National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for btu ash percent

  1. Transcending Portland Cement with 100 percent fly ash concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cross, D.; Akin, M.; Stephens, J.; Cuelh, E.

    2009-07-01

    The use of concrete, made with 100% fly ash and no Portland cement, in buildings at the Transportation Institute in Bozeman, MT, USA, is described. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Btu)","per Building

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)","Floorspace (million square feet)","Floorspace per Building (thousand square feet)","Total (trillion Btu)","per Building (million Btu)","per...

  3. First BTU | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    that is consumed by the United States.3 References First BTU First BTU Green Energy About First BTU Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleFirstBT...

  4. "Economic","per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Characteristic(a)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 6.2;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,"Consumption" " ",,"Consumption","per Dollar" " ","Consumption","per Dollar","of Value" "Economic","per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Characteristic(a)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)" ,"Total United States" "Value

  5. "Economic","per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Characteristic(a)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 6.2;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,"Consumption" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar" ,"Consumption","per Dollar","of Value" "Economic","per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Characteristic(a)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)" ,"Total United States" "Value of Shipments and

  6. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Consumption (Btu) and Energy Intensities by End Use for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity (thousand Btu...

  7. BTU International Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1862 Product: US-based manufacturer of thermal processing equipment, semiconductor packaging, and surface mount assembly. References: BTU International Inc1 This article is a...

  8. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2013 Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Period Average Btu per Pound Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight Average Btu per Gallon Average Sulfur Percent by...

  9. Microfabricated BTU monitoring device for system-wide natural...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Microfabricated BTU monitoring device for system-wide natural gas monitoring. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microfabricated BTU monitoring device for system-wide...

  10. "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code(a)","Economic Characteristic(b)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Relative Standard Errors for Table 6.3;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,,"Consumption" ,,,"Consumption","per Dollar" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar","of Value" "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code(a)","Economic Characteristic(b)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)" ,,"Total United States" "

  11. ,"Total District Heat Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"District Heat Energy Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  12. ,"Total Natural Gas Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Natural...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  13. Property:Geothermal/CapacityBtuHr | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Pages using the property "GeothermalCapacityBtuHr" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 4 4 UR...

  14. Property:Geothermal/AnnualGenBtuYr | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Pages using the property "GeothermalAnnualGenBtuYr" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 4 4 UR...

  15. ,"Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    12:00:20 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)" "Sourcekey","RNGWHHD" "Date","Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per ...

  16. Microfabricated BTU monitoring device for system-wide natural gas

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    monitoring. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Microfabricated BTU monitoring device for system-wide natural gas monitoring. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microfabricated BTU monitoring device for system-wide natural gas monitoring. The natural gas industry seeks inexpensive sensors and instrumentation to rapidly measure gas heating value in widely distributed locations. For gas pipelines, this will improve gas quality during transfer and blending, and will

  17. DYNAMIC MANUFACTURING ENERGY SANKEY TOOL (2010, UNITS: TRILLION BTU) |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy Information Resources » Energy Analysis » DYNAMIC MANUFACTURING ENERGY SANKEY TOOL (2010, UNITS: TRILLION BTU) DYNAMIC MANUFACTURING ENERGY SANKEY TOOL (2010, UNITS: TRILLION BTU) About the Energy Data Use this diagram to explore (zoom, pan, select) and compare energy flows across U.S. manufacturing and key subsectors. Line widths indicate the volume of energy flow in trillions of British thermal units (TBtu). The 15 manufacturing subsectors together consume 95% of all

  18. Catalytic reactor for low-Btu fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Lance (North Haven, CT); Etemad, Shahrokh (Trumbull, CT); Karim, Hasan (Simpsonville, SC); Pfefferle, William C. (Madison, CT)

    2009-04-21

    An improved catalytic reactor includes a housing having a plate positioned therein defining a first zone and a second zone, and a plurality of conduits fabricated from a heat conducting material and adapted for conducting a fluid therethrough. The conduits are positioned within the housing such that the conduit exterior surfaces and the housing interior surface within the second zone define a first flow path while the conduit interior surfaces define a second flow path through the second zone and not in fluid communication with the first flow path. The conduit exits define a second flow path exit, the conduit exits and the first flow path exit being proximately located and interspersed. The conduits define at least one expanded section that contacts adjacent conduits thereby spacing the conduits within the second zone and forming first flow path exit flow orifices having an aggregate exit area greater than a defined percent of the housing exit plane area. Lastly, at least a portion of the first flow path defines a catalytically active surface.

  19. EIS-0007: Low Btu Coal Gasification Facility and Industrial Park

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this draft environmental impact statement that evaluates the potential environmental impacts that may be associated with the construction and operation of a low-Btu coal gasification facility and the attendant industrial park in Georgetown, Scott County, Kentucky. DOE cancelled this project after publication of the draft.

  20. Table 3.1 Fossil Fuel Production Prices, 1949-2011 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fossil Fuel Production Prices, 1949-2011 (Dollars per Million Btu) Year Coal 1 Natural Gas 2 Crude Oil 3 Fossil Fuel Composite 4 Nominal 5 Real 6 Nominal 5 Real 6 Nominal 5 Real 6 Nominal 5 Real 6 Percent Change 7 1949 0.21 1.45 0.05 0.37 0.44 3.02 0.26 1.81 – – 1950 .21 1.41 .06 .43 .43 2.95 [R] .26 1.74 -3.6 1951 .21 1.35 .06 .40 .44 2.78 .26 1.65 -5.4 1952 .21 1.31 [R] .07 .45 .44 2.73 .26 1.63 -1.0 1953 .21 1.29 .08 .50 .46 2.86 .27 1.69 3.3 1954 .19 1.18 .09 .55 .48 2.94 .28 1.70 .7 1955

  1. "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code(a)","Economic Characteristic(b)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Relative Standard Errors for Table 6.4;" " Unit: Percents." " "," ",,,"Consumption" " "," ",,"Consumption","per Dollar" " "," ","Consumption","per Dollar","of Value" "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code(a)","Economic Characteristic(b)","(million Btu)","(thousand

  2. spaceheat_percent2001.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Space Heating Tables (Percent of U.S. Households; 24 pages, 133 kb) Contents Pages HC3-1b. Space Heating by Climate Zone, Percent of U.S. Households, 2001 2 HC3-2b. Space Heating by Year of Construction, Percent of U.S. Households, 2001 2 HC3-3b. Space Heating by Household Income, Percent of U.S. Households, 2001 2 HC3-4b. Space Heating by Type of Housing Unit, Percent of U.S. Households, 2001 2 HC3-5b. Space Heating by Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, Percent of U.S. Households, 2001 2

  3. Process for the recovery of alumina from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murtha, Marlyn J. (Ames, IA)

    1983-08-09

    An improvement in the lime-sinter process for recovering alumina from pulverized coal fly ash is disclosed. The addition of from 2 to 10 weight percent carbon and sulfur to the fly ash-calcium carbonate mixture increase alumina recovery at lower sintering temperatures.

