National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for btu british thermal

  1. DYNAMIC MANUFACTURING ENERGY SANKEY TOOL (2010, UNITS: TRILLION BTU) |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy Information Resources » Energy Analysis » DYNAMIC MANUFACTURING ENERGY SANKEY TOOL (2010, UNITS: TRILLION BTU) DYNAMIC MANUFACTURING ENERGY SANKEY TOOL (2010, UNITS: TRILLION BTU) About the Energy Data Use this diagram to explore (zoom, pan, select) and compare energy flows across U.S. manufacturing and key subsectors. Line widths indicate the volume of energy flow in trillions of British thermal units (TBtu). The 15 manufacturing subsectors together consume 95% of all

  2. BTU International Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1862 Product: US-based manufacturer of thermal processing equipment, semiconductor packaging, and surface mount assembly. References: BTU International Inc1 This article is a...

  3. Btu)","per Building

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)","Floorspace (million square feet)","Floorspace per Building (thousand square feet)","Total (trillion Btu)","per Building (million Btu)","per...

  4. First BTU | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    that is consumed by the United States.3 References First BTU First BTU Green Energy About First BTU Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleFirstBT...

  5. Table 8.3a Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Total (All Sectors), 1989-2011 (Sum of Tables 8.3b and 8.3c; Billion Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Total (All Sectors), 1989-2011 (Sum of Tables 8.3b and 8.3c; Billion Btu) Year Fossil Fuels Renewable Energy Other 7 Total Coal 1 Petroleum 2 Natural Gas 3 Other Gases 4 Total Biomass Total Wood 5 Waste 6 1989 323,191 95,675 461,905 92,556 973,327 546,354 30,217 576,571 39,041 1,588,939 1990 362,524 127,183 538,063 140,695 1,168,465 650,572 36,433 687,005 40,149 1,895,619 1991 351,834 112,144 546,755 148,216 1,158,949 623,442 36,649

  6. Table 8.3c Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Commercial and Industrial Sectors, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.3a; Billion Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    c Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Commercial and Industrial Sectors, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.3a; Billion Btu) Year Fossil Fuels Renewable Energy Other 7 Total Coal 1 Petroleum 2 Natural Gas 3 Other Gases 4 Total Biomass Total Wood 5 Waste 6 Commercial Sector 8<//td> 1989 13,517 3,896 9,920 102 27,435 145 10,305 10,450 – 37,885 1990 14,670 5,406 15,515 118 35,709 387 10,193 10,580 – 46,289 1991 15,967 3,684 20,809 118 40,578 169 8,980 9,149 1 49,728 1992

  7. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Consumption (Btu) and Energy Intensities by End Use for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity (thousand Btu...

  8. Microfabricated BTU monitoring device for system-wide natural...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Microfabricated BTU monitoring device for system-wide natural gas monitoring. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microfabricated BTU monitoring device for system-wide...

  9. ,"Total District Heat Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"District Heat Energy Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  10. ,"Total Natural Gas Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Natural...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  11. Sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

    1980-01-01

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is disclosed. The combustor includes several separately removable combustion chambers each having an annular sectoral cross section and a double-walled construction permitting separation of stresses due to pressure forces and stresses due to thermal effects. Arrangements are described for air-cooling each combustion chamber using countercurrent convective cooling flow between an outer shell wall and an inner liner wall and using film cooling flow through liner panel grooves and along the inner liner wall surface, and for admitting all coolant flow to the gas path within the inner liner wall. Also described are systems for supplying coal gas, combustion air, and dilution air to the combustion zone, and a liquid fuel nozzle for use during low-load operation. The disclosed combustor is fully air-cooled, requires no transition section to interface with a turbine nozzle, and is operable at firing temperatures of up to 3000.degree. F. or within approximately 300.degree. F. of the adiabatic stoichiometric limit of the coal gas used as fuel.

  12. Property:Geothermal/CapacityBtuHr | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Pages using the property "GeothermalCapacityBtuHr" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 4 4 UR...

  13. Property:Geothermal/AnnualGenBtuYr | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Pages using the property "GeothermalAnnualGenBtuYr" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 4 4 UR...

  14. ,"Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    12:00:20 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)" "Sourcekey","RNGWHHD" "Date","Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per ...

  15. Microfabricated BTU monitoring device for system-wide natural gas

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    monitoring. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Microfabricated BTU monitoring device for system-wide natural gas monitoring. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microfabricated BTU monitoring device for system-wide natural gas monitoring. The natural gas industry seeks inexpensive sensors and instrumentation to rapidly measure gas heating value in widely distributed locations. For gas pipelines, this will improve gas quality during transfer and blending, and will

  16. EIS-0007: Low Btu Coal Gasification Facility and Industrial Park

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this draft environmental impact statement that evaluates the potential environmental impacts that may be associated with the construction and operation of a low-Btu coal gasification facility and the attendant industrial park in Georgetown, Scott County, Kentucky. DOE cancelled this project after publication of the draft.

  17. Commercial demonstration of atmospheric medium BTU fuel gas production from biomass without oxygen the Burlington, Vermont Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohrer, J.W.

    1995-12-31

    The first U.S. demonstration of a gas turbine operating on fuel gas produced by the thermal gasification of biomass occurred at Battelle Columbus Labs (BCL) during 1994 using their high throughput indirect medium Btu gasification Process Research Unit (PRU). Zurn/NEPCO was retained to build a commercial scale gas plant utilizing this technology. This plant will have a throughput rating of 8 to 12 dry tons per hour. During a subsequent phase of the Burlington project, this fuel gas will be utilized in a commercial scale gas turbine. It is felt that this process holds unique promise for economically converting a wide variety of biomass feedstocks efficiently into both a medium Btu (500 Btu/scf) gas turbine and IC engine quality fuel gas that can be burned in engines without modification, derating or efficiency loss. Others are currently demonstrating sub-commercial scale thermal biomass gasification processes for turbine gas, utilizing both atmospheric and pressurized air and oxygen-blown fluid bed processes. While some of these approaches hold merit for coal, there is significant question as to whether they will prove economically viable in biomass facilities which are typically scale limited by fuel availability and transportation logistics below 60 MW. Atmospheric air-blown technologies suffer from large sensible heat loss, high gas volume and cleaning cost, huge gas compressor power consumption and engine deratings. Pressurized units and/or oxygen-blown gas plants are extremely expensive for plant scales below 250 MW. The FERCO/BCL process shows great promise for overcoming the above limitations by utilizing an extremely high throughout circulation fluid bed (CFB) gasifier, in which biomass is fully devolitalized with hot sand from a CFB char combustor. The fuel gas can be cooled and cleaned by a conventional scrubbing system. Fuel gas compressor power consumption is reduced 3 to 4 fold verses low Btu biomass gas.

  18. British Biogen | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: British Biogen Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: SW1X 8PQ Sector: Bioenergy Product: British BioGen is the Trade Association to the UK Bioenergy Industry....

  19. "Economic","per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Characteristic(a)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 6.2;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,"Consumption" " ",,"Consumption","per Dollar" " ","Consumption","per Dollar","of Value" "Economic","per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Characteristic(a)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)" ,"Total United States" "Value

  20. "Economic","per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Characteristic(a)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 6.2;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,"Consumption" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar" ,"Consumption","per Dollar","of Value" "Economic","per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Characteristic(a)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)" ,"Total United States" "Value of Shipments and

  1. British nuclear policymaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowie, C.J.; Platt, A.

    1984-01-01

    This study analyzes the domestic political, economic, and bureaucratic factors that affect the nuclear policymaking process in Great Britain. Its major conclusion is that, although there have been changes in that process in recent years (notably the current involvement of a segment of the British public in the debate about the deployment of intermediate-range nuclear forces), future British nuclear policymaking will remain much what it has been in the past. Three ideas are central to understanding British thinking on the subject: (1) Britain's long-standing resolve to have her own national nuclear force is largely traceable to her desire to maintain first-rank standing among the nations of the world in spite of loss of empire. (2) Financial considerations have always been important--so much so that they have usually dominated issues of nuclear policy. (3) The executive branch of government dominates the nuclear policymaking process but does not always present a united front. The United States heavily influences British nuclear policy through having supplied Britain since the late 1950s with nuclear data and components of nuclear weapon systems such as Polaris and Trident. The relationship works both ways since the U.S. depends on Britain as a base for deployment of both conventional and nuclear systems.

  2. A Requirement for Significant Reduction in the Maximum BTU Input Rate of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Decorative Vented Gas Fireplaces Would Impose Substantial Burdens on Manufacturers | Department of Energy A Requirement for Significant Reduction in the Maximum BTU Input Rate of Decorative Vented Gas Fireplaces Would Impose Substantial Burdens on Manufacturers A Requirement for Significant Reduction in the Maximum BTU Input Rate of Decorative Vented Gas Fireplaces Would Impose Substantial Burdens on Manufacturers Comment that a requirement to reduce the BTU input rate of existing decorative

  3. British coal privatization procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The form in which British Coal is to be privatized has finally been announced. Offers are to be invited for the operating underground and opencast mines which will be grouped into five regionally based companies. Additionally, offers will be invited for a number of collieries which are currently under care and maintenance. The five Regional Coal Companies to be formed are Central North, which will comprise the assets in the Yorkshire and Durham coalfields, including the five collieries in the Selby Complex; Central South, which will contain the assets located in the Nottinghamshire, Leicestershire, Derbyshire, and Warwickshire coalfields; North East, which has four opencast sites, Scotland, which has nine operating open-cast sites and a single underground mine, Longannet; and South Wales with its nine operating opencast sites. Tower colliery, the last underground mine in South Wales, was finally put on care and maintenance on April 20, 1994. Details of the five Regional Coal Companies are given. A new public sector body, the Coal Authority will be set up to which all British Coal's title to unworked coal and coal mines will be transferred. All the relevant property rights and liabilities of British Coal will be transferred into the Regional Coal Companies prior to their sun.

  4. British Hydropower Association | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    British Hydropower Association Place: Wimborne, Dorset, United Kingdom Zip: BH21 1QU Sector: Hydro Product: The British Hydropower Association (BHA) is a trade association which...

  5. British Columbia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    it. British Columbia is a province in Canada. Energy Incentives for British Columbia Energy Monitoring Act (Canada) Western Interstate Nuclear Compact State Nuclear Policy...

  6. British Energy Renewables | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy, Wind energy Product: Renewables division of British Energy. Involved in the Lewis Wind Farm project. References: British Energy Renewables1 This article is a stub....

  7. Lighting in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Ballast: See High-Efficiency Ballast. Btu: British thermal unit. A unit quantity of energy consumed by or delivered to a building. A Btu is defined as the amount of energy...

  8. Recent regulatory experience of low-Btu coal gasification. Volume III. Supporting case studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ackerman, E.; Hart, D.; Lethi, M.; Park, W.; Rifkin, S.

    1980-02-01

    The MITRE Corporation conducted a five-month study for the Office of Resource Applications in the Department of Energy on the regulatory requirements of low-Btu coal gasification. During this study, MITRE interviewed representatives of five current low-Btu coal gasification projects and regulatory agencies in five states. From these interviews, MITRE has sought the experience of current low-Btu coal gasification users in order to recommend actions to improve the regulatory process. This report is the third of three volumes. It contains the results of interviews conducted for each of the case studies. Volume 1 of the report contains the analysis of the case studies and recommendations to potential industrial users of low-Btu coal gasification. Volume 2 contains recommendations to regulatory agencies.

  9. Expanded standards and codes case limits combined buildings delivered energy to 21 quadrillion Btu by 2035

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Erin Boedecker, Session Moderator April 27, 2011 | Washington, DC Energy Demand. Efficiency, and Consumer Behavior 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2010 Technology Reference Expanded Standards Expanded Standards + Codes -7.6% ≈ 0 Expanded standards and codes case limits combined buildings delivered energy to 21 quadrillion Btu by 2035 2 Erin Boedecker, EIA Energy Conference, April 27, 2011 delivered energy quadrillion Btu Source: EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2011

  10. This Week In Petroleum Summary Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Users can also compare data across different energy sources by converting to British thermal units (Btu) and tons of oil equivalent (TOE). New visualization features include...

  11. Department of Energy Announces Winners of 2015 Federal Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    at less than 1 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) annually, the lowest since 1975 when data collection began. The energy savings being recognized by these awards alone...

  12. PP-369 British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PP-369 British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority PP-369 British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority Presidential Permit authorizing British Columbia and Power Authority to...

  13. Application for Presidential Permit OE Docket No. PP-369 British...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    69 British Columbia Transmission Corporation and British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority Application for Presidential Permit OE Docket No. PP-369 British Columbia Transmission ...

  14. Low-Btu coal gasification in the United States: company topical. [Brick producers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boesch, L.P.; Hylton, B.G.; Bhatt, C.S.

    1983-07-01

    Hazelton and other brick producers have proved the reliability of the commercial size Wellman-Galusha gasifier. For this energy intensive business, gas cost is the major portion of the product cost. Costs required Webster/Hazelton to go back to the old, reliable alternative energy of low Btu gasification when the natural gas supply started to be curtailed and prices escalated. Although anthracite coal prices have skyrocketed from $34/ton (1979) to over $71.50/ton (1981) because of high demand (local as well as export) and rising labor costs, the delivered natural gas cost, which reached $3.90 to 4.20/million Btu in the Hazelton area during 1981, has allowed the producer gas from the gasifier at Webster Brick to remain competitive. The low Btu gas cost (at the escalated coal price) is estimated to be $4/million Btu. In addition to producing gas that is cost competitive with natural gas at the Webster Brick Hazelton plant, Webster has the security of knowing that its gas supply will be constant. Improvements in brick business and projected deregulation of the natural gas price may yield additional, attractive cost benefits to Webster Brick through the use of low Btu gas from these gasifiers. Also, use of hot raw gas (that requires no tar or sulfur removal) keeps the overall process efficiency high. 25 references, 47 figures, 14 tables.

  15. Hawaii Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Foot) Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Hawaii Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,056 1,055 1,057 1,043 983 983 983 983 983 983 983 983 2014 947 946 947 947 947 947 951 978 990 968 974 962 2015 968 954 947 959 990 1,005 1,011 965 989 996 996 997 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual

  16. British Columbia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Incentives for British Columbia Energy Monitoring Act (Canada) Western Interstate Nuclear Compact State Nuclear Policy (Multiple States) References http:...

  17. Georgia Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Foot) Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Georgia Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,014 1,015 1,016 1,015 1,014 1,015 1,016 1,019 1,017 1,016 1,017 1,017 2014 1,018 1,018 1,018 1,018 1,021 1,022 1,023 1,023 1,027 1,026 1,026 1,025 2015 1,025 1,026 1,025 1,026 1,028 1,031 1,030 1,028 1,029 1,028 1,026 1,027 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  18. Delaware Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Foot) Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Delaware Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,050 1,049 1,046 1,048 1,041 1,049 1,058 1,054 1,065 1,064 1,067 1,057 2014 1,052 1,048 1,048 1,051 1,045 1,049 1,063 1,065 1,062 1,063 1,063 1,064 2015 1,061 1,061 1,062 1,051 1,055 1,055 1,044 1,044 1,043 1,051 1,051 1,049 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  19. Colorado Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Foot) Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Colorado Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,023 1,032 1,030 1,033 1,040 1,051 1,056 1,057 1,058 1,037 1,032 1,033 2014 1,030 1,036 1,038 1,041 1,051 1,050 1,048 1,048 1,050 1,055 1,042 1,051 2015 1,046 1,044 1,051 1,059 1,059 1,070 1,073 1,069 1,076 1,069 1,060 1,051 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  20. Florida Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Foot) Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Florida Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,016 1,015 1,016 1,015 1,016 1,015 1,016 1,016 1,017 1,017 1,018 1,018 2014 1,018 1,018 1,018 1,019 1,019 1,019 1,022 1,023 1,024 1,023 1,024 1,025 2015 1,024 1,025 1,024 1,024 1,026 1,026 1,026 1,024 1,024 1,023 1,023 1,023 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  1. Connecticut Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cubic Foot) Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Connecticut Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,018 1,025 1,011 1,022 1,028 1,024 1,032 1,028 1,030 1,030 1,026 1,024 2014 1,015 1,015 1,016 1,019 1,020 1,022 1,022 1,023 1,021 1,020 1,018 1,017 2015 1,017 1,026 1,029 1,026 1,049 1,027 1,027 1,026 1,026 1,028 1,027 1,026 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable;

  2. Iowa Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Foot) Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Iowa Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,025 1,029 1,029 1,030 1,031 1,030 1,030 1,027 1,028 1,032 1,033 1,032 2014 1,034 1,033 1,034 1,036 1,040 1,039 1,043 1,047 1,044 1,046 1,044 1,045 2015 1,045 1,047 1,047 1,051 1,054 1,060 1,059 1,059 1,058 1,058 1,057 1,056 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  3. U.S. Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Other Sectors Consumers (BTU

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    per Cubic Foot) Other Sectors Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) U.S. Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Other Sectors Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 1,029 1,026 1,028 1,028 1,027 1,027 1,025 2010's 1,023 1,022 1,025 1,028 1,032 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 02/29/2016 Next Release Date: 03/31/2016

  4. U.S. Total Consumption of Heat Content of Natural Gas (BTU per Cubic Foot)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumption of Heat Content of Natural Gas (BTU per Cubic Foot) U.S. Total Consumption of Heat Content of Natural Gas (BTU per Cubic Foot) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 1,028 1,026 1,028 1,028 1,027 1,027 1,025 2010's 1,023 1,022 1,024 1,027 1,032 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 02/29/2016 Next Release Date: 03/31/2016 Referring Pages:

  5. Louisiana Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cubic Foot) Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Louisiana Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,015 1,013 1,015 1,015 1,015 1,016 1,016 1,017 1,017 1,016 1,018 1,019 2014 1,017 1,016 1,018 1,021 1,028 1,025 1,029 1,029 1,031 1,034 1,037 1,038 2015 1,030 1,031 1,029 1,029 1,028 1,027 1,028 1,024 1,023 1,023 1,022 1,023 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable;

  6. Kansas Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Foot) Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Kansas Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,017 1,017 1,019 1,018 1,018 1,020 1,020 1,020 1,018 1,017 1,016 1,017 2014 1,017 1,017 1,019 1,023 1,022 1,023 1,025 1,025 1,027 1,025 1,028 1,025 2015 1,033 1,034 1,035 1,036 1,044 1,039 1,040 1,042 1,039 1,037 1,035 1,031 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  7. Kentucky Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Foot) Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Kentucky Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,023 1,022 1,023 1,025 1,026 1,027 1,028 1,030 1,031 1,028 1,028 1,033 2014 1,029 1,024 1,026 1,028 1,031 1,037 1,034 1,036 1,038 1,022 1,017 1,019 2015 1,023 1,018 1,015 1,016 1,023 1,021 1,024 1,015 1,020 1,024 1,021 1,024 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  8. Idaho Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Foot) Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Idaho Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,015 1,015 1,031 1,021 1,010 997 988 994 1,001 1,026 1,034 1,054 2014 1,048 1,036 1,030 1,022 1,006 993 984 996 1,005 1,019 1,046 1,039 2015 1,047 1,037 1,030 1,023 1,000 1,010 1,034 1,028 1,024 1,033 1,035 1,041 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  9. Illinois Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Foot) Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Illinois Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,013 1,013 1,014 1,015 1,015 1,014 1,015 1,015 1,016 1,017 1,019 1,018 2014 1,020 1,020 1,020 1,020 1,020 1,020 1,022 1,020 1,021 1,021 1,023 1,024 2015 1,027 1,030 1,029 1,028 1,029 1,027 1,027 1,027 1,028 1,028 1,030 1,030 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  10. Indiana Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Foot) Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Indiana Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,011 1,012 1,013 1,015 1,019 1,020 1,019 1,021 1,020 1,018 1,015 1,014 2014 1,016 1,017 1,019 1,019 1,023 1,023 1,025 1,030 1,028 1,027 1,025 1,029 2015 1,028 1,029 1,031 1,039 1,037 1,043 1,043 1,044 1,041 1,039 1,034 1,033 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  11. Minnesota Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cubic Foot) Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Minnesota Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,020 1,021 1,020 1,021 1,026 1,030 1,028 1,029 1,028 1,029 1,029 1,027 2014 1,031 1,027 1,033 1,034 1,038 1,042 1,042 1,051 1,046 1,040 1,038 1,040 2015 1,041 1,034 1,033 1,037 1,044 1,047 1,043 1,041 1,039 1,041 1,045 1,041 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable;

  12. Mississippi Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cubic Foot) Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Mississippi Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,013 1,013 1,014 1,014 1,015 1,018 1,018 1,021 1,022 1,025 1,020 1,020 2014 1,019 1,014 1,019 1,026 1,030 1,034 1,035 1,036 1,035 1,033 1,035 1,034 2015 1,036 1,033 1,031 1,037 1,032 1,030 1,030 1,029 1,031 1,028 1,029 1,030 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable;

  13. Missouri Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Foot) Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Missouri Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,015 1,014 1,014 1,013 1,014 1,013 1,017 1,015 1,016 1,019 1,013 1,014 2014 1,013 1,013 1,014 1,014 1,011 1,016 1,016 1,018 1,017 1,018 1,017 1,017 2015 1,017 1,020 1,025 1,026 1,024 1,026 1,026 1,026 1,026 1,025 1,024 1,023 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  14. Montana Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Foot) Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Montana Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,044 1,040 1,032 1,034 1,034 1,044 1,048 1,043 1,047 1,041 1,032 1,031 2014 1,034 1,030 1,030 1,027 1,032 1,030 1,038 1,036 1,040 1,031 1,026 1,030 2015 1,028 1,029 1,028 1,021 1,019 1,030 1,031 1,033 1,032 1,032 1,034 1,034 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  15. Maine Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Foot) Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Maine Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,037 1,032 1,027 1,032 1,028 1,031 1,033 1,030 1,031 1,037 1,032 1,029 2014 1,029 1,030 1,030 1,030 1,033 1,030 1,031 1,039 1,023 1,016 1,025 1,027 2015 1,033 1,035 1,030 1,025 1,022 1,020 1,020 1,018 1,019 1,026 1,025 1,027 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  16. Maryland Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Foot) Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Maryland Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,041 1,037 1,032 1,027 1,037 1,042 1,060 1,056 1,062 1,059 1,061 1,059 2014 1,053 1,048 1,045 1,049 1,047 1,052 1,051 1,051 1,049 1,052 1,057 1,057 2015 1,059 1,061 1,058 1,051 1,058 1,057 1,055 1,049 1,050 1,053 1,049 1,050 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  17. Massachusetts Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cubic Foot) Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Massachusetts Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,037 1,033 1,032 1,033 1,035 1,032 1,033 1,034 1,036 1,038 1,033 1,030 2014 1,035 1,032 1,031 1,030 1,030 1,031 1,030 1,029 1,029 1,028 1,029 1,028 2015 1,035 1,035 1,030 1,029 1,027 1,027 1,029 1,028 1,027 1,028 1,029 1,030 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not

  18. Michigan Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Foot) Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Michigan Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,021 1,021 1,022 1,026 1,020 1,022 1,024 1,021 1,019 1,019 1,017 1,019 2014 1,019 1,021 1,021 1,017 1,020 1,019 1,015 1,028 1,022 1,023 1,026 1,029 2015 1,027 1,026 1,030 1,035 1,028 1,033 1,034 1,035 1,036 1,034 1,041 1,040 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  19. Enabling Clean Consumption of Low Btu and Reactive Fuels in Gas Turbines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel-Flexible, Low-Emissions Catalytic Combustor for Opportunity Fuels ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE Enabling Clean Combustion of Low-Btu and Reactive Fuels in Gas Turbines By enabling ultralow-emission, lean premixed combustion of a wide range of gaseous opportunity fuels, this unique, fuel- fexible catalytic combustor for gas turbines can reduce natural gas consumption in industry. Introduction Gas turbines are commonly used in industry for onsite power and heating needs because of their high

  20. British Photovoltaic Association | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Photovoltaic Association Jump to: navigation, search Name: British Photovoltaic Association Place: Milton Keynes, United Kingdom Zip: MK5 8NG Product: Trade body for the PV...

  1. British Columbia UILO | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    UILO Jump to: navigation, search Name: British Columbia UILO Place: Canada Sector: Services Product: General Financial & Legal Services ( Academic Research foundation )...

  2. "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code(a)","Economic Characteristic(b)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Relative Standard Errors for Table 6.3;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,,"Consumption" ,,,"Consumption","per Dollar" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar","of Value" "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code(a)","Economic Characteristic(b)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)" ,,"Total United States" "

  3. British Wind Energy Association BWEA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    BWEA Jump to: navigation, search Name: British Wind Energy Association (BWEA) Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: N1 0PW Sector: Wind energy Product: The British Wind Energy...

  4. Table 2.2 Manufacturing Energy Consumption for All Purposes, 2006 (Trillion Btu )

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing Energy Consumption for All Purposes, 2006 (Trillion Btu ) NAICS 1 Code Manufacturing Group Coal Coal Coke and Breeze 2 Natural Gas Distillate Fuel Oil LPG 3 and NGL 4 Residual Fuel Oil Net Electricity 5 Other 6 Shipments of Energy Sources 7 Total 8 311 Food 147 1 638 16 3 26 251 105 (s) 1,186 312 Beverage and Tobacco Products 20 0 41 1 1 3 30 11 -0 107 313 Textile Mills 32 0 65 (s) (s) 2 66 12 -0 178 314 Textile Product Mills 3 0 46 (s) 1 Q 20 (s) -0 72 315 Apparel 0 0 7 (s) (s)

  5. British American Business | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    British American Business British American Business November 20, 2007 - 4:45pm Addthis Remarks as Prepared for Secretary Bodman Thank you. It's a pleasure to be back speaking to the members of British-American Business. I want to thank Peter Hunt for convening this event and for inviting me to be a part of it. I'm winding up a trip that began in Rome at the World Energy Conference where I and six of my fellow Energy Ministers from around the world shared our views on how to increase the world's

  6. PP-22 British Columbia Electric Company, Limited | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Limited PP-22 British Columbia Electric Company, Limited Presidential permit authorizing British Columbia Electric Company, Limited to construct, operate, and maintain electric transmission facilities at the U.S-Canadian border. PDF icon PP-22 British Columbia Electric Company, Limited More Documents & Publications PP-22 British Columbia Electric Company, Limited, Amendment 1957

  7. PP-22 British Columbia Electric Company, Limited, Amendment 1957 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Limited, Amendment 1957 PP-22 British Columbia Electric Company, Limited, Amendment 1957 Presidential permit authorizing British Columbia Electric Company, Limited to construct, operate, and maintain electric transmission facilities at the U.S-Canadian border. PDF icon PP-22 British Columbia Electric Company, Limited More Documents & Publications PP-22 British Columbia Electric Company, Limited

  8. Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

    1985-02-12

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone: this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe: swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone: this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

  9. Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

    1981-01-01

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone; this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe; swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone; this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

  10. PP-22 British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority, Amendment 1967 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Hydro and Power Authority, Amendment 1967 PP-22 British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority, Amendment 1967 Presidential permit authorizing British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority to construct, operate, and maintain electric transmision facilities at the U.S-Canadian border. PDF icon PP-22 British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority More Documents & Publications PP-22 British Columbia Electric Company, Limited, Amendment 1957 PP-22 British Columbia Electric Company,

  11. Combined compressed air storage-low BTU coal gasification power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kartsounes, George T.; Sather, Norman F.

    1979-01-01

    An electrical generating power plant includes a Compressed Air Energy Storage System (CAES) fueled with low BTU coal gas generated in a continuously operating high pressure coal gasifier system. This system is used in coordination with a continuously operating main power generating plant to store excess power generated during off-peak hours from the power generating plant, and to return the stored energy as peak power to the power generating plant when needed. The excess coal gas which is produced by the coal gasifier during off-peak hours is stored in a coal gas reservoir. During peak hours the stored coal gas is combined with the output of the coal gasifier to fuel the gas turbines and ultimately supply electrical power to the base power plant.

  12. Table 3.1 Fossil Fuel Production Prices, 1949-2011 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fossil Fuel Production Prices, 1949-2011 (Dollars per Million Btu) Year Coal 1 Natural Gas 2 Crude Oil 3 Fossil Fuel Composite 4 Nominal 5 Real 6 Nominal 5 Real 6 Nominal 5 Real 6 Nominal 5 Real 6 Percent Change 7 1949 0.21 1.45 0.05 0.37 0.44 3.02 0.26 1.81 – – 1950 .21 1.41 .06 .43 .43 2.95 [R] .26 1.74 -3.6 1951 .21 1.35 .06 .40 .44 2.78 .26 1.65 -5.4 1952 .21 1.31 [R] .07 .45 .44 2.73 .26 1.63 -1.0 1953 .21 1.29 .08 .50 .46 2.86 .27 1.69 3.3 1954 .19 1.18 .09 .55 .48 2.94 .28 1.70 .7 1955

  13. Alaska Strategic Energy Plan and Planning Handbook

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Btu British thermal unit DOE U.S. Department of Energy EERE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy kW kilowatt kWh kilowatt-hour LCOE levelized cost of energy NSEDC ...

