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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu blast pulping" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

BTU Accounting for Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

convert utility bills to BTUs? All fuels can be measured in terms of BTU content. Natural gas has a million BTUs per thousand cubic feet; propane - 92,000 BTUs per gallon; fuel oil - 140,000 BTUs per gallon; electricity - 3,413 BTUs per KW hour... BTU ACCOUNTING FOR INDUSTRY Robert O. Redd-CPA Seidman & Seidman Grand Rapids, Michigan Today, as never before, American industry needs to identify and control their most criti cal resources. One of these is energy. In 1973 and again in 1976...

Redd, R. O.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

MSN YYYYMM Value Column Order Description Unit FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

MSN YYYYMM Value Column Order Description Unit MSN YYYYMM Value Column Order Description Unit FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu

3

cautious pipeline trench blasting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

cautious pipeline trench blasting, pipeline trench blasting (with)in built-up areas...n in bebauten Gebieten

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: BTU Analysis Plus  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Plus Plus BTU Analysis Plus logo. Heat load calculation program that performs comprehensive heat load studies with hardcopy printouts of the results. The BTU Analysi Plus program is designed for general heating, air-conditioning, and commerical studies. Since 1987, the BTU Analysis family of programs have been commercially distributed and are marketed through professional organizations, trade advertisements, and word of mouth. They are currently used in six (6) foriegn countries and the U.S. Used in temperate, tropic, artic, and arid climates. They have proved themselves easy to use, accurate and productive again and again. A version of BTU Analysis Plus was adopted for use in the revised HEATING VENTILATING AND AIR CONDITIONING FUNDAMENTALS by Raymond A. Havrella.

5

Lowest Pressure Steam Saves More BTU's Than You Think  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ABSTRACT Steam is the most transferring heat from But most steam systems LOWEST PRESSURE STEAM SAVES MORE BTU'S THAN YOU THINK Stafford J. Vallery Armstrong Machine Works Three Rivers, Michigan steam to do the process heating rather than...

Vallery, S. J.

6

December News Blast | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

December News Blast December News Blast December News Blast december2013newsblast.pdf More Documents & Publications November 2013 News Blast April 2014 Monthly News Blast January...

7

October 2013 News Blast | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

October 2013 News Blast October 2013 News Blast October 2013 News Blast october2013newsblast.pdf More Documents & Publications September 2013 News Blast BETO Monthly News Blast,...

8

Property:Geothermal/AnnualGenBtuYr | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AnnualGenBtuYr AnnualGenBtuYr Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Pages using the property "Geothermal/AnnualGenBtuYr" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 4 4 UR Guest Ranch Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility + 5.3 + A Ace Development Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility + 72.5 + Agua Calientes Trailer Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility + 5 + Alive Polarity's Murrietta Hot Spring Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility + 7 + Americulture Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility + 17 + Aq Dryers Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility + 6.5 + Aqua Caliente County Park Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility + 1.8 +

9

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: BTU Analysis REG  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

REG REG BTU Analysis REG logo. Heat load calculation program that performs comprehensive heat load studies with hardcopy printouts of the results. The REG program is designed for general heating, air-conditioning, and light commercial studies. Since 1987, the BTU Analysis family of programs have been commercially distributed and are marketed through professional organizations, trade advertisements, and word of mouth. They are currently used in six (6) foriegn countries and the U.S. Used in temperate, tropic, artic, and arid climates. They have proved themselves easy to use, accurate and productive again and again. A version of BTU Analysis, was adopted for use in the revised HEATING VENTILATING AND AIR CONDITIONING FUNDAMENTALS by Raymond A. Havrella. Keywords

10

Property:Geothermal/CapacityBtuHr | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CapacityBtuHr CapacityBtuHr Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Pages using the property "Geothermal/CapacityBtuHr" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 4 4 UR Guest Ranch Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility + 0.8 + A Ace Development Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility + 10.3 + Agua Calientes Trailer Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility + 2 + Alive Polarity's Murrietta Hot Spring Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility + 1 + Americulture Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility + 2.4 + Aq Dryers Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility + 3 + Aqua Caliente County Park Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility + 0.3 +

11

EIS-0007: Low Btu Coal Gasification Facility and Industrial Park  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The U.S. Department of Energy prepared this environmental impact statement which evaluates the potential environmental impacts that may be associated with the construction and operation of a low-Btu coal gasification facility and the attendant industrial park in Georgetown, Scott County, Kentucky.

12

ThermonucleotideBLAST  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ThermonucleotideBLAST ThermonucleotideBLAST ThermonucleotideBLAST ThermonucleotideBLAST is a software program for searching a target database of nucleic acid sequences using an assay specific query. October 10, 2013 software Given two samples of sequences, for which the user provides an input file with corresponding genetic distances (pairwise), the program performs a t-test to see whether the two mean genetic distances are significantly different. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email ThermonucleotideBLAST ThermonucleotideBLAST is a software program for searching a target database of nucleic acid sequences using an assay specific query. Licensing Status: Available for Express Licensing (?). This software is open source. To download, please visit ThermonucleotideBLAST website. For more

13

November 2013 News Blast | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

November 2013 News Blast November 2013 News Blast November 2013 News Blast november2013newsblast.pdf More Documents & Publications BETO Monthly News Blast, August 2013r January...

14

U.S. Total Consumption of Heat Content of Natural Gas (BTU per...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Consumption of Heat Content of Natural Gas (BTU per Cubic Foot) U.S. Total Consumption of Heat Content of Natural Gas (BTU per Cubic Foot) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

15

Monthly News Blast  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Multimedia Corner Monthly News Blast July 2013 Secretaries Moniz and Vilsack Speaking at Biomass 2013 Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz and Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack...

16

Lightweight blast shield  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A tandem warhead missile arrangement that has a composite material housing structure with a first warhead mounted at one end and a second warhead mounted near another end of the composite structure with a dome shaped composite material blast shield mounted between the warheads to protect the second warhead from the blast of the first warhead.

Mixon, Larry C. (Madison, AL); Snyder, George W. (Huntsville, AL); Hill, Scott D. (Toney, AL); Johnson, Gregory L. (Decatur, AL); Wlodarski, J. Frank (Huntsville, AL); von Spakovsky, Alexis P. (Huntsville, AL); Emerson, John D. (Arab, AL); Cole, James M. (Huntsville, AL); Tipton, John P. (Huntsville, AL)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

February 2014 News Blast | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

4 News Blast February 2014 News Blast February 2014 News Blast february2014newsblast.pdf More Documents & Publications March 2014 Monthly News Blast April 2014 Monthly News Blast...

18

Manhattan Project: Blast  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Blast (Animation) Blast (Animation) Yucca Flat, Nevada (March 17, 1953) Resources > Photo Gallery Blast Animation The eight images above are a sequence of photographs of a house constructed 3,500 feet from "ground zero" at the Nevada Test Site being destroyed by the Annie test shot. The only source of light was the blast itself, detonated on March 17, 1953. The final image is two-and-one-third seconds after detonation. In the second image the house is actually on fire, but in the third image the fire has already been blown out by the blast. Annie, part of the "Upshot-Knothole" test series, had a yield of 16 kilotons, roughly the same size as the Trinity, Hiroshima, and Nagasaki explosions. Two photographs of the Annie mushroom cloud are at the bottom of this page.

19

"Economic","per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Characteristic(a)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 6.2;" 2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 6.2;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,"Consumption" " ",,"Consumption","per Dollar" " ","Consumption","per Dollar","of Value" "Economic","per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Characteristic(a)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)" ,"Total United States" "Value of Shipments and Receipts" "(million dollars)" " Under 20",3,3,3 " 20-49",5,5,4 " 50-99",6,5,4 " 100-249",5,5,4 " 250-499",7,9,7 " 500 and Over",3,2,2 "Total",2,2,2

20

The Mansfield Two-Stage, Low BTU Gasification System: Report of Operations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The least expensive way to produce gas from coal is by low Btu gasification, a process by which coal is converted to carbon monoxide and hydrogen by reacting it with air and steam. Low Btu gas, which is used near its point of production, eliminates...

Blackwell, L. T.; Crowder, J. T.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu blast pulping" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

April 2013 Monthly News Blast  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The monthly news blast for April 2013 highlights the Project Peer Review, upcoming events, BETO blog posts, and more.

22

Method for producing low and medium BTU gas from coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process for producing low and medium BTU gas from carbonizable material is described which comprises: partly devolatizing the material and forming hot incandescent coke therefrom by passing a bed of the same part way through a hot furnace chamber on a first horizontally moving grate while supplying a sub-stoichiometric quantity of air to the same and driving the reactions: C + O/sub 2/ = CO/sub 2/; 2C + O/sub 2/ = 2CO discharging the hot incandescent coke from the end of the first grate run onto a second horizontally moving grate run below the first grate run in the same furnace chamber so as to form a bed thereon, the bed formed on the second grate run being considerably thicker than the bed formed on the first grate run, passing the hot incandescent coke bed on the second grate run further through the furnace chamber in a substantially horizontal direction while feeding air and stream thereto so as to fully burn the coke and in ratio of steam to air driving the following reactions: 2C + O/sub 2/ = 2CO; C + H/sub 2/O = H/sub 2/ + CO; C + 2H/sub 2/O = 2H/sub 2/ + CO/sub 2/; CO + H/sub 2/O = H/sub 2/ + CO/sub 2/ taking off the ash residue of the burned coke and taking off the gaseous products of the reactions.

Mansfield, V.; Francoeur, C.M.

1988-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

23

"Economic","per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Characteristic(a)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 6.2;" 2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 6.2;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,"Consumption" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar" ,"Consumption","per Dollar","of Value" "Economic","per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Characteristic(a)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)" ,"Total United States" "Value of Shipments and Receipts" "(million dollars)" " Under 20",2.5,2.5,2.4 " 20-49",5,5,4.3 " 50-99",5.8,5.8,5.3 " 100-249",6.2,6.2,5.3 " 250-499",8.2,8,7.1 " 500 and Over",4.3,3,2.7

24

Estimating the Thickness of Pulped Wood Fibres  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... J. Tech. Assoc. Pulp. and Paper Indust., 43, 143 (1960).TAPPI Standards and Suggested Methods (Tech. Assoc. Pulp and Paper Indust., New York, ...

O. J. KALLMES; G. A. BERNIER

1963-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

25

Toxicological characterization of the process stream from an experimental low Btu coal gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Samples were obtained from selected positions in the process stream of an experimental low Btu gasifier using a five-stage multicyclone train and...Salmonella mammalian microsome mutagenicity assay) and forin vit...

J. M. Benson; J. O. Hill; C. E. Mitchell…

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Mutagenicity of potential effluents from an experimental low btu coal gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Potential waste effluents produced by an experimental low Btu coal gasifier were assessed for mutagenic activity inSalmonella...strain TA98. Cyclone dust, tar and water effluents were mutagenic, but only followin...

J. M. Benson; C. E. Mitchell; R. E. Royer…

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Expanded standards and codes case limits combined buildings delivered energy to 21 quadrillion Btu by 2035  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Erin Boedecker, Session Moderator Erin Boedecker, Session Moderator April 27, 2011 | Washington, DC Energy Demand. Efficiency, and Consumer Behavior 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2010 Technology Reference Expanded Standards Expanded Standards + Codes -7.6% ≈ 0 Expanded standards and codes case limits combined buildings delivered energy to 21 quadrillion Btu by 2035 2 Erin Boedecker, EIA Energy Conference, April 27, 2011 delivered energy quadrillion Btu Source: EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2011 -4.8% 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2010 Technology Reference High Technology High technology assumptions with more efficient consumer behavior keep buildings energy to just over 20 quadrillion Btu 3 Erin Boedecker, EIA Energy Conference, April 27, 2011 delivered energy quadrillion Btu

28

Monthly News Blast: January 2013  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In the January 2013 Monthly News Blast, read about two new funding opportunities, the latest MYPP update, upcoming events, and more.

29

Monthly News Blast: February 2013  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In the February 2013 Monthly News Blast, read about recent blog posts, the monthly staff spotlight video, upcoming events, and more.

30

Blast furnace taphole drill  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A blast furnace taphole drill has a flaring head with cutting edges at its cutting end formed by intersecting angled faces. A central bore carries cleaning air to the cutting end. To prevent blockage of the cleaning air bore by debris and possible jamming of the drill, the head has deep radial grooves formed at the bottoms of the valley shapes between the cutting edges. The grooves extend radially from the air bore and conduct the air so that it can get behind or under jammed debris. Reduced taphole drilling times can be achieved.

Gozeling, J.A.; de Boer, S.; Spiering, A.A.

1984-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

31

Low-Btu coal gasification in the United States: company topical. [Brick producers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hazelton and other brick producers have proved the reliability of the commercial size Wellman-Galusha gasifier. For this energy intensive business, gas cost is the major portion of the product cost. Costs required Webster/Hazelton to go back to the old, reliable alternative energy of low Btu gasification when the natural gas supply started to be curtailed and prices escalated. Although anthracite coal prices have skyrocketed from $34/ton (1979) to over $71.50/ton (1981) because of high demand (local as well as export) and rising labor costs, the delivered natural gas cost, which reached $3.90 to 4.20/million Btu in the Hazelton area during 1981, has allowed the producer gas from the gasifier at Webster Brick to remain competitive. The low Btu gas cost (at the escalated coal price) is estimated to be $4/million Btu. In addition to producing gas that is cost competitive with natural gas at the Webster Brick Hazelton plant, Webster has the security of knowing that its gas supply will be constant. Improvements in brick business and projected deregulation of the natural gas price may yield additional, attractive cost benefits to Webster Brick through the use of low Btu gas from these gasifiers. Also, use of hot raw gas (that requires no tar or sulfur removal) keeps the overall process efficiency high. 25 references, 47 figures, 14 tables.

Boesch, L.P.; Hylton, B.G.; Bhatt, C.S.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

,"Weekly Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)" Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Weekly Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)",1,"Weekly","12/13/2013" ,"Release Date:","12/18/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","12/27/2013" ,"Excel File Name:","rngwhhdw.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/rngwhhdw.htm" ,"Source:" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/18/2013 12:22:22 PM"

33

"NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code(a)","Economic Characteristic(b)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Relative Standard Errors for Table 6.3;" 3 Relative Standard Errors for Table 6.3;" " Unit: Percents." " "," ",,,"Consumption" " "," ",,"Consumption","per Dollar" " "," ","Consumption","per Dollar","of Value" "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code(a)","Economic Characteristic(b)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)" ,,"Total United States" " 311 - 339","ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES" ,"Value of Shipments and Receipts" ,"(million dollars)" ," Under 20",3,3,3

34

Portable convertible blast effects shield  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler,; Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A (Livermore, CA)

2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

35

Portable convertible blast effects shield  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more frusto-conically-tapered telescoping rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration by the friction fit of adjacent pairs of frusto-conically-tapered rings to each other.

Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler, Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A. (Livermore, CA)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

36

Monthly News Blast: March 2013  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In the March 2013 Monthly News Blast, read about two upcoming webinars, two recently announced BETO events, recent blog posts, the monthly staff spotlight video, upcoming events, and more.

37

May 2013 Monthly News Blast  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Bioenergy Technologies Office's May 2013 Monthly News Blast highlights the upcoming Biomass 2013 conference, a webinar on ionic liquids, the new Multi-Year Program Plan, and more.

38

June 2014 Monthly News Blast | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

4 Monthly News Blast June 2014 Monthly News Blast June 2014 Monthly News Blast from the Bioenergy Technologies Office. june2014newsblast.pdf More Documents & Publications July...

39

April 2014 Monthly News Blast | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

April 2014 Monthly News Blast April 2014 Monthly News Blast April 2014 Monthly News Blast from the Bioenergy Technologies Office. april2014newsblast.pdf More Documents &...

40

September 2014 Monthly News Blast | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

September 2014 Monthly News Blast September 2014 Monthly News Blast September 2014 Monthly News Blast from the Bioenergy Technologies Office. september2014newsblast.pdf More...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu blast pulping" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

July 2014 Monthly News Blast | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

July 2014 Monthly News Blast July 2014 Monthly News Blast July 2014 Monthly News Blast from the Bioenergy Technologies Office. july2014newsblast.pdf More Documents & Publications...

42

Biomass Program Monthly News Blast, October 2012 | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Blast, October 2012 Biomass Program Monthly News Blast, October 2012 Copy of the Biomass Program Monthly News Blast from October 2012. october2012newsblast.pdf More Documents &...

43

February 2012 Biomass Program News Blast | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

February 2012 Biomass Program News Blast February 2012 Biomass Program News Blast News Blast from the February 2012 Biomass Program. february2012newsblast.pdf More Documents &...

44

Biomass Program December Monthly News Blast | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

December Monthly News Blast Biomass Program December Monthly News Blast The December News Blast from the Biomass Program's monthly newsletter contains important past and upcoming...

45

Biomass Program September 2012 News Blast | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

September 2012 News Blast Biomass Program September 2012 News Blast September 2012 Biomass Program monthly news blast. september2012newsblast.pdf More Documents & Publications...

46

April 2012 Biomass Program News Blast | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

April 2012 Biomass Program News Blast April 2012 Biomass Program News Blast April 2012 monthly news blast from the Biomass Program, highlighting news items, funding opportunities,...

47

August 2014 Monthly News Blast | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

News Blast August 2014 Monthly News Blast August 2014 Monthly News Blast from the Bioenergy Technologies Office. august2014newsblast.pdf More Documents & Publications June...

48

Methanol-reinforced kraft pulping  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The addition of methanol to a high-sulfidity kraft cook on Scandinavian softwood chips was studied under different process conditions. Delignification and the degradation of carbohydrates were accelerated, but the effect on delignification was greater. Thus, methanol addition improved selectivity. The positive effect of methanol could also be observed for modified kraft cooks having a leveled out alkali concentration and lower concentration of sodium ions and dissolved lignin at the end of the cook. Methanol addition had no discernible effect on pulp strength or on pulp bleachability.

Norman, E.; Olm, L.; Teder, A. (STFI, Stockholm (Sweden))

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Monthly News Blast: July 2013 | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

News Blast: July 2013 Monthly News Blast: July 2013 July 2013 Monthly News Blast july2013newsblast.pdf More Documents & Publications Monthly News Blast: March 2013 BETO Monthly...

50

BETO Monthly News Blast, June 2013  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The June 2013 monthly news blast covers Biomass 2013, the Program Management Review, upcoming industry events, and more.

51

,"U.S. Natural Gas Liquid Composite Price (Dollars per Million Btu)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly","8/2013" Monthly","8/2013" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","11/29/2013" ,"Excel File Name:","ngm_epg0_plc_nus_dmmbtum.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/ngm_epg0_plc_nus_dmmbtum.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/18/2013 12:22:47 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Natural Gas Liquid Composite Price (Dollars per Million Btu)" "Sourcekey","NGM_EPG0_PLC_NUS_DMMBTU" "Date","U.S. Natural Gas Liquid Composite Price (Dollars per Million Btu)"

52

,"U.S. Natural Gas Liquid Composite Price (Dollars per Million Btu)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual",2012 Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","11/29/2013" ,"Excel File Name:","ngm_epg0_plc_nus_dmmbtua.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/ngm_epg0_plc_nus_dmmbtua.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/18/2013 12:22:46 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Natural Gas Liquid Composite Price (Dollars per Million Btu)" "Sourcekey","NGM_EPG0_PLC_NUS_DMMBTU" "Date","U.S. Natural Gas Liquid Composite Price (Dollars per Million Btu)"

53

,"Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual",2012 Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/18/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","12/27/2013" ,"Excel File Name:","rngwhhda.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/rngwhhda.htm" ,"Source:" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/18/2013 12:22:19 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)" "Sourcekey","RNGWHHD" "Date","Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)" 35611,2.49 35976,2.09 36341,2.27 36707,4.31 37072,3.96 37437,3.38 37802,5.47 38168,5.89 38533,8.69 38898,6.73

54

,"Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Daily","12/16/2013" Daily","12/16/2013" ,"Release Date:","12/18/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","12/27/2013" ,"Excel File Name:","rngwhhdd.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/rngwhhdd.htm" ,"Source:" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/18/2013 12:22:24 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)" "Sourcekey","RNGWHHD" "Date","Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)" 35437,3.82 35438,3.8 35439,3.61 35440,3.92 35443,4 35444,4.01 35445,4.34 35446,4.71 35447,3.91

55

An analytical investigation of primary zone combustion temperatures and NOx production for turbulent jet flames using low-BTU fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is the production of low-BTU gas from a coal gasification reactor for combustion before introduction to the topping cycle gas turbine (Minchener, 1990). Most low-BTU gases are heavily loaded with sulfur-containing compounds which appear to be a major problem... with direct combustion of coal and low-BTU gases (Caraway, 1995). Environmental standards require the removal of these compounds which can be expensive and hazardous when removed from coal in post-combustion processes. However, gasification of coal results...

Carney, Christopher Mark

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

56

"NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code(a)","Economic Characteristic(b)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 Relative Standard Errors for Table 6.4;" 4 Relative Standard Errors for Table 6.4;" " Unit: Percents." " "," ",,,"Consumption" " "," ",,"Consumption","per Dollar" " "," ","Consumption","per Dollar","of Value" "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code(a)","Economic Characteristic(b)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)" ,,"Total United States" " 311 - 339","ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES" ,"Employment Size" ," Under 50",3,4,4 ," 50-99",5,5,5 ," 100-249",4,4,3

57

Report blasts Patent Office automation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Report blasts Patent Office automation ... The Department of Commerce is moving quickly to implement a report highly critical of the Patent & Trademark Office's efforts to fully automate its patent search and retrieval operations. ... An Industry Review Panel found that the current automated patent system is over-designed and as a result needs a redundant communications network and redundant storage of all patent images at high resolution. ...

JANICE LONG

1988-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

58

Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper,...

59

Pulp & Paper Industry- A Strategic Energy Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The pulp and paper industry with yearly energy purchases of $5 billion per year including 50 billion kWh of power is one of the largest industrial energy producers in the U.S. However, structural changes in the global pulp and paper industry could...

Stapley, C. E.

60

HPLC of Anthraquinone in Wood Pulps  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......anthraquinone content: Analysis of pulp and paper-type materials and pulping liquors by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Tappi 62(8): 73-76 (1979). 2. J.O. Broenstad, K.H. Schroeder, and H.D. Friestad. Determina- tion of trace amounts......

K.H. Nelson; D. Schram

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu blast pulping" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Sulfur-Free Selective Pulping  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Technoeconomic Appraisal," December 1991. 5. DOE Annual Report on Contract No. AC02-83CH10093, Bozell, J. J., Hames, B., Chum, H. L., Dimmel, D. R, Althen, E., Caldwell, P. L., Daube, Oxidation ;; Diels-Alder .. I I -Methanol .. ~ 5 I 3 (C~O) OCH... - Hydrogen 3 (Q-IP) # Q-I 3 o o ~ o 1 2 ~ (H) Lignin DMBQ =two OCH3 groups Anthraquinone MMBQ =one OCH3 group A. K, and Kuroda, K-I.,"Sulfur-free Selective Pulping," March 1992. 6. DOE Annual Report on Contrac No. DE-AC02-83CH10093, Bozell, J. J...

Dimmel, D. R.; Bozell, J. J.

62

BETO Monthly News Blast, August 2013r | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

BETO Monthly News Blast, August 2013r BETO Monthly News Blast, August 2013r Copy of the BETO Monthly News Blast from August 2013 august2013newsblast.pdf More Documents &...

63

May 2014 Monthly News Blast | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

4 Monthly News Blast May 2014 Monthly News Blast May 2014 Monthly News Blast from the Bioenergy Technologies Office. may2014newsblast.pdf More Documents & Publications April 2014...

64

Biomass Program Monthly News Blast January 2012 | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Blast January 2012 Biomass Program Monthly News Blast January 2012 This is a copy of the Biomass Program's monthly news blast from January 2012. january2012newsblast.pdf More...

65

Biomass Program Monthly News Blast - May 2012 | Department of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

May 2012 Biomass Program Monthly News Blast - May 2012 Biomass Program monthly news blast from May 2012 may2012newsblast.pdf More Documents & Publications June 2012 News Blast:...

66

March 2014 Monthly News Blast | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

March 2014 Monthly News Blast March 2014 Monthly News Blast BETO Gets Innovative with New Interactive Tool march2014newsblast.pdf More Documents & Publications April 2014 Monthly...

67

Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: May | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Blast: May Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: May News and updates from the Biomass Program in May 2011. maynewsblast.pdf More Documents & Publications Biomass Program Monthly...

68

August 2012 Biomass Program Monthly News Blast | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

August 2012 Biomass Program Monthly News Blast August 2012 Biomass Program Monthly News Blast Monthly newsletter for August 2012 from the Department of Energy's Biomass Program....

69

Biomass Program News Blast: September | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

News Blast: September Biomass Program News Blast: September News and updates from the Biomass Program in September 2011. septembernewsblast.pdf More Documents & Publications...

70

July 2012 Biomass Program Monthly News Blast | Department of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

July 2012 Biomass Program Monthly News Blast July 2012 Biomass Program Monthly News Blast July 2012 monthly newsletter from the Department of Energy's Biomass Program....

71

Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: November | Department of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Monthly News Blast: November Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: November News and Updates from the Biomass Program in November 2011. novembernewsblast.pdf More Documents &...

72

Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: August | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: August Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: August News and updates from the Biomass Program in August 2011. augustnewsblast.pdf More Documents...

73

Existing and prospective blast-furnace conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Blast-furnace conditions are investigated by means of a multizone model. The expected performance of prospective technologies is assessed, as well as the trends in blast-furnace processes. The model permits the identification of means of overcoming practical difficulties.

I.G. Tovarovskii; V.I. Bol'shakov; V.P. Lyalyuk; A.E. Merkulov; D. V. Pinchuk [Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine). Institute of Ferrous Metallurgy

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

74

Highly concentrated foam formulation for blast mitigation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A highly concentrated foam formulation for blast suppression and dispersion mitigation for use in responding to a terrorism incident involving a radiological dispersion device. The foam formulation is more concentrated and more stable than the current blast suppression foam (AFC-380), which reduces the logistics burden on the user.

Tucker, Mark D. (Albuquerque, NM); Gao, Huizhen (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

75

Green Destiny + mpiBLAST = Bioinfomatics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Green Destiny + mpiBLAST = Bioinfomatics Wu-chun Feng feng@lanl.gov For more on Green Destiny, go-6651 #12;Green Destiny + mpiBLAST = Bioinfomagic Wu-chun Feng feng@lanl.gov For more on Green Destiny, go The Components of "Bioinfomagic" · Green Destiny ­ A 240-node supercomputer in a "telephone booth" · Footprint: 6

Feng, Wu-chun

76

The effect of CO? on the flammability limits of low-BTU gas of the type obtained from Texas lignite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. W. N. Heffington An experimental study was conducted to determine if relatively large amounts of CO in a low-BTU gas of the type 2 derived from underground gasification of Texas lignite would cause significant... ? Flammability limit data for three actual samples of low-BTU gas obtained from an in-situ coal gasification experiment (Heffington, 1981). The HHC are higher LIST OF TABLES (Cont'd) PAGE hydrocarbons orimarily C H and C H . ----- 34 I 2 6 3 8' TABLE 5...

Gaines, William Russell

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

77

LTC vacuum blasting machine (concrete): Baseline report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

NONE

1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

78

Advanced Oxidation Technology for Pulp Mill Effluent  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

parameters. The dissolved solids consist of the chemicals derived from the wood material plus the chemicals added to the specific pulping process. No one technology can adequately treat these effluent streams, rather a combination of treatment methods... suspended or dissolved solids. We are herein considering only the treatment of the dissolved solids portion, assuming the removal of the suspended material by some other means. Dependent upon the nature of the pulping process and the particular...

Hart, J. R.

79

High-temperature turbine technology program. Turbine subsystem design report: Low-Btu gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the US Department of Energy High-Temperature Turbine Technology (DOE-HTTT) program is to bring to technology readiness a high-temperature (2600/sup 0/F to 3000/sup 0/F firing temperature) turbine within a 6- to 10-year duration, Phase II has addressed the performance of component design and technology testing in critical areas to confirm the design concepts identified in the earlier Phase I program. Based on the testing and support studies completed under Phase II, this report describes the updated turbine subsystem design for a coal-derived gas fuel (low-Btu gas) operation at 2600/sup 0/F turbine firing temperature. A commercial IGCC plant configuration would contain four gas turbines. These gas turbines utilize an existing axial flow compressor from the GE product line MS6001 machine. A complete description of the Primary Reference Design-Overall Plant Design Description has been developed and has been documented. Trends in overall plant performance improvement at higher pressure ratio and higher firing temperature are shown. It should be noted that the effect of pressure ratio on efficiency is significally enhanced at higher firing temperatures. It is shown that any improvement in overall plant thermal efficiency reflects about the same level of gain in Cost of Electricity (COE). The IGCC concepts are shown to be competitive in both performance and cost at current and near-term gas turbine firing temperatures of 1985/sup 0/F to 2100/sup 0/F. The savings that can be accumulated over a thirty-year plant life for a water-cooled gas turbine in an IGCC plant as compared to a state-of-the-art coal-fired steam plant are estimated. A total of $500 million over the life of a 1000 MW plant is projected. Also, this IGCC power plant has significant environmental advantages over equivalent coal-fired steam power plants.

Horner, M.W.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Testing and analysis of structural steel columns subjected to blast loads  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with four blast generators distributed over the height ofwith four blast generators distributed over the height of

Stewart, Lauren K.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu blast pulping" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Blast overpressure relief using air vacated buffer medium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Blast waves generated by intense explosions cause damage to structures and human injury. In this thesis, a strategy is investigated for relief of blast overpressure resulting from explosions in air. The strategy is based ...

Avasarala, Srikanti Rupa

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

The response of mechanical and chemical pulps to refining  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on theoretical equations describing the flow of pulp in refiners were used to analyze the experimental results obtained in a series of pilot plant trials. Western red cedar and loblolly pine wood chips were refined in 1-3 stages at rotational speeds of 1200 and 1800 rpm to produce thermomechanical pulps (TMP). Also, sulfate semibleached and low-yield sulfite pulps were refined at low (5%), medium (12%), and high (25%) consistency. The results indicate that the number of refining stages did not affect mechanical pulp quality. At a given specific energy, increasing the rotational speed increased the specific energy per impact and decreased the total number of impacts, resulting in a faster rate of fines generation for mechanical pulps. For chemical pulps higher pulp consistency produced gentler refining and yielded a higher rate of freeness decrease.

Miles, K.B.; Karnis, A. (Pulp and Paper Research Inst. of Canada, 570 St. John's Rd., Pointe Claire, Quebec H9R 3J9 (CA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Combat-related blast injuries : injury types and outcomes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

blast and PTSD diagnosis as covariates. The interaction of PTSD and injury severity was initially assessed prior to model

Eskridge, Susan Lindsay

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Blast-induced phenotypic switching in cerebral vasospasm  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the cerebrovasculature is a common manifestation of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) reported among combat is not required for vasospasm in bTBI, which suggests that the unique mechanics of blast injury could potentiate. These results suggest that an acute, blast-like injury is sufficient to induce a hypercontraction

Parker, Kevin Kit

85

Blast injuries to the lung: epidemiology and management  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Medicine, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham...blast injuries|blast lung|radiology of blast lung injury|conventional...context, clinical symptoms and radiology. Symptoms may include respiratory...patients (67%) for whom role 3 radiology was available and given that...

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Final Technical Report Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Project Abstract for “Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp” When completed, the patented SC Washer will provide an innovative, energy efficient demonstration project to wash unbleached pulp using a pressure vessel charged with steam. The Port Townsend Paper Corporation’s pulp mill in Port Townsend, WA was initially selected as the host site for conducting the demonstration of the SCW. Due to 2006 and 2007 delays in the project caused by issues with 21st Century Pulp & Paper, the developer of the SCW, and the 2007 bankruptcy proceedings and subsequent restructuring at Port Townsend Paper, the mill can no longer serve as a host site. An alternate host site is now being sought to complete the commercial demonstration of the Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp. Additionally, estimated costs to complete the project have more than doubled since the initial estimates for the project were completed in 2002. Additional grant funding from DOE was sought and in July, 2008 the additional DOE funds were procured under a new DOE award, DE-PS36-08GO98014 issued to INL. Once the new host site is secured the completion of the project will begin under the management of INL. Future progress reports and milestone tracking will be completed under requirements of new DOE Award Number DE-PS36-08GO98014. The following are excerpts from the project Peer Review completed in 2006. They describe the project in some detail. Additional information can be found by reviewing DOE Award Number: DE-PS36-08GO98014. 5. Statement of Problem and Technical Barriers: The chemical pulping industry is one of the major users of fresh water in the United States. On average the industry uses over 80 tons of water to produce one ton of pulp, some states use up to 50% more (Washington 120 and Wisconsin 140). In order to process one ton of pulp using 80 tons of process water, a large amount of: • energy is used in process heat and • power is required for pumping the large volume of pulp slurries through the pulping phases. Most water used in the pulping process ends up as warm waste water in the mill’s effluent discharge, which subsequently pollutes receiving waterways and carries an enormous amount of energy with it. Wash water reduction in brown stock washing with the Steam Cycle Washers (SCW) will save energy, up to 1+ million BTUs per ton of pulp in the evaporators alone. Reduction of liquid volume through bleaching stages will save process heat energy in the amount of 2+ million BTUs per ton of pulp, and as much as 80 – 100 kWhrs of electrical power per ton of pulp due to reduced pumping costs. Currently, the technical barriers to water reduction in chemical pulping are basically as follows: • conventional pulp washers wash the pulp at 10 - 14% consistency, • conventional pulp washers use 12 – 16 tons of wash water per ton of pulp, and • they leave 30 – 70 lbs of soda (Na2SO4) per ton of pulp as soda loss into the washed pulp. The amount of wash water in excess of the amount of process liquid in the pulp is called Dilution Factor (DF), even though it is not a factor in the mathematical sense but an addition. Modern pulp washing lines can wash efficiently with a DF of 3 but most pulp mills in the United States are washing with a DF of 5-7. Therefore, at 10% washing consistency 14-16 tons of wash water is required and 14% consistency requires 11-13 tons of wash water.

Starkey, Yvonne; Salminen, Reijo; Karlsnes, Andy

2008-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

87

Sorption of Chlorophenols to Wood Pulp  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The good fit indicates that the ionized form of 2,4,5-TCP does not sorb to the pulp fibers, at least not under the low ionic strength conditions used. Figure 4, which plots the sorption of both 2,4-DCP and 2,4,5-TCP to a ? number 69.8 softwood pulp as a function of pH, further confirms these results and also shows an interesting situation in which the sorption of the trichlorophenol, which typically has the higher sorption, drops below that for the dichlorophenol in the pH range of about 7.7?9. ... Increasing quantities of sorbed humic substances increased the sorption of HOC. ... The present work demonstrates that a 3rd variable is important, i.e., the concn. of the sorbing solid phase in the system. ...

