\\Lambda$CDM evolution in past but declines from it in a future. We also construct some dark energy models with the "real" (non-effective) equation-of-state parameter $w$ such that $w\\leq-1$. It is showed that in $F(T)$ gravity the Universe filled phantom field not necessarily ends its existence in singularity. There are two possible mechanisms permitting the final singularity. Firstly due to the nonlinear dependence between energy density and $H^{2}$ ($H$ is the Hubble parameter) the universe can expands not so fast as in the general relativity and in fact Little Rip regime take place instead Big Rip. We also considered the models with possible bounce in future. In these models the universe expansion can mimics the dynamics with future singularity but due to bounce in future universe begin contracts.

Artyom V. Astashenok

2013-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

167

Technology development for cobalt F-T catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report No. 12, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The investigation of the effect of certain promoters (Fe, Pd, and Ru) on the deactivation characteristics of Co catalysts during F-T synthesis was continued during this reporting period. All catalysts were tested first at 220{degrees}C, then at higher temperatures from 240 to 280{degrees}C, while monitoring their deactivation. The choice of these promoters was based on their intrinsic ability to enhance the hydrogenation reactions while slowing down the Boudouard reaction under the conditions used in F-T synthesis. Olefin hydrogenation and CO dissociation reactions were used individually to investigate further the nature of the deactivation process of these catalyst during F-T synthesis. Hydrogenation of isobutene (IB) was carried out in the presence of CO between 120 and 180{degrees}C and atmospheric pressure. CO dissociation activities of the catalysts were measured using a pulse technique at 2.5 atm and at temperatures between 180 and 280{degrees}C with intermittent H{sub 2} bracketing at 350{degrees}C. Promotion with high loadings of Fe or Pd resulted in catalysts with relatively lower activity and higher methane selectivity. The deactivation process and rate for catalysts containing Pd or Fe were similar to those of the non-promoted or Ru-promoted alumina-supported Co catalysts tested previously. The only exception was Co.068 with 1% Pd which had adequate activity and selectivity as well as lower deactivation rate at the various temperatures tested.

Singleton, A.H.

1996-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

168

Table 5.5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010; 5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Distillate Coal Fuel Oil (excluding Coal Net Residual and Natural Gas(c) LPG and Coke and Breeze) Total Electricity(a) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(b) (billion NGL(d) (million Other(e) End Use (trillion Btu) (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) (trillion Btu) Total United States TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 14,228 714,166 13 22 5,064 18 39 5,435 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel -- 7,788 7 3 2,074 3 26 -- Conventional Boiler Use -- 7,788 3 1 712 1 3 -- CHP and/or Cogeneration Process -- 0 4 3 1,362 2 23 -- Direct Uses-Total Process

169

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; 5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Distillate Coal Fuel Oil (excluding Coal Net Residual and Natural Gas(c) LPG and Coke and Breeze) Total Electricity(a) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(b) (billion NGL(d) (million Other(e) End Use (trillion Btu) (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) (trillion Btu) Total United States TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 15,658 835,382 40 22 5,357 21 46 5,820 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel -- 12,109 21 4 2,059 2 25 -- Conventional Boiler Use 12,109 11 3 1,245 2 6 CHP and/or Cogeneration Process 0 10 1 814 * 19 Direct Uses-Total Process

170

Originally Released: July 2009  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4.1 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2006; 4.1 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Coke Residual Distillate Natural Gas(d) LPG and Coal and Breeze NAICS Total Electricity(b) Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(c) (billion NGL(e) (million (million Other(f) Code(a) Subsector and Industry (trillion Btu) (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) short tons) (trillion Btu) Total United States 311 Food 1,124 73,551 4 3 618 1 7 * 45 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 316 15,536 * * 115 * 5 0 28 311221 Wet Corn Milling 179 6,801 * * 51 * 4 0 8 31131 Sugar Manufacturing 67 974 1 * 17 * 1 * 4 3114 Fruit and Vegetable Preserving and Specialty Food 168 9,721

171

Originally Released: July 2009  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 2006 1 Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 2006 Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Coke Residual Distillate Natural Gas(c) LPG and Coal and Breeze NAICS Total Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(b) (billion NGL(d) (million (million Other(e) Code(a) Subsector and Industry (trillion Btu) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) short tons) (trillion Btu) Total United States 311 Food 3 0 * 2 * 0 * * 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 3 0 * 2 * 0 0 * 311221 Wet Corn Milling * 0 0 0 0 0 0 * 31131 Sugar Manufacturing * 0 * 0 * 0 * 0 3114 Fruit and Vegetable Preserving and Specialty Food * 0 0 0 * 0 0 0 3115 Dairy Product * 0 * * 0 0 0 * 3116 Animal Slaughtering and Processing

172

Table 5.1 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5.1 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010; 5.1 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Distillate Coal Fuel Oil (excluding Coal Net Residual and Natural Gas(d) LPG and Coke and Breeze) NAICS Total Electricity(b) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(c) (billion NGL(e) (million Other(f) Code(a) End Use (trillion Btu) (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) (trillion Btu) Total United States 311 - 339 ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 14,228 714,166 13 22 5,064 18 39 5,435 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel -- 7,788 7 3 2,074 3 26 -- Conventional Boiler Use -- 7,788 3 1 712 1 3 -- CHP and/or Cogeneration Process

173

Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; 1 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Distillate Coal Fuel Oil (excluding Coal Net Residual and Natural Gas(d) LPG and Coke and Breeze) NAICS Total Electricity(b) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(c) (billion NGL(e) (million Other(f) Code(a) End Use (trillion Btu) (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) (trillion Btu) Total United States 311 - 339 ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 15,658 835,382 40 22 5,357 21 46 5,820 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel -- 12,109 21 4 2,059 2 25 -- Conventional Boiler Use -- 12,109 11 3 1,245 2 6 -- CHP and/or Cogeneration Process

174

Manufacturing Consumption of Energy 1994  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

A9. A9. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation by Fuel Type, Census Region, and End Use, 1994: Part 1 (Estimates in Btu or Physical Units) See footnotes at end of table. Energy Information Administration/Manufacturing Consumption of Energy 1994 166 End-Use Categories (trillion Btu) kWh) (1000 bbl) (1000 bbl) cu ft) (1000 bbl) tons) (trillion Btu) Total (million Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel (billion LPG (1000 short Other Net Distillate Natural and Electricity Residual Fuel Oil and Gas Breeze) a b c Coal (excluding Coal Coke d RSE Row Factors Total United States RSE Column Factors: NF 0.5 1.3 1.4 0.8 1.2 1.2 NF TOTAL INPUTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16,515 778,335 70,111 26,107 5,962 25,949 54,143 5,828 2.7 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . --

175

table5.1_02  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2002; End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2002; Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Distillate Fuel Oil Coal Net Residual and Natural LPG and (excluding Coal RSE NAICS Total Electricity(b) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(c) Gas(d) NGL(e) Coke and Breeze) Other(f) Row Code(a) End Use (trillion Btu) (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) (billion cu ft) (million bbl) (million short tons) (trillion Btu) Factors Total United States 311 - 339 ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES RSE Column Factors: 0.3 1 1 2.4 1.1 1.4 1 NF TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 16,273 832,257 33 24 5,641 26 53 6,006 3.4 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel -- 3,540 20 6

176

Table 2.1 Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 2010; 1 Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Coke Residual Distillate Natural Gas(c) LPG and Coal and Breeze NAICS Total Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(b) (billion NGL(d) (million (million Other(e) Code(a) Subsector and Industry (trillion Btu) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) short tons) (trillion Btu) Total United States 311 Food 10 * * 4 Q 0 0 2 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 6 0 * 1 Q 0 0 2 311221 Wet Corn Milling 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 31131 Sugar Manufacturing * 0 * 0 * 0 0 * 3114 Fruit and Vegetable Preserving and Specialty Foods 1 * * 1 * 0 0 * 3115 Dairy Products Q 0 * * * 0 0 * 3116 Animal Slaughtering and Processing

177

table2.1_02.xls  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 2002; 1 Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Coke Residual Distillate Natural LPG and Coal and Breeze NAICS Total Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(b) Gas(c) NGL(d) (million (million Other(e) Code(a) Subsector and Industry (trillion Btu) (million bbl) (million bbl) (billion cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) short tons) (trillion Btu) Total United States RSE Column Factors: 1.4 0.4 1.6 1.2 1.2 1.1 0.7 1.2 311 Food 8 * * 7 0 0 * * 311221 Wet Corn Milling * 0 * 0 0 0 0 * 31131 Sugar * 0 * * 0 0 * * 311421 Fruit and Vegetable Canning * * * 0 0 0 0 * 312 Beverage and Tobacco Products 1 * * * 0 0 0 1 3121 Beverages * * * 0 0 0 0 *

178

Table 3.1 Fuel Consumption, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 Fuel Consumption, 2010; 1 Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Coke Net Residual Distillate Natural Gas(d) LPG and Coal and Breeze NAICS Total Electricity(b) Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(c) (billion NGL(e) (million (million Other(f) Code(a) Subsector and Industry (trillion Btu) (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) short tons) (trillion Btu) Total United States 311 Food 1,158 75,407 2 4 563 1 8 * 99 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 350 16,479 * * 118 * 6 0 45 311221 Wet Corn Milling 214 7,467 * * 51 * 5 0 25 31131 Sugar Manufacturing 107 1,218 * * 15 * 2 * 36 3114 Fruit and Vegetable Preserving and Specialty Foods 143 9,203

179

Table 4.1 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2010; 1 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Coke Residual Distillate Natural Gas(d) LPG and Coal and Breeze NAICS Total Electricity(b) Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(c) (billion NGL(e) (million (million Other(f) Code(a) Subsector and Industry (trillion Btu) (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) short tons) (trillion Btu) Total United States 311 Food 1,113 75,673 2 4 563 1 8 * 54 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 346 16,620 * * 118 * 6 0 41 311221 Wet Corn Milling 214 7,481 * * 51 * 5 0 25 31131 Sugar Manufacturing 72 1,264 * * 15 * 2 * * 3114 Fruit and Vegetable Preserving and Specialty Foods 142 9,258 * Q 97

180

Originally Released: July 2009  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 Fuel Consumption, 2006; 1 Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources Unit: Physical Units or Btu Coke Net Residual Distillate Natural Gas(d) LPG and Coal and Breeze NAICS Total Electricity(b) Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(c) (billion NGL(e) (million (million Other(f) Code(a) Subsector and Industry (trillion Btu) (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) short tons) (trillion Btu) Total United States 311 Food 1,186 73,440 4 3 618 1 7 * 107 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 317 15,464 * * 115 * 5 0 30 311221 Wet Corn Milling 179 6,746 * * 51 * 4 0 9 31131 Sugar Manufacturing 82 968 1 * 17 * 1 * 20 3114 Fruit and Vegetable Preserving and Specialty Food 169 9,708 * * 123 * * 0 4 3115 Dairy Product

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu cu ft" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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181

IJ.fI.CU  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

IJ.fI.CU IJ.fI.CU . u.s. DEPARTUEN T OF ENERGY EERE PROJECT MANAG EM EN T CENTER NEPA DETE:Rl.VIINATION R[ClPIENT:Fl~County-Seminole Page I of2 STATE: FL PROJECf TITLE: Seminole County , Fl EECBG Program: County Facility and Utility Operation Improvements; Energy Efficiency and Conservation Strategy Development; Ugrade Land Development Code: Grant Administration; Energy Efficiency and Conservation Strategy Enhancement Funding Opportunity Announcement Number Procurement Instrument Number NEPA Control Number CID Number DE-FOA-0000013 DE-EE0000798.Q01 a Based on my nview of the information concerning the proposed action, as NEPA Compliance Officer (authorized under DOE Order 451.IA), I have made the following determination: ex, EA, EIS APPENDIX AND NUMBER:

182

cu | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

02 02 Varnish cache server Home Groups Community Central Green Button Applications Developer Utility Rate FRED: FRee Energy Database More Public Groups Private Groups Features Groups Blog posts Content Stream Documents Discussions Polls Q & A Events Notices My stuff Energy blogs 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142229502 Varnish cache server cu Home Dc's picture Submitted by Dc(15) Member 15 November, 2013 - 13:26 Living Walls ancient building system architect biomimicry building technology cooling cu daylight design problem energy use engineer fred andreas geothermal green building heat transfer heating living walls metabolic adjustment net zero pre-electricity Renewable Energy Solar university of colorado utility grid Wind Much of the discussion surrounding green buildings centers around reducing

183

Lipid Analysis and Lipidomics: New Techniques & ApplicationChapter 14 Application of FT-NIR for Rapid Determination of the Trans Fatty Acid Composition in Fats and Oils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lipid Analysis and Lipidomics: New Techniques & Application Chapter 14 Application of FT-NIR for Rapid Determination of the Trans Fatty Acid Composition in Fats and Oils Methods and Analyses eChapters Methods - Analyses Books

184

Observation of the scattering of a CO/sub 2/ laser beam by small-scale plasma waves in the FT-2 tokamak  

SciTech Connect

Scattering of a laser beam by fluctuations with a scale of 0.7-5mm in the frequency range 3-15 MHz in the FT-2 tokamak is observed. (AIP)

Askinazi, L.G.; Budnikov, V.N.; Bulanin, V.V.; Esipov, L.A.; Korneev, D.O.; Sakharov, I.E.; Stepanov, A.Y.; Ushakov, S.N.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Effects of fluoride residue on Cu agglomeration in Cu/low-k interconnects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have investigated the effects of fluoride residue on the thermal stability of a Cu/barrier metal (BM)/porous low-k film (kKeywords: Barrier metal, Cu agglomeration, Fluoride residue, Low-k, Oxidation, Penetration, Porous

Y. Kobayashi; S. Ozaki; Y. Iba; Y. Nakata; T. Nakamura

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Reconstruction of f(T) and f(R) gravity according to (m,n)-type holographic dark energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Motivated by earlier works on reconstruction of modified gravity models with dark energy components, we extend them by considering a newly proposed model of (m, n)- type of holographic dark energy for two models of modified gravity, f(R) and f(T) theories, where R and T represent Ricci scalar and torsion scalar respectively. Specifically we reconstruct the two later gravity models and discuss their viability and cosmography. The obtained gravity models are ghost free, compatible with local solar system tests and describe effective positive gravitational constant.

Farooq, M Umar; Momeni, Davood; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Technology development for cobalt F-T catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report No. 7, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project`s goal is the development of a commercially viable, cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalyst for use in a slurry bubble column (SBC) reactor. During the seventh quarter, significant progress in several areas has enabled us to make a number of important conclusions. Preliminary catalyst preparation of 3 batches of a Ru-promoted 20% Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} has confirmed the similarity in catalysts prepared by Energy International and by Calsicat using the same procedure. This similarity was evident in both fixed and SBC reactor studies. All TiO{sub 2}-supported Co catalysts have been found to have poor F-T properties in both the fixed-bed and SBC reactors. These catalysts had been prepared following exactly the procedures given in the Exxon patents. One of the main problems in using TiO{sub 2} as a support is the fact that it has low surface area for supporting a 20 wt % Co catalyst. Another problem is that it does not seem to be robust enough for use in a SBC reactor. Ru promotion of Co/SiO{sub 2} does not have as dramatic an effect on catalyst activity as seen for Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. However, it does play a major role in maintaining higher activity (factor of 2 in the SBCR) when K is added to Co/Sr/SiO{sub 2}. Zr has been clearly shown by us to significantly enhance the F-T activity of Co/SiO{sub 2}. Such promotion is a basis for many of the Shell cobalt F-T patents. Latest results indicate that Zr also improves the activity of Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, although the methane selectivity is also slightly elevated. Finally, for our design of a ``benchmark`` Co F- T catalyst, research has now shown using both fixed-bed and SBC reactors that 0.3 wt % K is the optimum amount to use with Ru- promoted 20 wt % Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. This amount of K greatly improves higher hydrocarbon selectivity without causing an unacceptable loss of activity.

Singleton, A.H.

1995-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

188

Thermophysical Properties of Fluid Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Density, mol/l mol/m3 g/ml kg/m3 lb-mole/ft3 lbm/ft3. Energy, kJ/mol kJ/kg kcal/mol Btu/lb-mole kcal/g Btu/lbm. Velocity, m/s ft/s mph. ... All rights reserved ...

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

189

Accelerating Fatigue Testing for Cu Ribbon Interconnects (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation describes fatigue experiments and discusses dynamic mechanical loading for Cu ribbon interconnects.

Bosco, N.; Silverman, T.; Wohlgemuth , J.; Kurtz, S.; Inoue, M.; Sakurai, K.; Shioda, T.; Zenkoh, H.; Miyashita, M.; Tadanori, T.; Suzuki, S.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Local Structure of CuIn3Se5  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results of a detailed EXAFS study of the Cu-K, In-K, and Se-K edges CuIn3Se5 are reported. The Cu and In first nearest neighbor local structures were found to be almost identical to those in CuInSe2.

Chang, C. H.; Wei, S. H.; Leyarovska, N.; Johnson, J. W.; Zhang, S. B.; Stanbery, B. J.; Anderson, T. J.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

-Interface effects on the magnetic moment of Co and Cu in CoCu granular alloys  

SciTech Connect

We report on x-ray magnetic circular dichroism experiments performed on Co{sub 5}Cu{sub 95} annealed granular alloys with giant magnetoresistance. Results on the Co-L{sub 2,3} edge evidence a direct correlation between the Co orbital and spin magnetic moment and the Co clusters interfacial roughness. On the other hand, we have found dichroism on the Cu-L{sub 2,3} edge, revealing an induced magnetic polarization of the Cu interfacial atoms. The magnetic moment of the Cu atoms is mainly of spin character and is ferromagnetically coupled with the Co magnetic moment.

Garcia Prieto, A.; Fdez-Gubieda, M.L.; Chaboy, J.; Laguna-Marco, M.A.; Muro, T.; Nakamura, T. [Departamento de Electricidad y Electronica, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); CITIMAC, Universidad de Cantabria, Avenida de los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain); Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Mikazuki, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Detailed chemical kinetic models for large n-alkanes and iso-alkanes found in conventional and F-T diesel fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Detailed chemical kinetic models are needed to simulate the combustion of current and future transportation fuels. These models should represent the various chemical classes in these fuels. Conventional diesel fuels are composed of n-alkanes, iso-alkanes, cycloalkanes and aromatics (Farrell et al. 2007). For future fuels, there is a renewed interest in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) processes which can be used to synthesize diesel and other transportation fuels from biomass, coal and natural gas. F-T diesel fuels are expected to be similar to F-T jet fuels which are commonly comprised of iso-alkanes with some n-alkanes (Smith and Bruno, 2008). Thus, n-alkanes and iso-alkanes are common chemical classes in these conventional and future fuels. This paper reports on the development of chemical kinetic models of large n-alkanes and iso-alkanes to represent these chemical classes in conventional and future fuels. Two large iso-alkanes are 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane, which is a primary reference fuel for diesel, and isooctane, a primary reference fuel for gasoline. Other iso-alkanes are branched alkanes with a single methyl side chain, typical of most F-T fuels. The chemical kinetic models are then used to predict the effect of these fuel components on ignition characteristics under conditions found in internal combustion engines.

Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Curran, H J; Mehl, M

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

193

ALOFT-FT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... to aid in the planning process for the intentional burning of crude oils spills on ... Smoke Plume Trajectory From In Situ Burning of Crude Oil in Alaska ...

2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

194

BP License - FT Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 1600 1800 2000 Illinois Basin Coal Qatar LNG Alaska Natural Gas Wyoming Natural Gas Kentucky SNG with geologic storage lb s C O 2e / M W h ...

2012-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

195

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 8 North Carolina - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S35. Summary statistics for natural gas - North Carolina, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0

196

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 2 New Jersey - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S32. Summary statistics for natural gas - New Jersey, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0

197

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 Georgia - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S11. Summary statistics for natural gas - Georgia, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0

198

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 Connecticut - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S7. Summary statistics for natural gas - Connecticut, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0

199

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 Maryland - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S22. Summary statistics for natural gas - Maryland, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 7 7 7 7 8 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 35 28 43 43 34 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 35

200

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Florida - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S10. Summary statistics for natural gas - Florida, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 2,000 2,742 290 13,938 17,129 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu cu ft" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 New Hampshire - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S31. Summary statistics for natural gas - New Hampshire, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0

202

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 2 Maryland - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S22. Summary statistics for natural gas - Maryland, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 7 7 7 8 9 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 28 43 43 34 44 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 28

203

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 2 Missouri - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S27. Summary statistics for natural gas - Missouri, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 53 100 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0

204

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 4 Delaware - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S8. Summary statistics for natural gas - Delaware, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0

205

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2 2 Massachusetts - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S23. Summary statistics for natural gas - Massachusetts, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0

206

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 South Carolina - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S42. Summary statistics for natural gas - South Carolina, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0

207

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 6 Tennessee - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S44. Summary statistics for natural gas - Tennessee, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 285 310 230 210 212 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 4,700 5,478 5,144 4,851 5,825 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0

208

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

38 38 Nevada - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S30. Summary statistics for natural gas - Nevada, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 4 4 4 3 4 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 4 4 4 3 4

209

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 2 Connecticut - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S7. Summary statistics for natural gas - Connecticut, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0

210

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 4 Oregon - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S39. Summary statistics for natural gas - Oregon, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 18 21 24 26 24 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 409 778 821 1,407 1,344 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0

211

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 4 Idaho - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S14. Summary statistics for natural gas - Idaho, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0

212

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 4 Washington - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S49. Summary statistics for natural gas - Washington, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0

213

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 Maine - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S21. Summary statistics for natural gas - Maine, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0 0

214

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 8 Minnesota - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S25. Summary statistics for natural gas - Minnesota, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0 0 0

215

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 2 South Carolina - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S42. Summary statistics for natural gas - South Carolina, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0

216

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 6 District of Columbia - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S9. Summary statistics for natural gas - District of Columbia, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0

217

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 North Carolina - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S35. Summary statistics for natural gas - North Carolina, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0

218

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 Iowa - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S17. Summary statistics for natural gas - Iowa, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0 0

219

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 4 Massachusetts - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S23. Summary statistics for natural gas - Massachusetts, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0

220

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 6 Oregon - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S39. Summary statistics for natural gas - Oregon, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 21 24 26 24 27 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 778 821 1,407 1,344 770 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu cu ft" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8 8 Georgia - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S11. Summary statistics for natural gas - Georgia, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0

222

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Minnesota - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S25. Summary statistics for natural gas - Minnesota, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0 0 0

223

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2 2 Delaware - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S8. Summary statistics for natural gas - Delaware, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0

224

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 4 District of Columbia - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S9. Summary statistics for natural gas - District of Columbia, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0

225

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 New Jersey - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S32. Summary statistics for natural gas - New Jersey, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0

226

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 4 Tennessee - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S44. Summary statistics for natural gas - Tennessee, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 305 285 310 230 210 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells NA 4,700 5,478 5,144 4,851 From Oil Wells 3,942 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0

227

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 4 Nebraska - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S29. Summary statistics for natural gas - Nebraska, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 186 322 285 276 322 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 1,331 2,862 2,734 2,092 1,854 From Oil Wells 228 221 182 163 126 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0

228

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 Vermont - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S47. Summary statistics for natural gas - Vermont, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0 0 0

229

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8 8 Wisconsin - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S51. Summary statistics for natural gas - Wisconsin, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0 0 0

230

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 Rhode Island - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S41. Summary statistics for natural gas - Rhode Island, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0

231

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 Indiana - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S16. Summary statistics for natural gas - Indiana, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 525 563 620 914 819 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 4,701 4,927 6,802 9,075 8,814 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0

232

Atomistic Predictions of Age Hardening in Al-Cu Alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atomic Scale Deformation Mechanisms of Amorphous Polyethylene under Tensile Loading · Atomistic Predictions of Age Hardening in Al-Cu Alloys.

233

Table 7.7 Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2010; 7 Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Electricity Natural Gas Steam Electricity from Sources Natural Gas from Sources Steam from Sources Electricity from Local Other than Natural Gas from Local Other than Steam from Local Other than NAICS Total Utility(b) Local Utility(c) Total Utility(b) Local Utility(c) Total Utility(b) Local Utility(c) Code(a) Subsector and Industry (million kWh) (million kWh) (million kWh) (billion cu ft) (billion cu ft)

234

table7.7_02.xls  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2002; 7 Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Electricity Natural Gas Steam Electricity from Sources Natural Gas from Sources Steam from Sources Electricity from Local Other than Natural Gas from Local Other than Steam from Local Other than RSE NAICS Total Utility(b) Local Utility(c) Total Utility(b) Local Utility(c) Total Utility(b) Local Utility(c) Row Code(a) Subsector and Industry (million kWh) (million kWh) (million kWh) (billion cu ft) (billion cu ft)

235

OPERATIONS AND PERFORMANCE OF RHIC AS A CU-CU COLLIDER.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 5th year of RHIC operations, started in November 2004 and expected to last till June 2005, consists of a physics run with Cu-Cu collisions at 100 GeV/u followed by one with polarized protons (pp) at 100 GeV [l]. We will address here the overall performance of the RHIC complex used for the first time as a Cu-Cu collider, and compare it with previous operational experience with Au, PP and asymmetric d-Au collisions. We will also discuss operational improvements, such as a {beta}* squeeze to 85cm in the high luminosity interaction regions from the design value of 1m, system improvements, machine performance and limitations, and address reliability and uptime issues.

PILAT, R.; AHRENS, L.; BAI, M.; BARTON, D.S.; ET AL.

2005-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

236

Physical Inventory Listing NRC 742cu  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

NRC FORM 742CU (MM-YYYY) MANDATORY DATA COLLECTION AUTHORIZED BY 10 CFR 30, 40, 50, 70,72, 74, 75, 150, Public Laws 83-703, 93-438, 95-91 EXPIRES: MMDDYYYY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF...