  14. PP-22-1 British Columbia Electric Company, Limited | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 British Columbia Electric Company, Limited PP-22-1 British Columbia Electric Company, Limited Presidential permit authorizing British Columbia Electric Company, Limited to construct, operate, and maintain electric transmission facilities at the U.S-Canadian border. PDF icon PP-22-1 British Columbia Electric Company, Limited More Documents & Publications PP-22 British Columbia Electric Company, Limited PP-22 British Columbia Electric Company, Limited, Amendment 1957 PP-22-4 British Columbia

  15. Application for Presidential Permit OE Docket No. PP-369 British Columbia

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transmission Corporation and British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority | Department of Energy 69 British Columbia Transmission Corporation and British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority Application for Presidential Permit OE Docket No. PP-369 British Columbia Transmission Corporation and British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority Application from British Columbia Transmission Corporation and British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority to construct, operate, and maintain electric transmission

  16. Table 8.6a Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Total (All Sectors), 1989-2011 (Sum of Tables 8.6b and 8.6c)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Total (All Sectors), 1989-2011 (Sum of Tables 8.6b and 8.6c) Year Coal 1 Petroleum Natural Gas 6 Other Gases 7 Biomass Other 10 Distillate Fuel Oil 2 Residual Fuel Oil 3 Other Liquids 4 Petroleum Coke 5 Total 5 Wood 8 Waste 9 Short Tons Barrels Short Tons Barrels Thousand Cubic Feet Billion Btu Billion Btu Billion Btu 1989 16,509,639 1,410,151 16,356,550 353,000 247,409 19,356,746

  17. Table 8.6b Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Electric Power Sector, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.6a)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Electric Power Sector, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.6a) Year Coal 1 Petroleum Natural Gas 6 Other Gases 7 Biomass Other 10 Distillate Fuel Oil 2 Residual Fuel Oil 3 Other Liquids 4 Petroleum Coke 5 Total 5 Wood 8 Waste 9 Short Tons Barrels Short Tons Barrels Thousand Cubic Feet Billion Btu Billion Btu Billion Btu 1989 638,798 119,640 1,471,031 762 – 1,591,433 81,669,945 2,804 24,182 5,687

  18. Table 8.6c Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Commercial and Industrial Sectors, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.6a)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    c Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Commercial and Industrial Sectors, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.6a) Year Coal 1 Petroleum Natural Gas 6 Other Gases 7 Biomass Other 10 Distillate Fuel Oil 2 Residual Fuel Oil 3 Other Liquids 4 Petroleum Coke 5 Total 5 Wood 8 Waste 9 Short Tons Barrels Short Tons Barrels Thousand Cubic Feet Billion Btu Billion Btu Billion Btu Commercial Sector 11<//td> 1989 711,212 202,091 600,653 – –

  19. PP-22-4 British Columbia Transmission Corporation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presidential permit authorizing British Columbia Transmission Corporation to construct, operate, and mantain electric transmission facilities at the U.S-Canadian border.

  20. Table 2.9 Commercial Buildings Consumption by Energy Source, Selected Years, 1979-2003 (Trillion Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Commercial Buildings Consumption by Energy Source, Selected Years, 1979-2003 (Trillion Btu) Energy Source and Year Square Footage Category Principal Building Activity Census Region 1 All Buildings 1,001 to 10,000 10,001 to 100,000 Over 100,000 Education Food Sales Food Service Health Care Lodging Mercantile and Service Office All Other Northeast Midwest South West Major Sources 2 1979 1,255 2,202 1,508 511 [3] 336 469 278 894 861 1,616 1,217 1,826 1,395 526 4,965 1983 1,242 1,935 1,646 480 [3]

  1. Low-Btu coal-gasification-process design report for Combustion Engineering/Gulf States Utilities coal-gasification demonstration plant. [Natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil to natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil or low Btu gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrus, H E; Rebula, E; Thibeault, P R; Koucky, R W

    1982-06-01

    This report describes a coal gasification demonstration plant that was designed to retrofit an existing steam boiler. The design uses Combustion Engineering's air blown, atmospheric pressure, entrained flow coal gasification process to produce low-Btu gas and steam for Gulf States Utilities Nelson No. 3 boiler which is rated at a nominal 150 MW of electrical power. Following the retrofit, the boiler, originally designed to fire natural gas or No. 2 oil, will be able to achieve full load power output on natural gas, No. 2 oil, or low-Btu gas. The gasifier and the boiler are integrated, in that the steam generated in the gasifier is combined with steam from the boiler to produce full load. The original contract called for a complete process and mechanical design of the gasification plant. However, the contract was curtailed after the process design was completed, but before the mechanical design was started. Based on the well defined process, but limited mechanical design, a preliminary cost estimate for the installation was completed.

  2. "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code(a)","Economic Characteristic(b)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Relative Standard Errors for Table 6.4;" " Unit: Percents." " "," ",,,"Consumption" " "," ",,"Consumption","per Dollar" " "," ","Consumption","per Dollar","of Value" "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code(a)","Economic Characteristic(b)","(million Btu)","(thousand

  3. Word Pro - A

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Thermal Conversion Factor Source Documentation Approximate Heat Content of Petro- leum and Natural Gas Plant Liquids Asphalt. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) adopted the thermal conversion factor of 6.636 million British thermal units (Btu) per barrel as estimated by the Bureau of Mines and first published in the Petro- leum Statement, Annual, 1956. Aviation Gasoline Blending Components. Assumed by EIA to be 5.048 million Btu per barrel or equal to the thermal conversion factor

  4. Table 3.3 Consumer Price Estimates for Energy by Source, 1970-2010 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumer Price Estimates for Energy by Source, 1970-2010 (Dollars 1 per Million Btu) Year Primary Energy 2 Electric Power Sector 11,12 Retail Electricity 13 Total Energy 9,10,14 Coal Natural Gas 3 Petroleum Nuclear Fuel Biomass 8 Total 9,10 Distillate Fuel Oil Jet Fuel 4 LPG 5 Motor Gasoline 6 Residual Fuel Oil Other 7 Total 1970 0.38 0.59 1.16 0.73 1.43 2.85 0.42 1.38 1.71 0.18 1.29 1.08 0.32 4.98 1.65 1971 .42 .63 1.22 .77 1.46 2.90 .58 1.45 1.78 .18 1.31 1.15 .38 5.30 1.76 1972 .45 .68 1.22

  5. Industrial co-generation through use of a medium BTU gas from biomass produced in a high throughput reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldmann, H.F.; Ball, D.A.; Paisley, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    A high-throughput gasification system has been developed for the steam gasification of woody biomass to produce a fuel gas with a heating value of 475 to 500 Btu/SCF without using oxygen. Recent developments have focused on the use of bark and sawdust as feedstocks in addition to wood chips and the testing of a new reactor concept, the so-called controlled turbulent zone (CTZ) reactor to increase gas production per unit of wood fed. Operating data from the original gasification system and the CTZ system are used to examine the preliminary economics of biomass gasification/gas turbine cogeneration systems. In addition, a ''generic'' pressurized oxygen-blown gasification system is evaluated. The economics of these gasification systems are compared with a conventional wood boiler/steam turbine cogeneration system.

  6. COMPCOAL{trademark}: A profitable process for production of a stable high-Btu fuel from Powder River Basin coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, V.E.; Merriam, N.W.

    1994-10-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI) is developing a process to produce a stable, clean-burning, premium fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and other low-rank coals. This process is designed to overcome the problems of spontaneous combustion, dust formation, and readsorption of moisture that are experienced with PRB coal and with processed PRB coal. This process, called COMPCOAL{trademark}, results in high-Btu product that is intended for burning in boilers designed for midwestern coals or for blending with other coals. In the COMPCOAL process, sized coal is dried to zero moisture content and additional oxygen is removed from the coal by partial decarboxylation as the coal is contacted by a stream of hot fluidizing gas in the dryer. The hot, dried coal particles flow into the pyrolyzer where they are contacted by a very small flow of air. The oxygen in the air reacts with active sites on the surface of the coal particles causing the temperature of the coal to be raised to about 700{degrees}F (371{degrees}C) and oxidizing the most reactive sites on the particles. This ``instant aging`` contributes to the stability of the product while only reducing the heating value of the product by about 50 Btu/lb. Less than 1 scf of air per pound of dried coal is used to avoid removing any of the condensible liquid or vapors from the coal particles. The pyrolyzed coal particles are mixed with fines from the dryer cyclone and dust filter and the resulting mixture at about 600{degrees}F (316{degrees}C) is fed into a briquettor. Briquettes are cooled to about 250{degrees}F (121{degrees}C) by contact with a mist of water in a gas-tight mixing conveyor. The cooled briquettes are transferred to a storage bin where they are accumulated for shipment.

  7. Word Pro - Untitled1

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Approximate Heat Content of Petroleum and Natural Gas Plant Liquids Asphalt. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) adopted the thermal conversion factor of 6.636 million British thermal units (Btu) per barrel as estimated by the Bureau of Mines and first published in the Petroleum Statement, Annual, 1956. Aviation Gasoline. EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor of 5.048 million Btu per barrel as adopted by the Bureau of Mines from the Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation

  8. PP-369 British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9 British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority PP-369 British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority Presidential Permit authorizing British Columbia and Power Authority to construct, operate and maintain electric transmission facilities at the U.S. - Canada Border. PDF icon PP-369 BC Hydro.pdf More Documents & Publications Application for Presidential Permit OE Docket No. PP-369 British Columbia Transmission Corporation and British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority PP-54 Ontario Hydro Electric

  9. Low NO{sub x} turbine power generation utilizing low Btu GOB gas. Final report, June--August 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.V.; Gabrielson, J.; Glickert, R.

    1995-08-01

    Methane, a potent greenhouse gas, is second only to carbon dioxide as a contributor to potential global warming. Methane liberated by coal mines represents one of the most promising under exploited areas for profitably reducing these methane emissions. Furthermore, there is a need for apparatus and processes that reduce the nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from gas turbines in power generation. Consequently, this project aims to demonstrate a technology which utilizes low grade fuel (CMM) in a combustion air stream to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in the operation of a gas turbine. This technology is superior to other existing technologies because it can directly use the varying methane content gases from various streams of the mining operation. The simplicity of the process makes it useful for both new gas turbines and retrofitting existing gas turbines. This report evaluates the feasibility of using gob gas from the 11,000 acre abandoned Gateway Mine near Waynesburg, Pennsylvania as a fuel source for power generation applying low NO{sub x} gas turbine technology at a site which is currently capable of producing low grade GOB gas ({approx_equal} 600 BTU) from abandoned GOB areas.

  10. Philadelphia gas works medium-Btu coal gasification project: capital and operating cost estimate, financial/legal analysis, project implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    This volume of the final report is a compilation of the estimated capital and operating costs for the project. Using the definitive design as a basis, capital and operating costs were developed by obtaining quotations for equipment delivered to the site. Tables 1.1 and 1.2 provide a summary of the capital and operating costs estimated for the PGW Coal Gasification Project. In the course of its Phase I Feasibility Study of a medium-Btu coal-gas facility, Philadelphia Gas Works (PGW) identified the financing mechanism as having great impact on gas cost. Consequently, PGW formed a Financial/Legal Task Force composed of legal, financial, and project analysis specialists to study various ownership/management options. In seeking an acceptable ownership, management, and financing arrangement, certain ownership forms were initially identified and classified. Several public ownership, private ownership, and third party ownership options for the coal-gas plant are presented. The ownership and financing forms classified as base alternatives involved tax-exempt and taxable financing arrangements and are discussed in Section 3. Project implementation would be initiated by effectively planning the methodology by which commercial operation will be realized. Areas covered in this report are sale of gas to customers, arrangements for feedstock supply and by-product disposal, a schedule of major events leading to commercialization, and a plan for managing the implementation.

  11. Low/medium Btu coal gasification assessment of central plant for the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the technical and economic feasibility of producing, distributing, selling, and using fuel gas for industrial applications in Philadelphia. The primary driving force for the assessment is the fact that oil users are encountering rapidly escalating fuel costs, and are uncertain about the future availability of low sulfur fuel oil. The situation is also complicated by legislation aimed at reducing oil consumption and by difficulties in assuring a long term supply of natural gas. Early in the gasifier selection study it was decided that the level of risk associated with the gasification process sould be minimal. It was therefore determined that the process should be selected from those commercially proven. The following processes were considered: Lurgi, KT, Winkler, and Wellman-Galusha. From past experience and a knowledge of the characteristics of each gasifier, a list of advantages and disadvantages of each process was formulated. It was concluded that a medium Btu KT gas can be manufactured and distributed at a lower average price than the conservatively projected average price of No. 6 oil, provided that the plant is operated as a base load producer of gas. The methodology used is described, assumptions are detailed and recommendations are made. (LTN)

  12. Table 2.4 Household Energy Consumption by Census Region, Selected Years, 1978-2009 (Quadrillion Btu, Except as Noted)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Household 1 Energy Consumption by Census Region, Selected Years, 1978-2009 (Quadrillion Btu, Except as Noted) Census Region 2 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1984 1987 1990 1993 1997 2001 2005 2009 United States Total (does not include wood) 10.56 9.74 9.32 9.29 8.58 9.04 9.13 9.22 10.01 10.25 9.86 10.55 10.18 Natural Gas 5.58 5.31 4.97 5.27 4.74 4.98 4.83 4.86 5.27 5.28 4.84 4.79 4.69 Electricity 3 2.47 2.42 2.48 2.42 2.35 2.48 2.76 3.03 3.28 3.54 3.89 4.35 4.39 Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene 2.19

  13. CSV File Documentation: Consumption

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Consumption Estimates The State Energy Data System (SEDS) comma-separated value (CSV) files contain consumption estimates shown in the tables located on the SEDS website. There are four files that contain estimates for all states and years. Consumption in Physical Units contains the consumption estimates in physical units for all states; Consumption in Btu contains the consumption estimates in billion British thermal units (Btu) for all states. There are two data files for thermal conversion

  14. System and process for the abatement of casting pollution, reclaiming resin bonded sand, and/or recovering a low BTU fuel from castings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scheffer, Karl D. (121 Governor Dr., Scotia, NY 12302)

    1984-07-03

    Air is caused to flow through the resin bonded mold to aid combustion of the resin binder to form a low BTU gas fuel. Casting heat is recovered for use in a waste heat boiler or other heat abstraction equipment. Foundry air pollution is reduced, the burned portion of the molding sand is recovered for immediate reuse and savings in fuel and other energy is achieved.

  15. System and process for the abatement of casting pollution, reclaiming resin bonded sand, and/or recovering a low Btu fuel from castings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scheffer, K.D.

    1984-07-03

    Air is caused to flow through the resin bonded mold to aid combustion of the resin binder to form a low Btu gas fuel. Casting heat is recovered for use in a waste heat boiler or other heat abstraction equipment. Foundry air pollutis reduced, the burned portion of the molding sand is recovered for immediate reuse and savings in fuel and other energy is achieved. 5 figs.

  16. EA-145-A British Columbia Power Exchange Corporation | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    A British Columbia Power Exchange Corporation EA-145-A British Columbia Power Exchange Corporation Order authorizing British Columbia Power Exchange Corporation to export electric energy to Mexico. PDF icon EA-145-A British Columbia Power Exchange Corporation More Documents & Publications EA-184 Morgan Stanley Capital Group Inc. EA-171-A Powerex EA-167 PG&E Energy Trading-Power, L.P

  17. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Supplemental Supplies Definitions Key Terms Definition Biomass Gas A medium Btu gas containing methane and carbon dioxide, resulting from the action of microorganisms on organic materials such as a landfill. Blast-furnace Gas The waste combustible gas generated in a blast furnace when iron ore is being reduced with coke to metallic iron. It is commonly used as a fuel within steel works. British Thermal Unit (Btu) The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of liquid water

  18. Application to Amend Presidential Permit OE Docket No. PP-022-4 British

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Columbia Transmission Corporation: Federal Register Notice Volume 72, No. 78 - Apr. 24, 2007 | Department of Energy Amend Presidential Permit OE Docket No. PP-022-4 British Columbia Transmission Corporation: Federal Register Notice Volume 72, No. 78 - Apr. 24, 2007 Application to Amend Presidential Permit OE Docket No. PP-022-4 British Columbia Transmission Corporation: Federal Register Notice Volume 72, No. 78 - Apr. 24, 2007 Application from British Columbia Transmission Corporation to

  19. Three Pacific Coast States Join British Columbia to Combat Climate Change

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia signed a regional agreement to strategically align policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and promote clean energy.

  20. Graduate students from two British universities install a critical new

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    diagnostic on NSTX-U | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Graduate students from two British universities install a critical new diagnostic on NSTX-U By John Greenwald December 21, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook David Thomas and Jakob Brunner (Photo by Elle Starkman/Office of Communications) David Thomas and Jakob Brunner Gallery: From left: Jakob Brunner and David Thomas, with advisor Prof. Roddy Vann of the University of York on the screen in the center. (Photo by Elle

  1. Graduate students from two British universities install a critical new

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    diagnostic on NSTX-U | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Graduate students from two British universities install a critical new diagnostic on NSTX-U By John Greenwald December 21, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook David Thomas and Jakob Brunner (Photo by Elle Starkman/Office of Communications) David Thomas and Jakob Brunner Gallery: From left: Jakob Brunner and David Thomas, with advisor Prof. Roddy Vann of the University of York on the screen in the center. (Photo by Elle

  2. Table 1.13 U.S. Government Energy Consumption by Agency and Source, Fiscal Years 2003, 2010, and 2011 (Trillion Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 U.S. Government Energy Consumption by Agency and Source, Fiscal Years 2003, 2010, and 2011 (Trillion Btu) Resource and Fiscal Years Agriculture Defense Energy GSA 1 HHS 2 Interior Justice NASA 3 Postal Service Trans- portation Veterans Affairs Other 4 Total Coal 2003 (s) 15.4 2.0 0.0 (s) (s) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 17.7 2010 (s) 15.5 4.5 .0 0.0 0.0 .0 .0 (s) .0 .1 .0 20.1 2011 P 0.0 14.3 4.2 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 (s) .0 .1 .0 18.6 Natural Gas 5 2003 1.4 76.6 7.0 7.6 3.7 1.3 8.6 2.9 10.4 .7 15.6 4.2

  3. Table 3.4 Consumer Price Estimates for Energy by End-Use Sector, 1970-2010 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumer Price Estimates for Energy by End-Use Sector, 1970-2010 (Dollars 1 per Million Btu) Year Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Natural Gas 2 Petroleum Retail Electricity 3 Total 4 Natural Gas 2 Petroleum 5 Retail Electricity 3 Total 6,7 Coal Natural Gas 2 Petroleum 5 Biomass 8 Retail Electricity 3 Total 7,9 Petroleum 5 Total 7,10 1970 1.06 1.54 6.51 2.10 0.75 0.90 [R] 6.09 1.97 0.45 0.38 0.98 1.59 2.99 0.84 2.31 2.31 1971 1.12 1.59 6.80 2.24 .80 1.02 6.44 2.15 .50 .41 1.05

  4. Commercial low-Btu coal-gasification plant. Feasibility study: General Refractories Company, Florence, Kentucky. Volume I. Project summary. [Wellman-Galusha

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-11-01

    In response to a 1980 Department of Energy solicitation, the General Refractories Company submitted a Proposal for a feasibility study of a low Btu gasification facility for its Florence, KY plant. The proposed facility would substitute low Btu gas from a fixed bed gasifier for natural gas now used in the manufacture of insulation board. The Proposal from General Refractories was prompted by a concern over the rising costs of natural gas, and the anticipation of a severe increase in fuel costs resulting from deregulation. The proposed feasibility study is defined. The intent is to provide General Refractories with the basis upon which to determine the feasibility of incorporating such a facility in Florence. To perform the work, a Grant for which was awarded by the DOE, General Refractories selected Dravo Engineers and Contractors based upon their qualifications in the field of coal conversion, and the fact that Dravo has acquired the rights to the Wellman-Galusha technology. The LBG prices for the five-gasifier case are encouraging. Given the various natural gas forecasts available, there seems to be a reasonable possibility that the five-gasifier LBG prices will break even with natural gas prices somewhere between 1984 and 1989. General Refractories recognizes that there are many uncertainties in developing these natural gas forecasts, and if the present natural gas decontrol plan is not fully implemented some financial risks occur in undertaking the proposed gasification facility. Because of this, General Refractories has decided to wait for more substantiating evidence that natural gas prices will rise as is now being predicted.

  5. UPGRADING METHANE USING ULTRA-FAST THERMAL SWING ADSORPTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anna Lee Tonkovich

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to design and demonstrate an approach to upgrade low-BTU methane streams from coal mines to pipeline-quality natural gas. The objective of Phase I of the project was to assess the feasibility of upgrading low-Btu methane streams using ultra-fast thermal swing adsorption (TSA) using Velocys' modular microchannel process technology. The project is on schedule and under budget. For Task 1.1, the open literature, patent information, and vendor contacts were surveyed to identify adsorbent candidates for experimental validation and subsequent demonstration in an MPT-based ultra-fast TSA separation for methane upgrading. The leading candidates for preferential adsorption of methane over nitrogen are highly microporous carbons. A Molecular Gate{trademark} zeolite from Engelhard Corporation has emerged as a candidate. For Task 1.2, experimental evaluation of adsorbents was initiated, and data were collected on carbon (MGN-101) from PICA, Inc. This carbon demonstrated a preferential capacity for methane over nitrogen, as well as a reasonable thermal swing differential capacity for a 90% methane and 10% nitrogen mixture. A similar methane swing capacity at 2 psig was measured. The mixture composition is relevant because gob gas contains nearly 85% methane and must be purified to 97% methane for pipeline quality.

  6. Freescale Semiconductor Successfully Implements an Energy Management System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This case study describes how Freescale Semiconductor implemented projects at its Oak Hill Fab plant in Austin, Texas, that reduced annual plant-wide energy consumption by 28 million kilowatt hours (kWh) of electricity and 26,000 million British thermal units (Btu) of natural gas between 2006 and 2009, saving more than $2 million each year.

  7. International Energy Annual, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-14

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules.

  8. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - British Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the British Virgin Islands (BVI), one of three sets of the Virgin Island territories in an archipelago making up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles.

  9. Recent developments in blast furnace process control within British Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, P.W.

    1995-12-01

    British Steel generally operates seven blast furnaces on four integrated works. All furnaces have been equipped with comprehensive instrumentation and data logging computers over the past eight years. The four Scunthorpe furnaces practice coal injection up to 170 kg/tHM (340 lb/THM), the remainder injecting oil at up to 100 kg/tHM (200 lb/THM). Distribution control is effected by Paul Wurth Bell-Less Tops on six of the seven furnaces, and Movable Throat Armour with bells on the remaining one. All have at least one sub burden probe. The blast furnace operator has a vast quantity of data and signals to consider and evaluate when attempting to achieve the objective of providing a consistent supply of hot metal. Techniques have been, and are being, developed to assist the operator to interpret large numbers of signals. A simple operator guidance system has been developed to provide advice, based on current operating procedures and interpreted data. Further development will involve the use of a sophisticated Expert System software shell.

  10. Microsoft Word - TECO Final EA for concurrence 7-19-10-1.doc

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    THE THERMAL ENERGY CORPORATION COMBINED HEAT AND POWER PROJECT, HOUSTON, TEXAS U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory July 2010 DOE/EA-1740 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE THERMAL ENERGY CORPORATION COMBINED HEAT AND POWER PROJECT, HOUSTON, TEXAS U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory July 2010 DOE/EA-1740 ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS Recovery Act American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) Btu British thermal units CFR

  11. Microsoft Word - TECO Final EA for concurrence 7-19-10-1.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    THE THERMAL ENERGY CORPORATION COMBINED HEAT AND POWER PROJECT, HOUSTON, TEXAS U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory July 2010 DOE/EA-1740 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE THERMAL ENERGY CORPORATION COMBINED HEAT AND POWER PROJECT, HOUSTON, TEXAS U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory July 2010 DOE/EA-1740 ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS Recovery Act American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) Btu British thermal units CFR

  12. BTU LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Small start-up with breakthrough technology seeking funding to prove commercial feasibility Coordinates: 45.425788, -122.765754 Show Map Loading map......

  13. U.S. Energy Information Administration | State Energy Data 2013: Consumption

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    21 Characters 1 through 4 are explained in the description of each variable. Character 5 is one of the following: B = Data in British thermal units (Btu) K = Factor for converting data from physical units to Btu M = Data in alternative physical units P = Data in standardized physical units S = Share or ratio expressed as a fraction V = Value, such as value of shipments Associated with or attached to the variable names are two-letter U.S. Postal Service codes for the 50 states and the District of

  14. Optimization of ferrous burden high temperature properties to meet blast furnace requirements in British Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergstrand, R.

    1996-12-31

    The high temperature properties of ferrous burden materials have long been an important consideration in the operation of British Steel blast furnaces. Previous research presented at this conference has shown that the behavior of materials in the lower stack and bosh can have a significant effect on furnace permeability and stability of operation. However, with increasing levels of hydrocarbon injection via the tuyeres, the reduction conditions inside British Steel blast furnaces have significantly altered over recent years. This paper focuses on the further work that has been undertaken to study the effect on ferrous burden high temperatures properties of the widely differing reduction regimes which can be experienced in today`s blast furnaces. The implications of the findings, and how they have been used in optimizing blast furnace operation and burden quality, are discussed.

  15. Alaska Strategic Energy Plan and Planning Handbook

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AEA Alaska Energy Authority Btu British thermal unit DOE U.S. Department of Energy EERE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy kW kilowatt kWh kilowatt-hour LCOE levelized cost of energy NSEDC Norton Sound Economic Development Corporation NREL National Renewable Energy Laboratory REAP Rural Energy for America Program START Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team SWOT strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture VAGP Value-Added Grant Program

  16. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed Definitions Key Terms Definition British Thermal Unit (Btu) The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of liquid water by 1 degree Fahrenheit at the temperature at which water has its greatest density (approximately 39 degrees Fahrenheit). Delivered to Consumers (Heat Content) Heat content of residential, commercial, industrial, vehicle fuel and electric power deliveries to consumers. Electric Power (Heat Content) Heat content of

  17. New Jersey Industrial Energy Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Jersey Industrial Energy Program New Jersey Industrial Energy Program Map highlighting New Jersey New Jersey is home to energy-intensive industrial manufacturing sectors such as chemicals, computers and electronics, and transportation equipment manufacturing. In 2007, industrial manufacturing in the state contributed to approximately 10% of New Jersey's gross domestic product and 20% of the state's energy usage, consuming 452.1 trillion British thermal units (Btu). As part of an initiative to

  18. Federal Comprehensive Annual Energy Performance Data | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Reporting & Data » Facilities » Federal Comprehensive Annual Energy Performance Data Federal Comprehensive Annual Energy Performance Data In fiscal year (FY) 2014, federal agencies reported energy use to the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) that totals 0.94 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) or "quads" of delivered energy across the three energy sectors: Buildings that are subject to statutory energy-reduction requirements Buildings that are excluded from the

  19. Wisconsin Save Energy Now Program | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Map of Midwest U.S. with Wisconsin highlighted Among Wisconsin's economic sectors, the industrial sector represents the highest level of energy consumption. In 2007, this sector consumed approximately 623.5 trillion British thermal units (Btu). Wisconsin's industrial sector includes energy-intensive industries, such as food processing, chemical manufacturing, plastics, and forest products. The Wisconsin Office of Energy Independence, along with its project partners, expanded the Wisconsin Save

  20. Accounting for social impacts and costs in the forest industry, British Columbia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gale, Robert . E-mail: rgale@web.net; Gale, Fred . E-mail: fred.gale@utas.edu.au

    2006-03-15

    Business reviews of the forest industry in British Colombia, Canada, typically portray an unequivocally positive picture of its financial and economic health. In doing so, they fail to consider the following six categories of social impacts and costs: (1) direct and indirect subsidies; (2) government support through investment; (3) community dependence; (4) the maintenance of public order; (5) aboriginal title; and (6) the overestimation of employment. Our findings show that conventional economic and financial accounting methods inflate the industry's net contribution to the economy. We make a number of recommendations to address this shortcoming to improve future accounting and reporting procedures.

  1. Effects of thermal fluctuations on thermal inflation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiramatsu, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yuhei; Yokoyama, Jun’ichi

    2015-03-12

    The mechanism of thermal inflation, a relatively short period of accelerated expansion after primordial inflation, is a desirable ingredient for a certain class of particle physics models if they are not to be in contention with the cosmology of the early Universe. Though thermal inflation is most simply described in terms of a thermal effective potential, a thermal environment also gives rise to thermal fluctuations that must be taken into account. We numerically study the effects of these thermal fluctuations using lattice simulations. We conclude that though they do not ruin the thermal inflation scenario, the phase transition at the end of thermal inflation proceeds through phase mixing and is therefore not accompanied by the formations of bubbles nor appreciable amplitude of gravitational waves.

  2. High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production This ...

  3. Thermal Control & System Integration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The thermal control and system integration activity focuses on issues such as the integration of motor and power control technologies and the development of advanced thermal control technologies....

  4. SolarOil Project, Phase I preliminary design report. [Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baccaglini, G.; Bass, J.; Neill, J.; Nicolayeff, V.; Openshaw, F.