Steven J. Severtson; Sujit Banerjee

1996-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

88

Low/medium-Btu coal-gasification-assessment program for potential users in New Jersey. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Burns and Roe Industrial Services Corporation and Public Service Electric and Gas in association with Scientific Design Company have completed a technical and economic evaluation of coal gasification. The evaluation also addressed the regulatory, institutional, and environmental issues of coal gasification. Two uses of coal-derived medium Btu (MBU) gas were explored: (1) substitute boiler fuel for electric generation and (2) substitute fuel for industrial customers using natural gas. The summary and conclusions of his evaluation are: The Sewaren Generating Station was selected as potentially the most suitable site for the coal gasification plant. The Texaco process was selected because it offered the best combination of efficiency and pilot plant experience; in addition, it is a pressurized process which is advantageous if gas is to be supplied to industrial customers via a pipeline. Several large industrial gas customers within the vicinities of Sewaren and Hudson Generating Stations indicated that MBG would be considered as an alternate fuel provided that its use was economically justified. The capital cost estimates for a 2000 tons/day and a 1000 tons/day gasification plant installed at Sewaren Generating Station are $115.6 million and $73.8 million, in 1980 dollars, respectively. The cost of supplying MBG to industrial customers is competitive with existing pipeline natural gas on a Btu heating value basis for gasifier capacity factors of 35% or higher.

Not Available

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

" Row: Selected SIC Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

S5.1. Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" S5.1. Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Selected SIC Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Waste"," ",," " " "," "," ","Blast"," "," ","Pulping Liquor"," ","Oils/Tars","RSE" "SIC"," "," ","Furnace/Coke"," ","Petroleum","or","Wood Chips,","and Waste","Row"

90

" Electricity Generation by Census Region, Census Division, Industry Group, and"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

A6. Total Inputs of Selected Byproduct Energy for Heat, Power, and" A6. Total Inputs of Selected Byproduct Energy for Heat, Power, and" " Electricity Generation by Census Region, Census Division, Industry Group, and" " Selected Industries, 1994" " (Estimates in Trillion Btu)" " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Waste"," " " "," "," ","Blast"," "," "," "," ","Oils/Tars","RSE" "SIC"," "," ","Furnace/Coke"," ","Petroleum","Pulping","Wood Chips,","And Waste","Row"

91

Table 3.5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2002;" 5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2002;" " Level: National Data and Regional Totals; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Waste"," ",," " " "," "," ","Blast"," "," ","Pulping Liquor"," ","Oils/Tars","RSE" "NAICS"," "," ","Furnace/Coke","Waste","Petroleum","or","Wood Chips,","and Waste","Row"

92

Table N5.1. Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 1998  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" 1. Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: National Data and Regional Totals; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Waste"," ",," " " "," "," ","Blast"," "," ","Pulping Liquor"," ","Oils/Tars","RSE" "NAICS"," "," ","Furnace/Coke"," ","Petroleum","or","Wood Chips,","and Waste","Row"

93

Microsoft Word - Blast Energy.112706.DOC  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

partnership successfully tests new, less expensive drilling technology partnership successfully tests new, less expensive drilling technology Casper, Wyo. - Nov. 28, 2006 - The Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) and its partner Blast Energy Services Inc. have successfully tested an innovative new oil and gas drilling technology that when commercialized should facilitate lower production costs and increased access to reserves. "It's our mission to partner with industry to help bring new ideas to the marketplace that can ensure clean, reliable and affordable supplies of oil and natural gas for American consumers," said Clarke Turner, RMOTC director. The new technology is expected to provide oil and gas producers with an alternative to existing well stimulation services at a lower cost, while having the ability to access previously uneconomical reserves. Blast's

94

A Phased Array Approach to Rock Blasting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of laboratory-scale simultaneous two-hole shots was performed in a rock simulant (mortar) to record the shock wave interference patterns produced in the material. The purpose of the project as a whole was to evaluate the usefulness of phased array techniques of blast design, using new high-precision delay technology. Despite high-speed photography, however, we were unable to detect the passage of the shock waves through the samples to determine how well they matched the expected interaction geometry. The follow-up mine-scale tests were therefore not conducted. Nevertheless, pattern analysis of the vectors that would be formed by positive interference of the shockwaves from multiple charges in an ideal continuous, homogeneous, isotropic medium indicate the potential for powerful control of blast design, given precise characterization of the target rock mass.

Leslie Gertsch; Jason Baird

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Centrifugal shot blasting. Innovative technology summary report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), the Facilities Closure and Demolition Projects Integrated Remedial Design/Remedial Action (RD/RA) work plan calls for the removal of one inch (1 in) depth of concrete surface in areas where contamination with technetium-99 has been identified. This report describes a comparative demonstration between two concrete removal technologies: an innovative system using Centrifugal Shot Blasting (CSB) and a modified baseline technology called a rotary drum planer.

Not Available

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: October | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

October Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: October News and updates from the Biomass Program in October 2011. octobernewsblast.pdf More Documents & Publications Biomass Program...

97

Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: July | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

July Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: July News and updates from the Biomass Program in July 2011. julynewsblast.pdf More Documents & Publications Biomass Program Monthly News...

98

Biomass Program Monthly News Blast - March 2012 | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

March 2012 Biomass Program Monthly News Blast - March 2012 Monthly updates from the Biomass Program in March 2012. march2012newsblast.pdf More Documents & Publications Biomass...

99

Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: June | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

June Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: June News and updates from the Biomass Program in June 2011. junenewsblast.pdf More Documents & Publications Biomass Program Monthly News...

100

Traumatic Brain Injury Protection: Blast Pressure Sensors in...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Find More Like This Return to Search Traumatic Brain Injury Protection: Blast Pressure Sensors in Helmets Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Contact LLNL About This Technology...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu blast pulping" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Remark on the energy content of a blast wave  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this note a comment is made on the total energy content of a blast wave in a stellar...et al. (1951).

G. Deb Ray

102

Pulp and Paper Corrosion Symposium Georgia Tech Renewable Bioproducts Institute  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Pulp and Paper Corrosion Symposium Georgia Tech Renewable Bioproducts Institute November 2014 Digester Corrosion Margaret Gorog Federal Way, WA 2 · Chips plus a mixture of white and black liquor · The pulp is then blown from the bottom of the vessel into a blow tank · Corrosion occurs during filling

Das, Suman

103

Biologic response to complex blast waves  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Small, bare charges were detonated inside an M59 armored personnel carrier (APC) in an attempt to simulate the complex blast waves generated by the jets from shaped-charge warheads penetrating into armored vehicles. Anesthetized sheep were placed inside the APC at 92- and 122-cm ranges from 57- or 113-g pentolite charges. Pressure-time was measured by pressure transducers either mounted on the animals or free standing at comparable ranges on the opposite side of the vehicle. In general, the waveforms were characterized by an initial shock wave of less than 1-msec duration followed by repeated reflections of decreasing magnitude. No deaths nor lung hemorrhages were observed, but all the animals sustained severe ear injury. Animals subjected to peak overpressures of 1.2 to 2.3 bar from the 113-g explosions also received slight non-auditory blast injuries to the upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts; those exposed to peak overpressures of just under 1 bar from the 57-g charges did not. The non-auditory blast injuries inside the APC were more severe than those sustained by sheep at comparable distances from 113-g charges in the open. The results suggested that the biological consequences of a complex wave of the type encountered in this study can be equated approximately to a Friedlander wave with a peak overpressure equal to that of the complex wave and with a total impulse equal to the impulse over the first 2 to 3 msec of the complex wave. 9 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Richmond, D.R.; Yelverton, J.T.; Fletcher, E.R.; Phillips, Y.Y.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Development of coke properties during the descent in the blast furnace.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The efficiency in use of reducing agents in blast furnace (BF) ironmaking has been significantly improved over the years. At most blast furnaces, auxiliary fuels… (more)

Maria Lundgren

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Processing automotive shredder fluff for a blast furnace injection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Processing automotive shredder fluff for a blast furnace injection S. GUIGNOT* , M. GAMET, N. *Corresponding author: s.guignot@brgm.fr, (+33)238643485 Abstract Automotive shredder fluff is a byproduct. Keywords: automotive shredder residues, fluff, iron recovery, process, blast furnace hal-01017129

Boyer, Edmond

106

Gas turbine considerations in the pulp and paper industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The pulp and paper industry is one of the largest users of energy in the industrial arena, requiring large quantities of process steam and electrical energy per unit of production. Developing power generation as an integral part of its power plant systems is one way for the industry to meet these requirements. Gas turbine-based cogeneration systems can also be a desirable approach. In recent years, competitive pressures, environmental concerns, the cost and availability of various fuels, and new power generation opportunities have awakened interest in power generation in the pulp and paper industry and other industries. This paper provides a strategic review of these issues of the pulp and paper industry.

Anderson, J.S. (International Paper Co., Purchase, NY (US)); Kovacik, J.M. (GE Co., Schenectady, NY (US))

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Organosolv pulping: a versatile approach to wood refining  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fractionation of hardwoods into pulp, lignin, and hemicellulose has been studied in a multi-stage alcohol extraction pilot plant. By adjusting processing conditions, pulps of different properties were obtained. They have been found to be suitable to furnish components for writing, printing, and high-absorbency papers and as dissolving grades. By-product lignin and hemicelluloses are recovered in separate, high-yield fractions for which several potential commercial applications have been identified. The process is a low-capital-cost, low-environmental-impact alternative to kraft and sulfite pulping.

Lora, J.H.; Aziz, S.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Effects of pulp consistency and mixing intensity on ozone bleaching  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conventional wisdom holds that ozone bleaching is feasible only at low or high pulp consistencies. However, recent research suggests that ozone bleaching at medium consistency is possible under conditions of high-intensity mixing. This article presents experimental results for softwood and hardwood pulps that were ozone-bleached over a range of consistencies (3-40%) and mixing conditions. Ozone was pressurized and delivered by a proprietary automated system. Results indicate that ozone bleaching at medium consistency can be as effective as bleaching at high consistency. Medium-consistency bleaching has the advantage of greater selectivity, resulting in higher pulp viscosity.

Hurst, M.M. (Quantum Technologies, Inc., Twinsburg, OH (United States))

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Preventing Strength Loss of Unbleached Kraft Pulp  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Kraft pulp fibers lose inter-fiber bonding ability when they are dried during the manufacture of paper. Adverse environmental consequences of this loss include (a) limitations on the number of times that kraft fibers can be recycled, (b) reduced paper strength, sometimes making it necessary to use heavier paper or paperboard to meet product strength requirements, increasing the usage of raw materials, (c) decreased rates of paper production in cases where the fiber furnish has been over-refined in an attempt to regain inter-fiber bonding ability. The present study is the first of its type to focus on unbleached kraft fibers, which are a main ingredient of linerboard for corrugated containers. About 90 million tons of unbleached kraft fiber are used worldwide every year for this purpose.

Martin Hubbe; Richard Venditti; John Heitmann

2003-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

110

Low Odor, High Yield Kraft Pulping  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In laboratory cooks pure oxygen was profiled into the circulation line of a batch digester during two periods of the cooking cycle: The first injection occurred during the heating steps for the purpose of in-situ generation of polysulfide. This chip treatment was studied to explore stabilization against alkaline induced carbohydrate peeling and to increase pulp yield. Under optimum conditions small amounts of polysulfide were produced with yield increase of about 0.5% These increases fell below earlier reports suggesting that unknown differences in liquor composition may influence the relative amounts of polysulfide and thiosulfate generated during the oxidation. Consequently, further studies are required to understand the factors that influence the ratios of those two sulfur species.

W.T. McKean

2000-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

111

Alabama Pine Pulp Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Pulp Biomass Facility Pulp Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Alabama Pine Pulp Biomass Facility Facility Alabama Pine Pulp Sector Biomass Location Monroe County, Alabama Coordinates 31.5119068°, -87.460397° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":31.5119068,"lon":-87.460397,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

112

Energy Management and Computers in the Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dryer hood waste heat. o Biomass feedstocks for the production of specialized chemial products. o Crossing of the stone groundwood process with the thermomechanical pulping process. 236 ESL-IE-81-04-42 Proceedings from the Third Industrial Energy...

Sommerfeld, J. T.; Hartley, E. M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Magnet options for sensors for the pulp and paper industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

measuring the moisture content of wood chips. pulp or blackmeasurements of the moisture content in wood chips and blackwood species in the incoming chip stream, 3) a measurement of the moisture content

Green, M.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Biotechnology in the pulp and paper industry; A review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reviews biotechnology in the pulp and paper industry. As to biopulping and biobleaching, little effort is being devoted to improving strength properties of pulps. However, positive results have been reported in improving tensile properties by treating mechanical pulps with white-rot organisms and in enzymatic beating of chemical pulps with hemicellulase enzymes. Papermaking is another seemingly overlooked area, although biological systems and processes have been used in the past and ought to be important still. On the other hand, waste treatment has been a stronghold of biotechnology within the industry for years. New possibilities may emerge via biotechnology for removing color and AOX from bleach plant effluents. New research on the use of white-rot organisms and soil bacteria to detoxify chlorinated organics in soils and groundwater may yield technologies that the industry can apply.

Trotter, P.C. (Biotechnology Awareness, Weyerhaeuser Co., Technology Center, Tacoma, WA (US))

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

The Blast Energy Efficiency of GRBs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using data mostly assembled by previous authors, we consider the linear correlation between the apparent radiative efficiency $\\epsilon_{\\gamma}$ (defined as the ratio of isotropic equivalent radiative output to inferred isotropic equivalent kinetic energy of the blast) and $E_{peak}^{\\alpha}$ where $1.4<\\alpha<2$, for 17 of 22 GRBs (Lloyd-Ronning and Zhang, 2004). We note in a quantitative manner that this is consistent with the hypothesis that $\\epsilon_{\\gamma}$ and $E_{peak}$ are influenced by viewing angle. We suggest a more general theoretically derived expression for this correlation that could be tested with a richer data set. If the reduction in both $\\epsilon_{\\gamma}$ and $E_{peak}$ is due to viewing angle effects, then the actual radiative efficiency is $\\sim 7$. We also find preliminary evidence (with a small sample) for a separate class of weak GRB afterglows.

David Eichler Daniel Jontof-Hutter

2005-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

116

Blast mitigation capabilities of aqueous foam.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of tests involving detonation of high explosive blanketed by aqueous foam (conducted from 1982 to 1984) are described in primarily terms of recorded peak pressure, positive phase specific impulse, and time of arrival. The investigation showed that optimal blast mitigation occurs for foams with an expansion ratio of about 60:1. Simple analyses representing the foam as a shocked single phase mixture are presented and shown inadequate. The experimental data demonstrate that foam slows down and broadens the propagated pressure disturbance relative to a shock in air. Shaped charges and flyer plates were evaluated for operation in foam and appreciable degradation was observed for the flyer plates due to drag created by the foam.

Hartman, William Franklin; Larsen, Marvin Elwood; Boughton, Bruce A.

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

LTC vacuum blasting maching (concrete): Baseline report: Greenbook (Chapter)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjuction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

NONE

1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

118

Rat injury model under controlled field-relevant primary blast conditions: Acute response to a wide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 1 Rat injury model under controlled field-relevant primary blast conditions: Acute response.edu Keywords: Traumatic Brain Injury, Primary Blast, Mortality, Cellular Membrane Permeability, Lung Injury the risk of sustaining blast induced injury by military personnel and civilians. The blast injury

Farritor, Shane

119

Strategic evaluation of investments in coal-dust fuel for blast furnaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper discusses the evaluation of venture investment projects in pulverized coal injection into blast furnaces.

S.V. Bogdanov; S.M. Kornilaev [State University of Management, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Biosolids recycling at a pulp and paper mill  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Bio Gro Division of Wheelabrator Water Technologies Inc. has traditionally been involved in recycling biosolids from domestic wastewater treatment plants. The biosolids, or primarily organic residuals that result from the treatment of wastewater, have long been used in agriculture as a soil conditioner, fertilizer, organic lime material and also for other soil fertility practices. It has long been known that residuals from certain industrial wastewater processes are very high in nutrients and organic matter which can also be successfully used in agricultural activities. One of these industrial biosolids with well-documented agricultural value is the organic residual from the treatment of wastewater from pulp and paper mills. Most pulp and paper producers in the US recognize the value of pulp and paper biosolids as a material that can fertilize their own tree stands or can be used in normal agricultural practices. In 1995, Bio Gro entered into a contract with a two large pulp and paper mills in Maine for the management of its pulp and paper biosolids. Bio Gro was responsible for implementing the beneficial use options for a mixture of primary and secondary biosolids from the wastewater treatment process which was combined with combustion ash from the facility`s power generation facilities. The contract included the layout of spreading areas, mixing of the residuals and spreading the material on the sites. This paper will explain the process that Bio Gro employed to manage the pulp and paper biosolids generated at the mill.

Gratton, P.F. [Wheelabrator Water Technologies Inc., Annapolis, MD (United States). Bio Gro Div.; Montgomery, K.L. [Wheelabrator Water Technologies Inc., Fredericksburg, VA (United States). Bio Gro Div.; Page, S.H. [Wheelabrator Water Technologies Inc., Portland, ME (United States). Bio Gro Div.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu blast pulping" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Dry Kraft Pulping at Ambient Pressure for Cost Effective Energy Saving and Pollution Deduction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sponsored by the DOE Industrial Energy Efficiency Grand Challenge program, our research team at the Georgia Institute of Technology conducted laboratory studies and confirmed the concept of making wood pulp using a dry pulping technology. This technology is a new process different from any prior pulping technology used in Kraft and CTMP pulping. Three different kinds of dry pulping methods were investigated. (a) Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure: The first one is to dry and bake the pretreated woodchips in a conventional oven at atmospheric pressure without the use of a catalyst. (b) Dry Pulping at Reduced Pressure: The second method is to dry the pretreated woodchips first in a vacuum oven in the presence of anthraquinone (AQ) as a pulping catalyst, followed by baking at elevated temperature. (c) Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP. The third method is to first remove the free water of pretreated woodchips, followed by dry pulping using a conventional Kraft pulping digester with AQ and triton as additives. Method one: Experimental results indicated that Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure could produce pulp with higher brightness and lower bulk than conventional Kraft pulp. However, tensile strength of the acquired pulp is much lower than traditional Kraft pulp, and their Kappa number and energy consumption are higher than conventional Kraft pulp. By fully analyzing the results, we concluded that wood fibers might be damaged during the drying process at elevated temperature. The main reason for wood fiber damage is that a long drying time was used during evaporation of water from the woodchips. This resulted in an un-uniform reaction condition on the woodchips: the outside layer of the woodchips was over reacted while inside the woodchips did not reacted at all. To solve this problem, dry pulping at reduced pressure was investigated. Method two: To achieve uniform reaction throughout the entire reaction system, the water inside the pretreated woodchips was evaporated first under vacuum condition at low temperature. Then, the dry woodchips were baked at high temperature (120-130 C) at atmospheric pressure. The qualities of the pulp made with this method were improved compared to that made with method one. The pulp shows higher brightness and lower bulk than Kraft pulping. The tensile strength is significantly higher than the pulp made from the first method. Although the pulp is stronger than that of TMP pulp, it is still lower than conventional Kraft fiber. Method Three: The third dry method was done in a Kraft pulping digester at elevated pressure but without free liquid in the digester. With this method, pulp that has almost the same qualities as conventional Kraft pulp could be produced. The screen yield, Kappa number, fiber brightness, pulp strength and pulp bulk are almost identical to the conventional Kraft pulp. The key advantages of this dry pulping method include ca. 55 % of cooking energy saved during the pulping process, as high as 50 wt% of NaOH saving as well as 3 wt% of Na2S saving comparing to Kraft one. By analyzing fiber properties, yields, chemical and energy consumptions, we concluded that the dry pulping method based on Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP, could be very attractive for the pulp and paper industry. More fundamental studies and scale up trials are needed to fully commercialize the technology. We expect to conduct pilot trials between 12 to 24 months of period if the DOE or industry can provide continual research funding. Based on the technology we demonstrated in this report, several pilot trial facilities in the United States will be available after small modifications. For example, the Herty Foundation in Savannah, Georgia is one of these potential locations. DOE funding for continuous study and final lead to commercialization of the technique is important.

Yulin Deng; Art Ragauskas

2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

122

Characterising the acceleration phase of blast wave formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Intensely heated, localised regions in uniform fluids will rapidly expand and generate an outwardly propagating blast wave. The Sedov-Taylor self-similar solution for such blast waves has long been studied and applied to a variety of scenarios. A characteristic time for their formation has also long been identified using dimensional analysis, which by its very nature, can offer several interpretations. We propose that, rather than simply being a characteristic time, it may be interpreted as the definitive time taken for a blast wave resulting from an intense explosion in a uniform media to contain its maximum kinetic energy. A scaling relation for this measure of the acceleration phase, preceding the establishment of the blast wave, is presented and confirmed using a 1D planar hydrodynamic model.

Fox, T. E., E-mail: tef503@york.ac.uk; Pasley, J. [York Plasma Institute, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Robinson, A. P. L.; Schmitz, H. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

123

Kablammo: an interactive, web-based BLAST results visualizer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......brief-report Applications Note Kablammo: an interactive, web-based BLAST results visualizer Jeff A. Wintersinger 1 * James...Associate Editor: Dr. John Hancock Motivation: Kablammo is a web-based application that produces interactive, vector-based......

Jeff A. Wintersinger; James D. Wasmuth

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Analysis of blast mitigation strategies exploiting fluid-structure interaction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Blast attacks have become the most pervasive threat in both civil and military contexts. However, there is currently a limited understanding of the mechanisms of loading, damage and failure of structures, and injury to ...

Kambouchev, Nayden Dimitrov, 1980-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Energy expenditures and carbon-dioxide emissions at blast furnaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermodynamic analysis of the reduction of iron and the material balances of carbon shows that the CO2 levels in the blast-furnace gas may be maintained by lowering the carbon consumption in the direct reduction ...

G. V. Korshikov; V. N. Titov; V. G. Mikhailov

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

System and process for the abatement of casting pollution, reclaiming resin bonded sand, and/or recovering a low BTU fuel from castings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Air is caused to flow through the resin bonded mold to aid combustion of the resin binder to form a low BTU gas fuel. Casting heat is recovered for use in a waste heat boiler or other heat abstraction equipment. Foundry air pollution is reduced, the burned portion of the molding sand is recovered for immediate reuse and savings in fuel and other energy is achieved.

Scheffer, Karl D. (121 Governor Dr., Scotia, NY 12302)

1984-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

127

LTC 1073 vacuum blasting (concrete) human factors assessment -- Baseline (summary)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high capacity, direct pressure blasting system incorporating a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast head. A vacuum system removes dust and debris from the surfaces as it is blasted. After cleaning the surface, the abrasive, together with the rust or coating that was removed from the surface, is vacuumed into the machine through the suction hose. The dust separator contains angled steel collision pads, working with the force of gravity, to allow any reusable abrasive to fall back into the pressure vessel. The filters are manually back flushed to prevent clogging. After back flushing, dust is dumped from the dust chamber into the dust collection bag or drum by operation of the bellows valve. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on dust and noise exposure. Dust exposure was found to be minimal, but noise exposure was potentially significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place may cause the results to be inapplicable to indoor settings. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment. Other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

NONE

1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

128

Bioenergy Pumps New Life into Pulp and Paper Mills | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Bioenergy Pumps New Life into Pulp and Paper Mills Bioenergy Pumps New Life into Pulp and Paper Mills Bioenergy Pumps New Life into Pulp and Paper Mills December 13, 2011 - 4:12pm Addthis Old Town Fuel and Fiber, a former pulp mill, converts a portion of the wood chips used to make pulp to biofuels. | Energy Department photo. Old Town Fuel and Fiber, a former pulp mill, converts a portion of the wood chips used to make pulp to biofuels. | Energy Department photo. Neil Rossmeissl General Engineer What does this project do? Breathes new life into shuttered factories and mills. Saves and creates jobs. Despite Americans' voracious appetite for paper products -- a staggering 700 pounds per person annually -- America's pulp and paper industry has been struggling as of late due to competition from countries where

129

Core Fluxome and Metafluxome of Lactic Acid Bacteria under Simulated Cocoa Pulp Fermentation Conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Metabolic network simulation using logical loop algorithm and Jacobian matrix. Metab. Eng. 6...grown in cocoa pulp simulation medium, and fermentation...cultures in cocoa pulp simulation medium (Fig. S1). PDF, 440K Supplemental...

Philipp Adler; Christoph Josef Bolten; Katrin Dohnt; Carl Erik Hansen; Christoph Wittmann

2013-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

130

Highly Energy Efficient Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This factsheet describes a project that seeks to develop feasible chemical modifications during kraft pulping operations to obtain significant energy and product benefits for U.S. kraft pulp and paper mills.

131

Bioenergy Pumps New Life into Pulp and Paper Mills | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Bioenergy Pumps New Life into Pulp and Paper Mills Bioenergy Pumps New Life into Pulp and Paper Mills Bioenergy Pumps New Life into Pulp and Paper Mills December 13, 2011 - 4:12pm Addthis Old Town Fuel and Fiber, a former pulp mill, converts a portion of the wood chips used to make pulp to biofuels. | Energy Department photo. Old Town Fuel and Fiber, a former pulp mill, converts a portion of the wood chips used to make pulp to biofuels. | Energy Department photo. Neil Rossmeissl General Engineer What does this project do? Breathes new life into shuttered factories and mills. Saves and creates jobs. Despite Americans' voracious appetite for paper products -- a staggering 700 pounds per person annually -- America's pulp and paper industry has been struggling as of late due to competition from countries where

132

Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Pulp and Paper Industry in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

8 Figure 8. Final energy mix in China's pulp and paperFigure 8 shows the final energy mix in China’s pulp andstatistics). Although the energy mix shows a trend toward

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

ITP Forest Products: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Pulp and Paper Industry  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The United States is the world's leading producer, consumer, and exporter of pulp, paper, and paperboard products.

134

Social Movements and Ecological Modernization: The Transformation of Pulp and Paper Manufacturing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI) short-course, “IntroductionInternational (PPI), the TAPPI Journal, and others. The

Sonnenfeld, David A.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

EXTENDING FIBER RESOURCES: FIBER LOADING RECYCLED FIBERAND MECHANICAL PULPS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT, HIGH OPACITY PAPER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, precipitates calcium carbonate (PCC) in situ within pulp fibers. Because paper made from fiber-loaded pulp increasing the recovery and utilization of recycled fiber and optimizing virgin fiber yield by relying moreEXTENDING FIBER RESOURCES: FIBER LOADING RECYCLED FIBERAND MECHANICAL PULPS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT, HIGH

Abubakr, Said

136

Magnet options for sensors for the pulp and paper industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has been developing sensors for the pulp and paper industry that uses a magnetic field. The applications for magnetic sensors that have studied include (1) sensors for the measurement of the water and ice content of wood chips entering the pulping mill, (2) sensors for measuring the water content and other constituents of the black liquor leaving the paper digester, and (3) sensors for measuring paper thickness and water content as the paper is being processed. These tasks can be done using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The magnetic field used for doing the NMR can come from either permanent magnets or superconducting magnets. The choice of the magnet is dependent on a number of factors, which include the size of the sample and field strength needed to do the sensing task at hand. This paper describes some superconducting magnet options that can be used in the pulp and paper industry.

Green, M.A.; Barale, P.J.; Fong, C.G.; Luft, P.A.; Reimer, J.A.; Yahnke, M.S.

2001-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

137

Effects of recycling peroxide liquor on brightness of mechanical pulp  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The high cost of bleaching softwood mechanical pulps to 80% brightness with peroxide can be partly offset by recycling the unreacted peroxide in the effluent. However, the situation is complicated by the presence of dissolved organic material, aged silicate, and calcium extracted from the pulp. This study examines the effects of these materials on brightening efficiency. Dissolved organic material did not consume peroxide in subsequent cycles. Aged silicate stabilized peroxide as efficiently as fresh silicate. Interaction of silicate with calcium and magnesium caused silicon residue to precipitate on the fibers, with deposition increasing with the number of cycles. Calcium silicate adhered strongly to stainless steel, while magnesium silicate did not.

Froass, W.C. (International Paper Co., Tuxedo, NY (United States)); Omori, S.; Francis, R.C.; Dence, C.W. (State Univ. of New York, Syracuse, NY (United States). Empire State Paper Research Inst.)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Continuous on-line measurement of lignin concentration in wood pulp  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We are working toward the development of an instrument for the continuous, on-line measurement of the lignin concentration in wood pulp. The instrument is based on laser induced fluorescence of the wood pulp and is to be used as a primary sensor for both feedback control of the pulping and feedforward control of bleaching. We report here the results of a series of laboratory tests that characterized the fluorescence properties of wood pulp and demonstrated a correlation between various fluorescence functions and the Kappa number of the pulps as determined by TAPPI Procedure T236.

Jeffers, L.A.; Roman, G.W.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Modeling and Simulating Blast Effects on Electric Substations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A software simulation tool was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory to estimate the fragility of electric substation components subject to an explosive blast. Damage caused by explosively driven fragments on a generic electric substation was estimated by using a ray-tracing technique to track and tabulate fragment impacts and penetrations of substation components. This technique is based on methods used for assessing vulnerability of military aircraft and ground vehicles to explosive blasts. An open-source rendering and ray-trace engine was used for geometric modeling and interactions between fragments and substation components. Semi-empirical material interactions models were used to calculate blast parameters and simulate high-velocity material interactions between explosively driven fragments and substation components. Finally, a Monte Carlo simulation was added to model the random nature of fragment generation allowing a skilled analyst to predict failure probabilities of substation components.

Lyle G. Roybal; Robert F. Jeffers; Kent E. McGillivary; Tony D. Paul; Ryan Jacobson

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Selection of Coal Gasification Parameters for Injection of Gasification Products Into a Blast Furnace  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An analytical study was performed on the influence of blast parameters on the course of the processes in the volume of a blast furnace and smelting rates by injection of low-grade coal gasification products. It w...

I. G. Tovarovsky; A. E. Merkulov

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu blast pulping" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

In Silico Investigation of Intracranial Blast Mitigation with Relevance to Military Traumatic Brain Injury  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Blast-induced traumatic brain injury is the most prevalent military injury in Iraq and Afghanistan, yet little is known about the mechanical effects of blasts on the human head, and still less is known about how personal ...

Nyein, Michelle K.

142

The BLAST 250 ?m-selected galaxy population in GOODS-South  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......provided by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimetre Telescope (BLAST). BLAST is a 1.8-m diameter stratospheric balloon telescope that operates at an altitude of approximately 35 km, above most of the atmospheric water vapour which......

J. S. Dunlop; P. A. R. Ade; J. J. Bock; E. L. Chapin; M. Cirasuolo; K. E. K. Coppin; M. J. Devlin; M. Griffin; T. R. Greve; J. O. Gundersen; M. Halpern; P. C. Hargrave; D. H. Hughes; R. J. Ivison; J. Klein; A. Kovacs; G. Marsden; P. Mauskopf; C. B. Netterfield; L. Olmi; E. Pascale; G. Patanchon; M. Rex; D. Scott; C. Semisch; I. Smail; T. A. Targett; N. Thomas; M. D. P. Truch; C. Tucker; G. S. Tucker; M. P. Viero; F. Walter; J. L. Wardlow; A. Weiss; D. V. Wiebe

2010-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

143

Nanocellulose A sustainable nanomaterial derived from wood pulp with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanocellulose A sustainable nanomaterial derived from wood pulp with applications in composites, sensors, and biomedical devices. The Sustainable Nano-Biocomposites lab in the chemical engineering-renewable resources while offering better performance. #12;Research Program Research in the Sustainable Nano

Thompson, Michael

144

Continuum modeling of a neuronal cell under blast loading Antoine Jrusalem a,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2012 Keywords: Continuum model Neuron Blast Cell damage Traumatic brain injury a b s t r a cContinuum modeling of a neuronal cell under blast loading Antoine Jérusalem a, , Ming Dao b by proposing a continuum model of a neuronal cell submitted to blast loading. In this approach, the cytoplasm

Suresh, Subra

145

The influence of heterogeneous meninges on the brain mechanics under primary blast loading  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/interphase C. Finite element analysis Blast wave a b s t r a c t In the modeling of brain mechanics subjected mismatch. Ã? 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Blast-related traumatic brain injury, 88% of those injuries were caused by expo- sure to blasts resulting from improvised explosive devices

Farritor, Shane

146

Measurement and analysis of near-field blast vibration and damage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Blast vibration and its attenuation within the rock mass immediately adjacent to a blast hole (2–15 m) were monitored for a blast hole diameter of 100 mm and a 2.4 m column of an emulsion explosive charge. Pea...

R. L. Yang; P. Rocque; P. Katsabanis; W. F. Bawden

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Columbia River Channel Improvement Project Rock Removal Blasting: Monitoring Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides a monitoring plan to evaluate take as outlined in the National Marine Fisheries Service 2002 Biological Opinion for underwater blasting to remove rock from the navigation channel for the Columbia River Channel Improvement Project. The plan was prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District.

Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.

2010-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

148

STANDARD OF CARE FOR BLASTING Timothy D. Stark1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

STANDARD OF CARE FOR BLASTING NEGLIGENCE By Timothy D. Stark1 ABSTRACT: Blasters are usually but should be liable only if their conduct is proven to be negligent. This change in legal standard be related to the level of care exercised by the blaster. It is anticipated that a negligence standard

149

Coke mineral transformations in the experimental blast furnace  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Blast furnace efficiency may be improved by optimizing coke reactivity. Some but not all forms of mineral matter in the coke modify its reactivity, but changes in mineral matter that occur within coke while in the blast furnace have not been fully quantified. To determine changes in mineral matter forms in the blast furnace, coke samples from a dissection study in the LKAB experimental blast furnace (EBF) were characterized using SEM/EDS analysis, EPMA (microprobe), and low-temperature ashing/quantitative XRD analysis. Variations in alkali concentration, particularly potassium, dominated the compositional changes. At high concentrations of potassium, the mineral matter was largely potassium-bearing but even more potassium was diffused throughout the coke and not associated with mineral matter. There was little difference in potassium concentration between the core and surface of the coke pieces, suggesting that potassium diffused rapidly through the whole coke. Iron, calcium, silicon, and aluminum concentrations were relatively constant in comparison, although the mineralogy of all elements changed significantly with changing temperature. 23 refs., 20 figs., 9 tabs.

Kelli Kazuberns; Sushil Gupta; Mihaela Grigore; David French; Richard Sakurovs; Mats Hallin; Bo Lindblom; Veena Sahajwalla [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Cooperative Research Centre for Coal in Sustainable Development (CCSD)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

150

Coke quality for blast furnaces with coal-dust fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recently, plans have been developed for the introduction of pulverized coal injection (PCI) at various Russian metallurgical enterprises. The main incentive for switching to PCI is the recent price rises for Russian natural gas. The paper discusses the quality of coke for PCI into blast furnaces.

Y.A. Zolotukhin; N.S. Andreichikov [Eastern Coal-Chemistry Institute, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Time series of a CME blasting out from the Sun  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;Time series of a CME blasting out from the Sun Composite image of the Sun in UV light with the naked eye, the Sun seems static, placid, constant. From the ground, the only notice- able variations in the Sun are its location (where will it rise and set today?) and its color (will clouds cover

Christian, Eric

152

The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope: BLAST  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) is a suborbital surveying experiment designed to study the evolutionary history and processes of star formation in local galaxies (including the Milky Way) and galaxies at cosmological distances. The BLAST continuum camera, which consists of 270 detectors distributed between three arrays, observes simultaneously in broadband (30%) spectral windows at 250, 350, and 500 ?m. The optical design is based on a 2 m diameter telescope, providing a diffraction-limited resolution of 30 -->'' at 250 ?m. The gondola pointing system enables raster mapping of arbitrary geometry, with a repeatable positional accuracy of ~30 -->''; postflight pointing reconstruction to 5 -->'' rms is achieved. The onboard telescope control software permits autonomous execution of a preselected set of maps, with the option of manual override. In this paper we describe the primary characteristics and measured in-flight performance of BLAST. BLAST performed a test flight in 2003 and has since made two scientifically productive long-duration balloon flights: a 100 hr flight from ESRANGE (Kiruna), Sweden to Victoria Island, northern Canada in 2005 June; and a 250 hr, circumpolar flight from McMurdo Station, Antarctica, in 2006 December.