  4. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang

    2015-11-13

    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in 1150.degree. C. to 1500.degree. C. range as well as in excess of 1500.degree. C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  5. A Requirement for Significant Reduction in the Maximum BTU Input Rate of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Decorative Vented Gas Fireplaces Would Impose Substantial Burdens on Manufacturers | Department of Energy A Requirement for Significant Reduction in the Maximum BTU Input Rate of Decorative Vented Gas Fireplaces Would Impose Substantial Burdens on Manufacturers A Requirement for Significant Reduction in the Maximum BTU Input Rate of Decorative Vented Gas Fireplaces Would Impose Substantial Burdens on Manufacturers Comment that a requirement to reduce the BTU input rate of existing decorative

  6. Activation of fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corbin, David R. (New Castle, DE); Velenyi, Louis J. (Lyndhurst, OH); Pepera, Marc A. (Northfield, OH); Dolhyj, Serge R. (Parma, OH)

    1986-01-01

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  7. Activation of fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corbin, D.R.; Velenyi, L.J.; Pepera, M.A.; Dolhyj, S.R.

    1986-08-19

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  8. Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences Percent of Projections Over- Estimated Gross Domestic Product Real Gross Domestic Product (Average Cumulative Growth)* (Table 2) 0.9 45.8 Petroleum Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Constant $) (Table 3a) 37.7 17.3 Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Nominal $) (Table 3b) 36.6 18.7 Total Petroleum Consumption (Table 4) 7.9 70.7 Crude Oil Production (Table 5) 8.1 51.1 Petroleum Net Imports (Table 6) 24.7 73.8 Natural Gas

  9. Fly ash carbon passivation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  10. Sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

    1980-01-01

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is disclosed. The combustor includes several separately removable combustion chambers each having an annular sectoral cross section and a double-walled construction permitting separation of stresses due to pressure forces and stresses due to thermal effects. Arrangements are described for air-cooling each combustion chamber using countercurrent convective cooling flow between an outer shell wall and an inner liner wall and using film cooling flow through liner panel grooves and along the inner liner wall surface, and for admitting all coolant flow to the gas path within the inner liner wall. Also described are systems for supplying coal gas, combustion air, and dilution air to the combustion zone, and a liquid fuel nozzle for use during low-load operation. The disclosed combustor is fully air-cooled, requires no transition section to interface with a turbine nozzle, and is operable at firing temperatures of up to 3000.degree. F. or within approximately 300.degree. F. of the adiabatic stoichiometric limit of the coal gas used as fuel.

  11. Recent regulatory experience of low-Btu coal gasification. Volume III. Supporting case studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ackerman, E.; Hart, D.; Lethi, M.; Park, W.; Rifkin, S.

    1980-02-01

    The MITRE Corporation conducted a five-month study for the Office of Resource Applications in the Department of Energy on the regulatory requirements of low-Btu coal gasification. During this study, MITRE interviewed representatives of five current low-Btu coal gasification projects and regulatory agencies in five states. From these interviews, MITRE has sought the experience of current low-Btu coal gasification users in order to recommend actions to improve the regulatory process. This report is the third of three volumes. It contains the results of interviews conducted for each of the case studies. Volume 1 of the report contains the analysis of the case studies and recommendations to potential industrial users of low-Btu coal gasification. Volume 2 contains recommendations to regulatory agencies.

  12. Expanded standards and codes case limits combined buildings delivered energy to 21 quadrillion Btu by 2035

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Erin Boedecker, Session Moderator April 27, 2011 | Washington, DC Energy Demand. Efficiency, and Consumer Behavior 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2010 Technology Reference Expanded Standards Expanded Standards + Codes -7.6% ≈ 0 Expanded standards and codes case limits combined buildings delivered energy to 21 quadrillion Btu by 2035 2 Erin Boedecker, EIA Energy Conference, April 27, 2011 delivered energy quadrillion Btu Source: EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2011

  13. Recovery of iron oxide from coal fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dobbins, Michael S. (Ames, IA); Murtha, Marlyn J. (Ames, IA)

    1983-05-31

    A high quality iron oxide concentrate, suitable as a feed for blast and electric reduction furnaces is recovered from pulverized coal fly ash. The magnetic portion of the fly ash is separated and treated with a hot strong alkali solution which dissolves most of the silica and alumina in the fly ash, leaving a solid residue and forming a precipitate which is an acid soluble salt of aluminosilicate hydrate. The residue and precipitate are then treated with a strong mineral acid to dissolve the precipitate leaving a solid residue containing at least 90 weight percent iron oxide.

  14. Comparison between MSW ash and RDF ash from incineration process

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Comparison between MSW ash and RDF ash from incineration process Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Comparison between MSW ash and RDF ash from incineration process Resource recovery plants with waste sorting process prior to incineration have not been successfully developed in many developing countries. The reuse potential of incineration ash in light of toxicity and compressive strength remains unclear due to the inhomogeneous composition and higher

  15. Low-Btu coal gasification in the United States: company topical. [Brick producers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boesch, L.P.; Hylton, B.G.; Bhatt, C.S.