    1980-03-01

    The preliminary design of the Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery (SolarOil) Plant is described in this document. This plant is designed to demonstrate that using solar thermal energy is technically feasible and economically viable in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The SolarOil Plant uses the fixed mirror solar concentrator (FMSC) to heat high thermal capacity oil (MCS-2046) to 322/sup 0/C (611/sup 0/F). The hot fluid is pumped from a hot oil storage tank (20 min capacity) through a once-through steam generator which produces 4.8 MPa (700 psi) steam at 80% quality. The plant net output, averaged over 24 hr/day for 365 days/yr, is equivalent to that of a 2.4 MW (8.33 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr) oil-fired steam generator having an 86% availability. The net plant efficiency is 57.3% at equinox noon, a 30%/yr average. The plant will be demonstrated at an oilfield site near Oildale, California.

  5. Thicknesses, densities, and calculated thermal resistances for loose-fill rock wool installed in two attic sections of a manufactured house

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graves, R.S.; Yarbrough, D.W.

    1986-02-01

    The effect of vibrations due to manufacturing and transport on the thickness, density, and calculated thermal resistance (R-value) of loose-fill rock wool insulation installed in two manufactured home units has been determined. Thickness and density measurements on blown attic insulation were made after installation, at the end of the manufacturing process, and after the units were towed 265 miles. These measurements were used to calculate R-values for the attic insulation. The end sections of the two units showed an overall insulation thickness decrease of about 16% and an average R-value change from 31.2 to 28.8 ft/sup 2/ x h x /sup 0/F/Btu. An estimated R-value greater than 30 ft/sup 2/ x h x /sup 0/F/Btu resulted from averaging the end and middle sections of the two units. The effect of reduced thickness along the edges of the attic space was not included in the estimate.

  6. Catalytic reactor for low-Btu fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Lance (North Haven, CT); Etemad, Shahrokh (Trumbull, CT); Karim, Hasan (Simpsonville, SC); Pfefferle, William C. (Madison, CT)

    2009-04-21

    An improved catalytic reactor includes a housing having a plate positioned therein defining a first zone and a second zone, and a plurality of conduits fabricated from a heat conducting material and adapted for conducting a fluid therethrough. The conduits are positioned within the housing such that the conduit exterior surfaces and the housing interior surface within the second zone define a first flow path while the conduit interior surfaces define a second flow path through the second zone and not in fluid communication with the first flow path. The conduit exits define a second flow path exit, the conduit exits and the first flow path exit being proximately located and interspersed. The conduits define at least one expanded section that contacts adjacent conduits thereby spacing the conduits within the second zone and forming first flow path exit flow orifices having an aggregate exit area greater than a defined percent of the housing exit plane area. Lastly, at least a portion of the first flow path defines a catalytically active surface.

  7. Condensing economizers for thermal efficiency improvements and emissions control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heaphy, J.P.; Carbonara, J.; Litzke, W.; Butcher, T.A.

    1993-12-31

    Flue gas condensing economizers improve the thermal efficiency of boilers by recovering sensible heat and water vapor latent heat from flue gas exhaust. In addition to improving thermal efficiency, condensing economizers also have the potential to act as control devices for emissions of particulates, SO{sub x}, and air toxics. Both Consolidated Edison of New York and Brookhaven National LaborAtory are currently working on condensing economizer technology with an emphasis on developing their potential for emissions control. Con Edison is currently conducting a condensing economizer demonstration at their oil-fired 74th Street Station in New York. Since installing this equipment in February of 1992 a heat rate improvement of 800 Btu/kWh has been seen. At another location, Ravenswood Station, a two stage condensing economizer has been installed in a pilot test. In this advanced configuration -the ``Integrated Flue Gas Treatment or IFGT system- two heat exchanger sections are installed and sprays of water with and without SO{sub 2} sorbents are included. Detailed studies of the removal of particulates, SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, and selected air toxics have been done for a variety of operating conditions. Removal efficiencies for SO{sub 2} have been over 98% and for SO{sub 3} over 65%. Brookhaven National Laboratory`s studies involve predicting and enhancing particulate capture in condensing economizers with an emphasis on small, coal-fired applications. This work is funded by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the Department of Energy. Flyash capture efficiencies as high as 97% have been achieved to date with a single stage economizer.

  8. HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-Es HEATS program, short for High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage, seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

  9. Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutberg, Michael; Hastbacka, Mildred; Cooperman, Alissa; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-06-05

    The article discusses thermal energy storage technologies. This article addresses benefits of TES at both the building site and the electricity generation source. The energy savings and market potential of thermal energy store are reviewed as well.

  10. Thermal Performance Benchmarking (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreno, G.

    2014-11-01

    This project will benchmark the thermal characteristics of automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Recent vehicle systems will be benchmarked to establish baseline metrics, evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management systems, and identify areas of improvement to advance the state-of-the-art.

  11. Thermal neutron detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peurrung, Anthony J. (Richland, WA); Stromswold, David C. (West Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01

    According to the present invention, a system for measuring a thermal neutron emission from a neutron source, has a reflector/moderator proximate the neutron source that reflects and moderates neutrons from the neutron source. The reflector/moderator further directs thermal neutrons toward an unmoderated thermal neutron detector.

  12. Thermal Effusivity Tomography from Pulsed Thermal Imaging

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-12-01

    The software program generates 3D volume distribution of thermal effusivity within a test material from one-sided pulsed thermal imaging data. Thsi is the first software capable of accurate, fast and automated thermal tomographic imaging of inhomogeneous materials to produce 3D images similar to those obtained from 3D X-ray CT (all previous thermal-imaging software can only produce 2D results). Because thermal effusivity is an intrisic material property that is related to material constituent, density, conductivity, etc.,more » quantitative imaging of effusivity allowed direct visualization of material's internal constituent/structure and damage distributions, thereby potentially leading to quantitative prediction of other material properties such as strength. I can be therefre be used for 3D imaging of material structure in fundamental material studies, nondestructive characterization of defects/flaws in structural engineering components, health monitoring of material damage and degradation during service, and medical imaging and diagnostics. This technology is one-sided, non contact and sensitive to material's thermal property and discontinuity. One major advantage of this tomographic technology over x-ray CT and ultrasounds is its natural efficiency for 3D imaging of the volume under a large surface area. This software is implemented with a method for thermal computed tomography of thermal effusivity from one-sided pulsed thermal imaging (or thermography) data. The method is based on several solutions of the governing heat transfer equation under pulsed thermography test condition. In particular, it consists of three components. 1) It utilized the thermal effusivity as the imaging parameter to construct the 3D image. 2) It established a relationship between the space (depth) and the time, because thermography data are in the time domain. 3) It incorporated a deconvolution algorithm to solve the depth porfile of the material thermal effusivity from the measured (temporal) surface temperature data. The predicted effusivity is a direct function of depth, not an average or convolved parameter, so it is an accurate (and more sensitive) representation of local property along depth.« less

  13. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Anand A. (Orlando, FL); Campbell, Christian X. (Orlando, FL); Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL)

    2009-06-02

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  14. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    sunshot DOEGO-102012-3669 * September 2012 MOTIVATION All thermal concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use solar tracking, which involves moving large mirror surfaces...

  15. Battery Thermal Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saxon, Aron; Powell, Mitchell; Shi, Ying

    2015-06-09

    This presentation provides an update of NREL's battery thermal characterization efforts for the 2015 U.S. Department of Energy Annual Merit Reviews.

  16. Sandia Thermal Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-11-23

    Thermal analysis in 1-D planar, cylindrical and spherical geometries using control volume finite element spatial discretization with 1st and 2nd order implicit time integrators.

  17. British Society of Interventional Radiology (BSIR) Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) Filter Registry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uberoi, Raman Tapping, Charles Ross; Chalmers, Nicholas; Allgar, Victoria

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: The British Society of Interventional Radiology (BSIR) Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) Filter Registry was produced to provide an audit of current United Kingdom (UK) practice regarding placement and retrieval of IVC filters to address concerns regarding their safety. Methods: The IVC filter registry is a web-based registry, launched by the BSIR on behalf of its membership in October 2007. This report is based on prospectively collected data from October 2007 to March 2011. This report contains analysis of data on 1,434 IVC filter placements and 400 attempted retrievals performed at 68 UK centers. Data collected included patient demographics, insertion and retrieval data, and patient follow-up. Results: IVC filter use in the majority of patients in the UK follows accepted CIRSE guidelines. Filter placement is usually a low-risk procedure, with a low major complication rate (<0.5 %). Cook Gunther Tulip (560 filters: 39 %) and Celect (359 filters: 25 %) filters constituted the majority of IVC filters inserted, with Bard G2, Recovery filters, Cordis Trapease, and OptEase constituting most of the remainder (445 filters: 31 %). More than 96 % of IVC filters deployed as intended. Operator inexperience (<25 procedure) was significantly associated with complications (p < 0.001). Of the IVC filters initially intended for temporary placement, retrieval was attempted in 78 %. Of these retrieval was technically successful in 83 %. Successful retrieval was significantly reduced for implants left in situ for >9 weeks versus those with a shorter dwell time. New lower limb deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and/or IVC thrombosis was reported in 88 patients following filter placement, there was no significant difference of incidence between filter types. Conclusions: This registry report provides interventional radiologists and clinicians with an improved understanding of the technical aspects of IVC filter placement to help improve practice, and the potential consequences of IVC filter placement so that we are better able to advise patients. There is a significant learning curve associated with IVC filter insertion, and when a filter is placed with the intention of removal, procedures should be in place to avoid the patient being lost to follow-up.

  18. Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Malecha, Richard F. (Naperville, IL); Chilenskas, Albert A. (Chicago, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communcation with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket.

  19. Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Chilenskas, A.A.

    1994-09-20

    A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device is disclosed. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communication with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket. 10 figs.

  20. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, G.A.; Elder, M.G.; Kemme, J.E.

    1984-03-20

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for thermally protecting sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components such as electronics to a heat sink such as ice.

  1. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Elder, Michael G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kemme, Joseph E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus which thermally protects sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components to a heat sink such as ice.

  2. Tunable thermal link

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Majumdar, Arunava; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2014-07-15

    Disclosed is a device whereby the thermal conductance of a multiwalled nanostructure such as a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) can be controllably and reversibly tuned by sliding one or more outer shells with respect to the inner core. As one example, the thermal conductance of an MWCNT dropped to 15% of the original value after extending the length of the MWCNT by 190 nm. The thermal conductivity returned when the tube was contracted. The device may comprise numbers of multiwalled nanotubes or other graphitic layers connected to a heat source and a heat drain and various means for tuning the overall thermal conductance for applications in structure heat management, heat flow in nanoscale or microscale devices and thermal logic devices.

  3. Thermal treatment wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Newmark, Robin L. (Livermore, CA); Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.

  4. Solar thermal aircraft

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  5. Thermally-related safety issues associated with thermal batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, Ronald Armand

    2006-06-01

    Thermal batteries can experience thermal runaway under certain usage conditions. This can lead to safety issues for personnel and cause damage to associated test equipment if the battery thermally self destructs. This report discusses a number of thermal and design related issues that can lead to catastrophic destruction of thermal batteries under certain conditions. Contributing factors are identified and mitigating actions are presented to minimize or prevent undesirable thermal runaway.

  6. Windows technology assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baron, J.J.

    1995-10-01

    This assessment estimates that energy loss through windows is approximately 15 percent of all the energy used for space heating and cooling in residential and commercial buildings in New York State. The rule of thumb for the nation as a whole is about 25 percent. The difference may reflect a traditional assumption of single-pane windows while this assessment analyzed installed window types in the region. Based on the often-quoted assumption, in the United States some 3.5 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) of primary energy, costing some $20 billion, is annually consumed as a result of energy lost through windows. According to this assessment, in New York State, the energy lost due to heat loss through windows is approximately 80 trillion Btu at an annual cost of approximately $1 billion.

  7. Multilayer thermal barrier coating systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Sloan, Kelly M. (Longwood, FL)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention generally describes multilayer thermal barrier coating systems and methods of making the multilayer thermal barrier coating systems. The thermal barrier coating systems comprise a first ceramic layer, a second ceramic layer, a thermally grown oxide layer, a metallic bond coating layer and a substrate. The thermal barrier coating systems have improved high temperature thermal and chemical stability for use in gas turbine applications.

  8. Thermal Properties Measurement Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmack, Jon; Braase, Lori; Papesch, Cynthia; Hurley, David; Tonks, Michael; Zhang, Yongfeng; Gofryk, Krzysztof; Harp, Jason; Fielding, Randy; Knight, Collin; Meyer, Mitch

    2015-08-01

    The Thermal Properties Measurement Report summarizes the research, development, installation, and initial use of significant experimental thermal property characterization capabilities at the INL in FY 2015. These new capabilities were used to characterize a U3Si2 (candidate Accident Tolerant) fuel sample fabricated at the INL. The ability to perform measurements at various length scales are important and provide additional data that is not currently in the literature. However, the real value of the data will be in accomplishing a phenomenological understanding of the thermal conductivity in fuels and the ties to predictive modeling. Thus, the MARMOT advanced modeling and simulation capability was utilized to illustrate how the microstructural data can be modeled and compared with bulk characterization data. A scientific method was established for thermal property measurement capability on irradiated nuclear fuel samples, which will be installed in the Irradiated Material Characterization Laboratory (IMCL).

  9. Thermal insulations using vacuum panels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glicksman, Leon R. (Lynnfield, MA); Burke, Melissa S. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1991-07-16

    Thermal insulation vacuum panels are formed of an inner core of compressed low thermal conductivity powders enclosed by a ceramic/glass envelope evaluated to a low pressure.

  10. Turbine Thermal Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Turbine Thermal Management Fact Sheets Research Team Members Key Contacts Turbine Thermal Management The gas turbine is the workhorse of power generation, and technology advances to current land-based turbines are directly linked to our country's economic and energy security. Technical advancement for any type of gas turbine generally implies better performance, greater efficiency, and extended component life. From the standpoint of cycle efficiency and durability, this suggests that a continual

  11. Underhood Thermal Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Underhood Thermal Performance This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. - Computational Fluid Dynamics Project Leader Background As vehicle technology advances, automakers need a better understanding of underhood heat loads, especially as they relate to emissions and fuel efficiency. Manufacturers of heavy-duty vehicles and off-road machines have similar concerns. Ineffective underhood thermal management can lead to higher emissions, reduced

  12. Photovoltaic-thermal collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, III, Charles H. (Carlisle, MA)

    1984-04-24

    A photovoltaic-thermal solar cell including a semiconductor body having antireflective top and bottom surfaces and coated on each said surface with a patterned electrode covering less than 10% of the surface area. A thermal-absorbing surface is spaced apart from the bottom surface of the semiconductor and a heat-exchange fluid is passed between the bottom surface and the heat-absorbing surface.

  13. Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility thermal hydraulic analysis for Title II design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cramer, E.R.

    1994-11-10

    The purpose of this work was to provide the thermal hydraulic analysis for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) Title II design. Temperature distributions throughout the tank structure were calculated for subsequent use in the structural analysis and in the safety evaluation. Calculated temperatures of critical areas were compared to design allowables. Expected operating parameters were calculated for use in the ventilation system design and in the environmental impact documentation. The design requirements were obtained from the MWTF Functional Design Criteria (FDC). The most restrictive temperature limit given in the FDC is the 200 limit for the haunch and dome steel and concrete. The temperature limit for the rest of the primary and secondary tanks and concrete base mat and supporting pad is 250 F. Also, the waste should not be allowed to boil. The tank geometry was taken from ICF Kaiser Engineers Hanford drawing ES-W236A-Z1, Revision 1, included here in Appendix B. Heat removal rates by evaporation from the waste surface were obtained from experimental data. It is concluded that the MWTF tank cooling system will meet the design temperature limits for the design heat load of 700,000 Btu/h, even if cooling flow is lost to the annulus region, and temperatures change very slowly during transients due to the high heat capacity of the tank structure and the waste. Accordingly, transients will not be a significant operational problem from the viewpoint of meeting the specified temperature limits.

  14. International energy annual 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-01

    The International Energy Annual presents information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu). Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Data are provided on crude oil refining capacity and electricity installed capacity by type. Prices are included for selected crude oils and for refined petroleum products in selected countries. Population and Gross Domestic Product data are also provided.

  15. Energy Intensity Indicators: Electricity Generation Energy Intensity |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Electricity Generation Energy Intensity Energy Intensity Indicators: Electricity Generation Energy Intensity A kilowatt-hour (kWh) of electric energy delivered to the final user has an energy equivalent to 3,412 British thermal units (Btu). Figure E1, below, tracks how much energy was used by the various categories of electricity generators to produce a kWh of electricity (i.e., the heat rate). As shown in the figure, in 1950, central power plants producing only

  16. Freescale Semiconductor Successfully Implements an Energy Management System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-06-30

    Through the Superior Energy Performance (SEP) plant certification program, Freescale Semiconductor implemented projects at the company's Oak Hill Fab plant that reduced annual energy consumption by 28 million kilowatt hours (kWh) of electricity and 26,000 million British thermal units (Btu) of natural gas between 2006 and 2009, saving more than $2 million each year. The plant is now certified at the SEP silver level, and has a management system in place to proactively manage the facility's energy resources in the future.

  17. Annual Energy Outlook 2015

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Energy Outlook 2015 AEO Annual Energy Outlook AEO2015 Annual Energy Outlook 2015 API American Petroleum Institute bbl Barrels bbl/d Barrels per day Brent North Sea Brent Btu British thermal unit(s) CAFE Corporate average fuel economy CAIR Clean Air Interstate Rule CHP Combined heat and power CO2 Carbon dioxide CPI Consumer price index CSAPR Cross-State Air Pollution Rule CTL Coal-to-liquids E85 Motor fuel containing up to 85% ethanol EIA U.S.

  18. Article for thermal energy storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O.

    2000-06-27

    A thermal energy storage composition is provided which is in the form of a gel. The composition includes a phase change material and silica particles, where the phase change material may comprise a linear alkyl hydrocarbon, water/urea, or water. The thermal energy storage composition has a high thermal conductivity, high thermal energy storage, and may be used in a variety of applications such as in thermal shipping containers and gel packs.

  19. Highly directional thermal emitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ribaudo, Troy; Shaner, Eric A; Davids, Paul; Peters, David W

    2015-03-24

    A highly directional thermal emitter device comprises a two-dimensional periodic array of heavily doped semiconductor structures on a surface of a substrate. The array provides a highly directional thermal emission at a peak wavelength between 3 and 15 microns when the array is heated. For example, highly doped silicon (HDSi) with a plasma frequency in the mid-wave infrared was used to fabricate nearly perfect absorbing two-dimensional gratings structures that function as highly directional thermal radiators. The absorption and emission characteristics of the HDSi devices possessed a high degree of angular dependence for infrared absorption in the 10-12 micron range, while maintaining high reflectivity of solar radiation (.about.64%) at large incidence angles.

  20. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S.E.; Arasteh, D.K.; Hartmann, J.L.

    1988-04-05

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas. 2 figs.

  1. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, Stephen E. (Piedmont, CA); Arasteh, Dariush K. (Oakland, CA); Hartmann, John L. (Seattle, WA)

    1991-01-01

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas.

  2. Thermal trim for luminaire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel; Harrison, Robert; Jeswani, Anil

    2013-11-19

    A luminaire with a thermal pathway to reduce the junction temperature of the luminaire's light source, and methods for so doing, are disclosed. The luminaire includes a can, a light engine, and a trim, that define a substantially continuous thermal pathway from the light engine to a surrounding environment. The can defines a can cavity and includes a can end region. The light engine is within the can cavity and includes a light source and a heat sink, including a heat sink end region, coupled thereto. The trim is at least partially disposed within the can cavity and includes a first trim end region coupled to the heat sink end region and a second trim end region coupled to the can end region. Thermal interface material may be located between: the heat sink and the trim, the trim and the can, and/or the heat sink and the light source.

  3. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamo, Roy (Columbus, IN); Kakwani, Ramesh M. (Columbus, IN); Valdmanis, Edgars (Columbus, IN); Woods, Melvins E. (Columbus, IN)

    1988-01-01

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m.degree. C. and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg.degree. C. with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber.

  4. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

    1988-04-19

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m C and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg C with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber. 8 figs.

  5. Thermal Reactor Safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning fire risk and protection; transient thermal-hydraulic analysis and experiments; class 9 accidents and containment; diagnostics and in-service inspection; risk and cost comparison of alternative electric energy sources; fuel behavior and experiments on core cooling in LOCAs; reactor event reporting analysis; equipment qualification; post facts analysis of the TMI-2 accident; and computational methods.

  6. Thermal barrier coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowker, Jeffrey Charles (Gibsonia, PA); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL)

    2001-01-01

    A thermal barrier coating for hot gas path components of a combustion turbine based on a zirconia-scandia system. A layer of zirconium scandate having the hexagonal Zr.sub.3 Sc.sub.4 O.sub.12 structure is formed directly on a superalloy substrate or on a bond coat formed on the substrate.

  7. Ocean thermal energy conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avery, W.H.

    1983-03-17

    A brief explanation of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) concept and an estimate of the amount of energy that can be produced from the ocean resource without introducing environmental concerns are presented. Use of the OTEC system to generate electric power and products which can replace fossil fuels is shown. The OTEC program status and its prospects for the future are discussed.

  8. Pyramid Resource Center-Green Energy Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flory, Paul, D.

    2011-09-02

    There are currently over 3,500 USA/Canadian landfills listed by the EPA/EC and like numbers in Europe that are producing methane-rich landfill gas (LFG). This gas is typically made up of 50-percent methane (CH4), 35-percent carbon dioxide (CO2), and 2 to 25% nitrogen and oxygen (N2 & O2), plus dozens of dilute contaminants. LFG is classified as a renewable fuel, because it is generated via biological decay of municipal solid waste, a constant byproduct of human activity. To date, most LFG has been allowed to escape into the atmosphere. On account of its high CH4 content, LFG may contribute to climate change, as CH4 is one of the most harmful greenhouse gases with 21 times the global warming potential of CO2. Of the landfills that collect LFG, most simply flare it. In the past decade, some landfills have begun to use LFG for electricity generation or for direct combustion as low Btu gas. Very few landfills upgrade LFG to high Btu gas. A patented CO2 WashTM process developed by Acrion Technologies Inc., and licensed to Firm Green Inc. shows promise as an economically and environmentally sustainable process to recover energy and prevent pollution from landfills. The CO2 WashTM has already been proven at lab-scale. It upgrades LFG, which consists of 50% methane (CH4) + 35% carbon dioxide (CO2) + 2 to 25% nitrogen + oxygen (N2+O2), 1 to 2% water vapor, and dozens of contaminants (which total a few hundred to a few thousand parts per million). CH4, which by itself has an energy content of 1,012 British thermal units (Btu) per standard cubic foot (SCF), is the only component in LFG that contributes to its energy content, which is therefore about 400-550 Btu/SCF. Accordingly, raw LFG is usually referred to as medium-Btu gas. To be salable, it is necessary to remove essentially all the components besides CH4, while keeping the vast majority of the revenue producing CH4. This is high-Btu gas, yielding 850 to 1,000 Btu/SCF. The CO2 WashTM process upgrades LFG to about 930 Btu/SCF, and reduces the contaminants to levels that make it salable as a vehicle fuel in the form of compressed natural gas (CNG).

  9. High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production | Department of Energy High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. PDF icon csp_review_meeting_042413_obrey.pdf More Documents & Publications A Method for Evaluating Fire After Earthquake Scenarios for Single

  10. Analysis of organizational options for the uranium enrichment enterprise in relation to asset divesture. [BPA; TVA; SYNFUELS; CONRAIL; British TELECOM; COMSTAT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrer, B.J.; Hattrup, M.P.; Dase, J.E.; Nicholls, A.K.

    1986-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of the characteristics of some prominent examples of independent government corporations and agencies with respect to the Department of Energy's (DOE) uranium enrichment enterprise. The six examples studied were: the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA); the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA); the Synthetic Fuels Corporation (SYNFUELS); the Consolidated Rail Corporation (CONRAIL); the British Telecommunications Corporation (British TELECOM); and the Communications Satellite Organization (COMSAT), in order of decreasing levels of government ownership and control. They range from BPA, which is organized as an agency within DOE, to COMSAT, which is privately owned and free from almost all regulations common to government agencies. Differences in the degree of government involvement in these corporations and in many other characteristics serve to illustrate that there are no accepted standards for defining the characteristics of government corporations. Thus, historical precedent indicates considerable flexibility would be available in the development of enabling legislation to reorganize the enrichment enterprise as a government corporation or independent government agency.

  11. Thermal synthesis apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-08-18

    An apparatus for thermal conversion of one or more reactants to desired end products includes an insulated reactor chamber having a high temperature heater such as a plasma torch at its inlet end and, optionally, a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. In a thermal conversion method, reactants are injected upstream from the reactor chamber and thoroughly mixed with the plasma stream before entering the reactor chamber. The reactor chamber has a reaction zone that is maintained at a substantially uniform temperature. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle, which "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage, or is discharged through an outlet pipe without the convergent-divergent nozzle. The desired end products are then separated from the gaseous stream.

  12. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, P.; Deo, M.; Eddings, E.; Sarofim, A.; Gueishen, K.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.; Mandalaparty, P.; Zhang, H.

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  13. Thermally stable diamond brazing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radtke, Robert P. (Kingwood, TX)

    2009-02-10

    A cutting element and a method for forming a cutting element is described and shown. The cutting element includes a substrate, a TSP diamond layer, a metal interlayer between the substrate and the diamond layer, and a braze joint securing the diamond layer to the substrate. The thickness of the metal interlayer is determined according to a formula. The formula takes into account the thickness and modulus of elasticity of the metal interlayer and the thickness of the TSP diamond. This prevents the use of a too thin or too thick metal interlayer. A metal interlayer that is too thin is not capable of absorbing enough energy to prevent the TSP diamond from fracturing. A metal interlayer that is too thick may allow the TSP diamond to fracture by reason of bending stress. A coating may be provided between the TSP diamond layer and the metal interlayer. This coating serves as a thermal barrier and to control residual thermal stress.

  14. Liquid metal thermal electric converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

  15. Thermal reactor safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning new trends in licensing; seismic considerations and system structural behavior; TMI-2 risk assessment and thermal hydraulics; statistical assessment of potential accidents and verification of computational methods; issues with respect to improved safety; human factors in nuclear power plant operation; diagnostics and activities in support of recovery; LOCA transient analysis; unresolved safety issues and other safety considerations; and fission product transport.

  16. Thermally actuated thermionic switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barrus, Donald M.; Shires, Charles D.

    1988-01-01

    A thermally actuated thermionic switch which responds to an increase of temperature by changing from a high impedance to a low impedance at a predictable temperature set point. The switch has a bistable operation mode switching only on temperature increases. The thermionic material may be a metal which is liquid at the desired operation temperature and held in matrix in a graphite block reservoir, and which changes state (ionizes, for example) so as to be electrically conductive at a desired temperature.

  17. Thermally actuated thermionic switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barrus, D.M.; Shires, C.D.

    1982-09-30

    A thermally actuated thermionic switch which responds to an increase of temperature by changing from a high impedance to a low impedance at a predictable temperature set point. The switch has a bistable operation mode switching only on temperature increases. The thermionic material may be a metal which is liquid at the desired operation temperature and held in matrix in a graphite block reservoir, and which changes state (ionizes, for example) so as to be electrically conductive at a desired temperature.

  18. thermal energy power conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    thermal energy power conversion - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  19. Solar Thermal Electric | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thermal Electric Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Solar Thermal Electric Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleSolarThermalEl...

  20. Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Motor Thermal Control Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management

  1. Methods of forming thermal management systems and thermal management methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gering, Kevin L.; Haefner, Daryl R.

    2012-06-05

    A thermal management system for a vehicle includes a heat exchanger having a thermal energy storage material provided therein, a first coolant loop thermally coupled to an electrochemical storage device located within the first coolant loop and to the heat exchanger, and a second coolant loop thermally coupled to the heat exchanger. The first and second coolant loops are configured to carry distinct thermal energy transfer media. The thermal management system also includes an interface configured to facilitate transfer of heat generated by an internal combustion engine to the heat exchanger via the second coolant loop in order to selectively deliver the heat to the electrochemical storage device. Thermal management methods are also provided.

  2. 1990 Washington State directory of biomass energy facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    This second edition is an update of biomass energy production and use in Washington State for 1989. The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of known biomass users within the state and some basic information about their facilities. The data can be helpful to persons or organizations considering the use of biomass fuels. The directory is divided into three sections of biomass facilities with each section containing a map of locations and a data summary table. In addition, a conversion table, a glossary and an index are provided in the back of the directory. The first section deals with biogas production from wastewater treatment plants. The second section provides information on the wood combustion facilities in the state. This section is subdivided into two categories. The first is for facilities connected with the forest products industries. The second category include other facilities using wood for energy. The third section is composed of three different types of biomass facilities -- ethanol, municipal solid waste, and solid fuel processing. Biomass facilities included in this directory produce over 64 trillion Btu (British thermal units) per year. Wood combustion facilities account for 91 percent of the total. Biogas and ethanol facilities each produce close to 800 billion Btu per year, MSW facilities produce 1845 billion BTU, and solid fuel processing facilities produce 2321 billion Btu per year. To put these numbers in perspective, Washington's industrial section uses 200 trillion Btu of fuels per year. Therefore, biomass fuels used and/or produced by facilities listed in this directory account for nearly 32 percent of the state's total industrial fuel demand. This is a sizable contribution to the state's energy needs.