E. Pascale; P. A. R. Ade; J. J. Bock; E. L. Chapin; J. Chung; M. J. Devlin; S Dicker; M. Griffin; J. O. Gundersen; M. Halpern; P. C. Hargrave; D. H. Hughes; J. Klein; C. J. MacTavish; G. Marsden; P. G. Martin; T. G. Martin; P. Mauskopf; C. B. Netterfield; L. Olmi; G. Patanchon; M. Rex; D. Scott; C. Semisch; N. Thomas; M. D. P. Truch; C. Tucker; G. S. Tucker; M. P. Viero; D. V. Wiebe

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Originally Released: August 2009  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

August 2009" August 2009" "Revised: October 2009" "Next MECS will be conducted in 2010" "Table 3.5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." ,,,,,,,,,,"Waste" ,,,,"Blast",,,,"Pulping Liquor",,"Oils/Tars" "NAICS",,,,"Furnace/Coke",,,"Petroleum","or","Wood Chips,","and Waste" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total",,"Oven Gases","Waste Gas",,"Coke","Black Liquor","Bark","Materials"

154

Released: March 2013  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2010;" 5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2010;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Waste" " "," "," ","Blast"," "," ","Pulping Liquor"," ","Oils/Tars" "NAICS"," "," ","Furnace/Coke"," ","Petroleum","or","Wood Chips,","and Waste" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total","Oven Gases","Waste Gas","Coke","Black Liquor","Bark","Materials"

155

Trends and guidelines in water pollution control in the Finnish pulp and paper industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are about 50 paper and pulp mills in Finland. In this paper, their production capacities in 1988 are illustrated. Pulp and paper production has increased quite rapidly during the last few decades. The greatest increase incurred in the production of bleached kraft pulp and mechanical pulp. The production of sulfite pulp has decreased during recent years. Within paper the production of printing papers has had the biggest increase. Estimates predict that the production capacity of the finish pulp and paper industry will show an average increase of 4% per year by the middle of this decade. Final production in 1987 and one estimate of production in 1992 are given. Wastewater loadings per production output are decreasing.

Junna, J. (National Board of Waters and the Environment, P.O. Box 250, SF-00101 Helsinki (FI)); Ruonala, S. (Environmental Research and Development Programme of the Finnish Forest Industry, P.O. Box 250, SF-00101 Helsinki (FI))

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Microsoft Word - Pulp and Paper EPI Documentation FINAL 05212012  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

- DO NOT QUOTE OR CITE - DO NOT QUOTE OR CITE DEVELOPMENT OF ENERGY STAR® ENERGY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS FOR PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD MILLS GALE A. BOYD AND YI FANG GUO DUKE UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS BOX 90097, DURHAM, NC 27708 MAY 21, 2012 SPONSORED BY THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AS PART OF THE ENERGY STAR PROGRAM. 1 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work was sponsored by the U.S. EPA Climate Protection Partnerships Division's ENERGY STAR program. The research has benefited from comments by participants involved with the ENERGY STAR Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard Industry Focus meetings. The research in this paper was conducted while the author was a Special Sworn Status researcher of the U.S. Census Bureau at the Triangle Census

157

Production of high quality and low energy chemithermomechanical pulp  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemithermomechanical pulps (CTMP) were produced from Eastern black spruce chips in a two-stage pilot plant using different conditions of chemical pretreatment and refining intensity. The conventional CTMP was produced by impregnating chips with sulfite liquor at a pH of approximately 10 and the conducting the first-stage refining in a double disc refiner at 1,200 rpm. The distribution of specific energy and refining intensity was about the same in the two stages. The experiments showed that, by decreasing the impregnating liquor pH to approximately 4.5 and conducting the first-stage refining at a relatively low specific energy and high refining intensity (by operating the refiner at 1,800 rpm), an energy saving of up to 33% could be achieved without any adverse effect on the pulp quality.

Stationwala, M.I. (Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada, Pointe Claire, PQ (Canada))

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2007. Dual pressure recovery boiler. Patent No. : US 7243619Cycle Power or Recovery Boiler into an Existing Pulp Mill".Monacelli. 2009. "Recovery Boiler Reheat Steam Cycle". Paper

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Effect of raw material and Kraft Pulping Conditions on Characteristics of Dissolved Lignin.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Lignin is one of the main components in wood and during the chemical pulping processes it is degraded and dissolved into the cooking liquor.… (more)

Svärd, Antonia

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Dried Citrus Peel and Pulp as a Feed for Lactating Cows.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

between the three esperiments. DISCUSSION diffi grol I!! i>n 14 ,>,,. ( t!le:: ftl![l fere esults of the effects of feeding citrus peel and pulp in the dairy :entrate mixture using 5070 of the entire concentrate mixture as us pulp as compared... between the three esperiments. DISCUSSION diffi grol I!! i>n 14 ,>,,. ( t!le:: ftl![l fere esults of the effects of feeding citrus peel and pulp in the dairy :entrate mixture using 5070 of the entire concentrate mixture as us pulp as compared...

Copeland, O. C. (Orlin Cephas); Shepardson, C. N. (Charles Noah)

1944-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu blast pulping" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Pulp and Paper Industry in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

wastewater treatment and sludge handling at pulp and paperutilization b -2.52 e Sludge recovery and utilization butilization, incorporating sludge recovery and utilization,

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE U.S. PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NAICS Code Sub-Sector Pulp mills Paper (except newsprint) mills Newsprint mills Paperboard mills Total % of Total Total Black Liquor Natural Gas

Kramer, Klaas Jan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Simulation of the Reflected Blast Wave froma C-4 Charge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The reflection of a blast wave from a C4 charge detonated above a planar surface is simulated with our ALE3D code. We used a finely-resolved, fixed Eulerian 2-D mesh (167 {micro}m per cell) to capture the detonation of the charge, the blast wave propagation in nitrogen, and its reflection from the surface. The thermodynamic properties of the detonation products and nitrogen were specified by the Cheetah code. A programmed-burn model was used to detonate the charge at a rate based on measured detonation velocities. Computed pressure histories are compared with pressures measured by Kistler 603B piezoelectric gauges at 8 ranges (GR = 0, 2, 4, 8, 10, and 12 inches) along the reflecting surface. Computed and measured waveforms and positive-phase impulses were similar, except at close-in ranges (GR < 2 inches), which were dominated by jetting effects.

Howard, W M; Kuhl, A L; Tringe, J W

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

The effect of TMP refining using an adjustable-speed drive on energy consumption and pulp quality. [ThermoMechanical Pulp  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental investigation was conducted to study the effect of TMP refining using adjustable-speed drive (ASD) on energy consumption and pulp quality. The project is based on the studies of disc refiner models at high- and low-consistency refining. The primary objectives is to examine the potential energy efficiency improvement of a TMP system by evaluating the effect of TMP refining using ASD in pilot scale at the Center for High Yield Pulping Science. The pilot experimental results show that certain benefits of TMP refining using ASD can be obtained. Preliminary results demonstrate that increasing the first stage of refining speed reduces electrical energy at similar pulp quality.

Su, W.; Hsieh, J. (Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States))

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

Dr. Chenn Zhou

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

166

Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US Chemicals and Pulp and Paper Industries by Applying CHP Technologies, June 1999  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Assessment of the potential of CHP technologies to reduce carbon emissions in the US chemicals and pulp and paper industries.

167

Airblast and ground vibration generation and propagation from contour mine blasting. Report of investigations/1984  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Bureau of Mines studied airblast and ground vibrations produced by surface coal mine blasting in Appalachia to determine the topographic or other region-specific effects on generation and propagation. Arrays of seismographs were used to measure blast effects in both rolling-terrain and steep-slope contour coal mining areas. Comparisons were then made with previous blasting data from studies of midwest coal mines located in flat areas.

Stachura, V.J.; Siskind, D.E.; Kopp, J.W.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

EXTENDING FIBER RESOURCES: FIBER LOADING RECYCLED FIBER AND MECHANICAL PULPS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT, HIGH OPACITY PAPER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

alkalinity, precipitates calcium carbonate (PCC) in situ within pulp fibers. Because paper made from fiber include increasing the recovery and utilization of recycled fiber and optimizing virgin fiber yieldEXTENDING FIBER RESOURCES: FIBER LOADING RECYCLED FIBER AND MECHANICAL PULPS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT, HIGH

Abubakr, Said

169

Color Removal from Pulp Mill Effluent Using Coal Ash Produced from Georgia Coal Combustion Power Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/0702/citing-global- warming-georgia-judge-blocks-coal-plant/picture1.jpg/5307532-1-eng-US/picture1.jpgColor Removal from Pulp Mill Effluent Using Coal Ash Produced from Georgia Coal Combustion Power color from pulp mill effluent using coal ash. Prevent coal ash adsorbent from leaching arsenic

Hutcheon, James M.

170

Characterization of Coke Properties at Tuyere Level of an Operating Blast Furnace.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Coke performance in an operating blast furnace is often empirically related to popular bench-scale tests, which are performed at relative much lower temperatures. Due to… (more)

Ye, Zhuozhu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Investigation of Primary Blast Injury and Protection using Sagittal and Transverse Finite Element Head Models.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The prevalence of blast related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in recent military conflicts, attributed in part to an increased exposure to improvised explosive devices… (more)

Singh, Dilaver

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Mathematical modelling of the flow and combustion of pulverized coal injected in ironmaking blast furnace.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Pulverized coal injection (PCI) technology is widely practised in blast furnace ironmaking due to economic, operational and environmental benefits. High burnout of pulverized coal in… (more)

Shen, Yansong

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Department of Energy Awards $2.2 Million to Save Energy in the Pulp and  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Awards $2.2 Million to Save Energy in the Pulp Awards $2.2 Million to Save Energy in the Pulp and Paper Industry Department of Energy Awards $2.2 Million to Save Energy in the Pulp and Paper Industry December 20, 2005 - 4:50pm Addthis Total Cost-Shared Value of Research is $4.3 Million WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today awarded $2.2 million in research and development grants for projects to save energy in the pulp and paper industry. The research will focus on removing water from pulp in the paper making process and determining the technical and commercial feasibility of next generation manufacturing concepts. "New efficient technologies and processes are key to reducing our energy consumption now and in the future," said Douglas L. Faulkner, Acting Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

174

The Fractionation of Loblolly Pine Woodchips Into Pulp For Making Paper Products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall goal of the project was to test the PureVision biomass fractionation technology for making pulp from loblolly pine. A specific goal was to produce a pulp product that is comparable to pulp produced from the kraft process, while reducing the environmental effects of the kraft process, known to be a highly pollutant process. The overall goal of the project was met by using the biomass fractionation concept for making pulp product. This proof-of-concept study, done with Southern pine pinchips as feedstock, evaluated NaOH concentration and residence time as variables in single-stage cocurrent pulping process. It can be concluded that 1% NaOH is adequate for effective delignification using the PureVision process; this is about ? of that used in the kraft process. Also, the PureVision process does not use sulfur-based chemicals such as N2S and hence, is environmentally more benign.

Kiran Kadam, PhD

2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

175

Fermentation and chemical treatment of pulp and paper mill sludge  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of chemically treating partially de-ashed pulp and/or paper mill sludge to obtain products of value comprising taking a sample of primary sludge from a Kraft paper mill process, partially de-ashing the primary sludge by physical means, and further treating the primary sludge to obtain the products of value, including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge as a substrate to produce cellulase in an efficient manner using the resulting sludge as the only carbon source and mixtures of inorganic salts as the primary nitrogen source, and including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge to produce ethanol.

Lee, Yoon Y; Wang, Wei; Kang, Li

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

176

Cogeneration handbook for the pulp and paper industry. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The decision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the pulp and paper industry. Appendices B and O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.

Griffin, E.A.; Moore, N.L.; Fassbender, L.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, A.G.; Eakin, D.E.; Gorges, H.A.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Compaction of wood chips - physical and pulping characteristics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The temperatures of the uncompacted chips of Pinus taeda were, in general, higher than those of compacted chips when stored outdoors in containers for 236 days. The results of the study after storage indicated that the moisture content (MC) of compacted chips is the same as that of green chips, the uncompacted equivalent mass of chips exhibits a substantial loss in MC, and there is approximately 18% increase in MC of the uncompacted chips simulating a stockpile when compared with MC of green chips. The compaction process neither damaged wood fibers nor altered the chip response to conventional pulping.

Hassan, A.E.; Reeves, R.H.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Blasting of the Twin Creek`s highwall failure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On December 26, 1994, at 1:00 a.m., the Twin Creeks Mine experienced a major highwall failure involving over 2.5 million tons. The long chain of events that led up to this failure actually started in late August when a truck driver first noticed the cracks in the highwall. Soon after, an intense survey prism monitoring program was initiated. An electronic, continuous monitor linked to Dispatch was soon in place which monitored the crack that was most likely to fail into the active pit area first. It wasn`t until early December when the graphs started showing greater increases in movement. On December 22, the acceleration curves skied-out. The 600 ft. highwall finally collapsed about three days later and left material spread 800 ft. across the bottom of the pit. Not knowing if the large overhangs above the slide would soon give away sending more material into the pit or if the numerous tension cracks on the surface would result in yet another major failure, it was only after restoring the rigid monitoring program and observing no movement that the company decided to drill and blast the overhanging material. The purpose of the blast wasn`t to cast the material into the pit, but to kick-out the toe so that the weight of material above would fall upon itself. After two months of preparation and almost three weeks of drilling and loading, the shot occurred on March 21, 1995. Approximately one million tons were successfully blasted that day, and presently they have completed mining the slough material itself and reestablished benches from the top.

Gray, C.J.; Bachmann, J.A. [Santa Fe Pacific Gold Corp., Winnemucca, NV (United States). Twin Creeks Mine

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Effectiveness of advanced coating systems for mitigating blast effects on steel components  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effectiveness of advanced coating systems for mitigating blast effects on steel components C. Chen1 tool for steel components. The response of polyurea coated steel components under blast loading of polyurea onto armor grade steel plates and an examination of resulting failure modes and governing design

180

Blast-Induced Biomechanical Loading of the Rat: An Experimental and Anatomically Accurate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Computational Blast Injury Model Aravind Sundaramurthy, Aaron Alai, Shailesh Ganpule, Aaron Holmberg, Erwan head injuries. This has led to an increased number of blast studies of animal models, head surrogates traumatic brain injury (TBI) in soldiers and civilians. In vivo animal models that use shock tubes

Farritor, Shane

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu blast pulping" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Quantification and characterization of regional seismic signals from cast blasting in mines: a linear elastic model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......detonalions that sometimes accompany standard blasting operations. The models...past signal character. We also plan to study the effects of imperfect...pulse with, xf.A thorough review by Michael Hedlin is also appreciated...explosions from simultaneous mining blasts, Bull. seism. Soc......

Sridhar Anandakrishnan; Steven R. Taylor; Brian W. Stump

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Analysis of seismic waves generated by surface blasting at Indiana coal mines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analysis of seismic waves generated by surface blasting at Indiana coal mines A project pursuant is to investigate the characteristics of mine blast seismic waves in southern Indiana. Coal mines are prevalent implications for understanding different seismic sources, earthquake structures in Indiana, and wave

Polly, David

183

A METHOD FOR RAPID VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF STRUCTURES LOADED BY OUTSIDE BLASTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the structural reliability information for the vulnerability analysis. 1 Corresponding Author: Jamova 39, SI-1000 , Matjaz Leskovar, Marko Cepin, Borut Mavko "Jozef Stefan" Institute, Reactor Engineering Division Keywords blast loads, buildings, rapid assessment, structural reliability ABSTRACT The blast loads have in most

Cizelj, Leon

184

The Utilization and Recovery of Energy from Blast Furnaces and Converters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE UTILIZATION AND RECOVERY OF ENERGY FROM BLAST FURNACES AND CONVERTERS Dr.-Ing. Rolf-D. Baare, Ober-Ing. Karl-Rudolf Hegemann and Ing. (grad.) Theodor Niess Gottfried Bischoff GmbH &Co. KG Essen, W. Germany ABSTRACT The Bischoff Blast...

Hegemann, K. R.; Niess, T.; Baare, R. D.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Incineration of Residue from Paint Stripping Operations Using Plastic Media Blasting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

i INCINERATION OF RESIDUE FROH PAINT STRIPPING OPERATIONS USING PLASTIC MEDIA BLASTING J. E. HELT N. MALLYA Group Leader Chemist Chemical Technology Division Chemical Technology Division Argonne National Laboratory Argonne National... Laboratory Argonne, Illinois Argonne, Illinois ABSTRACT A preliminary investigation has been performed on the environmental consequences of incinerating plastic-media-blasting (PHB) wastes from paint removal operations. PHB is similar to sandblasting...

Helt, J. E.; Mallya, N.

186

Blast furnace coke quality in relation to petroleum coke addition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The incorporation of petroleum coke as an additive in industrial coking coal blends is a practice often used by steel companies. A suitable blast furnace coke produced by replacing part of the coking coal blend with a suitable petroleum coke (addition of 5 to 15%), was made by Great Lakes Carbon Corporation and successfully tested at several blast furnaces. This coke had lower reactivity, less ash and slightly higher sulfur content than coke made without the addition of petroleum coke. In contrast with these results, it has been reported in a BCRA study that additions of petroleum coke to a strong coking coal, above 5 wt%, increased coke reactivity. These differences may be explained on the basis of the coal or blend characteristics to which petroleum coke is added. Petroleum coke addition seems to give better results if the coal/blend has high fluidity. The present situation in Spain is favorable for the use of petroleum coke. So, a study of laboratory and semi-industrial scale was made to assess the possibility of using petroleum coke as an additive to the typical industrial coal blend coked by the Spanish Steel Company, ENSIDESA. The influence of the petroleum coke particle size was also studied to semi-industrial scale.

Alvarez, R.; Diez, M.A.; Menendez, J.A.; Barriocanal, C.; Pis, J.J. [CSIC, Oviedo (Spain). Inst. Nacional del Carbon; Sirgado, M. [ENSIDESA, Aviles (Spain)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Drilling and blasting techniques and costs for strip mines in Appalachia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On-site investigations of blasting techniques were conducted at twenty surface coal mining operations in the steep slopes of Appalachia. The mine sites represented a range of mountain mining methods and annual coal production levels; all sites used similar techniques and equipment for the removal of fragmented waste rock. Hole loading characteristics and constraints limiting blast designs were observed at each mine site. This report summarizes technical blasting data and geological conditions which require special design considerations. Three mine sites were selected for future research in fragmentation efficiency. Detailed economic data on drilling and blasting were gathered from the three research sites and are reported herein. A great deal of fragmentation difficulties stem from tough, unpredictable geology with specific bedding characteristics and local zones of defined structural weaknesses such as jointing and vertical seams. Exceptionally hard bedrock, existing as a caprock or as the basal layer above the coal seam, persists as the cause of oversize rock breakage or, in the latter case, damage to the coal unless special precautions are taken. Federal blasting regulations strictly control the amount of explosives used as well as throw of the fragmented rock. This requires that blasting modifications be employed. The nature and extent of blast modifications were observed to be related to terrain and demographic conditions around the mine site. Drilling and blasting costs reported for the three mine sites averaged $0.21 per cubic yard of material blasted. Drilling costs varied widely, as drilling time was indicative of geologies and often, drilling costs remained the greatest percentage of total blasting and drilling costs.

Aimone, C.T.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures Emerald Article: A study of the blast-induced brain white-matter damage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures Emerald Article: A study of the blast, (2012),"A study of the blast-induced brain white-matter damage and the associated diffuse axonal injury Abstract Purpose ­ Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a signature injury of the current military

Grujicic, Mica

189

Computational Modeling of Human Head Under Blast Shailesh Ganpule, Dr. Linxia Gu, Dr. Guoxin Cao, Dr.Namas Chandra  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Computational Modeling of Human Head Under Blast Loading Shailesh Ganpule, Dr. Linxia Gu, Dr;Presentation Objective: To understand role of helmet in blast induced Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI: To understand underlying mechanisms of blast induced Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and develop mitigation

Farritor, Shane

190

Continuous On-Line Measurement of Lignin Concentration in Wood Pulp  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). In the second, the pulp is loaded into an open j so that the laser directly illuminates the pulp. Res Il~ obtained with the two methods are comparable e ut the open jar approach allows better control and wider variation of the pulp consistency. In both... spanning the range of Kappa numbers from approximately 15 to 55. The range of Kappa numbers was achieved by removing samples from the digester at different times so that within a set. each of the samples came from the same parent wood-chip stock...

Jeffers, L. A.; Roman, G. W.

191

Refining intensity, energy consumption, and pulp quality in two-stage chip refining  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on thermomechanical pulps produced in two pilot plant installations. Both installations were conventional two-stage systems in which the first stage was pressurized and the second was atmospheric. At a given specific energy, pulp quality was improved. Alternatively, for a given pulp quality, the energy consumption was reduced when refining in the first stage was carried out at a high refining intensity. High refining intensity was reached by operating the first stage either at a high rotational speed or low consistency. There were indications that these benefits could be enhanced if the second stage were operated at a low refining intensity.

Miles, K.B.; May, W.D.; Karnis, A. (Pulp and Paper Research Inst. of Canada, 570 St. John's Boulevard, Pointe Claire, Quebec H9R 3J9 (CA))

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

efficiency with regard to carbon capture". Energy 31 (15):67 3.6. Emerging Carbon Capture Technologies for the Pulp2011. Technology Roadmaps: Carbon Capture and Storage in

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Surface selective removal of xylan from refined never-dried birch kraft pulp  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, the effect of enzyme treatment on refined, never-dried bleached birch kraft pulp was investigated, using an endo-1,4-?-xylanase, that is substantially free from cellulase activity. The xylanase tre...

Esa Saukkonen; Katja Lyytikäinen; Pavel Geydt; Kaj Backfolk

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and the petroleum refining industries. The report also estimates the energy savings potential available from implementing steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

195

Advanced Powerhouse Controls Save Pulp Mill $500 in Purchased Energy in First Month  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This case study describes the application of advanced regulatory and supervisory controls to powerhouse operations at a large pulp mill in central British Columbia. Substantial reductions in mill operating costs were achieved by actively managing...

Morrison, R.; Hilder, S.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

DOE Joint Genome Institute: Breaking down cellulose without blasting  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4, 2011 4, 2011 Breaking down cellulose without blasting lignin: "Dry rot" genome offers lessons for biofuel pretreatment WALNUT CREEK, Calif.-Feared by realtors and homeowners alike, dry rot due to the fungus Serpula lacrymans causes millions of dollars worth of damage to homes and buildings around the world. This brown rot fungus' capacity to break down the cellulose in wood led to its selection for sequencing by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Genome Institute (JGI) in 2007, with the goal of identifying the enzymes involved in the degradation process and using the information to improve cellulosic biofuels production. Photo: A variant of Serpula lacrymans causes dry rot. (Dave Brown via Flickr/Creative Commons Attribution 2.0) As reported online July 14 in Science Express, an international team of

197

A Thoracic Mechanism of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Due to Blast Pressure Waves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The mechanisms by which blast pressure waves cause mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are an open question. Possibilities include acceleration of the head, direct passage of the blast wave via the cranium, and propagation of the blast wave to the brain via a thoracic mechanism. The hypothesis that the blast pressure wave reaches the brain via a thoracic mechanism is considered in light of ballistic and blast pressure wave research. Ballistic pressure waves, caused by penetrating ballistic projectiles or ballistic impacts to body armor, can only reach the brain via an internal mechanism and have been shown to cause cerebral effects. Similar effects have been documented when a blast pressure wave has been applied to the whole body or focused on the thorax in animal models. While vagotomy reduces apnea and bradycardia due to ballistic or blast pressure waves, it does not eliminate neural damage in the brain, suggesting that the pressure wave directly affects the brain cells via a thoracic mechanism. ...

Courtney, Amy; 10.1016/j.mehy.2008.08.015

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Theoretical and experimental foundations for preparing coke for blast-furnace smelting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article examines the preparation of coke for blast-furnace smelting by a method that most fully meets the requirements of blast-furnace technology: screening of the -36 mm fraction, the separation of nut coke of the 15-36 mm fraction, and its charging into the furnace in a mixture with the iron-ore-bearing charge components. An analysis is made of trial use of coke of the Premium class on blast furnace No. 5 at the Enakievo Metallurgical Plant. Use of this coke makes it possible to reduce the consumption of skip coke by 3.2-4.1%.

A.L. Podkorytov; A.M. Kuznetsov; E.N. Dymchenko; V.P. Padalka; S.L. Yaroshevskii; A.V. Kuzin [Enakievo Metallurgical Plant, Enakievo (Ukraine)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

199

Blast-furnace smelting with the injection of natural gas and coke-oven gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A multizone mathematical model developed at Nekrasov Institute of Ferrous Metallurgy reveals the internal relations between the processes in a blast furnace. Using this model, the smelting processes and parameter...

I. G. Tovarovskii; A. E. Merkulov

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Quantification of dilatory resistance in four rice cultivars to rice blast  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dilatory resistance of two rice Cultivars, Jackson and Maybelle, to rice blast was expressed as decreases in different components of resistance. Incubation period was found to be more important in determining dilatory resistance than the other...

Katsar, Catherine Susan

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu blast pulping" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Coal-oil mixture combustion program: injection into a blast furnace  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A chemically stabilized coal-oil mixture (COM) was made and used as an auxiliary fuel in a blast furnace for 44 days. Approximately 485,000 gallons of COM were produced at an on-site COM plant. Composition was 47.9% coal, 47.6% No. 6 oil, 4.0% water, and 0.5% emulsifier. Average injection rates were 3.8 to 13.0 gpm during different periods of the trial. Coal handling equipment, mixing and processing equipment, pumps, piping, fuel lances, and instrumentation are discussed. The blast furnace performance during the trial is compared to a Base Period of injecting No. 6 oil. Blast furnace performance was satisfactory, with one pound of COM replacing one pound of coke or 0.8 pound of No. 6 oil. The production of COM and its usage in a blast furnace is economical and feasible.

Jansto, S.G.; Mertdogan, A.; Marlin, L.A.; Beaucaire, V.D.

1982-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

202

The design and retrofit of buildings for resistance to blast-induced progressive collapse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In recent years, concern has risen drastically regarding the suitability of structural design for blast resistance. Historic events have proven that buildings that are designed in compliance with conventional building codes ...

Abbott Galvão Sobreira Lopes, Isabel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Oxy-acetylene driven laboratory scale shock tubes for studying blast wave effects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Instrumentation is needed to produce realistic blast waves in a laboratory setting. This paper describes the development and characterization of oxy-acetylene driven, laboratory scale shock tubes for use in studying blast injury, candidate armor materials, and material properties at blast loading rates. The pressure-time profiles show a true shock front and exponential decay characteristic of blast waves and have relevant durations. The modular design includes shock tube diameters of 27 mm and 41 mm, and a selection of peak pressures from 204 kPa to 920 kPa can be produced by selection of the driver section diameter and placement of the test sample. Characterization studies of several driver/driven section combinations showed consistent results, with peak pressures having 0.8 - 6.9 percent uncertainty in the mean. This shock tube design provides a more realistic blast profile than current air-driven shock tubes. In addition, operation does not require specialized personnel or facilities like most blast-driven...

Courtney, Michael

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Treatment of pulp mill sludges by supercritical water oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is new process that can oxidize organics very effectively at moderate temperatures (400 to 650{degree}C) and high pressure (3700 psi). It is an environmentally acceptable alternative for sludge treatment. In bench scale tests, total organic carbon (TOC) and total organic halide (TOX) reductions of 99 to 99.9% were obtained; dioxin reductions were 95 to 99.9%. A conceptual design for commercial systems has been completed and preliminary economics have been estimated. Comparisons confirm that SCWO is less costly than dewatering plus incineration for treating pulp mill sludges. SCWO can also compete effectively with dewatering plus landfilling where tipping fees exceed $35/yd{sup 3}. In some regions of the US, tipping fees are now $75/yd{sup 3} and rising steadily. In the 1995 to 2000 time frame, SCWO has a good chance of becoming the method of choice. MODEC's objective is to bring the technology to commercial availability by 1993. 10 refs., 6 figs., 19 tabs.

Modell, M.

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Producing a True Lignin Depolymerase for Biobleaching Softwood Kraft Pulp  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project constituted an intensive effort devoted to producing, from the white-rot fungus Tramets Cingulata, a lignin degrading enzyme (lignin depolymerase) that is directly able to biobleach or delignify softwood kraft pulp brownstock. To this end, the solutions in which T. cingulata was grown contained dissolved kraft lignin which fulfilled two functions; it behaved as a lignin deploymerase substrate and it also appeared to act as an inducer of enzyme expression. However, the lignin depolymerase isoenzymes (and other extracellular T. cingulata enzymes) interacted very strongly with both the kraft lignin components and the fungal hypae, so the isolating these proteins from the culture solutions proved to be unexpectedly difficult. Even after extensive experimentation with a variety of protein purification techniques, only one approach appeared to be capable of purifying lignin depolymerases to homogeneity. Unfortunately the procedure was extremely laborious; it involved the iso electric focusing of concentrated buffer-exchanged culture solutions followed by electro-elution of the desired protein bands from the appropriate polyacrylamide gel segments

Simo Sarkanen

2002-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

206

Ketchikan Pulp's hog-fuel-boiler energy retrofits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ketchikan Pulp Co. (KPC) is a 600-b.d. Ton/day sulfite mill located 679 Alaska Airlines miles north of Seattle on the island of Revillagigedo. Designed to produce 860 psig steam at 825[degrees]F, each of the boilers is fired off a combination of No. 6 oil and waste wood. This paper reports that in 1984, a rotary bark dyer was installed in series between the existing boiler I.D. fans and the boiler stack. This system consists of a direct-contact rotary dryer unit followed by an additional I.D. fan and four cyclone separators. The combustion gases then return to the existing stack by way of the existing I.D. fan discharge ducting. This unit was designed to operate at a flue-gas inlet temperature of 550[degrees]F and maintained a discharge temperature of 300[degrees]F. The unit was designed to process approximately 360 units of hog fuel per day, drying it from 60% moisture to 40% moisture in a single-pass operation.

Sweet, R.N. (Howard Needles Tammen and Bergendoff, Bellevue, WA (United States))

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool (BLAST) Documentation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The deployment and use of lithium-ion batteries in automotive and stationary energy storage applications must be optimized to justify their high up-front costs. Given that batteries degrade with use and storage, such optimizations must evaluate many years of operation. As the degradation mechanisms are sensitive to temperature, state-of-charge histories, current levels, and cycle depth and frequency, it is important to model both the battery and the application to a high level of detail to ensure battery response is accurately predicted. To address these issues, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has developed the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool (BLAST) suite of tools. This suite of tools pairs NREL's high-fidelity battery degradation model with a battery electrical and thermal performance model, application-specific electrical and thermal performance models of the larger system (e.g., an electric vehicle), application-specific system use data (e.g., vehicle travel patterns and driving data), and historic climate data from cities across the United States. This provides highly realistic, long-term predictions of battery response and thereby enables quantitative comparisons of varied battery use strategies.

Neubauer, J.

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

LTC vacuum blasting machine (metal): Baseline report; Summary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The LTC coating removal system consists of several hand tools such as a Roto Peen scaler and a needlegun. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. These are used with the LTC PTC-6 vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The PTC-6 is a vacuum system designed to be used with surface decontamination equipment. Dust and debris are captured by a high efficiency particulate filter (HEPA) vacuum system that deposits the waste directly into an on-board 23-gallon waste drum. The PTC-6 utilizes compressed air delivered from a source via an air hose connected to the air inlet to drive the hand held power tools. The control panel regulated the air pressure delivered to the tool. A separate compressed air flow powers the vacuum generator. The vacuum hoses connect the power tools to the dust chamber, returning paint chips and dust from the surface. A third compressed air flow is used to clean filters by pulsing air through a pipe with slots. The blasts of air shake dust and debris from the filter fabric.

NONE

1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

209

Overview of the government/industry workshop on opportunities for new materials in pulp and paper processing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents a synopsis of the presentations made at the two-day workshop conducted in Portland, Oregon, on August 12 and 13, 1993, for the Advanced Industrial Concepts division (AICD) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) and DOE national laboratory representatives from the pulp and paper industry. The information from the presentations is supplemented by additional statistics, as appropriate. The workshop objectives were (1) to develop a strategy and framework for collaboration between the pulp and paper industries and DOE`s national laboratories, (2) to identify major challenges to pulp and paper industry modernization, and (3) to identify research objectives for DOE national laboratories to improve materials and process technology in pulp and paper mills. Prior to the workshop, participants had the opportunity to tour paper mills and gain familiarity with pulp and paper processing methods. During the workshop, research needs for materials and processing that were identified at earlier AICD workshops were reviewed. Major problems of the pulp and paper industry were addressed, and ways in which DOE national laboratories are interacting with other industries to foster innovation and solve problems were presented. As a result of this and other workshops, a Pulp Paper Mill of the future strategy is being developed to address challenges identified in these proceedings. Continued efforts are expected by AICD to match candidate materials and processes from DOE national laboratories with the technology needs of pulp and paper mills.

Young, J.K.; Fowler, R.A.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

On the conversion of blast wave energy into radiation in active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It has been suggested that relativistic blast waves may power the jets of AGN and gamma-ray bursts (GRB). We address the important issue how the kinetic energy of collimated blast waves is converted into radiation. It is shown that swept-up ambient matter is quickly isotropised in the blast wave frame by a relativistic two-stream instability, which provides relativistic particles in the jet without invoking any acceleration process. The fate of the blast wave and the spectral evolution of the emission of the energetic particles is therefore solely determined by the initial conditions. We compare our model with existing multiwavelength data of AGN and find remarkable agreement.