    1983-07-01

    Hazelton and other brick producers have proved the reliability of the commercial size Wellman-Galusha gasifier. For this energy intensive business, gas cost is the major portion of the product cost. Costs required Webster/Hazelton to go back to the old, reliable alternative energy of low Btu gasification when the natural gas supply started to be curtailed and prices escalated. Although anthracite coal prices have skyrocketed from $34/ton (1979) to over $71.50/ton (1981) because of high demand (local as well as export) and rising labor costs, the delivered natural gas cost, which reached $3.90 to 4.20/million Btu in the Hazelton area during 1981, has allowed the producer gas from the gasifier at Webster Brick to remain competitive. The low Btu gas cost (at the escalated coal price) is estimated to be $4/million Btu. In addition to producing gas that is cost competitive with natural gas at the Webster Brick Hazelton plant, Webster has the security of knowing that its gas supply will be constant. Improvements in brick business and projected deregulation of the natural gas price may yield additional, attractive cost benefits to Webster Brick through the use of low Btu gas from these gasifiers. Also, use of hot raw gas (that requires no tar or sulfur removal) keeps the overall process efficiency high. 25 references, 47 figures, 14 tables.

  16. Hawaii Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Foot) Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Hawaii Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,056 1,055 1,057 1,043 983 983 983 983 983 983 983 983 2014 947 946 947 947 947 947 951 978 990 968 974 962 2015 968 954 947 959 990 1,005 1,011 965 989 996 996 997 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual

  17. Comparison between MSW ash and RDF ash from incineration process

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Comparison between MSW ash and RDF ash from incineration process Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Comparison between MSW ash and RDF ash from incineration process × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and

  18. Engineering Model for Ash Formation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-12-02

    Ash deposition is controlled by the impaction and sticking of individual ash particles to heat transfer surfaces. Prediction of deposition therefore requires that the important factors in this process be predictable from coal and operational parameters. Coal combustion, boiler heat transfer, ash formation, ash particle aerodynamic, and ash particle sticking models are all essential steps in this process. The model described herein addresses the prediction of ash particle size and composition distributions based upon combustionmore » conditions and coal parameters. Key features of the model include a mineral redistribution routine to invert CCSEM mineralogical data, and a mineral interaction routine that simulates the conversion of mineral matter into ash during coal burning and yields ash particle size and composition distributions.« less

  19. Norwich Public Utilities- Zero Percent Financing Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In partnership with several local banks, Norwich Public Utilities (NPU) is offering a zero percent loan to commercial and industrial customers for eligible energy efficiency improvement projects....

  20. High-performance, high-volume fly ash concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-01-15

    This booklet offers the construction professional an in-depth description of the use of high-volume fly ash in concrete. Emphasis is placed on the need for increased utilization of coal-fired power plant byproducts in lieu of Portland cement materials to eliminate increased CO{sub 2} emissions during the production of cement. Also addressed is the dramatic increase in concrete performance with the use of 50+ percent fly ash volume. The booklet contains numerous color and black and white photos, charts of test results, mixtures and comparisons, and several HVFA case studies.

  1. Georgia Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Foot) Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Georgia Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,014 1,015 1,016 1,015 1,014 1,015 1,016 1,019 1,017 1,016 1,017 1,017 2014 1,018 1,018 1,018 1,018 1,021 1,022 1,023 1,023 1,027 1,026 1,026 1,025 2015 1,025 1,026 1,025 1,026 1,028 1,031 1,030 1,028 1,029 1,028 1,026 1,027 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  2. Delaware Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Foot) Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Delaware Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,050 1,049 1,046 1,048 1,041 1,049 1,058 1,054 1,065 1,064 1,067 1,057 2014 1,052 1,048 1,048 1,051 1,045 1,049 1,063 1,065 1,062 1,063 1,063 1,064 2015 1,061 1,061 1,062 1,051 1,055 1,055 1,044 1,044 1,043 1,051 1,051 1,049 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  3. Colorado Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Foot) Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Colorado Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,023 1,032 1,030 1,033 1,040 1,051 1,056 1,057 1,058 1,037 1,032 1,033 2014 1,030 1,036 1,038 1,041 1,051 1,050 1,048 1,048 1,050 1,055 1,042 1,051 2015 1,046 1,044 1,051 1,059 1,059 1,070 1,073 1,069 1,076 1,069 1,060 1,051 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  4. Florida Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Foot) Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Florida Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,016 1,015 1,016 1,015 1,016 1,015 1,016 1,016 1,017 1,017 1,018 1,018 2014 1,018 1,018 1,018 1,019 1,019 1,019 1,022 1,023 1,024 1,023 1,024 1,025 2015 1,024 1,025 1,024 1,024 1,026 1,026 1,026 1,024 1,024 1,023 1,023 1,023 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  5. Connecticut Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cubic Foot) Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Connecticut Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,018 1,025 1,011 1,022 1,028 1,024 1,032 1,028 1,030 1,030 1,026 1,024 2014 1,015 1,015 1,016 1,019 1,020 1,022 1,022 1,023 1,021 1,020 1,018 1,017 2015 1,017 1,026 1,029 1,026 1,049 1,027 1,027 1,026 1,026 1,028 1,027 1,026 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable;

  6. Iowa Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Foot) Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Iowa Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,025 1,029 1,029 1,030 1,031 1,030 1,030 1,027 1,028 1,032 1,033 1,032 2014 1,034 1,033 1,034 1,036 1,040 1,039 1,043 1,047 1,044 1,046 1,044 1,045 2015 1,045 1,047 1,047 1,051 1,054 1,060 1,059 1,059 1,058 1,058 1,057 1,056 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  7. U.S. Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Other Sectors Consumers (BTU

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    per Cubic Foot) Other Sectors Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) U.S. Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Other Sectors Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 1,029 1,026 1,028 1,028 1,027 1,027 1,025 2010's 1,023 1,022 1,025 1,028 1,032 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 02/29/2016 Next Release Date: 03/31/2016

  8. U.S. Total Consumption of Heat Content of Natural Gas (BTU per Cubic Foot)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumption of Heat Content of Natural Gas (BTU per Cubic Foot) U.S. Total Consumption of Heat Content of Natural Gas (BTU per Cubic Foot) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 1,028 1,026 1,028 1,028 1,027 1,027 1,025 2010's 1,023 1,022 1,024 1,027 1,032 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 02/29/2016 Next Release Date: 03/31/2016 Referring Pages:

  9. Louisiana Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cubic Foot) Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Louisiana Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,015 1,013 1,015 1,015 1,015 1,016 1,016 1,017 1,017 1,016 1,018 1,019 2014 1,017 1,016 1,018 1,021 1,028 1,025 1,029 1,029 1,031 1,034 1,037 1,038 2015 1,030 1,031 1,029 1,029 1,028 1,027 1,028 1,024 1,023 1,023 1,022 1,023 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable;

  10. Kansas Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Foot) Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Kansas Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,017 1,017 1,019 1,018 1,018 1,020 1,020 1,020 1,018 1,017 1,016 1,017 2014 1,017 1,017 1,019 1,023 1,022 1,023 1,025 1,025 1,027 1,025 1,028 1,025 2015 1,033 1,034 1,035 1,036 1,044 1,039 1,040 1,042 1,039 1,037 1,035 1,031 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  11. Kentucky Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Foot) Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Kentucky Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,023 1,022 1,023 1,025 1,026 1,027 1,028 1,030 1,031 1,028 1,028 1,033 2014 1,029 1,024 1,026 1,028 1,031 1,037 1,034 1,036 1,038 1,022 1,017 1,019 2015 1,023 1,018 1,015 1,016 1,023 1,021 1,024 1,015 1,020 1,024 1,021 1,024 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  12. Idaho Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Foot) Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Idaho Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,015 1,015 1,031 1,021 1,010 997 988 994 1,001 1,026 1,034 1,054 2014 1,048 1,036 1,030 1,022 1,006 993 984 996 1,005 1,019 1,046 1,039 2015 1,047 1,037 1,030 1,023 1,000 1,010 1,034 1,028 1,024 1,033 1,035 1,041 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  13. Illinois Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Foot) Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Illinois Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,013 1,013 1,014 1,015 1,015 1,014 1,015 1,015 1,016 1,017 1,019 1,018 2014 1,020 1,020 1,020 1,020 1,020 1,020 1,022 1,020 1,021 1,021 1,023 1,024 2015 1,027 1,030 1,029 1,028 1,029 1,027 1,027 1,027 1,028 1,028 1,030 1,030 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  14. Indiana Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Foot) Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Indiana Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,011 1,012 1,013 1,015 1,019 1,020 1,019 1,021 1,020 1,018 1,015 1,014 2014 1,016 1,017 1,019 1,019 1,023 1,023 1,025 1,030 1,028 1,027 1,025 1,029 2015 1,028 1,029 1,031 1,039 1,037 1,043 1,043 1,044 1,041 1,039 1,034 1,033 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  15. Minnesota Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cubic Foot) Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Minnesota Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,020 1,021 1,020 1,021 1,026 1,030 1,028 1,029 1,028 1,029 1,029 1,027 2014 1,031 1,027 1,033 1,034 1,038 1,042 1,042 1,051 1,046 1,040 1,038 1,040 2015 1,041 1,034 1,033 1,037 1,044 1,047 1,043 1,041 1,039 1,041 1,045 1,041 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable;

  16. Mississippi Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cubic Foot) Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Mississippi Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,013 1,013 1,014 1,014 1,015 1,018 1,018 1,021 1,022 1,025 1,020 1,020 2014 1,019 1,014 1,019 1,026 1,030 1,034 1,035 1,036 1,035 1,033 1,035 1,034 2015 1,036 1,033 1,031 1,037 1,032 1,030 1,030 1,029 1,031 1,028 1,029 1,030 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable;

  17. Missouri Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Foot) Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Missouri Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,015 1,014 1,014 1,013 1,014 1,013 1,017 1,015 1,016 1,019 1,013 1,014 2014 1,013 1,013 1,014 1,014 1,011 1,016 1,016 1,018 1,017 1,018 1,017 1,017 2015 1,017 1,020 1,025 1,026 1,024 1,026 1,026 1,026 1,026 1,025 1,024 1,023 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  18. Montana Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Foot) Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Montana Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,044 1,040 1,032 1,034 1,034 1,044 1,048 1,043 1,047 1,041 1,032 1,031 2014 1,034 1,030 1,030 1,027 1,032 1,030 1,038 1,036 1,040 1,031 1,026 1,030 2015 1,028 1,029 1,028 1,021 1,019 1,030 1,031 1,033 1,032 1,032 1,034 1,034 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  19. Maine Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Foot) Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Maine Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,037 1,032 1,027 1,032 1,028 1,031 1,033 1,030 1,031 1,037 1,032 1,029 2014 1,029 1,030 1,030 1,030 1,033 1,030 1,031 1,039 1,023 1,016 1,025 1,027 2015 1,033 1,035 1,030 1,025 1,022 1,020 1,020 1,018 1,019 1,026 1,025 1,027 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  20. Maryland Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Foot) Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Maryland Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,041 1,037 1,032 1,027 1,037 1,042 1,060 1,056 1,062 1,059 1,061 1,059 2014 1,053 1,048 1,045 1,049 1,047 1,052 1,051 1,051 1,049 1,052 1,057 1,057 2015 1,059 1,061 1,058 1,051 1,058 1,057 1,055 1,049 1,050 1,053 1,049 1,050 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  1. Massachusetts Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cubic Foot) Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Massachusetts Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,037 1,033 1,032 1,033 1,035 1,032 1,033 1,034 1,036 1,038 1,033 1,030 2014 1,035 1,032 1,031 1,030 1,030 1,031 1,030 1,029 1,029 1,028 1,029 1,028 2015 1,035 1,035 1,030 1,029 1,027 1,027 1,029 1,028 1,027 1,028 1,029 1,030 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not

  2. Michigan Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Foot) Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Michigan Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,021 1,021 1,022 1,026 1,020 1,022 1,024 1,021 1,019 1,019 1,017 1,019 2014 1,019 1,021 1,021 1,017 1,020 1,019 1,015 1,028 1,022 1,023 1,026 1,029 2015 1,027 1,026 1,030 1,035 1,028 1,033 1,034 1,035 1,036 1,034 1,041 1,040 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  3. Enabling Clean Consumption of Low Btu and Reactive Fuels in Gas Turbines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel-Flexible, Low-Emissions Catalytic Combustor for Opportunity Fuels ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE Enabling Clean Combustion of Low-Btu and Reactive Fuels in Gas Turbines By enabling ultralow-emission, lean premixed combustion of a wide range of gaseous opportunity fuels, this unique, fuel- fexible catalytic combustor for gas turbines can reduce natural gas consumption in industry. Introduction Gas turbines are commonly used in industry for onsite power and heating needs because of their high