237

Comparative analysis of the production costs and life-cycle GHG emissions of FT liquid fuels from coal and natural gas  

SciTech Connect

Liquid transportation fuels derived from coal and natural gas could help the United States reduce its dependence on petroleum. The fuels could be produced domestically or imported from fossil fuel-rich countries. The goal of this paper is to determine the life-cycle GHG emissions of coal- and natural gas-based Fischer-Tropsch (FT) liquids, as well as to compare production costs. The results show that the use of coal- or natural gas-based FT liquids will likely lead to significant increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to petroleum-based fuels. In a best-case scenario, coal- or natural gas-based FT-liquids have emissions only comparable to petroleum-based fuels. In addition, the economic advantages of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuels are not obvious: there is a narrow range of petroleum and natural gas prices at which GTL fuels would be competitive with petroleum-based fuels. CTL fuels are generally cheaper than petroleum-based fuels. However, recent reports suggest there is uncertainty about the availability of economically viable coal resources in the United States. If the U.S. has a goal of increasing its energy security, and at the same time significantly reducing its GHG emissions, neither CTL nor GTL consumption seem a reasonable path to follow. 28 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Civil and Environmental Engineering Department

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

238

" Row: End Uses;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006;" 7 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." ,,,"Distillate",,,"Coal" ,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"(excluding Coal" ,"Net Demand","Residual","and","Natural Gas(c)","LPG and","Coke and Breeze)" ,"for Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","(billion","NGL(d)","(million" "End Use","(million kWh)","(million bbl)","(million bbl)","cu ft)","(million bbl)","short tons)"

239

Table N8.3. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

y(c)","Total","Utility(b)","Local Utility(c)","Row" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","(kWh)","(kWh)","(kWh)","(1000 cu ft)","(1000 cu ft)","(1000 cu ft)","(million...

240

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 6 Michigan - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S24. Summary statistics for natural gas - Michigan, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 9,995 10,600 10,100 11,100 10,900 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 16,959 20,867 7,345 18,470 17,041 From Oil Wells 10,716 12,919 9,453 11,620 4,470 From Coalbed Wells 0

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu cu ft" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 8 West Virginia - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S50. Summary statistics for natural gas - West Virginia, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 49,364 50,602 52,498 56,813 50,700 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 191,444 192,896 151,401 167,113 397,313 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 1,477 From Coalbed Wells 0

242

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

80 80 Wyoming - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S52. Summary statistics for natural gas - Wyoming, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 27,350 28,969 25,710 26,124 26,180 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells R 1,649,284 R 1,764,084 R 1,806,807 R 1,787,599 1,709,218 From Oil Wells 159,039 156,133 135,269 151,871 152,589

243

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 6 New York - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S34. Summary statistics for natural gas - New York, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 6,675 6,628 6,736 6,157 7,176 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 49,607 44,273 35,163 30,495 25,985 From Oil Wells 714 576 650 629 439 From Coalbed Wells 0

244

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 2 Wyoming - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S52. Summary statistics for natural gas - Wyoming, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 28,969 25,710 26,124 26,180 22,171 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 1,764,084 1,806,807 1,787,599 1,709,218 1,762,095 From Oil Wells 156,133 135,269 151,871 152,589 24,544

245

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 4 Virginia - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S48. Summary statistics for natural gas - Virginia, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 6,426 7,303 7,470 7,903 7,843 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 7,419 16,046 23,086 20,375 21,802 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 9 From Coalbed Wells 101,567 106,408

246

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 6 Kentucky - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S19. Summary statistics for natural gas - Kentucky, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 16,290 17,152 17,670 14,632 17,936 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 112,587 111,782 133,521 122,578 106,122 From Oil Wells 1,529 1,518 1,809 1,665 0 From Coalbed Wells 0

247

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Pennsylvania - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S40. Summary statistics for natural gas - Pennsylvania, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 52,700 55,631 57,356 44,500 54,347 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 182,277 R 188,538 R 184,795 R 173,450 242,305 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0

248

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 8 Illinois - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S15. Summary statistics for natural gas - Illinois, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 45 51 50 40 40 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells E 1,188 E 1,438 E 1,697 2,114 2,125 From Oil Wells E 5 E 5 E 5 7 0 From Coalbed Wells E 0 E 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0

249

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

50 50 North Dakota - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S36. Summary statistics for natural gas - North Dakota, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 194 196 188 239 211 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 13,738 11,263 10,501 14,287 22,261 From Oil Wells 54,896 45,776 38,306 27,739 17,434 From Coalbed Wells 0

250

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 Mississippi - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S26. Summary statistics for natural gas - Mississippi, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 2,343 2,320 1,979 5,732 1,669 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 331,673 337,168 387,026 429,829 404,457 From Oil Wells 7,542 8,934 8,714 8,159 43,421 From Coalbed Wells 7,250

251

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2 2 Virginia - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S48. Summary statistics for natural gas - Virginia, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 5,735 6,426 7,303 7,470 7,903 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells R 6,681 R 7,419 R 16,046 R 23,086 20,375 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells R 86,275 R 101,567

252

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 4 Michigan - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S24. Summary statistics for natural gas - Michigan, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 9,712 9,995 10,600 10,100 11,100 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells R 80,090 R 16,959 R 20,867 R 7,345 18,470 From Oil Wells 54,114 10,716 12,919 9,453 11,620 From Coalbed Wells 0

253

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2 2 Montana - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S28. Summary statistics for natural gas - Montana, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 6,925 7,095 7,031 6,059 6,477 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells R 69,741 R 67,399 R 57,396 R 51,117 37,937 From Oil Wells 23,092 22,995 21,522 19,292 21,777 From Coalbed Wells

254

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8 8 Mississippi - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S26. Summary statistics for natural gas - Mississippi, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 2,315 2,343 2,320 1,979 5,732 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells R 259,001 R 331,673 R 337,168 R 387,026 429,829 From Oil Wells 6,203 7,542 8,934 8,714 8,159 From Coalbed Wells

255

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8 8 Indiana - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S16. Summary statistics for natural gas - Indiana, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 2,350 525 563 620 914 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 3,606 4,701 4,927 6,802 9,075 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0

256

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 4 New York - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S34. Summary statistics for natural gas - New York, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 6,680 6,675 6,628 6,736 6,157 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 54,232 49,607 44,273 35,163 30,495 From Oil Wells 710 714 576 650 629 From Coalbed Wells 0

257

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Texas - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S45. Summary statistics for natural gas - Texas, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 76,436 87,556 93,507 95,014 100,966 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells R 4,992,042 R 5,285,458 R 4,860,377 R 4,441,188 3,794,952 From Oil Wells 704,092 745,587 774,821 849,560 1,073,301

258

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 2 Ohio - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S37. Summary statistics for natural gas - Ohio, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 34,416 34,963 34,931 46,717 35,104 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 79,769 83,511 73,459 30,655 65,025 From Oil Wells 5,072 5,301 4,651 45,663 6,684 From Coalbed Wells 0

259

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 Colorado - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S6. Summary statistics for natural gas - Colorado, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 25,716 27,021 28,813 30,101 32,000 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 496,374 459,509 526,077 563,750 1,036,572 From Oil Wells 199,725 327,619 338,565

260

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2 2 South Dakota - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S43. Summary statistics for natural gas - South Dakota, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 71 71 89 102 100 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 422 R 1,098 R 1,561 1,300 933 From Oil Wells 11,458 10,909 11,366 11,240 11,516 From Coalbed Wells 0 0

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu cu ft" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Illinois - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S15. Summary statistics for natural gas - Illinois, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 43 45 51 50 40 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells RE 1,389 RE 1,188 RE 1,438 RE 1,697 2,114 From Oil Wells E 5 E 5 E 5 E 5 7 From Coalbed Wells RE 0 RE

262

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8 8 Colorado - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S6. Summary statistics for natural gas - Colorado, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 22,949 25,716 27,021 28,813 30,101 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells R 436,330 R 496,374 R 459,509 R 526,077 563,750 From Oil Wells 160,833 199,725 327,619

263

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 Alaska - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S2. Summary statistics for natural gas - Alaska, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 239 261 261 269 277 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 165,624 150,483 137,639 127,417 112,268 From Oil Wells 3,313,666 3,265,401 3,174,747 3,069,683 3,050,654

264

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 Ohio - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S37. Summary statistics for natural gas - Ohio, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 34,416 34,416 34,963 34,931 46,717 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells R 82,812 R 79,769 R 83,511 R 73,459 30,655 From Oil Wells 5,268 5,072 5,301 4,651 45,663 From Coalbed Wells

265

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 4 Kentucky - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S19. Summary statistics for natural gas - Kentucky, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 16,563 16,290 17,152 17,670 14,632 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 95,437 R 112,587 R 111,782 133,521 122,578 From Oil Wells 0 1,529 1,518 1,809 1,665 From Coalbed Wells 0

266

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8 8 Utah - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S46. Summary statistics for natural gas - Utah, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 5,197 5,578 5,774 6,075 6,469 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells R 271,890 R 331,143 R 340,224 R 328,135 351,168 From Oil Wells 35,104 36,056 36,795 42,526 49,947 From Coalbed Wells

267

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 California - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S5. Summary statistics for natural gas - California, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 1,540 1,645 1,643 1,580 1,308 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 93,249 91,460 82,288 73,017 63,902 From Oil Wells R 116,652 R 122,345 R 121,949 R 151,369 120,880

268

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 Utah - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S46. Summary statistics for natural gas - Utah, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 5,578 5,774 6,075 6,469 6,900 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 331,143 340,224 328,135 351,168 402,899 From Oil Wells 36,056 36,795 42,526 49,947 31,440 From Coalbed Wells 74,399

269

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Louisiana - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S20. Summary statistics for natural gas - Louisiana, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 18,145 19,213 18,860 19,137 21,235 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells R 1,261,539 R 1,288,559 R 1,100,007 R 911,967 883,712 From Oil Wells 106,303 61,663 58,037 63,638 68,505

270

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2 2 Oklahoma - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S38. Summary statistics for natural gas - Oklahoma, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 38,364 41,921 43,600 44,000 41,238 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells R 1,583,356 R 1,452,148 R 1,413,759 R 1,140,111 1,281,794 From Oil Wells 35,186 153,227 92,467 210,492 104,703

271

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2 2 New Mexico - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S33. Summary statistics for natural gas - New Mexico, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 42,644 44,241 44,784 44,748 32,302 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells R 657,593 R 732,483 R 682,334 R 616,134 556,024 From Oil Wells 227,352 211,496 223,493 238,580 252,326

272

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 West Virginia - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S50. Summary statistics for natural gas - West Virginia, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 48,215 49,364 50,602 52,498 56,813 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells R 189,968 R 191,444 R 192,896 R 151,401 167,113 From Oil Wells 701 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells

273

Synthesis of Cu Nanowires with Polycarbonate Template  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Copper nanowires were fabricated into arrays of pores on ion-track etched polycarbonate membrane, using electrodeposition technique. We coated Au thin film layer on one side of membrane in order to have electrical contact. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the Au layer has a strong (111) texture. The pores which have cylindrical shape with 6 micron length and 30 nm diameter were filled by copper atoms, fabricating Cu nanowires. Energy Disperse Spectrometry (EDS) indicated the picks of copper which filled the pores of substrate. The morphology and structure of Cu nanowires were characterized by SEM, TEM and XRD, respectively. The results show that although all the nanowires do not have uniform diameter, but all of them are continuous along the length.

Naderi, N.; Hashim, M. R. [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

274

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 8 Texas - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S45. Summary statistics for natural gas - Texas, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 87,556 93,507 95,014 100,966 96,617 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 5,285,458 4,860,377 4,441,188 3,794,952 3,619,901 From Oil Wells 745,587 774,821 849,560 1,073,301 860,675

275

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 Alabama - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S1. Summary statistics for natural gas - Alabama, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 6,860 6,913 7,026 7,063 6,327 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 158,964 142,509 131,448 116,872 114,407 From Oil Wells 6,368 5,758 6,195 5,975 10,978

276

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 8 Louisiana - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S20. Summary statistics for natural gas - Louisiana, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 19,213 18,860 19,137 21,235 19,792 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 1,288,559 1,100,007 911,967 883,712 775,506 From Oil Wells 61,663 58,037 63,638 68,505 49,380

277

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 4 South Dakota - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S43. Summary statistics for natural gas - South Dakota, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 71 89 102 100 95 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 1,098 1,561 1,300 933 14,396 From Oil Wells 10,909 11,366 11,240 11,516 689 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0

278

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 4 Kansas - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S18. Summary statistics for natural gas - Kansas, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 17,862 21,243 22,145 25,758 24,697 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 286,210 269,086 247,651 236,834 264,610 From Oil Wells 45,038 42,647 39,071 37,194 0 From Coalbed Wells 44,066

279

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 6 Arkansas - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S4. Summary statistics for natural gas - Arkansas, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 5,592 6,314 7,397 8,388 8,538 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 173,975 164,316 152,108 132,230 121,684 From Oil Wells 7,378 5,743 5,691 9,291 3,000

280

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 8 California - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S5. Summary statistics for natural gas - California, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 1,645 1,643 1,580 1,308 1,423 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 91,460 82,288 73,017 63,902 120,579 From Oil Wells 122,345 121,949 151,369 120,880 70,900

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu cu ft" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 4 Oklahoma - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S38. Summary statistics for natural gas - Oklahoma, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 41,921 43,600 44,000 41,238 40,000 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 1,452,148 1,413,759 1,140,111 1,281,794 1,394,859 From Oil Wells 153,227 92,467 210,492 104,703 53,720

282

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 2 Alaska - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S2. Summary statistics for natural gas - Alaska, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 261 261 269 277 185 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 150,483 137,639 127,417 112,268 107,873 From Oil Wells 3,265,401 3,174,747 3,069,683 3,050,654 3,056,918

283

Direct observation of surface ethyl to ethane interconversion upon C2H4 hydrogenation over Pt/Al2O3 catalyst by time-resolved FT-IR spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In-Situ Spectroscopy of Catalysts; Weckhuysen, B.M. , Ed. ;Hydrogenation over Pt/Al 2 O 3 Catalyst by Time-Resolved FT-over alumina-supported Pt catalyst were recorded at 25 ms

Wasylenko, Walter; Frei, Heinz

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Electrical Characterization of Cu Composition Effects in CdS/CdTe Thin-Film Solar Cells with a ZnTe:Cu Back Contact: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We study the effects of Cu composition on the CdTe/ZnTe:Cu back contact and the bulk CdTe. For the back contact, its potential barrier decreases with Cu concentration while its saturation current density increases. For the bulk CdTe, the hole density increases with Cu concentration. We identify a Cu-related deep level at {approx}0.55 eV whose concentration is significant when the Cu concentration is high. The device performance, which initially increases with Cu concentration then decreases, reflects the interplay between the positive influences and negative influences (increasing deep levels in CdTe) of Cu.

Li, J. V.; Duenow, J. N.; Kuciauskas, D.; Kanevce, A.; Dhere, R. G.; Young, M. R.; Levi, D. H.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Technology development for cobalt F-T catalysts. Final quarterly technical progress report No. 11, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Preliminary results on the effect of reaction temperature on the performance of Co catalysts during F-T synthesis obtained during the last quarter confirmed that Co catalysts were very sensitive to temperature and deactivated significantly at temperatures above 240{degree}C both in the fixed bed and the slurry bubble column reactors. Following this preliminary investigation, a series of tests were carried out during this period in order to elucidate the nature of this deactivation process as well as determine possible means of preventing it. In order to elucidate the nature of this deactivation process, the catalysts which had undergone significant deactivation after high temperature (280{degree}C) reaction in either the fixed bed reactor or the slurry bubble column reactor were regenerated and retested in the fixed bed reactor. In both cases the catalysts recovered completely their initial activity. In addition, reactions at very high H{sub 2}CO ratios and high temperatures showed very little deactivation, suggesting that the deactivation of the Co catalysts during F-T synthesis at high temperatures was mainly due carbon formation via the Boudouard reaction. Due to the unreactive nature of this carbon, it could only be removed by calcination. A second series of experiments was carried out to investigate the effect of certain promoters (Zr, La, Cr, and Re) as well as the effect of another support such as silica on the deactivation characteristics of Co catalysts during F-T synthesis at high temperature. The results suggest that the deactivation process and rate for most of these catalysts are similar to those of the alumina-supported catalysts tested previously (Co.005 and Co-053), and that none of the promoters helps to slow down the rate of carbon formation at high temperatures above 240{degree}C.

Singleton, A.H.

1995-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

286

U.S. Energy Information Administration - EIA - Independent ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Uranium fuel, nuclear reactors, generation, spent fuel. ... City Gate : $ 3.88 /thousand cu ft $ 4.88 /thousand cu ft Oct-13 find more: Residential : ...

287

Effective Suppression of Electromigration-Induced Cu Dissolution by ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main failure modes are void formation and fast Cu dissolution, leading to a ... Method of Selective Electroplating having Strong Adhesion and Exceptional ...

288

Thermochemical Simulation of Cu-Ni Smelting Operations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As a second example, an advanced on-line thermochemical simulation of Xstrata Nickel's Sudbury Ni–Cu sulphide smelting plant will be presented. The on-line ...

289

Evaluation of Microstructure and Mechanical Behavior of Cu Based ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Author(s), Jonathan Nguyen, Troy Topping, Hidemi Kato, Yizhang Zhou, Enrique Lavernia. On-Site Speaker (Planned), Jonathan Nguyen. Abstract Scope, Cu-Zr ...

290

Atomic Cu/Nb Interface Structures Characterized by Transmission ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To understand the interface effect on mechanical behavior, atomic Cu/Nb interface structures were studied by (scanning) transmission electron microscopy  ...

291

Natural Gas Futures Contract 2 (Dollars per Million Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 2.188 2.232 2.123 2.136 1.999 2.130 2.021 1.831 1.881 1.961 1.890 1.709 1995 1.457 1.448 1.595 1.718 1.770 1.685 1.525 1.630 1.805 1.870 1.936 2.200 1996 2.177 2.175 2.205 2.297 2.317 2.582 2.506 2.120 2.134 2.601 2.862 3.260 1997 2.729 2.016 1.954 2.053 2.268 2.171 2.118 2.484 2.970 3.321 3.076 2.361 1998 2.104 2.293 2.288 2.500 2.199 2.205 2.164 1.913 2.277 2.451 2.438 1.953 1999 1.851 1.788 1.829 2.184 2.293 2.373 2.335 2.836 2.836 3.046 2.649 2.429 2000 2.392 2.596 2.852 3.045 3.604 4.279 3.974 4.467 5.246 5.179 5.754 8.267 2001 7.374 5.556 5.245 5.239 4.315 3.867 3.223 2.982 2.558 2.898 2.981 2.748

292

Table 2.1 Energy Consumption by Sector (Trillion Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

c Electricity-only and combined-heat-and-power (CHP) ... and electrical system energy losses. ... • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the Distr ...

293

Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5; End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value; 1997-Jan : 01/10 : 3.79 : ...

294

Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 1997-Jan 01/10 3.79 01/17 4.19 01/24 2.98 01/31 2.91 1997-Feb 02/07 2.53 02/14 2.30 02/21 1.91 02/28 1.82 1997-Mar 03/07 1.86 03/14 1.96 03/21 1.91 03/28 1.84 1997-Apr 04/04 1.88 04/11 1.98 04/18 2.04 04/25 2.14 1997-May 05/02 2.15 05/09 2.29 05/16 2.22 05/23 2.22 05/30 2.28 1997-Jun 06/06 2.17 06/13 2.16 06/20 2.22 06/27 2.27 1997-Jul 07/04 2.15 07/11 2.15 07/18 2.24 07/25 2.20 1997-Aug 08/01 2.22 08/08 2.37 08/15 2.53 08/22 2.54 08/29 2.58

295

Natural Gas Futures Contract 1 (Dollars per Million Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Week Of Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Week Of Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri 1994 Jan-10 to Jan-14 2.194 2.268 1994 Jan-17 to Jan-21 2.360 2.318 2.252 2.250 2.305 1994 Jan-24 to Jan-28 2.470 2.246 2.359 2.417 2.528 1994 Jan-31 to Feb- 4 2.554 2.639 2.585 2.383 2.369 1994 Feb- 7 to Feb-11 2.347 2.411 2.358 2.374 2.356 1994 Feb-14 to Feb-18 2.252 2.253 2.345 2.385 2.418 1994 Feb-21 to Feb-25 2.296 2.232 2.248 2.292 1994 Feb-28 to Mar- 4 2.208 2.180 2.171 2.146 2.188 1994 Mar- 7 to Mar-11 2.167 2.196 2.156 2.116 2.096 1994 Mar-14 to Mar-18 2.050 2.104 2.163 2.124 2.103 1994 Mar-21 to Mar-25 2.055 2.107 2.077 1.981 2.072 1994 Mar-28 to Apr- 1 2.066 2.062 2.058 2.075 1994 Apr- 4 to Apr- 8 2.144 2.069 2.097 2.085 2.066 1994 Apr-11 to Apr-15 2.068 2.089 2.131 2.163 2.187

296

Natural Gas Futures Contract 1 (Dollars per Million Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 2.347 2.355 2.109 2.111 1.941 2.080 1.963 1.693 1.619 1.721 1.771 1.700 1995 1.426 1.439 1.534 1.660 1.707 1.634 1.494 1.557 1.674 1.790 1.961 2.459 1996 2.483 2.458 2.353 2.309 2.283 2.544 2.521 2.049 1.933 2.481 3.023 3.645 1997 3.067 2.065 1.899 2.005 2.253 2.161 2.134 2.462 2.873 3.243 3.092 2.406 1998 2.101 2.263 2.253 2.465 2.160 2.168 2.147 1.855 2.040 2.201 2.321 1.927 1999 1.831 1.761 1.801 2.153 2.272 2.346 2.307 2.802 2.636 2.883 2.549 2.423 2000 2.385 2.614 2.828 3.028 3.596 4.303 3.972 4.460 5.130 5.079 5.740 8.618 2001 7.825 5.675 5.189 5.189 4.244 3.782 3.167 2.935 2.213 2.618 2.786 2.686

297

Natural Gas Futures Contract 3 (Dollars per Million Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Week Of Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Week Of Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri 1994 Jan-17 to Jan-21 2.019 2.043 2.103 1994 Jan-24 to Jan-28 2.162 2.071 2.119 2.128 2.185 1994 Jan-31 to Feb- 4 2.217 2.258 2.227 2.127 2.118 1994 Feb- 7 to Feb-11 2.137 2.175 2.162 2.160 2.165 1994 Feb-14 to Feb-18 2.140 2.145 2.205 2.190 2.190 1994 Feb-21 to Feb-25 2.180 2.140 2.148 2.186 1994 Feb-28 to Mar- 4 2.148 2.134 2.122 2.110 2.124 1994 Mar- 7 to Mar-11 2.129 2.148 2.143 2.135 2.125 1994 Mar-14 to Mar-18 2.111 2.137 2.177 2.152 2.130 1994 Mar-21 to Mar-25 2.112 2.131 2.117 2.068 2.087 1994 Mar-28 to Apr- 1 2.086 2.082 2.083 2.092 1994 Apr- 4 to Apr- 8 2.124 2.100 2.116 2.100 2.086 1994 Apr-11 to Apr-15 2.095 2.099 2.123 2.155 2.183 1994 Apr-18 to Apr-22 2.187 2.167 2.174 2.181 2.169

298

Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Week Of Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Week Of Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri 1997 Jan- 6 to Jan-10 3.82 3.80 3.61 3.92 1997 Jan-13 to Jan-17 4.00 4.01 4.34 4.71 3.91 1997 Jan-20 to Jan-24 3.26 2.99 3.05 2.96 2.62 1997 Jan-27 to Jan-31 2.98 3.05 2.91 2.86 2.77 1997 Feb- 3 to Feb- 7 2.49 2.59 2.65 2.51 2.39 1997 Feb-10 to Feb-14 2.42 2.34 2.42 2.22 2.12 1997 Feb-17 to Feb-21 1.84 1.95 1.92 1.92 1997 Feb-24 to Feb-28 1.92 1.77 1.81 1.80 1.78 1997 Mar- 3 to Mar- 7 1.80 1.87 1.92 1.82 1.89 1997 Mar-10 to Mar-14 1.95 1.92 1.96 1.98 1.97 1997 Mar-17 to Mar-21 2.01 1.91 1.88 1.88 1.87 1997 Mar-24 to Mar-28 1.80 1.85 1.85 1.84 1997 Mar-31 to Apr- 4 1.84 1.95 1.85 1.87 1.91 1997 Apr- 7 to Apr-11 1.99 2.01 1.96 1.97 1.98 1997 Apr-14 to Apr-18 2.00 2.00 2.02 2.08 2.10

299

Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Week Of Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Week Of Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri 1997 Jan- 6 to Jan-10 3.82 3.80 3.61 3.92 1997 Jan-13 to Jan-17 4.00 4.01 4.34 4.71 3.91 1997 Jan-20 to Jan-24 3.26 2.99 3.05 2.96 2.62 1997 Jan-27 to Jan-31 2.98 3.05 2.91 2.86 2.77 1997 Feb- 3 to Feb- 7 2.49 2.59 2.65 2.51 2.39 1997 Feb-10 to Feb-14 2.42 2.34 2.42 2.22 2.12 1997 Feb-17 to Feb-21 1.84 1.95 1.92 1.92 1997 Feb-24 to Feb-28 1.92 1.77 1.81 1.80 1.78 1997 Mar- 3 to Mar- 7 1.80 1.87 1.92 1.82 1.89 1997 Mar-10 to Mar-14 1.95 1.92 1.96 1.98 1.97 1997 Mar-17 to Mar-21 2.01 1.91 1.88 1.88 1.87 1997 Mar-24 to Mar-28 1.80 1.85 1.85 1.84 1997 Mar-31 to Apr- 4 1.84 1.95 1.85 1.87 1.91 1997 Apr- 7 to Apr-11 1.99 2.01 1.96 1.97 1.98 1997 Apr-14 to Apr-18 2.00 2.00 2.02 2.08 2.10

300

Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1997 3.45 2.15 1.89 2.03 2.25 2.20 2.19 2.49 2.88 3.07 3.01 2.35 1998 2.09 2.23 2.24 2.43 2.14 2.17 2.17 1.85 2.02 1.91 2.12 1.72 1999 1.85 1.77 1.79 2.15 2.26 2.30 2.31 2.80 2.55 2.73 2.37 2.36 2000 2.42 2.66 2.79 3.04 3.59 4.29 3.99 4.43 5.06 5.02 5.52 8.90 2001 8.17 5.61 5.23 5.19 4.19 3.72 3.11 2.97 2.19 2.46 2.34 2.30 2002 2.32 2.32 3.03 3.43 3.50 3.26 2.99 3.09 3.55 4.13 4.04 4.74 2003 5.43 7.71 5.93 5.26 5.81 5.82 5.03 4.99 4.62 4.63 4.47 6.13 2004 6.14 5.37 5.39 5.71 6.33 6.27 5.93 5.41 5.15 6.35 6.17 6.58 2005 6.15 6.14 6.96 7.16 6.47 7.18 7.63 9.53 11.75 13.42 10.30 13.05

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu cu ft" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Natural Gas Futures Contract 4 (Dollars per Million Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 1993-Dec 12/24 1.869 12/31 1.943 1994-Jan 01/07 1.935 01/14 1.992 01/21 2.006 01/28 2.088 1994-Feb 02/04 2.133 02/11 2.135 02/18 2.148 02/25 2.149 1994-Mar 03/04 2.118 03/11 2.125 03/18 2.139 03/25 2.113 1994-Apr 04/01 2.107 04/08 2.120 04/15 2.140 04/22 2.180 04/29 2.165 1994-May 05/06 2.103 05/13 2.081 05/20 2.076 05/27 2.061 1994-Jun 06/03 2.134 06/10 2.180 06/17 2.187 06/24 2.176 1994-Jul 07/01 2.256 07/08 2.221 07/15 2.172 07/22 2.137 07/29 2.207

302

Natural Gas Futures Contract 3 (Dollars per Million Btu)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 2.116 2.168 2.118 2.139 2.038 2.150 2.083 2.031 2.066 2.037 1.873 1.694 1995 1.490 1.492 1.639 1.745 1.801 1.719 1.605 1.745 1.883 1.889 1.858 1.995 1996 1.964 2.056 2.100 2.277 2.307 2.572 2.485 2.222 2.272 2.572 2.571 2.817 1997 2.393 1.995 1.978 2.073 2.263 2.168 2.140 2.589 3.043 3.236 2.803 2.286 1998 2.110 2.312 2.312 2.524 2.249 2.234 2.220 2.168 2.479 2.548 2.380 1.954 1999 1.860 1.820 1.857 2.201 2.315 2.393 2.378 2.948 2.977 3.055 2.586 2.403 2000 2.396 2.591 2.868 3.058 3.612 4.258 3.981 4.526 5.335 5.151 5.455 7.337 2001 6.027 5.441 5.287 5.294 4.384 3.918 3.309 3.219 2.891 3.065 3.022 2.750

303

ENERGY STAR Challenge for Industry: BTU QuickConverter | ENERGY...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program...