Martin Pohl; Reinhard Schlickeiser

1999-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

211

Proceedings of the 6th international Conference on Biotechnology in the Pulp and Paper Industry: Advances in Applied and Fundamental Research  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proceedings of the 6th international Conference on Biotechnology in the Pulp and Paper Industry during refining, improved paper strength properties, and reduced the environmental impact of pulping (2 for pulping. The chemical demand can also be lessened due to prior degradation of the lignin by the fungus

Abubakr, Said

212

Low effluent processing in the pulp and paper industry: Electrodialysis for continuous selective chloride removal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pollution prevention is currently a major focus of the United States pulp and paper industry. Significant process changes are inevitable to implement low effluent processing. The kraft pulping process is prevalent for the production of wood pulp. About 50 million tons of wood pulp are produced annually in the United States alone using the kraft process. Water consumption is currently roughly between 30 and 200 m{sup 3} of water per ton of air dry bleached kraft pulp. In-process recycling of water is now being implemented by many mills to reduce the use of increasingly scarce water resources and to reduce the need for waste-water treatment. Mass balance considerations and industrial experience show that nonprocess elements, which are detrimental to the kraft process, such as chloride and potassium, will quickly build up once water use is significantly reduced. High concentrations of chloride and potassium can cause corrosion and lead to more frequent mill shutdowns due to fouling of heat exchanger surfaces in the kraft recovery furnace. Electrodialysis will monovalent selective anion and cation exchange membranes was explored here to selectively remove chlorine as sodium and potassium chloride from a feed stream with very high ionic strength. Experiments with model solutions and extended tests with the actual pulp mill materials were performed. Very good selectivities and current efficiencies were observed for chloride over sulfate. The outstanding performance of the process with actual mill materials containing organic and inorganic contamination shows great promise for rapid transfer to the pilot scale. This work is an example of the usefulness of membrane separations as a kidney in low effluent industrial processing.

Pfromm, P.H. [Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Pulp and Paper Mills: Profiting for Efficient Motor System Use | ENERGY  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Pulp and Paper Mills: Profiting for Efficient Motor System Use Pulp and Paper Mills: Profiting for Efficient Motor System Use Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In This Section Campaigns Commercial building design Communications resources Energy management guidance Financial resources Portfolio Manager Products and purchasing Recognition Research and reports Service and product provider (SPP) resources

214

Recovery Act: ArcelorMittal USA Blast Furnace Gas Flare Capture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a financial assistance grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) to ArcelorMittal USA, Inc. (ArcelorMittal) for a project to construct and operate a blast furnace gas recovery boiler and supporting infrastructure at ArcelorMittal’s Indiana Harbor Steel Mill in East Chicago, Indiana. Blast furnace gas (BFG) is a by-product of blast furnaces that is generated when iron ore is reduced with coke to create metallic iron. BFG has a very low heating value, about 1/10th the heating value of natural gas. BFG is commonly used as a boiler fuel; however, before installation of the gas recovery boiler, ArcelorMittal flared 22 percent of the blast furnace gas produced at the No. 7 Blast Furnace at Indiana Harbor. The project uses the previously flared BFG to power a new high efficiency boiler which produces 350,000 pounds of steam per hour. The steam produced is used to drive existing turbines to generate electricity and for other requirements at the facility. The goals of the project included job creation and preservation, reduced energy consumption, reduced energy costs, environmental improvement, and sustainability.

Seaman, John

2013-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

215

A Feasibility Study for Recycling Used Automotive Oil Filters In A Blast Furnace  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This feasibility study has indicated that of the approximately 120,000 tons of steel available to be recycled from used oil filters (UOF's), a maximum blast furnace charge of 2% of the burden may be anticipated for short term use of a few months. The oil contained in the most readily processed UOF's being properly hot drained and crushed is approximately 12% to 14% by weight. This oil will be pyrolized at a rate of 98% resulting in additional fuel gas of 68% and a condensable hydrocarbon fraction of 30%, with the remaining 2% resulting as carbon being added into the burden. Based upon the writer's collected information and assessment, there appears to be no operational problems relating to the recycling of UOF's to the blast furnace. One steel plant in the US has been routinely charging UOF's at about 100 tons to 200 tons per month for many years. Extensive analysis and calculations appear to indicate no toxic consideration as a result of the pyrolysis of the small contained oil ( in the 'prepared' UOFs) within the blast furnace. However, a hydrocarbon condensate in the ''gasoline'' fraction will condense in the blast furnace scrubber water and may require additional processing the water treatment system to remove benzene and toluene from the condensate. Used oil filters represent an additional source of high quality iron units that may be effectively added to the charge of a blast furnace for beneficial value to the operator and to the removal of this resource from landfills.

Ralph M. Smailer; Gregory L. Dressel; Jennifer Hsu Hill

2002-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

216

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection; [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it will be the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992--1993 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. steel company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals f or such use.

Crelling, J.C.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

217

DOE/EA-1745 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE BLAST FURNACE GAS FLARE  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

5 5 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE BLAST FURNACE GAS FLARE CAPTURE PROJECT AT THE ARCELORMITTAL USA, INC. INDIANA HARBOR STEEL MILL, EAST CHICAGO, INDIANA U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory August 2010 DOE/EA-1745 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE BLAST FURNACE GAS FLARE CAPTURE PROJECT AT THE ARCELORMITTAL USA, INC. INDIANA HARBOR STEEL MILL, EAST CHICAGO, INDIANA U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory August 2010 DOE/EA-1745 iii COVER SHEET Responsible Agency: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Title: Final Environmental Assessment for the Blast Furnace Gas Flare Capture Project at the ArcelorMittal USA, Inc. Indiana Harbor Steel Mill, East Chicago, Indiana

218

A Multicellular Basis for the Origination of Blast Crisis in Chronic  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Multicellular Basis for the Origination of Blast Crisis in Chronic Multicellular Basis for the Origination of Blast Crisis in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Philip Hahnfeldt Tufts University School of Medicine Abstract Among radiation-induced cancers, some leukemias, including chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) have especially high excess relative risks. CML, sporadic or radiogenic, is also thought to be comparatively very well understood. Accordingly, CML is considered an important model for assessing radiogenic cancer risk. CML is characterized by a specific chromosome translocation, the BCR-ABL fusion gene, and it has been widely postulated that an advanced stage, CML blast crisis originates mainly via cell-autonomous mechanisms such as secondary mutations or genomic instability. However, there is growing evidence that intercellular interactions can play a critical role

219

Skull flexure from blast waves: a mechanism for brain injury with implications for helmet design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Traumatic brain injury [TBI] has become a signature injury of current military conflicts. The debilitating effects of TBI are long-lasting and costly. Although the mechanisms by which impacts cause TBI have been well researched, the mechanisms by which blasts cause TBI are not understood. Various possibilities have been investigated, but blast-induced deformation of the skull has been neglected. From numerical hydrodynamic simulations, we have discovered that nonlethal blasts can induce sufficient flexure of the skull to generate potentially damaging loads in the brain, even if no impact occurs. The possibility that this mechanism may contribute to TBI has implications for the diagnosis of soldiers and the design of protective equipment such as helmets.

Moss, W C; King, M J; Blackman, E G

2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

220

soft X-ray background as a supernova blast wave viewed from inside: solar abundance models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A model of the soft X-ray background is presented in which the Sun is assumed to be inside an active supernova blast wave. The blast wave evolves in a preexisting cavity. The broad band surface brightnesses is explained by such a blast wave with an explosion energy of E sub approx. 5 x 10 to the 50th power ergs and radius 80 to 100 pc, using solar abundances. An approach to treating the problem of large anisotropies in the ambient medium is also explored, accommodating the observed anticorrelation between the soft X-ray surface brightness and the 21 cm column density. It is found that only for post shock temperatures below 10 6 K a shock propagating into a density enhancement will be dimmer than a similar shock in a lower density region.

Edgar, R.J.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu blast pulping" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Performance testing of lead free primers: blast waves, velocity variations, and environmental testing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Results are presented for lead free primers based on diazodinitrophenol (DDNP)compared with tests on lead styphnate based primers. First, barrel friction measurements in 5.56 mm NATO are presented. Second, shot to shot variations in blast waves are presented as determined by detonating primers in a 7.62x51mm rifle chamber with a firing pin, but without any powder or bullet loaded and measuring the blast wave at the muzzle with a high speed pressure transducer. Third, variations in primer blast waves, muzzle velocities, and ignition delay are presented after environmental conditioning (150 days) for two lead based and two DDNP based primers under cold and dry (-25 deg C,0% relative humidity), ambient (20 deg C, 50% relative humidity), and hot & humid (50 deg C, 100% relative humidity) conditions in 5.56 mm NATO. Taken together, these results indicate that DDNP based primers are not sufficiently reliable for service use.

Courtney, Elya; Summer, Peter David; Courtney, Michael

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

“What Efficiency Projects are Being Installed in the Pulp and Paper Industry”  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Wisconsin Focus on Energy program has seven years of experience on the actual projects that are being installed in the Pulp and Paper industry. The program has a broad perspective on the types and trends of investments in energy efficiency...

Nicol, J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Study on the modification of bleached eucalyptus kraft pulp using birch xylan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, birch xylan was deposited onto elementally chlorine free (ECF) bleached eucalyptus kraft pulp, and the corresponding changes in physical properties were determined. An aqueous 5% birch xylan solution at pH 9 was added to 5 wt% slurry of bleached kraft eucalyptus fibers, with stirring at 70 °C for 15 min after which the pH was adjusted to 5–6. The xylan enriched fibers were isolated by filtration and used for physical testing. A 1.15 wt% adsorption of birch xylan on the kraft fibers at 8% xylan addition increased the tensile index, strain and tensile energy absorption values by ?10%, while the burst index increased by 20.15%. The tear index increased by 2.55% with the adsorption of 0.87 wt% birch xylan on the eucalyptus kraft pulp at 3% xylan addition. The pulp beatability was also improved by adding birch xylan. The surface morphology of the unmodified and modified pulp samples were analyzed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) in the tapping mode. The analysis revealed the differences in the fine structure of fibers which showed micrometer-sized xylan structures spreading over the fiber surfaces.

Wenjia Han; Chuanshan Zhao; Thomas Elder; Kefu Chen; Rendang Yang; Dongho Kim; Yunqiao Pu; Jeffery Hsieh; Arthur J. Ragauskas

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Energy Conservation Progress and Opportunities in the Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In 1980 the pulp and paper industry was the third ranking consumer of total purchased fuels and energy in the U.S. industrial sector and the highest single industry in terms of residual oil consumption. Over the past decade in response to rapidly...

Watkins, J. J.; Hunter, W. D.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

In situ SEM micro-indentation of single wood pulp fibres in transverse direction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Fibre deformation and sheet strength. TAPPI (1996) 79:105-111. 4 Page DH , El-Hosseiny...compression loading of single pulp fibres. TAPPI (1986) 69:98-102. 6 Dunford JA...method, yield, beating, and drying. TAPPI (1970) 53:820-823. 11 Sedighi Gilani......

Ramesh-Babu Adusumalli; Rejin Raghavan; Patrick Schwaller; Tanja Zimmermann; Johann Michler

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

In situ SEM micro-indentation of single wood pulp fibres in transverse direction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......loading of single pulp fibres. TAPPI (1986) 69:98-102. 6 Dunford...yield, beating, and drying. TAPPI (1970) 53:820-823. 11...ESEM and video image analysis. TAPPI (1995) 78:143-148. 14...Fiber Sci. (1996) 28:429-437. 15 Gindl W , Gupta HS. Cell-wall......

Ramesh-Babu Adusumalli; Rejin Raghavan; Patrick Schwaller; Tanja Zimmermann; Johann Michler

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu. Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components Coal Components Coke Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Total Wood Residues Bituminous Electricity Diesel Fuel Motor Natural Gas Steam and Wood-Related and Electricity from Sources and Gasoline Pulping Liquor Natural Gas from Sources Steam from Sources Waste Gases Waste Oils Industrial Wood Byproducts and NAICS Coal Subbituminous Coal Petroleum Electricity from Local Other than Distillate Diesel Distillate Residual Blast Coke Oven (excluding or LPG and Natural Gas from Local

228

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu. Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components Coal Components Coke Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Total Wood Residues Bituminous Electricity Diesel Fuel Motor Natural Gas Steam and Wood-Related and Electricity from Sources and Gasoline Pulping Liquor Natural Gas from Sources Steam from Sources Waste Gases Waste Oils Industrial Wood Byproducts and Coal Subbituminous Coal Petroleum Electricity from Local Other than Distillate Diesel Distillate Residual Blast Furnace

229

Planar blast scaling with condensed-phase explosives in a shock tube  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Blast waves are strong shock waves that result from large power density deposition into a fluid. The rapid energy release of high-explosive (HE) detonation provides sufficiently high power density for blast wave generation. Often it is desirable to quantify the energy released by such an event and to determine that energy relative to other reference explosives to derive an explosive-equivalence value. In this study, we use condensed-phase explosives to drive a blast wave in a shock tube. The explosive material and quantity were varied to produce blast waves of differing strengths. Pressure transducers at varying lengths measured the post-shock pressure, shock-wave arrival time and sidewall impulse associated with each test. Blast-scaling concepts in a one-dimensional geometry were then used to both determine the energy release associated with each test and to verify the scaling of the shock position versus time, overpressure versus distance, and impulse. Most blast scaling measurements to-date have been performed in a three-dimensional geometry such as a blast arena. Testing in a three-dimensional geometry can be challenging, however, as spherical shock-wave symmetry is required for good measurements. Additionally, the spherical wave strength decays rapidly with distance and it can be necessary to utilize larger (several kg) quantities of explosive to prevent significant decay from occurring before an idealized blast wave has formed. Such a mode of testing can be expensive, require large quantities of explosive, and be limited by both atmospheric conditions (such as rain) and by noise complaints from the population density near the test arena. Testing is possible in more compact geometries, however. Non-planar blast waves can be formed into a quasi-planar shape by confining the shock diffraction with the walls of a shock tube. Regardless of the initial form, the wave shape will begin to approximate a planar front after successive wave reflections from the tube walls. Such a technique has previously been used to obtain blast scaling measurements in the planar geometry with gaseous explosives and the condensed-phase explosive nitroguanidine. Recently, there has been much interest in the blast characterization of various non-ideal high explosive (NIHE) materials. With non-ideals, the detonation reaction zone is significantly larger (up to several cm for ANFO) than more ideal explosives. Wave curvature, induced by charge-geometry, can significantly affect the energy release associated with NIHEs. To measure maximum NIHE energy release accurately, it is desirable to minimize any such curvature and, if possible, to overdrive the detonation shock to ensure completion of chemical reactions ahead of the sonic locus associated with the reaction zone. This is achieved in the current study through use of a powerful booster HE and a charge geometry consisting of short cylindrical lengths of NIHE initiated along the charge centerline.

Jackson, Scott L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

230

Selective enrichment of a methanol-utilizing consortium using pulp & paper mill waste streams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater . Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Waste activated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25°C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of four days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24 hour feed/decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89 %, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen limited conditions. This indicates that selectively-enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

Gregory R. Mockos; William A. Smith; Frank J. Loge; David N. Thompson

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Computational Modeling and Optimization of a Novel Shock Tube to Study Blast Induced Traumatic Brain Injury  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Various 2D models to simulate the shock wave propagation in a shock tube to see the effects of varying shock tube geometry and working fluid on the blast profiles were developed. Ranges of different parameters evaluated are: tube length - 5ft to 25ft; tube...

Anumolu, Pratima

2014-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

232

Material Modeling and Development of a Realistic Dummy Testing Blast Induced Traumatic Brain Injury  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Material Modeling and Development of a Realistic Dummy Head for Testing Blast Induced Traumatic Brain Injury S. G. M. Hossain1, C. A. Nelson1, T. Boulet2, M. Arnoult2, L. Zhang2, A. Holmberg2, J. Hein occurrence rate of traumatic brain injury (TBI) ­ 1.4 million people in US per year ­ 50,000 deaths ­ 235

Farritor, Shane

233

Shock Tube Design for High Intensity Blast Waves for Laboratory Testing of Armor and Combat Materiel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shock tubes create simulated blast waves which can be directed and measured to study blast wave effects under laboratory conditions. It is desirable to increase available peak pressure from ~1 MPa to ~5 MPa to simulate closer blast sources and facilitate development and testing of personal and vehicle armors. Three methods were investigated to increase peak simulated blast pressure produced by an oxy-acetylene driven shock tube while maintaining suitability for laboratory studies. The first method is the addition of a Shchelkin spiral priming section which works by increasing the turbulent flow of the deflagration wave, thus increasing its speed and pressure. This approach increased the average peak pressure from 1.17 MPa to 5.33 MPa while maintaining a relevant pressure-time curve (Friedlander waveform). The second method is a bottleneck between the driving and driven sections. Coupling a 79 mm diameter driving section to a 53 mm driven section increased the peak pressure from 1.17 MPa to 2.25 MPa. Using a 1...

Courtney, Elijah; Courtney, Michael

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Blasting Attenuation Study Crystal Ridge, MacDonald Ranch and MacDonald Highlands  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;#12;#12;#12;Blasting Attenuation Study Crystal Ridge, MacDonald Ranch and MacDonald Highlands Ridge, MacDonald Ranch, and MacDonald Highlands. The purpose of this study was to · evaluate seismograph recorded in the Crystal Ridge, MacDonald Ranch, and MacDonald Highlands areas from 2/25/05 to 3

235

MICRO-METER MEASUREMENT OF CRACKS TO COMPARE BLAST AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to development of a new approach to vibration monitoring called autonomous crack measurement (ACM vibration time histories. Measurements reported herein show that weather- induced response of cracksMICRO-METER MEASUREMENT OF CRACKS TO COMPARE BLAST AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS. Charles H Dowding

236

Underwater blast loading of sandwich beams: Regimes of behaviour M.T. Tilbrook 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, with a time constant h on the order of millisec- onds. The magnitude of the shock wave peak pressure and decay are charted on maps using axes of blast impulse and core strength. The simulations indicate that continued (1948) and Swisdak (1978) and are repeated briefly here in order to underpin the current study

Fleck, Norman A.

237

Investigation of the activity level and radiological impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides in blast furnace slag  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......material such as iron ore, coal and limestone in steel production...road construction can bring economic and environmental advantages...properties of concrete incorporating coal bottom ash and granulated blast...fly ashes produced in Turkish coal-burning thermal power plants......

F. A. Ugur; S. Turhan; H. Sahan; M. Sahan; E. Gören; F. Gezer; Z. Yegingil

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Mill Integration-Pulping, Stream Reforming and Direct Causticization for Black Liquor Recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

MTCI/StoneChem developed a steam reforming, fluidized bed gasification technology for biomass. DOE supported the demonstration of this technology for gasification of spent wood pulping liquor (or 'black liquor') at Georgia-Pacific's Big Island, Virginia mill. The present pre-commercial R&D project addressed the opportunities as well as identified negative aspects when the MTCI/StoneChem gasification technology is integrated in a pulp mill production facility. The opportunities arise because black liquor gasification produces sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) and sodium (as Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in separate streams which may be used beneficially for improved pulp yield and properties. The negative aspect of kraft black liquor gasification is that the amount of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} which must be converted to NaOH (the so called causticizing requirement) is increased. This arises because sulfur is released as Na{sub 2}S during conventional kraft black liquor recovery, while during gasification the sodium associated Na{sub 2}S is partly or fully converted to Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The causticizing requirement can be eliminated by including a TiO{sub 2} based cyclic process called direct causticization. In this process black liquor is gasified in the presence of (low sodium content) titanates which convert Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium content) titanates. NaOH is formed when contacting the latter titanates with water, thereby eliminating the causticizing requirement entirely. The leached and low sodium titanates are returned to the gasification process. The project team comprised the University of Maine (UM), North Carolina State University (NCSU) and MTCI/ThermoChem. NCSU and MTCI are subcontractors to UM. The principal organization for the contract is UM. NCSU investigated the techno-economics of using advanced pulping techniques which fully utilize the unique cooking liquors produced by steam reforming of black liquor (Task 1). UM studied the kinetics and agglomeration problems of the conversion of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium) titanates during gasification of black liquor in the presence of (low sodium) titanates or TiO{sub 2} (Task 2). MTCI/ThermoChem tested the performance and operability of the combined technology of steam reforming and direct causticization in their Process Development Unit (PDU) (Task 3). The specific objectives were: (1) to investigate how split sulfidity and polysulfide (+ AQ) pulping can be used to increase pulp fiber yield and properties compared to conventional kraft pulping; (2) to determine the economics of black liquor gasification combined with these pulping technologies in comparison with conventional kraft pulping and black liquor recovery; (3) to determine the effect of operating conditions on the kinetics of the titanate-based direct causticization reaction during black liquor gasification at relatively low temperatures ({le} 750 C); (4) to determine the mechanism of particle agglomeration during gasification of black liquor in the presence of titanates at relatively low temperatures ({le} 750 C); and (5) to verify performance and operability of the combined technology of steam reforming and direct causticization of black liquor in a pilot scale fluidized bed test facility.

Adriaan van Heiningen

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

239

Computational Hydrocode Study of Target Damage due to Fragment-Blast Impact  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A target's terminal ballistic effects involving explosively generated fragments, along with the original blast, are of critical importance for many different security and safety related applications. Personnel safety and protective building design are but a few of the practical disciplines that can gain from improved understanding combined loading effects. Traditionally, any engineering level analysis or design effort involving explosions would divide the target damage analysis into two correspondingly critical areas: blast wave and fragment related impact effects. The hypothesis of this paper lies in the supposition that a linear combination of a blast-fragment loading, coupled with an accurate target response description, can lead to a non-linear target damage effect. This non-linear target response could then stand as the basis of defining what a synergistic or combined frag-blast loading might actually look like. The table below, taken from Walters, et. al. categorizes some of the critical parameters driving any combined target damage effect and drives the evaluation of results. Based on table 1 it becomes clear that any combined frag-blast analysis would need to account for the target response matching similar ranges for the mechanics described above. Of interest are the critical times upon which a blast event or fragment impact loading occurs relative to the target's modal response. A blast, for the purposes of this paper is defined as the sudden release of chemical energy from a given material (henceforth referred to as an energetic material) onto its surrounding medium. During the coupling mechanism a discrete or discontinuous shockwave is generated. This shockwave travels outward from the source transferring energy and momentum to any surrounding objects including personnel and engineering structures. From an engineering perspective blast effects are typically characterized by way of physical characteristics such as Peak Pressure (PP), Time of Arrival (TOA), Pressure-Impulse (PI) and Time of Duration (TD). Other peculiarities include the radial decrease in pressure from the source, any fireball size measurement, and subsequent increase in temperature from the passing of the shockwave through the surrounding medium. In light of all of these metrics, the loading any object receives from a blast event becomes intricately connected to the distance between itself and the source. Because of this, a clear distinction is made between close-in effects and those from a source far away from the object of interest. Explosively generated fragments on the other hand are characterized by means of their localized damage potential. Metrics such as whether the fragment penetrates or perforates a given object is quantified as well as other variables including fragment's residual velocity, % kinetic energy decrease, residual fragment mass and other exit criteria. A fragment launched under such violent conditions could easily be traveling at speeds in excess of 2500 ft/s. Given these speeds it is conceivable to imagine how any given fragment could deliver a concentrated load to a target and penetrates through walls, vehicles or even the protection systems of nearby personnel. This study will focus on the individual fragment-target impact event with the hopes of expanding it to eventually include statistical procedures. Since this is a modeling excursion into the combined frag-blast target damage effects the numerical methods used to frame this problem become important in-so-far as the simulations are done in a consistent manner. For this study a Finite-Element based Hydrocode solution called ALE3D (ALE=Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) was utilized. ALE3D is developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Livermore, CA), and as this paper will show, successfully implemented a converged ALE formulation including as many of the different aspects needed to query the synergistic damage on a given target. Further information on the modeling setup is included.

Hatch-Aguilar, T; Najjar, F; Szymanski, E

2011-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

240

Mineralized and osteoid tissue from dental pulp stem cells on micro-arc oxidation titanium in vitro  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The presence of insufficient bone volume affects the implant healing and success. The aim of this study was to evaluate osteogenic capacity of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) on micro-arc oxidation (MAO) titanium ...

Yi Huang ? ?; Ting Chang ? ?; Cheng Yang ? ?…

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu blast pulping" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Opportunities to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. pulp and paper industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

primary stage consistency” TAPPI Journal 80 (1). Allan, G. ;drying of pulp and paper,” TAPPI Journal 8 (80). Pp. 175-impulse- drying temperature,” TAPPI Journal 77(2). Pages:

Martin, Nathan; Anglani, N.; Einstein, D.; Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.K.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Bleaching Miscanthus x giganteus Acetosolv Pulps with a New Totally Chlorine-free Sequence and the Effect of Carbohydrate Protectors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The bleaching of semibleached Miscanthus x giganteus Acetosolv pulp, after alkaline and peroxyacetate treatments, was investigated by a novel totally chlorine-free (TCF) sequence. Oxygen delignification (O-stage), peroxide (P-stage), and oxygen-...

Juan José Villaverde; Pablo Ligero; Alberto de Vega

2009-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

243

Diagnosing and modifying off-site blast effects by seismic means -- A case study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of complaints were received from the owners of a 130 year-old farmhouse that had been converted into a bed and breakfast establishment. It was determined that blast effects were most noticeable on the third floor of the farmhouse. A vibration study was proposed aimed at isolating the actual cause of the perceived vibration. To aid in this determination, a customized, split-cable seismograph utilizing three single component transducers was deployed both in the interior and exterior of the farmhouse for two primary blasts. By utilizing a monitoring technique involving both interior and exterior sensors from a single seismograph, vibration time-histories from the three locations could be time-linked, providing an accurate assessment as to the actual mechanism responsible for the complaints. In this case, the split-cable array provided data indicating a low frequency ground vibration effect. Amplification of structure vibration due to the matching of the natural frequency of the farmhouse and the transmitted ground vibration was identified as the probable cause of the complaints. Given the potential impact of low frequency energy with surrounding properties, an analytical approach based on the concept of linear superpositioning was used to determine optimum delay intervals to reduce the off-site impact of future production blasts. Single-hole test blast data was recorded with traditional seismographs and analyzed using vibration control software. Utilization of recommended blasthole sequencing, combined with a change in blast orientation, resulted in the elimination of complaints at the farmhouse, in reduced vibration values at other neighboring properties and in a reduction in the overall liability exposure.

Brashear, S.; Brush, R.; Cook, B.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

244

Reductive burning of high-yield spent pulping liquors by the addition of pulverized coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on the reductive burning of high-yield spent pulping liquors which can be accomplished by the addition of pulverized coal to increase the heat content and generate the proper reducing conditions. Samples from a 78%-yield sodium bisulfite pulping process employing a hardwood furnish were mixed with 10-50% pulveriized coal and burned at 950[degrees]C under reducing conditions in a box furnace. Even in these uncontrolled combustion conditions 76. 5% of the sulfur found in the soluble portion of the smelt was converted from lignousulfonates to useful sulfide ion. For the remainder of the sulfur, analyses determined it to be 19. 5% as sulfite ion, 3. 1% as thiosulfate ion, and 0.9% as sulfate ion.

Sell, N.J.; Norman, J.C. (Natural and Applied Sciences, Univ. of Wisconsin-Green Bay, Green Bay, WI (United States))

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Conifer tissue culture and how it may impact the pulp and paper industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is a report on the state-of-the-art of tissue culture of conifers. Developments in organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis are looked at. This technology is expected to help the pulp and paper industry in achieving its goal of maximum productivity in two principal ways: (a) by providing rapid and efficient in vitro propagation methods for elite trees, and (b) by providing a technology for producing desired hybrids via somatic cell genetics and hybridization.

Verma, D.C.; Einspahr, D.W.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

On-line measurement of lignin in wood pulp by color shift of fluorescence  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Lignin concentrations from wood pulp samples are measured by applying an excitation light at a selected wavelength to the samples in order to cause the lignin to emit fluorescence. A spectral distribution of the fluorescence emission is then determined. The lignin concentration is then calculated based on the spectral distribution signal. The spectral distribution is quantified by either a wavelength centroid method or a band ratio method. 6 figs.

Jeffers, L.A.; Malito, M.L.

1996-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

247

7-55E An office that is being cooled adequately by a 12,000 Btu/h window air-conditioner is converted to a computer room. The number of additional air-conditioners that need to be installed is to be determined.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is to be determined. Assumptions 1 The computers are operated by 4 adult men. 2 The computers consume 40 percent to the amount of electrical energy they consume. Therefore, AC Outside Computer room 4000 Btu/h ( ( ) ( Q Q Q Q. Analysis The unit that will cost less during its lifetime is a better buy. The total cost of a system

Bahrami, Majid

248

Recycling of water in bleached kraft pulp mills by using electrodialysis.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conservation of water in bleached kraft pulp mills by recycling the bleach plant effluent directly without treatment will cause accumulation of inorganic ''non-process elements'' (NPEs) and serious operational problems. In this work, an electrodialysis process is being developed for recycling the acidic bleach plant effluent of bleached kraft pulp mills. In this process, electrodialysis functions as a selective kidney to remove inorganic NPEs from bleach plant effluents, before they reach the recovery cycle. Acidic bleach plant effluents from several mills using bleaching sequences based on chlorine dioxide were characterized. The total dissolved solids were mostly inorganic NPEs. Sodium was the predominant cation and chloride was present at significant levels in all these effluents. In laboratory electrodialysis experiments, selective removal of chloride and potentially harmful cations, such as potassium, calcium, and magnesium, were removed efficiently. Rejection of organic compounds was up to 98%. Electrodialysis was shown to be resistant to membrane fouling and scaling, in a 100-hour laboratory experiment. Based on a model mill with 1,000 ton/day pulp production, the economic analysis suggests that the energy cost of electrodialysis is less than $200/day, and the capital cost of the stack is about $500,000.

Fracaro, A. T.; Henry, M. P.; Pfromm, P.; Tsai, S.-P.

1999-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

249

Investigation of sonic/subsonic air-blast atomization using Rayleigh- and Mie-scattering visualization techniques  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To examine the jet mixing in air-blast twin fluid atomization, the sonic and supersonic air jet developments have been exclusively visualized using the Rayleigh scattering principle and the development of liquid spray has been separately visualized...

Kim, Tae-Kyun

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

250

Confined blasts, and the impact of shock wave reflections on a human head and the related traumatic brain injury  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We examine the effects of blast waves in a confined space on a human head model. A finite element human model (FEHM) is exposed to blast waves from explosions, as well as, to the reflected waves from the confinement walls. The intensity of the travelling blast shock waves is measured computationally and compared with experimental results. We monitor the mechanical response of the brain of the FEHM at different stand-off positions, either close to, or away from the surrounding walls in interaction with the travelling blast waves. The skull pressure, brain intracranial pressure (ICP), acceleration, shear stress, and principal stresses and strains are measured as the biomechanical parameters for injury diagnosis and compared for all the situations and stand-off positions considered. The results illustrate that the additional reflected shock waves due to the surrounding walls can dramatically change the brain biomechanical parameters.

Asghar Rezaei; Mehdi Salimi Jazi; Samad Javid; Ghodrat Karami; Mariusz Ziejewski

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Genes encoding multiples forms of phospholipase A2 are expressed in immature forms of human leukemic blasts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

leukemic blasts Letter to the Editor Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) catalyzes the hydrolysis of the sn-2 position, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) was utilized to determine which of PLA2 mRNAs were expressed

Boyer, Edmond

252

Placement of the dam for the no. 2 kambaratinskaya HPP by large-scale blasting: some observations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results of complex instrument observations of large-scale blasting during construction of the dam for the No. 2 Kambaratinskaya HPP on the Naryn River in the Republic of Kirgizia are analyzed. The purpose of these observations was: to determine the actual parameters of the seismic process, evaluate the effect of air and acoustic shock waves, and investigate the kinematics of the surface formed by the blast in its core region within the mass of fractured rocks.

Shuifer, M. I.; Argal, E. S. [JSC 'SPII Gidroproekt' (Russian Federation)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

253

A Multicellular Basis for the Origination of Blast Crisis in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Multicellular Basis for the Origination of Blast Crisis in Multicellular Basis for the Origination of Blast Crisis in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Philip Hahnfeldt 1 , Lynn Hlatky 1 , Rainer Sachs 2 1 Center of Cancer Systems Biology, St. Elizabeth's Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA; and 2 Department of Mathematics, University of California, Berkeley, CA Among radiation-induced cancers, some leukemias, including chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) have especially high excess relative risks. CML, sporadic or radiogenic, is also thought to be comparatively very well understood. Accordingly, CML is considered an important model for assessing radiogenic cancer risk. CML is characterized by a specific chromosome translocation, the BCR-ABL fusion gene, and it has been widely postulated that an advanced

254

An Integrated Model of Coal/Coke Combustion in a Blast Furnace  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A three?dimensional integrated mathematical model of the combustion of pulverized coal and coke is developed. The model is applied to the region of lance?blowpipe?tuyere?raceway?coke bed to simulate the operation of pulverized coal injection in an ironmaking blast furnace. The model integrates two parts: pulverized coal combustion model in the blowpipe?tuyere?raceway?coke bed and the coke combustion model in the coke bed. The model is validated against the measurements in terms of coal burnout and gas composition respectively. The comprehensive in?furnace phenomena are simulated in the raceway and coke bed in terms of flow temperature gas composition and coal burning characteristics. In addition underlying mechanisms for the in?furnace phenomena are analyzed. The model provides a cost?effective tool for understanding and optimizing the in?furnace flow?thermo?chemical characteristics of the PCI process in full?scale blast furnaces.

Y. S. Shen; B. Y. Guo; A. B. Yu; P. Austin; P. Zulli

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Thermal-destruction products of coal in the blast-furnace gas-purification system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The lean, poorly clinkering coal and anthracite used to replace coke in blast furnaces has a considerable content of volatile components (low-molecular thermaldestruction products), which enter the water and sludge of the blast-furnace gas-purification system as petroleum products. Therefore, it is important to study the influence of coal on the petroleum-product content in the water and sludge within this system. The liberation of primary thermal-destruction products is investigated for anthracite with around 4 wt % volatiles, using a STA 449C Jupiter thermoanalyzer equipped with a QMC 230 mass spectrometer. The thermoanalyzer determines small changes in mass and thermal effects with high accuracy (weighing accuracy 10{sup -8} g; error in measuring thermal effects 1 mV). This permits experiments with single layers of coal particles, eliminating secondary reactions of its thermal-destruction products.

A.M. Amdur; M.V. Shibanova; E.V. Ental'tsev [Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Russia Institute of Metallurgy

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

256

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. [Quarterly] technical report, 1 March 1993--31 May 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. The basic program is designed to determine the reactivity of both coal and its derived char under blast furnace conditions and to compare the results to similar properties of blast furnace coke. The results of the first two experiments in which coal char pyrolyzed in nitrogen at 1000{degrees}C in an EPR were reacted isothermally in air at 1000{degrees}C and 1200{degrees}C. The reactivity values of the same char in these two experiments were different by an order of magnitude. The char reactivity at 1000{degrees}C was 9.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} grams per minute while the reactivity. of the char at 1200{degrees}C was 1.6 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} grams per minute. These results suggest that the temperature of the blast air in the tuyere may be critical in achieving complete carbon burnout.

Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology; Case, E.R. [Armco, Inc., Middletown, OH (United States). Research and Technology Div.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Beryl Bravo -- Blast wells conversion: Development and testing of steel/carbon fiber composite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Preparation of the Safety Case for Mobil`s Beryl B platform indicated that 2 non-structural fire walls required to be converted to blast walls be able to withstand overpressures from hydrocarbon explosions. Mobil has adopted a novel and innovative reinforcement using high strength, high modulus carbon fibers. The background to the project is described, together with the selection of the solution, the properties of the composite materials and the derivation of the application process.