  3. 1990 Washington State directory of biomass energy facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1990-12-31

    This second edition is an update of biomass energy production and use in Washington State for 1989. The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of known biomass users within the state and some basic information about their facilities. The data can be helpful to persons or organizations considering the use of biomass fuels. The directory is divided into three sections of biomass facilities with each section containing a map of locations and a data summary table. In addition, a conversion table, a glossary and an index are provided in the back of the directory. The first section deals with biogas production from wastewater treatment plants. The second section provides information on the wood combustion facilities in the state. This section is subdivided into two categories. The first is for facilities connected with the forest products industries. The second category include other facilities using wood for energy. The third section is composed of three different types of biomass facilities -- ethanol, municipal solid waste, and solid fuel processing. Biomass facilities included in this directory produce over 64 trillion Btu (British thermal units) per year. Wood combustion facilities account for 91 percent of the total. Biogas and ethanol facilities each produce close to 800 billion Btu per year, MSW facilities produce 1845 billion BTU, and solid fuel processing facilities produce 2321 billion Btu per year. To put these numbers in perspective, Washington`s industrial section uses 200 trillion Btu of fuels per year. Therefore, biomass fuels used and/or produced by facilities listed in this directory account for nearly 32 percent of the state`s total industrial fuel demand. This is a sizable contribution to the state`s energy needs.

  4. Thermal control structure and garment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W.; Cameron, Christopher Stan

    2012-03-13

    A flexible thermally conductive structure. The structure generally includes a plurality of thermally conductive yarns, at least some of which are at least partially disposed adjacent to an elastomeric material. Typically, at least a portion of the plurality of thermally conductive yarns is configured as a sheet. The yarns may be constructed from graphite, metal, or similar materials. The elastomeric material may be formed from urethane or silicone foam that is at least partially collapsed, or from a similar material. A thermal management garment is provided, the garment incorporating a flexible thermally conductive structure.

  5. Analysis of the Production Cost for Various Grades of Biomass Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert S Cherry; Rick A. Wood; Tyler L Westover

    2013-12-01

    Process flow sheets were developed for the thermal treatment of southern pine wood chips at four temperatures (150, 180, 230, and 270 degrees C) and two different scales (20 and 100 ton/hour). The larger capacity processes had as their primary heat source hot gas assumed to be available in quantity from an adjacent biorefinery. Mass and energy balances for these flow sheets were developed using Aspen Plus process simulation software. The hot gas demands in the larger processes, up to 1.9 million lb/hour, were of questionable feasibility because of the volume to be moved. This heat was of low utility because the torrefaction process, especially at higher temperatures, is a net heat producer if the organic byproduct gases are burned. A thermal treatment flow sheet using wood chips dried in the biorefinery to 10% moisture content (rather than 30% for green chips) with transfer of high temperature steam from the thermal treatment depot to the biorefinery was also examined. The equipment size information from all of these cases was used in several different equipment cost estimating methods to estimate the major equipment costs for each process. From these, factored estimates of other plant costs were determined, leading to estimates (+ / - 30% accuracy) of total plant capital cost. The 20 ton/hour processes were close to 25 million dollars except for the 230 degrees C case using dried wood chips which was only 15 million dollars because of its small furnace. The larger processes ranged from 64-120 million dollars. From these capital costs and projections of several categories of operating costs, the processing cost of thermally treated pine chips was found to be $28-33 per ton depending on the degree of treatment and without any credits for steam generation. If the excess energy output of the two 20 ton/hr depot cases at 270 degrees C can be sold for $10 per million BTU, the net processing cost dropped to $13/ton product starting with green wood chips or only $3 per ton if using dried chips from the biorefinery. Including a 12% return on invested capital raised all of the operating cost results by about $20/ton.

  6. Thermal management systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gering, Kevin L.; Haefner, Daryl R.

    2006-12-12

    A thermal management system for a vehicle includes a heat exchanger having a thermal energy storage material provided therein, a first coolant loop thermally coupled to an electrochemical storage device located within the first coolant loop and to the heat exchanger, and a second coolant loop thermally coupled to the heat exchanger. The first and second coolant loops are configured to carry distinct thermal energy transfer media. The thermal management system also includes an interface configured to facilitate transfer of heat generated by an internal combustion engine to the heat exchanger via the second coolant loop in order to selectively deliver the heat to the electrochemical storage device. Thermal management methods are also provided.

  7. Thermal network reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    A method is presented for reducing the number of elements required in a thermal network representation of a building. The method is based on matching the actual building response at two frequencies, the diurnal response and 3-day response. The procedure provides a straightforward methodology for combining all the various materials inside a discrete building zone into a few nodes while retaining a high degree of accuracy in the dynamic response. An example is given showing a comparison between a large network and the reduced network.

  8. Thermal network reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-06-01

    A method is presented for reducing the number of elements required in a thermal network representation of a building. The method is based on matching the actual building response at two frequencies, the diurnal response and 3-day response. The procedure provides a straightforward methodology for combining all the various materials inside a discrete building zone into a few nodes while retaining a high degree of accuracy in the dynamic response. An example is given showing a comparison between a large network and the reduced network.

  9. Thermal transient anemometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailey, J.L.; Vresk, J.

    1989-07-18

    A thermal transient anemometer is disclosed having a thermocouple probe which is utilized to measure the change in temperature over a period of time to provide a measure of fluid flow velocity. The thermocouple probe is located in the fluid flow path and pulsed to heat or cool the probe. The cooling of the heated probe or the heating of the cooled probe from the fluid flow over a period of time is measured to determine the fluid flow velocity. The probe is desired to be locally heated near the tip to increase the efficiency of devices incorporating the probe. 12 figs.

  10. Response microcantilever thermal detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cunningham, Joseph P.; Rajic, Slobodan; Datskos, Panagiotis G.; Evans III, Boyd M.

    2004-10-19

    A "folded leg" thermal detector microcantilever constructed of a substrate with at least one leg interposed between a fixed end and a deflective end, each leg having at least three essentially parallel leg segments interconnected on alternate opposing ends and aligned in a serpentine pattern with only the first leg segment attached to the fixed end and only the last leg segment attached to the deflective end. Alternate leg segment are coated on the pentalever with coating applied to the top of the first, third, and fifth leg segments of each leg and to the bottom of the second and fourth leg segments of each leg.

  11. Thermal indicator for wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaven, Jr., Joseph V. (Oakton, VA); Bak, Chan S. (Newbury Park, CA)

    1983-01-01

    Minute durable plate-like thermal indicators are employed for precision measuring static and dynamic temperatures of well drilling fluids. The indicators are small enough and sufficiently durable to be circulated in the well with drilling fluids during the drilling operation. The indicators include a heat resistant indicating layer, a coacting meltable solid component and a retainer body which serves to unitize each indicator and which may carry permanent indicator identifying indicia. The indicators are recovered from the drilling fluid at ground level by known techniques.

  12. Thermal transient anemometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailey, James L.; Vresk, Josip

    1989-01-01

    A thermal transient anemometer having a thermocouple probe which is utilized to measure the change in temperature over a period of time to provide a measure of fluid flow velocity. The thermocouple probe is located in the fluid flow path and pulsed to heat or cool the probe. The cooling of the heated probe or the heating of the cooled probe from the fluid flow over a period of time is measured to determine the fluid flow velocity. The probe is desired to be locally heated near the tip to increase the efficiency of devices incorporating the probe.

  13. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhanon, James R. (Manteca, CA); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA); Jamison, Gregory M. (Albuquerque, NM); Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rahimian, Kamyar (Albuquerque, NM); Long, Timothy M. (Urbana, IL); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-04-04

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments and the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  14. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhanon, James R. (Manteca, CA); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA); Jamison, Gregory M. (Albuquerque, NM); Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rahimian, Kamyar (Albuquerque, NM); Long, Timothy M. (Urbana, IL); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-11-24

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments or the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  15. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhanon, James R. (Manteca, CA); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA); Jamison, Gregory M. (Albuquerque, NM); Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rahimian, Kamyar (Albuquerque, NM); Long, Timothy M. (Urbana, IL); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-09-29

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments or the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  16. Thermally switchable dielectrics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dirk, Shawn M.; Johnson, Ross S.

    2013-04-30

    Precursor polymers to conjugated polymers, such as poly(phenylene vinylene), poly(poly(thiophene vinylene), poly(aniline vinylene), and poly(pyrrole vinylene), can be used as thermally switchable capacitor dielectrics that fail at a specific temperature due to the non-conjugated precursor polymer irreversibly switching from an insulator to the conjugated polymer, which serves as a bleed resistor. The precursor polymer is a good dielectric until it reaches a specific temperature determined by the stability of the leaving groups. Conjugation of the polymer backbone at high temperature effectively disables the capacitor, providing a `built-in` safety mechanism for electronic devices.

  17. Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management Systems (VTMS) Analysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration Characterization and Development of Advanced...

  18. Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline Diamond/Silicon...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline DiamondSilicon Carbide Nanocomposites for Drill Bits Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline DiamondSilicon Carbide ...

  19. Solar thermal power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2010-06-15

    A solar thermal power generator includes an inclined elongated boiler tube positioned in the focus of a solar concentrator for generating steam from water. The boiler tube is connected at one end to receive water from a pressure vessel as well as connected at an opposite end to return steam back to the vessel in a fluidic circuit arrangement that stores energy in the form of heated water in the pressure vessel. An expander, condenser, and reservoir are also connected in series to respectively produce work using the steam passed either directly (above a water line in the vessel) or indirectly (below a water line in the vessel) through the pressure vessel, condense the expanded steam, and collect the condensed water. The reservoir also supplies the collected water back to the pressure vessel at the end of a diurnal cycle when the vessel is sufficiently depressurized, so that the system is reset to repeat the cycle the following day. The circuital arrangement of the boiler tube and the pressure vessel operates to dampen flow instabilities in the boiler tube, damp out the effects of solar transients, and provide thermal energy storage which enables time shifting of power generation to better align with the higher demand for energy during peak energy usage periods.

  20. Electric Vehicle Battery Thermal Issues and Thermal Management Techniques (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J. P.; Pesaran, A.; Smith, K.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation examines the issues concerning thermal management in electric drive vehicles and management techniques for improving the life of a Li-ion battery in an EDV.

  1. Actively driven thermal radiation shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Norman W. (Livermore, CA); Cork, Christopher P. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Becker, John A. (Alameda, CA); Knapp, David A. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A thermal radiation shield for cooled portable gamma-ray spectrometers. The thermal radiation shield is located intermediate the vacuum enclosure and detector enclosure, is actively driven, and is useful in reducing the heat load to mechanical cooler and additionally extends the lifetime of the mechanical cooler. The thermal shield is electrically-powered and is particularly useful for portable solid-state gamma-ray detectors or spectrometers that dramatically reduces the cooling power requirements. For example, the operating shield at 260K (40K below room temperature) will decrease the thermal radiation load to the detector by 50%, which makes possible portable battery operation for a mechanically cooled Ge spectrometer.

  2. Overview of solar thermal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The solar-thermal overview section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  3. Thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alvin, Mary Anne (Pittsburg, PA)

    2010-06-22

    This disclosure addresses the issue of providing a metallic-ceramic overlay coating that potentially serves as an interface or bond coat layer to provide enhanced oxidation resistance to the underlying superalloy substrate via the formation of a diffusion barrier regime within the supporting base material. Furthermore, the metallic-ceramic coating is expected to limit the growth of a continuous thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer that has been primarily considered to be the principal cause for failure of existing TBC systems. Compositional compatibility of the metallic-ceramic with traditional yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coats is provided to further limit debond or spallation of the coating during operational use. A metallic-ceramic architecture is disclosed wherein enhanced oxidation resistance is imparted to the surface of nickel-based superalloy or single crystal metal substrate, with simultaneous integration of the yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) within the metallic-ceramic overlayer.

  4. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Moore, Troy K. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for thermally protecting heat sensitive components of tools. The apparatus comprises a Dewar for holding the heat sensitive components. The Dewar has spaced-apart inside and outside walls, an open top end and a bottom end. An insulating plug is located in the top end. The inside wall has portions defining an inside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar and the outside wall has portions defining an outside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar. A bottom connector has inside and outside components. The inside component sealably engages the inside wall aperture and the outside component sealably engages the outside wall aperture. The inside component is operatively connected to the heat sensitive components and to the outside component. The connections can be made with optical fibers or with electrically conducting wires.

  5. Thermally stabilized heliostat

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Alfred J. (Littleton, CO)

    1983-01-01

    An improvement in a heliostat having a main support structure and pivoting and tilting motors and gears and a mirror module for reflecting solar energy onto a collector, the improvement being characterized by an internal support structure within each mirror module and front and back sheets attached to the internal support structure, the front and back sheets having the same coefficient of thermal expansion such that no curvature is induced by temperature change, and a layer of adhesive adhering the mirror to the front sheet. The adhesive is water repellent and has adequate set strength to support the mirror but has sufficient shear tolerance to permit the differential expansion of the mirror and the front sheet without inducing stresses or currature effect. The adhesive also serves to dampen fluttering of the mirror and to protect the mirror backside against the adverse effects of weather. Also disclosed are specific details of the preferred embodiment.

  6. Study of the exposure of British mineworkers to nitrous fumes and the effects on their health. Final report August 77-January 80

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, A.; Collings, P.; Gormley, I.P.; Dodgeon, J.

    1981-06-01

    Shift-average exposures to nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide have been found to be well within the recommended safety limits in nine British collieries. Differences in the exposures of miners in different collieries and between different locations and occupations within collieries were observed, with diesel locomotive drivers having consistently higher shift-average exposures than other workers. Possible health effects of oxides of nitrogen were investigated by comparing the respiratory health of men with low past exposure against men with higher past exposure to these gases. No differences in forced expired volumes in one second or in the prevalences of cough, phlegm and breathlessness were found between the two population groups.

  7. Peg supported thermal insulation panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowobilski, Jeffert J. (Orchard Park, NY); Owens, William J. (Kenmore, NY)

    1985-01-01

    A thermal insulation panel which is lightweight, load bearing, accommodates thermal stress, and has excellent high temperature insulation capability comprising high performance insulation between thin metal walls supported by high density, high strength glass pegs made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure.

  8. Peg supported thermal insulation panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowobilski, J.J.; Owens, W.J.

    1985-04-30

    A thermal insulation panel which is lightweight, load bearing, accommodates thermal stress, and has excellent high temperature insulation capability comprises high performance insulation between thin metal walls supported by high density, high strength glass pegs made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure. 2 figs.

  9. Energy generation from cotton gin trash: an economic analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacewell, R.D.; Taylor, C.R.; Hiler, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    This study consists of economic analyses of electric power generation and low-Btu (British thermal unit) gas generation from cotton gin trash. Both analyses consider the use of a large gin, sized at 40,000 bales per year. A fluidized-bed combustor is used to produce the low Btu gas and in conjunction with a boiler and turbine to produce electricity. For this case study, the consideration of economic feasibility involves the saving of the cost of energy not purchased, the sale of surplus electricity, and the saving of the cost of gin trash disposal eliminated; all are results of on-site energy generation. Electricity requirements will be satisfied, and waste heat will be used for cotton drying. The savings that would result from these two measures total about $126,000 (based on a 300,000 Btu per bale requirement for cotton drying with natural gas priced at $2.50 per thousand cubic feet and electricity priced at 4 cents per kWh). (MCW)

  10. Microelectromechanical (MEM) thermal actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, Ernest J. (Albuquerque, NM); Fulcher, Clay W. G. (Sandia Park, NM)

    2012-07-31

    Microelectromechanical (MEM) buckling beam thermal actuators are disclosed wherein the buckling direction of a beam is constrained to a desired direction of actuation, which can be in-plane or out-of-plane with respect to a support substrate. The actuators comprise as-fabricated, linear beams of uniform cross section supported above the substrate by supports which rigidly attach a beam to the substrate. The beams can be heated by methods including the passage of an electrical current through them. The buckling direction of an initially straight beam upon heating and expansion is controlled by incorporating one or more directional constraints attached to the substrate and proximal to the mid-point of the beam. In the event that the beam initially buckles in an undesired direction, deformation of the beam induced by contact with a directional constraint generates an opposing force to re-direct the buckling beam into the desired direction. The displacement and force generated by the movement of the buckling beam can be harnessed to perform useful work, such as closing contacts in an electrical switch.

  11. Thermal energy storage apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thoma, P.E.

    1980-04-22

    A thermal energy storage apparatus and method employs a container formed of soda lime glass and having a smooth, defectfree inner wall. The container is filled substantially with a material that can be supercooled to a temperature greater than 5* F., such as ethylene carbonate, benzophenone, phenyl sulfoxide, di-2-pyridyl ketone, phenyl ether, diphenylmethane, ethylene trithiocarbonate, diphenyl carbonate, diphenylamine, 2benzoylpyridine, 3-benzoylpyridine, 4-benzoylpyridine, 4methylbenzophenone, 4-bromobenzophenone, phenyl salicylate, diphenylcyclopropenone, benzyl sulfoxide, 4-methoxy-4prmethylbenzophenone, n-benzoylpiperidine, 3,3pr,4,4pr,5 pentamethoxybenzophenone, 4,4'-bis-(Dimethylamino)-benzophenone, diphenylboron bromide, benzalphthalide, benzophenone oxime, azobenzene. A nucleating means such as a seed crystal, a cold finger or pointed member is movable into the supercoolable material. A heating element heats the supercoolable material above the melting temperature to store heat. The material is then allowed to cool to a supercooled temperature below the melting temperature, but above the natural, spontaneous nucleating temperature. The liquid in each container is selectively initiated into nucleation to release the heat of fusion. The heat may be transferred directly or through a heat exchange unit within the material.

  12. Solar Thermal Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biesinger, K.; Cuppett, D.; Dyer, D.

    2012-01-30

    HVAC Retrofit and Energy Efficiency Upgrades at Clark High School, Las Vegas, Nevada The overall objectives of this project are to increase usage of alternative/renewable fuels, create a better and more reliable learning environment for the students, and reduce energy costs. Utilizing the grant resources and local bond revenues, the District proposes to reduce electricity consumption by installing within the existing limited space, one principal energy efficient 100 ton adsorption chiller working in concert with two 500 ton electric chillers. The main heating source will be primarily from low nitrogen oxide (NOX), high efficiency natural gas fired boilers. With the use of this type of chiller, the electric power and cost requirements will be greatly reduced. To provide cooling to the information technology centers and equipment rooms of the school during off-peak hours, the District will install water source heat pumps. In another measure to reduce the cooling requirements at Clark High School, the District will replace single pane glass and metal panels with ??Kalwall?? building panels. An added feature of the ??Kalwall? system is that it will allow for natural day lighting in the student center. This system will significantly reduce thermal heat/cooling loss and control solar heat gain, thus delivering significant savings in heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) costs.

  13. Motor Thermal Control | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal Control Motor Thermal Control 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ape030_bennion_2010_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermal Management of PHEV / EV Charging Systems Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration

  14. Thermal to electricity conversion using thermal magnetic properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Phillip B [Idaho Falls, ID; Svoboda, John [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-04-27

    A system for the generation of Electricity from Thermal Energy using the thermal magnetic properties of a Ferromagnetic, Electrically Conductive Material (FECM) in one or more Magnetic Fields. A FECM is exposed to one or more Magnetic Fields. Thermal Energy is applied to a portion of the FECM heating the FECM above its Curie Point. The FECM, now partially paramagnetic, moves under the force of the one or more Magnetic Fields. The movement of the FECM induces an electrical current through the FECM, generating Electricity.

  15. Thermal Enhancer - Airless Exhaust Thermal Management Device | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Enhancer - Airless Exhaust Thermal Management Device Thermal Enhancer - Airless Exhaust Thermal Management Device Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. PDF icon 2006_deer_coker.pdf More Documents & Publications Heavy Duty Vehicle In-Use Emission Performance Why Light Duty Diesels Make Sense in the North American Market Scalable, Low-Cost, High

  16. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giebink, Noel C.

    2015-01-31

    This program set out to explore a scattering-based approach to concentrate sunlight with the aim of improving collector field reliability and of eliminating wind loading and gross mechanical movement through the use of a stationary collection optic. The approach is based on scattering sunlight from the focal point of a fixed collection optic into the confined modes of a sliding planar waveguide, where it is transported to stationary tubular heat transfer elements located at the edges. Optical design for the first stage of solar concentration, which entails focusing sunlight within a plane over a wide range of incidence angles (>120 degree full field of view) at fixed tilt, led to the development of a new, folded-path collection optic that dramatically out-performs the current state-of-the-art in scattering concentration. Rigorous optical simulation and experimental testing of this collection optic have validated its performance. In the course of this work, we also identified an opportunity for concentrating photovoltaics involving the use of high efficiency microcells made in collaboration with partners at the University of Illinois. This opportunity exploited the same collection optic design as used for the scattering solar thermal concentrator and was therefore pursued in parallel. This system was experimentally demonstrated to achieve >200x optical concentration with >70% optical efficiency over a full day by tracking with <1 cm of lateral movement at fixed latitude tilt. The entire scattering concentrator waveguide optical system has been simulated, tested, and assembled at small scale to verify ray tracing models. These models were subsequently used to predict the full system optical performance at larger, deployment scale ranging up to >1 meter aperture width. Simulations at an aperture widths less than approximately 0.5 m with geometric gains ~100x predict an overall optical efficiency in the range 60-70% for angles up to 50 degrees from normal. However, the concentrator optical efficiency was found to decrease significantly with increasing aperture width beyond 0.5 m due to parasitic waveguide out-coupling loss and low-level absorption that become dominant at larger scale. A heat transfer model was subsequently implemented to predict collector fluid heat gain and outlet temperature as a function of flow rate using the optical model as a flux input. It was found that the aperture width size limitation imposed by the optical efficiency characteristics of the waveguide limits the absolute optical power delivered to the heat transfer element per unit length. As compared to state-of-the-art parabolic trough CPV system aperture widths approaching 5 m, this limitation leads to an approximate factor of order of magnitude increase in heat transfer tube length to achieve the same heat transfer fluid outlet temperature. The conclusion of this work is that scattering solar thermal concentration cannot be implemented at the scale and efficiency required to compete with the performance of current parabolic trough CSP systems. Applied within the alternate context of CPV, however, the results of this work have likely opened up a transformative new path that enables quasi-static, high efficiency CPV to be implemented on rooftops in the form factor of traditional fixed-panel photovoltaics.

  17. Advanced Wellbore Thermal Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-03-04

    GEOTEMP2, which is based on the earlier GEOTEMP program, is a wellbore thermal simulator designed for geothermal well drilling and production applications. The code treats natural and forced convection and conduction within the wellbore and heat conduction within the surrounding rock matrix. A variety of well operations can be modeled including injection, production, forward and reverse circulation with gas or liquid, gas or liquid drilling, and two-phase steam injection and production. Well completion with severalmore » different casing sizes and cement intervals can be modeled. The code allows variables, such as flow rate, to change with time enabling a realistic treatment of well operations. Provision is made in the flow equations to allow the flow areas of the tubing to vary with depth in the wellbore. Multiple liquids can exist in GEOTEMP2 simulations. Liquid interfaces are tracked through the tubing and annulus as one liquid displaces another. GEOTEMP2, however, does not attempt to simulate displacement of liquids with a gas or two-phase steam or vice versa. This means that it is not possible to simulate an operation where the type of drilling fluid changes, e.g. mud going to air. GEOTEMP2 was designed primarily for use in predicting the behavior of geothermal wells, but it is flexible enough to handle many typical drilling, production, and injection problems in the oil industry as well. However, GEOTEMP2 does not allow the modeling of gas-filled annuli in production or injection problems. In gas or mist drilling, no radiation losses are included in the energy balance. No attempt is made to model flow in the formation. Average execution time is 50 CP seconds on a CDC CYBER170. This edition of GEOTEMP2 is designated as Version 2.0 by the contributors.« less

  18. Rapid thermal processing by stamping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stradins, Pauls; Wang, Qi

    2013-03-05

    A rapid thermal processing device and methods are provided for thermal processing of samples such as semiconductor wafers. The device has components including a stamp (35) having a stamping surface and a heater or cooler (40) to bring it to a selected processing temperature, a sample holder (20) for holding a sample (10) in position for intimate contact with the stamping surface; and positioning components (25) for moving the stamping surface and the stamp (35) in and away from intimate, substantially non-pressured contact. Methods for using and making such devices are also provided. These devices and methods allow inexpensive, efficient, easily controllable thermal processing.

  19. National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power/Energy Conversion Efficiency/Solar Energy/Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)/National Solar Thermal Test Facility - National Solar Thermal Test Facilityadmin2016-02-25T20:11:27+00:00 Operated by Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) is the only test facility of this type in the United States. The NSTTF's primary goal is to provide experimental engineering data for the design, construction, and

  20. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ascari, Matthew

    2012-10-28

    The Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project focuses on assessing the Maximum Practicably Extractable Energy (MPEE) from the world’s ocean thermal resources. MPEE is defined as being sustainable and technically feasible, given today’s state-of-the-art ocean energy technology. Under this project the OTEEV team developed a comprehensive Geospatial Information System (GIS) dataset and software tool, and used the tool to provide a meaningful assessment of MPEE from the global and domestic U.S. ocean thermal resources.

  1. Thermal properties of soils and soils testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-02-17

    The thermal properties of soils are reviewed with reference to the use of soils as heat sources, heat sinks, or thermal storage. Specific heat and thermal conductivity are discussed. (ACR)

  2. Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1997 3.45 2.15 1.89 2.03 2.25 2.20 2.19 2.49 2.88 3.07 3.01 2.35 1998 2.09 2.23 2.24 2.43 2.14 2.17 2.17 1.85 2.02 1.91 2.12...

  3. Natural Gas Futures Contract 2 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.001 1.720 2.433 2.463 2.231 2.376 2000's 4.304 4.105 3.441 5.497 6.417 9.186 7.399 7.359 9.014 4.428 2010's 4.471 4.090 2.926 3.775 4.236 2.684

  4. Natural Gas Futures Contract 2 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 2.188 2.232 2.123 2.136 1.999 2.130 2.021 1.831 1.881 1.961 1.890 1.709 1995 1.457 1.448 1.595 1.718 1.770 1.685 1.525 1.630 1.805 1.870 1.936 2.200 1996 2.177 2.175 2.205 2.297 2.317 2.582 2.506 2.120 2.134 2.601 2.862 3.260 1997 2.729 2.016 1.954 2.053 2.268 2.171 2.118 2.484 2.970 3.321 3.076 2.361 1998 2.104 2.293 2.288 2.500 2.199 2.205 2.164 1.913 2.277 2.451 2.438 1.953 1999 1.851 1.788 1.829 2.184 2.293 2.373 2.335 2.836 2.836

  5. Natural Gas Futures Contract 2 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 1994-Jan 01/14 2.113 01/21 2.159 01/28 2.233 1994-Feb 02/04 2.303 02/11 2.230 02/18 2.223 02/25 2.197 1994-Mar 03/04 2.144 03/11 2.150 03/18 2.148 03/25 2.095 1994-Apr 04/01 2.076 04/08 2.101 04/15 2.137 04/22 2.171 04/29 2.133 1994-May 05/06 2.056 05/13 2.017 05/20 1.987 05/27 1.938 1994-Jun 06/03 2.023 06/10 2.122 06/17 2.173 06/24 2.118 1994-Jul 07/01 2.182 07/08 2.119

  6. Natural Gas Futures Contract 3 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.039 1.739 2.350 2.418 2.290 2.406 2000's 4.217 4.069 3.499 5.466 6.522 9.307 7.852 7.601 9.141 4.669 2010's 4.564 4.160 3.020 3.822 4.227 2.739

  7. Natural Gas Futures Contract 3 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 2.116 2.168 2.118 2.139 2.038 2.150 2.083 2.031 2.066 2.037 1.873 1.694 1995 1.490 1.492 1.639 1.745 1.801 1.719 1.605 1.745 1.883 1.889 1.858 1.995 1996 1.964 2.056 2.100 2.277 2.307 2.572 2.485 2.222 2.272 2.572 2.571 2.817 1997 2.393 1.995 1.978 2.073 2.263 2.168 2.140 2.589 3.043 3.236 2.803 2.286 1998 2.110 2.312 2.312 2.524 2.249 2.234 2.220 2.168 2.479 2.548 2.380 1.954 1999 1.860 1.820 1.857 2.201 2.315 2.393 2.378 2.948 2.977

  8. Natural Gas Futures Contract 3 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 1994-Jan 01/21 2.055 01/28 2.133 1994-Feb 02/04 2.189 02/11 2.159 02/18 2.174 02/25 2.163 1994-Mar 03/04 2.127 03/11 2.136 03/18 2.141 03/25 2.103 1994-Apr 04/01 2.085 04/08 2.105 04/15 2.131 04/22 2.175 04/29 2.149 1994-May 05/06 2.076 05/13 2.045 05/20 2.034 05/27 1.994 1994-Jun 06/03 2.078 06/10 2.149 06/17 2.172 06/24 2.142 1994-Jul 07/01 2.187 07/08 2.143 07/15 2.079

  9. Natural Gas Futures Contract 4 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 1.906 2.054 1.746 2.270 2.363 2.332 2.418 2000's 4.045 4.103 3.539 5.401 6.534 9.185 8.238 7.811 9.254 4.882 2010's 4.658 4.227 3.109 3.854 4.218 2.792

  10. Natural Gas Futures Contract 4 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1993 1.906 1994 2.012 2.140 2.120 2.150 2.081 2.189 2.186 2.168 2.079 1.991 1.843 1.672 1995 1.519 1.541 1.672 1.752 1.810 1.763 1.727 1.826 1.886 1.827 1.770 1.844 1996 1.877 1.985 2.040 2.245 2.275 2.561 2.503 2.293 2.296 2.436 2.317 2.419 1997 2.227 1.999 1.987 2.084 2.249 2.194 2.274 2.689 2.997 2.873 2.532 2.204 1998 2.124 2.324 2.333 2.533 2.289 2.291 2.428 2.419 2.537 2.453 2.294 1.940 1999 1.880 1.850 1.886 2.214 2.331 2.429 2.539

  11. Natural Gas Futures Contract 4 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 1993-Dec 12/24 1.869 12/31 1.943 1994-Jan 01/07 1.935 01/14 1.992 01/21 2.006 01/28 2.088 1994-Feb 02/04 2.133 02/11 2.135 02/18 2.148 02/25 2.149 1994-Mar 03/04 2.118 03/11 2.125 03/18 2.139 03/25 2.113 1994-Apr 04/01 2.107 04/08 2.120 04/15 2.140 04/22 2.180 04/29 2.165 1994-May 05/06 2.103 05/13 2.081 05/20 2.076 05/27 2.061 1994-Jun 06/03 2.134 06/10 2.180 06/17 2.187

  12. Microfabricated BTU monitoring device for system-wide natural...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Research Org: Sandia National Laboratories Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 03 NATURAL GAS; COMBUSTION; EFFICIENCY; FEEDBACK; ...