304

Table PT2. Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

1963 54.3 228.1 837.6 0.0 na 10.6 10.6 1,130.6 ... 1976 562.9 339.4 778.1 0.0 na 12.5 12.5 1,692.9 ... 2010 7,658.3 2,521.3 r 308.8 r 0.0 0.9 43.5 r ...

305

Table PT2. Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... includes refuse recovery. sources except biofuels. ... Coal a Natural Gas b Crude Oil c Biofuels d Other e Production U.S. Energy Information Administration

306

Table PT2. Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, Minnesota ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... includes refuse recovery. sources except biofuels. ... Coal a Natural Gas b Crude Oil c Biofuels d Other e Production U.S. Energy Information Administration

307

Figure 1.1 Primary Energy Overview (Quadrillion Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary. Source: Table 1.1. 2 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review October 2013

308

Table E4. Electricity Consumption (Btu) Intensities by End Use ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Space Heat-ing Cool-ing Venti-lation Water Heat-ing Light-ing Cook-ing Refrig-eration Office Equip-ment Com-puters Other All Buildings* ..... ...

309

Table E4A. Electricity Consumption (Btu) Intensities by End ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heat-ing Cool-ing Venti-lation Water Heat-ing Light-ing Cook-ing Refrig-eration Office Equip-ment Com-puters ...

310

Lowest Pressure Steam Saves More BTU's Than You Think  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steam is the most common and economical way of transferring heat from one location to another. But most steam systems use the header pressure steam to do the job. The savings are substantially more than just the latent heat differences between the high and low steam pressures. The discussion below shows how the savings in using low pressure steam can be above 25%! The key to the savings is not in the heat exchanger equipment or the steam trap, but is back at the powerhouse - the sensible heat requirement of the boiler feed water. Chart III shows potential steam energy savings and will be useful in estimating the steam energy savings of high pressure processes.

Vallery, S. J.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

British Thermal Units (Btu) - Energy Explained, Your Guide To ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Landfill Gas and Biogas; Biomass & the Environment See also: Biofuels. Biofuels: Ethanol & Biodiesel. Ethanol; Use of Ethanol; Ethanol & the Environment; Biodiesel;

312

Table 1.1 Primary Energy Overview (Quadrillion Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Fossil Fuelsa Nuclear Electric Power Renew-able Energyb Total Imports Exports Net Importsc ... fuel ethanol stock change; and biodiesel stock change and balancing item.

313

POTENTIAL MARKETS FOR HIGH-BTU GAS FROM COAL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has become increasilngly clear that the energy-related ilemna facing this nation is both a long-term and deepening problem. A widespread recognition of the critical nature of our energy balance, or imbalance, evolved from the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973. The seeds of this crisis were sown in the prior decade, however, as our consumption of known energy reserves outpaced our developing of new reserves. The resultant increasing dependence on foreign energy supplies hs triggered serious fuel shortages, dramatic price increases, and a pervsive sense of unertainty and confusion throughout the country.

Booz, Allen, and Hamilton, Inc.,

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Natural Gas Futures Contract 4 (Dollars per Million Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Week Of Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Week Of Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri 1993 Dec-20 to Dec-24 1.894 1.830 1.859 1.895 1993 Dec-27 to Dec-31 1.965 1.965 1.943 1.901 1994 Jan- 3 to Jan- 7 1.883 1.896 1.962 1.955 1.980 1994 Jan-10 to Jan-14 1.972 2.005 2.008 1.966 2.010 1994 Jan-17 to Jan-21 2.006 1.991 1.982 2.000 2.053 1994 Jan-24 to Jan-28 2.095 2.044 2.087 2.088 2.130 1994 Jan-31 to Feb- 4 2.157 2.185 2.157 2.075 2.095 1994 Feb- 7 to Feb-11 2.115 2.145 2.142 2.135 2.140 1994 Feb-14 to Feb-18 2.128 2.125 2.175 2.160 2.155 1994 Feb-21 to Feb-25 2.160 2.130 2.138 2.171 1994 Feb-28 to Mar- 4 2.140 2.128 2.112 2.103 2.111 1994 Mar- 7 to Mar-11 2.116 2.133 2.130 2.130 2.120 1994 Mar-14 to Mar-18 2.114 2.137 2.170 2.146 2.130 1994 Mar-21 to Mar-25 2.117 2.134 2.120 2.086 2.112

315

Natural Gas Futures Contract 2 (Dollars per Million Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Week Of Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Week Of Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri 1994 Jan-10 to Jan-14 2.130 2.072 2.139 1994 Jan-17 to Jan-21 2.196 2.131 2.115 2.148 2.206 1994 Jan-24 to Jan-28 2.283 2.134 2.209 2.236 2.305 1994 Jan-31 to Feb- 4 2.329 2.388 2.352 2.252 2.198 1994 Feb- 7 to Feb-11 2.207 2.256 2.220 2.231 2.236 1994 Feb-14 to Feb-18 2.180 2.189 2.253 2.240 2.254 1994 Feb-21 to Feb-25 2.220 2.168 2.179 2.221 1994 Feb-28 to Mar- 4 2.165 2.146 2.139 2.126 2.144 1994 Mar- 7 to Mar-11 2.149 2.168 2.160 2.144 2.132 1994 Mar-14 to Mar-18 2.109 2.142 2.192 2.164 2.136 1994 Mar-21 to Mar-25 2.107 2.129 2.115 2.050 2.077 1994 Mar-28 to Apr- 1 2.076 2.072 2.070 2.087 1994 Apr- 4 to Apr- 8 2.134 2.090 2.109 2.093 2.081 1994 Apr-11 to Apr-15 2.090 2.099 2.128 2.175 2.196

316

Table 2.3 Commercial Sector Energy Consumption (Trillion Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

e Conventional hydroelectric power. f Electricity retail sales to ultimate customers reported by electric utilities and, beginning in 1996, other energy service ...

317

Development of a Diffusion Mobility Database for Cu-In-Se  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... ? (Cu) 0.545 (Cu,In) 0.122 (In) 0.333 ?3 stoichiometric phases: • ? (Cu ... In in Se In in In Page 21. Modeling of Stoichiometric Intermetallic Phases ...

2012-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

318

Longueur de diffusion des porteurs minoritaires et structure de jonction des diodes Cu/Cu2O (*)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

short circuit current and with the shift from cell to cell of the peak in the photovoltaic spectral cells are not sui- table for an efficient photovoltaic solar energy conversion. Revue Phys. Appl. 15, the photovoltaic spectrum and the electron beam induced current (EBIC) methods. In the two last cases, Cu/Cu2O

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

319

Photoelectrochemistry, Electronic Structure, and Bandgap Sizes of Semiconducting Cu(I)-Niobates and Cu(I)-Tantalates  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Semiconducting metal-oxides have remained of intense research interest owing to their potential for achieving efficient solar-driven photocatalytic reactions in aqueous solutions that occur as a result of their bandgap excitation. The photocatalytic reduction of water or carbon dioxide to generate hydrogen or hydrocarbon fuels, respectively, can be driven on p-type (photocathodic) electrodes with suitable band energies. However, metal-oxide semiconductors are typically difficult to dope as p-type with a high mobility of carriers. The supported research led to the discovery of new p-type Cu(I)-niobate and Cu(I)-tantalate film electrodes that can be prepared on FTO glass. New high-purity flux syntheses and the full structural determination of several Cu(I)-containing niobates and tantalates have been completed, as well as new investigations of their optical and photoelectrochemical properties and electronic structures via density-functional theory calculations. For example, CuNbO3, Cu5Ta11O30 and CuNb3O8 were prepared in high purity and their structures were characterized by both single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction techniques. These two classes of Cu(I)-containing compounds exhibit optical bandgap sizes ranging from ~1.3 eV to ~2.6 eV. Photoelectrochemical measurements of these compounds show strong photon-driven cathodic currents that confirm the p-type semiconductor behavior of CuNbO3, CuNb3O8, and Cu5Ta11O30. Incident-photon-to-current efficiencies are measured that approach greater than ~1%. Electronic-structure calculations based on density functional theory reveal the visible-light absorption stems from a nearly-direct bandgap transition involving a copper-to-niobium or tantalum (d10 to d0) charge-transfer excitations.

Maggard, Paul A.

2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

320

Manipulating Stress in Cu/low-k Dielectric Nanocomposites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The interaction of x-rays with organic dielectric materials, which alters their mechanical properties, affects values of stress generated within encapsulated Cu structures. In particular, the evolution of stress within submicron Cu interconnect structures encapsulated by an organosilicate glass can be investigated in situ using synchrotron-based x-ray diffraction. The overall geometry of the composite, along with the amount of irradiation, dictates the change in stress of the Cu features. A quantitative comparison of these findings to mechanical modeling results reveals two modes of modification within the dielectric film: a densification that changes the effective eigenstrain followed by an increase in elastic modulus.

C Murray; P Besser; E Ryan; J Jordan-Sweet

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu cu ft" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Study of semantic features of dimensional adjective Cu 'thick' in mandarin chinese  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cu 'thick' is an adjective which is used to describe an object's spatial dimension of thickness. Cu 'thick' used to describe cylindrical objects shares the same sense in essence with Cu 'thick' used to describe granular objects, ... Keywords: Cu 'thick', dimensional adjective, semantic features

Ying Wu

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Switching a magnetic vortex by interlayer coupling in epitaxially grown Co/Cu/Py/Cu(001) trilayer disks  

SciTech Connect

Epitaxial Py/Cu/Co/Cu(001) trilayers were patterned into micron sized disks and imaged using element-specific photoemission electron microscopy. By varying the Cu spacer layer thickness, we study how the coupling between the two magnetic layers influences the formation of magnetic vortex states. We find that while the Py and Co disks form magnetic vortex domains when the interlayer coupling is ferromagnetic, the magnetic vortex domains of the Py and Co disks break into anti-parallel aligned multidomains when the interlayer coupling is antiferromagnetic. We explain this result in terms of magnetic flux closure between the Py and Co layers for the antiferromagnetic coupling case.

Wu, J.; Carlton, D.; Oelker, E.; Park, J. S.; Jin, E.; Arenholz, E.; Scholl, A.; Hwang, C.; Bokor, J.; Qiu, Z Q

2010-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

323

Explosive joints in Nb--Ti/Cu composite superconductors  

SciTech Connect

Explosive welding techniques have been applied to the joining of a Nb-Ti/ Cu composite conductor. Details of the process are given together with mechanical and electrical evaluations of the resulting joints. (auth)

Cornish, D.N.; Zbasnik, J.P.; Pattee, H.E.

1975-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Positive giant magnetoresistance in ferrimagnetic/Cu/ferrimagnetic films  

SciTech Connect

Spin valves composed of ferrimagnetic/Cu/ferrimagnetic layers were fabricated with the magnetization perpendicular to the film planes. By changing the composition of ferrimagnetic layers, both negative and positive giant magnetoresistance (GMR) can be observed in ferrimagnetic spin valves. For samples consisting of both transition-metal (TM-) rich TbFeCo and GdFeCo, negative GMR values were obtained. Due to the high resistivity of amorphous ferrimagnetic films, the shunting effect of Cu led to relatively small MR ratio. The negative MR effect was 1% for 1.7 nm Cu. For spin valves consisting of rare-earth (RE-)rich TbFeCo and TM-rich GdFeCo, positive GMR values were observed. A thin layer of Co was inserted between RE-rich TbFeCo and Cu to manipulate the sign of GMR. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

Lai, Chih-Huang; Lin, Chao-Cheng; Chen, B. M.; Shieh, Han-Ping D.; Chang, Ching-Ray

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Charge Effects on the Cu Pyramidal Nanoparticle and It's ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the chemical reaction, the different adsorption trend and sites are found in ... on the Cu Pyramidal Nanoparticle and It's Application as a CO2 Conversion Catalyst ... Performance Evaluation, Technical and Environmental Aspects of Biomass ...

326

Experimental measurements of electron scattering parameters in Cu narrow lines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Future generations of integrated circuits will require interconnects with metallic lines at dimensions below 50nm. When Cu is used, the electron mean free path becomes similar to the characteristic dimensions of the structure of the metallic line (grain ...

S. Maítrejean; R. Gers; T. Mourier; A. Toffoli; G. Passemard

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Enhanced Radiation Tolerance in Sputtered Cu/V Multilayers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High energy particle (neutron, proton and He ions) irradiation to materials typically leads to deteriorating properties, including void swelling, blistering, embrittlement, fracture and exfoliation of surfaces. This dissertation examines size dependent radiation damage in nanostructured metallic multilayers synthesized by the magnetron sputtering technique at room temperature. It reveals the roles of interface in achieving enhanced radiation tolerance in metallic materials. The microstructure and mechanical properties of as-deposited Cu/V multilayer films are systemically investigated, providing the basis for studying radiation damage mechanisms. Sputter-deposited Cu/V multilayers are subjected to helium (He) ion irradiation at room temperature with a peak dose of 6 displacements per atom (dpa). The average helium bubble density and lattice expansion induced by radiation decrease significantly with decreasing h, where h is individual layer thickness. The magnitude of radiation hardening decreases with decreasing h, and becomes negligible when h is 2.5 nm or less. The interactions between interfaces and radiation induced point defects and the evolution of microstructurs and mechanical behavior are discussed. This study indicates that nearly immiscible Cu/V interfaces spaced a few nm apart can effectively reduce the concentration of radiation induced point defects. Dose dependent radiation damage at room temperature in these Cu/V multilayers is systematically investigated with a peak dose in the range of 1-12 dpa. Peak bubble density increases with increasing dose, but it is much lower in Cu/V 2.5 nm multilayers than that in Cu/V 50 nm specimens. A similar radiation hardening trend is observed in multilayers irradiated at different fluences. Radiation hardening increases with dose and seems to reach saturation at a peak dose of 6 dpa. Negligible hardening for fine ( h less than/equal to 2.5 nm) multilayers is observed at all dose levels. Thermal stability of Cu/V multilayers is revealed by in situ annealing inside a transmission electron microscope. During isothermal annealing at 600 degrees C grain boundary grooving occurs across layer interfaces in Cu/V 50 nm specimens, whereas Cu/V 5 nm multilayers appear rather stable. Annealing of Cu/V multilayers at 400 degrees C leads to hardening of multilayers, whereas softening occurs in Cu/V multilayers annealed at 600 degrees C. The evolution of mechanical properties during annealing is correlated to the degradation of the layer interface and the consequent reduction of interface resistance to the transmission of single dislocation.

Fu, Engang

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Big synthetic fuels plant exploits design options  

SciTech Connect

ANG Coal Gasification Co., the lead partner among five companies that are participating in the Great Plains Coal Gasification Project is planning to build a 2 million gal/yr methanol plant at the Beulah, North Dakota, Great Plains site. The methanol will be used to scrub sulfur oxides from 50 billion cu ft/yr of SNG. ANG has applied to the Department of Energy for a $2.6 million grant to explore new technology to convert methanol to gasoline. ANG is also considering the recovery of carbon dioxide from the plant for sale to stimulate oil well production. The almost 75 billion cu ft/yr of carbon dioxide the plant will yield could simulate the production of up to 9 billion bbl/yr of otherwise unrecoverable oil. Before reaching a decision on carbon dioxide recovery, the company must study the feasibility of pipeline transport of carbon dioxide to oilfields in North Dakota and Montana, and the feasibility of removing the 40 Btu/1000 cu ft of hydrocarbons in the carbon dioxide as auxiliary boiler fuel.

Not Available

1980-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

329

Diffusion bonding of commercially pure Ni using Cu interlayer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The concentration dependence of diffusivity in a multi-component diffusion system makes it complicated to predict the concentration profiles of diffusing species. This so called chemical diffusivity can be expressed as a function of thermodynamic and kinetic data. DICTRA software can calculate the concentration profiles using appropriate mobility and thermodynamic data. It can also optimize the diffusivity data using experimental diffusivity data. Then the optimized diffusivity data is stored as mobility data which is a linear function of temperature. In this work, diffusion bonding of commercially pure Ni using Cu interlayers is reported. The mobility parameters of Ni-Cu alloy binary systems were optimized using DICTRA/Thermocalc software from the available self-, tracer and chemical diffusion coefficients. The optimized mobility parameters were used to simulate concentration profiles of Ni-Cu diffusion joints using DICTRA/Thermocalc software. The calculated and experimental concentration profiles agreed well at 1100 Degree-Sign C. Agreement between the simulated and experimental profiles was less good at 1050 Degree-Sign C due to the grain boundary contribution to the overall diffusion. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The concentration profiles of Cu in Ni-Cu diffusion joints are modeled. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interdiffusion coefficients in Ni-Cu system are optimized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimized interdiffusion coefficients are expressed as mobility parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simulated profiles are comparable with experimental profiles.

Rahman, A.H.M.E., E-mail: a.rahman@my.und.edu; Cavalli, M.N.

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

330

Model of Fe Nanostripes on Cu(111)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Magnetization as a function of temperature calculated with Monte Carlo techniques is compared to experimental results of Fe stripes grown on vicinal Cu(111) surfaces. The stripes are step decorations grown with molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), are 1-2 monolayers thick, and display perpendicular magnetization. The atomic parameters are determined from fully relativistic electronic structure calculations. The moments are found to be 2.57 {micro}{sub B}, with some variation due to film thickness, and uniaxial anisotropy of 40 {micro}Ry/atom for Fe atoms facing vacuum. The Heisenberg model extended to include crystalline anisotropy as well as dipole-dipole interactions is considered for two different values of the exchange constant: J = 20 and 2 meV. Under a large applied field (4000 G), the calculated saturation magnetization falls slowly from 507 emu/cm{sup 3} with an increase in temperature until it falls rapidly around 600 K, after which a more modest falloff with an increase in temperature is observed. For larger J the rapid change occurs for higher temperatures. The importance of disorder in the height and width of the stripes is investigated by generating stripe geometries with a model that incorporates nucleation and growth of Fe particles at step edges under the constraint of constant deposition from MBE. The primary effect of disorder in the stripes is to reduce the saturated magnetization at lower temperatures.

Brown, G. [Florida State University; Lee, H. K. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Schulthess, Thomas C [ORNL; Ujfalussy, Balazs [ORNL; Stocks, George Malcolm [ORNL; Butler, William H [ORNL; Landau, David P [ORNL; Pierce, John Philip [ORNL; Shen, Jian [ORNL; Kirschner, Jurgen M [ORNL

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Dynamics of Propane in Silica Mesopores Formed upon PropyleneHydrogenation over Pt Nanoparticles by Time-Resolved FT-IRSpectroscopy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Propylene hydrogenation over Pt nanoparticles supported onmesoporous silica type SBA-15 was monitored by time-resolved FT-IRspectroscopy at 23 ms resolution using short propylene gas pulses thatjoined a continuous flow of hydrogen in N2 (1 atm total pressure).Experiments were conducted in the temperature range 323-413 K. Propanewas formed within 100 milliseconds or faster. The CH stretching regionrevealed distinct bands for propane molecules emerging inside thenanoscale channels of the silica support. Spectral analysis gave thedistribution of the propane product between support and surrounding gasphase as function of time. Kinetic analysis showed that the escape ofpropane molecules from the channels occurred within hundreds ofmilliseconds (3.1 + 0.4 s-1 at 383 K). A steady state distribution ofpropane between gas phase and mesoporous support is established as theproduct is swept from the catalyst zone by the continuous flow ofhydrogen co-reactant. This is the first direct spectroscopic observationof emerging products of heterogeneous catalysis on nanoporous supportsunder reaction conditions.

Waslylenko, Walter; Frei, Heinz

2007-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

332

Implementation plan for the demonstration of a 50,000 ft/sup 2/ solar hot water system for the textile industry. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An analysis of textile processes was conducted to determine their applicability to integration into a 50,000 ft/sup 2/ collector field and into a waste heat recovery system. Various processes in a typical carpet finishing plant, a typical cotton/cotton blend finishing plant, and a typical 100% synthetic fabric pressurized beck finishing plant are analyzed. The flat-plate, evacuated tube, and parabolic concentrator are discussed and evaluated. Evaluations of direct heat exchange, closed cycle enhanced recovery, and open cycle enhanced heat recovery techniques as applied to textile processes are presented. Conceptual designs are discussed that use a solar array to produce hot water and use standard boilers to produce process steam and to augment the hot water output when insolation values are insufficient to meet process demands. Conceptual designs and cost estimates are presented for: process water systems with evacuated tube solar collectors; process water system with concentrating-tracking solar collectors; feedwater system with concentrating-tracking solar collectors; templifier and direct exchange waste heat recovery system; direct heat recovery systems; integrated system using enhanced heat recovery and concentrating-tracking solar collectors; integrated system using direct heat recovery and concentrating-tracking solar collectors; integrated system using direct heat recovery, evacuated tube solar collectors and concentrating-tracking solar collectors; and integrated system using enhanced heat recovery, evacuated tube collectors, and concentrating-tracking source collectors. An economic evaluation of the systems is presented using the rate of return method. Results and recommendations are summarized. (MCW)

Hester, J.C.; Beasley, D.E.; Rogers, W.A. Jr.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coke and Shipments Net Residual Distillate Natural LPG and Coal Breeze of Energy Sources NAICS Total(b) Electricity(c) Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(d) Gas(e) NGL(f) (million (million Other(g) Produced Onsite(h) Code(a) Subsector and Industry (trillion Btu) (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) (billion cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) short tons) (trillion Btu) (trillion Btu) Total United States RSE Column Factors: 0.9 1 1.2 1.8 1 1.6 0.8 0.9 1.2 0.4 311 Food 1,123 67,521 2 3 567 1 8 * 89 0 311221 Wet Corn Milling 217 6,851 * * 59 * 5 0 11 0 31131 Sugar 112 725 * * 22 * 2 * 46 0 311421 Fruit and Vegetable Canning 47 1,960 * * 35 * 0 0 1 0 312 Beverage and Tobacco Products 105 7,639 * * 45 * 1 0 11 0 3121 Beverages 85 6,426 * * 41 * * 0 10 0 3122 Tobacco 20 1,213 * * 4 * * 0 1 0 313 Textile Mills 207 25,271 1 * 73 * 1 0 15 0 314

334

table5.5_02  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2002; 5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Distillate Fuel Oil Coal Net Residual and Natural LPG and (excluding Coal RSE Total Electricity(a) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(b) Gas(c) NGL(d) Coke and Breeze) Other(e) Row End Use (trillion Btu) (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) (billion cu ft) (million bbl) (million short tons) (trillion Btu) Factors Total United States RSE Column Factors: 1 1 2.4 1.1 1.4 1 0 0 TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 16,273 832,257 33 24 5,641 26 53 6,006 3.4 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel -- 3,540 20 6 2,105 2 35 -- 5.3 Conventional Boiler Use -- 2,496 12 4 1,271 2 11 -- 5.6

335

table7.6_02.xls  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 Quantity of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002; 6 Quantity of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Coke Residual Distillate Natural LPG and Coal and Breeze RSE NAICS Total Electricity Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(b) Gas(c) NGL(d) (million (million Other(e) Row Code(a) Subsector and Industry (trillion Btu) (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) (billion cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) short tons) (trillion Btu) Factors Total United States RSE Column Factors: 0.9 0.9 1.2 1.5 0.9 1.5 0.8 0.6 1.1 311 Food 1,082 W 2 3 566 1 9 * 40 8.2 311221 Wet Corn Milling 220 W * * 59 * 6 0 9 1.1 31131 Sugar 71 733 * * 22 * 2 * 3 1 311421 Fruit and Vegetable Canning 47 1,987 * * 35 * 0 0 1 12.6

336

Originally Released: July 2009  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coke and Shipments Net Residual Distillate Natural Gas(e) LPG and Coal Breeze of Energy Sources NAICS Total(b) Electricity(c) Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(d) (billion NGL(f) (million (million Other(g) Produced Onsite(h) Code(a) Subsector and Industry (trillion Btu) (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) short tons) (trillion Btu) (trillion Btu) Total United States 311 Food 1,186 73,440 4 3 620 1 7 * 105 * 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 318 15,464 * * 117 * 5 0 29 * 311221 Wet Corn Milling 179 6,746 * * 51 * 4 0 9 0 31131 Sugar Manufacturing 82 968 1 * 17 * 1 * 20 0 3114 Fruit and Vegetable Preserving and Specialty Food 169 9,708 * * 123 * * 0 4 0 3115 Dairy Product 121 10,079 * * 80 * * 0 1 0 3116 Animal Slaughtering and Processing 226 17,545 1 1 141 * 0 0 12 0 312 Beverage and Tobacco Products 107

337

table4.1_02.xls  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2002; 1 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Coke Residual Distillate Natural LPG and Coal and Breeze RSE NAICS Total Electricity(b) Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(c) Gas(d) NGL(e) (million (million Other(f) Row Code(a) Subsector and Industry (trillion Btu) (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) (billion cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) short tons) (trillion Btu) Factors Total United States RSE Column Factors: 0.8 0.8 1.1 1.6 0.9 1.8 0.7 0.7 1.2 311 Food 1,079 68,230 2 3 560 1 8 * 50 8 311221 Wet Corn Milling 217 7,098 * * 59 * 5 0 11 1.1 31131 Sugar 74 733 * * 22 * 2 * 8 1 311421 Fruit and Vegetable Canning 47 1,987 * * 35 * 0

338

Low-lying isomeric levels in 75Cu  

SciTech Connect

Isomeric low-lying states were identified and investigated in the 75Cu nucleus. Two states at 61.8(5)- and 128.3(7)-keV excitation energies with half-lives of 370(40)- and 170(15)-ns were assigned as 75m1Cu and 75m2Cu, respectively. The measured half-lives combined with the recent spin assignment of the ground state allow one to deduce tentatively spin and parity of the two isomers and the dominant multipolarities of the isomeric transitions with respect to the systematics of the Cu isotopes. Shell-model calculations using an up-to-date effective interaction reproduce the evolution of the 1/2 , 3/2 , and 5/2 states for the neutron-rich odd-mass Cu isotopes when filling the g9/2. The results indicate a significant change in the nuclear structure in this region, where a single-particle 5/2 state coexists with more and more collective 3/2 and 1/2 levels at low excitation energies.