Galbraith, D.N.; Barnes, F.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

258

NO FLARES FROM GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOW BLAST WAVES ENCOUNTERING SUDDEN CIRCUMBURST DENSITY CHANGE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Afterglows of gamma-ray bursts are observed to produce light curves with the flux following power-law evolution in time. However, recent observations reveal bright flares at times on the order of minutes to days. One proposed explanation for these flares is the interaction of a relativistic blast wave with a circumburst density transition. In this paper, we model this type of interaction computationally in one and two dimensions, using a relativistic hydrodynamics code with adaptive mesh refinement called RAM, and analytically in one dimension. We simulate a blast wave traveling in a stellar wind environment that encounters a sudden change in density, followed by a homogeneous medium, and compute the observed radiation using a synchrotron model. We show that flares are not observable for an encounter with a sudden density increase, such as a wind termination shock, nor for an encounter with a sudden density decrease. Furthermore, by extending our analysis to two dimensions, we are able to resolve the spreading, collimation, and edge effects of the blast wave as it encounters the change in circumburst medium. In all cases considered in this paper, we find that a flare will not be observed for any of the density changes studied.

Gat, Ilana; Van Eerten, Hendrik; MacFadyen, Andrew [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Physics Department, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

2013-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

259

Using coal-dust fuel in Ukrainian and Russian blast furnaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ukrainian and Russian blast-furnace production falls short of the best global practices. It is no secret that, having switched to oxygen and natural gas in the 1960s, the blast-furnace industries have improved the batch and technological conditions and have attained a productivity of 2.5 and even 3 t/(m{sup 3} day), but have not been able to reduce coke consumption below 400 kg/t, which was the industry standard 40 years ago. The situation is particularly bad in Ukraine: in 2007, furnace productivity was 1.5-2 t/m{sup 3}, with a coke consumption of 432-530 kg/t. Theoretical considerations and industrial experience over the last 20 years show that the large-scale introduction of pulverized fuel, with simultaneous improvement in coke quality and in batch and technological conditions, is the only immediately available means of reducing coke consumption considerably (by 20-40%). By this means, natural-gas consumption is reduced or eliminated, and the efficiency of blast-furnace production and ferrous metallurgy as a whole is increased.

A.A. Minaev; A.N. Ryzhenkov; Y.G. Banninkov; S.L. Yaroshevskii; Y.V. Konovalov; A.V. Kuzin [Donetsk National Technical University, Donetsk (Russian Federation)

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

260

AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program Hot Oxygen Injection Into The Blast Furnace  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increased levels of blast furnace coal injection are needed to further lower coke requirements and provide more flexibility in furnace productivity. The direct injection of high temperature oxygen with coal in the blast furnace blowpipe and tuyere offers better coal dispersion at high local oxygen concentrations, optimizing the use of oxygen in the blast furnace. Based on pilot scale tests, coal injection can be increased by 75 pounds per ton of hot metal (lb/thm), yielding net savings of $0.84/tm. Potential productivity increases of 15 percent would yield another $1.95/thm. In this project, commercial-scale hot oxygen injection from a ''thermal nozzle'' system, patented by Praxair, Inc., has been developed, integrated into, and demonstrated on two tuyeres of the U.S. Steel Gary Works no. 6 blast furnace. The goals were to evaluate heat load on furnace components from hot oxygen injection, demonstrate a safe and reliable lance and flow control design, and qualitatively observe hot oxygen-coal interaction. All three goals have been successfully met. Heat load on the blowpipe is essentially unchanged with hot oxygen. Total heat load on the tuyere increases about 10% and heat load on the tuyere tip increases about 50%. Bosh temperatures remained within the usual operating range. Performance in all these areas is acceptable. Lance performance was improved during testing by changes to lance materials and operating practices. The lance fuel tip was changed from copper to a nickel alloy to eliminate oxidation problems that severely limited tip life. Ignition flow rates and oxygen-fuel ratios were changed to counter the effects of blowpipe pressure fluctuations caused by natural resonance and by coal/coke combustion in the tuyere and raceway. Lances can now be reliably ignited using the hot blast as the ignition source. Blowpipe pressures were analyzed to evaluate ht oxygen-coal interactions. The data suggest that hot oxygen increases coal combustion in the blow pipe and tuyere by 30, in line with pilot scale tests conducted previously.

Michael F. Riley

2002-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu blast pulping" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Selected NAICS Codes...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Btu. Wood Residues and Wood-Related Pulping Liquor Wood Byproducts and NAICS or Biomass Agricultural Harvested Directly from Mill Paper-Related Code(a) Subsector and...

262

Modeling and simulation of blast-induced, early-time intracranial wave physics leading to traumatic brain injury.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this modeling and simulation study was to establish the role of stress wave interactions in the genesis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) from exposure to explosive blast. A high resolution (1 mm{sup 3} voxels), 5 material model of the human head was created by segmentation of color cryosections from the Visible Human Female dataset. Tissue material properties were assigned from literature values. The model was inserted into the shock physics wave code, CTH, and subjected to a simulated blast wave of 1.3 MPa (13 bars) peak pressure from anterior, posterior and lateral directions. Three dimensional plots of maximum pressure, volumetric tension, and deviatoric (shear) stress demonstrated significant differences related to the incident blast geometry. In particular, the calculations revealed focal brain regions of elevated pressure and deviatoric (shear) stress within the first 2 milliseconds of blast exposure. Calculated maximum levels of 15 KPa deviatoric, 3.3 MPa pressure, and 0.8 MPa volumetric tension were observed before the onset of significant head accelerations. Over a 2 msec time course, the head model moved only 1 mm in response to the blast loading. Doubling the blast strength changed the resulting intracranial stress magnitudes but not their distribution. We conclude that stress localization, due to early time wave interactions, may contribute to the development of multifocal axonal injury underlying TBI. We propose that a contribution to traumatic brain injury from blast exposure, and most likely blunt impact, can occur on a time scale shorter than previous model predictions and before the onset of linear or rotational accelerations traditionally associated with the development of TBI.

Ford, Corey C. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Taylor, Paul Allen

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Formation of chlorinated dioxins during production of bleached kraft pulp from sawmill chips contaminated with polychlorinated phenols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Until recently, sawmills used polychlorinated phenol (polyCP) formulations to prevent sap-staining of undried lumber. Bleached kraft pulp mills that used chips from polyCP-treated lumber were found to have elevated levels of hexachlorinated dioxins (hexaCDD) in their pulps, effluents, and sludges. This report presents the results of an investigation to elucidate the mechanism of hexaCDD formation during kraft pulping of polyCP-contaminated sawmill chips. The major constituents of the polyCP formulations- tetraCP and pentaCP-play a negligible role in hexaCDD formation. Polychlorinated phenoxyphenol (polyCPP) contaminants in the polyCP formulations are the key contributing factors, with hexaCDD contamination occurring as a consequence of digester-mediated condensation of polyCPP (i.e., predioxin) contaminants.

Luthe, C.E.; Berry, R.M.; Voss, R.H. (Paprican, Pointe Claire, Quebec (Canada))

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

A New Freeze Concentration Process for Minimum Effluent Process in Bleached Pulp  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project researches freeze concentration as a primary volume reduction technology for bleaching plant effluents from paper-pulp mills before they are treated by expensive technologies, such as incineration, for the destruction of the adsorbable organic halogens. Previous laboratory studies show that freeze concentration has a greater than 99.5% purification efficiency for volatile, semivolatile, and nonprocess elements, or any other solute, thus producing pure ice that can be reused in the mill as water. The first section evaluates the anticipated regulatory and public pressures associated with implementing the technology; the remaining sections deal with the experimental results from a scaled-up freeze concentration process in a 100-liter pilot-plant at Tufts University. The results of laboratory scale experiments confirmed that the freeze concentration technology could be an efficient volume reduction technology for the above elements and for removing adsorbable organic hologens and or nonprocess elements from recycled water. They also provide the necessary data for designing and operating a larger pilot plant, and identify the technical problems encountered in the scale-up and the way they could be addressed in the larger scale plants. This project was originally planned to include the operation of a large pilot plant in the facilities of Swenson Process Equipment Inc., and a field test at a pulp mill, but the paper company withdrew its financial support for the field test. In place of a final economic evaluation after the field test, a preliminary evaluation based on the small pilot plant data predicts an economically reasonable freeze concentration process in the case of reduction of the bleaching-effluent flow to less than 5 m3/kkg pulp, a target anticipated in the near future.

Qian, Ru-Ying; Botsaris, Gregory D.

2001-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

265

Yield Improvement and Energy Savings Uing Phosphonates as Additives in Kraft pulping  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Project Objective: Develop a commercially viable modification to the Kraft process resulting in energy savings, increased yield and improved bleachability. Evaluate the feasibility of this technology across a spectrum of wood species used in North America. Develop detailed fundamental understanding of the mechanism by which phosphonates improve KAPPA number and yield. Evaluate the North American market potential for the use of phosphonates in the Kraft pulping process. Examine determinants of customer perceived value and explore organizational and operational factors influencing attitudes and behaviors. Provide an economic feasibility assessment for the supply chain, both suppliers (chemical supply companies) and buyers (Kraft mills). Provide background to most effectively transfer this new technology to commercial mills.

Ulrike W. Tschirner; Timothy Smith

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

266

Survey of hydrogen peroxide bleaching of mechanical and chemimechanical pulp - factors affecting brightness  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The literature upon which this survey is based covers the period from 1975 to June 1985 and was searched both manually and by computer. More than 100 articles and patents were examined, and of these almost half were singled out as meriting citation. Several recent surveys can be identified as sources that provide a general overview of current peroxide bleaching practice as specifically applied to mechanical and chemimechanical pulps. Additionally, an article by Allison, although not intended as a review, nevertheless serves as one by virtue of the broad scope of its content. 44 references.

Dence, C.W.; Omori, S.

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Production of low BTU gas from biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and transported with little difficulty. It was decided to use a fluidized bed reactor for the gasification. Fluidized bed reactors offer many advantages when utilized as a medium for gasifi- cation of solid fuels. Some of them are excellent mixing... carbon and graphite. The results showed the equilibrium constant to be a function of temperature alone, independent of carbon source, particle size and other physical properties of the carbon. Brink (1976) studied the pyrolysis and gasifi- cation...

Lee, Yung N.

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

268

Catalytic reactor for low-Btu fuels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved catalytic reactor includes a housing having a plate positioned therein defining a first zone and a second zone, and a plurality of conduits fabricated from a heat conducting material and adapted for conducting a fluid therethrough. The conduits are positioned within the housing such that the conduit exterior surfaces and the housing interior surface within the second zone define a first flow path while the conduit interior surfaces define a second flow path through the second zone and not in fluid communication with the first flow path. The conduit exits define a second flow path exit, the conduit exits and the first flow path exit being proximately located and interspersed. The conduits define at least one expanded section that contacts adjacent conduits thereby spacing the conduits within the second zone and forming first flow path exit flow orifices having an aggregate exit area greater than a defined percent of the housing exit plane area. Lastly, at least a portion of the first flow path defines a catalytically active surface.

Smith, Lance (North Haven, CT); Etemad, Shahrokh (Trumbull, CT); Karim, Hasan (Simpsonville, SC); Pfefferle, William C. (Madison, CT)

2009-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

269

Use of Residual Solids from Pulp and Paper Mills for Enhancing Strength and Durability of Ready-Mixed Concrete  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research was conducted to establish mixture proportioning and production technologies for ready-mixed concrete containing pulp and paper mill residual solids and to study technical, economical, and performance benefits of using the residual solids in the concrete. Fibrous residuals generated from pulp and paper mills were used, and concrete mixture proportions and productions technologies were first optimized under controlled laboratory conditions. Based on the mixture proportions established in the laboratory, prototype field concrete mixtures were manufactured at a ready-mixed concrete plant. Afterward, a field construction demonstration was held to demonstrate the production and placement of structural-grade cold-weather-resistant concrete containing residual solids.

Tarun R. Naik; Yoon-moon Chun; Rudolph N. Kraus

2003-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

270

Suppressor for reducing the muzzle blast and flash of a firearm  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Disclosed are several examples of apparatuses for suppressing the blast and flash produced as a projectile is expelled by gases from a firearm. In some examples, gases are diverted away from the central chamber to an expansion chamber by baffles. The gases are absorbed by the expansion chamber and desorbed slowly, thus decreasing pressure and increasing residence time of the gases. In other examples, the gases impinge against a plurality of rods before expanding through passages between the rods to decrease the pressure and increase the residence time of the gases.

Klett, James W

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

271

Delayed-blasting tests to improve highwall stability - a final report. Report of Investigations/1986  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Bureau of Mines conducted a series of delayed-blasting experiments at a Barbour County, WV, contour coal mine that resulted in smoother highwalls. The highwalls were smoother due to reduced overbreak (excessive rock breakage beyond the excavation limit) and were inherently safer due to reduced likelihood of rockfall. The experiments were directed at reducing overbreak without special drilling or significant additional cost. Reduced overbreak was accomplished by increasing the highwall hole delays, which changed the effective delay-pattern geometry and the direction of burden movement.

Stachura, V.J.; Fletcher, L.R.; Peltier, M.A.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Biomechanical pulping of aspen chips; Energy savings resulting from different fungal treatments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Besides increasing paper strength, fungal treatments can also reduce the electrical energy needed for fiberizing chips during mechanical pulping. Fungal species, chip movement, and treatment duration affected the extent of energy savings. This paper reports that four-week-long treatment with white-rot fungi, including Phlebia species or Pholiota mutabilis, in a stationary wire tray bioreactor resulted in at least 35% energy savings for pulping chips to 100 mL CSF in a 300-mm-diameter disc refiner. With Phanerochaete chrysosporium in a rotating-drum bioreactor, the optimal treatment duration was four weeks. Treatment with a brown-rot fungus also resulted in energy savings. Over the range of fungi and conditions tested, neither chip weight loss nor lignin loss correlated with energy savings. Some treatments giving the least chip weight loss ({lt}5%) saved the most energy. Wood modifications responsible for energy savings differed from those that increased strength. Treatments that saved the most energy did not necessarily give the highest strength properties.

Leatham, G.F.; Myers, G.C.; Wegner, T.H. (USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Lab., Madison, WI (US))

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Burden distribution control for maintaining the central gas flow at No. 1 blast furnace in Pohang Works  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The causes for temperature lowering at the upper shaft center in Pohang No. 1 blast furnace were investigated. The test operation with charging notch change in the actual blast furnace and with a 1/12 scale model to Pohang No. 1 blast furnace were carried out in order to improve central gas flow in the shaft. Finally, rebuilding of the lower bunker interior was performed using the results of model experiments. It was confirmed that the main reason for the gas temperature lowering at the upper shaft center was the smaller particle size at center than the wall according to the discharging characteristics of center feed bunker with stone box. The central gas flow could be secured through modifying the stone box in the bunker.

Jung, S.K.; Lee, Y.J.; Suh, Y.K.; Ahn, T.J.; Kim, S.M. [Pohang Iron and Steel Co. Ltd. (Korea, Republic of). Technical Research Labs.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Presentation 3.1: Report on energy efficient technologies and CO2 reduction potentials in the pulp and paper industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, at the International Energy Agency in Paris. The goal of the workshop is to better quantify the global potentialPresentation 3.1: Report on energy efficient technologies and CO2 reduction potentials in the pulp, and it will imply a fundamental rethinking of the sector's strategy. 251 #12;#12;INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY AGENCE

275

Blast wave radiation source measurement experiments on the Z Z-pinch facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Dynamic Hohlraum (DH) radiation on the Z facility at Sandia National Laboratories [R. B. Spielman, W. A. Stygar, J. F. Seamen et al., Proceeding of the 11th International Pulsed Power Conference, Baltimore, 1997, edited by G. Cooperstein and I. Vitkovitsky (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 1997), Vol. 1, p. 709] is a bright source of radiant energy that has proven useful for high energy density physics experiments. But the radiation output from a DH on Z needs to be well known. In this paper, a new method is presented for measuring the radiation fluence deposited in an experiment, specifically, an experiment driven by a Z DH. This technique uses a blast wave produced in a SiO{sub 2} foam, which starts as supersonic but transitions to subsonic, producing a shock at the transition point that is observable via radiography. The position of this shock is a sensitive measure of the radiation drive energy from the Z DH. Computer simulations have been used to design and analyze a Z foam blast wave experiment.

Peterson, R.R.; Peterson, D.L.; Watt, R.G.; Idzorek, G.; Tierney, T.; Lopez, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

276

Production and blast-furnace smelting of boron-alloyed iron-ore pellets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Industrial test data are presented regarding the production (at Sokolovsk-Sarbaisk mining and enrichment enterprise) and blast-furnace smelting (at Magnitogorsk metallurgical works) of boron-alloyed iron-ore pellets (500000 t). It is shown that, thanks to the presence of boron, the compressive strength of the roasted pellets is increased by 18.5%, while the strength in reduction is doubled; the limestone consumption is reduced by 11%, the bentonite consumption is halved, and the dust content of the gases in the last section of the roasting machines is reduced by 20%. In blast-furnace smelting, the yield of low-sulfur (<0.02%) hot metal is increased from 65-70 to 85.1% and the furnace productivity from 2.17-2.20 to 2.27 t/(m{sup 3} day); coke consumption is reduced by 3-8 kg/t of hot metal. The plasticity and stamping properties of 08IO auto-industry steel are improved by microadditions of boron.

A.A. Akberdin; A.S. Kim [Abishev Chemicometallurgical Institute, Abishev (Kazakhstan)

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

277

Hydrodynamic Modeling of Air Blast Propagation from the Humble Redwood Chemical High Explosive Detonations Using GEODYN  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamic models were developed using GEODYN to simulate the propagation of air blasts resulting from a series of high explosive detonations conducted at Kirtland Air Force Base in August and September of 2007. Dubbed Humble Redwood I (HR-1), these near-surface chemical high explosive detonations consisted of seven shots of varying height or depth of burst. Each shot was simulated numerically using GEODYN. An adaptive mesh refinement scheme based on air pressure gradients was employed such that the mesh refinement tracked the advancing shock front where sharp discontinuities existed in the state variables, but allowed the mesh to sufficiently relax behind the shock front for runtime efficiency. Comparisons of overpressure, sound speed, and positive phase impulse from the GEODYN simulations were made to the recorded data taken from each HR-1 shot. Where the detonations occurred above ground or were shallowly buried (no deeper than 1 m), the GEODYN model was able to simulate the sound speeds, peak overpressures, and positive phase impulses to within approximately 1%, 23%, and 6%, respectively, of the actual recorded data, supporting the use of numerical simulation of the air blast as a forensic tool in determining the yield of an otherwise unknown explosion.

Chipman, V D

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

278

Word Pro - S8  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Electricity Flow, 2013 (Quadrillion Btu) 1 Blast furnace gas and other manufactured and waste gases derived from fossil fuels. 2 Batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased...

279

DOE Joint Genome Institute. Pulp NonFiction: Fungal Analysis Reveals Clues  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

March 22, 2012 March 22, 2012 Pulp NonFiction: Fungal Analysis Reveals Clues for Targeted Biomass Deconstruction Without fungi and microbes to break down dead trees and leaf litter in nature, the forest floor might look like a scene from TV's "Hoarders." Ceriporiopsis subvermispora mycelium on wood Photo: Scanning electron micrograph of Ceriporiopsis subvermispora mycelium on wood. (R. Blanchette, University of Minnesota) Massive-scale genome sequencing projects supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and being carried out at the DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI) highlight the importance of learning how the cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin that serve as a plant's infrastructure can be broken down by these forest organisms to extract needed nutrients. Among the fungi being

280

Changing Trends in the Bulk Chemicals and Pulp and Paper Industries (released in AEO2005)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Compared with the experience of the 1990s, rising energy prices in recent years have led to questions about expectations of growth in industrial output, particularly in energy-intensive industries. Given the higher price trends, a review of expected growth trends in selected industries was undertaken as part of the production of Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO). In addition, projections for the industrial value of shipments, which were based on the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system in AEO2004, are based on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) in AEO2005. The change in industrial classification leads to lower historical growth rates for many industrial sectors. The impacts of these two changes are highlighted in this section for two of the largest energy-consuming industries in the U.S. industrial sector-bulk chemicals and pulp and paper.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu blast pulping" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Decontamination of surfaces by blasting with crystals of H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A major mission of the US Department of Energy during the 1990s is site and environmental cleanup. In pursuit of this mission, numerous remediation projects are under way and many others are being planned at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In this report, tests using two proposed methods for decontaminating surfaces one using water ice crystals [Crystalline Ice Blast (CIB)], the other using dry ice crystals (CO{sub 2} Cleanblast{trademark}) -- are described. Both methods are adaptations of the commonly used sand blasting technology. The two methods tested differ from sand blasting in that the particles are not particularly abrasive and do not accumulate as particles in the wastes. They differ from each other in that the CO{sub 2} particles sublime during and after impact and the ice particles melt. Thus, the two demonstrations provide important information about two strong candidate decontamination methodologies. Each process was tested at ORNL using contaminated lead bricks and contaminated tools and equipment. Demonstrations with the prototype Crystalline Ice Blast and the CO{sub 2} Cleanblast systems showed that paint, grease, and oil can be removed from metal, plastic, asphalt, and concrete surfaces. Furthermore, removal of contamination from lead bricks was highly effective. Both processes were found to be less effective, under the conditions tested, with contaminated tools and equipment that had chemically bonded contamination or contamination located in crevices since neither technology abrades the substrates or penetrates deeply into crevices to remove particulates. Some process improvements are recommended.

Benson, C.E.; Parfitt, J.E.; Patton, B.D.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

A MANUAL FOR THE PREDICTION OF BLAST AND FRAGMENT LOADINGS ON STRUCTURES  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

A MANUAL FOR THE A MANUAL FOR THE PREDICTION OF BLAST AND FRAGMENT LOADINGS ON STRUCTURES U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ALBUQUERQUE OPERATIONS OFFICE AMARILLO AREA OFFICE AMARILLO, TEXAS DOE/TIC-11268 Change 1 , ' - 15 August 1981 \ \ DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency Thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or

283

Study of radiative blast waves generated on the Z-beamlet laser.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes the original goals of the project to study the Vishniac Overstability on blast waves produced using the Z-Beamlet laser facility as well as the actual results. The proposed work was to build on earlier work on the facility and result in the best characterized set of data for such phenomena in the laboratory. To accomplish the goals it was necessary to modify the existing probe laser at the facility so that it could take multiple images over the course of 1-2 microseconds. Troubles with modifying the probe laser are detailed as well as the work that went into said modifications. The probe laser modification ended up taking the entire length of the project and were the major accomplishment of the research.

Edens, Aaron D.; Schwarz, Jens

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling for High Rate Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) into the Blast Furnace  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pulverized coal injection (PCI) into the blast furnace (BF) has been recognized as an effective way to decrease the coke and total energy consumption along with minimization of environmental impacts. However, increasing the amount of coal injected into the BF is currently limited by the lack of knowledge of some issues related to the process. It is therefore important to understand the complex physical and chemical phenomena in the PCI process. Due to the difficulty in attaining trus BF measurements, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has been identified as a useful technology to provide such knowledge. CFD simulation is powerful for providing detailed information on flow properties and performing parametric studies for process design and optimization. In this project, comprehensive 3-D CFD models have been developed to simulate the PCI process under actual furnace conditions. These models provide raceway size and flow property distributions. The results have provided guidance for optimizing the PCI process.

Dr. Chenn Zhou

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

285

Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection System Demonstration Project: A DOE Assessment  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 2 Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection System Demonstration Project: A DOE Assessment June 2000 U. S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory P.O. Box 880, 3610 Collins Ferry Road Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 and P.O. Box 10940, 626 Cochrans Mill Road Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 2 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein

286

Characterization of tuyere-level core-drill coke samples from blast furnace operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A suite of tuyere-level coke samples have been withdrawn from a working blast furnace during coal injection, using the core-drilling technique. The samples have been characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-RS), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. The 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) extracts of the cokes sampled from the 'bosh', the rear of the 'bird's nest', and the 'dead man' zones were found by SEC to contain heavy soot-like materials (ca. 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} apparent mass units). In contrast, NMP extracts of cokes taken from the raceway and the front of the 'bird's nest' only contained a small amount of material of relatively lower apparent molecular mass (up to ca. 10{sup 5} u). Since the feed coke contained no materials extractable by the present method, the soot-like materials are thought to have formed during the reactions of volatile matter released from the injectant coal, probably via dehydrogenation and repolymerization of the tars. The Raman spectra of the NMP-extracted core-drilled coke samples showed variations reflecting their temperature histories. Area ratios of D-band to G-band decreased as the exposure temperature increased, while intensity ratios of D to G band and those of 2D to G bands increased with temperature. The graphitic (G), defect (D), and random (R) fractions of the carbon structure of the cokes were also derived from the Raman spectra. The R fractions decreased with increasing temperature, whereas G fractions increased, while the D fractions showed a more complex variation with temperature. These data appear to give clues regarding the graphitization mechanism of tuyere-level cokes in the blast furnace. 41 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

S. Dong; N. Paterson; S.G. Kazarian; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

287

4-O-Methyl-?-l-idopyranosyluronic acid linked to xylan from kraft pulp: isolation procedure and characterisation by NMR spectroscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The tetrasaccharide 2?-O-(4-O-methyl-?-l-idopyranosyluronic acid)xylotriose was isolated from enzymatically hydrolysed, unbleached, birch kraft pulp by anion-exchange chromatography in two steps. The primary structure of the tetrasaccharide was determined by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, using homonuclear and heteronuclear two-dimensional techniques. NOE data and 3JH.H coupling constants show that the 4-O-methyl-?-l-idopyranosyluronic acid in the tetrasaccharide is predominantly in the 1C4 chair conformation. The pKa value (3.17) for 4-O-methyliduronic acid attached ?-(1 ? 2) to xylose was determined from the pH-dependent chemical shift of H-5. The amount of 4-O-methyliduronic acid (0.1–0.5 mol%) in surface xylan of unbleached birch and pine kraft pulps was determined by extensive xylanase treatment and further analysis by NMR spectroscopy and high-performance anion-exchange chromatography.

Anita Teleman; Matti Siika-aho; Harri Sorsa; Johanna Buchert; Marjukka Perttula; Tiina Hausalo; Maija Tenkanen

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Effect of radiation on the response of dental pulp to operative and endodontic procedures: an experimental study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thirty-six 56-day-old male Sprague-Dawley albino rats served as two groups of experimental animals. Group 1 was irradiated with 400 rads delivered as total-body radiation from a cesium source. Group 2 served as the control group and was not irradiated. Three weeks later, the dental microscope was used to facilitate various dental procedures in both groups of animals (cavity preparation filled with zinc oxide-eugenol, pulp exposure capped with zinc oxide-eugenol, and pulp exposure left open). Two animals for each procedure from Groups 1 and 2 were killed at time intervals of 2, 4, and 8 weeks. The results showed that (1) radiation at this dose resulted in a depression of the normal response of the dental pulp to the trauma and infection induced by pulpal exposure, (2) there were no pathologic changes in the untreated molars of the irradiated animals, and (3) the use of the dental microscope greatly facilitated cavity preparation in the molars of rats.

Fawzi, M.I.; Shklar, G.; Krakow, A.A.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Improved tribo-mechanical behavior of CaP-containing TiO2 layers produced on titanium by shot blasting and micro-arc oxidation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The combination of shot blasting (SB) and micro-arc oxidation (or anodic oxidation—AO) in titanium surfaces was shown to...2 layers were produced on AO and SB + AO. The latter presented small pore size and inhomo...

Eduardo M. Szesz; Gelson B. de Souza…

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Reply to Moss et al.: Military and medically relevant models of blast-induced traumatic brain injury vs. ellipsoidal heads and helmets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Moss et al. (1) acknowledge the second main conclusion of Nyein et al. (2): that a face shield may significantly mitigate blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, they obviate the first and most important ...

Nyein, Michelle K.

291

Survey of blasting effects on ground water supplies in Appalachia. Part 2. Open file report, August 1980-August 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report covers an 18-month study of the performance of a 300-ft-deep test water well located at the Ayrshire Mine of the AMAX Coal Co. near Evansville, IN. Well performance, as characterized by 10-hr drawdown tests, was monitored as the strip mining operation approached the well site from distances of 2,000 to 15 ft (overburden removal). Blast-induced ground motion was measured at the surface next to the test well, and peak particle velocities in excess of 4 in/s were obtained. No evidence of changes in water quantity or quality could be directly attributed to the blasts. However, some lowering of the static water level in the observation well, and a simultaneous increase in the adjusted specific capacity of the test well, suggest that overburden removal caused lateral stress relief with consequent opening of vertical fractures.

Berger, P.R.; Froedge, D.T.; Gould, J.A.; Kreps, L.F.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Mechanism of physical transformations of mineral matter in the blast furnace coke with reference to its reactivity and strength  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Examinations of polished and dry cut sections of feed and tuyere coke revealed some possible mechanisms for the physical influence of mineral compounds on the reactivity and strength of coke. It was observed that rounded particles of mineral phases that are exposed to the pore walls and surface of coke at high temperature create an inorganic cover, thus reducing the surface available for gas-solid reactions. The particles of mineral matter that have a low melting point and viscosity can affect the coke at earlier stages in the blast furnace process, acting in the upper parts of the blast furnace (BF). The temperature-driven redistribution of mineral phases within the coke matrix probably leads to the creation of weak spots and in general to anisotropy in its properties, thus reducing its strength. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Stanislav S. Gornostayev; Jouko J. Haerkki [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland). Laboratory of Process Metallurgy

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

293

Thermodynamics of TiO{sub x} in blast furnace-type slags  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Equilibrium studies between CaO-SiO{sub 2}-10 pct MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiO{sub 1.5}-TiO{sub 2} slags, carbon-saturated iron, and a carbon monoxide atmosphere were performed at 1773 K to determine the activities of TiO{sub 1.5} and TiO{sub 2} in the slag. These thermodynamic parameters are required to predict the formation of titanium carbonitride in the blast furnace. In order to calculate the activity of titanium oxide, the activity coefficient of titanium in carbon-saturated iron-carbon-titanium alloys was determined by measuring the solubility of titanium in carbon-saturated iron in equilibrium with titanium carbide. The solubility and the activity coefficient of titanium obtained were 1.3 pct and 0.023 relative to 1 wt pct titanium in liquid iron or 0.0013 relative to pure solid titanium at 1773 K, respectively. Over the concentration range studied, the effect of the TiO{sub x} content on its activity coefficient is small. In the slag system studied containing 35 to 50 pct CaO, 25 to 45 pct SiO{sub 2}, 7 to 22 pct Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and 10 pct MgO, the activity coefficients of TiO{sub 1.5} and TiO{sub 2} relative to pure solid standard states range from 2.3 to 8.8 and from 0.1 to 0.3, respectively. Using thermodynamic data obtained, the prediction of the formation of titanium carbonitride was made. Assuming hypothetical TiO{sub 2}, i.e., total titanium in the slag expressed as TiO{sub 2}, and using the values of the activity coefficients of TiO{sub 1.5} and TiO{sub 2} determined, the equilibrium distribution of titanium between blast furnace-type slags and carbon-saturated iron was computed. The value of [pct Ti]/(pct TiO{sub 2}) ranges from 0.1 to 0.2.

Morizane, Y.; Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

An example of alkalization of SiO{sub 2} in a blast furnace coke  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Scanning electron microscopy and an electron-microprobe analysis of a sample of blast furnace (BF) coke have revealed alkalization (5.64 wt % Na{sub 2}O + K{sub 2}O) and Al saturation (17.28 wt % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) of SiO{sub 2} by BF gases. The K/Na{sub at} value of 1.15 in the new phase (alteration zone) reflects close atomic proportions of the elements and suggests that the abilities to incorporate K and Na during the process are almost equal. This Al saturation and alkalization of SiO{sub 2} indicates an active role for Al along with alkali metals in BF gases. The average width of the altered area in the SiO{sub 2} grain is about 10 m, which suggests that SiO{sub 2} particles of that size can be transformed fully to the new phase, provided that at least one of their faces is open to an external pore (surface of the coke) or internal pore with circulating BF gases. The grains that exceed 10 {mu}m can only be partly altered, which means that smaller SiO{sub 2} grains can incorporate more alkali metals and Al (during their transformation to the Al and alkali-bearing phase) than a similar volume of SiO{sub 2} concentrated in larger grains. Thermodynamic calculations for 100 g{sub solid}/100 g{sub gas} and temperatures 800-1800{sup o}C have shown that the BF gases have very little or no effect on the alkalization of SiO{sub 2}. If the alteration process described in this paper proves to be a generalized phenomenon in blast furnace cokes, then the addition of fine-grained quartz to the surface of the coke before charging a BF can be useful for removing of some of the Al and alkali from the BF gases and reduce coke degradation by alkalis, or at least improve its properties until the temperature reaches approximately 2000{sup o}C. 22 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

S.S. Gornostayev; P.A. Tanskanen; E.-P. Heikkinen; O. Kerkkonen; J.J. Haerkki [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland). Laboratory of Process Metallurgy

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

295

Experimental study on the effects of blast-cap configurations and charge patterns on coke descending in CDQ cooling shaft  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The coke descending behavior in a CDQ cooling shaft is studied experimentally by means of a tracing method with a digital camera. For three different blast-caps, the law of coke flow is studied under five conditions of coke charge. The experimental results show that, for the sake of the uniformity of the coke burden descending, a blast-cap with elliptical cross-section is a better choice than that with circular cross-section regardless of high or low placement. A coke charge pattern with a flat top burden surface is preferable to that with peak-valley surface, a double-peak superior to a one-peak. Trajectory and average velocity distribution of coke behavior depend weakly on whether the coke is continuously fed or not as the discharging began. The blast-caps have local effects on the descending coke and hardly affect whether the cokes flow smoothly or not in the case of coke burden with enough depth.

Y.H. Feng; X.X. Zhang; M.L. Wu [University of Science & Technology, Beijing (China). School of Mechanical Engineering

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

296

Behavior of Concrete Panels Reinforced with Synthetic Fibers, Mild Steel, and GFRP Composites Subjected to Blasts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper presents experimental data generated for calibrating finite element models to predict the performance of reinforced concrete panels with a wide range of construction details under blast loading. The specimens were 1.2 m square panels constructed using Normal Weight Concrete (NWC) or Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC). FRC consisted of macro-synthetic fibers dispersed in NWC. Five types of panels were tested: NWC panels with steel bars; FRC panels without additional reinforcement; FRC panels with steel bars; NWC panels with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars; and NWC panels reinforced with steel bars and external GFRP laminates on both faces. Each panel type was constructed with three thicknesses: 152 mm, 254 mm, and 356 mm. FRC panels with steel bars had the best performance for new construction. NWC panels reinforced with steel bars and external GFRP laminates on both faces had the best performance for strengthening or rehabilitation of existing structures. The performance of NWC panels with GFRP bars was strongly influenced by the bar spacing. The behavior of the panels is classified in terms of damage using immediate occupancy, life safety, and near collapse performance levels. Preliminary dynamic simulations are compared to the experimental results.