  13. Natural Gas Futures Contract 2 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 2.188 2.232 2.123 2.136 1.999 2.130 2.021 1.831 1.881 1.961 1.890 1.709 1995 1.457 1.448 1.595 1.718 1.770 1.685 1.525 1.630 1.805 1.870 1.936 2.200 1996 2.177...

  14. Natural Gas Futures Contract 1 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 1.934 1.692 2.502 2.475 2.156 2.319 2000's 4.311 4.053 3.366 5.493 6.178 9.014 6.976 7.114 8.899 4.159 2010's 4.382 4.026 2.827 3.731 4.262 2.627

  15. Natural Gas Futures Contract 1 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 1994-Jan 01/14 2.231 01/21 2.297 01/28 2.404 1994-Feb 02/04 2.506 02/11 2.369 02/18 2.330 02/25 2.267 1994-Mar 03/04 2.178 03/11 2.146 03/18 2.108 03/25 2.058 1994-Apr 04/01 2.065 04/08 2.092 04/15 2.127 04/22 2.126 04/29 2.097 1994-May 05/06 2.025 05/13 1.959 05/20 1.933 05/27 1.855 1994-Jun 06/03 1.938 06/10 2.052 06/17 2.128 06/24 2.065 1994-Jul 07/01 2.183 07/08 2.087

  16. Natural Gas Futures Contract 2 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Week Of Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri 1994 Jan-10 to Jan-14 2.130 2.072 2.139 1994 Jan-17 to Jan-21 2.196 2.131 2.115 2.148 2.206 1994 Jan-24 to Jan-28 2.283 2.134 2.209 2.236 2.305 1994 Jan-31 to Feb- 4 2.329 2.388 2.352 2.252 2.198 1994 Feb- 7 to Feb-11 2.207 2.256 2.220 2.231 2.236 1994 Feb-14 to Feb-18 2.180 2.189 2.253 2.240 2.254 1994 Feb-21 to Feb-25 2.220 2.168 2.179 2.221 1994 Feb-28 to Mar- 4 2.165 2.146 2.139 2.126 2.144 1994 Mar- 7 to Mar-11 2.149 2.168 2.160 2.144 2.132 1994 Mar-14 to Mar-18

  17. Natural Gas Futures Contract 3 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Week Of Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri 1994 Jan-17 to Jan-21 2.019 2.043 2.103 1994 Jan-24 to Jan-28 2.162 2.071 2.119 2.128 2.185 1994 Jan-31 to Feb- 4 2.217 2.258 2.227 2.127 2.118 1994 Feb- 7 to Feb-11 2.137 2.175 2.162 2.160 2.165 1994 Feb-14 to Feb-18 2.140 2.145 2.205 2.190 2.190 1994 Feb-21 to Feb-25 2.180 2.140 2.148 2.186 1994 Feb-28 to Mar- 4 2.148 2.134 2.122 2.110 2.124 1994 Mar- 7 to Mar-11 2.129 2.148 2.143 2.135 2.125 1994 Mar-14 to Mar-18 2.111 2.137 2.177 2.152 2.130 1994 Mar-21 to Mar-25

  18. Natural Gas Futures Contract 4 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Week Of Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri 1993 Dec-20 to Dec-24 1.894 1.830 1.859 1.895 1993 Dec-27 to Dec-31 1.965 1.965 1.943 1.901 1994 Jan- 3 to Jan- 7 1.883 1.896 1.962 1.955 1.980 1994 Jan-10 to Jan-14 1.972 2.005 2.008 1.966 2.010 1994 Jan-17 to Jan-21 2.006 1.991 1.982 2.000 2.053 1994 Jan-24 to Jan-28 2.095 2.044 2.087 2.088 2.130 1994 Jan-31 to Feb- 4 2.157 2.185 2.157 2.075 2.095 1994 Feb- 7 to Feb-11 2.115 2.145 2.142 2.135 2.140 1994 Feb-14 to Feb-18 2.128 2.125 2.175 2.160 2.155 1994 Feb-21 to

  19. Kansas Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 1,018 1,034 1,019 2010's 1,019 1,020 1,022 1,020 1,021...

  20. Natural Gas Futures Contract 1 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Week Of Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri 1994 Jan-10 to Jan-14 2.194 2.268 1994 Jan-17 to Jan-21 2.360 2.318 2.252 2.250 2.305 1994 Jan-24 to Jan-28 2.470 2.246 2.359 2.417 2.528 1994 Jan-31 to Feb- 4 2.554 2.639 2.585 2.383 2.369 1994 Feb- 7 to Feb-11 2.347 2.411 2.358 2.374 2.356 1994 Feb-14 to Feb-18 2.252 2.253 2.345 2.385 2.418 1994 Feb-21 to Feb-25 2.296 2.232 2.248 2.292 1994 Feb-28 to Mar- 4 2.208 2.180 2.171 2.146 2.188 1994 Mar- 7 to Mar-11 2.167 2.196 2.156 2.116 2.096 1994 Mar-14 to Mar-18 2.050

  1. ,"Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Daily","3212016" ,"Release Date:","3232016" ,"Next Release Date:","3302016" ,"Excel File Name:","rngwhhdd.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http:tonto.eia.govdnavnghist...

  2. ,"Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Monthly","22016" ,"Release Date:","3232016" ,"Next Release Date:","3302016" ,"Excel File Name:","rngwhhdm.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http:tonto.eia.govdnavnghist...

  3. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    in this table do not include enclosed malls and strip malls. In the 1999 CBECS, total fuel oil consumption in malls was not statistically significant. (*)Value rounds to zero...

  4. Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Week Of Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri 1997 Jan- 6 to Jan-10 3.82 3.80 3.61 3.92 1997 Jan-13 to Jan-17 4.00 4.01 4.34 4.71 3.91 1997 Jan-20 to Jan-24 3.26 2.99 3.05 2.96 2.62 1997 Jan-27 to ...

  5. Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 1997-Jan 0110 3.79 0117 4.19 0124 2.98 0131 2.91 ...

  6. Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.49 2.09 2.27 2000's 4.31 3.96 3.38 5.47 5.89 8.69 6.73 6.97 8.86 3.94 2010's 4.37 4.00 2.75 ...

  7. Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1997 3.45 2.15 1.89 2.03 2.25 2.20 2.19 2.49 2.88 3.07 3.01 2.35 1998 2.09 2.23 2.24 2.43 2.14 2.17 2.17 1.85 2.02 1.91 2.12 ...

  8. Natural Gas Futures Contract 1 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 2.347 2.355 2.109 2.111 1.941 2.080 1.963 1.693 1.619 1.721 1.771 1.700 1995 1.426 1.439 1.534 1.660 1.707 1.634 1.494...

  9. Radiography used to image thermal explosions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    October » Radiography used to image thermal explosions Radiography used to image thermal explosions Researchers have gained an understanding of the mechanism of thermal explosions and have created a model capturing the stages of the explosion. October 9, 2012 Tabletop X-ray radiography of a thermal explosion. Tabletop X-ray radiography of a thermal explosion. Researchers have gained an understanding of the mechanism of thermal explosions and have created a model capturing the stages of the

  10. Analysis of Gas Turbine Thermal Performances | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis of Gas Turbine Thermal Performances

  11. Amulaire Thermal Technology | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Amulaire Thermal Technology Jump to: navigation, search Name: Amulaire Thermal Technology Address: 11555 Sorrento Valley Road Place: San Diego, California Zip: 92121 Region:...

  12. Materials Selection Considerations for Thermal Process Equipment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials Selection Considerations for Thermal Process Equipment: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief Materials Selection Considerations for Thermal Process Equipment:...

  13. Thermal-Mechanical Technologies | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of thermal-mechanical research includes: Single and two phase heat transfer Nanomaterial synthesis Heat transfer fluids Engine and power electronics cooling Thermal energy...

  14. Develop & evaluate materials & additives that enhance thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    evaluate materials & additives that enhance thermal & overcharge abuse Develop & evaluate materials & additives that enhance thermal & overcharge abuse 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program ...

  15. Develop & Evaluate Materials & Additives that Enhance Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluate Materials & Additives that Enhance Thermal & Overcharge Abuse Develop & Evaluate Materials & Additives that Enhance Thermal & Overcharge Abuse 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel ...

  16. turbine thermal index | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Turbine Thermal Management Fact Sheets Research Team Members Key Contacts Turbine Thermal Management The gas turbine is the workhorse of power generation, and technology advances...

  17. Nextreme Thermal Solutions Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nextreme Thermal Solutions Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Nextreme Thermal Solutions Inc Place: North Carolina Zip: 27709-3981 Product: String representation "Manufactures...

  18. Chemically homogeneous and thermally reversible oxidation of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Chemically homogeneous and thermally reversible oxidation of epitaxial graphene Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Chemically homogeneous and thermally reversible oxidation ...

  19. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Report about the Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization project, which focuses on assessing the Maximum Practicably Extractable Energy from the world's ocean thermal ...

  20. Stewart Thermal Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thermal Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Stewart Thermal Ltd Place: United Kingdom Sector: Biomass Product: Provides specialist advice in the field of biomass energy....

  1. NREL: Energy Storage - Energy Storage Thermal Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Thermal Management Infrared image of rectangular battery cell. Infrared thermal image of a lithium-ion battery cell with poor terminal design. Graph of relative ...

  2. National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Solar Thermal Test Facility - Sandia's Continuously Recirculating Falling-Particle Receiver Placed Atop the Solar Tower Sandia began first-of-its-kind testing using its continuously recirculating falling-particle receiver atop the National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF). The falling-particle receiver drops sand-like ceramic particles through NSTTF's concentrated sunlight beam, capturing and storing the heated particles in an insulated tank. Compared to conventional molten-salt

  3. Advanced Thermally Stable Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Boehman; C. Song; H. H. Schobert; M. M. Coleman; P. G. Hatcher; S. Eser

    1998-01-01

    The Penn State program in advanced thermally stable jet fuels has five components: 1) development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; 2) quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles during thermal stressing; 3) characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; 4) elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; and 5) assessment of the potential of producing high yields of cycloalkanes and hydroaromatics from coal.

  4. Lih thermal energy storage device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olszewski, Mitchell; Morris, David G.

    1994-01-01

    A thermal energy storage device for use in a pulsed power supply to store waste heat produced in a high-power burst operation utilizes lithium hydride as the phase change thermal energy storage material. The device includes an outer container encapsulating the lithium hydride and an inner container supporting a hydrogen sorbing sponge material such as activated carbon. The inner container is in communication with the interior of the outer container to receive hydrogen dissociated from the lithium hydride at elevated temperatures.

  5. Power Electronics Thermal Control (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narumanchi, S.

    2010-05-05

    Thermal management plays an important part in the cost of electric drives in terms of power electronics packaging. Very promising results have been obtained by using microporous coatings and skived surfaces in conjunction with single-phase and two-phase flows. Sintered materials and thermoplastics with embedded fibers show significant promise as thermal interface materials, or TIMs. Appropriate cooling technologies depend on the power electronics package application and reliability.

  6. Thermally activated technologies: Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this Technology Roadmap is to outline a set of actions for government and industry to develop thermally activated technologies for converting Americas wasted heat resources into a reservoir of pollution-free energy for electric power, heating, cooling, refrigeration, and humidity control. Fuel flexibility is important. The actions also cover thermally activated technologies that use fossil fuels, biomass, and ultimately hydrogen, along with waste heat.

  7. Thermal Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-11-21

    HEATS Project: UT Austin will demonstrate a high-energy density and low-cost thermal storage system that will provide efficient cabin heating and cooling for EVs. Compared to existing HVAC systems powered by electric batteries in EVs, the innovative hot-and-cold thermal batteries-based technology is expected to decrease the manufacturing cost and increase the driving range of next-generation EVs. These thermal batteries can be charged with off-peak electric power together with the electric batteries. Based on innovations in composite materials offering twice the energy density of ice and 10 times the thermal conductivity of water, these thermal batteries are expected to achieve a comparable energy density at 25% of the cost of electric batteries. Moreover, because UT Austins thermal energy storage systems are modular, they may be incorporated into the heating and cooling systems in buildings, providing further energy efficiencies and positively impacting the emissions of current building heating/cooling systems.

  8. Validation of thermal models for a prototypical MEMS thermal actuator.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert; Piekos, Edward Stanley; Serrano, Justin Raymond; Gorby, Allen D.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2008-09-01

    This report documents technical work performed to complete the ASC Level 2 Milestone 2841: validation of thermal models for a prototypical MEMS thermal actuator. This effort requires completion of the following task: the comparison between calculated and measured temperature profiles of a heated stationary microbeam in air. Such heated microbeams are prototypical structures in virtually all electrically driven microscale thermal actuators. This task is divided into four major subtasks. (1) Perform validation experiments on prototypical heated stationary microbeams in which material properties such as thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity are measured if not known and temperature profiles along the beams are measured as a function of electrical power and gas pressure. (2) Develop a noncontinuum gas-phase heat-transfer model for typical MEMS situations including effects such as temperature discontinuities at gas-solid interfaces across which heat is flowing, and incorporate this model into the ASC FEM heat-conduction code Calore to enable it to simulate these effects with good accuracy. (3) Develop a noncontinuum solid-phase heat transfer model for typical MEMS situations including an effective thermal conductivity that depends on device geometry and grain size, and incorporate this model into the FEM heat-conduction code Calore to enable it to simulate these effects with good accuracy. (4) Perform combined gas-solid heat-transfer simulations using Calore with these models for the experimentally investigated devices, and compare simulation and experimental temperature profiles to assess model accuracy. These subtasks have been completed successfully, thereby completing the milestone task. Model and experimental temperature profiles are found to be in reasonable agreement for all cases examined. Modest systematic differences appear to be related to uncertainties in the geometric dimensions of the test structures and in the thermal conductivity of the polycrystalline silicon test structures, as well as uncontrolled nonuniform changes in this quantity over time and during operation.

  9. Battery Thermal Management System Design Modeling (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G-H.; Pesaran, A.

    2006-10-01

    Presents the objectives and motivations for a battery thermal management vehicle system design study.

  10. Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Management Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon vss028_thornton_2010_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Motor Thermal Control Thermal Management of PHEV / EV Charging Systems Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration

  11. Thermal storage module for solar dynamic receivers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beatty, Ronald L. (Farragut, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1991-01-01

    A thermal energy storage system comprising a germanium phase change material and a graphite container.

  12. Thermal Decomposition of IMX-104: Ingredient Interactions Govern Thermal Insensitivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maharrey, Sean; Wiese-Smith, Deneille; Highley, Aaron M.; Steill, Jeffrey D.; Behrens, Richard; Kay, Jeffrey J.

    2015-04-01

    This report summarizes initial studies into the chemical basis of the thermal insensitivity of INMX-104. The work follows upon similar efforts investigating this behavior for another DNAN-based insensitive explosive, IMX-101. The experiments described demonstrate a clear similarity between the ingredient interactions that were shown to lead to the thermal insensitivity observed in IMX-101 and those that are active in IMX-104 at elevated temperatures. Specifically, the onset of decomposition of RDX is shifted to a lower temperature based on the interaction of the RDX with liquid DNAN. This early onset of decomposition dissipates some stored energy that is then unavailable for a delayed, more violent release.

  13. Device for thermal transfer and power generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, Stanton Earl (Northville, NY); Arik, Mehmet (Niskayuna, NY)

    2011-04-19

    A system is provided. The system includes a device that includes top and bottom thermally conductive substrates positioned opposite to one another, wherein a top surface of the bottom thermally conductive substrate is substantially atomically flat and a thermal blocking layer disposed between the top and bottom thermally conductive substrates. The device also includes top and bottom electrodes separated from one another between the top and bottom thermally conductive substrates to define a tunneling path, wherein the top electrode is disposed on the thermal blocking layer and the bottom electrode is disposed on the bottom thermally conductive substrate.

  14. Thermal conductivity of semitransparent materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fine, H.A.; Jury, S.H.; McElroy, D.L.; Yarbrough, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    The three-region approximate solution for coupled conductive and radiative heat transfer and an exact solution for uncoupled conductive and radiative heat transfer in a grey semitransparent medium bounded by infinite parallel isothermal plates are employed to establish the dependence of the apparent thermal conductivity of semitransparent materials on other material properties and boundary conditions. An application of the analyses which uses apparent thermal conductivity versus density data to predict the dependence of apparent thermal conductivity on temperature is demonstrated. The predictions for seven sets of R-11 fiberglass and rock wool insulations agree with published measured values to within the limits of experimental error (+- 3%). Agreement for three sets of R-19 fiberglass insulations was, however, not good.

  15. Thermal trim for a luminaire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel; Harrison, Robert; Jeswani, Anil

    2013-02-19

    A luminaire with a thermal pathway to reduce the junction temperature of the luminaire's light source, and methods for so doing, are disclosed. The luminaire includes a can, a light engine, and a trim, that define a substantially continuous thermal pathway from the light engine to a surrounding environment. The can defines a can cavity and includes a can end region. The light engine is within the can cavity and includes a light source and a heat sink, including a heat sink end region, coupled thereto. The trim is at least partially disposed within the can cavity and includes a first trim end region coupled to the heat sink end region and a second trim end region coupled to the can end region. Thermal interface material may be located between: the heat sink and the trim, the trim and the can, and/or the heat sink and the light source.

  16. Patent: MEMS based pyroelectric thermal energy harvester | DOEpatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MEMS based pyroelectric thermal energy harvester Citation Details Title: MEMS based pyroelectric thermal energy harvester

  17. What can recycling in thermal reactors accomplish?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piet, Steven J.; Matthern, Gretchen E.; Jacobson, Jacob J.

    2007-07-01

    Thermal recycle provides several potential benefits when used as stop-gap, mixed, or backup recycling to recycling in fast reactors. These three roles involve a mixture of thermal and fast recycling; fast reactors are required to some degree at some time. Stop-gap uses thermal reactors only until fast reactors are adequately deployed and until any thermal-recycle-only facilities have met their economic lifetime. Mixed uses thermal and fast reactors symbiotically for an extended period of time. Backup uses thermal reactors only if problems later develop in the fast reactor portion of a recycling system. Thermal recycle can also provide benefits when used as pure thermal recycling, with no intention to use fast reactors. However, long term, the pure thermal recycling approach is inadequate to meet several objectives. (authors)

  18. HYDROGEOLOGY OF THE THERMAL LANDSLIDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vantine, J.

    1985-01-22

    The large Thermal Landslide overlies the initial area of geothermal development at The Geysers. The landslide is waterbearing while the underlying Franciscan formation bedrock units are essentially non-waterbearing except where affected by hydrothermal alteration. Perched ground water moving through the landslide is heated prior to discharge as spring flow.

  19. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lockerby, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is reviewed briefly. The two types of OTEC system (open and closed) are described and limitations are pointed out. A bibliography of 148 references on OTEC is given for the time period 1975 to 1980. Entries are arranged alphabetically according to the author's name. (MJJ)

  20. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schobert, H.H.

    1999-01-31

    The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume (Sections 1 through 5).

  1. Solar energy thermalization and storage device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McClelland, John F. (Ames, IA)

    1981-09-01

    A passive solar thermalization and thermal energy storage assembly which is visually transparent. The assembly consists of two substantial parallel, transparent wall members mounted in a rectangular support frame to form a liquid-tight chamber. A semitransparent thermalization plate is located in the chamber, substantially paralled to and about equidistant from the transparent wall members to thermalize solar radiation which is stored in a transparent thermal energy storage liquid which fills the chamber. A number of the devices, as modules, can be stacked together to construct a visually transparent, thermal storage wall for passive solar-heated buildings.

  2. Solar energy thermalization and storage device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McClelland, J.F.

    A passive solar thermalization and thermal energy storage assembly which is visually transparent is described. The assembly consists of two substantial parallel, transparent wall members mounted in a rectangular support frame to form a liquid-tight chamber. A semitransparent thermalization plate is located in the chamber, substantially paralled to and about equidistant from the transparent wall members to thermalize solar radiation which is stored in a transparent thermal energy storage liquid which fills the chamber. A number of the devices, as modules, can be stacked together to construct a visually transparent, thermal storage wall for passive solar-heated buildings.

  3. Conceptual Thermal Treatment Technologies Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suer, A.

    1996-02-28

    This report presents a conceptual Thermal Treatment Technologies Feasibility Study (FS) for the Savannah River Site (SRS) focusing exclusively on thermal treatment technologies for contaminated soil, sediment, or sludge remediation projects.

  4. Thermal synthesis apparatus and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R.; Detering, Brent A.

    2004-11-23

    An apparatus for thermal conversion of one or more reactants to desired end products includes an insulated reactor chamber having a high temperature heater such as a plasma torch at its inlet end and, optionally, a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. In a thermal conversion method, reactants are injected upstream from the reactor chamber and thoroughly mixed with the plasma stream before entering the reactor chamber. The reactor chamber has a reaction zone that is maintained at a substantially uniform temperature. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle, which "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage, or is discharged through an outlet pipe without the convergent-divergent nozzle. The desired end products are then separated from the gaseous stream.

  5. Microwavable thermal energy storage material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1998-09-08

    A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments. 3 figs.

  6. Microwavable thermal energy storage material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    1998-09-08

    A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene-vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments.

  7. Tunable Thermal Link - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tunable Thermal Link Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryThermal links are incorporated into everything from frying pans to internal combustion engine spark plugs and heat sinks on integrated circuit boards. Typically, the link's thermal resistance is fixed and cannot be tuned after manufacture. While the ability to tune electrical resistors is widespread, virtually no tunable thermal resistance link exists, which has held back the

  8. Battery Thermal Management System Design Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.

    2006-11-01

    Looks at the impact of cooling strategies with air and both direct and indirect liquid cooling for battery thermal management.

  9. Battery Thermal Modeling and Testing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.

    2011-05-01

    This presentation summarizes NREL battery thermal modeling and testing work for the DOE Annual Merit Review, May 9, 2011.

  10. Thermal Spray Coatings for Coastal Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, BernardS. Jr.; Cramer, S.D.; Bullard, S.J.

    1997-11-01

    Several protection strategies for coastal infrastructure using thermal-spray technology are presented from research at the Albany Research Center. Thermal-sprayed zinc coatings for anodes in impressed current cathodic protection systems are used to extend the service lives of reinforced concrete bridges along the Oregon coast. Thermal-sprayed Ti is examined as an alternative to the consumable zinc anode. Sealed thermal-sprayed Al is examined as an alternative coating to zinc dust filled polyurethane paint for steel structures.

  11. NREL: Transportation Research - Vehicle Thermal Management Facilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicle Thermal Management Facilities Image of a building with two semi truck cabs in front of it. The VTIF is used for thermal testing of every class of on-road vehicle. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) uses research and testing facilities to develop advanced thermal management technologies for vehicles. Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility The Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility features a test pad to conduct vehicle thermal soak testing

  12. Thermomechanical measurements on thermal microactuators. (Technical Report)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Thermomechanical measurements on thermal microactuators. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermomechanical measurements on thermal microactuators. Due to the coupling of thermal and mechanical behaviors at small scales, a Campaign 6 project was created to investigate thermomechanical phenomena in microsystems. This report documents experimental measurements conducted under the auspices of this project. Since thermal and mechanical measurements

  13. Thermal well-test method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin-Fu; Doughty, Christine A.

    1985-01-01

    A well-test method involving injection of hot (or cold) water into a groundwater aquifer, or injecting cold water into a geothermal reservoir. By making temperature measurements at various depths in one or more observation wells, certain properties of the aquifer are determined. These properties, not obtainable from conventional well test procedures, include the permeability anisotropy, and layering in the aquifer, and in-situ thermal properties. The temperature measurements at various depths are obtained from thermistors mounted in the observation wells.

  14. Electric thermal storage demonstration program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    In early 1989, MMWEC, a joint action agency comprised of 30 municipal light departments in Massachusetts and one affiliate in Rhode Island, responded to a Department of Energy request to proposal for the Least Cost Utility Planning program. The MMWEC submission was for the development of a program, focused on small rural electric utilities, to promote the use of electric thermal storage heating systems in residential applications. In this progress report, cost savings at Bolyston light department is discussed. (JL)

  15. Electric thermal storage demonstration program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    In early 1989, MMWEC, a joint action agency comprised of 30 municipal light departments in Massachusetts and one affiliate in Rhode Island, responded to a Department of Energy request to proposal for the Least Cost Utility Planning program. The MMWEC submission was for the development of a program, focused on small rural electric utilities, to promote the use of electric thermal storage heating systems in residential applications. In this progress report, cost savings at Bolyston light department is discussed. (JL)

  16. Thermal Stability Of Formohydroxamic Acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fondeur, F. F.; Rudisill, T. S.

    2011-10-21

    The thermal stability of formohydroxamic acid (FHA) was evaluated to address the potential for exothermic decomposition during storage and its use in the uranium extraction process. Accelerating rate calorimetry showed rapid decomposition at a temperature above 65 {degree}?C; although, the rate of pressure rise was greater than two orders of magnitude less than the lower bound for materials which have no explosive properties with respect to transportation. FHA solutions in water and nitric acid did not reach runaway conditions until 150 {degree}?C. Analysis by differential scanning calorimetry showed that FHA melted at 67 {degree}?C and thermally decomposed at 90 {degree}?C with an enthalpy of -1924 J/g. The energics of the FHA thermal decomposition are comparable to those measured for aqueous solutions of hydroxylamine nitrate. Solid FHA should be stored in a location where the temperature does not exceed 20-25 {degree}?C. As a best practice, the solid material should be stored in a climate-controlled environment such as a refrigerator or freezer. FHA solutions in water are not susceptible to degradation by acid hydrolysis and are the preferred way to handle FHA prior to use.

  17. Overview of Thermal Management | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal Management Overview of Thermal Management 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon vss_13_routbort.pdf More Documents & Publications Nanofluids for Thermal Conditions … Underhood Heat Transfer Nanofluid Development for Engine Cooling Systems Erosion of Radiator Materials by Nanofluids

  18. Electric Motor Thermal Management | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ape030_bennion_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Electric Motor Thermal Management Electric Motor Thermal Management Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Electric Motor Thermal Management R&D

  19. Electric Motor Thermal Management | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon ape030_bennion_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Motor Thermal Control Electric Motor Thermal Management Electric Motor Thermal Management

  20. Development of a Thermal Transport Database for Air Plasma Sprayed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Due to the complicated microstructure and other processing related parameters, thermal ... thermal diffusivity and thermal barrier coating Word Cloud More Like This Full Text ...

  1. Biomass Thermal Energy Council (BTEC) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thermal Energy Council (BTEC) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Biomass Thermal Energy Council (BTEC) AgencyCompany Organization: Biomass Thermal Energy...

  2. Thermal Multi-layer Coating Analysis | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Multi-layer Coating Analysis Key to Argonne's thermal multi-layer analysis method is the numerical algorithm used for automated analysis of thermal imaging data for...

  3. Sandia Energy - Thermal Pulses for Boeing Test Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Pulses for Boeing Test Article Home Renewable Energy Energy Partnership News EC Concentrating Solar Power Solar National Solar Thermal Test Facility Thermal Pulses for...

  4. Linearly Polarized Thermal Emitter for More Efficient Thermophotovolta...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Solar Thermal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Linearly Polarized Thermal Emitter for More Efficient Thermophotovoltaic Devices...

  5. Development of an Airless Thermal Enhancer | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development of a Thermal Enhancer for Combined Partial Range Burning and Hydrocarbon Dosing Thermal Enhancer - Airless Exhaust Thermal Management Device SCR...

  6. The effect of thermal aging on the thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed and EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinwiddie, R.B.; Beecher, S.C.; Porter, W.D.; Nagaraj, B.A.