Daugas, J. M. [Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL); Faul, T. [CEA, France; Grawe, H. [GSI-Hemholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany; Pfutzner, M. [University of Warsaw; Grzywacz, R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Lewitowicz, M. [Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL); Achouri, N. L. [CNRS/IN2P3, Caen, France; Angelique, J. C. [CNRS/IN2P3, Caen, France; Baiborodin, D. [Nuclear Physic Institute, Czech Republic; Bentida, R. [Universite de Lyon, France; Beraud, R. [Universite de Lyon, France; Borcea, C. [IFIN, Bucharest-Magurele, Romania; Bingham, C. R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Catford, W. [University of Surrey, UK; Emsallem, A. [Universite de Lyon, France; De France, G. [Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL); Grzywacz, K. L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Lemmon, R. [Daresbury Laboratory, UK; Lopez Jimenez, M. J. [Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL); de Oliveira Santos, F. [Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL); Regan, P. H. [University of Surrey, UK; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr [ORNL; Sauvestre, J. E. [CEA, France; Sawicka, M. [University of Warsaw; Stanoiu, M. [Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL); Sieja, K. [Technische Universitat Darmstadt, Germany; Nowacki, F. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, Strasbourg, France

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Low-lying isomeric levels in {sup 75}Cu  

SciTech Connect

Isomeric low-lying states were identified and investigated in the {sup 75}Cu nucleus. Two states at 61.8(5)- and 128.3(7)-keV excitation energies with half-lives of 370(40)- and 170(15)-ns were assigned as {sup 75m1}Cu and {sup 75m2}Cu, respectively. The measured half-lives combined with the recent spin assignment of the ground state allow one to deduce tentatively spin and parity of the two isomers and the dominant multipolarities of the isomeric transitions with respect to the systematics of the Cu isotopes. Shell-model calculations using an up-to-date effective interaction reproduce the evolution of the 1/2{sup -}, 3/2{sup -}, and 5/2{sup -} states for the neutron-rich odd-mass Cu isotopes when filling the nug{sub 9/2}. The results indicate a significant change in the nuclear structure in this region, where a single-particle 5/2{sup -} state coexists with more and more collective 3/2{sup -} and 1/2{sup -} levels at low excitation energies.

Daugas, J. M.; Faul, T.; Sauvestre, J. E. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon cedex (France); Grawe, H. [GSI-Hemholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstrasse 1, D-64220 Darmstadt (Germany); Pfuetzner, M.; Sawicka, M. [IEP, Warsaw University, 00681 Warsaw, PL-00681 Hoza 69 (Poland); Grzywacz, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Lewitowicz, M.; France, G. de; Lopez Jimenez, M. J.; Oliveira Santos, F. de [Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen cedex 5 (France); Achouri, N. L.; Angelique, J. C. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire ENSICAEN, CNRS-IN2P3 UMR 6534 et Universite de Caen, F-14050 Caen cedex (France); Baiborodin, D. [Nuclear Physic Institute, CZ-25068 Rez (Czech Republic); Bentida, R.; Beraud, R.; Emsallem, A. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Lyon 1, F-69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Borcea, C. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box MG6, Bucharest-Margule (Romania); Bingham, C. R.; Grzywacz, K. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

340

Novel route to synthesize CuO nanoplatelets  

SciTech Connect

A new synthesis route to obtain high-purity cupric oxide, CuO, using the hydrothermal reaction of copper sulfide and a NaOH solution in an oxygen atmosphere has been developed. The synthesized products showed nanoplatelet-like morphologies with rectangular cross-sections and dimensions at the nanometric scale. Variations in the oxygen partial pressure and synthesis temperature produced changes in size and shape, being found that the proliferation of nanoplatelet structures occurred at 200 deg. C and 30 bar. - Graphical abstract: Transmission electron microscopy image of a CuO nanoplatelet. The inset is an electron diffraction pattern of this twined CuO nanoplatelet exhibiting a monoclinic crystal structure.

Zarate, R.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta (Chile)], E-mail: rzarate@ucn.cl; Hevia, F. [Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta (Chile); Fuentes, S. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta (Chile); Fuenzalida, V.M. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Chile, Av. Blanco Encalada 2008, Santiago (Chile); Zuniga, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Chile, Beauchef 850, Santiago (Chile)

2007-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu cu ft" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Copper Coordination in Cu-SSZ-13 and Cu-SSZ-16 Investigated by Variable-Temperature XRD  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) are a major atmospheric pollutant produced through the combustion of fossil fuels in internal combustion engines. Copper-exchanged zeolites are promising as selective catalytic reduction catalysts for the direct conversion of NO into N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}, and recent reports have shown the enhanced performance of Cu-CHA catalysts over other zeolite frameworks in the NO decomposition of exhaust gas streams. In the present study, Rietveld refinement of variable-temperature XRD synchrotron data obtained for Cu-SSZ-13 and Cu-SSZ-16 is used to investigate the location of copper cations in the zeolite pores and the effect of temperature on these sites and on framework stability. The XRD patterns show that the thermal stability of SSZ-13 is increased significantly when copper is exchanged into the framework compared with the acid form of the zeolite, H-SSZ-13. Cu-SSZ-13 is also more thermally stable than Cu-SSZ-16. From the refined diffraction patterns, the atomic positions of atoms, copper locations and occupancies, and thermal displacement parameters were determined as a function of temperature for both zeolites. Copper is found in the cages coordinated to three oxygen atoms of the six-membered rings.

Fickel, D.; Lobo, R

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Technology development for cobalt F-T catalysts. Topical report No.3, Zirconia promotion of Fischer-Tropsch cobalt catalysts: Behavior in fixed-bed and slurry bubble column reactors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A series of cobalt-based F-T catalysts supported on alumina and silica were prepared with different loadings of Zr and different sequences of impregnation of Co and Zr. All catalysts were extensively characterized by different methods. The catalysts were evaluated in terms of their activity and selectivity both in fixed bed and slurry bubble column reactors. Addition of ZrO{sub 2} to both Co/SiO{sub 2} and Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts resulted in at least a twofold increase in the catalyst activity for F-T synthesis in the fixed bed reactor. In the slurry bubble column reactor, a similar promotion effect was observed for the SiO{sub 2}-supported catalysts, while the addition of Zr to a cobalt/alumina catalyst had a less significant effect.

Oukaci, R.; Marcelin, G.; Goodwin, J.G. Jr. [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

1995-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

343

Incorporation of Cu Acceptors in ZnO Nanocrystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Doping of semiconductor nanocrystals is an important problem in nanomaterials research. Using infrared (IR) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we have observed Cu acceptor dopants that were intentionally introduced into ZnO nanocrystals. The incorporation of Cu2+ dopants increased as the diameter of the nanocrystals was increased from ~3 to 5 nm. Etching the nanocrystals with acetic acid revealed a core-shell structure, where a 2-nm lightly doped core is surrounded by a heavily doped shell. These observations are consistent with the trapped dopant model, in which dopant atoms stick to the surface of the core and are overgrown by the nanocrystal material.

Oo, W.M.H.; Mccluskey, Matthew D.; Huso, Jesse; Morrison, J.; Bergman, Leah; Engelhard, Mark H.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.

2010-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

344

Pb-free Sn-Ag-Cu ternary eutectic solder  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Pb-free solder includes a ternary eutectic composition consisting essentially of about 93.6 weight % Sn-about 4.7 weight % Ag-about 1.7 weight % Cu having a eutectic melting temperature of about 217.degree. C. and variants of the ternary composition wherein the relative concentrations of Sn, Ag, and Cu deviate from the ternary eutectic composition to provide a controlled melting temperature range (liquid-solid "mushy" zone) relative to the eutectic melting temperature (e.g. up to 15.degree. C. above the eutectic melting temperature).

Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Yost, Frederick G. (Cedar Crest, NM); Smith, John F. (Ames, IA); Miller, Chad M. (Ames, IA); Terpstra, Robert L. (Ames, IA)

1996-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

345

Technical barriers and development of Cu wirebonding in nanoelectronics device packaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bondpad cratering, Cu ball bond interface corrosion, IMD (intermetal dielectric) cracking, and uncontrolled post-wirebond staging are the key technical barriers in Cu wire development. This paper discusses the UHAST (unbiased HAST) reliability performance ...

C. L. Gan; E. K. Ng; B. L. Chan; U. Hashim; F. C. Classe

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Establish Electromigration-induced Failure Map for Flip-chip Sn/Cu ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, we will talk about two kinds of EM-induced failures would occur in a flip-chip Cu/Sn/Cu solder joint under EM test first. Then, we calculated the ...

347

Elucidating efficiency losses in cuprous oxide (Cu?O) photovoltaics and identifying strategies for efficiency improvement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, I fabricated and characterized a series of thin-film cuprous oxide (Cu?O) photovoltaic devices. I constructed several different device designs, using sputtered and electrochemically deposited Cu?O. ...

Brandt, Riley Eric

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Dilute magnetic semiconductor Cu2FeSnS4 nanocrystals with a novel zincblende structure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Diluted magnetic semiconductor Cu2FeSnS4 nanocrystals with a novel zincblende structure have been successfully synthesized by a hot-injection approach. Cu+, Fe2+, and Sn4+ ions occupy the same position in the ...

Xiaolu Liang; Xianhua Wei; Daocheng Pan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Substrate effect on the electronic structures of CuPc/graphene interfaces  

SciTech Connect

The interfacial electronic structures of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) deposited on a single-layer graphene (SLG) film prepared on Cu and SiO{sub 2} substrates (SLG/Cu and SLG/SiO{sub 2}) were investigated using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. The ionization energy of CuPc on SLG/Cu and SLG/SiO{sub 2} substrate is, respectively, 5.62 eV and 4.97 eV. The energy level alignments at the two interfaces were estimated. The results revealed that the height of the electron (hole) injection barriers are 1.20 (1.10) and 1.38 (0.92) eV at CuPc/SLG/Cu and CuPc/SLG/SiO{sub 2} interfaces, respectively.

Wu Qihui; Hong Guo; Ng, T. W.; Lee, S. T. [Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF) and Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

2012-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

350

Kinetics and Equilibrium Studies of the Biosorption of Cu(II)by Algae in the Presence of Natural Organic Matter.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Cu2+ and its compounds are serious environmental pollutants, and thus, the form and aqueous behavior of Cu2+ needs to be understood in order to effectively… (more)

Wang, Qiong

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

NIST, CU to Build Instrument to Help Search for Earth-like ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NIST, CU to Build Instrument to Help Search for Earth-like Planets. For Immediate Release: November 3, 2009. ...

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

352

High strength-high conductivity Cu-Fe composites produced by powder compaction/mechanical reduction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A particulate mixture of Cu and Fe is compacted and mechanically reduced to form an ''in-situ'' Cu-Fe composite having high strength and high conductivity. Compaction and mechanical reduction of the particulate mixture are carried out at a temperature and time at temperature selected to avoid dissolution of Fe into the Cu matrix particulates to a harmful extent that substantially degrades the conductivity of the Cu-Fe composite. 5 figures.

Verhoeven, J.D.; Spitzig, W.A.; Gibson, E.D.; Anderson, I.E.

1991-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

353

High strength-high conductivity Cu--Fe composites produced by powder compaction/mechanical reduction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A particulate mixture of Cu and Fe is compacted and mechanically reduced to form an "in-situ" Cu-Fe composite having high strength and high conductivity. Compaction and mechanical reduction of the particulate mixture are carried out at a temperature and time at temperature selected to avoid dissolution of Fe into the Cu matrix particulates to a harmful extent that substantially degrades the conductivity of the Cu-Fe composite.

Verhoeven, John D. (Ames, IA); Spitzig, William A. (Ames, IA); Gibson, Edwin D. (Ames, IA); Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA)

1991-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

354

Magneto-optical Kerr effect studies of Cu2O/nickel heterostructures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cuprous oxide (Cu"2O) is a diamagnetic p-type semiconductor material, considered to be highly attractive for the rapidly emerging field of oxide electronics. In this work Cu"2O layers with various thicknesses were produced by atomic layer deposition ... Keywords: ALD, Cu2O, MOKE, Nickel, Spintronics

Georgeta Salvan, Peter Robaschik, Michael Fronk, Steve MüLler, Thomas Waechtler, Stefan E. Schulz, Robert Mothes, Heinrich Lang, Christian Schubert, Senoy Thomas, Manfred Albrecht, Dietrich R. T. Zahn

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

MSU Extension Publication Archive Archive copy of publication, do not use for current recommendations. Up-to-date  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In English or engineering units, solar radiation is measured in Btu/ft2 (British thermal units per square foot). The average intensity of solar radiation on the outer edge of the earth's atmosphere is 429 Btu, passive solar energy is probably the most cost-effective use of solar energy for space heating

356

Kinetic Controls on Cu and Pb Sorption by Ferrihydrite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nd ed.; Cambridge University Press: New York, 1993. (51) Sparks, D. L. Kinetics of Soil Chemical Processes; Academic Press: New York, 1989. (52) Espenson, J. H. Chemical Kinetics and Reaction Mechanisms, 2Kinetic Controls on Cu and Pb Sorption by Ferrihydrite A N D R E A S C . S C H E I N O

Sparks, Donald L.

357

Electroplating of Cu(Ag) thin films for interconnect applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electromigration effects in interconnect metallizations cause a need for materials with superior resistance against electromigration failure but with adequate electrical properties. In principle, Cu(Ag) alloys are potential candidates to become an interconnect ... Keywords: Copper-silver alloy thin film, Electrochemical deposition, Interconnect material

S. Strehle; S. Menzel; J. W. Bartha; K. Wetzig

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

11th North American Waste to Energy Conference Copyright 2003 by ASME  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of synthesis gas from gasification of animal manure was estimated to be around 4.2 MJ/m3 (113 Btu/ft3 ................................................................................................5 Gasification Experiments ............................................................................................................8 Manure gasification experiment conducted on July, 9 2008

Columbia University

359

ANALYSIS OF THE CALIFORNIA ENERGY INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Al MUilE 16 MMTIVl COAL GASIFICATION - HIGH STU 1250 MMCF/Olfacilities, particularly coal gasification plants,coal-fired5 5T/yr ore) Coal Gasification (Hi BTU (80Xl0 9 ft 3/yr)

Authors, Various

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Metallurgical Principles and Practice of Engineering (PE) Study Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cooling water is available for cooling at 95°F and returns to a cooling tower at 130°F. Other information includes: Steel thermal conductivity, k = 20.2 BTU/(hr.ft.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu cu ft" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Low-lying levels in Cu-57 and the rp process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The level scheme of Cu-57 is investigated via the H-1(Ni-58,Cu-57-gamma)2n reaction by using the recoil mass spectrometer MARS at the Texas AandM Cyclotron Institute. Three low-lying excited states are observed in Cu-57 at 1028 +/- 4, 1106 +/- 4, and 2398 +/- 10 keV. The results are compared with well known excited states of the mirror nucleus Ni-57. Th, measured excited states of Cu-57 allow recalculation of the astrophysical reaction rate for the stellar radiative proton capture reaction Ni-56(p,gamma)Cu-57.

Zhou, XG; Dejbakhsh, H.; Gagliardi, Carl A.; Jiang, J.; Trache, L.; Tribble, Robert E.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Thermochemical and kinetic aspects of the sulfurization of Cu-Sb and Cu-Bi thin films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CuSbS{sub 2} and Cu{sub 3}BiS{sub 3} are being investigated as part of a search for new absorber materials for photovoltaic devices. Thin films of these chalcogenides were produced by conversion of stacked and co-electroplated metal precursor layers in the presence of elemental sulfur vapour. Ex-situ XRD and SEM/EDS analyses of the processed samples were employed to study the reaction sequence with the aim of achieving compact layer morphologies. A new 'Time-Temperature-Reaction' (TTR) diagram and modified Pilling-Bedworth coefficients have been introduced for the description and interpretation of the reaction kinetics. For equal processing times, the minimum temperature required for CuSbS{sub 2} to appear is substantially lower than for Cu{sub 3}BiS{sub 3}, suggesting that interdiffusion across the interfaces between the binary sulfides is a key step in the formation of the ternary compounds. The effects of the heating rate and sulfur partial pressure on the phase evolution as well as the potential losses of Sb and Bi during the processes have been investigated experimentally and the results related to the equilibrium pressure diagrams obtained via thermochemical computation. - Graphical Abstract: Example of 3D plot showing the equilibrium pressure surfaces of species potentially escaping from chalcogenide films as a function of temperature and sulfur partial pressure. Bi{sub (g)}, Bi{sub 2(g)}, and BiS{sub (g)} are the gaseous species in equilibrium with solid Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3(s)} considered in this specific example. The pressure threshold plane corresponds to the pressure limit above which the elemental losses from 1 {mu}m thick films exceeds 10% of the original content per cm{sup 2} area of film and dm{sup 3} capacity of sulfurization furnace under static atmosphere conditions. The sulfurization temperature/sulfur partial pressure boundaries required to minimise the elemental losses below a given value can be easily read from the 2D projection of the intersection curves into the T-p{sub S2} plane. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle Sulfurization of Sb-Cu and Bi-Cu metal precursors for thin film PV applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle Kinetics shows the rate determining step to be the interdiffusion of binary sulfides. Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle Phase evolution is consistent with Pilling-Bedworth coefficients of Cu, Sb and Bi. Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle Elemental losses can be minimised via the use of equilibrium pressure diagrams.

Colombara, Diego, E-mail: dc326@bath.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Peter, Laurence M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Rogers, Keith D.; Hutchings, Kyle [Centre for Materials Science and Engineering, Cranfield University, Shrivenham, SN6 8LA (United Kingdom)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

363

Effect of Ni on Cu precipitation kinetics in \\alpha-Fe by AKMC study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The kinetics of coherent Cu rich precipitation in Fe-Cu and Fe-Cu-Ni alloys during thermal ageing have been modeled by Atomic Kinetic Monte Carlo method (AKMC). The AKMC is parameterized by existing ab-inito data to treat vacancy mediated diffusion which is depend on local atomic environment. A nonlinear semi-empirical time adjusting method is proposed to rescaled the MC time. The combined AKMC and time adjusting method give good agreement with experiments and other simulations, including advancement factor and the Cu cluster mobility. Simulations of ternary alloys reveal Ni has a temporal delay effect on Cu precipitation. This effect is caused by the decreasing diffusion coefficient of Cu clusters. And the reduction effect of diffusion coefficient weakens with cluster size. The simulations can be used to explain the experimental phenomenon that higher cluster number density formed during coasening stage in Fe-Cu-Ni alloys than corresponding binary alloy, which is related to cluster mobility.

Wang, Yi; Liu, Xiang Bing; Wang, Rong Shan; Wang, Jing Tao

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Utility of reactively sputtered CuN{sub x} films in spintronics devices  

SciTech Connect

We have studied nitrified copper (CuN{sub x}) thin films grown by reactive sputtering in the context of spintronic devices. The Ar-to-N{sub 2} flow ratio enables tunability of the electrical resistivity and surface roughness of the CuN{sub x} films, with the former increasing to nearly 20 times that of Cu, and the latter reduced to the atomic scale. Incorporating this into a Ta/CuN{sub x}/Ta seed stack for spin valves improves the current-in-plane (CIP) magnetoresistance; maximum magnetoresistance results with CuN{sub x} seed layer and Cu interlayer. Finally, finite element modeling results are presented that suggest the use of CuN{sub x} in nanocontact spin torque oscillators can enhance current densities by limiting the current spread through the device. This may positively impact threshold currents, power requirements, and device reliability.

Fang Yeyu [Physics Department, Goeteborg University, 412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Persson, J. [Physics Department, Goeteborg University, 412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); NanOsc AB, Electrum 205, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Zha, C. [Materials Physics Department, Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Willman, J.; Miller, Casey W. [Department of Physics, Center for Integrated Functional Materials, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States); Aakerman, Johan [Physics Department, Goeteborg University, 412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); NanOsc AB, Electrum 205, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Materials Physics Department, Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Comparative Study of the Defect Point Physics and Luminescence of the Kesterites Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4 and Chalcopyrite Cu(In,Ga)Se2: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this contribution, we present a comparative study of the luminescence of the kesterites Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) and Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) and their related chalcopyrite Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe). Luminescence spectroscopy suggests that the electronic properties of Zn-rich, Cu-poor kesterites (both CZTS and CZTSe) and Cu-poor CIGSe are dictated by fluctuations of the electrostatic and chemical potentials. The large redshift in the luminescence of grain boundaries in CIGSe, associated with the formation of a neutral barrier is clearly observed in CZTSe, and, to some extent, in CZTS. Kesterites can therefore replicate the fundamental electronic properties of CIGSe.

Romero, M. J.; Repins, I.; Teeter, G.; Contreras, M.; Al-Jassim, M.; Noufi, R.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Hydrolysis of CuCl{sub 2} in the Cu-Cl thermochemical cycle for hydrogen production : experimental studies using a spray reactor with an ultrasonic atomizer.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Cu-Cl thermochemical cycle is being developed as a hydrogen production method. Prior proof-of-concept experimental work has shown that the chemistry is viable while preliminary modeling has shown that the efficiency and cost of hydrogen production have the potential to meet DOE's targets. However, the mechanisms of CuCl{sub 2} hydrolysis, an important step in the Cu-Cl cycle, are not fully understood. Although the stoichiometry of the hydrolysis reaction, 2CuCl{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O {leftrightarrow} Cu{sub 2}OCl{sub 2} + 2HCl, indicates a necessary steam-to-CuCl{sub 2} molar ratio of 0.5, a ratio as high as 23 has been typically required to obtain near 100% conversion of the CuCl{sub 2} to the desired products at atmospheric pressure. It is highly desirable to conduct this reaction with less excess steam to improve the process efficiency. Per Le Chatelier's Principle and according to the available equilibrium-based model, the needed amount of steam can be decreased by conducting the hydrolysis reaction at a reduced pressure. In the present work, the experimental setup was modified to allow CuCl{sub 2} hydrolysis in the pressure range of 0.4-1 atm. Chemical and XRD analyses of the product compositions revealed the optimal steam-to-CuCl{sub 2} molar ratio to be 20-23 at 1 atm pressure. The experiments at 0.4 atm and 0.7 atm showed that it is possible to lower the steam-to-CuCl{sub 2} molar ratio to 15, while still obtaining good yields of the desired products. An important effect of running the reaction at reduced pressure is the significant decrease of CuCl concentration in the solid products, which was not predicted by prior modeling. Possible explanations based on kinetics and residence times are suggested.

Ferrandon, M. S.; Lewis, M. A.; Alvarez, F.; Shafirovich, E.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Univ. of Texas at El Paso

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

The origins of ordering in CuPt  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The alloy CuPt is one of the few that order into a L1{sub 1} crystal structure, i.e. planes of copper and planes of planes of planes of platinum perpendicular to the direction. For disordered CuPt, the calculated Warren-Cowley short-range order parameter indicates an instability to concentration fluctuations with a wave-vector of ({1/2}, {1/2}, {1/2}), consistent with L1{sub 1} ordering. We show that this rare tendency is due to this ordering vector arising from the large joint density of states associated with L point and X point van-Hove singularities which lie near the Fermi energy.

Clark, J.F.; Pinski, F.J. [Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Physics; Sterne, P.A. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Johnson, D.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Staunton, J.B. [Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Ginatempo, B. [Messina Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Teorica

1993-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

368

The origins of ordering in CuPt  

SciTech Connect

The alloy CuPt is one of the few that order into a L1{sub 1} crystal structure, i.e. planes of copper and planes of planes of planes of platinum perpendicular to the < 111 > direction. For disordered CuPt, the calculated Warren-Cowley short-range order parameter indicates an instability to concentration fluctuations with a wave-vector of ({1/2}, {1/2}, {1/2}), consistent with L1{sub 1} ordering. We show that this rare tendency is due to this ordering vector arising from the large joint density of states associated with L point and X point van-Hove singularities which lie near the Fermi energy.