C. P. Pantelides; T. T. Garfield; W. D. Richins; T. K. Larson; J. E. Blakeley

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Dofasco`s No. 4 blast furnace hearth breakout, repair and rescue  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On May 5, 1994, after producing 9.5 million metric tons of iron, Dofasco`s No. 4 Blast Furnace experienced a hearth breakout 250 millimeters below the west taphole. The hot metal spill caused a fire resulting in severe damage and 33 days of lost production. During a 26-day period, electrical wiring, water drainage systems and both tapholes were repaired. Recovery from an unprepared furnace stop of this length, with the deadman depleted is difficult. To aid with the rescue Hoogovens-designed oxygen/fuel lances were commissioned. The furnace recovery began with a lance in each taphole and all tuyeres plugged. Six days after startup the furnace was casting into torpedo cars, and after nine days operation had returned to normal. This incident prompted Dofasco to expand the hearth monitoring system to detect and prevent similar occurrences. During the repair, 203 new thermocouples were installed in the hearth, concentrating on the tapholes and elephant foot areas. These thermocouples were installed at various depths and locations to allow heat flux calculations. This hearth monitoring system has already identified other problem areas and provided valuable information about hearth drainage patterns. This information has allowed them to develop control strategies to manage localized problem areas.

Donaldson, R.J.; Fischer, A.J.; Sharp, R.M.; Stothart, D.W. [Dofasco Inc., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Greenhouse gas emission by wastewater treatment plants of the pulp and paper industry – Modeling and simulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and energy consumption in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of the pulp and paper industry were modeled and estimated. Aerobic, anaerobic, and hybrid biological processes were used for the removal of contaminants. In addition to the removal of carbonaceous compounds, anaerobic digestion of the produced sludge and the removal of excess nitrogen in the effluent of treatment plants by nitrification/denitrification processes were incorporated in the model. Carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide were the major \\{GHGs\\} generated during the biological treatment, combustion, energy generation, and transportation. The generated biogas from the anaerobic processes was assumed to be recovered and used as a source of energy for the treatment plant, in an effort to reduce GHG emissions while decreasing the total energy needs of the WWTP. The established kinetic relationships of wastewater treatment processes along with mass and energy balances were employed for the simulation of different treatment systems and estimation of GHG emissions. Various sources of GHG emission were divided into on-site and off-site sources to simplify the modeling and simulation procedure. The overall GHG generation in the presence of biogas recovery was equal to 1.576, 3.026, and 3.271 kg CO2-equivalent/kg BOD by the three examined systems. The energy produced by the recovery and combustion of biogas could exceed the energy demands of all different treatment plants examined in this study and reduce off-site GHG emission. The generation of \\{GHGs\\} from aerobic and hybrid processes increased by 27% and 33.2%, respectively, when N2O emission from nitrogen removal processes was taken into consideration.

Omid Ashrafi; Laleh Yerushalmi; Fariborz Haghighat

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Blast Wave Fits to Elliptic Flow Data at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}} =$ 7.7--2760 GeV  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present blast wave fits to elliptic flow ($v_{2}(p_{\\rm T})$) data in minimum bias collisions from the $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}} =$ 7.7--200 GeV at RHIC, and 2.76 TeV at LHC. The fits are performed separately for particles and corresponding anti-particles. The mean transverse velocity parameter $\\beta$ shows an energy dependent difference between particles and corresponding anti-particles, which increases as the beam energy decreases. Possible effects of feed down, baryon stopping, anti-particle absorption, and early production times for anti-particles are discussed.

Sun, X; Poskanzer, A M; Schmah, A

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Originally Released: August 2009  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

August 2009 August 2009 Revised: October 2009 Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Table 3.5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Trillion Btu. Waste Blast Pulping Liquor Oils/Tars NAICS Furnace/Coke Petroleum or Wood Chips, and Waste Code(a) Subsector and Industry Total Oven Gases Waste Gas Coke Black Liquor Bark Materials Total United States 311 Food 10 0 3 0 0 7 Q 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 7 0 1 0 0 6 * 311221 Wet Corn Milling 5 0 * 0 0 4 0 31131 Sugar Manufacturing 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 3114 Fruit and Vegetable Preserving and Specialty Food Q 0 * 0 0 0 Q 3115 Dairy Product * 0 * 0 0 0 0 3116 Animal Slaughtering and Processing 1 0 1 0 0 * * 312 Beverage and Tobacco Products

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu blast pulping" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Table 3.5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2010; 5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Trillion Btu. Blast Pulping Liquor NAICS Furnace/Coke Petroleum or Wood Chips, Code(a) Subsector and Industry Total Oven Gases Waste Gas Coke Black Liquor Bark Total United States 311 Food 11 0 7 0 0 1 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 5 0 2 0 0 * 311221 Wet Corn Milling * 0 * 0 0 0 31131 Sugar Manufacturing * 0 * 0 0 * 3114 Fruit and Vegetable Preserving and Specialty Foods 1 0 1 0 0 0 3115 Dairy Products 1 0 1 0 0 0 3116 Animal Slaughtering and Processing 4 0 4 0 0 * 312 Beverage and Tobacco Products 3 0 2 0 0 1 3121 Beverages 3 0 2 0 0 1 3122 Tobacco 0 0 0 0 0 0 313 Textile Mills 0 0 0 0 0 0 314 Textile Product Mills

302

Photo-Catalytic Degradation of Wastewater from Straw Pulp and Paper Mill by Fe2O3/UV/H2O2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to examine the photo catalytic degradation of real effluents from wheat straw pulp and paper mill by nano-Fe2O3 catalyst. Four different ferric oxide samples were synthesized by homogeneous precipitation of reflux at different ... Keywords: potocatalysis, ?-Fe2O3, efluent, COD

Aimei Li; Haizhen Yang; Yiren Zhu

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Mineral phases of green liquor dregs, slaker grits, lime mud and wood ash of a Kraft pulp and paper mill  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Four residues generated in a Kraft, pulp and paper plant, were characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XFA), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimmetric analysis (TG) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). A quantitative phase composition model, that accounts for the observed data and for the physico-chemical conditions of formation, was postulated for each material. Emphasis was given on the identification of the mineral components of each material. The green liquor dregs and the lime mud contain Calcite and Gipsite. The slaker grits contains Calcite, Portlandite, Pirssonite, Larnite and Brucite. The Calcite phase, present in the dregs and in the lime mud, has small amounts of magnesium replacing calcium. The wood ash contains Quartz as the major crystalline mineral phase.

Fernanda Machado Martins; Joaniel Munhoz Martins; Luiz Carlos Ferracin; Carlos Jorge da Cunha

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

TRP0033 - PCI Coal Combustion Behavior and Residual Coal Char Carryover in the Blast Furnace of 3 American Steel Companies during Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) at High Rates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Combustion behavior of pulverized coals (PC), gasification and thermal annealing of cokes were investigated under controlled environments. Physical and chemical properties of PCI, coke and carbon residues of blast furnace dust/sludge samples were characterized. The strong influence of carbon structure and minerals on PCI reactivity was demonstrated. A technique to characterize char carryover in off gas emissions was established.

Veena Sahajwalla; Sushil Gupta

2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

305

Type B Accident Investigation of the April 8, 2003, Electrical Arc Blast at the Foster Wheeler Environmental Corporation TRU Waste Processing Facility, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

At approximately 0330 hours on April 8, 2003, a phase-to-phase arc blast occurred in the boiler electrical control panel at the Foster Wheeler Environmental Corporation (FWENC) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Processing Facility. The boiler was providing steam for the evaporator and was reportedly operating at about 10% of its capacity.

306

Management of post-mining large-scale ground failures: blast swarms field experiment for calibration of permanent microseismic early-warning systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Management of post-mining large-scale ground failures: blast swarms field experiment. To ensure post-mining risk management and public safety, wherever remediation is not possible, numerous real of the water level in the underground working caused by the halt of the de-watering system (Didier, 2008

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

307

Results of multiyear studies on the dynamics of pollution of lake Baikal by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the area waste water discharge from the Baikal Pulp and Paper Plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

New data on the concentration and spatial distribution of the benz(a)pyrene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in bottom sediments in the testing area ... Baikal Pulp and Paper Plant (BPPP) waste water discharg...

A. M. Nikonorov; A. A. Matveev; S. A. Reznikov; V. S. Arakelyan…

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Production of Kaon and $?$ in nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultra-relativistic energy from a blast wave model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The particle production of Kaon and $\\Lambda$ are studied in nucleus-nucleus collisions at relativistic energy based on a chemical equilibrium blast-wave model. The transverse momentum spectra of Kaon and $\\Lambda$ at the kinetic freeze-out stage from our model are in good agreement with the experimental results. The kinetic freeze-out parameters of temperature ($T_{kin}$) and radial flow parameter $\\rho_{0}$ are presented for the FOPI, RHIC and LHC energies. And the resonance decay effect is also discussed. The systematic study for beam energy dependence of the strangeness particle production will help us to better understand the properties of the matter created in heavy-ion collisions at the kinetic freeze-out stage.

Song Zhang; Yu-Gang Ma; Jin-Hui Chen; Chen Zhong

2014-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

309

Production of Kaon and $\\Lambda$ in nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultra-relativistic energy from a blast wave model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The particle production of Kaon and $\\Lambda$ are studied in nucleus-nucleus collisions at relativistic energy based on a chemical equilibrium blast-wave model. The transverse momentum spectra of Kaon and $\\Lambda$ at the kinetic freeze-out stage from our model are in good agreement with the experimental results. The kinetic freeze-out parameters of temperature ($T_{kin}$) and radial flow parameter $\\rho_{0}$ are presented for the FOPI, RHIC and LHC energies. And the resonance decay effect is also discussed. The systematic study for beam energy dependence of the strangeness particle production will help us to better understand the properties of the matter created in heavy-ion collisions at the kinetic freeze-out stage.

Zhang, Song; Chen, Jin-Hui; Zhong, Chen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Pilot-scale treatability testing -- Recycle, reuse, and disposal of materials from decontamination and decommissioning activities: Soda blasting demonstration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the nature and magnitude of decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) obligations at its sites. With disposal costs rising and available storage facilities decreasing, DOE is exploring and implementing new waste minimizing D and D techniques. Technology demonstrations are being conducted by LMES at a DOE gaseous diffusion processing plant, the K-25 Site, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The gaseous diffusion process employed at Oak Ridge separated uranium-235 from uranium ore for use in atomic weapons and commercial reactors. These activities contaminated concrete and other surfaces within the plant with uranium, technetium, and other constituents. The objective of current K-25 D and D research is to make available cost-effective and energy-efficient techniques to advance remediation and waste management methods at the K-25 Site and other DOE sites. To support this objective, O`Brien and Gere tested a decontamination system on K-25 Site concrete and steel surfaces contaminated with radioactive and hazardous waste. A scouring system has been developed that removes fixed hazardous and radioactive surface contamination and minimizes residual waste. This system utilizes an abrasive sodium bicarbonate medium that is projected at contaminated surfaces. It mechanically removes surface contamination while leaving the surface intact. Blasting residuals are captured and dissolved in water and treated using physical/chemical processes. Pilot-scale testing of this soda blasting system and bench and pilot-scale treatment of the generated residuals were conducted from December 1993 to September 1994.

NONE

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 1997-Jan 01/10 3.79 01/17 4.19 01/24 2.98 01/31 2.91 1997-Feb 02/07 2.53 02/14 2.30 02/21 1.91 02/28 1.82 1997-Mar 03/07 1.86 03/14 1.96 03/21 1.91 03/28 1.84 1997-Apr 04/04 1.88 04/11 1.98 04/18 2.04 04/25 2.14 1997-May 05/02 2.15 05/09 2.29 05/16 2.22 05/23 2.22 05/30 2.28 1997-Jun 06/06 2.17 06/13 2.16 06/20 2.22 06/27 2.27 1997-Jul 07/04 2.15 07/11 2.15 07/18 2.24 07/25 2.20 1997-Aug 08/01 2.22 08/08 2.37 08/15 2.53 08/22 2.54 08/29 2.58

312

Natural Gas Futures Contract 1 (Dollars per Million Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Week Of Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Week Of Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri 1994 Jan-10 to Jan-14 2.194 2.268 1994 Jan-17 to Jan-21 2.360 2.318 2.252 2.250 2.305 1994 Jan-24 to Jan-28 2.470 2.246 2.359 2.417 2.528 1994 Jan-31 to Feb- 4 2.554 2.639 2.585 2.383 2.369 1994 Feb- 7 to Feb-11 2.347 2.411 2.358 2.374 2.356 1994 Feb-14 to Feb-18 2.252 2.253 2.345 2.385 2.418 1994 Feb-21 to Feb-25 2.296 2.232 2.248 2.292 1994 Feb-28 to Mar- 4 2.208 2.180 2.171 2.146 2.188 1994 Mar- 7 to Mar-11 2.167 2.196 2.156 2.116 2.096 1994 Mar-14 to Mar-18 2.050 2.104 2.163 2.124 2.103 1994 Mar-21 to Mar-25 2.055 2.107 2.077 1.981 2.072 1994 Mar-28 to Apr- 1 2.066 2.062 2.058 2.075 1994 Apr- 4 to Apr- 8 2.144 2.069 2.097 2.085 2.066 1994 Apr-11 to Apr-15 2.068 2.089 2.131 2.163 2.187

313

Natural Gas Futures Contract 1 (Dollars per Million Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 2.347 2.355 2.109 2.111 1.941 2.080 1.963 1.693 1.619 1.721 1.771 1.700 1995 1.426 1.439 1.534 1.660 1.707 1.634 1.494 1.557 1.674 1.790 1.961 2.459 1996 2.483 2.458 2.353 2.309 2.283 2.544 2.521 2.049 1.933 2.481 3.023 3.645 1997 3.067 2.065 1.899 2.005 2.253 2.161 2.134 2.462 2.873 3.243 3.092 2.406 1998 2.101 2.263 2.253 2.465 2.160 2.168 2.147 1.855 2.040 2.201 2.321 1.927 1999 1.831 1.761 1.801 2.153 2.272 2.346 2.307 2.802 2.636 2.883 2.549 2.423 2000 2.385 2.614 2.828 3.028 3.596 4.303 3.972 4.460 5.130 5.079 5.740 8.618 2001 7.825 5.675 5.189 5.189 4.244 3.782 3.167 2.935 2.213 2.618 2.786 2.686

314

Natural Gas Futures Contract 3 (Dollars per Million Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Week Of Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Week Of Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri 1994 Jan-17 to Jan-21 2.019 2.043 2.103 1994 Jan-24 to Jan-28 2.162 2.071 2.119 2.128 2.185 1994 Jan-31 to Feb- 4 2.217 2.258 2.227 2.127 2.118 1994 Feb- 7 to Feb-11 2.137 2.175 2.162 2.160 2.165 1994 Feb-14 to Feb-18 2.140 2.145 2.205 2.190 2.190 1994 Feb-21 to Feb-25 2.180 2.140 2.148 2.186 1994 Feb-28 to Mar- 4 2.148 2.134 2.122 2.110 2.124 1994 Mar- 7 to Mar-11 2.129 2.148 2.143 2.135 2.125 1994 Mar-14 to Mar-18 2.111 2.137 2.177 2.152 2.130 1994 Mar-21 to Mar-25 2.112 2.131 2.117 2.068 2.087 1994 Mar-28 to Apr- 1 2.086 2.082 2.083 2.092 1994 Apr- 4 to Apr- 8 2.124 2.100 2.116 2.100 2.086 1994 Apr-11 to Apr-15 2.095 2.099 2.123 2.155 2.183 1994 Apr-18 to Apr-22 2.187 2.167 2.174 2.181 2.169

315

Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Week Of Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Week Of Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri 1997 Jan- 6 to Jan-10 3.82 3.80 3.61 3.92 1997 Jan-13 to Jan-17 4.00 4.01 4.34 4.71 3.91 1997 Jan-20 to Jan-24 3.26 2.99 3.05 2.96 2.62 1997 Jan-27 to Jan-31 2.98 3.05 2.91 2.86 2.77 1997 Feb- 3 to Feb- 7 2.49 2.59 2.65 2.51 2.39 1997 Feb-10 to Feb-14 2.42 2.34 2.42 2.22 2.12 1997 Feb-17 to Feb-21 1.84 1.95 1.92 1.92 1997 Feb-24 to Feb-28 1.92 1.77 1.81 1.80 1.78 1997 Mar- 3 to Mar- 7 1.80 1.87 1.92 1.82 1.89 1997 Mar-10 to Mar-14 1.95 1.92 1.96 1.98 1.97 1997 Mar-17 to Mar-21 2.01 1.91 1.88 1.88 1.87 1997 Mar-24 to Mar-28 1.80 1.85 1.85 1.84 1997 Mar-31 to Apr- 4 1.84 1.95 1.85 1.87 1.91 1997 Apr- 7 to Apr-11 1.99 2.01 1.96 1.97 1.98 1997 Apr-14 to Apr-18 2.00 2.00 2.02 2.08 2.10

316

Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Week Of Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Week Of Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri 1997 Jan- 6 to Jan-10 3.82 3.80 3.61 3.92 1997 Jan-13 to Jan-17 4.00 4.01 4.34 4.71 3.91 1997 Jan-20 to Jan-24 3.26 2.99 3.05 2.96 2.62 1997 Jan-27 to Jan-31 2.98 3.05 2.91 2.86 2.77 1997 Feb- 3 to Feb- 7 2.49 2.59 2.65 2.51 2.39 1997 Feb-10 to Feb-14 2.42 2.34 2.42 2.22 2.12 1997 Feb-17 to Feb-21 1.84 1.95 1.92 1.92 1997 Feb-24 to Feb-28 1.92 1.77 1.81 1.80 1.78 1997 Mar- 3 to Mar- 7 1.80 1.87 1.92 1.82 1.89 1997 Mar-10 to Mar-14 1.95 1.92 1.96 1.98 1.97 1997 Mar-17 to Mar-21 2.01 1.91 1.88 1.88 1.87 1997 Mar-24 to Mar-28 1.80 1.85 1.85 1.84 1997 Mar-31 to Apr- 4 1.84 1.95 1.85 1.87 1.91 1997 Apr- 7 to Apr-11 1.99 2.01 1.96 1.97 1.98 1997 Apr-14 to Apr-18 2.00 2.00 2.02 2.08 2.10

317

Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1997 3.45 2.15 1.89 2.03 2.25 2.20 2.19 2.49 2.88 3.07 3.01 2.35 1998 2.09 2.23 2.24 2.43 2.14 2.17 2.17 1.85 2.02 1.91 2.12 1.72 1999 1.85 1.77 1.79 2.15 2.26 2.30 2.31 2.80 2.55 2.73 2.37 2.36 2000 2.42 2.66 2.79 3.04 3.59 4.29 3.99 4.43 5.06 5.02 5.52 8.90 2001 8.17 5.61 5.23 5.19 4.19 3.72 3.11 2.97 2.19 2.46 2.34 2.30 2002 2.32 2.32 3.03 3.43 3.50 3.26 2.99 3.09 3.55 4.13 4.04 4.74 2003 5.43 7.71 5.93 5.26 5.81 5.82 5.03 4.99 4.62 4.63 4.47 6.13 2004 6.14 5.37 5.39 5.71 6.33 6.27 5.93 5.41 5.15 6.35 6.17 6.58 2005 6.15 6.14 6.96 7.16 6.47 7.18 7.63 9.53 11.75 13.42 10.30 13.05

318

Natural Gas Futures Contract 4 (Dollars per Million Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 1993-Dec 12/24 1.869 12/31 1.943 1994-Jan 01/07 1.935 01/14 1.992 01/21 2.006 01/28 2.088 1994-Feb 02/04 2.133 02/11 2.135 02/18 2.148 02/25 2.149 1994-Mar 03/04 2.118 03/11 2.125 03/18 2.139 03/25 2.113 1994-Apr 04/01 2.107 04/08 2.120 04/15 2.140 04/22 2.180 04/29 2.165 1994-May 05/06 2.103 05/13 2.081 05/20 2.076 05/27 2.061 1994-Jun 06/03 2.134 06/10 2.180 06/17 2.187 06/24 2.176 1994-Jul 07/01 2.256 07/08 2.221 07/15 2.172 07/22 2.137 07/29 2.207

319

Natural Gas Futures Contract 3 (Dollars per Million Btu)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 2.116 2.168 2.118 2.139 2.038 2.150 2.083 2.031 2.066 2.037 1.873 1.694 1995 1.490 1.492 1.639 1.745 1.801 1.719 1.605 1.745 1.883 1.889 1.858 1.995 1996 1.964 2.056 2.100 2.277 2.307 2.572 2.485 2.222 2.272 2.572 2.571 2.817 1997 2.393 1.995 1.978 2.073 2.263 2.168 2.140 2.589 3.043 3.236 2.803 2.286 1998 2.110 2.312 2.312 2.524 2.249 2.234 2.220 2.168 2.479 2.548 2.380 1.954 1999 1.860 1.820 1.857 2.201 2.315 2.393 2.378 2.948 2.977 3.055 2.586 2.403 2000 2.396 2.591 2.868 3.058 3.612 4.258 3.981 4.526 5.335 5.151 5.455 7.337 2001 6.027 5.441 5.287 5.294 4.384 3.918 3.309 3.219 2.891 3.065 3.022 2.750

320

Natural Gas Futures Contract 2 (Dollars per Million Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 2.188 2.232 2.123 2.136 1.999 2.130 2.021 1.831 1.881 1.961 1.890 1.709 1995 1.457 1.448 1.595 1.718 1.770 1.685 1.525 1.630 1.805 1.870 1.936 2.200 1996 2.177 2.175 2.205 2.297 2.317 2.582 2.506 2.120 2.134 2.601 2.862 3.260 1997 2.729 2.016 1.954 2.053 2.268 2.171 2.118 2.484 2.970 3.321 3.076 2.361 1998 2.104 2.293 2.288 2.500 2.199 2.205 2.164 1.913 2.277 2.451 2.438 1.953 1999 1.851 1.788 1.829 2.184 2.293 2.373 2.335 2.836 2.836 3.046 2.649 2.429 2000 2.392 2.596 2.852 3.045 3.604 4.279 3.974 4.467 5.246 5.179 5.754 8.267 2001 7.374 5.556 5.245 5.239 4.315 3.867 3.223 2.982 2.558 2.898 2.981 2.748

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu blast pulping" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Fumigation of a diesel engine with low Btu gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 0.5 liter single-cylinder, indirect-injection diesel engine has been fumigated with producer gas. Measurements of power, efficiency, cylinder pressure, and emissions were made. At each operating condition, engine load was held constant, and the gas-to-diesel fuel ratio was increased until abnormal combustion was encountered. This determined the maximum fraction of the input energy supplied by the gas, E/sub MAX/, which was found to be dependent upon injection timing and load. At light loads, E/sub MAX/ was limited by severe efficiency loss and missfire, while at heavy loads it was limited by knock or preignition. Fumigation generally increased ignition delay and heat release rates, but peak pressures were not strongly influenced. Efficiency was slightly decreased by fumigation as were NO/sub X/ and particle emissions while CO emissions were increased.

Ahmadi, M.; Kittelson, D.B.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Electrical Generation Using Non-Salable Low BTU Natural Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High operating costs are a significant problem for independent operators throughout the U.S. Often, decisions to temporarily idle or abandon a well or lease are dictated by these cost considerations, which are often seen as unavoidable. Options for continuing operations on a marginal basis are limited, but must include non-conventional approaches to problem solving, such as the use of alternative sources of lease power, and scrupulous reduction of non-productive operating techniques and costs. The loss of access to marginal oil and gas productive reservoirs is of major concern to the DOE. The twin difficulties of high operating costs and low or marginal hydrocarbon production often force independent operators to temporarily or permanently abandon existing lease facilities, including producing wells. Producing well preservation, through continued economical operation of marginal wells, must be maintained. Reduced well and lease operating costs are expected to improve oil recovery of the Schaben field, in Ness County, Kansas, by several hundred thousands of barrels of oil. Appropriate technology demonstrated by American Warrior, allows the extension of producing well life and has application for many operators throughout the area.

Scott Corsair

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Texas Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 1,025 1,025 1,023 2010's 1,028 1,025 1,026 1,024...

324

Oregon Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 1,033 1,023 1,024 2010's 1,015 1,021 1,022 1,016...

325

Iowa Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 1,010 1,010 1,007 2010's 1,006 1,009 1,014 1,029...

326

Idaho Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 1,024 1,023 1,022 2010's 1,021 1,017 1,015 1,022...

327

Texas Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,023 1,024 1,024 1,025 1,027 1,026 1,024 1,025 1,024 1,025 1,024 1,025 2014 1,027 1,022 1,028 1,026 1,029 1,032 1,033...

328

Utah Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,050 1,050 1,049 1,047 1,048 1,048 1,046 1,041 1,044 1,043 1,045 1,044 2014 1,044 1,044 1,045 1,044 1,038 1,036 1,038...

329

Idaho Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,015 1,015 1,031 1,021 1,010 997 988 994 1,001 1,026 1,034 1,054 2014 1,048 1,036 1,030 1,022 1,006 993 984 996 1,005...

330

Iowa Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,025 1,029 1,029 1,030 1,031 1,030 1,030 1,027 1,028 1,032 1,033 1,032 2014 1,034 1,033 1,034 1,036 1,040 1,039 1,043...

331

Kansas Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,017 1,017 1,019 1,018 1,018 1,020 1,020 1,020 1,018 1,017 1,016 1,017 2014 1,017 1,017 1,019 1,023 1,022 1,023 1,025...

332

Ohio Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 1,037 1,040 1,041 2010's 1,034 1,031 1,032 1,037...

333

Ohio Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,034 1,033 1,033 1,035 1,035 1,038 1,037 1,044 1,045 1,044 1,043 1,044 2014 1,044 1,042 1,041 1,050 1,047 1,048 1,053...

334

Maine Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 1,064 1,062 1,046 2010's 1,044 1,047 1,032 1,028...

335

Nevada Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 1,032 1,039 1,031 2010's 1,033 1,024 1,029 1,034...

336

Alaska Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,002 1,001 1,001 1,001 1,002 1,003 1,003 1,002 1,002 1,001 1,001 1,000 2014 1,002 1,004 1,001 1,002 1,001 1,001 1,001...

337

Maine Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,037 1,032 1,027 1,032 1,028 1,031 1,033 1,030 1,031 1,037 1,032 1,029 2014 1,029 1,030 1,030 1,030 1,033 1,030 1,031...

338

Kansas Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 1,018 1,034 1,019 2010's 1,019 1,020 1,022 1,018...

339

Alaska Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 1,006 1,006 1,005 2010's 1,005 1,013 1,012...

340

Nevada Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,037 1,039 1,037 1,034 1,031 1,032 1,031 1,033 1,039 1,032 1,029 1,034 2014 1,033 1,033 1,032 1,034 1,032 1,033 1,033...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu blast pulping" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Oregon Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,011 1,010 1,012 1,011 1,017 1,020 1,020 1,023 1,021 1,014 1,013 1,013 2014 1,013 1,012 1,010 1,034 1,041 1,044 1,029...

342

Utah Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 1,052 1,059 1,044 2010's 1,045 1,038 1,043 1,046...

343

Natural Gas Futures Contract 4 (Dollars per Million Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Week Of Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Week Of Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri 1993 Dec-20 to Dec-24 1.894 1.830 1.859 1.895 1993 Dec-27 to Dec-31 1.965 1.965 1.943 1.901 1994 Jan- 3 to Jan- 7 1.883 1.896 1.962 1.955 1.980 1994 Jan-10 to Jan-14 1.972 2.005 2.008 1.966 2.010 1994 Jan-17 to Jan-21 2.006 1.991 1.982 2.000 2.053 1994 Jan-24 to Jan-28 2.095 2.044 2.087 2.088 2.130 1994 Jan-31 to Feb- 4 2.157 2.185 2.157 2.075 2.095 1994 Feb- 7 to Feb-11 2.115 2.145 2.142 2.135 2.140 1994 Feb-14 to Feb-18 2.128 2.125 2.175 2.160 2.155 1994 Feb-21 to Feb-25 2.160 2.130 2.138 2.171 1994 Feb-28 to Mar- 4 2.140 2.128 2.112 2.103 2.111 1994 Mar- 7 to Mar-11 2.116 2.133 2.130 2.130 2.120 1994 Mar-14 to Mar-18 2.114 2.137 2.170 2.146 2.130 1994 Mar-21 to Mar-25 2.117 2.134 2.120 2.086 2.112

344

Natural Gas Futures Contract 2 (Dollars per Million Btu)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Week Of Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Week Of Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri 1994 Jan-10 to Jan-14 2.130 2.072 2.139 1994 Jan-17 to Jan-21 2.196 2.131 2.115 2.148 2.206 1994 Jan-24 to Jan-28 2.283 2.134 2.209 2.236 2.305 1994 Jan-31 to Feb- 4 2.329 2.388 2.352 2.252 2.198 1994 Feb- 7 to Feb-11 2.207 2.256 2.220 2.231 2.236 1994 Feb-14 to Feb-18 2.180 2.189 2.253 2.240 2.254 1994 Feb-21 to Feb-25 2.220 2.168 2.179 2.221 1994 Feb-28 to Mar- 4 2.165 2.146 2.139 2.126 2.144 1994 Mar- 7 to Mar-11 2.149 2.168 2.160 2.144 2.132 1994 Mar-14 to Mar-18 2.109 2.142 2.192 2.164 2.136 1994 Mar-21 to Mar-25 2.107 2.129 2.115 2.050 2.077 1994 Mar-28 to Apr- 1 2.076 2.072 2.070 2.087 1994 Apr- 4 to Apr- 8 2.134 2.090 2.109 2.093 2.081 1994 Apr-11 to Apr-15 2.090 2.099 2.128 2.175 2.196

345

Development of Gas Turbine Combustors for Low BTU Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Large-capacity combined cycles with high-temperature gas turbines burning petroleum fuel or LNG have already ... the other hand, as the power generation technology utilizing coal burning the coal gasification com...

I. Fukue; S. Mandai; M. Inada

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Independent Oversight Targeted Review of the Safety Significant Blast Door and Personnel Door Interlock Systems and Review of Federal Assurance Capability at the Pantex Plant, December 2013  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Targeted Review of the Targeted Review of the Safety Significant Blast Door and Personnel Door Interlock Systems and Review of Federal Assurance Capability at the Pantex Plant December 2013 Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Office of Enforcement and Oversight Office of Health, Safety and Security U.S. Department of Energy Table of Contents 1.0 Purpose ................................................................................................................................................. 1 2.0 Scope.................................................................................................................................................... 1 3.0 Background........................................................................................................................................... 2

347

Creation of the dam for the No. 2 Kambaratinskaya HPP by large-scale blasting: analysis of planning experience and lessons learned  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results of complex instrument observations and video taping during large-scale blasts detonated for creation of the dam at the No. 2 Kambaratinskaya HPP on the Naryn River in the Kyrgyz Republic are analyzed. Tests of the energy effectiveness of the explosives are evaluated, characteristics of LSB manifestations in seismic and air waves are revealed, and the shaping and movement of the rock mass are examined. A methodological analysis of the planning and production of the LSB is given.

Shuifer, M. I.; Argal, E. S. [JSC 'Gidrospetsproekt' (Russian Federation)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

348

Carbon emissions reduction potential in the US chemicals and pulp and paper industries by applying CHP technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The chemical and the pulp/paper industries combined provide 55% of CHP generation in the US industry. Yet, significant potential for new CHP capacities exists in both industries. From the present steam consumption data, the authors estimate about 50 GW of additional technical potential for CHP in both industries. The reduced carbon emissions will be equivalent to 44% of the present carbon emissions in these industries. They find that most of the carbon emissions reductions can be achieved at negative costs. Depending on the assumptions used in calculations, the economic potential of CHP in these industries can be significantly lower, and carbon emissions mitigation costs can be much higher. Using sensitivity analyses, they determine that the largest effect on the CHP estimate have the assumptions in the costs of CHP technology, in the assumed discount rates, in improvements in efficiency of CHP technologies, and in the CHP equipment depreciation periods. Changes in fuel and electricity prices and the growth in the industries' steam demand have less of an effect. They conclude that the lowest carbon mitigation costs are achieved with the CHP facility is operated by the utility and when industrial company that owns the CHP unit can sell extra electricity and steam to the open wholesale market. Based on the results of the analyses they discuss policy implications.

Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.; Martin, N.; Einstein, D.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Summary of Blast Shield and Material Testing for Development of Solid Debris Collection at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ability to collect solid debris from the target chamber following a NIF shot has application for both capsule diagnostics, particularly for fuel-ablator mix, and measuring cross sections relevant to the Stockpile Stewardship program and nuclear astrophysics. Simulations have shown that doping the capsule with up to 10{sup 15} atoms of an impurity not otherwise found in the capsule does not affect its performance. The dopant is an element that will undergo nuclear activations during the NIF implosion, forming radioactive species that can be collected and measured after extraction from the target chamber. For diagnostics, deuteron or alpha induced reactions can be used to probe the fuel-ablator mix. For measuring neutron cross sections, the dopant should be something that is sensitive to the 14 MeV neutrons produced through the fusion of deuterium and tritium. Developing the collector is a challenge due to the extreme environment of the NIF chamber. The collector surface is exposed to a large photon flux from x-rays and unconverted laser light before it is exposed to a debris wind that is formed from vaporized material from the target chamber center. The photons will ablate the collector surface to some extent, possibly impeding the debris from reaching the collector and sticking. In addition, the collector itself must be mechanically strong enough to withstand the large amount of energy it will be exposed to, and it should be something that will be easy to count and chemically process. In order to select the best material for the collector, a variety of different metals have been tested in the NIF chamber. They were exposed to high-energy laser shots in order to evaluate their postshot surface characterization, morphology, degree of melt, and their ability to retain debris from the chamber center. The first set of samples consisted of 1 mm thick pieces of aluminum that had been fielded in the chamber as blast shields protecting the neutron activation diagnostic. Ten of these pieces were fielded at the equator and one was fielded on the pole. The shields were analyzed using a combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), x-ray fluorescence (XRF), neutron activation analysis (NAA) and chemical leaching followed by mass spectrometry. On each shield, gold debris originating from the gold hohlraum was observed, as well as large quantities of debris that were present in the center of the target chamber at the time of the shot (i.e., stainless steel, indium, copper, etc.) Debris was visible in the SEM as large blobs or splats of material that had encountered the surface of the aluminum and stuck. The aluminum itself had obviously melted and condensed, and some of the large debris splats arrived after the surface had already hardened. Melt depth was determined by cross sectioning the pieces and measuring the melted surface layers via SEM. After the SEM analysis was completed, the pieces were sent for NAA at the USGS reactor and were analyzed by U. Greife at the Colorado School of Mines. The NAA showed that the majority of gold mass present on the shields was not in the form of large blobs and splats, but was present as small particulates that had most likely formed as condensed vapor. Further analysis showed that the gold was entrained in the melted aluminum surface layers and did not extend down into the bulk of the aluminum. Once the gold mass was accounted for from the NAA, it was determined that the aluminum fielded at the equator was collecting a fraction of the total gold hohlraum mass equivalent to 120% {+-} 10% of the solid angle subtended by the shield. The attached presentation has more information on the results of the aluminum blast shield analysis. In addition to the information given in the presentation, the surfaces of the shields have been chemically leached and submitted for mass spectrometric analysis. The results from that analysis are expected to arrive after the due date of this report and will be written up at a later time. Based on the results of the aluminum b

Shaughnessy, D A; Gostic, J M; Moody, K J; Grant, P M; Lewis, L A; Hutcheon, I D

2011-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

350

Blast resistant vehicle seat  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed are various seats for vehicles particularly military vehicles that are susceptible to attack by road-bed explosive devices such as land mines or improvised explosive devices. The seats often have rigid seat shells and may include rigid bracing for rigidly securing the seat to the chassis of the vehicle. Typically embodiments include channels and particulate media such as sand disposed in the channels. A gas distribution system is generally employed to pump a gas through the channels and in some embodiments the gas is provided at a pressure sufficient to fluidize the particulate media when an occupant is sitting on the seat.