    1996-05-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) applied to the hot gas components of turbine engines lead to enhanced fuel efficiency and component reliability. Understanding the mechanisms which control the thermal transport behavior of the TBCs is of primary importance. Electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EV-PVD) and air plasma spraying (APS) are the two most commonly used coating techniques. These techniques produce coatings with unique microstructures which control their performance and stability. The density of the APS coatings was controlled by varying the spray parameters. The low density APS yttria-partially stabilized zirconia (yttria-PSZ) coatings yielded a thermal conductivity that is lower than both the high density APS coatings and the EB-PVD coatings. The thermal aging of both fully and partially stabilized zirconia are compared. The thermal conductivity of the coatings permanently increases upon exposure to high temperatures. These increases are attributed to microstructural changes within the coatings. This increase in thermal conductivity can be modeled using a relationship which depends on both the temperature and time of exposure. Although the EB-PVD coatings are less susceptible to thermal aging effects, results suggest that they typically have a higher thermal conductivity than APS coatings before thermal aging. The increases in thermal conductivity due to thermal aging for plasma sprayed partially stabilized zirconia have been found to be less than for plasma sprayed fully stabilized zirconia coatings.

  7. Waste Heat Recovery and Recycling in Thermal Separation Processes: Distillation, Multi-Effect Evaporation (MEE) and Crystallization Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emmanuel A. Dada; Chandrakant B. Panchal; Luke K. Achenie; Aaron Reichl; Chris C. Thomas

    2012-12-03

    Evaporation and crystallization are key thermal separation processes for concentrating and purifying inorganic and organic products with energy consumption over 1,000 trillion Btu/yr. This project focused on a challenging task of recovering low-temperature latent heat that can have a paradigm shift in the way thermal process units will be designed and operated to achieve high-energy efficiency and significantly reduce the carbon footprint as well as water footprint. Moreover, this project has evaluated the technical merits of waste-heat powered thermal heat pumps for recovery of latent heat from distillation, multi-effect evaporation (MEE), and crystallization processes and recycling into the process. The Project Team has estimated the potential energy, economics and environmental benefits with the focus on reduction in CO2 emissions that can be realized by 2020, assuming successful development and commercialization of the technology being developed. Specifically, with aggressive industry-wide applications of heat recovery and recycling with absorption heat pumps, energy savings of about 26.7 trillion Btu/yr have been estimated for distillation process. The direct environmental benefits of this project are the reduced emissions of combustible products. The estimated major reduction in environmental pollutants in the distillation processes is in CO2 emission equivalent to 3.5 billion lbs/year. Energy consumption associated with water supply and treatments can vary between 1,900 kWh and 23,700 kWh per million-gallon water depending on sources of natural waters [US DOE, 2006]. Successful implementation of this technology would significantly reduce the demand for cooling-tower waters, and thereby the use and discharge of water treatment chemicals. The Project Team has also identified and characterized working fluid pairs for the moderate-temperature heat pump. For an MEE process, the two promising fluids are LiNO3+KNO3+NANO3 (53:28:19 ) and LiNO3+KNO3+NANO2(53:35:12). And for an H2O2 distillation process, the two promising fluids are Trifluoroethanol (TFE) + Triethylene Glycol Dimethyl ether (DMETEG) and Ammonia+ Water. Thermo-physical properties calculated by Aspen+ are reasonably accurate. Documentation of the installation of pilot-plants or full commercial units were not found in the literature for validating thermo-physical properties in an operating unit. Therefore, it is essential to install a pilot-scale unit to verify thermo-physical properties of working fluid pairs and validate the overall efficiency of the thermal heat pump at temperatures typical of distillation processes. For an HO2 process, the ammonia-water heat pump system is more compact and preferable than the TFE-DMETEG heat pump. The ammonia-water heat pump is therefore recommended for the H2O2 process. Based on the complex nature of the heat recovery system, we anticipated that capital costs could make investments financially unattractive where steam costs are low, especially where co-generation is involved. We believe that the enhanced heat transfer equipment has the potential to significantly improve the performance of TEE crystallizers, independent of the absorption heat-pump recovery system. Where steam costs are high, more detailed design/cost engineering will be required to verify the economic viability of the technology. Due to the long payback period estimated for the TEE open system, further studies on the TEE system are not warranted unless there are significant future improvements to heat pump technology. For the H2O2 distillation cycle heat pump waste heat recovery system, there were no significant process constraints and the estimated 5 years payback period is encouraging. We therefore recommend further developments of application of the thermal heat pump in the H2O2 distillation process with the focus on the technical and economic viability of heat exchangers equipped with the state-of-the-art enhancements. This will require additional funding for a prototype unit to validate enhanced thermal performances of heat transfer equipment, evaluate the fouling characteristics in field testing, and remove the uncertainty factors included in the estimated payback period for the H2O2 distillation system.

  8. Thermal wake/vessel detection technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roskovensky, John K. (Albuquerque, NM); Nandy, Prabal (Albuquerque, NM); Post, Brian N (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-01-10

    A computer-automated method for detecting a vessel in water based on an image of a portion of Earth includes generating a thermal anomaly mask. The thermal anomaly mask flags each pixel of the image initially deemed to be a wake pixel based on a comparison of a thermal value of each pixel against other thermal values of other pixels localized about each pixel. Contiguous pixels flagged by the thermal anomaly mask are grouped into pixel clusters. A shape of each of the pixel clusters is analyzed to determine whether each of the pixel clusters represents a possible vessel detection event. The possible vessel detection events are represented visually within the image.

  9. Thermal Shock-resistant Cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Gill, S.

    2012-02-01

    We studied the effectiveness of sodium silicate-activated Class F fly ash in improving the thermal shock resistance and in extending the onset of hydration of Secar #80 refractory cement. When the dry mix cement, consisting of Secar #80, Class F fly ash, and sodium silicate, came in contact with water, NaOH derived from the dissolution of sodium silicate preferentially reacted with Class F fly ash, rather than the #80, to dissociate silicate anions from Class F fly ash. Then, these dissociated silicate ions delayed significantly the hydration of #80 possessing a rapid setting behavior. We undertook a multiple heating -water cooling quenching-cycle test to evaluate the cements resistance to thermal shock. In one cycle, we heated the 200 and #61616;C-autoclaved cement at 500 and #61616;C for 24 hours, and then the heated cement was rapidly immersed in water at 25 and #61616;C. This cycle was repeated five times. The phase composition of the autoclaved #80/Class F fly ash blend cements comprised four crystalline hydration products, boehmite, katoite, hydrogrossular, and hydroxysodalite, responsible for strengthening cement. After a test of 5-cycle heat-water quenching, we observed three crystalline phase-transformations in this autoclaved cement: boehmite and #61614; and #61543;-Al2O3, katoite and #61614; calcite, and hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite. Among those, the hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite transformation not only played a pivotal role in densifying the cementitious structure and in sustaining the original compressive strength developed after autoclaving, but also offered an improved resistance of the #80 cement to thermal shock. In contrast, autoclaved Class G well cement with and without Class F fly ash and quartz flour failed this cycle test, generating multiple cracks in the cement. The major reason for such impairment was the hydration of lime derived from the dehydroxylation of portlandite formed in the autoclaved cement, causing its volume to expand.

  10. Thermal well-test method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.F.; Doughty, C.A.

    1984-02-24

    A well-test method involving injection of hot (or cold) water into a groundwater aquifer, or injecting cold water into a geothermal reservoir is disclosed. By making temperature measurements at various depths in one or more observation wells, certain properties of the aquifer are determined. These properties, not obtainable from conventional well test procedures, include the permeability anisotropy, and layering in the aquifer, and in-situ thermal properties. The temperature measurements at various depths are obtained from thermistors mounted in the observation wells.

  11. Thermal Analysis of Closed Systems

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1987-10-01

    TAP-LOOP is a finite-difference program designed for steady-state and transient thermal analysis of recirculating fluid loops and associated heat transfer equipment; however, it is not limited to loop analysis. TAP-LOOP was developed to perform scoping and conceptual design analyses for closed test loops in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), but it can handle a variety of problems which can be described in terms of potentials, sources, sinks, and storage including, in addition to heatmore » transfer problems, studies of potential fluid flow, electrical networks, and stress analysis.« less

  12. Neutrino Physics with Thermal Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nucciotti, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano Bicocca and INFN Sezione di Milano-Bicocca Piazza della Scienza, 3, 20126 Milano (Italy)

    2009-11-09

    The investigation of fundamental neutrino properties like its mass and its nature calls for the design of a new generation of experiments. High sensitivity, high energy resolution, and versatility together with the possibility of a simple multiplexing scheme are the key features of future detectors for these experiments. Thermal detectors can combine all these features. This paper reviews the status and the perspectives for what concerns the application of this type of detectors to neutrino physics, focusing on direct neutrino mass measurements and neutrinoless double beta decay searches.

  13. Changes in energy intensity in the manufacturing sector 1985--1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-15

    In this report, energy intensity is defined as the ratio of energy consumption per unit of output. Output is measured as the constant dollar of value of shipments and receipts, and two measures of energy consumption are presented in British thermal units (Btu): Offsite-Produced Energy and Total Inputs of Energy. A decrease in energy intensity from one period to another suggests an increase in energy efficiency, and vice versa. Energy efficiency can be defined and measured in various ways. Certain concepts of energy efficiency, especially those limited to equipment efficiencies, cannot be measured over time using changes in energy-intensity ratios. While improved energy efficiency will tend to reduce energy intensity, it is also true that a change in energy intensity can be due to factors unrelated to energy efficiency. For this report, energy intensity is used as a surrogate measure for energy efficiency, based on industry knowledge and current methodological analyses.

  14. Thermal Interface Materials for Power Electronics Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narumanchi, S.; Mihalic, M.; Kelly, K.; Eesley, G.

    2008-07-01

    The thermal resistance of the thermal interface material layer greatly affects the maximum temperature of the power electronics.

  15. Develop and Evaluate Materials and Additives that Enhance Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Develop & evaluate materials & additives that enhance thermal & overcharge abuse Develop & Evaluate Materials & Additives that Enhance Thermal & ...

  16. Next-Generation LED Package Architectures Enabled by Thermally...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    LED Package Architectures Enabled by Thermally Conductive Transparent Encapsulants Next-Generation LED Package Architectures Enabled by Thermally Conductive Transparent ...

  17. Develop and Evaluate Materials and Additives that Enhance Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Develop & Evaluate Materials & Additives that Enhance Thermal & Overcharge Abuse Develop & Evaluate Materials & Additives that Enhance Thermal & Overcharge Abuse High Voltage ...

  18. High thermal expansion, sealing glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, R.K.; Kovacic, L.

    1993-11-16

    A glass composition is described for hermetically sealing to high thermal expansion materials such as aluminum alloys, stainless steels, copper, and copper/beryllium alloys, which includes between about 10 and about 25 mole percent Na[sub 2]O, between about 10 and about 25 mole percent K[sub 2]O, between about 5 and about 15 mole percent Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], between about 35 and about 50 mole percent P[sub 2]O[sub 5] and between about 5 and about 15 mole percent of one of PbO, BaO, and mixtures thereof. The composition, which may also include between 0 and about 5 mole percent Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] and between 0 and about 10 mole percent B[sub 2]O[sub 3], has a thermal expansion coefficient in a range of between about 160 and 210[times]10[sup [minus]7]/C and a dissolution rate in a range of between about 2[times]10[sup [minus]7] and 2[times]10[sup [minus]9]g/cm[sup 2]-min. This composition is suitable to hermetically seal to metallic electrical components which will be subjected to humid environments over an extended period of time.

  19. High thermal expansion, sealing glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, Richard K. (Albuquerque, NM); Kovacic, Larry (Albuquerque, NM)

    1993-01-01

    A glass composition for hermetically sealing to high thermal expansion materials such as aluminum alloys, stainless steels, copper, and copper/beryllium alloys, which includes between about 10 and about 25 mole percent Na.sub.2 O, between about 10 and about 25 mole percent K.sub.2 O, between about 5 and about 15 mole percent Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, between about 35 and about 50 mole percent P.sub.2 O.sub.5 and between about 5 and about 15 mole percent of one of PbO, BaO, and mixtures thereof. The composition, which may also include between 0 and about 5 mole percent Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and between 0 and about 10 mole percent B.sub.2 O.sub.3, has a thermal expansion coefficient in a range of between about 160 and 210.times.10-7/.degree.C. and a dissolution rate in a range of between about 2.times.10.sup.- 7 and 2.times.10.sup.-9 g/cm.sup.2 -min. This composition is suitable to hermetically seal to metallic electrical components which will be subjected to humid environments over an extended period of time.

  20. Ultra low thermal expansion, highly thermal shock resistant ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Limaye, Santosh Y. (1440 Sandpiper Cir. #38, Salt Lake City, UT 84117)

    1996-01-01

    Three families of ceramic compositions having the given formula: .phi..sub.1+X Zr.sub.4 P.sub.6-2X Si.sub.2X O.sub.24, .phi..sub.1+X Zr.sub.4-2X Y.sub.2X P.sub.6 O.sub.24 and .phi..sub.1+X Zr.sub.4-X Y.sub.X P.sub.6-2X Si.sub.X O.sub.24 wherein .phi. is either Strontium or Barium and X has a value from about 0.2 to about 0.8 have been disclosed. Ceramics formed from these compositions exhibit very low, generally near neutral, thermal expansion over a wide range of elevated temperatures.

  1. Ultra low thermal expansion, highly thermal shock resistant ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Limaye, S.Y.

    1996-01-30

    Three families of ceramic compositions having the given formula: {phi}{sub 1+X}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 6{minus}2X}Si{sub 2X}O{sub 24}, {phi}{sub 1+X}Zr{sub 4{minus}2X}Y{sub 2X}P{sub 6}O{sub 24} and {phi}{sub 1+X}Zr{sub 4{minus}X}Y{sub X}P{sub 6{minus}2X}Si{sub X}O{sub 24} wherein {phi} is either strontium or barium and X has a value from about 0.2 to about 0.8 have been disclosed. Ceramics formed from these compositions exhibit very low, generally near neutral, thermal expansion over a wide range of elevated temperatures. 7 figs.

  2. AN OBSERVED CORRELATION BETWEEN THERMAL AND NON-THERMAL EMISSION IN

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GAMMA-RAY BURSTS (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect AN OBSERVED CORRELATION BETWEEN THERMAL AND NON-THERMAL EMISSION IN GAMMA-RAY BURSTS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: AN OBSERVED CORRELATION BETWEEN THERMAL AND NON-THERMAL EMISSION IN GAMMA-RAY BURSTS Recent observations by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have confirmed the existence of thermal and non-thermal components in the prompt photon spectra of some gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Through an analysis of six bright Fermi

  3. Pressurized electrolysis stack with thermal expansion capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourgeois, Richard Scott

    2015-07-14

    The present techniques provide systems and methods for mounting an electrolyzer stack in an outer shell so as to allow for differential thermal expansion of the electrolyzer stack and shell. Generally, an electrolyzer stack may be formed from a material with a high coefficient of thermal expansion, while the shell may be formed from a material having a lower coefficient of thermal expansion. The differences between the coefficients of thermal expansion may lead to damage to the electrolyzer stack as the shell may restrain the thermal expansion of the electrolyzer stack. To allow for the differences in thermal expansion, the electrolyzer stack may be mounted within the shell leaving a space between the electrolyzer stack and shell. The space between the electrolyzer stack and the shell may be filled with a non-conductive fluid to further equalize pressure inside and outside of the electrolyzer stack.

  4. Plasma-Thermal Synthesis - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Synthesis Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary INL's Plasma-Thermal Synthesis process improves the conversion process for natural gas into liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Description This process provides a method and apparatus for increasing acetylene yield from the thermal conversion of natural gas. The reactants inserted into the reactor chamber are applied at a high temperature of ionized gas. At this time, the reactants are changed to

  5. A nanostructure thermal property measurement platform. (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect A nanostructure thermal property measurement platform. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A nanostructure thermal property measurement platform. Measurements of the electrical and thermal transport properties of one-dimensional nanostructures (e.g., nanotubes and nanowires) typically are obtained without detailed knowledge of the specimen's atomic-scale structure or defects. To address this deficiency we have developed a microfabricated, chip-based characterization

  6. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators "This fact sheet describes a scattering solar thermal concentrators project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by the Pennsylvania State University, is working to demonstrate a new, scattering-based approach to concentrating sunlight that aims to improve the overall performance and reliability of the collector field. The research team aims to show

  7. ARM - Lesson Plans: Thermal Expansion of Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Expansion of Water Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Lesson Plans: Thermal Expansion of Water Objective The objective of this activity is to demonstrate the concept of thermal expansion of water when heated. Materials Each student or group of students will need the

  8. NREL: Transportation Research - Electric Motor Thermal Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electric Motor Thermal Management A photo of a piece of laboratory testing equipment. NREL research in electric motors is helping to improve the performance and reliability of electric-drive vehicles. Photo by Kevin Bennion, NREL NREL's electric motor thermal management research generates experimental data and simulation processes for the modeling, analysis, design, and construction of new electric motors. Electric motor thermal management involves a multifaceted interaction of motor operating

  9. NREL: Transportation Research - Power Electronics Thermal Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Power Electronics Thermal Management A photo of water boiling in liquid cooling lab equipment. Power electronics thermal management research aims to help lower the cost and improve the performance of electric-drive vehicles. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL NREL investigates and develops thermal management strategies for power electronics systems that use wide-bandgap technology, which enables the development of devices that are smaller than those based on other materials, demonstrating

  10. NREL: Transportation Research - Thermal Performance Benchmarking

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Performance Benchmarking A photo of the internal components of an automotive inverter. NREL thermal performance benchmarking of state-of-the-art power electronics and electric motors helps guide future R&D efforts as well as industry product-development efforts. Photo by Scot Waye, NREL NREL's thermal performance benchmarking research focuses on state-of-the-art technologies used in electric-drive vehicle (EDV) systems. Benchmarks are shared with industry so that systems can be

  11. NREL: Transportation Research - Vehicle Thermal Management Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Publications Explore NREL's recent publications about light- and heavy-duty vehicle thermal management. For the complete collection of NREL's vehicle thermal management publications, search the NREL Publications Database. All Light-Duty Electric-Drive Light-Duty Conventional Heavy-Duty 2015 Combined Fluid Loop Thermal Management for Electric Drive Vehicle Range Improvement. Leighton, D. (2015). SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars - Mech. Syst. 8(2):711-720. (Presented at the SAE 2015 World Congress and

  12. Thermal Gradient Holes | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Holes Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Thermal Gradient Holes Details Activities (67) Areas (48) Regions (4) NEPA(33) Exploration...

  13. Chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    2003-01-01

    A chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor can be used to accurately measure fluid flow rate in a microanalytical system. The thermal flow sensor can be operated in either constant temperature or constant power mode and variants thereof. The chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor can be fabricated with the same MEMS technology as the rest of the microanlaytical system. Because of its low heat capacity, low-loss, and small size, the chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor is fast and efficient enough to be used in battery-powered, portable microanalytical systems.

  14. Thermal Management Using Carbon Nanotubes - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Management Using Carbon Nanotubes Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes...

  15. Thermal Scout Software - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Find More Like This Return to Search Thermal Scout Software National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Publications:...

  16. Thermal Waters of Nevada | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to library Report: Thermal Waters of Nevada Abstract Abstract unavailable. Authors Larry J. Garside and John H. Schilling Organization Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology Published...

  17. Thermal tolerant avicelase from acidothermus cellulolyticus ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Visit the NREL Commercialization and Technology Transfer Website Abstract: The invention provides a thermal tolerant (thermostable) cellulase that is a member of the...

  18. Thermal tolerant mannanase from acidothermus cellulolyticus ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Visit the NREL Commercialization and Technology Transfer Website Abstract: The invention provides a thermal tolerant mannanase that is a member of the glycoside hydrolase...

  19. Thermal tolerant exoglucanase from acidothermus cellulolyticus...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Visit the NREL Commercialization and Technology Transfer Website Abstract: The invention provides a thermal tolerant cellulase that is a member of the glycoside hydrolase...

  20. Thermal tolerant cellulase from acidothermus cellulolyticus ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Visit the NREL Commercialization and Technology Transfer Website Abstract: The invention provides a thermal tolerant cellulase that is a member of the glycoside hydrolase...

  1. Thermal tolerant cellulase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enzymes for the Conversion of Biomass to Biofuels and Chemicals Abstract: The invention provides a thermal tolerant cellulase that is a member of the glycoside hydrolase...

  2. Thermal tolerant avicelase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enzymes for the Conversion of Biomass to Biofuels and Chemicals Abstract: The invention provides a thermal tolerant (thermostable) cellulase, AviIII, that is a member of...

  3. Thermal tolerant exoglucanase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enzymes for the Conversion of Biomass to Biofuels and Chemicals Abstract: The invention provides a thermal tolerant cellulase that is a member of the glycoside hydrolase...

  4. Thermal tolerant mannanase from acidothermus cellulolyticus ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enzymes for the Conversion of Biomass to Biofuels and Chemicals Abstract: The invention provides a thermal tolerant mannanase that is a member of the glycoside hydrolase...

  5. Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration Integrated Power Module Cooling Vehicle Technologies Office: 2009 Advanced Power Electronics R&D Annual Progress Report

  6. Trinity Thermal Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems Place: Texas Zip: 75028 Product: Trinity Thermal Systems provides power storage products aimed a shifting energy use from air conditioning systems to off-peak times....

  7. Power Electronics and Thermal Management Breakout Sessions

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    THERMAL MANAGEMENT EV Everywhere Workshop July 24, 2012 Breakout Session 1 - Discussion of Performance Targets and Barriers Comments on the Achievability of the Targets *...

  8. ThermalSoul | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector: Solar Product: Austin, Texas-based parabolic trough-based solar thermal electrical generation systems maker. Coordinates: 30.267605, -97.742984 Show Map Loading...

  9. NRG Thermal LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: NRG Thermal LLC Place: Minneapolis, Minnesota Zip: 55402-2200 Product: A subsidiary of NRG Energy that specialises in district energy systems...

  10. Thermal Ion Dispersion | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dispersion Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Thermal Ion Dispersion Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) NEPA(0)...

  11. Solar Thermal Success Stories - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Success Stories 1 Success Stories Category Title and Abstract Company Laboratories Date Solar Thermal NREL and SkyFuel Partnership Reflects Bright Future for Solar Energy Huge ...

  12. Integrated External Aerodynamic and Underhood Thermal Analysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - PACCAR Integrated Underhood Thermal and External Aerodynamics- Cummins Cummins SuperTruck Program - Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean,...

  13. Design method addresses subsea pipeline thermal stresses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suman, J.C.; Karpathy, S.A. )

    1993-08-30

    Managing thermal stresses in subsea pipelines carrying heated petroleum requires extensive thermal-stress analysis to predict trouble spots and to ensure a design flexible enough to anticipate stresses and expansions. Explored here are various methods for resolving predicaments posed by thermal loads and resulting deformations by keeping the stresses and deformations in the pipeline system within allowable limits. The problems posed by thermal stresses are not unique; the solutions proposed here are. These methods are based on recent work performed for a major Asian subsea pipeline project currently under construction.

  14. Thermal Energy Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Thermal Energy Systems Place: London, United Kingdom Sector: Biomass Product: UK based company that constructs and installs boilers...

  15. Southside Thermal Services Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Services Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Southside Thermal Services Ltd Place: London, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: SW7 2AZ Product: String representation "Southside...

  16. Radiography used to image thermal explosions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and have created a model that captures both the gas-phase convection and subsonic solid-state combustion. Understanding the thermal response of energetic materials to...

  17. Geothermal Reconnaissance From Quantitative Analysis Of Thermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Exploration Activities Activities (1) Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Raft River Geothermal Area (1974-1976) Areas (1) Raft River Geothermal Area Regions (0)...

  18. Thermal breeder fuel enrichment zoning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Capossela, Harry J. (Schenectady, NY); Dwyer, Joseph R. (Albany, NY); Luce, Robert G. (Schenectady, NY); McCoy, Daniel F. (Latham, NY); Merriman, Floyd C. (Rotterdam, NY)

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the performance of a thermal breeder reactor having regions of higher than average moderator concentration are disclosed. The fuel modules of the reactor core contain at least two different types of fuel elements, a high enrichment fuel element and a low enrichment fuel element. The two types of fuel elements are arranged in the fuel module with the low enrichment fuel elements located between the high moderator regions and the high enrichment fuel elements. Preferably, shim rods made of a fertile material are provided in selective regions for controlling the reactivity of the reactor by movement of the shim rods into and out of the reactor core. The moderation of neutrons adjacent the high enrichment fuel elements is preferably minimized as by reducing the spacing of the high enrichment fuel elements and/or using a moderator having a reduced moderating effect.

  19. Thermal hydraulics development for CASL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowrie, Robert B

    2010-12-07

    This talk will describe the technical direction of the Thermal-Hydraulics (T-H) Project within the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) Department of Energy Innovation Hub. CASL is focused on developing a 'virtual reactor', that will simulate the physical processes that occur within a light-water reactor. These simulations will address several challenge problems, defined by laboratory, university, and industrial partners that make up CASL. CASL's T-H efforts are encompassed in two sub-projects: (1) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), (2) Interface Treatment Methods (ITM). The CFD subproject will develop non-proprietary, scalable, verified and validated macroscale CFD simulation tools. These tools typically require closures for their turbulence and boiling models, which will be provided by the ITM sub-project, via experiments and microscale (such as DNS) simulation results. The near-term milestones and longer term plans of these two sub-projects will be discussed.

  20. Thermal shock resistance ceramic insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, Chester S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Johnson, William R. (Maynardville, TN)

    1980-01-01

    Thermal shock resistant cermet insulators containing 0.1-20 volume % metal present as a dispersed phase. The insulators are prepared by a process comprising the steps of (a) providing a first solid phase mixture of a ceramic powder and a metal precursor; (b) heating the first solid phase mixture above the minimum decomposition temperature of the metal precursor for no longer than 30 minutes and to a temperature sufficiently above the decomposition temperature to cause the selective decomposition of the metal precursor to the metal to provide a second solid phase mixture comprising particles of ceramic having discrete metal particles adhering to their surfaces, said metal particles having a mean diameter no more than 1/2 the mean diameter of the ceramic particles, and (c) densifying the second solid phase mixture to provide a cermet insulator having 0.1-20 volume % metal present as a dispersed phase.

  1. Annual Energy Review 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E.

    2000-07-01

    A generation ago the Ford Foundation convened a group of experts to explore and assess the Nations energy future, and published their conclusions in A Time To Choose: Americas Energy Future (Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1974). The Energy Policy Project developed scenarios of U.S. potential energy use in 1985 and 2000. Now, with 1985 well behind us and 2000 nearly on the record books, it may be of interest to take a look back to see what actually happened and consider what it means for our future. The study group sketched three primary scenarios with differing assumptions about the growth of energy use. The Historical Growth scenario assumed that U.S. energy consumption would continue to expand by 3.4 percent per year, the average rate from 1950 to 1970. This scenario assumed no intentional efforts to change the pattern of consumption, only efforts to encourage development of our energy supply. The Technical Fix scenario anticipated a conscious national effort to use energy more efficiently through engineering know-how." The Zero Energy Growth scenario, while not clamping down on the economy or calling for austerity, incorporated the Technical Fix efficiencies plus additional efficiencies. This third path anticipated that economic growth would depend less on energy-intensive industries and more on those that require less energy, i.e., the service sector. In 2000, total energy consumption was projected to be 187 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in the Historical Growth case, 124 quadrillion Btu in the Technical Fix case, and 100 quadrillion Btu in the Zero Energy Growth case. The Annual Energy Review 1999 reports a preliminary total consumption for 1999 of 97 quadrillion Btu (see Table 1.1), and the Energy Information Administrations Short-Term Energy Outlook (April 2000) forecasts total energy consumption of 98 quadrillion Btu in 2000. What energy consumption path did the United States actually travel to get from 1974, when the scenarios were drawn, to the end of the century? What happened to the relationship between growth and energy consumption? How did the fuel mix change over this period? What are the effects of energy usage on our environment? What level of consumption will the United Statesand the worldrecord in the Annual Energy Review 2025? We present this edition of the Annual Energy Review to help investigate these important questions and to stimulate and inform our thinking about what the future holds.

  2. Thermal neutron shield and method of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metzger, Bert Clayton; Brindza, Paul Daniel

    2014-03-04

    A thermal neutron shield comprising boron shielding panels with a high percentage of the element Boron. The panel is least 46% Boron by weight which maximizes the effectiveness of the shielding against thermal neutrons. The accompanying method discloses the manufacture of boron shielding panels which includes enriching the pre-cursor mixture with varying grit sizes of Boron Carbide.

  3. Liquid cooled fiber thermal radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, B.L.

    1985-03-29

    A radiation-to-thermal receiver apparatus for collecting radiation and converting it to thermal energy is disclosed. The invention includes a fibrous mat material which captures radiation striking the receiver. Captured radiation is removed from the fibrous mat material by a transparent fluid within which the material is bathed.

  4. Thermal disconnect for high-temperature batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jungst, Rudolph George; Armijo, James Rudolph; Frear, Darrel Richard

    2000-01-01

    A new type of high temperature thermal disconnect has been developed to protect electrical and mechanical equipment from damage caused by operation at extreme temperatures. These thermal disconnects allow continuous operation at temperatures ranging from 250.degree. C. to 450.degree. C., while rapidly terminating operation at temperatures 50.degree. C. to 150.degree. C. higher than the continuous operating temperature.