Clark, J.F.; Pinski, F.J. [Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Physics; Sterne, P.A. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Johnson, D.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Staunton, J.B. [Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Ginatempo, B. [Messina Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Teorica

1993-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

369

CuC1 thermochemical cycle for hydrogen production  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell for producing copper having a dense graphite anode electrode and a dense graphite cathode electrode disposed in a CuCl solution. An anion exchange membrane made of poly(ethylene vinyl alcohol) and polyethylenimine cross-linked with a cross-linking agent selected from the group consisting of acetone, formaldehyde, glyoxal, glutaraldehyde, and mixtures thereof is disposed between the two electrodes.

Fan, Qinbai (Chicago, IL); Liu, Renxuan (Chicago, IL)

2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

370

Novel approaches to low temperature transient liquid phase bonding in the In-Sn/Cu and In-Sn-Bi/Cu systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A fluxless low temperature transient liquid phase (LTTLP) bonding process was studied as a method of producing Cu/Cu joints below 125°C and 75°C using interlayer alloys from the In-Sn and In-Sn-Bi systems. Using thermodynamic ...

Fischer, David S., Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Charged and strange hadron elliptic flow in Cu+Cu collisions at [sqrt]sNN=62.4 and 200 GeV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the results of an elliptic flow, v2, analysis of Cu+Cu collisions recorded with the solenoidal tracker detector (STAR) at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at ?sNN=62.4 and 200 GeV. Elliptic flow as a ...

Surrow, Bernd

372

Directed and elliptic flow of charged particles in Cu + Cu collisions at ?[superscript s][subscript NN]=22.4 GeV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper reports results for directed flow v[subscript 1] and elliptic flow v[subscript 2] of charged particles in Cu + Cu collisions at ?[superscript s][subscript NN]=22.4 GeV at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The ...

Balewski, Jan T.

373

Effects of Cu Diffusion from ZnTe:Cu/Ti Contacts on Carrier Lifetime of CdS/CdTe Thin Film Solar Cells: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We study the performance of CdS/CdTe thin film PV devices processed with a ZnTe:Cu/Ti contact to investigate how carrier lifetime in the CdTe layer is affected by Cu diffusion from the contact.

Gessert, T. A.; Metzger, W. K.; Asher, S. E.; Young, M. R.; Johnston, S.; Dhere, R. G.; Duda, A.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Phase equilibria of the Ba-Sm-Y-Cu-O system for coated conductor applications  

SciTech Connect

The complex phase relationships near the BaO-poor region of the quaternary Ba-Sm-Y-Cu-O oxide system prepared in pure air (p{sub O{sub 2}}=22 kPa, 950 {sup o}C) and in 0.1% O{sub 2} (p{sub O{sub 2}}=100 Pa, 810 {sup o}C) have been determined. This investigation also included the subsolidus compatibilities in ten subsystems (Ba-Sm-Y-O, Ba-Sm-Cu-O, Ba-Y-Cu-O, Sm-Y-Cu-O, Ba-Sm-O, Ba-Y-O, Ba-Cu-O, Sm-Y-O, Sm-Cu-O, and Y-Cu-O), and the homogeneity range of five solid solutions (Ba(Sm{sub x}Y{sub 2-x})CuO{sub 5}, (Sm,Y){sub 2}O{sub 3}, (Sm,Y){sub 2}CuO{sub 4}, (Y,Sm){sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Ba(Sm,Y){sub 2}O{sub 4}). The single phase range of the superconductor solid solution, (Ba{sub 2-x}Sm{sub x})(Sm{sub 1-y}Y{sub y})Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+z}, and the phase compatibilities in its vicinity, which are particularly important for processing, are described in detail. The phase equilibrium data of the Ba-Sm-Y-Cu-O system will enable the improvement of the intrinsic superconducting properties of second-generation wires, and facilitate the flux-pinning process. -- Graphical Abstract: Phase diagram overview of the Ba-Sm-Y-Cu-O system in the BaO-poor region prepared in p{sub O2}=22 kPa, 950 {sup o}C. Display Omitted

Liu, G. [Ceramics Division, Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Wong-Ng, W., E-mail: Winnie.wong-ng@nist.go [Ceramics Division, Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Yang, Z. [Ceramics Division, Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Kaduk, J.A. [Poly Crystallography Inc., Naperville, IL 60540 (United States); Cook, L.P. [Ceramics Division, Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); PhazePro Technologies LLC, Hustontown, PA 17229 (United States)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

375

Stripe-to-bubble transition of magnetic domains at the spin reorientation of (Fe/Ni)/Cu/Ni/Cu(001)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Magnetic domain evolution at the spin reorientation transition (SRT) of (Fe/Ni)/Cu/Ni/Cu(001) is investigated using photoemission electron microscopy. While the (Fe/Ni) layer exhibits the SRT, the interlayer coupling of the perpendicularly magnetized Ni layer to the (Fe/Ni) layer serves as a virtual perpendicular magnetic field exerted on the (Fe/Ni) layer. We find that the perpendicular virtual magnetic field breaks the up-down symmetry of the (Fe/Ni) stripe domains to induce a net magnetization in the normal direction of the film. Moreover, as the virtual magnetic field increases to exceed a critical field, the stripe domain phase evolves into a bubble domain phase. Although the critical field depends on the Fe film thickness, we show that the area fraction of the minority domain exhibits a universal value that determines the stripe-to-bubble phase transition.

Wu, J.; Choi, J.; Won, C.; Wu, Y. Z.; Scholl, A.; Doran, A.; Hwang, Chanyong; Qiu, Z.

2010-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

376

In Vitro Assessment of the In Vivo Stability of Cu-64 Radiopharmaceuticals  

SciTech Connect

Research Plans: The successful development of Cu-64 radiopharmaceuticals depends upon retention of the Cu-64 atom in the radiopharmaceutical. To date, the focus has been on the development of chelators that better retain Cu-64, but there has been no effort to develop an effective method by which improved retention may be measured. In the absence of a suitable analytical method, the stability of Cu-64 radiopharmaceuticals is estimated indirectly, with decreased liver uptake suggesting higher in vivo complex stability. But this approach is inadequate for radiopharmaceuticals, such as radiolabeled antibodies, that are expected to accumulate in the liver even when there is no free Cu-64 present. The absence of such a method has also hampered efforts to systematically evaluate the chemical factors that may give rise to improved retention. The objective of this project is to develop and validate such a method. Accomplishments: The two primary accomplishments of this project will be 1) the development and validation of a method to measure the stability of Cu-64 radiopharmaceuticals and 2) the determination of the chemical factors that define the in vivo stability of Cu 64 radiopharmaceuticals. Because Cu(II) is extremely labile, the in vivo stability of Cu-64 radiopharmaceuticals is not primarily determined by the amount of �¢����free�¢��� Cu that is present at any given time or by the thermodynamic stability constants, but rather by the rate at which Cu is lost from the complex, the dissociation rate constant, kd. The dissociation rate constants of the Cu-64 complexes from a series of bifunctional chelators (BFCs) will be measured using Free Ion Selective Radiotracer Extraction (FISRE), a technique originally developed to measure bioavailable Cu in environmental samples. FISRE will also be applied to the determination of the kd�¢����s of a series of reference Cu-64 complexes to determine the chemical factors that define the in vivo stability of Cu-64 radiopharmaceuticals. Potential Benefits: The FISRE method that will be used in this project, once validated, will provide researchers with a core technology by which the stability of Cu 64 radiopharmaceuticals can be accurately measured. In the short-term, we expect to produce extensive data regarding the stability of Cu-64 complexes of ligands of radiopharmaceutical interest, primarily those that are most commonly used as BFCs (e.g., DOTA, TETA). These data will provide a quantitative basis for deciding which ligands may be best suited for use as BFCs, data that is not currently available. In the intermediate term, we expect that these results will facilitate the development of new Cu-64 radiopharmaceuticals by providing a quantitative approach to assessing the stability of Cu-64 chelates. This innovative methodology will enable investigators to quantitatively compare the ability of different BFCs to retain Cu-64 in vivo. The benefits of this approach will be best seen in the development of Cu-64-labeled monoclonal antibodies where the accumulation of antibodies in the liver obviates liver uptake as an effective surrogate measure of Cu-64 lability. In the longer-term, we anticipate an improvement in the way in which various diseases (especially cancer) are detected, diagnosed, staged, and treated. This method will also enable researchers to distinguish differences in biodistribution that may arise from differences in charge, lipophilicity, etc. from those that may arise from loss of Cu-64 from the chelator. Last, this novel quantitative tool will allow investigators to evaluate the chemical factors that determine the in vivo stability of Cu-64 radiopharmaceuticals�¢����laying the groundwork for the future development of more effective Cu-64 radiopharmaceuticals. Once the feasibility of this method is established, it can also be used to evaluate the stability of other metalloradiopharmaceuticals including those based on Ga-68, a

Packard, Alan B.

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

377

Trapping of Implanted He at Cu/Nb Interfaces Measured by Neutron Reflectometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In single crystalline metals, He is insoluble and precipitates into bubbles. In contrast, Cu-Nb multilayers show no evidence of bubble formation below a critical concentration. The conclusions of this paper are: (1) He is trapped at Cu/Nb , Cu/Mo interfaces; (2) He is trapped interstitially; (3) The interface swells {approx} 10 times; and (4) The layered structure retains despite the swell of interfaces.

Wang, Peng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhernenkov, Mikhail [Applications Scientist at Nanometrics; Kashinath, Abishek [MIT; Demkowicz, Michael [MIT; Baldwin, Jon K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Majewski, Jaroslaw [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

378

Method of fabricating high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} thin films for solar cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing a slightly Cu-poor thin film of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} comprises depositing a first layer of (In,Ga){sub x} (Se,S){sub y} followed by depositing just enough Cu+(Se,S) or Cu{sub x} (Se,S) to produce the desired slightly Cu-poor material. In a variation, most, but not all, (about 90 to 99%) of the (In,Ga){sub x} (Se,S){sub y} is deposited first, followed by deposition of all the Cu+(Se,S) or Cu{sub x} (Se,S) to go near stoichiometric, possibly or even preferably slightly Cu-rich, and then in turn followed by deposition of the remainder (about 1 to 10%) of the (In,Ga){sub x} (Se,S){sub y} to end with a slightly Cu-poor composition. In yet another variation, a small portion (about 1 to 10%) of the (In,Ga){sub x} (Se,S){sub y} is first deposited as a seed layer, followed by deposition of all of the Cu+(Se,S) or Cu{sub x} (Se,S) to make a very Cu-rich mixture, and then followed deposition of the remainder of the (In,Ga){sub x} (Se,S){sub y} to go slightly Cu-poor in the final Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} thin film. 5 figs.

Noufi, R.; Gabor, A.M.; Tuttle, J.R.; Tennant, A.L.; Contreras, M.A.; Albin, D.S.; Carapella, J.J.

1995-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

379

Method of fabricating high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)(SeS).sub.2 thin films for solar cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing a slightly Cu-poor thin film of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S).sub.2 comprises depositing a first layer of (In,Ga).sub.x (Se,S).sub.y followed by depositing just enough Cu+(Se,S) or Cu.sub.x (Se,S) to produce the desired slightly Cu-poor material. In a variation, most, but not all, (about 90 to 99%) of the (In,Ga).sub.x (Se,S).sub.y is deposited first, followed by deposition of all the Cu+(Se,S) or Cu.sub.x (Se,S) to go near stoichiometric, possibly or even preferably slightly Cu-rich, and then in turn followed by deposition of the remainder (about 1 to 10%) of the (In,Ga).sub.x (Se,S).sub.y to end with a slightly Cu-poor composition. In yet another variation, a small portion (about 1 to 10%) of the (In,Ga).sub.x (Se,S).sub.y is first deposited as a seed layer, followed by deposition of all of the Cu+(Se,S) or Cu.sub.x (Se,S) to make a very Cu-rich mixture, and then followed deposition of the remainder of the (In,Ga).sub.x (Se,S).sub.y to go slightly Cu-poor in the final Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S).sub.2 thin film.

Noufi, Rommel (Golden, CO); Gabor, Andrew M. (Boulder, CO); Tuttle, John R. (Denver, CO); Tennant, Andrew L. (Denver, CO); Contreras, Miguel A. (Golden, CO); Albin, David S. (Denver, CO); Carapella, Jeffrey J. (Evergreen, CO)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; 7 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Distillate Coal Fuel Oil (excluding Coal Net Demand Residual and Natural Gas(c) LPG and Coke and Breeze) for Electricity(a) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(b) (billion NGL(d) (million End Use (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) Total United States TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 977,338 40 22 5,357 21 46 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel 24,584 21 4 2,059 2 25 Conventional Boiler Use 24,584 11 3 1,245 2 6 CHP and/or Cogeneration Process 0 10 1 814 * 19 Direct Uses-Total Process 773,574 10 9 2,709 10 19 Process Heating

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381

Table 5.7 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010; 7 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Distillate Coal Fuel Oil (excluding Coal Net Demand Residual and Natural Gas(c) LPG and Coke and Breeze) for Electricity(a) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(b) (billion NGL(d) (million End Use (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) Total United States TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 845,727 13 22 5,064 18 39 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel 12,979 7 3 2,074 3 26 Conventional Boiler Use 12,979 3 1 712 1 3 CHP and/or Cogeneration Process -- 4 3 1,362 2 23 Direct Uses-Total Process 675,152 4 9 2,549 7 13 Process Heating

382

Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Table 5.3 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Distillate Coal Fuel Oil (excluding Coal Net Demand Residual and Natural Gas(d) LPG and Coke and Breeze) NAICS for Electricity(b) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(c) (billion NGL(e) (million Code(a) End Use (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) Total United States 311 - 339 ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 977,338 40 22 5,357 21 46 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel 24,584 21 4 2,059 2 25 Conventional Boiler Use 24,584 11 3

383

table5.3_02  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2002; 3 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2002; Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Distillate Net Demand Fuel Oil Coal for Residual and Natural LPG and (excluding Coal RSE NAICS Electricity(b) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(c) Gas(d) NGL(e) Coke and Breeze) Row Code(a) End Use (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) (billion cu ft) (million bbl) (million short tons) Factors Total United States 311 - 339 ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES RSE Column Factors: NF 1 2.4 1.1 1.4 1 TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 966,231 33 24 5,641 26 53 3.4 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel 6,714 20 6 2,105 2 35 5.3 Conventional Boiler Use

384

Phase Diagram of CuCrO2 in a Magnetic Field  

SciTech Connect

The magnetic phase diagram of CuCrO2 is constructed as a function of magnetic field and anisotropy using a trial spin state built from harmonics of a fundamental ordering wavevector. Whereas the multiferroic phase of CuCrO2 is a modified spin spiral with a 3-sublattice (SL) period, the phase diagram also contains 1-SL, 2-SL, 4-SL, and 5-SL collinear states which may be accessi- ble in the nonstoichiometric compound CuCrO2+ . For small anisotropy, CuCrO2 is predicted to undergo a transition between two modified spiral states with an intervening 3-SL collinear phase.

Fishman, Randy Scott [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

F-8: Modeling of Mn-Ni-Si-Cu Precipitation in Reactor Pressure ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, F-8: Modeling of Mn-Ni-Si-Cu Precipitation in Reactor .... Steels 316 and Comparison with the Rate Theory Model of a Multicomponent System.

386

Thermodynamic Modeling of the Mg-Cu-Ni Ternary System using ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, COM 2011. Symposium, LIGHT METALS. Presentation Title, Thermodynamic Modeling of the Mg-Cu-Ni Ternary System using the ...

387

Fatigue Resistance of Al-Cu-Li and Comparison with 7xxx ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have studied the fatigue resistance of alloys 2050 (AlCuLi alloy belonging to the AIRWARETM family) and 7050. Crack initiation and propagation have been ...

388

Effective suppression of Sn-58Bi/Cu interfacial reactions with minor ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On-Site Speaker (Planned), Trong Lan Nguyen. Abstract Scope, Overgrowth of the ?-Cu6Sn5 layer between Sn-58 wt.%Bi (Sn-58Bi) ...

389

Infrared Radiation Properties of CuO-ZnO-Based Sintered Material ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Infrared Radiation Properties of CuO-ZnO-Based Sintered Material Prepared for Energy-Saving Coating. Author(s), Chao Lian, Wei Wei, Hao ...

390

Interface Role in the Shock Response of Cu/Nb Metallic Multilayers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Non-equilibrium MD simulations of the shock loading of Cu/Nb multilayers containing exclusively one interface structure or the other confirm the key role which ...

391

Effect of Solder Bump Heights on Cu Dissolution Rate in Pb-Free ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Effect of Solder Bump Heights on Cu Dissolution Rate in Pb- Free ... Effect of Zn Content on the Electrification-Fusion and Failure Behaviors of  ...

392

Fabrication and Characterization of Polycrystalline CuInSe 2 Thin ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Thin Film Structures for Energy Efficient Systems. Presentation Title, Fabrication and Characterization of Polycrystalline CuInSe2 Thin Film by ...

393

Energy-efficient new commercial buildings in the Northwest region: a compilation of measured data  

SciTech Connect

We have collected and analyzed data for 36 new commercial buildings designed to be energy-efficient in the Northwest. Eighteen buildings are offices; the remainder are mostly retail buildings, and schools. The data were collected and analyzed to evaluate the building energy standards adopted by the Northwest Power Planning Council in the Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan. Almost half of the buildings are operating at energy levels under the Council's estimates for new efficient commercial buildings. There is, however, a large range of energy intensities. The average office building consumes 54 kBtu/ftS-yr (in site energy units), while the average small office uses only 43 kBtu/ftS-yr. Energy consumption for the eight retail buildings ranges from 47 kBtu/fS-yr to 134 kBtu/ftS-yr.

Piette, M.A.; Flora, D.; Crowder, S.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Oxygen chemisorption on Cu(19 19 1) studied by spot profile analysis low-energy electron diffraction  

SciTech Connect

Cu(110) and the vicinal Cu(19 19 1) surfaces were characterized by recording maps of the reciprocal space by means of spot profile analysis low-energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED). For both surfaces, kinematic simulations were performed to get insight into the main features of the experimental data. Furthermore, it is shown that chemisorption of oxygen and subsequent annealing lead to the formation of a Cu-CuO stripe phase and induce faceting of the Cu(19 19 1) surface. The evolution from the clean Cu(19 19 1) surface to the coexistence of the (110) and (111) facets with increasing oxygen exposure was characterized by SPA-LEED.

Brandstetter, T.; Draxler, M.; Hohage, M.; Zeppenfeld, P. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Johannes Kepler Universitaet Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria)

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

395

Microstructural Characterisation of Giant Magnetoresistive Co/Cu Multilayers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Antiferromagnetically-coupled Co/Cu multilayers prepared by magnetron sputtering exhibit pronounced giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect at room temperature. Using both diffraction and imaging techniques, we studied the in-plane and out-of-plane crystallographic and layering microstructural features of these multilayers. Dominant characteristic features associated with the multilayers, such as lateral and vertical columnar grain orientations as well as layer undulations and regularity, were identified. By deliberately introducing microstructural changes to the materials system using buffer layer and heat treatment, detailed microstructural analysis have provided an insight into the dependence of GMR on microstructures of the multilayers.

Kok, K. Y.; Ng, I. K. [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

2010-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

396

Cu isotope fractionation during bornite dissolution: An in situ X-ray diffraction analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Low-temperature ore deposits exhibit a large variation in {delta}{sup 65}Cu ({approx}12{per_thousand}), and this range has been attributed, in part, to isotope fractionation during weathering reactions of primary minerals such as chalcocite and chalcopyrite. Here, we examine the fractionation of Cu isotopes during dissolution of another important Cu ore mineral, bornite, using a novel approach that combines time-resolved X-ray diffraction (XRD) and isotope analysis of reaction products. During the initial stages of bornite oxidative dissolution by ferric sulfate ( 20 mol% Cu was leached from the solid, the difference between the Cu isotope composition of the aqueous and mineral phases approached zero, with {Delta}{sub aq - min}{sup 0} values ranging from - 0.21 {+-} 0.61{per_thousand} to 0.92 {+-} 0.25{per_thousand}. XRD analysis allowed us to correlate changes in the atomic structure of bornite with the apparent isotope fractionation as the dissolution reaction progressed. These data revealed that the greatest degree of apparent fractionation is accompanied by a steep contraction in the unit-cell volume, which we identified as a transition from stoichiometric to non-stoichiometric bornite. We propose that the initially high {Delta}{sub aq - min} values result from isotopically heavy Cu ({sup 65}Cu) concentrating within Cu{sup 2+} during dissolution. The decrease in the apparent isotope fractionation as the reaction progresses occurs from the distillation of isotopically heavy Cu ({sup 65}Cu) during dissolution or kinetic isotope effects associated with the depletion of Cu from the surfaces of bornite particles.

Wall, Andrew J.; Mathur, Ryan; Post, Jeffrey E.; Heaney, Peter J. (Juniata); (Smithsonian); (Penn)

2012-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

397

Incoherent twin boundary migration induced by ion irradiation in Cu  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Grain boundaries can act as sinks for radiation-induced point defects. The sink capability is dependent on the atomic structures and varies with the type of point defects. Using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, we observed that {Sigma}3{l_brace}112{r_brace} incoherent twin boundary (ITB) in Cu films migrates under Cu{sup 3+} ion irradiation. Using atomistic modeling, we found that {Sigma}3{l_brace}112{r_brace} ITB has the preferred sites for adsorbing interstitials and the preferential diffusion channels along the Shockley partial dislocations. Coupling with the high mobility of grain boundary Shockley dislocations within {Sigma}3{l_brace}112{r_brace} ITB, we infer that {Sigma}3{l_brace}112{r_brace} ITB migrates through the collective glide of grain boundary Shockley dislocations, driven by a concurrent reduction in the density of radiation-induced defects, which is demonstrated by the distribution of nearby radiation-induced defects.

Li, N.; Misra, A. [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Materials Physics and Applications Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Wang, J.; Wang, Y. Q. [Materials Science and Technology Division, MST-8, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Serruys, Y. [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Metallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Nastasi, M. [Nebraska Center for Energy Sciences Research, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States)

2013-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

398

$J/?$ production at low $p_T$ in Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$ = 200 GeV at STAR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The $J/\\psi$ $p_T$ spectrum and nuclear modification factor ($R_{\\textit{AA}}$) are reported for $p_T < 5$ GeV/c and $|y|<1$ from 0-60% central Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}} =200$ GeV at STAR. A significant suppression of $p_T$-integrated $J/\\psi$ production is observed in central Au+Au events, with less suppression observed in Cu+Cu. The $p_T$ dependence of the $R_{\\textit{AA}}$ is observed to increase at a higher $p_T$ region. The data are compared with the previously published RHIC results. Comparing with model calculations, it is found that the invariant yields at low $p_T$ are significantly above hydrodynamic flow predictions but are consistent with models that include color screening and regeneration.