  4. Modeling volcanic ash dispersal

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    Explosive volcanic eruptions inject into the atmosphere large amounts of volcanic material (ash, blocks and lapilli). Blocks and larger lapilli follow ballistic and non-ballistic trajectories and fall rapidly close to the volcano. In contrast, very fine ashes can remain entrapped in the atmosphere for months to years, and may affect the global climate in the case of large eruptions. Particles having sizes between these two end-members remain airborne from hours to days and can cover wide areas downwind. Such volcanic fallout entails a serious threat to aircraft safety and can create many undesirable effects to the communities located around the volcano. The assessment of volcanic fallout hazard is an important scientific, economic, and political issue, especially in densely populated areas. From a scientific point of view, considerable progress has been made during the last two decades through the use of increasingly powerful computational models and capabilities. Nowadays, models are used to quantify hazard scenarios and/or to give short-term forecasts during emergency situations. This talk will be focused on the main aspects related to modeling volcanic ash dispersal and fallout with application to the well known problem created by the Eyjafjöll volcano in Iceland. Moreover, a short description of the main volcanic monitoring techniques is presented.

  5. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 Alaska - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S2. Summary statistics for natural gas - Alaska, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 269 277 185 R 159 170 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 127,417 112,268

  6. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 Connecticut - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S7. Summary statistics for natural gas - Connecticut, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil

  7. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 District of Columbia - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S9. Summary statistics for natural gas - District of Columbia, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  8. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 Indiana - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S16. Summary statistics for natural gas - Indiana, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 620 914 819 R 921 895 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 6,802 9,075

  9. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 Maryland - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S22. Summary statistics for natural gas - Maryland, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 7 8 9 7 7 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 43 34 44 32 20 From Oil

  10. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 Massachusetts - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S23. Summary statistics for natural gas - Massachusetts, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0

  11. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 Minnesota - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S25. Summary statistics for natural gas - Minnesota, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil

  12. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 Nebraska - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S29. Summary statistics for natural gas - Nebraska, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 276 322 270 R 357 310 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 2,092 1,854

  13. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 New Hampshire - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S31. Summary statistics for natural gas - New Hampshire, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0

  14. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 North Carolina - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S35. Summary statistics for natural gas - North Carolina, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0

  15. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    50 North Dakota - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S36. Summary statistics for natural gas - North Dakota, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 188 239 211 200 200 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  16. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 South Carolina - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S42. Summary statistics for natural gas - South Carolina, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0

  17. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 Washington - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S49. Summary statistics for natural gas - Washington, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil

  18. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    80 Wisconsin - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S51. Summary statistics for natural gas - Wisconsin, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil

  19. District of Columbia Natural Gas Percent Sold to The Commercial...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by Local Distribution Companies (Percent) District of Columbia Natural Gas Percent Sold to The Commercial Sectors by Local Distribution Companies (Percent) Decade Year-0 ...

  20. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 Alabama - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S1. Summary statistics for natural gas - Alabama, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 7,026 7,063 6,327 R 6,165 6,118 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  1. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 Arkansas - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S4. Summary statistics for natural gas - Arkansas, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 7,397 8,388 8,538 R 9,843 10,150 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  2. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 California - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S5. Summary statistics for natural gas - California, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 1,580 1,308 1,423 R 1,335 1,118 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas

  3. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 Colorado - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S6. Summary statistics for natural gas - Colorado, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 28,813 30,101 32,000 R 32,468 38,346 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas

  4. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 Florida - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S10. Summary statistics for natural gas - Florida, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 17,182 16,459 19,742

  5. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 Georgia - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S11. Summary statistics for natural gas - Georgia, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells

  6. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 Illinois - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S15. Summary statistics for natural gas - Illinois, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 50 40 40 R 34 36 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells E 1,697 2,114

  7. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 Iowa - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S17. Summary statistics for natural gas - Iowa, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0

  8. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 Kansas - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S18. Summary statistics for natural gas - Kansas, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 22,145 25,758 24,697 R 23,792 24,354 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  9. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 Kentucky - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S19. Summary statistics for natural gas - Kentucky, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 17,670 14,632 17,936 R 19,494 19,256 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas

  10. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 Louisiana - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S20. Summary statistics for natural gas - Louisiana, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 19,137 21,235 19,792 R 19,528 19,251 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas

  11. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 Maine - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S21. Summary statistics for natural gas - Maine, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0

  12. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 Michigan - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S24. Summary statistics for natural gas - Michigan, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 10,100 11,100 10,900 R 10,550 10,500 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas

  13. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 Mississippi - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S26. Summary statistics for natural gas - Mississippi, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 1,979 5,732 1,669 R 1,967 1,645 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas

  14. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 Missouri - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S27. Summary statistics for natural gas - Missouri, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 53 100 R 26 28 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 R 8 8 From

  15. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 Montana - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S28. Summary statistics for natural gas - Montana, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 6,059 6,477 6,240 5,754 5,754 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  16. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 Nevada - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S30. Summary statistics for natural gas - Nevada, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 R 4 4 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 3 From Oil Wells

  17. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 New Jersey - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S32. Summary statistics for natural gas - New Jersey, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil

  18. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 New Mexico - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S33. Summary statistics for natural gas - New Mexico, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 44,748 32,302 28,206 R 27,073 27,957 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From

  19. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 New York - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S34. Summary statistics for natural gas - New York, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 6,736 6,157 7,176 R 6,902 7,119 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  20. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 Ohio - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S37. Summary statistics for natural gas - Ohio, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 34,931 46,717 35,104 R 32,664 32,967 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  1. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 Oklahoma - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S38. Summary statistics for natural gas - Oklahoma, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 44,000 41,238 40,000 39,776 40,070 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas

  2. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 Oregon - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S39. Summary statistics for natural gas - Oregon, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 26 24 27 R 26 28 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 1,407 1,344 770 770