  5. Apparatus and method for thermal power generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cohen, Paul (Pittsburgh, PA); Redding, Arnold H. (Export, PA)

    1978-01-01

    An improved thermal power plant and method of power generation which minimizes thermal stress and chemical impurity buildup in the vaporizing component, particularly beneficial under loss of normal feed fluid and startup conditions. The invention is particularly applicable to a liquid metal fast breeder reactor plant.

  6. Thermal neutron shield and method of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brindza, Paul Daniel; Metzger, Bert Clayton

    2013-05-28

    A thermal neutron shield comprising concrete with a high percentage of the element Boron. The concrete is least 54% Boron by weight which maximizes the effectiveness of the shielding against thermal neutrons. The accompanying method discloses the manufacture of Boron loaded concrete which includes enriching the concrete mixture with varying grit sizes of Boron Carbide.

  7. Liquid cooled fiber thermal radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, Barry L. (Del Mar, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A radiation-to-thermal receiver apparatus for collecting radiation and converting it to thermal energy is disclosed. The invention includes a fibrous mat material which captures radiation striking the receiver. Captured radiation is removed from the fibrous mat material by a transparent fluid within which the material is bathed.

  8. Thermal dissolution of solid fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.G. Gorlov

    2007-10-15

    The use of oil shales and coals in the processes of thermal dissolution is considered. It is shown that thermal dissolution is a mode of liquefaction of solid fossil fuels and can be used both independently and in combination with liquefaction of coals and processing of heavy petroleum residues.

  9. Analysis of thermally-degrading, confined HMX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, M.L.; Schmitt, R.G.; Renlund, A.M.

    1996-12-01

    The response of a thermally-degrading, confined HMX pellet is analyzed using a Reactive Elastic-Plastic (REP) constitutive model which is founded on the collapse and growth of internal inclusions resulting from physical and chemical processes such as forced displacement, thermal expansion, and/or decomposition. Axial stress predictions compare adequately to data. Deficiencies in the model and future directions are discussed.

  10. Low thermal stress ceramic turbine nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glezer, Boris (Del Mar, CA); Bagheri, Hamid (San Diego, CA); Fierstein, Aaron R. (San Diego, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A turbine nozzle vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The metallic components having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine nozzle vane assembly. The turbine nozzle vane assembly includes an outer shroud and an inner shroud having a plurality of vanes therebetween. Each of the plurality of vanes have a device for heating and cooling a portion of each of the plurality of vanes. Furthermore, the inner shroud has a plurality of bosses attached thereto. A cylindrical member has a plurality of grooves formed therein and each of the plurality of bosses are positioned in corresponding ones of the plurality of grooves. The turbine nozzle vane assembly provides an economical, reliable and effective ceramic component having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the other component.

  11. Modelling of the thermal behaviour of 48 inch cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clayton, D.G.; Hayes, T.J.; Livesey, E.; Lomas, J.; Price, M.

    1991-12-31

    This paper describes the current state of the analytical models being developed by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) to improve the understanding of the response of Uranium Hexafluoride containers engulfed in a fire. Details are given of the modeling methods used and physical processes simulated, together with some predictions from the models. Explanations for the differences between the predictions are presented as well as an outline for future development of the models.

  12. Plates for vacuum thermal fusion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A process for effectively bonding arbitrary size or shape substrates. The process incorporates vacuum pull down techniques to ensure uniform surface contact during the bonding process. The essence of the process for bonding substrates, such as glass, plastic, or alloys, etc., which have a moderate melting point with a gradual softening point curve, involves the application of an active vacuum source to evacuate interstices between the substrates while at the same time providing a positive force to hold the parts to be bonded in contact. This enables increasing the temperature of the bonding process to ensure that the softening point has been reached and small void areas are filled and come in contact with the opposing substrate. The process is most effective where at least one of the two plates or substrates contain channels or grooves that can be used to apply vacuum between the plates or substrates during the thermal bonding cycle. Also, it is beneficial to provide a vacuum groove or channel near the perimeter of the plates or substrates to ensure bonding of the perimeter of the plates or substrates and reduce the unbonded regions inside the interior region of the plates or substrates.

  13. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report Report about the Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization project, which focuses on assessing the Maximum Practicably Extractable Energy from the world's ocean thermal resources. PDF icon Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization More Documents & Publications OTEC resource assessment NELHA Creates the 'Green Energy

  14. Thermal conductivity measurements of Summit polycrystalline silicon.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clemens, Rebecca; Kuppers, Jaron D.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2006-11-01

    A capability for measuring the thermal conductivity of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) materials using a steady state resistance technique was developed and used to measure the thermal conductivities of SUMMiT{trademark} V layers. Thermal conductivities were measured over two temperature ranges: 100K to 350K and 293K to 575K in order to generate two data sets. The steady state resistance technique uses surface micromachined bridge structures fabricated using the standard SUMMiT fabrication process. Electrical resistance and resistivity data are reported for poly1-poly2 laminate, poly2, poly3, and poly4 polysilicon structural layers in the SUMMiT process from 83K to 575K. Thermal conductivity measurements for these polysilicon layers demonstrate for the first time that the thermal conductivity is a function of the particular SUMMiT layer. Also, the poly2 layer has a different variation in thermal conductivity as the temperature is decreased than the poly1-poly2 laminate, poly3, and poly4 layers. As the temperature increases above room temperature, the difference in thermal conductivity between the layers decreases.

  15. Thermal conductivity of tubrostratic carbon nanofiber networks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bauer, Matthew L.; Saltonstall, Chris B.; Leseman, Zayd C.; Beechem, Thomas E.; Hopkins, Patrick E.; Norris, Pamela M.

    2016-01-01

    Composite material systems composed of a matrix of nano materials can achieve combinations of mechanical and thermophysical properties outside the range of traditional systems. While many reports have studied the intrinsic thermal properties of individual carbon fibers, to be useful in applications in which thermal stability is critical, an understanding of heat transport in composite materials is required. In this work, air/ carbon nano fiber networks are studied to elucidate the system parameters influencing thermal transport. Sample thermal properties are measured with varying initial carbon fiber fill fraction, environment pressure, loading pressure, and heat treatment temperature through a bidirectional modificationmore » of the 3ω technique. The nanostructures of the individual fibers are characterized with small angle x-ray scattering and Raman spectroscopy providing insight to individual fiber thermal conductivity. Measured thermal conductivity varied from 0.010 W/(m K) to 0.070 W/(m K). An understanding of the intrinsic properties of the individual fibers and the interactions of the two phase composite is used to reconcile low measured thermal conductivities with predictive modeling. This methodology can be more generally applied to a wide range of fiber composite materials and their applications.« less

  16. Thermal properties of organic and inorganic aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrubesh, L.W.; Pekala, R.W. (Chemistry and Material Science Department, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551-9900 (United States))

    1994-03-01

    Aerogels are open-cell foams that have already been shown to be among the best thermal insulating solid materials known. This paper examines the three major contributions to thermal transport through porous materials; solid, gaseous, and radiative, to identify how to reduce the thermal conductivity of air-filled aerogels. We find that significant improvements in the thermal insulation property of aerogels are possible by; (i) employing materials with a low intrinsic solid conductivity, (ii) reducing the average pore size within aerogels, and (iii) affecting an increase of the infrared extinction in aerogels. Theoretically, polystyrene is the best of the organic materials and zirconia is the best inorganic material to use for the lowest achievable conductivity. Significant reduction of the thermal conductivity for all aerogel varieties is predicted with only a modest decrease of the average pore size. This might be achieved by modifying the sol-gel chemistry leading to aerogels. For example, a thermal resistance value of [ital R]=20 per inch would be possible for an air-filled resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogel at a density of 156 kg/m[sup 3], if the average pore size was less than 35 nm. An equation is included which facilitates the calculation of the optimum density for the minimum total thermal conductivity, for all varieties of aerogels.

  17. Electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faussurier, G. Blancard, C.; Combis, P.; Videau, L.

    2014-09-15

    Expressions for the electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas are derived combining the Chester-Thellung-Kubo-Greenwood approach and the Kramers approximation. The infrared divergence is removed assuming a Drude-like behaviour. An analytical expression is obtained for the Lorenz number that interpolates between the cold solid-state and the hot plasma phases. An expression for the electrical resistivity is proposed using the Ziman-Evans formula, from which the thermal conductivity can be deduced using the analytical expression for the Lorenz number. The present method can be used to estimate electrical and thermal conductivities of mixtures. Comparisons with experiment and quantum molecular dynamics simulations are done.

  18. Quantum chaos and thermalization in gapped systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rigol, Marcos [Department of Physics, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20057 (United States); Santos, Lea F. [Department of Physics, Yeshiva University, New York, New York 10016 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    We investigate the onset of thermalization and quantum chaos in finite one-dimensional gapped systems of hard-core bosons. Integrability in these systems is broken by next-nearest-neighbor repulsive interactions, which also generate a superfluid to insulator transition. By employing full exact diagonalization, we study chaos indicators and few-body observables. We show that with increasing system size, chaotic behavior is seen over a broader range of parameters and, in particular, deeper into the insulating phase. Concomitantly, we observe that, as the system size increases, the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis extends its range of validity inside the insulating phase and is accompanied by the thermalization of the system.

  19. Increased thermal conductivity monolithic zeolite structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James (Knoxville, TN); Klett, Lynn (Knoxville, TN); Kaufman, Jonathan (Leonardtown, MD)

    2008-11-25

    A monolith comprises a zeolite, a thermally conductive carbon, and a binder. The zeolite is included in the form of beads, pellets, powders and mixtures thereof. The thermally conductive carbon can be carbon nano-fibers, diamond or graphite which provide thermal conductivities in excess of about 100 W/mK to more than 1,000 W/mK. A method of preparing a zeolite monolith includes the steps of mixing a zeolite dispersion in an aqueous colloidal silica binder with a dispersion of carbon nano-fibers in water followed by dehydration and curing of the binder is given.

  20. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2015-08-25

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  1. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2015-02-24

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  2. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton; Stecher, Thomas; Seeley, Charles; Kuenzler, Glenn; Wolfe, Jr., Charles; Utturkar, Yogen; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2013-05-07

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  3. ARM - Evaluation Product - Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsMultispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Documentation Use the Data File Inventory tool to view data availability at the file level. Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) The Multispectral Thermal Imager is a space-based research and development project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Nonproliferation and National

  4. Method of making thermally removable epoxies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Russick, Edward M. (Rio Rancho, NM); McElhanon, James R. (Albuquerque, NM); Saunders, Randall S. (late of Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A method of making a thermally-removable epoxy by mixing a bis(maleimide) compound to a monomeric furan compound containing an oxirane group to form a di-epoxy mixture and then adding a curing agent at temperatures from approximately room temperature to less than approximately 90.degree. C. to form a thermally-removable epoxy. The thermally-removable epoxy can be easily removed within approximately an hour by heating to temperatures greater than approximately 90.degree. C. in a polar solvent. The epoxy material can be used in protecting electronic components that may require subsequent removal of the solid material for component repair, modification or quality control.

  5. Assessment of Hypothermia Blankets Using an Advanced Thermal Manikin: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J. P.; Barazanji, K.

    2009-07-01

    A thermal manikin developed at NREL helped to assess thermal blankets used to treat U.S. Army personnel suffering from hypothermia. The chemical blanket showed the best thermal performance.

  6. Experimental and numerical study of the effective thermal conductivity of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    silica nanocomposites with thermal boundary resistance (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Experimental and numerical study of the effective thermal conductivity of silica nanocomposites with thermal boundary resistance Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Experimental and numerical study of the effective thermal conductivity of silica nanocomposites with thermal boundary resistance The thermal interface resistance at the macro scale is mainly described by the physical gap between two

  7. Review of Thermally Activated Technologies, July 2004 | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Review of Thermally Activated Technologies, July 2004 Review of Thermally Activated Technologies, July 2004 At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TIAX reviewed the status of various Thermally Activated Technologies (TATs). This 2004 review includes both fuel-fired and waste-heat-fired applications of thermally-driven cooling systems, thermally-driven heat pumps, and thermally-driven bottoming cycles, primarily for use in commercial

  8. Thermal Imaging Technologies | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Thermal Imaging Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on...

  9. Variable emissivity laser thermal control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milner, Joseph R. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A laser thermal control system for a metal vapor laser maintains the wall mperature of the laser at a desired level by changing the effective emissivity of the water cooling jacket. This capability increases the overall efficiency of the laser.

  10. Made in Minnesota Solar Thermal Rebate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Beginning in 2014, the Department of Commerce is offering a Made in Minnesota Solar Thermal Rebate program, pursuant to H.F. 729 enacted in 2013. Rebates are 25% of installed costs, with a $2,500...

  11. Thermal barrier coating for alloy systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); White, Rickey L. (Harriman, TN); Dinwiddie, Ralph B. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01

    An alloy substrate is protected by a thermal barrier coating formed from a layer of metallic bond coat and a top coat formed from generally hollow ceramic particles dispersed in a matrix bonded to the bond coat.

  12. Colorado thermal spring water geothermometry (public dataset...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    chemical geothermometers for Colorado thermal springs. Data citations include Barrett, J. K. and Pearl, R. H. (1976), George, R. D., Curtis, H. A., Lester, O. C., Crook, J. K.,...

  13. Thermal Simulation of Advanced Powertrain Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under this project, the Volvo complete vehicle model was modified to include engine and exhaust system thermal outputs and cooling system to enable WHR simulations from a system perspective.

  14. Generic disposal concepts and thermal load management for larger...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Generic disposal concepts and thermal load management for larger waste packages. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Generic disposal concepts and thermal load management...

  15. Thermal Bypass Air Barriers in the 2009 International Energy...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Thermal Bypass Air Barriers in the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code - Building America Top Innovation Thermal Bypass Air Barriers in the 2009 International Energy ...

  16. Non-thermal plasma based technologies for the aftertreatment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    thermal plasma based technologies for the aftertreatment of diesel exhaust particulates and NOx Non-thermal plasma based technologies for the aftertreatment of diesel exhaust...

  17. Three-Dimensional Thermal Tomography Advances Cancer Treatment...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    treatment. A recent advance in thermal imaging allows more rapid, yet still non-invasive, detection. The process, called three-dimensional thermal tomography, or 3DTT, is...

  18. Future Diesel Engine Thermal Efficiency Improvement andn Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Engine Thermal Efficiency Improvement andn Emissions Control Technology Future Diesel Engine Thermal Efficiency Improvement andn Emissions Control Technology 2005 Diesel...

  19. Simulation Tools for Modeling Thermal Spallation Drilling on...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Simulation Tools for Modeling Thermal Spallation Drilling on Multiple Scales Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Simulation Tools for Modeling Thermal Spallation Drilling on ...

  20. IN SEARCH FOR THERMAL ANOMALIES IN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL FIELD...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AND FIELD DATA Abstract We attempt to identify thermal anomalies using thermal infrared (TIR) data collected over the Coso Geothermal Power Project with the spaceborne ASTER...

  1. Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric materials Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric materials Discusses strategies to...

  2. Flow and Thermal Behavior of an EGS Reservoir - Geothermal Code...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Flow and Thermal Behavior of an EGS Reservoir - Geothermal Code Comparison Study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flow and Thermal Behavior of an EGS...

  3. Supertruck technologies for 55% thermal efficiency and 68% freight...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supertruck technologies for 55% thermal efficiency and 68% freight efficiency Supertruck technologies for 55% thermal efficiency and 68% freight efficiency Discusses technological ...

  4. List of Solar Thermal Process Heat Incentives | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    List of Solar Thermal Process Heat Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 211 Solar Thermal Process Heat Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 211) Incentive...

  5. U.S. CHP Installations Incorporating Thermal Energy Storage ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CHP Installations Incorporating Thermal Energy Storage (TES) andor Turbine Inlet Cooling (TIC), September 2003 U.S. CHP Installations Incorporating Thermal Energy Storage (TES) ...

  6. Mechanical Testing of TR-55 Rubber Thermally Aged Under Tensile...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mechanical Testing of TR-55 Rubber Thermally Aged Under Tensile Strain Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mechanical Testing of TR-55 Rubber Thermally Aged Under Tensile...

  7. Microsoft Word - PNNL 24125 Probative Investigation of the Thermal...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... Cronin, JT, et al. 1988. "Thermal decomposition of energetic materials 29-The fast thermal decomposition characteristics of a multicomponent material: liquid gun propellant 1845". ...

  8. Project Profile: Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants Project Profile: Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage for Parabolic Trough Solar Power...

  9. Thermoelectric HVAC and Thermal Comfort Enablers for Light-Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Thermal Comfort Enablers for Light-Duty Vehicle Applications Thermoelectric HVAC and Thermal Comfort Enablers for Light-Duty Vehicle Applications 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel ...

  10. Advanced Powertrain Research Facility Vehicle Test Cell Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Powertrain Research Facility Vehicle Test Cell Thermal Upgrade Advanced Powertrain Research Facility Vehicle Test Cell Thermal Upgrade 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen...

  11. Project Profile: Degradation Mechanisms for Thermal Energy Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Degradation Mechanisms for Thermal Energy Storage and Heat Transfer Fluid Containment Materials Project Profile: Degradation Mechanisms for Thermal Energy Storage and Heat Transfer ...

  12. Thermal-hydrologic-mechanical behavior of single fractures in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thermal-hydrologic-mechanical behavior of single fractures in EGS reservoirs Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermal-hydrologic-mechanical behavior of single fractures ...

  13. Flow and Thermal Behavior of an EGS Reservoir - Geothermal Code...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Flow and Thermal Behavior of an EGS Reservoir - Geothermal Code Comparison Study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flow and Thermal Behavior of an EGS ...

  14. Data Collection for Improved Cold Temperature Thermal Modeling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Modeling and Strategy Development Data Collection for Improved Cold Temperature Thermal ... More Documents & Publications Data Collection for Improved Cold Temperature Thermal ...

  15. In-situ Thermal Strain and Temperature Measurement and Modeling...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thermal Strain and Temperature Measurement and Modeling during Arc Welding Citation Details In-Document Search Title: In-situ Thermal Strain and Temperature Measurement and ...

  16. Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measurement of Thermal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measurement of Thermal Evolution in ... result in the lowering of the temperature of the produced fluids (thermal breakthrough). ...

  17. Biomedical Applications of Thermally Activated Shape Memory Polymers...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Biomedical Applications of Thermally Activated Shape Memory Polymers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Biomedical Applications of Thermally Activated Shape Memory Polymers ...

  18. California PRC 25120, Definition for Thermal Powerplant | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of "Thermal powerplant" as provided in Chapter 2 (Definitions) of Division 15 - Energy Conservation and Development of the California Public Resources Code: "'Thermal...

  19. Electro-thermal-mechanical Simulation and Reliability for Plug...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Electro-thermal-mechanical Simulation and Reliability for Plug-in Vehicle Converters and Inverters Electro-thermal-mechanical Simulation...

  20. Predicting Thermal Stress in Diesel Particulate Filters | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal Stress in Diesel Particulate Filters Predicting Thermal Stress in Diesel Particulate Filters 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Corning...

  1. Project Profile: Innovative Phase Change Thermal Energy Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Phase Change Thermal Energy Storage Solution for Baseload Power Project Profile: Innovative Phase Change Thermal Energy Storage Solution for Baseload Power Infinia logo Infinia,...

  2. Advances in Hydrogen Isotope Separation Using Thermal Cycling...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Hydrogen Isotope Separation Using Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) Advances in Hydrogen Isotope Separation Using Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) Presentation...

  3. Measuring Thermal Conductivity with Raman:Capability Uncertainty...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Measuring Thermal Conductivity with Raman:Capability Uncertainty and Strain Effects. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Measuring Thermal Conductivity with Raman:Capability...

  4. Inherent Errors Associated with Raman Based Thermal Conductivity...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Inherent Errors Associated with Raman Based Thermal Conductivity Measurements. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Inherent Errors Associated with Raman Based Thermal...

  5. Project Profile: Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES), under the Thermal Storage FOA, created a composite thermal energy storage material by embedding nanoparticles in a molten salt base material.

  6. Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration ...

  7. Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal Performance and Reliability of Bonded Interfaces Physics of Failure of Electrical Interconnects Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric ...

  8. EV Everywhere Workshop: Power Electronics and Thermal Management...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power Electronics and Thermal Management Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Workshop: Power Electronics and Thermal Management Breakout Session Report Presentation given at the ...

  9. Advanced Thermal Interface Materials (TIMs) for Power Electronics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal Interface Materials (TIMs) for Power Electronics Advanced Thermal Interface Materials (TIMs) for Power Electronics 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies ...

  10. Butterfly-Inspired Thermal Imaging | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal imaging for advanced medical diagnosis-to better visualize inflammation in the body and understand changes in a patient's health earlier Advanced thermal vision-to see...

  11. Thermal initiation of explosive materials using photon-based...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thermal initiation of explosive materials using photon-based active interrogation methods (u) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermal initiation of explosive materials...

  12. Category:Thermal Gradient Holes | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in category "Thermal Gradient Holes" This category contains only the following page. T Thermal Gradient Holes Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCategory:T...

  13. Sticky Thermals: Evidence for a Dominant Balance Between

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by studying thousands of cloud thermals in a high- resolution large-eddy simulation (LES) of deep convection. Schematically, the acceleration of a cloud thermal can be written...

  14. The Effects of Fuel Composition and Compression Ratio on Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Composition and Compression Ratio on Thermal Efficiency in an HCCI Engine The Effects of Fuel Composition and Compression Ratio on Thermal Efficiency in an HCCI Engine Poster ...

  15. Performance of a Thermally Stable Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Performance of a Thermally Stable Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon in a Simulated Concentrating Solar Power Loop Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Performance of a Thermally...

  16. Sandia Energy - National Solar Thermal Testing Facility Beam...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Solar Thermal Testing Facility Beam Profiling Home Renewable Energy News Concentrating Solar Power Solar National Solar Thermal Testing Facility Beam Profiling Previous...

  17. Market Potential for Advanced Thermally Activated BCHP in Five...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Market Potential for Advanced Thermally Activated BCHP in Five National Account Sectors, May 2003 Market Potential for Advanced Thermally Activated BCHP in Five National Account ...

  18. Clustering and Mechanics in Dense Depletion and Thermal Gels...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Clustering and Mechanics in Dense Depletion and Thermal Gels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Clustering and Mechanics in Dense Depletion and Thermal Gels Authors: ...

  19. Metallic phase change material thermal storage for Dish Stirling...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Metallic phase change material thermal storage for Dish Stirling Title: Metallic phase change material thermal storage for Dish Stirling Dish-Stirling systems provide ...

  20. Anyang Lingrui Thermal Power Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Anyang Lingrui Thermal Power Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Anyang Lingrui Thermal Power Co., Ltd Place: Anyang, Henan Province, China Zip: 455000 Sector: Biomass...

  1. Beijing Tianyin Thermal Development Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tianyin Thermal Development Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Beijing Tianyin Thermal Development Co Ltd Place: Beijing, China Zip: 100000 Sector: Geothermal energy Product:...

  2. Karnataka Power Corporation Limited and National Thermal Power...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Corporation Limited and National Thermal Power Corporation JV Jump to: navigation, search Name: Karnataka Power Corporation Limited and National Thermal Power Corporation JV...

  3. Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient n-type Skutterudites Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient n-type Skutterudites Work on...

  4. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 Building America Best Practices Series High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 ...

  5. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 Building America Best Practices Series High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; ...

  6. Wujiang Oasis Environment Thermal Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wujiang Oasis Environment Thermal Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wujiang Oasis Environment Thermal Co Ltd Place: Wujiang, Jiangsu Province, China Sector: Biomass Product:...

  7. Thermal Analysis of a TREAT Fuel Assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papadias, Dionissios; Wright, Arthur E.

    2014-07-09

    The objective of this study was to explore options as to reduce peak cladding temperatures despite an increase in peak fuel temperatures. A 3D thermal-hydraulic model for a single TREAT fuel assembly was benchmarked to reproduce results obtained with previous thermal models developed for a TREAT HEU fuel assembly. In exercising this model, and variants thereof depending on the scope of analysis, various options were explored to reduce the peak cladding temperatures.

  8. The DOE Solar Thermal Electric Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mancini, T.R.

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy`s Solar Thermal Electric Program is managed by the Solar thermal and biomass Power division which is part of the Office of utility Technologies. The focus of the Program is to commercialize solar electric technologies. In this regard, three major projects are currently being pursued in trough, central receiver, and dish/Stirling electric power generation. This paper describes these three projects and the activities at the National laboratories that support them.

  9. Geomechanical Modeling for Thermal Spallation Drilling (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Conference: Geomechanical Modeling for Thermal Spallation Drilling Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Geomechanical Modeling for Thermal Spallation Drilling Authors: Walsh, S D ; Lomov, I ; Roberts, J J Publication Date: 2011-05-05 OSTI Identifier: 1113520 Report Number(s): LLNL-PROC-483098 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Presented at: Geothermal Resources Council 35th Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, United

  10. Thermophotovoltaics | Solid State Solar Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermophotovoltaics Solar Thermophotovoltaics (STPVs) are solar driven heat engines which extract electrical power from thermal radiation. The overall goal is to absorb and convert the broadband solar radiation spectrum into a narrowband thermal emission spectrum tuned to the spectral response of a photovoltaic cell (PV) [1]. STPVs are of significant interest as they have the potential to overcome the well-known Shockley-Queisser limit for single junction PV given sufficient spectral control.

  11. MEMS-Based Pyroelectric Thermal Energy Scavenger

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2010-12-07

    A new type of microelectromechanical system (MEMS ) high efficiency heat energy converter, or scavenger, was invented by ORNL researchers. This device is based on temperature cycled cantilevered pyroelectric capacitors. The scavenger converts thermal waste heat to electricity that can be used to monitor sensor systems, or recycled to provide electrical power while simultaneously reducing thermal cooling requirements. Given the current state of global industry, which discharges over 100...

  12. Method for measuring thermal properties using a long-wavelength infrared thermal image

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Charles L. (Albuquerque, NM); Costin, Laurence S. (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, Jody L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moya, Mary M. (Albuquerque, NM); Mercier, Jeffrey A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-01-30

    A method for estimating the thermal properties of surface materials using long-wavelength thermal imagery by exploiting the differential heating histories of ground points in the vicinity of shadows. The use of differential heating histories of different ground points of the same surface material allows the use of a single image acquisition step to provide the necessary variation in measured parameters for calculation of the thermal properties of surface materials.

  13. Taofang Zeng | Solid State Solar Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Taofang Zeng Alumni Taofang Zeng Director of Center of Thermal Energy Systems, Huaneng Group Corporation, China

  14. Low thermal stress ceramic turbine nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glezer, B.; Bagheri, H.; Fierstein, A.R.

    1996-02-27

    A turbine nozzle vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and is attached to conventional metallic components, the metallic components having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine nozzle vane assembly. The turbine nozzle vane assembly includes an outer shroud and an inner shroud having a plurality of vanes there between. Each of the plurality of vanes have a device for heating and cooling a portion of each of the plurality of vanes. Furthermore, the inner shroud has a plurality of bosses attached thereto. A cylindrical member has a plurality of grooves formed therein and each of the plurality of bosses are positioned in corresponding ones of the plurality of grooves. The turbine nozzle vane assembly provides an economical, reliable and effective ceramic component having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the other component. 4 figs.

  15. Embedded Optical Sensors for Thermal Barrier Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Clarke

    2006-07-31

    The third year of this program on developing embedded optical sensors for thermal barrier coatings has been devoted to two principal topics: (i) continuing the assessment of the long-term, thermal cycle stability of the Eu{sup 3+} doped 8YSZ temperature sensor coatings, and (ii) improving the fiber-optic based luminescence detector system. Following the earlier, preliminary findings, it has been found that not only is the luminescence from the sensors not affected by prolonged thermal cycling, even after 195 hours at 1425 C, but the variation in luminescence lifetime with temperature remains unchanged. As the temperature of 1425 C is much higher than present engines attain or even planned in the foreseeable future, our findings indicate that the Eu{sup 3+} doped thermal barrier coating sensors are very robust and have the potential of being stable throughout the life of coatings. Investigation of Eu{sup 3+} doped coatings prepared by plasma-spraying exhibited the same luminescence characteristics as those prepared by electron-beam evaporation. This is of major significance since thermal barrier coatings can be prepared by both process technologies. A fiber-optic based luminescence system has been constructed in which the hottest section of fiber operates to at least 1250 C.

  16. Guide to Setting Thermal Comfort Criteria and Minimizing Energy Use in Delivering Thermal Comfort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regnier, Cindy

    2012-08-31

    Historically thermal comfort in buildings has been controlled by simple dry bulb temperature settings. As we move into more sophisticated low energy building systems that make use of alternate systems such as natural ventilation, mixed mode system and radiant thermal conditioning strategies, a more complete understanding of human comfort is needed for both design and control. This guide will support building designers, owners, operators and other stakeholders in defining quantifiable thermal comfort parameters?these can be used to support design, energy analysis and the evaluation of the thermal comfort benefits of design strategies. This guide also contains information that building owners and operators will find helpful for understanding the core concepts of thermal comfort. Whether for one building, or for a portfolio of buildings, this guide will also assist owners and designers in how to identify the mechanisms of thermal comfort and space conditioning strategies most important for their building and climate, and provide guidance towards low energy design options and operations that can successfully address thermal comfort. An example of low energy design options for thermal comfort is presented in some detail for cooling, while the fundamentals to follow a similar approach for heating are presented.