Ripley, Edward B

2013-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

351

CONGRESS BLASTS OIL INDUSTRY  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

IN PACKED HEARINGS last week before angry members of Congress, the heads of BP, ExxonMobil, Chevron, ConocoPhillips, and Shell Oil defended their industry in light of the April 20 BP oil rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico, which has led to the worst ...

JEFF JOHNSON

2010-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

352

January 2014 News Blast  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and accomplishments on the BETO blog and the EERE blog. Past and Upcoming Events with Bioenergy Office Representation * BIO Pacific Rim Summit; December 8-11, 2013; Jim Spaeth;...

353

June 2014 News Blast  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

22nd European Biomass Conference and Exhibition; June 23-26, 2014; Hamburg, Germany 11th Renewable Energy Finance Forum Wall Street; June 25-26, 2014; New York, New...

354

November 2013 News Blast  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Montreal, Canada * 7th International Algae Congress; December 3-4, 2013; Hamburg, Germany * 11th International Conference on Biofuels: Fuels of the Future 2014; January 20-21,...

355

December News Blast  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Biofuels Initiatives The Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) recently launched a new Web page that houses information about all of the Office's research and development efforts...

356

January 2014 News Blast  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Congratulations Jonathan Male, Valerie Reed, and Joynce Yang of the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) for being voted into the "Top 100 People in the Bioeconomy." In December 2013, the readers and editors of Biofuels Digest announced BETO's own staff members as the 15th most influential leaders in the bioeconomy for 2013-2014, outranking Members of Congess, leaders of large trade associations, and international bioenergy companies.

357

In vitro testing of blast transformation, immune rosette formation, and IF-detectable IgG-positive cell counts indicated a 40-50 p. 100 decrease of immunological responsiveness  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

highlands or in dry, hot areas provided that management is good. In hot, humid areas, European-type cattleIn vitro testing of blast transformation, immune rosette formation, and IF-detectable Ig of GSH-Px types revealed that they are controlled by a pair of autosomal genes, the genes for GSH-Px high

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

358

X-ray Studies of Regenerated Cellulose Fibers Wet Spun from Cotton Linter Pulp in NaOH/Thiourea Aqueous Solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Regenerated cellulose fibers were fabricated by dissolution of cotton linter pulp in NaOH (9.5 wt%) and thiourea (4.5 wt%) aqueous solution followed by wet-spinning and multi-roller drawing. The multi-roller drawing process involved three stages: coagulation (I), coagulation (II) and post-treatment (III). The crystalline structure and morphology of regenerated cellulose fiber was investigated by synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. Results indicated that only the cellulose II crystal structure was found in regenerated cellulose fibers, proving that the cellulose crystals were completely transformed from cellulose I to II structure during spinning from NaOH/thiourea aqueous solution. The crystallinity, orientation and crystal size at each stage were determined from the WAXD analysis. Drawing of cellulose fibers in the coagulation (II) bath (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O) was found to generate higher orientation and crystallinity than drawing in the post-treatment (III). Although the post-treatment process also increased crystal orientation, it led to a decrease in crystallinity with notable reduction in the anisotropic fraction. Compared with commercial rayon fibers fabricated by the viscose process, the regenerated cellulose fibers exhibited higher crystallinity but lower crystal orientation. SAXS results revealed a clear scattering maximum along the meridian direction in all regenerated cellulose fibers, indicating the formation of lamellar structure during spinning.

Chen,X.; Burger, C.; Fang, D.; Ruan, D.; Zhang, L.; Hsiao, B.; Chu, B.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Waste to energy by industrially integrated supercritical water gasification – Effects of alkali salts in residual by-products from the pulp and paper industry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) is a method by which biomass can be converted into a hydrogen-rich gas product. Wet industrial waste streams, which contain both organic and inorganic material, are well suited for treatment by SCWG. In this study, the gasification of two streams of biomass resulting from the pulp and paper industry, black liquor and paper sludge, has been investigated. The purpose is to convert these to useful products, both gaseous and solids, which can be used either in the papermaking process or in external applications. Simple compounds, such as glucose, have been fully gasified in SCWG, but gasification of more complex compounds, such as biomass and waste, have not reached as high conversions. The investigated paper sludge was not easily gasified. Improving gasification results with catalysts is an option and the use of alkali salts for this purpose was studied. The relationship between alkali concentration, temperature, and gasification yields was studied with the addition of KOH, K2CO3, NaOH and black liquor to the paper sludge. Addition of black liquor to the paper sludge resulted in similarly enhancing effects as when the alkali salts were added, which made it possible to raise the dry matter content and gasification yield without expensive additives.

I. Rönnlund; L. Myréen; K. Lundqvist; J. Ahlbeck; T. Westerlund

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Assessment of Gasification-Based Biorefining at Kraft Pulp and Paper Mills in the United States, Part A: Background and Assumptions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Commercialization of black liquor and biomass gasification technologies is anticipated in the 2010-2015 time frame, and synthesis gas from gasifiers can be converted into liquid fuels using catalytic synthesis technologies that are already commercially established in the gas-to-liquids or coal-to-liquids industries. This set of two papers describes key results from a major assessment of the prospective energy, environmental, and financial performance of commercial gasification-based biorefineries integrated with kraft pulp and paper mills [1]. Seven detailed biorefinery designs were developed for a reference mill in the southeastern United States, together with the associated mass/energy balances, air emissions estimates, and capital investment requirements. The biorefineries provide chemical recovery services and co-produce process steam for the mill, some electricity, and one of three liquid fuels: a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic crude oil (which could be refined to vehicle fuels at an existing petroleum refinery), dimethyl ether (a diesel engine fuel or propane substitute), or an ethanol-rich mixed-alcohol product. This paper describes the key assumptions that underlie the biorefinery designs. Part B will present analytical results.

Larson, E. D.; Consonni, S.; Katofsky, R. E.; Iisa, K.; Frederick, W. J., Jr.

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu blast pulping" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Establish the multi-source data fusion model of the shape of blast furnace burden surface based on co-universal kriging estimation method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a multi-source data fusion model method which could improve the blast furnace (BF) burden surface model accuracy. First, the three sections of straight line are used to describe the cross section of BF burden surface, and apply the motion law of the furnace burden to constrain the specific parameters of the three sections of straight line. Secondly, a multi-source data fusion method based on co-universal kriging estimation method is proposed. The temperature and height data are combined to build the unbiased estimation for the burden surface shape. Finally, an example of surface shape model using our proposed method in a 2500 m³ BF of a steel plant is discussed. The application shows that, contrasted with the traditional model, the model accuracy has arisen by 8%, and the resolution of surface shape has arisen by 0.32. The novel method can provide necessary guidance for energy saving and emission reduction in operation of the BF.

Liangliang Miao; Xianzhong Chen; Shilong Zhao; Zhenlong Bai

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Small (5 million Btu/h) and large (300 million Btu/h) thermal test rigs for coal and coal slurry burner development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NEI International Combustion Ltd. of Derby, England, now operates two thermal test rigs for the development of burners capable of handling coal-water slurries (CWS). A general description of the large rig and its capacity was given. Also, the necessary conversions of the equipment to handle CWS were described. Information on the properties of the CWS was included. This consisted of chemical analysis of the parent coal and the slurry, sieve analysis of a dry sample, and viscosity versus temperature data of the CWS. The process of design development of the burner was outlined. Ten illustrations were presented, including schematic diagrams of equipment and graphs of data.

Allen, J.W.; Beal, P.R.; Hufton, P.F.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

FINAL_2013_Blast-Email  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

send an email to all your building tenants, colleagues, or stakeholders to let them know send an email to all your building tenants, colleagues, or stakeholders to let them know about the competition and how they can help. Subject Line: We're competing in the 2013 ENERGY STAR National Building Competition! Dear , Our [building/space] has been selected to participate in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) ENERGY STAR National Building Competition: Battle of the Buildings! For the next several months, we'll battle it out against more than 3,200 buildings and tenants nationwide to see who can reduce their energy waste the most. Last year, the top 15 finishers all reduced their energy use by more than 30%, so we have our work cut out for us! What are we doing to take home the prize? [Insert details about your green team's efforts]

364

A blast from the past  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......energy in the neutral atmosphere through collision...latitudes. The local plasma frequency, and...Earth's upper atmosphere long before the...meteor showers, atmospheric waves and long-term...from about 1 to 15 MHz and detects the...positive photographic prints, after which they......

Chris Davis; Sarah James; Kate Clements; Ben Clarke

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

A blast from the past  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......in the solar atmosphere. The effects...within the upper atmosphere. Around 17...resulted in large areas being without...the neutral atmosphere through collision...The local plasma frequency...about 1 to 15 MHz and detects......

Chris Davis; Sarah James; Kate Clements; Ben Clarke

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Monthly News Blast: February 2013  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

April 15-17, 2013; Zia Haq; Washington, D.C. Upcoming Industry Events Canadian Biogas Conference and Exhibition; March 4-6, 2013; London, Ontario, Canada Biomass...

367

March 2014 Monthly News Blast  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

March 2014 BETO Gets Innovative with New Interactive Web Tool Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) website visitors can view the updated Integrated Biorefineries (IBR) Map, which...

368

Sample H-Blast Doomed  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reasoning that personal experience is more vivid than propaganda, Murray proposes to give representatives of all nations a closeup view of the awesome power of a thermonuclear explosion. ...

1955-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

369

Production of Medium BTU Gas by In Situ Gasification of Texas Lignite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The necessity of providing clean, combustible fuels for use in Gulf Coast industries is well established; one possible source of such a fuel is to perform in situ gasification of Texas lignite which lies below stripping depths. If oxygen (rather...

Edgar, T. F.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Microfabricated BTU monitoring device for system-wide natural gas monitoring.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The natural gas industry seeks inexpensive sensors and instrumentation to rapidly measure gas heating value in widely distributed locations. For gas pipelines, this will improve gas quality during transfer and blending, and will expedite accurate financial accounting. Industrial endusers will benefit through continuous feedback of physical gas properties to improve combustion efficiency during use. To meet this need, Sandia has developed a natural gas heating value monitoring instrument using existing and modified microfabricated components. The instrument consists of a silicon micro-fabricated gas chromatography column in conjunction with a catalytic micro-calorimeter sensor. A reference thermal conductivity sensor provides diagnostics and surety. This combination allows for continuous calorimetric determination with a 1 minute analysis time and 1.5 minute cycle time using air as a carrier gas. This system will find application at remote natural gas mining stations, pipeline switching and metering stations, turbine generators, and other industrial user sites. Microfabrication techniques will allow the analytical components to be manufactured in production quantities at a low per-unit cost.

Einfeld, Wayne; Manginell, Ronald Paul; Robinson, Alex Lockwood; Moorman, Matthew Wallace

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Sulfidation-oxidation of advanced metallic materials in simulated low-Btu coal-gasifier environments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The corrosion behavior of structural alloys in complex multicomponent gas environments is of considerable interest for their effective utilization in coal conversion schemes. Little understanding...

T. C. Tiearney Jr.; K. Natesan

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Energy Policy: Independence by 1985 My Be Unreachable Without Btu Tax  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...domestic oil production and the diffi-culties...Countries (OPEC). The decontrol...the Earth Day move-ment...indeed-high enough per-haps to...about by OPEC in late 1973 and early...of oil a day less than...18 miles per gallon by...of oil a day (mbd...consumption in 1973. The added...domestic production of energy...

LUTHER J. CARTER

1976-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

373

Understanding Utility Rates or How to Operate at the Lowest $/BTU  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

:F.~:brP'RQJ~:Cr::::::::: ::: :::] by LONE STAR GAS COMPANY JIM PHILLIPS, P.E., CEM IEQUIPMENT D A T Ai IENERGY DAT Ai KW Gas Rate: $4.86 per MCFGenerator Size: 5"00 Coqen Rate: $3.00 Iper MCF Recoverable Heat: 4.3' MMBH I _ Fuel Consumption: 8.0 MCFH Electric Rate $6.80 per...:F.~:brP'RQJ~:Cr::::::::: ::: :::] by LONE STAR GAS COMPANY JIM PHILLIPS, P.E., CEM IEQUIPMENT D A T Ai IENERGY DAT Ai KW Gas Rate: $4.86 per MCFGenerator Size: 5"00 Coqen Rate: $3.00 Iper MCF Recoverable Heat: 4.3' MMBH I _ Fuel Consumption: 8.0 MCFH Electric Rate $6.80 per...

Phillips, J. N.

374

Carbon Emissions: Paper Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Paper Industry Paper Industry Carbon Emissions in the Paper Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 26) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 31.6 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 8.5% Total First Use of Energy: 2,665 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 12.3% -- Pct. Renewable Energy: 47.7% Carbon Intensity: 11.88 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Renewable Energy Sources (no net emissions): -- Pulping liquor: 882 trillion Btu -- Wood chips and bark: 389 trillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 31.6 Net Electricity 11.0

375

Released: May 2013  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010;" 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." ,,"Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products" ,,,"Biomass" ,,,,,,"Wood Residues" ,,,,,,"and","Wood-Related" " "," ","Pulping Liquor"," "," ","Wood","Byproducts","and"," " "NAICS"," ","or","Biomass","Agricultural","Harvested Directly","from Mill","Paper-Related"

376

Released: August 2009  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2006;" Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." ,,"Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products" ,,,"Biomass" ,,,,,,"Wood Residues" ,,,,,,"and","Wood-Related" " "," ","Pulping Liquor"," "," ","Wood","Byproducts","and",," " "NAICS"," ","or","Biomass","Agricultural","Harvested Directly","from Mill","Paper-Related"

377

Using gasification as a reliable source of fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The low cost and ready availability of coal has brought about a renewed interest in the gasification process. A new two-stage fixed-bed gasifier is presented as a reliable and economical source of industrial fuels. The relative heating value of low-Btu gas is compared with other fuels, and applications in the pulp and paper industry are discussed, along with a cash flow analysis of a sample installation.

Coffeen, W.G.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

" and Electricity Generation by Census Region, Census Division, Industry Group,"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3. Total Inputs of Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products for Heat, Power," 3. Total Inputs of Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products for Heat, Power," " and Electricity Generation by Census Region, Census Division, Industry Group," " and Selected Industries, 1994" " (Estimates in Billion Btu)" ,,,,"Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products" ,,,,,"Biomass" " "," ",," "," "," ","Wood Residues","Wood-Related"," " " "," ","Pulping Liquor",," ","Wood Harvested","and Byproducts","and","RSE" "SIC"," ","or","Biomass","Agricultural","Directly","from","Paper-Related","Row"

379

July 2012 Biomass Program Monthly News Blast  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Agriculture and Energy Departments Announce New Investments to Drive Innovations in Biofuels and Biobased Products As part of the Obama Administration's all-of-the-above strategy...

380

Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: June  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

on topics surrounding the use of biomass as a replacement for petroleum to supply the energy, products, and power markets. Paul Bryan will be attending the conference for the...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu blast pulping" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

July 2012 Biomass Program Monthly News Blast  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Bioproducts; June 10-13, 2012; John Ferrell and Joyce Yang; San Diego, California Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop; June 11-13, 2012; Brian Duff; Golden, Colorado Biomass...

382

Biomass Program Monthly News Blast - May 2012  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

2012; Travis Tempel; Atlanta, Georgia U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Biogas Technology Market Summit, May 14, 2012, Brian Duff; Washington, D.C. Biomass R&D...

383

April 2012 Biomass Program News Blast  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Chain & Logistics Conference, May 10-11, 2012, Travis Tempel, Atlanta, Georgia EPA Biogas Technology Market Summit, May 14, 2012, Brian Duff, Washington, DC Biomass R&D...

384

Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: August  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

The updated report and its supporting data improve our understanding of future biomass markets and will be a critical resource for landowners, businesses, and other potential...

385

Biomass Program Monthly News Blast, October 2012  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Ferrell, Steve Thomas, and Bryce Stokes; New Orleans, Louisiana 2012 International Bioenergy and Bioproducts Conference; October 17-19, 2012; Zia Haq; Savannah, Georgia ...

386

Biomass Program Monthly News Blast - March 2012  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Past and Upcoming Events with Biomass Representation International Energy Agency Bioenergy Task 42 Meeting, February 27-March 3, 2012, Melissa Klembara, Copenhagen,...

387

Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: May  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Biomass 2011: Replace the Whole Barrel, Supply the Whole Market - The New Horizons of Bioenergy July 26-27, 2011, at the Gaylord National Resort and Convention Center in...

388

February 2012 Biomass Program News Blast  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

National Ethanol Conference, February 22-24, 2012, Howard Marks, Orlando, Florida IEA Bioenergy Task 42 Meeting, February 27-March 3, 2012, Melissa Klembara, Copenhagen,...

389

Biomass Program September 2012 News Blast  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

2-5, 2012; John Ferrell and Bryce Stokes; New Orleans, Louisiana 2012 International Bioenergy and Bioproducts Conference; Zia Haq; October 17-19, 2012; Savannah, Georgia ...

390

BETO Monthly News Blast, August 2013r  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Canada National Conference; August; 22-23, 2013; Ottawa, Ontario, Canada * International Bioenergy Fair and Conference; September 4-6, 2013; Jyvskyl, Finland * National...

391

Bioenergy Technologies Office May Monthly News Blast  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Mexico * 22nd European Biomass Conference and Exhibition; June 23-26, 2014; Hamburg, Germany * 11th Renewable Energy Finance Forum Wall Street; June 25-26, 2014; New York, New...

392

BETO Monthly News Blast, June 2013  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

June 2013 Don't Miss this Summer's Big Back-to-Back BETO Events Register now for Biomass 2013 and the Program Management Review This summer, the Bioenergy Technologies Office...

393

LTC vacuum blasting machine (metal): Baseline report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The LTC coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC coating removal system consisted of several hand tools, a Roto Peen scaler, and a needlegun. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. These hand tools are used with the LTC PTC-6 vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. The dust exposure was minimal but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

NONE

1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

394

Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine, and which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

Phatak, Ramkrishna G. (San Antonio, TX)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

BETO Monthly News Blast, August 2014  

Energy Savers [EERE]

its grand opening September 3, 2014, becoming the first commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol plant to use corn waste as a feedstock. Developed through a joint venture between...

396

Spectator response to the participant blast  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interplay between spectator and participant matter in heavy-ion collisions is investigated in the context of a microscopic transport model. Transport simulations show that flow patterns for the participant matter are strongly influenced by the presence of the nearby spectator matter. However, the influence is mutual. During the explosion of the participant zone, the spectator matter acquires a transverse momentum that shows sensitivity to the nuclear incompressibility and to the momentum dependence of the nuclear mean field (MF). An observed change in the net average momentum per nucleon, {Delta}|

|, can be associated with the momentum dependence of the MF. For a momentum-dependent MF and a low impact parameter in a heavy system, the spectators may emerge faster than in the initial state, accelerated by the violent participant explosion. The average excitation energy and the mass of the spectators, in contrast to the momentum, show little sensitivity to the nuclear equation of state.

Shi, L.; Danielewicz, P.; Lacey, R.

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Bioenergy Technologies Office April Monthly News Blast  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

about the event, and to find registration information, please visit the Biomass 2014 Web page. Funding Opportunity Announcement: Biological and Chemical Upgrading for Advanced...

398

September 2013 News Blast | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

update, read about our new director, some major staff changes, a new Accomplishments Web page, and more. september2013newsblast.pdf More Documents & Publications October 2013...

399

Fresh Way to Cut Combustion, Crop and Air Heating Costs Avoids Million BTU Purchases: Inventions and Innovation Combustion Success Story  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Success story written for the Inventions and Innovation Program about a new space heating method that uses solar energy to heat incoming combustion, crop, and ventilation air.

Wogsland, J.

2001-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

400

Biological removal of organic constituents in quench waters from high-Btu coal-gasification pilot plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies were initiated to assess the efficiency of bench-scale, activated-sludge treatment for removal of organic constituents from coal-gasification process effluents. Samples of pilot-plant, raw-gas quench waters were obtained from the HYGAS process of the Institute of Gas Technology and from the slagging, fixed-bed (SFB) process of the Grand Forks Energy Technology Center. The types of coal employed were Bituminous Illinois No. 6 for the HYGAS and Indian Head lignite for the SFB process. These pilot-plant quench waters, while not strictly representative of commercial condensates, were considered useful to evaluate the efficiency of biological oxidation for the removal of organics. Biological-reactor influent and effluent samples were extracted using a methylene chloride pH-fractionation method into acid, base, and neutral fractions, which were analyzed by capillary-column gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry. Influent acid fractions of both HYGAS and SFB condensates showed that nearly 99% of extractable and chromatographable organic material comprised phenol and alkylated phenols. Activated-sludge treatment removed these compounds almost completely. Removal efficiency of base-fraction organics was generally good, except for certain alkylated pyridines. Removal of neutral-fraction organics was also good, except for certain alkylated benzenes, certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and certain cycloalkanes and cycloalkenes, especially at low influent concentrations.

Stamoudis, V C; Luthy, R G

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu blast pulping" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Classes of compounds responsible for mutagenic and cytotoxic activity in tars and oils formed during low BTU gasification of coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Lovelace Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI), in cooperation with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), has completed toxicity screening of vapors, liquids and solids formed during operation of an experimental pressurized, stirred-bed, coal gasifier at METC. Vapors collected from the cooled process stream on Tenax resins had no mutagenic activity in the Ames Salmonella assay. Dichloromethane extracts of liquids and solids collected from the effluent or process streams were fractionated by gel chromatography into fractions containing mostly aliphatic compounds; neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); polar (PAH) and heterocyclic compounds; and salts. The polar fraction was partitioned into acids, bases, water soluble compounds and phenols. Bacterial mutagenic activity was highest in the basic fraction with additional activity in the neutral PAHs. Highest cytotoxicity toward both the bacteria and canine alveolar macrophages was in the phenolic fraction. Treatment of the gasifier tars by nitrosation or by acetylation to remove primary aromatic amines (PAA) reduced the bacterial mutagenicity by 50-60%, indicating that some, but not all, of the mutagenicity was due to PAA.

Henderson, R.F.; Bechtold, W.F.; Benson, J.M.; Newton, G.J.; Hanson, R.L.; Brooks, A.L.; Dutcher, J.S.; Royer, R.E.; Hobbs, C.H.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Determination of performance characteristics of a one-cylinder diesel engine modified to burn low-Btu (lignite) gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

d = standard deviation INTRODUCTION The United States' vast lignite reserves' energy po- tential, while not commanding the public interest as much as the more "exotic" forms of energy conversion (solar, geothermal, wave energy, etc. ), has been... viewed with in- creasing interest by the technical community. Although a tremendous amount of energy is totalled in this country' s lignite coal reserves (Texas deposits alone are estimated at 100 billion tons [1] ), the energy is low-grade; i. e...

Blacksmith, James Richard

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

403

Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Wood Pulps  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......capillary column inlet system which was main tained...great concern in this study because (a) their relative...McNally and J.R. Wheeler. J. Chromatogr. 447...Chaplin, and N.R. Foster. J. Supercrit. Fluids...Wells, and N.R. Foster. J. Supercrit. Fluids......

A.J. Sequeira; L.T. Taylor

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Energy management in pulp and paper mills  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The spectrum of energy management within the paper industry spans from large waste boilers at one end to lightning controls at the other, with the restrictions of a continuous process in between. Managerial challenges greatly outnumber the technical ones, and careful application of incremental cost principles is particularly important. There are situations in which increased energy use is justified by greater productivity, and other cases when extra energy can lower raw material costs. The future of law grade heat recovery is also considered.

Knapp, K.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

"RSE Table N5.1. Relative Standard Errors for Table N5.1;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Relative Standard Errors for Table N5.1;" 1. Relative Standard Errors for Table N5.1;" " Unit: Percents." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Waste",," " " "," "," ","Blast"," "," ","Pulping Liquor"," ","Oils/Tars" "NAICS"," "," ","Furnace/Coke"," ","Petroleum","or","Wood Chips,","and Waste" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total","Oven Gases","Waste Gas","Coke","Black Liquor","Bark","Materials"

406

RSE Table 3.5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.5  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.5;" 5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.5;" " Unit: Percents." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Waste",," " " "," "," ","Blast"," "," ","Pulping Liquor"," ","Oils/Tars" "NAICS"," "," ","Furnace/Coke","Waste","Petroleum","or","Wood Chips,","and Waste" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total","Oven Gases","Gas","Coke","Black Liquor","Bark","Materials"

407

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Supplemental Supplies Supplemental Supplies Definitions Key Terms Definition Biomass Gas A medium Btu gas containing methane and carbon dioxide, resulting from the action of microorganisms on organic materials such as a landfill. Blast-furnace Gas The waste combustible gas generated in a blast furnace when iron ore is being reduced with coke to metallic iron. It is commonly used as a fuel within steel works. British Thermal Unit (Btu) The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of liquid water by 1 degree Fahrenheit at the temperature at which water has its greatest density (approximately 39 degrees Fahrenheit). Coke-oven Gas The mixture of permanent gases produced by the carbonization of coal in a coke oven at temperatures in excess of 1,000 degrees Celsius.

408

Chapter 7 - Gas Turbine Fuel Systems and Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The basics of a gas turbine fuel system are similar for all turbines. The most common fuels are natural gas, LNG (liquid natural gas), and light diesel. With appropriate design changes, the gas turbine has proved to be capable of handling residual oil, pulverized coal, syngas from coal and various low BTU fluids, both liquid and gas, that may be waste streams of petrochemical processes or, for instance, gas from a steel (or other industry) blast furnace. Handling low BTU fuel can be a tricky operation, requiring long test periods and a willingness to trade the savings in fuel costs with the loss of turbine availability during initial prototype full load tests. This chapter covers gas turbine fuel systems and includes a case study (Case 5) on blast furnace gas in a combined cycle power plant (CCPP). “All truths are easy to understand once they are discovered, the point is to discover them.” —Plato

Claire Soares

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2002;" 6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." ,,"S e l e c t e d","W o o d","a n d","W o o d -","R e l a t e d","P r o d u c t s" ,,,,,"B i o m a s s" ,,,,,,"Wood Residues" ,,,,,,"and","Wood-Related" " "," ","Pulping Liquor"," "," ","Wood","Byproducts","and","RSE",," " "NAICS"," ","or","Biomass","Agricultural","Harvested Directly","from Mill","Paper-Related","Row"

410

Table N5.2. Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 1998  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" 2. Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." ,,"S e l e c t e d","W o o d","a n d","W o o d -","R e l a t e d","P r o d u c t s" ,,,,,"B i o m a s s" ,,,,,,"Wood Residues" ,,,,,,"and","Wood-Related" " "," ","Pulping Liquor"," "," ","Wood","Byproducts","and","RSE",," " "NAICS"," ","or","Biomass","Agricultural","Harvested Directly","from Mill","Paper-Related","Row"

411

Total Energy - Data - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Electricity Flow, (Quadrillion Btu) Electricity Flow, (Quadrillion Btu) Electricity Flow diagram image Footnotes: 1 Blast furnace gas, propane gas, and other manufactured and waste gases derived from fossil fuels. 2 Batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, miscellaneous technologies, and non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels). 3 Data collection frame differences and nonsampling error. Derived for the diagram by subtracting the "T & D Losses" estimate from "T & D Losses and Unaccounted for" derived from Table 8.1. 4 Electric energy used in the operation of power plants. 5 Transmission and distribution losses (electricity losses that occur between the point of generation and delivery to the customer) are estimated

412

METC ceramic corrosion/erosion studies: turbine-material screening tests in high-temperature, low-Btu, coal-derived-gas combustion products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Morgantown Energy Technology Center, through its Ceramics Corrosion/Erosion Studies, has participated in the United States Department of Energy's High-Temperature Turbine Technology Program, Ceramic Technology Readiness. The program's overall objective is to advance the turbine firing temperature to a range of 2600/sup 0/ to 3000/sup 0/F (1700 to 1922K) with a reasonable service life using coal or coal-derived fuel. The Ceramics Corrosion/Erosion Studies' major objective was to conduct a screening test for several ceramic materials to assess their probability of survival in turbine applications. The materials were exposed to combustion products from low heating value coal-derived gas and air at several high temperatures and velocities. The combustion product composition and temperatures simulated actual environment that may be found in stationary power generating gas turbines except for the pressure levels. The results of approximately 1000 hours of accumulative exposure time of material at the specific test conditions are presented in this report.

Nakaishi, C.V.; Waltermire, D.M.; Hawkins, L.W.; Jarrett, T.L.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

~A four carbon alcohol. It has double the amount of carbon of ethanol, which equates to a substantial increase in harvestable energy (Btu's).  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.0 psi. ~Butanol is an alcohol that can be but does not have to be blended with fossil fuels. ~Butanol existing pipelines and filling stations. ~Hydrogen generated during the butanol fermentation process is expected to increase dramatically if green butanol can be produced economically from low cost biomass

Toohey, Darin W.

414

Energy Information Administration - Energy Efficiency-Table 5b. Consumption  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

b b Page Last Modified: June 2010 Table 5b. Consumption of Energy for All Purposes (First Use) per Ton of Steel, 1998, 2002, and 2006 (Million Btu per ton) MECS Survey Years Iron and Steel Mills (NAICS1 331111) 19982 20022 20062 Total 3 17 16 13 Net Electricity 4 2 2 2 Natural Gas 5 5 4 Coal 7 6 4 Notes: 1. The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) has replaced the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system. NAICS 331111 includes steel works, blast furnaces (including coke ovens), and rolling mills. 2. Denominators represent the entire steel industry, not those based mainly on electric, natural gas, residual fuel oil or coal.

415

After the Blast: Building and Unbuilding Memories of Port Chicago  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Personnel Who Served at Port Chicago After Explosion Monday3f.htm. “Comments Page: Port Chicago Historians SeekCommittee on Natural Resources. Port Chicago Naval Magazine

Arbona, Javier

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Processing Automotive Shredder Fluff for a Blast Furnace Injection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Automotive shredder fluff is a by-product vacuumed during ... ELV) hulks, and further refined in post-shredder lines of treatment (PST). To date...

S. Guignot; M. Gamet; N. Menad

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Downhole delay assembly for blasting with series delay  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A downhole delay assembly is provided which can be placed into a blasthole for initiation of explosive in the blasthole. The downhole delay assembly includes at least two detonating time delay devices in series in order to effect a time delay of longer than about 200 milliseconds in a round of explosions. The downhole delay assembly provides a protective housing to prevent detonation of explosive in the blasthole in response to the detonation of the first detonating time delay device. There is further provided a connection between the first and second time delay devices. The connection is responsive to the detonation of the first detonating time delay device and initiates the second detonating time delay device. A plurality of such downhole delay assemblies are placed downhole in unfragmented formation and are initiated simultaneously for providing a round of explosive expansions. The explosive expansions can be used to form an in situ oil shale retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles.

Ricketts, Thomas E. (Grand Junction, CO)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Prediction of blast damage from vapor cloud explosions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The process industries handle a wide range of different materials and use them in different types of chemical reaction. Of particular concern is the prospect of damage and injury affecting the general public outside the boundary wall of the chemical plant. It is not wise to permit the construction of homes, schools or hospitals so close to chemical plants that they, and the people within, might be damaged or injured should there be an accidental explosion in the plant. The major hazard outside the plant is over-pressure, a consequence of an accidental explosion in a cloud of flammable gas or vapor (Vapor Cloud Explosion or VCE). It is the responsibility of plant management to ensure that any such accidental explosion is not so large as to endanger the public, and of the local planning authorities to ensure that homes, schools or hospitals are not sited so close to chemical plants that they may be endangered by accidental explosion. A vital tool for such authorities is a simple method of assessing the possible consequences of an accidental VCE. In this paper those methods of assessing the consequences are examined.

Phillips, H. [Phillips (H.), Buxton (United Kingdom)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

419

Supernova blast wave within a stellar cluster outflow  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......the cluster wind velocity in units of...cluster, is the mass-loss rate...5pc, with mass-loss rate and wind velocities and v w...X-ray emission maps. APPENDIX...the radial velocity of the cluster wind, given in......

J. C. Rodríguez-Ramírez; A. C. Raga; P. F. Velázquez; A. Rodríguez-González; J. C. Toledo-Roy

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

LTC vacuum blasting machine (metal) baseline report: Greenbook (chapter)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The LTC coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC coating removal system consisted of several hand tools, a Roto Peen scaler, and a needlegun. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. These hand tools are used with the LTC PTC-6 vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. The dust exposure was minimal but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

NONE

1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu blast pulping" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Three Complementary Approaches to Parallelization of Local BLAST Service on  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the performance of one of the most common and increasingly important aspects of the Human Genome Project (HGP, the dominant component of the human genome project (HGP) has been the dis- covery of the entire 3 billion base mode. As the entire sequence of the human genome nears completion, the area of functional genomics

Cirne, Walfredo

422

Conserving Energy in Blast Freezers Using Variable Frequency Drives  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; Freezing Time vs Velocity 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 0 500 1000 1500 Air Velocity (fpm) Freezing Time (hr) Freezing Time vs Carton Thickness 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 Carton Thickness (in.) Freezing Time (hr...: - Low-stage: 14? Hg vacuum (-50°F); - Intermediate stage controlled to 14 psig ( -2.5°F) and fluctuating some with load (increasing with higher load); - High-stage operates between 157 and 167 psig (87° and 91°F). An automatic monitoring...

Kolbe, E.; Ling, Q.; Wheeler, G.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Variation in coke properties within the blast-furnace shop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In active production at OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (MMK), samples of melt materials were taken during shutdown and during planned repairs at furnaces 1 and 8. In particular, coke was taken from the tuyere zone at different distances from the tuyere tip. The mass of the point samples was 2-15 kg, depending on the sampling zone. The material extracted from each zone underwent magnetic separation and screening by size class. The resulting coke sample was averaged out and divided into parts: one for determining the granulometric composition and mechanical strength; and the other for technical analysis and determination of the physicochemical properties of the coke.

E.N. Stepanov; I.I. Mel'nikov; V.P. Gridasov; A.A. Stepanova [OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (MMK), Magnitogorsk, (Russian Federation)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

424

Combat-related blast injuries : injury types and outcomes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

U.S. Soldiers returning from Iraq. N Engl J Med. Jan Helmickmilitary convoys in Iraq: an examination of battle injuriesdistinguishing injury of the Iraq war. Brain Injury Resource

Eskridge, Susan Lindsay

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

process in the U.S. A major advance in BF ironmaking has been the use of pulverized coal which partially replaces metallurgi- cal coke. This results in substantial improvement...

426

Blast of light fragments from central heavy-ion collisions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of collective expansion on light-fragment emission from central heavy-ion collisions are studied by carrying out calculations in a transport model with dynamic production of {ital A}{le}3 fragments. Beam energies of few hundred MeV/nucleon are considered. In the simulations the formation of a region of dense excited nuclear matter is observed, which expands in transverse directions. The expansion is reflected in the angular distributions and in the mean transverse energies of emitted fragments. At the late stage of expansion the characteristic features of local thermodynamic equilibrium are identified. Different particles share nearly the same collective energy per nucleon, and nearly the same thermal energy. The calculated mean transverse energies of the fragments reflect the collective energy whose magnitude varies with impact parameter. However, the fragment energies only partially agree with available data. The calculated spectra exhibit different slopes at angles around c.m. 90{degree} in central reactions.