  3. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 Pennsylvania - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S40. Summary statistics for natural gas - Pennsylvania, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 44,500 54,347 55,136 R 53,762 70,400 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals

  4. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 Rhode Island - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S41. Summary statistics for natural gas - Rhode Island, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From

  5. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 Tennessee - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S44. Summary statistics for natural gas - Tennessee, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 230 210 212 R 1,089 1,024 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 5,144

  6. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 Texas - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S45. Summary statistics for natural gas - Texas, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 95,014 100,966 96,617 97,618 98,279 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  7. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 Utah - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S46. Summary statistics for natural gas - Utah, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 6,075 6,469 6,900 R 7,030 7,275 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 328,135

  8. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 Vermont - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S47. Summary statistics for natural gas - Vermont, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells

  9. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 Virginia - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S48. Summary statistics for natural gas - Virginia, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 7,470 7,903 7,843 R 7,956 7,961 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  10. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 West Virginia - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S50. Summary statistics for natural gas - West Virginia, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 52,498 56,813 50,700 R 54,920 60,000 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals

  11. Incineration and incinerator ash processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blum, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    Parallel small-scale studies on the dissolution and anion exchange recovery of plutonium from Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash were conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and at the Rocky Flats Plant. Results from these two studies are discussed in context with incinerator design considerations that might help to mitigate ash processing related problems. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Table 2.2 Manufacturing Energy Consumption for All Purposes, 2006 (Trillion Btu )

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing Energy Consumption for All Purposes, 2006 (Trillion Btu ) NAICS 1 Code Manufacturing Group Coal Coal Coke and Breeze 2 Natural Gas Distillate Fuel Oil LPG 3 and NGL 4 Residual Fuel Oil Net Electricity 5 Other 6 Shipments of Energy Sources 7 Total 8 311 Food 147 1 638 16 3 26 251 105 (s) 1,186 312 Beverage and Tobacco Products 20 0 41 1 1 3 30 11 -0 107 313 Textile Mills 32 0 65 (s) (s) 2 66 12 -0 178 314 Textile Product Mills 3 0 46 (s) 1 Q 20 (s) -0 72 315 Apparel 0 0 7 (s) (s)

  13. Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

    1985-02-12

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone: this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe: swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone: this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

  14. Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

    1981-01-01

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone; this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe; swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone; this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

  15. Landfilling ash/sludge mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benoit, J.; Eighmy, T.T.; Crannell, B.S.

    1999-10-01

    The geotechnical properties of a mixture of municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash and municipal wastewater treatment plant sludge was investigated for a proposed ash/sludge secure landfill. The components as well as mixtures ranging from 10:1 to 5:1 (ash:sludge, by volume) were evaluated, where appropriate, for a number of geotechnical index and mechanical properties including particle size, water content, specific gravity, density-moisture relationships, shear strength, and compressibility. The results from a compactibility study and stability analysis of the proposed landfill were used to help approve a landfill codisposal concept; a full-scale facility was constructed and is currently operating successfully.

  16. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in North Carolina...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Represented by the Price (Percent) Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in North Carolina Represented by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep...

  17. ITER helium ash accumulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, J.T.; Hillis, D.L.; Galambos, J.; Uckan, N.A. ); Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H. . Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik); Hulse, R.A.; Budny, R.V. . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    Many studies have shown the importance of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} in determining the level of He ash accumulation in future reactor systems. Results of the first tokamak He removal experiments have been analysed, and a first estimate of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} to be expected for future reactor systems has been made. The experiments were carried out for neutral beam heated plasmas in the TEXTOR tokamak, at KFA/Julich. Helium was injected both as a short puff and continuously, and subsequently extracted with the Advanced Limiter Test-II pump limiter. The rate at which the He density decays has been determined with absolutely calibrated charge exchange spectroscopy, and compared with theoretical models, using the Multiple Impurity Species Transport (MIST) code. An analysis of energy confinement has been made with PPPL TRANSP code, to distinguish beam from thermal confinement, especially for low density cases. The ALT-II pump limiter system is found to exhaust the He with maximum exhaust efficiency (8 pumps) of {approximately}8%. We find 1<{upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E}<3.3 for the database of cases analysed to date. Analysis with the ITER TETRA systems code shows that these values would be adequate to achieve the required He concentration with the present ITER divertor He extraction system.

  18. Long duration ash probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurley, J.P.; McCollor, D.P.; Selle, S.J.

    1994-07-26

    A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during soot blowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon. 8 figs.

  19. Long duration ash probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurley, John P. (Grand Forks, ND); McCollor, Don P. (Grand Forks, ND); Selle, Stanley J. (Grand Forks, MN)

    1994-01-01

    A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during sootblowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon.

  20. Federal Government Increases Renewable Energy Use Over 1000 Percent...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Government Increases Renewable Energy Use Over 1000 Percent since 1999; Exceeds Goal Federal Government Increases Renewable Energy Use Over 1000 Percent since 1999; Exceeds Goal ...

  1. Federal Government Increases Renewable Energy Use Over 1000 Percent...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Government Increases Renewable Energy Use Over 1000 Percent since 1999; Exceeds Goal Federal Government Increases Renewable Energy Use Over 1000 Percent since 1999; Exceeds Goal...

  2. Combined compressed air storage-low BTU coal gasification power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kartsounes, George T.; Sather, Norman F.

    1979-01-01

    An electrical generating power plant includes a Compressed Air Energy Storage System (CAES) fueled with low BTU coal gas generated in a continuously operating high pressure coal gasifier system. This system is used in coordination with a continuously operating main power generating plant to store excess power generated during off-peak hours from the power generating plant, and to return the stored energy as peak power to the power generating plant when needed. The excess coal gas which is produced by the coal gasifier during off-peak hours is stored in a coal gas reservoir. During peak hours the stored coal gas is combined with the output of the coal gasifier to fuel the gas turbines and ultimately supply electrical power to the base power plant.