  17. Cost-Effective Solar Thermal Energy Storage: Thermal Energy Storage With Supercritical Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-02-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: UCLA and JPL are creating cost-effective storage systems for solar thermal energy using new materials and designs. A major drawback to the widespread use of solar thermal energy is its inability to cost-effectively supply electric power at night. State-of-the-art energy storage for solar thermal power plants uses molten salt to help store thermal energy. Molten salt systems can be expensive and complex, which is not attractive from a long-term investment standpoint. UCLA and JPL are developing a supercritical fluid-based thermal energy storage system, which would be much less expensive than molten-salt-based systems. The teams design also uses a smaller, modular, single-tank design that is more reliable and scalable for large-scale storage applications.

  18. Los Alamos probes mysteries of uranium dioxide's thermal conductivity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mysteries of uranium dioxide's thermal conductivity Los Alamos probes mysteries of uranium dioxide's thermal conductivity New research is showing that the thermal conductivity of cubic uranium dioxide is strongly affected by interactions between phonons carrying heat and magnetic spins. August 4, 2014 Illustration of anisotropic thermal conductivity in uranium dioxide (UO2). Scientists are studying the thermal conductivity related to the material's different crystallographic directions, hoping

  19. NREL Battery Thermal and Life Test Facility | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NREL Battery Thermal and Life Test Facility NREL Battery Thermal and Life Test Facility 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon arravt079_es_keyser_2011_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Battery Thermal Characterization Battery Thermal Modeling and Testing Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Battery Thermal Characterization

  20. Stand-Alone Battery Thermal Management System | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stand-Alone Battery Thermal Management System Stand-Alone Battery Thermal Management System 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon es135_brodie_2012_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Stand-Alone Battery Thermal Management System Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Stand-Alone Battery Thermal Management System Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Stand-Alone Battery Thermal

  1. Incinerator thermal release valve risk assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, J.B.

    1998-12-31

    Human health risk assessments were conducted on emissions from several types of incinerators--a hazardous waste combustor, a medical waste/tire combustor, and a refuse derived fuel combustor in three different states. As part of these studies, the short-term emissions from thermal release valves operating during upset conditions were additionally evaluated. The latter assessments addressed two specific risk-related questions: (1) what are the incremental long-term risks/hazards associated with these short-term emissions; (2) what are the acute health hazards associated with these emissions? For each study, emission estimates for both the incinerator stack and the thermal release valve were obtained from the facility. Stack testing was utilized to obtain stack gas concentrations of emissions at one facility; engineering estimates were used to ascertain emissions from the thermal release valve. The two facilities were proposed incinerators, so literature-derived emissions were used throughout.

  2. Methods and compositions for rapid thermal cycling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Benett, William J; Frank, James M; Deotte, Joshue R; Spadaccini, Christopher

    2015-11-06

    The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A microfluidic heat exchanger with an internal porous medium is coupled to tanks containing cold fluid and hot fluid. Fluid flows alternately from the cold tank and the hot tank into the porous medium, cooling and heating samples contained in the microfluidic heat exchanger's sample wells. A valve may be coupled to the tanks and a pump, and switching the position of the valve may switch the source and direction of fluid flowing through the porous medium. A controller may control the switching of valve positions based on the temperature of the samples and determined temperature thresholds. A sample tray for containing samples to be thermally cycled may be used in conjunction with the thermal cycling system. A surface or internal electrical heater may aid in heating the samples, or may replace the necessity for the hot tank.

  3. Methods and compositions for rapid thermal cycling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Benett, William J.; Frank, James M.; Deotte, Joshua R.; Spadaccini, Christopher

    2015-10-27

    The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A microfluidic heat exchanger with an internal porous medium is coupled to tanks containing cold fluid and hot fluid. Fluid flows alternately from the cold tank and the hot tank into the porous medium, cooling and heating samples contained in the microfluidic heat exchanger's sample wells. A valve may be coupled to the tanks and a pump, and switching the position of the valve may switch the source and direction of fluid flowing through the porous medium. A controller may control the switching of valve positions based on the temperature of the samples and determined temperature thresholds. A sample tray for containing samples to be thermally cycled may be used in conjunction with the thermal cycling system. A surface or internal electrical heater may aid in heating the samples, or may replace the necessity for the hot tank.

  4. Bernstein instability driven by thermal ring distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Peter H.; Hadi, Fazal; Qamar, Anisa

    2014-07-15

    The classic Bernstein waves may be intimately related to banded emissions detected in laboratory plasmas, terrestrial, and other planetary magnetospheres. However, the customary discussion of the Bernstein wave is based upon isotropic thermal velocity distribution function. In order to understand how such waves can be excited, one needs an emission mechanism, i.e., an instability. In non-relativistic collision-less plasmas, the only known Bernstein wave instability is that associated with a cold perpendicular velocity ring distribution function. However, cold ring distribution is highly idealized. The present Brief Communication generalizes the cold ring distribution model to include thermal spread, so that the Bernstein-ring instability is described by a more realistic electron distribution function, with which the stabilization by thermal spread associated with the ring distribution is demonstrated. The present findings imply that the excitation of Bernstein waves requires a sufficiently high perpendicular velocity gradient associated with the electron distribution function.

  5. Advanced Heat Transfer and Thermal Storage Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moens, L.; Blake, D.

    2005-01-01

    The design of the next generation solar parabolic trough systems for power production will require the development of new thermal energy storage options with improved economics or operational characteristics. Current heat-transfer fluids such as VP-1?, which consists of a eutectic mixture of biphenyl and diphenyl oxide, allow a maximum operating temperature of ca. 300 C, a limit above which the vapor pressure would become too high and would require pressure-rated tanks. The use of VP-1? also suffers from a freezing point around 13 C that requires heating during cold periods. One of the goals for future trough systems is the use of heat-transfer fluids that can act as thermal storage media and that allow operating temperatures around 425 C combined with lower limits around 0 C. This paper presents an outline of our latest approach toward the development of such thermal storage fluids.

  6. Nuclear reactor vessel fuel thermal insulating barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keegan, C. Patrick; Scobel, James H.; Wright, Richard F.

    2013-03-19

    The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel that has a hemispherical lower section that increases in volume from the center line of the reactor to the outer extent of the diameter of the thermal insulating barrier and smoothly transitions up the side walls of the vessel. The space between the thermal insulating harrier and the reactor vessel forms a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive inlet valve for the cooling water includes a buoyant door that is normally maintained sealed under its own weight and floats open when the cavity is Hooded. Passively opening steam vents are also provided.

  7. Gas storage carbon with enhanced thermal conductivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Rogers, Michael Ray (Knoxville, TN); Judkins, Roddie R. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A carbon fiber carbon matrix hybrid adsorbent monolith with enhanced thermal conductivity for storing and releasing gas through adsorption and desorption is disclosed. The heat of adsorption of the gas species being adsorbed is sufficiently large to cause hybrid monolith heating during adsorption and hybrid monolith cooling during desorption which significantly reduces the storage capacity of the hybrid monolith, or efficiency and economics of a gas separation process. The extent of this phenomenon depends, to a large extent, on the thermal conductivity of the adsorbent hybrid monolith. This invention is a hybrid version of a carbon fiber monolith, which offers significant enhancements to thermal conductivity and potential for improved gas separation and storage systems.

  8. The Thermal Collector With Varied Glass Covers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luminosu, I.; Pop, N.

    2010-08-04

    The thermal collector with varied glass covers represents an innovation realized in order to build a collector able to reach the desired temperature by collecting the solar radiation from the smallest surface, with the highest efficiency. In the case of the thermal collector with variable cover glasses, the number of the glass plates covering the absorber increases together with the length of the circulation pipe for the working fluid. The thermal collector with varied glass covers compared to the conventional collector better meet user requirements because: for the same temperature increase, has the collecting area smaller; for the same collection area, realizes the highest temperature increase and has the highest efficiency. This works is addressed to researchers in the solar energy and to engineers responsible with air-conditioning systems design or industrial and agricultural products drying.

  9. Photovoltaic-Thermal New Technology Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean, Jesse; McNutt, Peter; Lisell, Lars; Burch, Jay; Jones, Dennis; Heinicke, David

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) hybrid solar systems offer increased electricity production by cooling the PV panel, and using the removed thermal energy to heat water - all in the same footprint as a standard PV system. GPG's assessment of the nation's first large-scale PV-T system installed at the Thomas P. O'Neill, Jr. Federal Building in Boston, MA, provided numerous lessons learned in system design, and identified a target market of locations with high utility costs and electric hot water backup.

  10. Thermal Imaging Technologies | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Thermal Imaging Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Butterfly-Inspired Design Enables Advanced Thermal Imaging Bryan Whalen in the Electronics Cooling Lab at GE Global Research recorded this thermo graphic video of a Morpho butterfly structure in response to heat pulses produced by breathing onto

  11. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: An overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion, or OTEC is a technology that extracts power from the ocean's natural thermal gradient. This technology is being pursued by researchers from many nations; in the United States, OTEC research is funded by the US Department of Energy's Ocean Energy Technology program. The program's goal is to develop the technology so that industry can make a competent assessment of its potential -- either as an alternative or as a supplement to conventional energy sources. Federally funded research in components and systems will help OTEC to the threshold of commercialization. This publication provides an overview of the OTEC technology. 47 refs., 25 figs.

  12. Thermal Study of Inverter Components: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorensen, N. R.; Thomas, E. V.; Quintana, M. A.; Barkaszi, S.; Rosenthal, A.; Zhang, Z.; Kurtz, S.

    2012-06-01

    Thermal histories of inverter components were collected from operating inverters from several manufacturers and three locations. The data were analyzed to determine thermal profiles, the dependence on local conditions, and to assess the effect on inverter reliability. Inverter temperatures were shown to increase with the power dissipation of the inverters, follow diurnal and annual cycles, and have a dependence on wind speed. An accumulated damage model was applied to the temperature profiles and an example of using these data to predict reliability was explored.

  13. CanTrilBat_ThermalBattery

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-09-24

    CanTrilBat applications solves transient problems involving batteries. It is a 1-D application that represents 3-D physical systems that can be reduced using the porous flow approximation for the anode, cathode, and separator. CanTrilBat_ThermalBattery adds constitutive models on top of the CanTrilBat framework. CanTrilBat_ThermalBattery contains constitutive models for the electrode behavior when more than one electrode heterogeneous surface is reacting. This is a novel capability within the battery community. These models are named as the “Electrode_MultiPlateau”more » model.« less

  14. Multi-channel polarized thermal emitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Ho, Kai-Ming; Constant, Kristen P

    2013-07-16

    A multi-channel polarized thermal emitter (PTE) is presented. The multi-channel PTE can emit polarized thermal radiation without using a polarizer at normal emergence. The multi-channel PTE consists of two layers of metallic gratings on a monolithic and homogeneous metallic plate. It can be fabricated by a low-cost soft lithography technique called two-polymer microtransfer molding. The spectral positions of the mid-infrared (MIR) radiation peaks can be tuned by changing the periodicity of the gratings and the spectral separation between peaks are tuned by changing the mutual angle between the orientations of the two gratings.

  15. Thermal resilient multiple jaw braze fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ney, Robert (1716 Cypress Ave., Belleair, FL 34616); Perrone, Alex J. (3005 Fontanar St., Lutz, FL 33549)

    1995-07-11

    A braze fixture has side walls forming a cavity with an opening to receive a stack of parts to be brazed. Sidewalls of the housing have a plurality of bearing receiving openings into which bearing rods or jaws are inserted to align the stacked elements of the workpiece. The housing can also have view ports to allow a visual check of the alignment. Straps or wires around the fixture are selected to have thermal characteristics similar to the thermal characteristics of the workpiece undergoing brazing. The straps or wires make physical contact with the bearing rods thereby causing bearing rods to maintain the workpiece in proper alignment throughout the entire brazing cycle.

  16. CanTrilBat_ThermalBattery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-09-24

    CanTrilBat applications solves transient problems involving batteries. It is a 1-D application that represents 3-D physical systems that can be reduced using the porous flow approximation for the anode, cathode, and separator. CanTrilBat_ThermalBattery adds constitutive models on top of the CanTrilBat framework. CanTrilBat_ThermalBattery contains constitutive models for the electrode behavior when more than one electrode heterogeneous surface is reacting. This is a novel capability within the battery community. These models are named as the ?Electrode_MultiPlateau? model.

  17. Aquifer thermal energy (heat and chill) storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenne, E.A.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the 1992 Intersociety Conversion Engineering Conference, held in San Diego, California, August 3--7, 1992, the Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program coordinated five sessions dealing specifically with aquifer thermal energy storage technologies (ATES). Researchers from Sweden, The Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, Denmark, Canada, and the United States presented papers on a variety of ATES related topics. With special permission from the Society of Automotive Engineers, host society for the 1992 IECEC, these papers are being republished here as a standalone summary of ATES technology status. Individual papers are indexed separately.

  18. LiH thermal energy storage device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olszewski, M.; Morris, D.G.

    1994-06-28

    A thermal energy storage device for use in a pulsed power supply to store waste heat produced in a high-power burst operation utilizes lithium hydride as the phase change thermal energy storage material. The device includes an outer container encapsulating the lithium hydride and an inner container supporting a hydrogen sorbing sponge material such as activated carbon. The inner container is in communication with the interior of the outer container to receive hydrogen dissociated from the lithium hydride at elevated temperatures. 5 figures.

  19. Method of making thermally removable adhesives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aubert, James H.

    2004-11-30

    A method of making a thermally-removable adhesive is provided where a bismaleimide compound, a monomeric furan compound, containing an oxirane group an amine curative are mixed together at an elevated temperature of greater than approximately 90.degree. C. to form a homogeneous solution, which, when cooled to less than approximately 70.degree. C., simultaneously initiates a Diels-Alder reaction between the furan and the bismaleimide and a epoxy curing reaction between the amine curative and the oxirane group to form a thermally-removable adhesive. Subsequent heating to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. causes the adhesive to melt and allows separation of adhered pieces.

  20. Spatially resolved thermal desorption/ionization coupled with mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jesse, Stephen; Van Berkel, Gary J; Ovchinnikova, Olga S

    2013-02-26

    A system and method for sub-micron analysis of a chemical composition of a specimen are described. The method includes providing a specimen for evaluation and a thermal desorption probe, thermally desorbing an analyte from a target site of said specimen using the thermally active tip to form a gaseous analyte, ionizing the gaseous analyte to form an ionized analyte, and analyzing a chemical composition of the ionized analyte. The thermally desorbing step can include heating said thermally active tip to above 200.degree. C., and positioning the target site and the thermally active tip such that the heating step forms the gaseous analyte. The thermal desorption probe can include a thermally active tip extending from a cantilever body and an apex of the thermally active tip can have a radius of 250 nm or less.

  1. Convectively driven PCR thermal-cycling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benett, William J.; Richards, James B.; Milanovich, Fred P.

    2003-07-01

    A polymerase chain reaction system provides an upper temperature zone and a lower temperature zone in a fluid sample. Channels set up convection cells in the fluid sample and move the fluid sample repeatedly through the upper and lower temperature zone creating thermal cycling.

  2. Variable emissivity laser thermal control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milner, J.R.

    1994-10-25

    A laser thermal control system for a metal vapor laser maintains the wall temperature of the laser at a desired level by changing the effective emissivity of the water cooling jacket. This capability increases the overall efficiency of the laser. 8 figs.

  3. Thermal tolerant avicelase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ding, Shi-You (Golden, CO); Adney, William S. (Golden, CO); Vinzant, Todd B. (Golden, CO); Himmel, Michael E. (Littleton, CO)

    2009-05-26

    The invention provides a thermal tolerant (thermostable) cellulase, AviIII, that is a member of the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family. AviIII was isolated and characterized from Acidothermus cellulolyticus and, like many cellulases, the disclosed polypeptide and/or its derivatives may be useful for the conversion of biomass into biofuels and chemicals.

  4. Biomass thermal conversion research at SERI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milne, T. A.; Desrosiers, R. E.; Reed, T. B.

    1980-09-01

    SERI's involvement in the thermochemical conversion of biomass to fuels and chemicals is reviewed. The scope and activities of the Biomass Thermal Conversion and Exploratory Branch are reviewed. The current status and future plans for three tasks are presented: (1) Pyrolysis Mechanisms; (2) High Pressure O/sub 2/ Gasifier; and (3) Gasification Test Facility.

  5. Thermal Profiling of Residential Energy Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert, A; Rajagopal, R

    2015-03-01

    This work describes a methodology for informing targeted demand-response (DR) and marketing programs that focus on the temperature-sensitive part of residential electricity demand. Our methodology uses data that is becoming readily available at utility companies-hourly energy consumption readings collected from "smart" electricity meters, as well as hourly temperature readings. To decompose individual consumption into a thermal-sensitive part and a base load (non-thermally-sensitive), we propose a model of temperature response that is based on thermal regimes, i.e., unobserved decisions of consumers to use their heating or cooling appliances. We use this model to extract useful benchmarks that compose thermal profiles of individual users, i.e., terse characterizations of the statistics of these users' temperature-sensitive consumption. We present example profiles generated using our model on real consumers, and show its performance on a large sample of residential users. This knowledge may, in turn, inform the DR program by allowing scarce operational and marketing budgets to be spent on the right users-those whose influencing will yield highest energy reductions-at the right time. We show that such segmentation and targeting of users may offer savings exceeding 100% of a random strategy.

  6. Pulse thermal energy transport/storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weislogel, Mark M. (23133 Switzer Rd., Brookpark, OH 44142)

    1992-07-07

    A pulse-thermal pump having a novel fluid flow wherein heat admitted to a closed system raises the pressure in a closed evaporator chamber while another interconnected evaporator chamber remains open. This creates a large pressure differential, and at a predetermined pressure the closed evaporator is opened and the opened evaporator is closed. This difference in pressure initiates fluid flow in the system.

  7. Pv-Thermal Solar Power Assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ansley, Jeffrey H. (El Cerrito, CA); Botkin, Jonathan D. (El Cerrito, CA); Dinwoodie, Thomas L. (Piedmont, CA)

    2001-10-02

    A flexible solar power assembly includes a flexible photovoltaic device attached to a flexible thermal solar collector. The solar power assembly can be rolled up for transport and then unrolled for installation on a surface, such as the roof or side wall of a building or other structure, by use of adhesive and/or other types of fasteners.

  8. Thermal tolerant avicelase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ding, Shi-You (Golden, CO); Adney, William S. (Golden, CO); Vinzant, Todd B. (Golden, CO); Himmel, Michael E. (Littleton, CO)

    2008-04-29

    The invention provides a thermal tolerant (thermostable) cellulase, AviIII, that is a member of the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family. AviIII was isolated and characterized from Acidothermus cellulolyticus and, like many cellulases, the disclosed polypeptide and/or its derivatives may be useful for the conversion of biomass into biofuels and chemicals.

  9. Thermal tolerant exoglucanase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adney, William S. (Golden, CO); Ding, Shi-You (Golden, CO); Vinzant, Todd B. (Golden, CO); Himmel, Michael E. (Littleton, CO); Decker, Stephen R. (Berthoud, CO); McCarter, Suzanne Lantz (Denver, CO)

    2008-07-01

    The invention provides a thermal tolerant cellulase that is a member of the glycoside hydrolase family. The invention further discloses this cellulase as Gux1. Gux1 has been isolated and characterized from Acidothermus cellulolyticus. The invention further provides recombinant forms of the identified Gux1. Methods of making and using Gux1 polypeptides, including fusions, variants, and derivatives, are also disclosed.

  10. Phase change thermal energy storage material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Burrows, Richard W. (Conifer, CO)

    1987-01-01

    A thermal energy storge composition is disclosed. The composition comprises a non-chloride hydrate having a phase change transition temperature in the range of 70.degree.-95.degree. F. and a latent heat of transformation of at least about 35 calories/gram.

  11. Photodetectors with passive thermal radiation control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Shawn-Yu (Albuquerque, NM); Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Dodson, Brian W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-10-02

    A new class of photodetectors which include means for passive shielding against undesired thermal radiation is disclosed. Such devices can substitute in applications currently requiring cooled optical sensors, such as IR detection and imaging. This description is included for purposes of searching, and is not intended to limit or otherwise influence the interpretation of the present invention.

  12. Thermal barrier coating having high phase stability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Ramesh

    2002-01-01

    A device (10) comprising a substrate (22) having a deposited ceramic thermal barrier coating characterized by a microstructure having gaps (28) where the thermal barrier coating comprises a first thermal barrier layer (40), and a second thermal barrier layer (30) with a pyrochlore crystal structure having a chemical formula of A.sup.n+.sub.2-x B.sup.m+.sub.2+x O.sub.7-y, where A is selected from the group of elements consisting of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and mixtures thereof, where B is selected from the group of elements consisting of Zr, Hf, Ti and mixtures thereof, where n and m are the valence of A and B respectively, and for -0.5.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5, ##EQU1## and excluding the following combinations for x=0, y=0: A=La and B=Zr; A=La and B=Hf; A=Gd and B=Hf; and A=Yb and B=Ti.

  13. THE ODTX SYSTEM FOR THERMAL IGNITION AND THERMAL SAFETY STUDY OF ENERGETIC MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, P C; Hust, G; Howard, M; Maienschein, J L

    2010-03-03

    Understanding the response of energetic material to thermal event is very important for the storage and handling of energetic materials. The One Dimensional Time to Explosion (ODTX) system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) can precisely measure times to explosion and minimum ignition temperatures of energetic materials at elevated temperatures. These measurements provide insight into the relative ease of thermal ignition and allow for the determination of kinetic parameters. The ODTX system can potentialy be a good tool to measure violence of the thermal ignition by monitoring the size of anvil cavity. Recent ODTX experimental data on various energetic materials (solid and liquids) are reported in this paper.

  14. Tuning thermal mismatch between turbine rotor parts with a thermal medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Mark Christopher (Niskayuna, NY)

    2001-01-01

    In a turbine rotor, an aft shaft wheel and the final-stage wheel of the rotor are coupled together, including by a rabbeted joint. During shutdown and startup of the turbine, a thermal mismatch between the aft shaft wheel and final-stage wheel is avoided by respectively heating and cooling the aft shaft wheel to maintain the thermal mismatch within acceptable limits, thereby avoiding opening of the rabbeted joint and the potential for unbalancing the rotor and rotor vibration. The thermal medium may be supplied by piping in the aft bearing cavity into the cavity between the forward closure plate and the aft shaft wheel.

  15. Electricity storage using a thermal storage scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Alexander

    2015-01-22

    The increasing use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation, many of which have an unpredictably intermittent nature, will inevitably lead to a greater demand for large-scale electricity storage schemes. For example, the expanding fraction of electricity produced by wind turbines will require either backup or storage capacity to cover extended periods of wind lull. This paper describes a recently proposed storage scheme, referred to here as Pumped Thermal Storage (PTS), and which is based on sensible heat storage in large thermal reservoirs. During the charging phase, the system effectively operates as a high temperature-ratio heat pump, extracting heat from a cold reservoir and delivering heat to a hot one. In the discharge phase the processes are reversed and it operates as a heat engine. The round-trip efficiency is limited only by process irreversibilities (as opposed to Second Law limitations on the coefficient of performance and the thermal efficiency of the heat pump and heat engine respectively). PTS is currently being developed in both France and England. In both cases, the schemes operate on the Joule-Brayton (gas turbine) cycle, using argon as the working fluid. However, the French scheme proposes the use of turbomachinery for compression and expansion, whereas for that being developed in England reciprocating devices are proposed. The current paper focuses on the impact of the various process irreversibilities on the thermodynamic round-trip efficiency of the scheme. Consideration is given to compression and expansion losses and pressure losses (in pipe-work, valves and thermal reservoirs); heat transfer related irreversibility in the thermal reservoirs is discussed but not included in the analysis. Results are presented demonstrating how the various loss parameters and operating conditions influence the overall performance.

  16. Thermal, chemical, and mechanical cookoff modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, M.L.; Baer, M.R.; Gross, R.J.

    1994-08-01

    A Thermally Reactive, Elastic-plastic eXplosive code, TREX, has been developed to analyze coupled thermal, chemical and mechanical effects associated with cookoff simulation of confined or unconfined energetic materials. In confined systems, pressure buildup precedes thermal runaway, and unconfined energetic material expands to relieve high stress. The model was developed based on nucleation, decomposition chemistry, and elastic/plastic mechanical behavior of a material with a distribution of internal defects represented as clusters of spherical inclusions. A local force balance, with mass continuity constraints, forms the basis of the model requiring input of temperature and reacted gas fraction. This constitutive material model has been incorporated into a quasistatic mechanics code SANTOS as a material module which predicts stress history associated with a given strain history. The thermal-chemical solver XCHEM has been coupled to SANTOS to provide temperature and reacted gas fraction. Predicted spatial history variables include temperature, chemical species, solid/gas pressure, solid/gas density, local yield stress, and gas volume fraction. One-Dimensional Time to explosion (ODTX) experiments for TATB and PBX 9404 (HMX and NC) are simulated using global multistep kinetic mechanisms and the reactive elastic-plastic constitutive model. Pressure explosions, rather than thermal runaway, result in modeling slow cookoff experiments of confined conventional energetic materials such as TATB. For PBX 9404, pressure explosions also occur at fast cookoff conditions because of low temperature reactions of nitrocellulose resulting in substantial pressurization. A demonstrative calculation is also presented for reactive heat flow in a hollow, propellant-filled, stainless steel cylinder, representing a rocket motor. This example simulation show

  17. Heat transmission between a profiled nanowire and a thermal bath

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanc, Christophe; Heron, Jean-Savin; Fournier, Thierry; Bourgeois, Olivier

    2014-07-28

    Thermal transport through profiled and abrupt contacts between a nanowire and a reservoir has been investigated by thermal conductance measurements. It is demonstrated that above 1?K the transmission coefficients are identical between abrupt and profiled junctions. This shows that the thermal transport is principally governed by the nanowire itself rather than by the resistance of the thermal contact. These results are perfectly compatible with the previous theoretical models. The thermal conductance measured at sub-Kelvin temperatures is discussed in relation to the universal value of the quantum of thermal conductance.

  18. Thermally Activated Martensite: Its Relationship to Non-Thermally Activated (Athermal) Martensite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laughlin, D E; Jones, N J; Schwartz, A J; Massalski, T B

    2008-10-21

    The classification of martensitic displacive transformations into athermal, isothermal or anisothermal is discussed. Athermal does not mean 'no temperature dependence' as is often thought, but is best considered to be short for the notion of no thermal activation. Processes with no thermal activation do not depend on time, as there is no need to wait for sufficient statistical fluctuations in some specific order parameter to overcome an activation barrier to initiate the process. Clearly, this kind of process contrasts with those that are thermally activated. In the literature, thermally activated martensites are usually termed isothermal martensites, suggesting a constant temperature. Actually such martensites also typically occur with continuous cooling. The important distinctive feature of these martensites is that they are thermally activated and hence are distinguishable in principle from athermal martensites. A third type of process, anisothermal, has been introduced to account for those transformations which are thought to be thermally activated but which occur on continuous cooling. They may occur so rapidly that they do not appear to have an incubation time, and hence could be mistakenly called an athermal transformation. These designations will be reviewed and discussed in terms of activation energies and kinetic processes of the various martensitic transformations.

  19. Stand Alone Battery Thermal Management System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodie, Brad

    2015-09-30

    The objective of this project is research, development and demonstration of innovative thermal management concepts that reduce the cell or battery weight, complexity (component count) and/or cost by at least 20%. The project addresses two issues that are common problems with current state of the art lithium ion battery packs used in vehicles; low power at cold temperatures and reduced battery life when exposed to high temperatures. Typically, battery packs are oversized to satisfy the two issues mentioned above. The first phase of the project was spent making a battery pack simulation model using AMEsim software. The battery pack used as a benchmark was from the Fiat 500EV. FCA and NREL provided vehicle data and cell data that allowed an accurate model to be created that matched the electrical and thermal characteristics of the actual battery pack. The second phase involved using the battery model from the first phase and evaluate different thermal management concepts. In the end, a gas injection heat pump system was chosen as the dedicated thermal system to both heat and cool the battery pack. Based on the simulation model. The heat pump system could use 50% less energy to heat the battery pack in -20C ambient conditions, and by keeping the battery cooler at hot climates, the battery pack size could be reduced by 5% and still meet the warranty requirements. During the final phase, the actual battery pack and heat pump system were installed in a test bench at DENSO to validate the simulation results. Also during this phase, the system was moved to NREL where testing was also done to validate the results. In conclusion, the heat pump system can improve fuel economy (for electric vehicle) by 12% average in cold climates. Also, the battery pack size, or capacity, could be reduced 5%, or if pack size is kept constant, the pack life could be increased by two years. Finally, the total battery pack and thermal system cost could be reduced 5% only if the system is integrated with the vehicle cabin air conditioning system. The reason why we were not able to achieve the 20% reduction target is because of the natural decay of the battery cell due to the number of cycles. Perhaps newer battery chemistries that are not so sensitive to cycling would have more potential for reducing the battery size due to thermal issues.

  20. List of Solar Thermal Electric Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    List of Solar Thermal Electric Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 562 Solar Thermal Electric Incentives. CSV (rows 1-500) CSV (rows 501-562)...