Danielewicz, P.; Pan, Q. (National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States))

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Experimental characterization of energetic material dynamics for multiphase blast simulation.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Currently there is a substantial lack of data for interactions of shock waves with particle fields having volume fractions residing between the dilute and granular regimes, which creates one of the largest sources of uncertainty in the simulation of energetic material detonation. To close this gap, a novel Multiphase Shock Tube has been constructed to drive a planar shock wave into a dense gas-solid field of particles. A nearly spatially isotropic field of particles is generated in the test section by a gravity-fed method that results in a spanwise curtain of spherical 100-micron particles having a volume fraction of about 19%. Interactions with incident shock Mach numbers of 1.66, 1.92, and 2.02 were achieved. High-speed schlieren imaging simultaneous with high-frequency wall pressure measurements are used to reveal the complex wave structure associated with the interaction. Following incident shock impingement, transmitted and reflected shocks are observed, which lead to differences in particle drag across the streamwise dimension of the curtain. Shortly thereafter, the particle field begins to propagate downstream and spread. For all three Mach numbers tested, the energy and momentum fluxes in the induced flow far downstream are reduced about 30-40% by the presence of the particle field. X-Ray diagnostics have been developed to penetrate the opacity of the flow, revealing the concentrations throughout the particle field as it expands and spreads downstream with time. Furthermore, an X-Ray particle tracking velocimetry diagnostic has been demonstrated to be feasible for this flow, which can be used to follow the trajectory of tracer particles seeded into the curtain. Additional experiments on single spherical particles accelerated behind an incident shock wave have shown that elevated particle drag coefficients can be attributed to increased compressibility rather than flow unsteadiness, clarifying confusing results from the historical database of shock tube experiments. The development of the Multiphase Shock Tube and associated diagnostic capabilities offers experimental capability to a previously inaccessible regime, which can provide unprecedented data concerning particle dynamics of dense gas-solid flows.

Beresh, Steven Jay; Wagner, Justin L.; Kearney, Sean Patrick; Wright, Elton K.; Baer, Melvin R.; Pruett, Brian Owen Matthew

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

SCHOLARLY PAPERS Is Construction Blasting Still Abnormally Dangerous?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and quarries 15% Dowding 1996 .7 The mining, quarrying, and construction industries use over 4 billion pounds 1 quarry operations,13 mining,14 removing boulders from a stream bed to prevent flooding,15 sewer

429

Mitigation of blast effects on existing structures in austere environments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Military commanders in austere environments often face challenges in setting up headquarters buildings that offer protected areas for sensitive equipment. One solution to this problem is simply to build a structure that ...

Maxa, Andrew J

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Optimizing Aeration in Pulp Mill Secondary Treatment Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

lagoon performance so as to prioritize which aerators could be shut off and under what conditions. The two major elements of the study were (a) detailed lithium tracer work to identify the relatively stagnant zones in the pond, and (b) a radiotracer study...

Mahmood, T.; Banerjee, S.; Welsh, J. T.; Sackellares, R. W.

431

Dried Citrus Pulp in Beef Cattle Fattening Rations.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Animal Husbandry AGRICULTrRAL ,QND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President I rr+y-.-' -d - ." bg[j~~;Eura1 fJ,' , . ,* ,.. - '" re: SRt3$~;-P~~s" '+;+ [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] When dried citrus plp was fed to replace 25... of Range Animal Husbandry; Superintendent, Substation No. 1, ~eeviile; Animal Husbandman, Substation No. 1, Beeville; and Animal Hus- bandman, Division of Range Animal Husbandry, respectively. 6 BULLETIN KO. 613, TEXAS AGR.ICULTUaAL EXPERIMENT STATION...

Jones, J. M. (John McKInley)

1942-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Gas Turbine Considerations in the Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

37.8 90.1 104.4 ? Supp Fired 4201655 301.0 5960 338.0 5630 722.0 5410 1044.0 5350 lliS.4 5420 301.5 5540 6301755 289.5 5980 324.5 5670 695.0 5420 1004.0 5360 159.0 5430 290.0 5550 8951130 281.0 6030 '315.0 5710 676.0 5440 9n.0 5370 154.8 5440 282... 37.8 90.1 104.4 ? Supp Fired 4201655 301.0 5960 338.0 5630 722.0 5410 1044.0 5350 lliS.4 5420 301.5 5540 6301755 289.5 5980 324.5 5670 695.0 5420 1004.0 5360 159.0 5430 290.0 5550 8951130 281.0 6030 '315.0 5710 676.0 5440 9n.0 5370 154.8 5440 282...

Anderson, J. S.; Kovacik, J. M.

433

The preparation and analysis of ammonia base sulfite pulping liquor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NH3 Concentrations . . . . . , ~ . ~ . . ~ ~ . ~ q IV The Distribution of S02 in a 2. 82$ RR3 Solution for Various Total SO2 Concentrations . . . . . . , . . . ~ . . . 31 FIGURES l. Variation of pH with Percent NH3 in Solution. . . . . ~. . . 25... 2. Variation of pH with S02 Concentration in Solutions of Various NH Concentrations . . . . ~ . . . ~ . ~ o ~ . o . ~ 27 3 ~ Composition of Solutions to give a Constant pH of T and 2. 5 , ~ 2Q 4. The Variation of the Ratio of Free S02 to Total SO2...

Honstead, John Frederick

1950-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Pulp and paper research energized by DOE and IPST  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) announced its partnerships with the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research, University of Florida, Weyerhaeuser Co., and Wood Industries Co. for cost-shared projects to study the production of ethanol form dedicated energy crops and forestry product wastes. Weyerhaeuser, in collaboration with Amoco Corp., proposes to investigate expanding the use of biomass at the Weyerhaeuser facility in New Bern, NC. Weyerhaeuser will provide saw-mill wastes and other forestry residues to produce ethanol and electricity which would help the forestry industry attain self-sufficiency. Wood Industries Co. (WICO) of Visalia, CA, proposes to operate a 100-acre demofarm using plantation crops of seed sorghum, kenaf and hybrid poplar, willow, and eucalyptus to produce ethanol for gasoline blending and solid fuel for generating electricity. WICO will investigate cost-reduction strategies for the biomass-to-energy process. According to IPST (Institute of Paper Science and Technology) President Richard A. Matula, the institute's research efforts can be categorized as follows: Fundamental, long-term research; Applied, mid-term research; Commercialization of new technology; and Process engineering products.

Not Available

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Pinpointing energy savings opportunities in a pulp mill  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the exergetic analysis, which involves the application of the Second Law of Thermodynamics, the authors consider not only the quantity but also the quality of energy, recognizing, for example, that 1 J of heat at 300{sup 0}C is more useful than 1J at 30{sup 0}C. Because all operations are complexly interwoven, a number of indirect effects results from any change in a process. A simple example is the use of less fresh water during washing. The primary effect is related to the removal of soluble impurities and the recovery of chemicals. The secondary effect is that less energy is required to evaporate the excess water.

Iribarne, J. (Gamma Ingenieros Ltd., Elidoro Yanez 2308, Santiago (CL))

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions from Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

97 BTUs of refinery energy per BTU of dieseland hydrogen) per BTU of diesel produced, depending onof refinery energy per BTU of diesel fuel In the real world

Delucchi, Mark

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Environmental Reporting for the University of Michigan Ann Arbor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.......................................................................... 17 5.2 Energy ­ Buildings and Transportation/person) ....................... 18 5.1.2 Renewable Energy Contribution (%)......................................................................................... 18 5.1.3 Building Energy Consumption (Btu, Btu/ft2 , Btu/person, Btu/ft2 /person

Eustice, Ryan

438

Fuel Flexible, Low Emission Catalytic Combustor for Opportunity Fuel Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Limited fuel resources, increasing energy demand and stringent emission regulations are drivers to evaluate process off-gases or process waste streams as fuels for power generation. Often these process waste streams have low energy content and/or highly reactive components. Operability of low energy content fuels in gas turbines leads to issues such as unstable and incomplete combustion. On the other hand, fuels containing higher-order hydrocarbons lead to flashback and auto-ignition issues. Due to above reasons, these fuels cannot be used directly without modifications or efficiency penalties in gas turbine engines. To enable the use of these wide variety of fuels in gas turbine engines a rich catalytic lean burn (RCL®) combustion system was developed and tested in a subscale high pressure (10 atm.) rig. The RCL® injector provided stability and extended turndown to low Btu fuels due to catalytic pre-reaction. Previous work has shown promise with fuels such as blast furnace gas (BFG) with LHV of 85 Btu/ft3 successfully combusted. This program extends on this work by further modifying the combustor to achieve greater catalytic stability enhancement. Fuels containing low energy content such as weak natural gas with a Lower Heating Value (LHV) of 6.5 MJ/m3 (180 Btu/ft3 to natural gas fuels containing higher hydrocarbon (e.g ethane) with LHV of 37.6 MJ/m3 (1010 Btu/ft3) were demonstrated with improved combustion stability; an extended turndown (defined as the difference between catalytic and non-catalytic lean blow out) of greater than 250oF was achieved with CO and NOx emissions lower than 5 ppm corrected to 15% O2. In addition, for highly reactive fuels the catalytic region preferentially pre-reacted the higher order hydrocarbons with no events of flashback or auto-ignition allowing a stable and safe operation with low NOx and CO emissions.

Eteman, Shahrokh

2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

439

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Table 7.1 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units. Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components Coal Components Coke Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Total Wood Residues Bituminous Electricity Diesel Fuel Motor Natural Gas Steam and Wood-Related and Electricity from Sources and Gasoline Pulping Liquor Natural Gas from Sources Steam from Sources Waste Gases Waste Oils Industrial Wood Byproducts and Coal Subbituminous Coal Petroleum Electricity from Local Other than Distillate Diesel Distillate Residual Blast Furnace Coke Oven (excluding or LPG and Natural Gas

440

Released: August 2009  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.5;" 5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.5;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,,,,,,"Waste",," " ,,,"Blast",,,"Pulping Liquor",,"Oils/Tars" "NAICS",,,"Furnace/Coke",,"Petroleum","or","Wood Chips,","and Waste" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total","Oven Gases","Waste Gas","Coke","Black Liquor","Bark","Materials" ,,"Total United States" , 311,"Food",9.1,"X",25,"X","X",6,55.6 3112," Grain and Oilseed Milling",8.9,"X",47.4,"X","X",0,0 311221," Wet Corn Milling",0,"X",0,"X","X",0,"X"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu blast pulping" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010; Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Trillion Btu. Wood Residues and Wood-Related Pulping Liquor Wood Byproducts and NAICS or Biomass Agricultural Harvested Directly from Mill Paper-Related Code(a) Subsector and Industry Black Liquor Total(b) Waste(c) from Trees(d) Processing(e) Refuse(f) Total United States 311 Food 0 44 43 * * 1 311221 Wet Corn Milling 0 1 1 0 0 0 312 Beverage and Tobacco Products 0 1 0 0 1 0 321 Wood Products 0 218 * 13 199 6 321113 Sawmills 0 100 * 5 94 1 3212 Veneer, Plywood, and Engineered Woods 0 95 * 6 87 2 321219 Reconstituted Wood Products 0 52 0 6 46 1 3219 Other Wood Products

442

file://C:\Documents and Settings\bh5\My Documents\Energy Effici  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

a a Table 7a. Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption per Value Of Production 1998, 2002, and 2006 (Btu per constant 2000 dollar 1 ) MECS Survey Years Iron and Steel Mills (NAICS 2 331111) 1998 3 2002 4 2006 4 Total NA 19,716 12,179 Electricity NA 3,839 2,846 Natural Gas NA 8,052 5,301 Coal NA 747 228 Residual Fuel NA 21 309 Coke and Breeze NA 6,496 3,025 Notes: 1. Value of production is deflated by the chain-type price indices for iron and steel mills shipments. 2. The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) has replaced the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system. NAICS 331111 includes steel works, blast furnaces (including coke ovens), and rolling mills. 3. 1998 data unavailable due to disclosure avoidance procedures in place at the time.

443

file://C:\Documents and Settings\bh5\My Documents\Energy Effici  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

b b Page Last Modified: June 2010 Table 5b. Consumption of Energy for All Purposes (First Use) per Ton of Steel, 1998, 2002, and 2006 (Million Btu per ton) MECS Survey Years Iron and Steel Mills (NAICS 1 331111) 1998 2 2002 2 2006 2 Total 3 17 16 13 Net Electricity 4 2 2 2 Natural Gas 5 5 4 Coal 7 6 4 Notes: 1. The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) has replaced the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system. NAICS 331111 includes steel works, blast furnaces (including coke ovens), and rolling mills. 2. Denominators represent the entire steel industry, not those based mainly on electric, natural gas, residual fuel oil or coal. 3. 'Total' is the sum of all of the listed energy sources, including 'Other,' minus the shipments of energy sources

444

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Electricity Electricity THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK Figure 8.0 Electricity Flow, 2011 (Quadrillion Btu) U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 219 1 Blast furnace gas, propane gas, and other manufactured and waste gases derived from fossil fuels. 2 Batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, miscellaneous technologies, and non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels). 3 Data collection frame differences and nonsampling error. Derived for the diagram by subtracting the "T & D Losses" estimate from "T & D Losses and Unaccounted for" derived from Table 8.1. 4 Electric energy used in the operation of power plants. 5 Transmission and distribution losses (electricity losses that occur between the point of

445

file://C:\Documents and Settings\bh5\My Documents\Energy Effici  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2 2 Page Last Modified: June 2010 Table 2. End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 1998, 2002, and 2006 (trillion Btu) MECS Survey Years Iron and Steel Mills (NAICS 1 331111) 1998 2002 2006 Total 2 1,672 1,455 1,147 Net Electricity 3 158 184 175 Natural Gas 456 388 326 Coal 48 36 14 Boiler Fuel -- -- -- Coal 8 W 1 Residual Fuel Oil 10 * 4 Natural Gas 52 39 27 Process Heating -- -- -- Net Electricity 74 79 76 Residual Fuel Oil 19 * 11 Natural Gas 369 329 272 Machine Drive -- -- -- Net Electricity 68 86 77 Notes 1. The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) has replaced the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system. NAICS 331111 includes steel works, blast furnaces (including coke ovens), and rolling mills. 2. 'Total' is the sum of all energy sources listed below, including net steam (the sum of

446

Energy Information Administration - Energy Efficiency-table 7b.  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

b b Table 7b. Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption per Ton of Steel, 1998, 2002, and 2006 (1000 Btu per ton) MECS Survey Years Iron and Steel Mills (NAICS1331111) 1998 2 2002 3 20063 Total NA 11,886 9,210 Electricity NA 2,315 2,152 Natural Gas NA 4,855 4,009 Coal NA 450 172 Residual Fuel NA 13 234 Coke and Breeze NA 3,916 2,287 Notes:1. The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) has replaced the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system. NAICS 331111 includes steel works, blast furnaces (including coke ovens), and rolling mills. 2. 1998 data unavailable due to disclosure avoidance procedures in place at the time.

447

file://C:\Documents and Settings\bh5\My Documents\Energy Effici  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5a 5a Page Last Modified: June 2010 Table 5a. Consumption of Energy for All Purposes (First Use) per Value of Production, 1998, 2002, and 2006 (1000 Btu per constant 2000 dollar 1 ) MECS Survey Years Iron and Steel Mills (NAICS 2 331111) 1998 3 2002 3 2006 3 Total 4 30 27 17 Net Electricity 5 3 4 3 Natural Gas 9 9 6 Coal 13 10 6 Notes:1. Value of production is deflated by the chain-type price indices for iron and steel mills shipments. 2. The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) has replaced the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system. NAICS 331111 includes steel works, blast furnaces (including coke ovens), and rolling mills. 3. Denominators represent the value of production for the entire iron and still mills (NAICS 331111), not those based

448

Energy Information Administration - Energy Efficiency, Table 6b-End Uses of  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

and 2002 > Table 6b and 2002 > Table 6b Table 6b. End Uses of Energy per Ton of Steel, 1998, 2002, and 2006 (thousand Btu per ton) MECS Survey Years Iron and Steel Mills (NAICS1 331111) 19982 20022 20062 Total3 16,957 15,884 17,796 Net Electricity 4 1,602 2,009 4,673 Natural Gas 4,625 4,236 5,969 Coal 487 393 214 Boiler Fuel -- -- -- Coal 81 W 10 Residual Fuel Oil 101 W 266 Natural Gas 527 426 276 Process Heating -- -- -- Net Electricity 751 862 830 Residual Fuel Oil 193 W 112 Natural Gas 3,742 3,592 2,776 Machine Drive -- -- -- Net Electricity 690 939 786 Notes: 1. The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) has replaced the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system. NAICS 331111 includes steel works, blast furnaces (including coke ovens), and rolling mills.

449

Energy Information Administration - Energy Efficiency-Table 5a. Consumption  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5a 5a Page Last Modified: June 2010 Table 5a. Consumption of Energy for All Purposes (First Use) per Value of Production, 1998, 2002, and 2006 (1000 Btu per constant 2000 dollar 1) MECS Survey Years Iron and Steel Mills (NAICS2 331111) 1998 3 2002 3 2006 3 Total 4 30 27 17 Net Electricity5 3 4 3 Natural Gas 9 9 6 Coal 13 10 6 Notes:1. Value of production is deflated by the chain-type price indices for iron and steel mills shipments. 2. The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) has replaced the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system. NAICS 331111 includes steel works, blast furnaces (including coke ovens), and rolling mills. 3. Denominators represent the value of production for the entire iron and still mills (NAICS 331111), not those based mainly on electric, natural gas or coal.

450

file://C:\Documents and Settings\bh5\My Documents\Energy Effici  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 3 Page Last Modified: June 2010 Table 3. Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 1998, 2002, and 2006 (trillion Btu) MECS Survey Years Iron and Steel Mills (NAICS 1 331111) 1998 2002 2006 Total 2 NA 950 749 Net Electricity 3 NA 185 175 Natural Gas NA 388 326 Coal NA 36 14 Residual Fuel NA 1 19 Coke and Breeze NA 313 186 Notes: 1. The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) has replaced the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system. NAICS 331111 includes steel works, blast furnaces (including coke ovens), and rolling mills. 2.'Total' includes all energy sources listed below and all other energy that was purchased or transferred in. 3.'Electricity' consists of quantities of electricity that were purchased or transferred in, and is equivalent

451

Energy Information Administration - Energy Efficiency-Table 3.  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy Efficiency > Iron and Steel Manufacturing Energy, 1998 and 2002 > Table 3 Energy Efficiency > Iron and Steel Manufacturing Energy, 1998 and 2002 > Table 3 Page Last Modified: June 2010 Table 3. Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 1998, 2002, and 2006 (trillion Btu) MECS Survey Years Iron and Steel Mills (NAICS1 331111) 1998 2002 2006 Total2 NA 950 749 Net Electricity3 NA 185 175 Natural Gas NA 388 326 Coal NA 36 14 Residual Fuel NA 1 19 Coke and Breeze NA 313 186 Notes: 1. The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) has replaced the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system. NAICS 331111 includes steel works, blast furnaces (including coke ovens), and rolling mills.

452

file://C:\Documents and Settings\bh5\My Documents\Energy Effici  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

b b Table 7b. Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption per Ton of Steel, 1998, 2002, and 2006 (1000 Btu per ton) MECS Survey Years Iron and Steel Mills (NAICS 1 331111) 1998 2 2002 3 2006 3 Total NA 11,886 9,210 Electricity NA 2,315 2,152 Natural Gas NA 4,855 4,009 Coal NA 450 172 Residual Fuel NA 13 234 Coke and Breeze NA 3,916 2,287 Notes:1. The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) has replaced the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system. NAICS 331111 includes steel works, blast furnaces (including coke ovens), and rolling mills. 2. 1998 data unavailable due to disclosure avoidance procedures in place at the time. 3. Denominators represent the entire steel industry, not those based mainly on electric, natural gas, residual fuel oil, coal or coke.

453

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 Electricity Flow, 2011 (Quadrillion Btu) U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 219 1 Blast furnace gas, propane gas, and other manufactured and waste gases derived from fossil fuels. 2 Batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, miscellaneous technologies, and non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels). 3 Data collection frame differences and nonsampling error. Derived for the diagram by subtracting the "T & D Losses" estimate from "T & D Losses and Unaccounted for" derived from Table 8.1. 4 Electric energy used in the operation of power plants. 5 Transmission and distribution losses (electricity losses that occur between the point of

454

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants 3 Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants Total (All Sectors), 1989-2011 Total (All Sectors) by Source, 2011 By Sector, 1989-2011 By Sector, 2011 228 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Blast furnace gas, propane gas, and other manufactured and waste gases derived from fossil fuels. 2 Batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, miscellaneous technologies, and non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels). Sources: Tables 8.3a-8.3c. 543 522 296 103 37 36 16 Wood Natural Coal Other Waste Petroleum Other² 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Trillion Btu 1989 1992 1995 1998 2001 2004 2007 2010 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 Quadrillion Btu Gases¹ 1.2 0.3 0.1 Industrial Electric Power Commercial 0.0 0.6

455

Healthcare Energy Efficiency Research and Development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

outdoor temp. BTU meter, boiler & Pumps electrical power OneBTU meter, one electrical meter per boiler (e.g. 4), pumpsPlant BTU Meter $ 4000, boiler electrical meter $ 500 each,

Lanzisera,, Judy Lai, Steven M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Coal and the Present Energy Situation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...heating value. High-Btu gas, commonly...substitute natural gas (SNG...ago, when natural gas was cheap and...cubic foot. High-Btu Gas...developed a high-pressure, stirred...low-Btu gas (14). A...

Elburt F. Osborn

1974-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

457

Case study of environmental protection agency (EPA) region 8 headquarters building  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy utilization intensity (EUI) was 71 kBtu-sf/yr. Thesite energy use intensity (EUI) is 71 kBtu/ft 2 . yr. Figureenergy utilization intensity (EUI) was 71 kBtu-sf/yr. Since

Webster, Tom; Bauman, Fred; Dickerhoff, Darryl J; Lee, Yoon Soo

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

The Allocation of the Social Costs of Motor-Vehicle Use to Six Classes of Motor Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gasoline; 137,800 BTU/gallon for diesel fuel) 3412 = BTU/kWhcontent of diesel fuel per gallon (137,800 BTU/gallon HHVBTU/gallon HHV), and 15% due to the higher compression ratio of diesel

Delucchi, Mark A.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

2.1E Supplement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ELECFD Efficiency of diesel engine (Btu/Btu) THLOF Ratio ofDIESEL-OIL COAL METHANOL OTHER-FUEL ELEC-NET-SALE ELEC-BUY/SELL calculated calculated English ENERGY/UNIT Btu

Winkelmann, F.C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

"NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Dollar","of Value" "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code(a)","Economic Characteristic(b)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)" ,,"Total United...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu blast pulping" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Energy Outlook 2013  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 3 Table G1. Heat contents Fuel Units Approximate heat content Coal 1 Production .................................................. million Btu per short ton 20.136 Consumption .............................................. million Btu per short ton 19.810 Coke plants ............................................. million Btu per short ton 26.304 Industrial .................................................. million Btu per short ton 23.651 Residential and commercial .................... million Btu per short ton 20.698 Electric power sector ............................... million Btu per short ton 19.370

462

2.1E Supplement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TURBF Internal turbine efficiency (Btu/Btu) ELEFF Efficiencyspecifies the gas turbine conversion efficiency of fuel tospecifies the gas turbine conversion efficiency of fuel to

Winkelmann, F.C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

--No Title--  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

1 2005 Residential Delivered Energy Consumption Intensities, by Housing Type Per Square Per Household Per Household Percent of Type Foot (thousand Btu) (1) (million Btu) Members...

464

Table 6. Electric Power Delivered Fuel Prices and Quality for...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",,, "Average heat value (Btu per...

465

Table 6. Electric Power Delivered Fuel Prices and Quality for...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",,,1.44,,, "Average heat value (Btu per...

466

A post-occupancy monitored evaluation of the dimmable lighting, automated shading, and underfloor air distribution system in The New York Times Building  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Monthly energy use comparison EUI, kBtu/Gsf Lighting Heatinguse comparison Annual EUI, kBtu/sf-yr Lighting Heating

Lee, Eleanor S.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

The Role of Emerging Technologies in Improving Energy Efficiency: Examples from the Food Processing Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

z = specific primary energy consumption of RF dryer (Btu/and specific primary energy consumption (240 Btu/lb. ) of RFenergy consumption of base technologies in 2020 (primary)

Lung, Robert Bruce; Masanet, Eric; McKane, Aimee

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Tissue-Adapted Invasion Strategies of the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...to focus molecular analyses on the limited number...invasion. Expression analysis on rice leaf sheath...platform exposed to wind or dewdrop splash...set the infection cycle in motion starting...the Epidemiological Life Cycle of M. oryzae under...

Sylvain Marcel; Ruairidh Sawers; Edward Oakeley; Herbert Angliker; Uta Paszkowski

2010-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

469

Machine learning techniques in disease forecasting: a case study on rice blast prediction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Our case study demonstrated that SVM is better than existing machine learning techniques and conventional REG approaches in forecasting plant diseases. In this direction, we have also ... a SVM-based web server f...

Rakesh Kaundal; Amar S Kapoor; Gajendra PS Raghava

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Genetic and physical mapping of telomeres in the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Telomeric restriction fragments were genetically mapped to a previously described linkage map of Magnaporthe grisea, using RFLPs identified by a synthetic probe, (TTAGGG){sub 3}. Frequent rearrangement of telomeric sequences was observed in progeny isolates creating a potential for misinterpretation of data. Therefore a consensus segregation data set was used to minimize mapping errors. Twelve of the 14 telomeres were found to be genetically linked to existing RFLP markers. Second-dimensional electrophoresis of restricted chromosomes confirmed these linkage assignments and revealed the chromosomal location of the two unlinked telomeres. We were thus able to assign all 14 M. grisea telomeres to their respective chromosome ends. The Achilles` cleavage (AC) technique was employed to determine that chromosome 1 markers 11 and CH5-120H were {approximately}1.8 Mb and 1.28 Mb, respectively, from their nearest telomeres. RecA-AC was also used to determine that unlinked telomere 6 was {approximately}530 kb from marker CH5-176H in strain 2539 and 580 kb in Guy11. These experiments indicated that large portions of some chromosome ends are unrepresented by genetic markers and provided estimates of the relationship of genetic to physical distance in the regions of the genome. 41 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Farman, M.L.; Leong, S.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Blast simulator wall tests : experimental methods and mitigation strategies for reinforced concrete and concrete Masonry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

combustion energy H f Heat of combustion of fuel H s Heightthe fuel, H f is the heat of combustion of the fuel, H TNTof the region by the heat of combustion Estimate the total

Oesterle, Michael G.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Experimental and numerical correlation of a scaled containment vessel subjected to an internal blast load  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently in the design phase of a large Containment System that will be used to contain hydrodynamic experiments. The system in question is being designed to elastically withstand a 50 kg internal high explosive (PBX-9501) detonation. A one-tenth scaled model of the containment system was fabricated and used to obtain experimental results of both pressure loading and strain response. The experimental data are compared with numerical predictions of pressure loading and strain response obtained from an Eulerian hydrodynamic code (MESA-2D) and an explicit, non-linear finite element code (LLNL DYNA3D). The two-dimensional pressure predictions from multiple hydrodynamic simulations are used as loading in the structural simulation. The predicted pressure histories and strain response compare well with experimental results at several locations.

Romero, C.; Benner, J.C.; Berkbigler, L.W.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Modeling of Human Brain Tissues and Head Injuries Induced by Blast and Ballistic Impact  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

can result from direct impact on the skull, leading to skull fracture and subsequent damage to the brain tissue. Such injuries are penetrating TBIs, which are mainly caused by motor vehicle accidents, sports and work related accidents, and falls...

Kulkarni, Sahil G

2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

474

Blast simulator wall tests : experimental methods and mitigation strategies for reinforced concrete and concrete Masonry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in reinforced concrete section d cfb Distance to bottom CFRPof bolt A c Area of concrete A cfb Cross-sectional area offunction for BG programmers F cfb Stress in bottom CFRP F

Oesterle, Michael G.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Industrial Risks and Land use Planning Study of blast window resistance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

glasses with or without anti-explosion film, laminated glasses...), mobile frames or window locking a short time (inferior to 10 ms). Coevert and al. [5] also studied security window film and insulating/16/4 with Insulating glass fabricated with laminated glass (a) Figure 4: (a) security window film, (c) · The behaviour

Boyer, Edmond

476

E-Print Network 3.0 - air blast freezing Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Alexander - Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Russia Collection: Geosciences 3 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics...

477

E-Print Network 3.0 - asymmetric blast wave Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Alexander - Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Russia Collection: Geosciences 3 Classification of Seismic Data Dorothea Blostein Summary:...

478

E-Print Network 3.0 - air-containing cavities blast Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sciences 83 200MHz superconducting RF cavity development for RLAs1 Summary: 200MHz superconducting RF cavity development for RLAs1 R.L. Geng , H. Padamsee , D. Hartill ,...

479

The time-frequency characteristics of quarry blasts and calibration explosions recorded in Kazakhstan, USSR  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......T. J., Jr & Orcutt, J. A., 1985b. Synthesis of realistic oceanic Pn wave trains, J. geophys. Res., 90, 12755-12776. Sharpe, J. A., 1942. The production of elastic waves by explosion pressures, I. Theory and empirical field observations......

Michael A. H. Hedlin; J. Bernard Minster; John A. Orcutt

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

The response of rigid plates to blast in deep water: fluid–structure interaction experiments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...speed of sound of water, respectively...is dictated by conservation of linear momentum...creating an extending pool of cavitated water. In figure-6...radiated into the water column in contact...Now write conservation of linear momentum...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "btu blast pulping" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Slag-washing water of blast furnace power station with supercritical organic Rankine cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power plant operating with supercritical ... of a supercritical power plant. Two typical organic fluids with sufficiently low critical parameters were ... study the efficiency of the s...

Song Xiao ??; Shu-ying Wu ???; Dong-sheng Zheng ???

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

BLAST: studying cosmic and Galactic star formation from a stratospheric balloon.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Understanding the history of the formation of stars and evolution of galaxies is one of the foremost goals of astrophysics. While stars emit most of… (more)

Moncelsi, Lorenzo

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Was the 18 May 1980 lateral blast at Mt St Helens the product of two explosions?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the t = 5:20{8:50 time window. Processes that may have contributed signi cantly...possible that some unspeci ed subsurface process within the magma contributed to the seismic...In Geol. Assoc. Canada 1990 Annual Mtg Program with Abstracts, p. 58. Hoblitt...

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

REGIONAL OBSERVATIONS OF MINING BLASTS BY THE GSETT-3 SEISMIC MONITORING SYSTEM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of testing of any nuclear explosive devices in all environments is the goal of the Comprehensive Test Ban throughout the world. The goal of this system is the detection of any nuclear test. In preparation an international framework under which all nations can agree to stop the testing of nuclear explosions

485

Influence of coal on coke properties and blast-furnace operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With unstable coal supplies and properties and a fluctuating content of coking coal in the batch at OAO Zapadno-Sibirskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (ZSMK) and of bituminous coal at Kuznetskaya enrichment facility, it is important to optimize the rank composition of the batch for coke production.

G.R. Gainieva; L.D. Nikitin [OAO Zapadno-Sibirskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (Russian Federation)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Blast simulator wall tests : experimental methods and mitigation strategies for reinforced concrete and concrete Masonry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

charge to target R eq Equivalent resistance for generalizedwhere R eq is the equivalent resistance function that can beequivalent mass and resisting force equals the actual mass and resistance

Oesterle, Michael G.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Blast induced subsidence in the craters of nuclear tests over coral  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The craters from high-yield nuclear tests at the Pacific Proving Grounds are very broad and shallow in comparison with the bowl-shaped craters formed in continental rock at the Nevada Test Site and elsewhere. Attempts to account for the differences quantitatively have been generally unsatisfactory. We have for the first time successfully modeled the Koa Event, a representative coral-atoll test. On the basis of plausible assumptions about the geology and about the constitutive relations for coral, we have shown that the size and shape of the Koa crater can be accounted for by subsidence and liquefaction phenomena. If future studies confirm these assumptions, it will mean that some scaling formulas based on data from the Pacific will have to be revised to avoid overestimating weapons effects in continental geology. 9 refs., 5 figs.

Burton, D.E.; Swift, R.P.; Glenn, H.D.; Bryan, J.B.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE U.S. PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Industrial/Commercial Boiler Population. Report Submitted toCouncil of Industrial Boiler Owners, Burke, Virginia. [23]Assessment Case Study. Boiler Blowdown Heat Recovery Project

Kramer, Klaas Jan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Pulp and Paper Industry in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Emission Reduction Technologies. Food and AgriculturalIEA). 2009. Energy Technology Transitions for Industry -IEA). 2010. Energy Technology Perspectives - Scenarios and

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biomass Gasification Technologies for Fuels, Chemicals andEnergy, National Energy Technology Laboratory. CO ? Solution01GO10621. Industrial Technologies Progarm (ITP). 2006e.

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

ITP Forest Products: Report for AIChE Pulp and Paper Industry...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

the maintenance efficiencies of disk refiners with the refining efficiency of a Jordan. The impact is reduced energy consumption, about 40% to 70% 41 , to develop fibers to...

492

Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Pulp and Paper Industry in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Input Determine penetration rate of technologies PrepareCTAPI 2011). For the penetration rate of energy-efficiencyhave the current penetration rate of each energy efficiency

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE U.S. PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHP) units, one steam turbine, and a steam accumulator. Theand power (CHP) Steam expansion turbines Motor Systems MotorPinch analysis Steam injected gas turbines Cogeneration of

Kramer, Klaas Jan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

ITP Forest Products: Report for AIChE Pulp and Paper Industry Energy Bandwidth Study Report  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) has been requested to manage a project to develop estimates of the present energy consumption.

495

ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE U.S. PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Waste. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,Industry. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,Savings. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,

Kramer, Klaas Jan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Rate of Industrial Conservation - Petroleum Refining, Chemicals and Pulp and Paper Manufacture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-31% of 1972 levels; through 1978 a 13-20% actual reduction in energy use has been achieved. 2) The additional can be realized by; 1982 by "strong action", or by 1987 by "moderate action". To date moderate action has been taken. 3) Overall energy conservation...

Prengle, H. W. Jr.; Golden, S. A.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE U.S. PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1639. [18] Industrial Assessment Centers (IAC) (2008).Industrial Assessment Centers Database. Rutgers University,

Kramer, Klaas Jan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

72 3.6.2. Biomass Conversion with Pre-combustion Carbon73 Figure 33. Biomass conversion with CO 2UNIDO 2011. 3.6.2. Biomass Conversion with Pre-combustion

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Products Industry Technology Roadmap. Agenda 2020 Technology2011. "The IEA CCS Technology Roadmap: One Year On". Energy1287- Reitzer, R. 2007. Technology Roadmap - Applications of

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fuel) through biological and/or chemical synthesis from biomass containing carbohydrates Bioenergy carriers produced by micro- organisms (algae,

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z