  3. Fly ash chemical classification based on lime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, J.

    2007-07-01

    Typically, total lime content (CaO) of fly ash is shown in fly ash reports, but its significance is not addressed in US specifications. For certain applications a low lime ash is preferred. When a class C fly ash must be cementitious, lime content above 20% is required. A ternary S-A-C phase diagram pilot is given showing the location of fly ash compositions by coal rank and source in North America. Fly ashes from subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin usually contain sufficient lime to be cementitious but blending with other coals may result in calcium being present in phases other than tricalcium aluminate. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Rising from the ashes: Coal ash in recycling and construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naquin, D.

    1998-02-01

    Beneficial Ash Management (BAM, Clearfield, Pa.) has won an environmental award for its use of ash and other waste to fight acid mine drainage. The company`s workers take various waste materials, mainly fly ash from coal-burning plants, to make a cement-like material or grouting, says Ernest Roselli, BAM president. The grouting covers the soil, which helps prevent water from contacting materials. This, in turn, helps control chemical reactions, reducing or eliminating formation of acid mine drainage. The company is restoring the 1,400-acre Bark Camp coal mine site near Penfield in Clearfield County, Pa. Under a no-cost contract with the state of Pennsylvania, BAM is using boiler slag, causticizing byproducts (lime) and nonreclaimable clarifier sludge from International Paper Co. (Erie, Pa.). The mine reclamation techniques developed and monitored at the site include using man-made wetlands to treat acid mine drainage and testing anhydrous ammonia as a similar treatment agent. BAM researches and tests fly ash mixed with lime-based activators as fill material for land reclamation, and develops and uses artificial soil material from paper mill and tannery biosolids.

  5. Publication sites productive uses of combustion ash

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Publication Sites Productive Uses of Combustion Ash For more information contact: e:mail: Public Affairs Golden, Colo., Jan. 23, 1997 -- A new technology brief published by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) describes how ash use can reduce the cost of waste management and not harm the environment. Communities in the United States typically dump municipal solid waste combustion ash in landfills. The new technology brief describes recent studies where ash

  6. A comparison between sludge ash and fly ash on the improvement in soft soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng-Fong Lin; Kae-Long Lin; Huan-Lin Luo

    2007-01-15

    In this study, the strength of soft cohesive subgrade soil was improved by applying sewage sludge ash as a soil stabilizer. Test results obtained were compared with earlier tests conducted on soil samples treated with fly ash. Five different proportions of sludge ash and fly ash were mixed with soft cohesive soil, and tests such as pH value, compaction, California bearing ratio, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), and triaxial compression were performed to understand soil strength improvement because of the addition of both ashes. Results indicate that pH values increase with extending curing age for soil with sludge ash added. The UCS of sludge ash/soil were 1.4 2 times better than untreated soil. However, compressive strength of sludge ash/soil was 20 30 kPa less than fly ash/soil. The bearing capacities for both fly ash/soil and sludge ash/soil were five to six times and four times, respectively, higher than the original capacity. Moreover, the cohesive parameter of shear strength rose with increased amounts of either ash added. Friction angle, however, decreased with increased amounts of either ash. Consequently, results show that sewage sludge ash can potentially replace fly ash in the improvement of the soft cohesive soil. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Texas Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Texas Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  8. Connecticut Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Connecticut Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  9. New York Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) New York Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  10. Petrographic characterization of economizer fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valentim, B.; Hower, J.C.; Soares, S.; Guedes, A.; Garcia, C.; Flores, D.; Oliveira, A.

    2009-11-15

    Policies for reducing NOx emissions have led power plants to restrict O{sub 2}, resulting in high-carbon fly ash production. Therefore, some potentially useful fly ash, such as the economizer fly ash, is discarded without a thorough knowledge of its composition. In order to characterize this type of fly ash, samples were collected from the economizer Portuguese power plant burning two low-sulfur bituminous coals. Characterization was also performed on economizer fly ash subsamples after wet sieving, density and magnetic separation. Analysis included atomic absorption spectroscopy, loss-on-ignition, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, optical microscopy, and micro-Raman spectroscopy.

  11. Commercial demonstration of atmospheric medium BTU fuel gas production from biomass without oxygen the Burlington, Vermont Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohrer, J.W.

    1995-12-31

    The first U.S. demonstration of a gas turbine operating on fuel gas produced by the thermal gasification of biomass occurred at Battelle Columbus Labs (BCL) during 1994 using their high throughput indirect medium Btu gasification Process Research Unit (PRU). Zurn/NEPCO was retained to build a commercial scale gas plant utilizing this technology. This plant will have a throughput rating of 8 to 12 dry tons per hour. During a subsequent phase of the Burlington project, this fuel gas will be utilized in a commercial scale gas turbine. It is felt that this process holds unique promise for economically converting a wide variety of biomass feedstocks efficiently into both a medium Btu (500 Btu/scf) gas turbine and IC engine quality fuel gas that can be burned in engines without modification, derating or efficiency loss. Others are currently demonstrating sub-commercial scale thermal biomass gasification processes for turbine gas, utilizing both atmospheric and pressurized air and oxygen-blown fluid bed processes. While some of these approaches hold merit for coal, there is significant question as to whether they will prove economically viable in biomass facilities which are typically scale limited by fuel availability and transportation logistics below 60 MW. Atmospheric air-blown technologies suffer from large sensible heat loss, high gas volume and cleaning cost, huge gas compressor power consumption and engine deratings. Pressurized units and/or oxygen-blown gas plants are extremely expensive for plant scales below 250 MW. The FERCO/BCL process shows great promise for overcoming the above limitations by utilizing an extremely high throughout circulation fluid bed (CFB) gasifier, in which biomass is fully devolitalized with hot sand from a CFB char combustor. The fuel gas can be cooled and cleaned by a conventional scrubbing system. Fuel gas compressor power consumption is reduced 3 to 4 fold verses low Btu biomass gas.

  12. ACAA fly ash basics: quick reference card

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-07-01

    Fly ash is a fine powdery material created when coal is burned to generate electricity. Before escaping into the environment via the utility stacks, the ash is collected and may be stored for beneficial uses or disposed of, if necessary. The use of fly ash provides environmental benefits, such as the conservation of natural resources, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and eliminating the needed for ash disposal in landfills. It is also a valuable mineral resource that is used in construction and manufacturing. Fly ash is used in the production of Portland cement, concrete, mortars and stuccos, manufactured aggregates along with various agricultural applications. As mineral filler, fly ash can be used for paints, shingles, carpet backing, plastics, metal castings and other purposes. This quick reference card is intended to provide the reader basic source, identification and composition, information specifically related to fly ash.