STAR Collaboration; L. Adamczyk; J. K. Adkins; G. Agakishiev; M. M. Aggarwal; Z. Ahammed; I. Alekseev; J. Alford; C. D. Anson; A. Aparin; D. Arkhipkin; E. C. Aschenauer; G. S. Averichev; J. Balewski; A. Banerjee; Z. Barnovska; D. R. Beavis; R. Bellwied; A. Bhasin; A. K. Bhati; P. Bhattarai; H. Bichsel; J. Bielcik; J. Bielcikova; L. C. Bland; I. G. Bordyuzhin; W. Borowski; J. Bouchet; A. V. Brandin; S. G. Brovko; S. Bültmann; I. Bunzarov; T. P. Burton; J. Butterworth; H. Caines; M. Calderón de la Barca Sánchez; D. Cebra; R. Cendejas; M. C. Cervantes; P. Chaloupka; Z. Chang; S. Chattopadhyay; H. F. Chen; J. H. Chen; L. Chen; J. Cheng; M. Cherney; A. Chikanian; W. Christie; J. Chwastowski; M. J. M. Codrington; R. Corliss; J. G. Cramer; H. J. Crawford; X. Cui; S. Das; A. Davila Leyva; L. C. De Silva; R. R. Debbe; T. G. Dedovich; J. Deng; A. A. Derevschikov; R. Derradi de Souza; S. Dhamija; B. di Ruzza; L. Didenko; C. Dilks; F. Ding; P. Djawotho; X. Dong; J. L. Drachenberg; J. E. Draper; C. M. Du; L. E. Dunkelberger; J. C. Dunlop; L. G. Efimov; J. Engelage; K. S. Engle; G. Eppley; L. Eun; O. Evdokimov; R. Fatemi; S. Fazio; J. Fedorisin; P. Filip; E. Finch; Y. Fisyak; C. E. Flores; C. A. Gagliardi; D. R. Gangadharan; D. Garand; F. Geurts; A. Gibson; M. Girard; S. Gliske; D. Grosnick; Y. Guo; A. Gupta; S. Gupta; W. Guryn; B. Haag; O. Hajkova; A. Hamed; L-X. Han; R. Haque; J. W. Harris; J. P. Hays-Wehle; S. Heppelmann; A. Hirsch; G. W. Hoffmann; D. J. Hofman; S. Horvat; B. Huang; H. Z. Huang; P. Huck; T. J. Humanic; G. Igo; W. W. Jacobs; H. Jang; E. G. Judd; S. Kabana; D. Kalinkin; K. Kang; K. Kauder; H. W. Ke; D. Keane; A. Kechechyan; A. Kesich; Z. H. Khan; D. P. Kikola; I. Kisel; A. Kisiel; D. D. Koetke; T. Kollegger; J. Konzer; I. Koralt; W. Korsch; L. Kotchenda; P. Kravtsov; K. Krueger; I. Kulakov; L. Kumar; R. A. Kycia; M. A. C. Lamont; J. M. Landgraf; K. D. Landry; J. Lauret; A. Lebedev; R. Lednicky; J. H. Lee; W. Leight; M. J. LeVine; C. Li; W. Li; X. Li; X. Li; Y. Li; Z. M. Li; L. M. Lima; M. A. Lisa; F. Liu; T. Ljubicic; W. J. Llope; R. S. Longacre; X. Luo; G. L. Ma; Y. G. Ma; D. M. M. D. Madagodagettige Don; D. P. Mahapatra; R. Majka; S. Margetis; C. Markert; H. Masui; H. S. Matis; D. McDonald; T. S. McShane; N. G. Minaev; S. Mioduszewski; B. Mohanty; M. M. Mondal; D. A. Morozov; M. G. Munhoz; M. K. Mustafa; B. K. Nandi; Md. Nasim; T. K. Nayak; J. M. Nelson; L. V. Nogach; S. Y. Noh; J. Novak; S. B. Nurushev; G. Odyniec; A. Ogawa; K. Oh; A. Ohlson; V. Okorokov; E. W. Oldag; R. A. N. Oliveira; M. Pachr; B. S. Page; S. K. Pal; Y. X. Pan; Y. Pandit; Y. Panebratsev; T. Pawlak; B. Pawlik; H. Pei; C. Perkins; W. Peryt; P. Pile; M. Planinic; J. Pluta; D. Plyku; N. Poljak; J. Porter; A. M. Poskanzer; N. K. Pruthi; M. Przybycien; P. R. Pujahari; H. Qiu; A. Quintero; S. Ramachandran; R. Raniwala; S. Raniwala; R. L. Ray; C. K. Riley; H. G. Ritter; J. B. Roberts; O. V. Rogachevskiy; J. L. Romero; J. F. Ross; A. Roy; L. Ruan; J. Rusnak; N. R. Sahoo; P. K. Sahu; I. Sakrejda; S. Salur; A. Sandacz; J. Sandweiss; E. Sangaline; A. Sarkar; J. Schambach; R. P. Scharenberg; A. M. Schmah; W. B. Schmidke; N. Schmitz; J. Seger; P. Seyboth; N. Shah; E. Shahaliev; P. V. Shanmuganathan; M. Shao; B. Sharma; W. Q. Shen; S. S. Shi; Q. Y. Shou; E. P. Sichtermann; R. N. Singaraju; M. J. Skoby; D. Smirnov; N. Smirnov; D. Solanki; P. Sorensen; U. G. deSouza; H. M. Spinka; B. Srivastava; T. D. S. Stanislaus; J. R. Stevens; R. Stock; M. Strikhanov; B. Stringfellow; A. A. P. Suaide; M. Sumbera; X. Sun; X. M. Sun; Y. Sun; Z. Sun; B. Surrow; D. N. Svirida; T. J. M. Symons; A. Szanto de Toledo; J. Takahashi; A. H. Tang; Z. Tang; T. Tarnowsky; J. H. Thomas; A. R. Timmins; D. Tlusty; M. Tokarev; S. Trentalange; R. E. Tribble; P. Tribedy; B. A. Trzeciak; O. D. Tsai; J. Turnau; T. Ullrich; D. G. Underwood; G. Van Buren; G. van Nieuwenhuizen; J. A. Vanfossen, Jr.; R. Varma; G. M. S. Vasconcelos; A. N. Vasiliev; R. Vertesi; F. Videbæk; Y. P. Viyogi; S. Vokal; A. Vossen; M. Wada; M. Walker; F. Wang; G. Wang; H. Wang; J. S. Wang; X. L. Wang; Y. Wang; Y. Wang; G. Webb; J. C. Webb; G. D. Westfall; H. Wieman; S. W. Wissink; R. Witt; Y. F. Wu; Z. Xiao; W. Xie; K. Xin; H. Xu; N. Xu; Q. H. Xu; Y. Xu; Z. Xu; W. Yan; C. Yang; Y. Yang; Y. Yang; Z. Ye; P. Yepes; L. Yi; K. Yip; I-K. Yoo; Y. Zawisza; H. Zbroszczyk; W. Zha; Zhang; J. B. Zhang; S. Zhang; X. P. Zhang; Y. Zhang; Z. P. Zhang; F. Zhao; J. Zhao; C. Zhong; X. Zhu; Y. H. Zhu; Y. Zoulkarneeva; M. Zyzak

2013-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

399

Chemical Rearrangement under Hydrothermal Conditions: Formation of Polymeric Chains (CuX)2(dpiz) and (CuX)3(dpiz) (X ) Cl, Br; dpiz ) Dipyrido[1,2-a:2,3-d]imidazole) and Crystal Structures of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

due to their excellent redox catalytic abilities.10 In this Communication, we report the synthesisL acid digestion bombs at 170 °C afforded orange crystals of 1 [(CuCl)2(C10H7N3)] (I) and 1 [(CuBr)3(C crystallographically independent copper sites in this common motif. Cu(1), the Cu atom in the tetrahedral site

Li, Jing

400

Use of Cutting-Edge Horizontal and Underbalanced Drilling Technologies and Subsurface Seismic Techniques to Explore, Drill and Produce Reservoired Oil and Gas from the Fractured Monterey Below 10,000 ft in the Santa Maria Basin of California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper curved sections were drilled and lined through the problematic shale member without major stability problems. The top of the targeted Monterey was thought to be seen at the expected TVD of 10,000 ft where the 7-in. liner was set at a 60{sup o} hole angle. Significant oil and gas shows suggested the fractured interval anticipated at the heel location had been penetrated. A total of 2572 ft of 6{Delta}-in. near-horizontal interval was placed in the shale section, extending planned well length by approximately 470 ft. Very little hydrocarbon in-flow was observed from fractures along the productive interval. This may be a result of the well trajectory falling underneath the Monterey fractured zone. Hydrocarbon observations, cuttings analysis and gamma-ray response indicated additional fractured intervals were accessed along the last {+-}900 ft of well length. The well was completed with a 2 and 7/8-in. tubing string set in a production packer in preparation for flow and swab tests to be conducted later by a service rig. The planned well time was estimated as 39 days and overall cost as $2.4 million. The actual results are 66 days at a total cost of $3.4 million. Well productivity responses during subsequent flow and swabbing tests were negative. The well failed to inflow and only minor amounts (a few barrels) of light oil were recovered. The lack of production may suggest that actual sustainable reservoir pressure is far less than anticipated. Temblor attempted in July, 2006, to re-enter and clean out the well and run an Array Induction log (primarily for resistivity and correlation purposes), and an FMI log (for fracture detection). Application of surfactant in the length of the horizontal hole, and acid over the fracture zone at 10,236 was also planned. This attempt was not successful in that the clean out tools became stuck and had to be abandoned.

George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

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401

USE OF CUTTING-EDGE HORIZONTAL AND UNDERBALANCED DRILLING TECHNOLOGIES AND SUBSURFACE SEISMIC TECHNIQUES TO EXPLORE, DRILL AND PRODUCE RESERVOIRED OIL AND GAS FROM THE FRACTURED MONTEREY BELOW 10,000 FT IN THE SANTA MARIA BASIN OF CALIFORNIA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area by Temblor Petroleum with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper curved sections were drilled and lined through the problematic shale member without major stability problems. The top of the targeted Monterey was thought to be seen at the expected TVD of 10,000 ft where the 7-in. liner was set at a 60{sup o} hole angle. Significant oil and gas shows suggested the fractured interval anticipated at the heel location had been penetrated. A total of 2572 ft of 6.-in. near-horizontal interval was placed in the shale section, extending planned well length by approximately 470 ft. Very little hydrocarbon in-flow was observed from fractures along the productive interval. This may be a result of the well trajectory falling underneath the Monterey fractured zone. Hydrocarbon observations, cuttings analysis and gamma-ray response indicated additional fractured intervals were accessed along the last {+-}900 ft of well length. The well was completed with a 2 7/8-in. tubing string set in a production packer in preparation for flow and swab tests to be conducted later by a service rig. The planned well time was estimated as 39 days and overall cost as $2.4 million. The actual results are 66 days at a total cost of $3.4 million. Well productivity responses during subsequent flow and swabbing tests were negative. The well failed to inflow and only minor amounts (a few barrels) of light oil were recovered. The lack of production may suggest that actual sustainable reservoir pressure is far less than anticipated. Temblor is currently investigating the costs and operational viability of re-entering the well and conducting an FMI (fracture detection) log and/or an acid stimulation. No final decision or detailed plans have been made regarding these potential interventions at this time.

George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Use of Cutting-Edge Horizontal and Underbalanced Drilling Technologies and Subsurface Seismic Techniques to Explore, Drill and Produce Reservoired Oil and Gas from the Fractured Monterey Below 10,000 ft in the Santa Maria Basin of California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper curved sections were drilled and lined through the problematic shale member without major stability problems. The top of the targeted Monterey was thought to be seen at the expected TVD of 10,000 ft where the 7-in. liner was set at a 60{sup o} hole angle. Significant oil and gas shows suggested the fractured interval anticipated at the heel location had been penetrated. A total of 2572 ft of 6 1/8-in. near-horizontal interval was placed in the shale section, extending planned well length by approximately 470 ft. Very little hydrocarbon in-flow was observed from fractures along the productive interval. This may be a result of the well trajectory falling underneath the Monterey fractured zone. Hydrocarbon observations, cuttings analysis and gamma-ray response indicated additional fractured intervals were accessed along the last {+-}900 ft of well length. The well was completed with a 2 7/8-in. tubing string set in a production packer in preparation for flow and swab tests to be conducted later by a service rig. The planned well time was estimated as 39 days and overall cost as $2.4 million. The actual results are 66 days at a total cost of $3.4 million. Well productivity responses during subsequent flow and swabbing tests were negative. The well failed to inflow and only minor amounts (a few barrels) of light oil were recovered. The lack of production may suggest that actual sustainable reservoir pressure is far less than anticipated. Temblor is currently planning to re-enter and clean out the well and run an Array Induction log (primarily for resistivity and correlation purposes), and an FMI log (for fracture detection). Depending on the results of these logs, an acidizing or re-drill program will be planned.

George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

2005-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

403

Microstructure and Mechanical Property of Cu-40%Zn-0.5%Cr Alloy ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Yield stress of extruded P/M Cu-40Zn-0.5Cr brass alloy at 773 K was 514.6 MPa, high value of 54.7% of the conventional P/M Cu60-Zn40 brass alloy at same ...

404

Modeling of Thermodynamic Properties and Phase Equilibria for the Cu-Mg Binary System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mg2-Cb (oF48) are computed using the Vienna Ab-initio Simulation Package (VASP). The Gibbs free energy and Amorphous Al-Cu-Zr and Al-Cu-Ni-Zr Alloys, Thermochim. Acta, 1999, 339, p 1-9 Section I: Basic and Applied

Chen, Long-Qing

405

Ultrasonochemical-assisted synthesis of CuO nanorods with high hydrogen storage ability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Uniform CuO nanorods with different size have been synthesized in a water-alcohol solution through a fast and facile ultrasound irradiation assistant route. Especially, the as-prepared CuO nanorods have shown a strong size-induced enhancement of electrochemical ...

Gang Xiao; Peng Gao; Longqiang Wang; Yujin Chen; Ying Wang; Guoli Zhang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Microstructure and electrical mechanism of Sn-xAg-Cu PV-ribbon for solar cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The microstructure, fusion current, and series resistance of photovoltaic (PV) ribbon containing SAC105 and SAC305 alloys are investigated. After reflow, the interfacial microstructures of solder/Cu and solder/Ag were observed and an electrical current ... Keywords: Electrical properties, Photovoltaic ribbon, Sn-Ag-Cu

Kuan-Jen Chen, Fei-Yi Hung, Truan-Sheng Lui, Li-Hui Chen, Dai-Wen Qiu, Ta-Lung Chou

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Development of a Low Cost Insulated Foil Substrate for Cu(InGaSe)2 Photovoltaics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The project validated the use of stainless steel flexible substrate coated with silicone-based resin dielectric, developed by Dow Corning Corporation, for Cu(InGa)Se2 based photovoltaics. The projects driving force was the high performance of Cu(InGa)Se2 based photovoltaics coupled with potential cost reduction that could be achieved with dielectric coated SS web substrate.

ERTEN ESER

2012-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

408

A room temperature CuO nanowire sensor for organic volatile gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CuO nanowires have been synthesised by the thermal method in 100% oxygen ambient at 600°C. Gas sensing property has been examined by measuring the resistance change of the materials to 1% of butane gas and 1% of ethanol vapour separately under the ... Keywords: copper oxide (CuO) nanowires, room temperature gas sensor and organic volatile gas

C. F. Dee; T. Y. Tiong; M. M. Salleh; M. M. Yahya; B. Y. Majlis

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Glass Forming Ability in Pr-(Cu, Ni)-Al Alloys  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Glass forming ability (GFA) in the Pr-rich Pr-(Cu, Ni)-Al alloys at or near the eutectic points was systematically studied. It was found that the GFA in the pseudo-ternary alloys of Pr-(Cu, Ni)-Al is higher than that of ...

Zhang, Yong

410

Applications of Cu@C nanoparticles in new dye-sensitized solar cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To enhance the efficiency of a newly developing dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC), the Cu@C (Cu size = 7 and 20 nm) core-shell nanoparticles-dispersed molten salt-conjugated electrolyte has been studied. Experimentally, the efficiencies (?) of the ...

Chang-Yu Liao; H. Paul Wang; F.-L. Chen; C.-H. Huang; Y. Fukushima

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Alkali compounds catalyzed low temperature methanol synthesis over Cu-based catalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel mixed catalyst system containing alkali compounds over Cu/MgO-Na catalyst was developed to synthesize methanol from syngas via ethyl formate in a slurry reactor. The results exhibited that among the used alkali formates (HCOOM, M=Li, Na, Cs, ... Keywords: CuMgO-Na/HCOONa/catalysis system, low temperature methanol synthesis, slurry phase

Baoshan Hu

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Estudo das propriedades termomecânicas da liga cu 78,3% - al 9,8% mn 11,9%.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The alloys Cu 78,3% - Al 9,8% - Mn 11,9 and 77.5% Cu - Al 9.8% - Mn 11,9% -% Nb 0.5 - 0.3% Ni… (more)

Rafael Evaristo Caluête

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Magnetic ordering of Nd in (Nd,Ce) sub 2 CuO sub 4  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Neutron-diffraction techniques have been used to study the magnetic ordering of the Nd ions in semiconducting Nd{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} and superconducting Nd{sub 1.85}Ce{sub 0.15}CuO{sub 4}. For the Ce-doped system a sharp transition to long-range antiferromagnetic order occurs at {ital T}{sub {ital N}}{approx}1.2 K, with a simple magnetic unit cell which is double the chemical unit cell along the {ital a} and {ital b} directions. The same magnetic structure is observed in the parent system Nd{sub 2}CuO{sub 4}, in which the Cu spins are also ordered magnetically, but strong coupling between the Nd and Cu sublattices is indicated.

Lynn, J.W.; Sumarlin, I.W.; Skanthakumar, S.; Li, W. (Center for Superconductivity Research, Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (US) National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (USA)); Shelton, R.N.; Peng, J.L. (Department of Physics, University of California-Davis, Davis, California 95616 (USA)); Fisk, Z. (MS K764, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (USA)); Cheong, S. (MS K764, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (USA) Department of Physics, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90024 (USA))

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Enhanced quality thin film Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 for semiconductor device applications by vapor-phase recrystallization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Enhanced quality thin films of Cu.sub.w (In,Ga.sub.y)Se.sub.z for semiconductor device applications are fabricated by initially forming a Cu-rich, phase-separated compound mixture comprising Cu(In,Ga):Cu.sub.x Se on a substrate to form a large-grain precursor and then converting the excess Cu.sub.x Se to Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 by exposing it to an activity of In and/or Ga, either in vapor In and/or Ga form or in solid (In,Ga).sub.y Se.sub.z. Alternatively, the conversion can be made by sequential deposition of In and/or Ga and Se onto the phase-separated precursor. The conversion process is preferably performed in the temperature range of about 300.degree.-600.degree. C., where the Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 remains solid, while the excess Cu.sub.x Se is in a liquid flux. The characteristic of the resulting Cu.sub.w (In,Ga).sub.y Se.sub.z can be controlled by the temperature. Higher temperatures, such as 500.degree.-600.degree. C., result in a nearly stoichiometric Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2, whereas lower temperatures, such as 300.degree.-400.degree. C., result in a more Cu-poor compound, such as the Cu.sub.z (In,Ga).sub.4 Se.sub.7 phase.

Tuttle, John R. (Denver, CO); Contreras, Miguel A. (Golden, CO); Noufi, Rommel (Golden, CO); Albin, David S. (Denver, CO)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Three 3D hybrid networks based on octamolybdates and different Cu{sup I}/Cu{sup II}-bis(triazole) motifs  

SciTech Connect

Three 3D compounds based on octamolybdate clusters and various Cu{sup I}/Cu{sup II}-bis(triazole) motifs, [Cu{sup I}{sub 2}btb][{beta}-Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}]{sub 0.5} (1), [Cu{sup I}{sub 2}btpe][{beta}-Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}]{sub 0.5} (2), and [Cu{sup II}(btpe){sub 2}][{beta}-Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}]{sub 0.5} (3) [btb=1,4-bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)butane, btpe=1,5-bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)pentane], were isolated via tuning flexible ligand spacer length and metal coordination preferences. In 1, the copper(I)-btb motif is a one-dimensional (1D) chain which is further linked by hexadentate {beta}-[Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}]{sup 4-} clusters via coordinating to Cu{sup I} cations giving a 3D structure. In 2, the copper(I)-btpe motif exhibits a 'stairs'-like [Cu{sup I}{sub 2}btpe]{sup 2+} sheet, and the tetradentate {beta}-[Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}]{sup 4-} clusters interact with two neighboring [Cu{sup I}{sub 2}btpe]{sup 2+} sheets constructing a 3D framework. In 3, the copper(II)-btpe motif possesses a novel (2D{yields}3D) interdigitated structure, which is further connected by the tetradentate {beta}-[Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}]{sup 4-} clusters forming a 3D framework. The thermal stability and luminescent properties of 1-3 are investigated in the solid state. -- Graphical abstract: Three 3D compounds based on {beta}-[Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}]{sup 4-} clusters with different Cu{sup I}/Cu{sup II}-bis(triazole) motifs were synthesized by regularly tuning flexible ligand spacer length and metal coordination preferences. Display Omitted

Zhang, Chun-Jing [Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalates Science of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Pang, Hai-Jun [College of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Tang, Qun; Wang, Hui-Yuan [Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalates Science of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Chen, Ya-Guang, E-mail: chenyg146@nenu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalates Science of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

416

Effect of Cu contamination on recombination of O atoms on a plasma-oxidized silicon surface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the dual damascene microelectronics integration scheme during the last stage of plasma etching of dielectrics down to underlying Cu layers, Cu is sputtered onto the reactor walls and is believed to cause a drift in etching rates. For photoresist etching in an O{sub 2}-containing plasma, a drop in etching rate suggests that Cu could cause a decrease in the O-atom concentration in the plasma, due perhaps to an increase in the O recombination rate on the chamber walls. We therefore studied the effects of traces of Cu on O recombination on an oxygen plasma-conditioned surface, using the spinning wall technique. With this method, a cylindrical substrate, here coated in situ with sputter-deposited Si and then oxidized in an O{sub 2} plasma, is rotated past skimmers, allowing the surface to be periodically exposed to the plasma and an Auger electron spectrometer with a pressure gauge in a differentially pumped chamber. Between plasma exposures, the sample could also be dosed with Cu from an evaporation source in a differentially pumped chamber. With no Cu on the surface, a pressure rise was observed in the Auger chamber, due to desorption of recombined O{sub 2}. These measurements were used to derive a Langmuir-Hinshelwood recombination coefficient of gamma{sub O}=0.043 for the steady-state oxidized Si, Cu-free surface. The surface was then coated with a small fraction of a monolayer (roughly approx0.002 monolayers of Cu with a dose of approx1.4x10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} and an assumed sticking coefficient of 0.3) and gamma{sub O} was found to increase to 0.069. Further dosing with Cu did not produce any further increases in gamma{sub O}. The initial low gamma{sub O} value could not be recovered by coating the surface with sputter Si, apparently due to rapid outdiffusion of Cu through Si at room temperature. Cu catalyzed recombination of O is ascribed to a redox cycling between Cu{sup +} and Cu{sup 2+} oxidation states.

Guha, Joydeep; Khare, Rohit; Stafford, Luc; Donnelly, Vincent M. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States); Sirard, Stephen; Hudson, Eric A. [Lam Research Corporation, Fremont, California 94538 (United States)

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Effects of laser irradiation on the morphology of Cu(110)  

SciTech Connect

The effects of pulsed laser irradiation on the morphology of the Cu(110) surface were investigated by means of reflectance difference spectroscopy (RDS) and spot profile analysis low-energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED). The laser light induces surface defects (adatoms and islands) as well as subsurface dislocation lines. The high surface mobility leads to efficient annealing of the surface defects even at room temperature, whereas the subsurface dislocation lines persist up to temperatures T>800 K. SPA-LEED profiles of the (00) diffraction spot from the laser irradiated surface suggest an anisotropic distribution of the subsurface line defects related to the geometry of the fcc easy glide system, which is corroborated by STM measurements. Comparative experiments using conventional Ar ion bombardment point out the distinctiveness of the morphological changes induced by laser irradiation.

Brandstetter, T.; Draxler, M.; Hohage, M.; Zeppenfeld, P.; Stehrer, T.; Heitz, J.; Georgiev, N.; Martinotti, D.; Ernst, H.-J. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Johannes Kepler Universitaet Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Johannes Kepler Universitaet Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); CEA Saclay, DSM/Drecam/SPCSI, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

418

Transpired Solar Collector at NREL's Waste Handling Facility Uses Solar Energy to Heat Ventilation Air (Fact Sheet) (Revised), Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Highlights Highlights System Size 300 ft 2 transpired solar collector Energy Production About 125 Btu/hr/ft 2 (400 W/m 2 ) of heat delivery under ideal conditions (full sun) Installation Date 1990 Motivation Provide solar-heated ventilation air to offset some of the heating with conventional electric resistance heaters Annual Savings 14,310 kWh (49 million Btu/yr) or about 26% of the energy required to heat the facility's ventilation air System Details Components Black, 300 ft 2 corrugated aluminum transpired solar collector with a porosity of 2%; bypass damper; two-speed 3000 CFM vane axial supply fan; electric duct heater; thermostat controller Storage None Loads 188 million Btu/year (55,038 kWh/year) winter average to heat 1,300 ft 2 Waste Handling Facility

419

Transpired Solar Collector at NREL's Waste Handling Facility Uses Solar Energy to Heat Ventilation Air (Fact Sheet) (Revised), Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Highlights Highlights System Size 300 ft 2 transpired solar collector Energy Production About 125 Btu/hr/ft 2 (400 W/m 2 ) of heat delivery under ideal conditions (full sun) Installation Date 1990 Motivation Provide solar-heated ventilation air to offset some of the heating with conventional electric resistance heaters Annual Savings 14,310 kWh (49 million Btu/yr) or about 26% of the energy required to heat the facility's ventilation air System Details Components Black, 300 ft 2 corrugated aluminum transpired solar collector with a porosity of 2%; bypass damper; two-speed 3000 CFM vane axial supply fan; electric duct heater; thermostat controller Storage None Loads 188 million Btu/year (55,038 kWh/year) winter average to heat 1,300 ft 2 Waste Handling Facility

420

Photoionization spectroscopy of ionic metal dimers: LiCu and LiAg  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electronic spectra are reported for the heteronuclear metal dimers LiCu and LiAg, with resonant one-color two-photon ionization (R2PI). The dimers are produced in a pulsed supersonic molecular beam by laser vaporization of either a copper or silver rod coated with a thin film of vacuum deposited lithium metal. A total of twelve excited electronic states for LiCu and seven for LiAg are observed. Analysis of the vibrational progressions yields ground and excited state vibrational frequencies and dissociation energies for both LiCu and LiAg. In addition, selected vibronic bands are rotationally resolved. This data, together with that obtained by Morse and co-workers for LiCu [J. Chem. Phys. (to be published)], gives bond lengths for LiCu and LiAg (r{sub 0}{sup {double_prime}}=2.26 and 2.41 {Angstrom}, respectively). The bond lengths for LiCu and LiAg are significantly shorter than expected by comparison to the homonuclear diatomics Li{sub 2} and Cu{sub 2} or Ag{sub 2}. Dissociation energies in the heteronuclear dimers are also much greater than the mean of the corresponding homonuclear dimer values. These trends indicate that ionic character plays a leading role in the ground-state bonding. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Brock, L.R.; Knight, A.M.; Reddic, J.E.; Pilgrim, J.S.; Duncan, M.A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 (United States)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu cu ft" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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421

Phase stabilization and characterization of nanocrystalline Fe-doped Cu{sub 2}O  

SciTech Connect

Oxide-based ferromagnetic semiconductors are currently being explored for spin-based electronics (Spintronics) applications. Specimens of 1 and 2% Fe-doped Cu{sub 2}O were prepared by varying the parameters of chemical co-precipitation technique. XRD analysis confirmed the cubic structure of Cu{sub 2}O. Single-phase structure was obtained for the 1% Fe-doped Cu{sub 2}O, whereas for the 2% Fe-doped Cu{sub 2}O material, secondary phases were present (either CuO or Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}). The morphology and composition were characterized by SEM and EDAX. Measurements made by vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) indicated paramagnetic behavior at 300 K and diamagnetic behavior at 77 K for the 1% Fe-doped Cu{sub 2}O. Diffuse reflectance (DRS) measurements indicated that a red shift in the band gap of Cu{sub 2}O occurs on doping with Fe.

Joseph, D. Paul; David, T. Premkumar; Raja, S. Philip [Materials Science Centre, Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai-600 025 (India); Venkateswaran, C. [Materials Science Centre, Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai-600 025 (India)], E-mail: cvunom@hotmail.com

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

422

Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of the Cu-Pd-X Ternary Alloys for Hydrogen Separation Membranes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

CuPd alloys are among the most promising candidate materials for hydrogen separation membranes and membrane reactor applications due to their high hydrogen permeability and better sulfur resistance. In order to reduce the Pd content and, therefore, the cost of the membrane materials, efforts have been initiated to develop CuPdM ternary alloys having a bcc structure. The advantages of having Pd as a hydrogen separation membrane are: (1) high hydrogen selectivity; and (2) high hydrogen permeability. The disadvantages are: (1) high cost; (2) hydrogen embrittlement ({alpha} {yields} {beta} Pd hydride); and (3) sulfur poisoning. Experiments (XRD, SEM/EDS) verified that Mg, Al, La, Y and Ti are promising alloying elements to expand the B2 phase region in Cu-Pd binary system. HT-XRD showed that the B2 to FCC transition temperatures for Cu-Pd-X (X = Mg, Al, La, Y and Ti) are higher than that of Cu-Pd binary alloys. While the Cu-50Pd alloy had the highest corrosion resistance to the H2S containing syngas, the Cu-Pd-Mg alloy had a comparable resistance.

O.N. Dogan; M.C. Gao; B.H. Howard

2012-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

423

Cu-Ga-Se Thin Films Prepared by a Combination of Electrodeposition and Evaporation Techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cu-Ga-Se thin films were prepared using a combination of electrodeposition and evaporation techniques. A Cu-Se/Mo/glass precursor thin film was first prepared by galvanostatic electrodeposition. On top of this film three different thicknesses of Ga were deposited by evaporation. The Cu-Ga-Se thin films were formed by annealing the Ga/Cu-Se/Mo/glass thin film configuration in a tubular chamber with Se powder, at different temperatures. Thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), photocurrent spectroscopy (PS), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The detailed analysis from X-ray reveals that after annealing at 550 C the CuGaSe{sub 2} phase is formed when the thickness of Ga is 0.25 {mu}m, however at 0.5 {mu}m and 1.0 {mu}m Ga the formation of CuGa{sub 3}Se{sub 5} and CuGa{sub 5}Se{sub 8} phases is observed respectively. Band gap values were obtained using photocurrent spectroscopy.

Fernandez, A. M.; Turner, J. A.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Characterization and device performance of (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 absorber layers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The study of (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 absorber layers is of interest in that Ag-chalcopyrites exhibit both wider bandgaps and lower melting points than their Cu counterparts. (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 absorber layers were deposited over the composition range 0 < Ag/(Ag+Cu) < 1 and 0.3 < Ga/(In+Ga) < 1.0 using a variety of elemental co-evaporation processes. Films were found to be singlephase over the entire composition range, in contrast to prior studies. Devices with Ga content 0.3 < Ga/(In+Ga) <0.5 tolerated Ag incorporation up to Ag/(Ag+Cu) = 0.5 without appreciable performance loss. Ag-containing films with Ga/(In+Ga) = 0.8 showed improved device characteristics over Cu-only control samples, in particular a 30-40% increase in short-circuit current. An absorber layer with composition Ag/(Ag+Cu) = 0.75 and Ga/(In+Ga) = 0.8 yielded a device with VOC = 890 mV, JSC = 20.5mA/cm2, fill factor = 71.3%, and ? = 13.0%.

Hanket, Gregory; Boyle, Jonathan H.; Shafarman, William N.

2009-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

425

NQR-NMR studies of higher alcohol synthesis Cu-Co catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have investigated a series of Cu/Co catalysts supported on Titanium Dioxide. This study has sought to examine and compare the nature and effect of the supports Chromia and Titania (Cr[sub 2]O[sub 3], and TiO[sub 2]) on the magnetic character of the Cu-Co-Cr and Cu-Co-TiO[sub 2] catalysts. The magnetization results for Cu/Co, Cu/Co/Cr, Cu/Co/TiO[sub 2] system are presented along with the magnetization data for the unsupported Cu/Co catalysts and data for supported catalysts. Pure cobalt metal has a magnetic moment of 161 emu/g. The measured emu values and the corresponding reduction percentages are given for the various catalysts investigated. The vibration sample magnetometer determines S[sub s], the saturation magnetization, emu per gram of the composite sample. The magnetization values reported are emu per gram of cobalt in the composite. As such the data normally reflects the proportion of cobalt metal that is reduced to metallic form. However, if electronic exchanges occur between cobalt and other elements in the system, the magnetic moment itself differs from the assumed value of 161 emu/g Co then the emu value observed will be the resultant due to the electronic charge density modifications in Co as well as reduction to metallic state. Our earlier NMR studies reveal such electronic structural modifications occur for Cobalt in Cu-Co and Co-TiO[sub 2] systems. The magnetization data in column 3 for Cu-Co-TiO[sub 2] systems unambiguously shows such electron exchanges do occur between cobalt and titania.

Murty, A.N.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Crystal structure and magnetic properties of NaCu{sup II}[(Cu{sup II}{sub 3}O)(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}Cl  

SciTech Connect

A new copper(II) oxide phosphate chloride, NaCu{sup II}[(Cu{sup II}{sub 3}O)(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}Cl], has been synthesized by flux synthesis. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction data show that the title compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P2{sub 1}/c (No. 14), with lattice parameters a=8.392(2) A, b=6.3960(10) A, c=16.670(2) A, {beta}=109.470(10) Degree-Sign , V=843.6(3) A{sup 3}, Z=4. The crystal structure is characterized by a complex chain of copper-centered polyhedra running along [0 1 0] which are connected by phosphate tetrahedra. The resulting three-dimensional polyhedra framework exhibits channels filled by additional copper and sodium atoms. Field and temperature dependent measurements of the specific heat and the magnetic susceptibility reveal low-dimensional magnetic behavior. The compound starts to decompose at 700 K under release of oxygen and evaporation of Cu{sup I}Cl as shown by simultaneous thermogravimetry and mass spectrometry. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structure of the new copper(II) phosphate chloride, NaCu{sup II}[(Cu{sup II}{sub 3}O)(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}Cl], exhibits linear chains of copper tetrahedra which show low-dimensional magnetic behavior proven by specific heat and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new copper(II) oxide phosphate chloride, NaCu{sup II}[(Cu{sup II}{sub 3}O)(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}Cl], has been synthesized by flux synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystal structure comprises chains of Cu{sub 4}O tetrahedra. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low-dimensional behavior has been proven by magnetic and specific heat measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer On heating, Cu{sup I}Cl and oxygen are released shown by simultaneous thermogravimetry and mass spectrometry.

Jin Tengteng [Key Laboratory of Transparent Opto-Functional Inorganic Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dingxi Rd. 1295, Shanghai 200050 (China); Liu Wei [Institute of Science and Engineering of Materials, Ocean University of China, Qingdao (China); Chen Shuang; Prots, Yurii; Schnelle, Walter [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Noethnitzer Str. 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Zhao Jingtai [Key Laboratory of Transparent Opto-Functional Inorganic Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dingxi Rd. 1295, Shanghai 200050 (China); Kniep, Ruediger [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Noethnitzer Str. 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Hoffmann, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.hoffmann@cpfs.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Noethnitzer Str. 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

427

The shape memory capability and life of Cu-Al-Be-X alloys  

SciTech Connect

The shape memory capacity and the shape memory life of three alloys of the Cu-11.6Al-0.4Be-X type have been investigated using the strain angle restoration method and compared with the alloy Cu-25Zn-4Al. The alloys were subjected to various normalizing and normalizing plus aging treatments, and all were found to possess excellent shape memory properties. The alloy Cu-11.6Al-0.4Be-0.2Cr demonstrated the best shape memory capacity and life.

Dong, Y.Y.; Dar, K.Z. (Gansu Mechanical Engineering Academy, Lanzhou (China)); Wang, T.M. (Lanzhou Univ. (China)); Zin, S.J. (Lanzhou High Pressure Valve Co. (China))

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Mixed-sputter deposition of Ni-Ti-Cu shape memory films  

SciTech Connect

Ni-Ti-Cu shape memory films were mixed-sputter deposited from separate nickel, titanium, and copper targets, providing increased compositional flexibility. Shape memory characteristics, examined for films with 7 at. % Cu and 41--51 at. % Tl, were determined with temperature controlled substrate curvature measurements, and microstructure was studied with transmission electron microscopy. The Ni-Ti-Cu films were found to have shape memory properties comparable to bulk materials, with transformation temperatures between 20 and 62{degree}C, a 10--13{degree}C hysteresis, and up to 330 MPa recoverable stress.

Krulevitch, P.; Ramsey, P.B.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Lee, A.P.; Northrup, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Johnson, G.C. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Investigations of CuInSe sub 2 thin films and contacts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes research into electrical contacts for copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}) polycrystalline thin films used for solar cell applications. Molybdenum contacts have historically been the most promising for heterojunction solar cells. This program studied contact stability by investigating thermally induced bilayer reactions between molybdenum and copper, indium, and selenium. Because selenization is widely used to fabricate CuInSe{sub 2} thin films for photovoltaic cells, a second part of the program investigated how the morphologies, phases, and reactions of pre-selenization Cu-In structures are affected by the deposition process and heat treatments. 7 refs., 6 figs.

Nicolet, M.A. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States))

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Giant Magnetoresistance In Ni/Cu Multilayers Fabricated By Electron-Beam Evaporation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electron beam evaporation technique has been used to deposit the multilayers of Ni-Cu, represented by Si[BL{sub t}/[Ni(t{sub FM})/Cu(t{sub NM})]xn] where Si is used as a substrate and BL is buffer layer, n is the number of bilayers, t, t{sub FM} and t{sub NM} are thicknesses of buffer layer, ferromagnetic (Ni) and nonmagnetic (Cu) layers, respectively. We characterize the multilayers using M-H curves, magnetoresistance measurement (at room temperature)

Vikram, V.; Rahman, Md. Rizwanur; Katiyar, Monica [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, 208016 (India)

2008-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

431

Investigation of thermal, mechanical and magnetic behaviors of the Cu-11%Al alloy with Ag and Mn additions  

SciTech Connect

The investigation of thermal, mechanical and magnetic behaviors of the Cu-11%Al, Cu-11%Al-3%Ag, Cu-11%Al-10%Mn and Cu-11%Al-10%Mn-3%Ag alloys was made using microhardness measurements, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy and magnetic moment change with applied field measurement. The results indicated that the Mn addition changes the phase stability range, the microhardness values and makes undetectable the eutectoid reaction in annealed Cu-11%Al and Cu-11%Al-3%Ag alloys while the presence of Ag does not modify the phase transformation sequence neither microhardness values of the annealed Cu-11%Al and Cu-11%Al-10%Mn alloys, but it increases the magnetic moment of this latter at about 2.7 times and decreases the rates of eutectoid and peritectoid reactions of the former. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The microstructure of Cu-Al alloy is modified in the Ag presence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ({alpha} + {gamma}) phase is stabilized down to room temperature when Ag is added to Cu-Al alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ag-rich phase modifies the magnetic characteristics of Cu-Al-Mn alloy.

Silva, R.A.G., E-mail: galdino.ricardo@gmail.com [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra-UNIFESP, Diadema-SP (Brazil)] [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra-UNIFESP, Diadema-SP (Brazil); Paganotti, A.; Gama, S. [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra-UNIFESP, Diadema-SP (Brazil)] [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra-UNIFESP, Diadema-SP (Brazil); Adorno, A.T.; Carvalho, T.M.; Santos, C.M.A. [Instituto de Quimica - UNESP, Araraquara-SP (Brazil)] [Instituto de Quimica - UNESP, Araraquara-SP (Brazil)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

432

Effects of Cu, Mg, and Sr Additions on the Mechanical Properties ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increase in Cu/Mg levels has a detrimental effect on drill life. The Mg-free alloy displays the lowest cutting force and moment, producing the highest number of ...

433

Effects of Cu-Bearing Flux on Sn-3.5Ag Soldering with Electroless Ni ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The content of the Cu compound in a flux varies from 0 wt. ... Electromigration Behavior of Sn-In Lead-Free Solder Alloy Under High Current Stress ... Phase-

434

Quantificação da deformação residual em uma liga CuAlBe superelástica.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Este trabalho apresenta um estudo relativo à transformação martensítica induzida por tensão à temperatura ambiente e a 57C em uma liga Cu 11,8% Al 0,6%… (more)

Fábio José Carvalho França

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Relative Humidity Sensing Properties Of Cu{sub 2}O Doped ZnO Nanocomposite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we report application of Cu{sub 2}O doped ZnO composite prepared by solid state reaction route as humidity sensor. Pellet samples of ZnO-Cu{sub 2}O nanocrystalline powders with 2, 5 and 10 weight% of Cu{sub 2}O in ZnO have been prepared. Pellets have been annealed at temperatures of 200-500 deg. C and exposed to humidity. It is observed that as relative humidity increases, resistance of the pellet decreases for the humidity from 10% to 90%. Sample with 5% of Cu{sub 2}O doped in ZnO and annealed at 500 deg. C shows best results with sensitivity of 1.50 M{omega}/%RH. In this case the hysteresis is low and the reproducibility high, making it the suitable candidate for humidity sensing.

Pandey, N. K.; Tiwari, K.; Tripathi, A.; Roy, A.; Rai, A.; Awasthi, P. [Sensors and Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University Of Lucknow, U.P., Pin-226007 (India)

2009-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

436

Electrochemical Behaviour of a 2024 Al-Cu-Mg Alloy of Various ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... alloy tempers at solution pH 12 showed distinct active-passive phenomenon. ... E43: Behavior of Intermetallic Compound in Al-Si-Cu Alloy with Cooling Rate ...

437

Microstructure Formation in Ti3SiC2-Cu Composites Produced by ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under low-energy milling, (3-5) vol.%Ti3SiC2–Cu composite particles of platelet morphology formed, which could be easily SPS-ed to 92-95% relative density.

438

Synchrotron SAXS of Reverted Al-4wt.%Cu during In Situ Artificial ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cu, which is a more stable than the as-quenched condition, was artificially aged in situ while probing with SAXS configured at beam-line X27C at NSLS. Results ...

439

Some Uptake Studies of Metal Ions and the Formation of Cu?0 Particles in Wool.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This research programme is concerned with the uptake studies of Cu2+, Zn2+ and Mn2+ at different conditions, by merino wool fibres and also uptake studies… (more)

Samarasinghe, Ishira

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Interfacial Reconstruction and Superconductivity in YBa2Cu3O7-x ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Interfacial Reconstruction and Superconductivity in YBa2Cu3O7-x and Pr0.68Ca0.32MnO3 Superlattices. Author(s), Jonas Norpoth, Dong Su, ...

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441

Pb-free Sn-Ag-Cu ternary eutectic solder - Energy ...  

A Pb-free solder includes a ternary eutectic composition consisting essentially of about 93.6 weight % Sn-about 4.7 weight % Ag-about 1.7 weight % Cu ...

442

Effects of mechanical properties on the reliability of Cu/low-k metallization systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cu and low-dielectric-constant (k) metallization schemes are critical for improved performance of integrated circuits. However, low elastic moduli, a characteristic of the low-k materials, lead to significant reliability ...

Wei, Frank L. (Frank Lili), 1977-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Method of synthesizing and growing copper-indium-diselenide (CuInSe.sub.2) crystals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for preparing CuInSe.sub.2 crystals includes melting a sufficient quantity of B.sub.2 O.sub.3 along with stoichiometric quantities of Cu, In, and Se in a crucible in a high pressure atmosphere of inert gas to encapsulate the CuInSe.sub.2 melt and confine the Se to the crucible. Additional Se in the range of 1.8 to 2.2 percent over the stoichiometric quantity is preferred to make up for small amounts of Se lost in the process. The crystal is grown by inserting a seed crystal through the B.sub.2 O.sub.3 encapsulate into contact with the CuInSe.sub.2 melt and withdrawing the seed upwardly to grow the crystal thereon from the melt.

Ciszek, Theodore F. (Evergreen, CO)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Nuclear modification factors of phi mesons in d+Au, Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(S_NN)=200 GeV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has performed systematic measurements of phi meson production in the K+K- decay channel at midrapidity in p+p, d+Au, Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(S_NN)=200 GeV. Results are presented on the phi invariant yield and the nuclear modification factor R_AA for Au+Au and Cu+Cu, and R_dA for d+Au collisions, studied as a function of transverse momentum (1phi exhibits a suppression relative to expectations from binary scaled p+p results. The amount of suppression is smaller than that of the neutral pion and the eta meson in the intermediate p_T range (2--5 GeV/c); whereas at higher p_T the phi, pi^0, and eta show similar suppression. The baryon (protons and anti-protons) excess observed in central Au+Au collisions at intermediate p_T is not observed for the phi meson despite the similar mass of the proton and the phi. This suggests that the excess is linked to the number of constituent quarks rather than the hadron mass. The difference gradually disappears with decreasing centrality and for peripheral collisions the R_AA values for both particles are consistent with binary scaling. Cu+Cu collisions show the same yield and suppression as Au+Au collisions for the same number of N_part. The R_dA of phi shows no evidence for cold nuclear effects within uncertainties.

PHENIX Collaboration; A. Adare; S. Afanasiev; C. Aidala; N. N. Ajitanand; Y. Akiba; H. Al-Bataineh; J. Alexander; A. Al-Jamel; A. Angerami; K. Aoki; L. Aphecetche; Y. Aramaki; R. Armendariz; S. H. Aronson; J. Asai; E. T. Atomssa; R. Averbeck; T. C. Awes; B. Azmoun; V. Babintsev; M. Bai; G. Baksay; L. Baksay; A. Baldisseri; K. N. Barish; P. D. Barnes; B. Bassalleck; A. T. Basye; S. Bathe; S. Batsouli; V. Baublis; F. Bauer; C. Baumann; A. Bazilevsky; S. Belikov; R. Belmont; R. Bennett; A. Berdnikov; Y. Berdnikov; J. H. Bhom; A. A. Bickley; M. T. Bjorndal; D. S. Blau; J. G. Boissevain; J. S. Bok; H. Borel; N. Borggren; K. Boyle; M. L. Brooks; D. S. Brown; D. Bucher; H. Buesching; V. Bumazhnov; G. Bunce; J. M. Burward-Hoy; S. Butsyk; S. Campbell; A. Caringi; N. Cassano; J. -S. Chai; B. S. Chang; J. -L. Charvet; C. -H. Chen; S. Chernichenko; J. Chiba; C. Y. Chi; M. Chiu; I. J. Choi; J. B. Choi; R. K. Choudhury; P. Christiansen; T. Chujo; P. Chung; A. Churyn; O. Chvala; V. Cianciolo; Z. Citron; C. R. Cleven; Y. Cobigo; B. A. Cole; M. P. Comets; Z. Conesa del Valle; M. Connors; P. Constantin; M. Csanad; T. Csorgo; T. Dahms; S. Dairaku; I. Danchev; K. Das; A. Datta; G. David; M. K. Dayananda; M. B. Deaton; K. Dehmelt; H. Delagrange; A. Denisov; D. d'Enterria; A. Deshpande; E. J. Desmond; K. V. Dharmawardane; O. Dietzsch; A. Dion; M. Donadelli; L. D Orazio; J. L. Drachenberg; O. Drapier; A. Drees; K. A. Drees; A. K. Dubey; J. M. Durham; A. Durum; D. Dutta; V. Dzhordzhadze; S. Edwards; Y. V. Efremenko; J. Egdemir; F. Ellinghaus; W. S. Emam; T. Engelmore; A. Enokizono; H. En'yo; B. Espagnon; S. Esumi; K. O. Eyser; B. Fadem; D. E. Fields; M. Finger Jr.; M. Finger; F. Fleuret; S. L. Fokin; B. Forestier; Z. Fraenkel; J. E. Frantz; A. Franz; A. D. Frawley; K. Fujiwara; Y. Fukao; S. -Y. Fung; T. Fusayasu; S. Gadrat; I. Garishvili; F. Gastineau; M. Germain; A. Glenn; H. Gong; M. Gonin; J. Gosset; Y. Goto; R. Granier de Cassagnac; N. Grau; S. V. Greene; G. Grim; M. Grosse Perdekamp; T. Gunji; H. -A. Gustafsson; T. Hachiya; A. Hadj Henni; C. Haegemann; J. S. Haggerty; M. N. Hagiwara; K. I. Hahn; H. Hamagaki; J. Hamblen; J. Hanks; R. Han; H. Harada; E. P. Hartouni; K. Haruna; M. Harvey; E. Haslum; K. Hasuko; R. Hayano; M. Heffner; T. K. Hemmick; T. Hester; J. M. Heuser; X. He; H. Hiejima; J. C. Hill; R. Hobbs; M. Hohlmann; M. Holmes; W. Holzmann; K. Homma; B. Hong; T. Horaguchi; D. Hornback; S. Huang; M. G. Hur; T. Ichihara; R. Ichimiya; H. Iinuma; Y. Ikeda; K. Imai; M. Inaba; Y. Inoue; D. Isenhower; L. Isenhower; M. Ishihara; T. Isobe; M. Issah; A. Isupov; D. Ivanischev; Y. Iwanaga; B. V. Jacak; J. Jia; X. Jiang; J. Jin; O. Jinnouchi; B. M. Johnson; T. Jones; K. S. Joo; D. Jouan; D. S. Jumper; F. Kajihara; S. Kametani; N. Kamihara; J. Kamin; M. Kaneta; J. H. Kang; H. Kanou; J. Kapustinsky; K. Karatsu; M. Kasai; T. Kawagishi; D. Kawall; M. Kawashima; A. V. Kazantsev; S. Kelly; T. Kempel; A. Khanzadeev; K. M. Kijima; J. Kikuchi; A. Kim; B. I. Kim; D. H. Kim; D. J. Kim; E. J. Kim; E. Kim; Y. -J. Kim; Y. -S. Kim; E. Kinney; A. Kiss; E. Kistenev; A. Kiyomichi; J. Klay; C. Klein-Boesing; L. Kochenda; V. Kochetkov; B. Komkov; M. Konno; J. Koster; D. Kotchetkov; D. Kotov; A. Kozlov; A. Kral; A. Kravitz; P. J. Kroon; J. Kubart; G. J. Kunde; N. Kurihara; K. Kurita; M. Kurosawa; M. J. Kweon; Y. Kwon; G. S. Kyle; R. Lacey; Y. S. Lai; J. G. Lajoie; A. Lebedev; Y. Le Bornec; S. Leckey; D. M. Lee; J. Lee; K. B. Lee; K. S. Lee; M. K. Lee; T. Lee; M. J. Leitch; M. A. L. Leite; B. Lenzi; P. Lichtenwalner; P. Liebing; H. Lim; L. A. Linden Levy; T. Liska; A. Litvinenko; H. Liu; M. X. Liu; X. Li; X. H. Li; B. Love; D. Lynch; C. F. Maguire; Y. I. Makdisi; A. Malakhov; M. D. Malik; V. I. Manko; E. Mannel; Y. Mao; L. Masek; H. Masui; F. Matathias; M. C. McCain; M. McCumber; P. L. McGaughey; N. Means; B. Meredith; Y. Miake; T. Mibe; A. C. Mignerey; P. Mikes; K. Miki; T. E. Miller; A. Milov; S. Mioduszewski; G. C. Mishra; M. Mishra; J. T. Mitchell; M. Mitrovski; A. K. Mohanty; H. J. Moon; Y. Morino; A. Morreale; D. P. Morrison; J. M. Moss; T. V. Moukhanova; D. Mukhopadhyay; T. Murakami; J. Murata; S. Nagamiya; Y. Nagata; J. L. Nagle; M. Naglis; M. I. Nagy; I. Nakagawa; Y. Nakamiya; K. R. Nakamura; T. Nakamura; K. Nakano; S. Nam; J. Newby; M. Nguyen; M. Nihashi; B. E. Norman; R. Nouicer; A. S. Nyanin; J. Nystrand; C. Oakley; E. O'Brien; S. X. Oda; C. A. Ogilvie; H. Ohnishi; I. D. Ojha; K. Okada; M. Oka; O. O. Omiwade; Y. Onuki; A. Oskarsson; I. Otterlund; M. Ouchida; K. Ozawa; R. Pak; D. Pal; A. P. T. Palounek; V. Pantuev; V. Papavassiliou; I. H. Park; J. Park; S. K. Park; W. J. Park; S. F. Pate; H. Pei; J. -C. Peng; H. Pereira; V. Peresedov; D. Yu. Peressounko; R. Petti; C. Pinkenburg; R. P. Pisani; M. Proissl; M. L. Purschke; A. K. Purwar; H. Qu; J. Rak; A. Rakotozafindrabe; I. Ravinovich; K. F. Read; S. Rembeczki; M. Reuter

2010-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

445

Thin-film polycrystalline n-ZnO/p-CuO heterojunction  

SciTech Connect

Results of X-ray diffraction and spectral-optical studies of n-ZnO and p-CuO films deposited by gas-discharge sputtering with subsequent annealing are presented. It is shown that, despite the difference in the crystal systems, the polycrystallinity of n-ZnO and p-CuO films enables fabrication of a heterojunction from this pair of materials.

Lisitski, O. L.; Kumekov, M. E.; Kumekov, S. E. [Satpaev Kazakh National Technical University (Kazakhstan)], E-mail: skumekov@mail.ru; Terukov, E. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

446

Solidification of hypereutectic Al-38 wt pct Cu alloy in microgravity and in unit gravity  

SciTech Connect

Solidification in microgravity aboard the space shuttle Endeavour resulted in a dramatic change in the morphology of the primary Al{sub 2}Cu phase compared to ground-based solidification in unit gravity. An Al-38 wt pct Cu ingot directionally solidified at a rate of 0.015 mm/s with a temperature gradient of 1.69 K/mm exhibited large, well-formed dendrites of primary Al{sub 2}Cu phase. Ingots solidified under similar conditions in unit gravity contained primary Al{sub 2}Cu phase with smooth, faceted surfaces. The primary Al{sub 2}Cu phase spacing in the microgravity ingot was much greater than that in the unit gravity ingot, 670 {micro}m compared to 171 {micro}m. It is suggested that thermosolutal mixing in the unit gravity ingot reduces the buildup of an Al-rich layer at the solid/liquid interface, which increases the stability of the interface resulting in smooth, faceted particles of Al{sub 2}Cu phase. It is also suggested that the large difference in primary phase spacings is due mostly to the difference in morphology rather than changes in parameters that might influence dendrite ripening mechanisms. The presence or absence of gravity had no effect on the interlamellar spacing of the inter-Al{sub 2}Cu phase eutectic. The ingot solidified in microgravity exhibited almost no longitudinal macrosegregation, in agreement with the theory of inverse segregation in the absence of thermosolutal convection. The ingot solidified in unit gravity exhibited considerable longitudinal macrosegregation, with the chilled end having about 6 wt pct more Cu than the average composition. It is not clear whether the segregation results from thermosolutal convection during solidification or from sedimentation during melting.

Yu, H.; Tandon, K.N.; Cahoon, J.R. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Doping Cu{sub 2}O in Electrolyte Solution: Dopant Incorporation, Atomic Structures and Electrical Properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have pursued a number of research activities between April 2010 and April 2011: ? A detailed study on n-type doping in Cu2O by Br; ? An analysis of natural resource limitations to terawatt-scale solar cells; ? Attempt to achieve a 1.4-eV direct band gap in Ni sulfides (NiSx); ? First-principles studies of doping in Cu2O and electronic structures of NiSx.

Tao, Meng; Zhang, Qiming

2013-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

448

Solar Total Energy System, Large Scale Experiment, Shenandoah, Georgia. Final technical progress report. Volume III. Appendix. [1. 72 MW thermal and 383. 6 kW electric power for 42,000 ft/sup 2/ knitwear plant  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the appendix to the Stearns-Roger Engineering Company conceptual design report on ERDA's Large Scale Experiment No. 2 (LSE No. 2). The object of this LSE is to design, construct, test, evaluate and operate a STES for the purpose of obtaining experience with large scale hardware systems and to establish engineering capability for subsequent demonstration projects. This particular LSE is to be located at Shenandoah, Georgia, and will provide power to the Bleyle knitwear factory. Under this contract Stearns-Roger developed a conceptual design, which was site specific, containing the following major elements: System Requirements Analysis, Site Description, System Conceptual Design, Conceptual Test and Operating Plans, Development Plans, Procurement and Management Plans for Subsequent Phases, and Cost Estimates. The Solar Total Energy system is sized to supply 1.720 MW thermal power and 383.6 KW electrical power. The STES is sized for the extended knitwear plant of 3902 M/sup 2/ (42,000 sq-ft) which will eventually employ 300 people. Drawings, tables, and data sheets are included on hourly temperatures, displacement, utility rates, power conversion system, seasonal design load summary, average collector temperature optimization study, system operating temperature optimization study, power conversion system seasonal performance, thermal storage/fluid loop, system integration, and cost estimates. (WHK)

None,

1977-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

449

AlCu alloy films prepared by the thermal diffusion technique  

SciTech Connect

100-nm thick films of Al{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x} alloys were prepared on glass substrates by thermal diffusion technique. The Cu atomic concentration was varied from 10% to 90%. Alloys were prepared at different temperatures into a vacuum oven with Argon atmosphere. Two thermal processes were used: i) heating the film at 400 deg. C in a single step, and ii) heating the films in sequential steps at 100, 200, 300 and 400 deg. C. Morphology, electrical resistivity, and crystalline orientation of the alloys were studied. The electrical resistivity and surface roughness of the alloys were found to depend strongly on the atomic composition and the diffusion temperature. However, we did not find differences between samples prepared under the two thermal processes. Alloys prepared with x = 0.6 and x = 0.1-0.3 as Cu at concentration exhibited values on electrical resistivity and surface roughness lower than pure Al. Different phases of the Al{sub 1} {sub -} {sub x}Cu{sub x} films were observed as a function of Cu concentration showing a good agreement with the AlCu phase diagram.

Oliva, A.I., E-mail: oliva@mda.cinvestav.mx [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Merida, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Km. 6 Antigua Carretera a Progreso, CP 97310, Merida Yucatan (Mexico); Corona, J.E.; Sosa, V. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Merida, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Km. 6 Antigua Carretera a Progreso, CP 97310, Merida Yucatan (Mexico)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

450

Co layer fragmentation effect on magnetoresistive and structural properties of nanogranular Co/Cu multilayers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We deposited nanogranular Co/Cu multilayers made of thin fragmented Co layers separated by thicker Cu layers to study how the structure and the microstructure of magnetic nanogranular samples change as the average particle size is reduced and how these changes affect the giant magnetoresistive response of the samples. Indeed, thanks to the vertical periodicity of the structure, namely, to the fact that Co/Cu interfaces display an ordered stacking and are not randomly distributed within the samples as in conventional granular materials, their self-correlation and cross correlation can be investigated. In this way, the characteristic length scale of the Co/Cu interfacial roughness that is strictly related to the giant magnetoresistive response of the samples and the universality class of the growth mechanism that affects the systems structure can be both accessed. The Co/Cu nanogranular multilayers were characterized using different x-ray techniques, from specular reflectivity, which allows to probe the multilayer development in the vertical direction, to grazing incidence small angle diffuse scattering, which provides information on the self-correlation and cross correlation of the Co/Cu interfaces. Furthermore, diffraction measurements indicate that the degree of structural disorder increases by decreasing the thickness of the Co layers. Magnetoresistive and magnetization measurements are as well presented and discussed with the results of the structural characterization.

Spizzo, F.; Ronconi, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica and CNISM, Polo Scientifico e Tecnologico, Universita degli Studi di Ferrara, via Saragat, 1 I-44100 Ferrara (Italy); Ferrero, C.; Mazuelas, A.; Metzger, T. H. [ESRF, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Albertini, F.; Casoli, F.; Nasi, L. [IMEM-CNR, Parco Area delle Scienze, 37/A I-43100 Parma (Italy)

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

451

Spray Deposition of High Quality CuInSe2 and CdTe Films: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A number of different ink and deposition approaches have been used for the deposition of CuInSe2 (CIS), Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS), and CdTe films. For CIS and CIGS, soluble precursors containing Cu, In, and Ga have been developed and used in two ways to produce CIS films. In the first, In-containing precursor films were sprayed on Mo-coated glass substrates and converted by rapid thermal processing (RTP) to In2Se3. Then a Cu-containing film was sprayed down on top of the In2Se3 and the stacked films were again thermally processed to give CIS. In the second approach, the Cu-, In-, and Ga-containing inks were combined in the proper ratio to produce a mixed Cu-In-Ga ink that was sprayed on substrates and thermally processed to give CIGS films directly. For CdTe deposition, ink consisting of CdTe nanoparticles dispersed in methanol was prepared and used to spray precursor films. Annealing these precursor films in the presence of CdCl2 produced large-grained CdTe films. The films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Optimized spray and processing conditions are crucial to obtain dense, crystalline films.

Curtis, C. J.; van Hest, M.; Miedaner, A.; Leisch, J.; Hersh, P.; Nekuda, J.; Ginley, D. S.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Metallic glass alloys of Zr, Ti, Cu and Ni  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

At least quaternary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10.sup.3 K/s. Such alloys comprise titanium from 19 to 41 atomic percent, an early transition metal (ETM) from 4 to 21 atomic percent and copper plus a late transition metal (LTM) from 49 to 64 atomic percent. The ETM comprises zirconium and/or hafnium. The LTM comprises cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is further constrained such that the product of the copper plus LTM times the atomic proportion of LTM relative to the copper is from 2 to 14. The atomic percentage of ETM is less than 10 when the atomic percentage of titanium is as high as 41, and may be as large as 21 when the atomic percentage of titanium is as low as 24. Furthermore, when the total of copper and LTM are low, the amount of LTM present must be further limited. Another group of glass forming alloys has the formula (ETM.sub.1-x Ti.sub.x).sub.a Cu.sub.b (Ni.sub.1-y Co.sub.y).sub.c wherein x is from 0.1 to 0.3, y.cndot.c is from 0 to 18, a is from 47 to 67, b is from 8 to 42, and c is from 4 to 37. This definition of the alloys has additional constraints on the range of copper content, b.

Lin, Xianghong (Pasadena, CA); Peker, Atakan (Pasadena, CA); Johnson, William L. (Pasadena, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Novel Approaches to Wide Bandgap CuInSe2 Based Absorbers  

SciTech Connect

This project targeted the development of high performance wide bandgap solar cells based on thin film alloys of CuInSe2 to relax constraints on module design and enable tandem solar cell structures. This addressed goals of the Solar Energy Technologies Program for Next Generation PV to develop technology needed for higher thin film module efficiency as a means to reduce costs. Specific objectives of the research project were: 1) to develop the processes and materials required to improve the performance of wide bandgap thin film solar cells based on alloys of CuInSe2, and 2) to provide the fundamental science and engineering basis for the material, electronic, and device properties required to effectively apply these processes and materials to commercial manufacture. CuInSe2-based photovoltaics have established the highest efficiencies of the thin film materials at both the cell and module scales and are actively being scaled up to commercialization. In the highest efficiency cells and modules, the optical bandgap, a function of the CuInSe2-based alloy composition, is relatively low compared to the optimum match to the solar spectrum. Wider bandgap alloys of CuInSe2 produce higher cell voltages which can improve module performance and enable the development of tandem solar cells to boost the overall efficiency. A focus for the project was alloying with silver to form (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 pentenary thin films deposited by elemental co-evaporation which gives the broadest range of control of composition and material properties. This alloy has a lower melting temperature than Ag-free, Cu-based chalcopyrite compounds, which may enable films to be formed with lower defect densities and the (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 films give improved material properties and better device performance with increasing bandgap. A comprehensive characterization of optical, structural, and electronic properties of (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 was completed over the complete compositional range 0 ? Ga/(In+Ga) ? 1 and 0 ? Ag/(Ag+Cu) ? 1. Evidence of improved material quality includes reduced sub-bandgap optical absorption, sharper bandtails, and increased grain size with Ag addition. The Ag alloying was shown to increase the range of bandgaps over which solar cells can be fabricated without any drop-off in performance. With bandgap greater than 1.6 eV, in the range needed for tandem solar cells, (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 gave higher efficiency than other CuInSe2-based alloys. Using a simple single-stage co-evaporation process, a solar cell with 17.6% efficiency using a film with bandgap = 1.3 eV was achieved, demonstrating the viability of (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 for high efficiency devices. With a three-stage co-evaporation process for (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 deposition a device with efficiency = 13.0 % and VOC = 890 mV with JSC = 20.5 mA/cm2, FF = 71.3% was achieved. This surpasses the performance of other wide bandgap CuInSe2-based solar cells. Detailed characterization of the electronic properties of the materials and devices including the application of advanced admittance-based easements was completed.

William N. Shafarman

2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

454

14MIB*ft* * * Kyoto Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Outline 1 Kinetic chemotaxis model 2 Goals and first results 3 Work in progress and future applications direction randomly, biased by chemical signal #12;Analysis on kinetic chemotaxis models using a functionalAnalysis on kinetic chemotaxis models using a functional analytic approach Analysis on kinetic

Sparks, Donald L.

455

ALOFT-FT: Frequently Asked Questions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... NISTIR 5958 Smoke Plume Trajectory From In Situ Burning of Crude Oil in Alaska: Field Experiments and Modeling of Complex Terrain. ...

2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

456

Nuclear threaths from terrorist : -ft or fiction?.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Summary After the terrorist attack on 9/11 on New York City and the Pentagon, it could seen to be an increase of speculation in the… (more)

Kristine, Rakkenes

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

~'ftEMISTRY PftOIDNOIDO~  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

rights reserved SSDI I0 I0-6030( 95 )04223-7 environment such as "electric energy per order" [8 photo efficiencies [ 10]. Vogler and coworkers [ 11] recommended the usage of formal rate constants

Sauvé, Geneviève

458

UK FT PDU Facility Draft EA  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2S 2S Draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment for University of Kentucky Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Lexington, KY December 2013 Prepared for: Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory This page intentionally left blank. Draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment DOE/EA-1642S Fischer-Tropsch Process Development Unit December 2013 Cover Sheet Proposed Action: The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) proposes, through a cooperative agreement with the University of Kentucky (UK) Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER), to partially fund the completion of the design, construction, and operation of a small-scale pilot plant for research related to the gasification of coal

459

Charged and strange hadron elliptic flow in Cu+Cu collisions at sqrt sNN = 62.4 and 200 GeV  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present the results of an elliptic flow, v{sub 2}, analysis of Cu+Cu collisions recorded with the STAR detector at RHIC at {radical}s{sub NN} = 62.4 and 200 GeV. Elliptic flow as a function of transverse momentum, v{sub 2}(p{sub T}), is reported for different collision centralities for charged hadrons h{sup {+-}}, and strangeness containing hadrons K{sub S}{sup 0}, {Lambda}, {Xi}, {phi} in the midrapidity region |{eta}| system-size dependence of elliptic flow, we present a detailed comparison with previously published results from Au+Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV. We observe that v{sub 2}(p{sub T}) of strange hadrons has similar scaling properties as were first observed in Au+Au collisions, i.e.: (i) at low transverse momenta, p{sub T} energy, m{sub T} - m, and (ii) at intermediate p{sub T}, 2 system size, number of participants N{sub part}. This indicates that the ideal hydrodynamic limit is not reached in Cu+Cu collisions, presumably because the assumption of thermalization is not attained.

STAR Collaboration; Abelev, Betty

2010-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

460

Nuclear modification factors of phi mesons in d+Au, Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(S_NN)=200 GeV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has performed systematic measurements of phi meson production in the K+K- decay channel at midrapidity in p+p, d+Au, Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(S_NN)=200 GeV. Results are presented on the phi invariant yield and the nuclear modification factor R_AA for Au+Au and Cu+Cu, and R_dA for d+Au collisions, studied as a function of transverse momentum (1phi exhibits a suppression relative to expectations from binary scaled p+p results. The amount of suppression is smaller than that of the neutral pion and the eta meson in the intermediate p_T range (2--5 GeV/c); whereas at higher p_T the phi, pi^0, and eta show similar suppression. The baryon (protons and anti-protons) excess observed in central Au+Au collisions at intermediate p_T is not observed for the phi meson despite the similar mass of the proton and the phi. This suggests that the excess is lin...

Adare, A; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Al-Jamel, A; Angerami, A; Aoki, K; Aphecetche, L; Aramaki, Y; Armendariz, R; Aronson, S H; Asai, J; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldisseri, A; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Bauer, F; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bhom, J H; Bickley, A A; Bjorndal, M T; Blau, D S; Boissevain, J G; Bok, J S; Borel, H; Borggren, N; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bucher, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J M; Butsyk, S; Campbell, S; Caringi, A; Cassano, N; Chai, J -S; Chang, B S; Charvet, J -L; Chen, C -H; Chernichenko, S; Chiba, J; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Churyn, A; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cleven, C R; Cobigo, Y; Cole, B A; Comets, M P; del Valle, Z Conesa; Connors, M; Constantin, P; Csanad, M; Csorgo, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; David, G; Dayananda, M K; Deaton, M B; Dehmelt, K; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; d'Enterria, D; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dharmawardane, K V; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Orazio, L D; Drachenberg, J L; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Dubey, A K; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Dzhordzhadze, V; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Egdemir, J; Ellinghaus, F; Emam, W S; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Espagnon, B; Esumi, S; Eyser, K O; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Forestier, B; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fung, S -Y; Fusayasu, T; Gadrat, S; Garishvili, I; Gastineau, F; Germain, M; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grim, G; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H -A; Hachiya, T; Henni, A Hadj; Haegemann, C; Haggerty, J S; Hagiwara, M N; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Hanks, J; Han, R; Harada, H; Hartouni, E P; Haruna, K; Harvey, M; Haslum, E; Hasuko, K; Hayano, R; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Heuser, J M; He, X; Hiejima, H; Hill, J C; Hobbs, R; Hohlmann, M; Holmes, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Hur, M G; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Iinuma, H; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Inoue, Y; Isenhower, D; Isenhower, L; Ishihara, M; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Ivanischev, D; Iwanaga, Y; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Jin, J; Jinnouchi, O; Johnson, B M; Jones, T; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kamin, J; Kaneta, M; Kang, J H; Kanou, H; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kasai, M; Kawagishi, T; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kelly, S; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kikuchi, J; Kim, A; Kim, B I; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E J; Kim, E; Kim, Y -J; Kim, Y -S; Kinney, E; Kiss, A; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Klay, J; Klein-Boesing, C; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kotchetkov, D; Kotov, D; Kozlov, A; Kral, A; Kravitz, A; Kroon, P J; Kubart, J; Kunde, G J; Kurihara, N; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Le Bornec, Y; Leckey, S; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, M K; Lee, T; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Lenzi, B; Lichtenwalner, P; Liebing, P; Lim, H; Levy, L A Linden; Liska, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Li, X; Li, X H; Love, B; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Masek, L; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCain, M C; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; Means, N; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Mikes, P; Miki, K; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mishra, G C; Mishra, M; Mitchell, J T; Mitrovski, M; Mohanty, A K; Moon, H J; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Moukhanova, T V; Mukhopadhyay, D; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagata, Y; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nam, S; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nihashi, M; Norman, B E; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; Oakley, C; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Okada, K; Oka, M; Omiwade, O O; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, I H; Park, J; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J -C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Rembeczki, S; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Romana, A; Rosati, M; Rosen, C A; Rosendahl, S S E; Rosnet, P; Rukoyatkin, P; Ruzicka, P; Rykov, V L

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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461

Modeling Cu Migration in CdTe Solar Cells Under Device-Processing and Long-Term Stability Conditions (Poster)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An impurity migration model for systems with material interfaces is applied to Cu migration in CdTe solar cells. In the model, diffusion fluxes are calculated from the Cu chemical potential gradient. Inputs to the model include Cu diffusivities, solubilities, and segregation enthalpies in CdTe, CdS and contact materials. The model yields transient and equilibrium Cu distributions in CdTe devices during device processing and under field-deployed conditions. Preliminary results for Cu migration in CdTe PV devices using available diffusivity and solubility data from the literature show that Cu segregates in the CdS, a phenomenon that is commonly observed in devices after back-contact processing and/or stress conditions.

Teeter, G.; Asher, S.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Modeling Cu Migration in CdTe Solar Cells Under Device-Processing and Long-Term Stability Conditions: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An impurity migration model for systems with material interfaces is applied to Cu migration in CdTe solar cells. In the model, diffusion fluxes are calculated from the Cu chemical potential gradient. Inputs to the model include Cu diffusivities, solubilities, and segregation enthalpies in CdTe, CdS and contact materials. The model yields transient and equilibrium Cu distributions in CdTe devices during device processing and under field-deployed conditions. Preliminary results for Cu migration in CdTe photovoltaic devices using available diffusivity and solubility data from the literature show that Cu segregates in the CdS, a phenomenon that is commonly observed in devices after back-contact processing and/or stress conditions.

Teeter, G.; Asher, S.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Table E1A. Major Fuel Consumption (Btu) by End Use for All ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Warehouse and Storage ..... 456 194 14 20 6 132 Q 36 2 5 48 Other ..... 286 138 18 11 4 59 Q 10 Q 5 33 Vacant ...

464

Table 1.1 Primary Energy Overview, 1949-2011 (Billion Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

1954. 33,764,330 : 0 : 2,754,099 : 36,518,430 : 2,323,614 : 2,347,876 : 910,509: 1,696,301 : 651,575 -530,622 : 33,877,300 : 0 : 2,754,099 : ...

465

What are Ccf, Mcf, Btu, and therms? How do I convert ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Why am I being charged more for propane than the price on EIA's website? ... How much shale gas is produced in the United States? What are Ccf, Mcf, ...

466

What are Ccf, Mcf, Btu, and therms? How do I convert prices in ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Natural Gas Conversion Calculator. Last updated: March 20, 2013. Other FAQs about Conversion & Equivalents. How do I convert between short tons and metric tons?

467

Table E1. Major Fuel Consumption (Btu) by End Use for Non-Mall ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heat-ing Cool-ing Venti-lation Water Heat-ing Light-ing Cook-ing Refrig-eration Office Equip-ment Com-puters Other

468

Table E1. Major Fuel Consumption (Btu) by End Use for Non-Mall ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

HVAC Equipment Upgrade..... 1,156 470 73 81 117 206 29 45 11 32 92 Lighting Upgrade ..... 1,085 485 62 75 92 184 24 49 10 28 76 Window ...

469

Table E1. Major Fuel Consumption (Btu) by End Use for Non ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

HVAC Maintenance ..... 792 29 106 105 13 302 6 83 17 40 91 Energy Management and Control System (EMCS) ..... 280 9 42 47 4 108 1 12 8 18 32 Window and ...

470

Table E3. Electricity Consumption (Btu) by End Use for Non ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Notes: Due to rounding, data may not sum to totals. HVAC = Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning. Source: Energy Information Administration, ...

471

Table E11A. District Heat Consumption (Btu) and Energy Intensities ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Climate Zone: 30-Year Average Under 2,000 CDD and --- More than 7,000 HDD ..... 88 80 8 Q (*) 106.3 96.7 9.4 Q (*) - 5,500-7,000 HDD ...

472

Table 1.2 Primary Energy Production by Source, 1949-2011 (Billion Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Natural Gas (Dry) Crude Oil 3: NGPL 4: Total: Hydro-electric Power 6: Geothermal 7: Solar/PV 8: Wind 9: Biomass 10: Total: 1949. ... refuse recovery. See Table 7.1.

473

High-Btu gas from peat. Feasibility study. Volume II. Executive summary  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In September 1980, the US Department of Energy awarded a grant to the Minnesota Gas Company (Minnegasco) to evaluate the commercial, technical, economic, and environmental viability of producing 80 million Standard Cubic Feet per day (SCF/day) of substitute natural gas (SNG) from peat. Minnegasco assigned the work for this study to a project team consisting of the following organizations: Dravo Engineers and Constructors for the design, engineering and economic evaluation of peat harvesting, dewatering, and gasification systems; Ertec, Inc. for environmental and socioeconomic analyses; Institute of Gas Technology for gasification process information, and technical and engineering support; and Deloitte Haskins and Sells for management advisory support. This report presents the work performed by Dravo Engineers and Constructors to meet the requirements of: Task 1, peat harvesting; Task 2, peat dewatering; Task 3, peat gasification; Task 4, long lead items; and Task 9.1, economic analysis. The final report comprises three volumes, the first is the Executive Summary. This Volume II contains all of the text of the report, and Volume III includes all of the specifications, drawings, and appendices applicable to the project. Contents of Volume II are: introduction; project scope and objectives; commercial plant description; engineering specifications; design and construction schedules; capital cost estimates; operating cost estimates; financial analysis; and future areas for investigation. 15 figures, 17 tables.

Not Available

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

High-Btu gas from peat. Feasibility study. Volume I. Executive summary  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In September, 1980, the US Department of Energy awarded a grant to the Minnesota Gas Company (Minnegasco) to evaluate the commercial, technical, economic, and environmental viability of producing 80 million Standard Cubic Feet per day (SCF/day) of substitute natural gas (SNG) from peat. Minnegasco assigned the work for this study to a project team consisting of the following organizations: Dravo Engineers and Constructors for the design, engineering and economic evaluation of peat harvesting, dewatering, and gasification systems; Ertec, Inc. for environmental and socioeconomic analyses; Institute of Gas Technology for gasification process information, and technical and engineering support; and Deloitte Haskins and Sells for management advisory support. This report presents the work performed by Dravo Engineers and Constructors to meet the requirements of: Task 1, peat harvesting; Task 2, peat dewatering; Task 3, peat gasification; Task 4, long lead items; and Task 9.1, economic analysis. The final report comprises three volumes, the first of which is this Executive Summary. Subsequent volumes include Volume II which contains all of the text of the report, and Volume III which includes all of the specifications, drawings, and appendices applicable to the project. As part of this study, a scale model of the proposed gasification facility was constructed. This model was sent to Minnegasco, and photographs of the model are included at the end of this summary.

Not Available

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Microfabricated BTU monitoring device for system-wide natural gas monitoring.  

SciTech Connect

The natural gas industry seeks inexpensive sensors and instrumentation to rapidly measure gas heating value in widely distributed locations. For gas pipelines, this will improve gas quality during transfer and blending, and will expedite accurate financial accounting. Industrial endusers will benefit through continuous feedback of physical gas properties to improve combustion efficiency during use. To meet this need, Sandia has developed a natural gas heating value monitoring instrument using existing and modified microfabricated components. The instrument consists of a silicon micro-fabricated gas chromatography column in conjunction with a catalytic micro-calorimeter sensor. A reference thermal conductivity sensor provides diagnostics and surety. This combination allows for continuous calorimetric determination with a 1 minute analysis time and 1.5 minute cycle time using air as a carrier gas. This system will find application at remote natural gas mining stations, pipeline switching and metering stations, turbine generators, and other industrial user sites. Microfabrication techniques will allow the analytical components to be manufactured in production quantities at a low per-unit cost.

Einfeld, Wayne; Manginell, Ronald Paul; Robinson, Alex Lockwood; Moorman, Matthew Wallace

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Table E3A. Electricity Consumption (Btu) by End Use for All ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heat-ing Cool-ing Venti-lation Water Heat-ing Light-ing Cook-ing Refrig-eration Office Equip-ment Com-puters ...

477

Table 8. U.S. Renewable Energy Consumption (Quadrillion Btu) U ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

heating oil. (b) Wood and wood-derived fuels. (c) Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste, agricultural byproducts, ...

478

Table E7. Natural Gas Consumption (Btu) and Energy Intensities by ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Window Replacement ..... 242 179 37 10 16 48.5 35.8 7.4 2.0 3.2 Plumbing System Upgrade ..... 287 198 48 17 24 50.2 34.6 8.4 2.9 4.3 ...

479

Heavy duty gas turbine combustion tests with simulated low BTU coal gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This program has the objectives to: A. Parametrically determine the effects of moisture, nitrogen and carbon dioxide as diluents so that the combustion characteristics of many varieties of gasification product gases can be reasonably predicted without physically testing each specific gas composition. B. Determine emissions characteristics including NO, NO{sub x}, CO, levels etc. associated with each of the diluents, and C. Operate with at least two syngas compositions; DOE chosen air-blown and integrated oxygen-blown, to confirm that the combustion characteristics are in line with predictions. As a result of this program: 1. GE Engineering is now confident that the syngas fuels produced by all currently--viable coal gasifiers can be accommodated by the GE advanced (``F`` Technology) combustion system, and 2. For proposed syngas fuels with varying amounts of steam, nitrogen or CO{sub 2} diluent, the combustion and emissions characteristics can be reasonably estimated without undertaking expensive new screening tests for each different fuel.

Ekstrom, T.E.; Battista, R.A.; Belisle, F.H.; Maxwell, G.P.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Table A4. Approximate Heat Content of Natural Gas, 1949-2011 (Btu ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Short-Term Energy Outlook › Annual Energy Outlook ... 1984: 1,109: 1,031: 1,030: 1,035: 1,031: 1,005: 1,010: 1985: 1,112: 1,032: 1,031: 1,038: 1,032: 1,002: 1,011 ...