  13. Federal Government Increases Renewable Energy Use Over 1000 Percent since

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    1999; Exceeds Goal | Department of Energy Government Increases Renewable Energy Use Over 1000 Percent since 1999; Exceeds Goal Federal Government Increases Renewable Energy Use Over 1000 Percent since 1999; Exceeds Goal November 3, 2005 - 12:35pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The Department of Energy (DOE) announced today that the federal government has exceeded its goal of obtaining 2.5 percent of its electricity needs from renewable energy sources by September 30, 2005. The largest energy

  14. Combustion with reduced carbon in the ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Bool, III, Lawrence E.

    2005-12-27

    Combustion of coal in which oxygen is injected into the coal as it emerges from burner produces ash having reduced amounts of carbon.

  15. Characterization of ash cenospheres in fly ash from Australian power stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ling-ngee Ngu; Hongwei Wu; Dong-ke Zhang

    2007-12-15

    Ash cenospheres in fly ashes from five Australian power stations have been characterized. The experimental data show that ash cenosphere yield varies across the power stations. Ash partitioning occurred in the process of ash cenosphere formation during combustion. Contradictory to conclusions from the literature, iron does not seem to be essential to ash cenosphere formation in the cases examined in the present work. Further investigation was also undertaken on a series of size-fractioned ash cenosphere samples from Tarong power station. It is found that about 70 wt% of ash cenospheres in the bulk sample have sizes between 45 and 150 {mu}m. There are two different ash cenosphere structures, that is, single-ring structure and network structure. The percentage of ash cenospheres of a network structure increases with increasing ash cenosphere size. Small ash cenospheres (in the size fractions {lt}150 {mu}m) have a high SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratio, and the majority of the ash cenospheres are spherical and of a single-ring structure. Large ash cenosphere particles (in the size fractions of 150-250 {mu}m and {gt}250 {mu}m) have a low SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratio, and a high proportion of the ash cenospheres are nonspherical and of a network structure. A novel quantitative technique has been developed to measure the diameter and wall thickness of ash cenospheres on a particle-to-particle basis. A monolayer of size-fractioned ash cenospheres was dispersed on a pellet, which was then polished carefully before being examined using a scanning electron microscope and image analysis. The ash cenosphere wall thickness broadly increases with increasing ash cenosphere size. The ratios between wall thickness and diameter of ash cenospheres are limited between an upper bound of about 10.5% and a lower bound of about 2.5%, irrespective of the ash cenosphere size. 52 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Table 2.9 Commercial Buildings Consumption by Energy Source, Selected Years, 1979-2003 (Trillion Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Commercial Buildings Consumption by Energy Source, Selected Years, 1979-2003 (Trillion Btu) Energy Source and Year Square Footage Category Principal Building Activity Census Region 1 All Buildings 1,001 to 10,000 10,001 to 100,000 Over 100,000 Education Food Sales Food Service Health Care Lodging Mercantile and Service Office All Other Northeast Midwest South West Major Sources 2 1979 1,255 2,202 1,508 511 [3] 336 469 278 894 861 1,616 1,217 1,826 1,395 526 4,965 1983 1,242 1,935 1,646 480 [3]

  17. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boxley, Chett (Park City, UT)

    2012-05-15

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  18. Low-Btu coal-gasification-process design report for Combustion Engineering/Gulf States Utilities coal-gasification demonstration plant. [Natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil to natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil or low Btu gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrus, H E; Rebula, E; Thibeault, P R; Koucky, R W

    1982-06-01

    This report describes a coal gasification demonstration plant that was designed to retrofit an existing steam boiler. The design uses Combustion Engineering's air blown, atmospheric pressure, entrained flow coal gasification process to produce low-Btu gas and steam for Gulf States Utilities Nelson No. 3 boiler which is rated at a nominal 150 MW of electrical power. Following the retrofit, the boiler, originally designed to fire natural gas or No. 2 oil, will be able to achieve full load power output on natural gas, No. 2 oil, or low-Btu gas. The gasifier and the boiler are integrated, in that the steam generated in the gasifier is combined with steam from the boiler to produce full load. The original contract called for a complete process and mechanical design of the gasification plant. However, the contract was curtailed after the process design was completed, but before the mechanical design was started. Based on the well defined process, but limited mechanical design, a preliminary cost estimate for the installation was completed.

  19. Recovery Act Workers Complete Environmental Cleanup of Coal Ash...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Complete Environmental Cleanup of Coal Ash Basin Recovery Act Workers Complete Environmental Cleanup of Coal Ash Basin The Savannah River Site (SRS) recently cleaned up a 17-acre ...

  20. Hunt's Ash Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hunt's Ash Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Hunt's Ash Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Hunt's...

  1. Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters Poster presentation at the 2007...

  2. Uncovering Fundamental Ash-Formation Mechanisms and Potential...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Results illustrate ash particle growth and formation pathways, and influence of lubricant chemistry and exhaust conditions on fundamental ash properties PDF icon deer12kamp.pdf ...

  3. Detailed Characterization of Lubricant-Derived Ash-Related Species...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lubricant Formulation and Consumption Effects on Diesel Exhaust Ash Emissions: Correlations Between Metallic Lubricant Additive Species in the Ring Pack and Ash Emissions and Their ...

  4. Settlement of footing on compacted ash bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, G.; Pusadkar, S.S.

    2007-11-15

    Compacted coal ash fills exhibit capillary stress due to contact moisture and preconsolidation stress due to the compaction process. As such, the conventional methods of estimating settlement of footing on cohesionless soils based on penetration tests become inapplicable in the case of footings on coal ash fills, although coal ash is also a cohesionless material. Therefore, a method of estimating load-settlement behavior of footings resting on coal ash fills accounting for the effect of capillary and preconsolidation stresses is presented here. The proposed method has been validated by conducting plate load tests on laboratory prepared compacted ash beds and comparing the observed and predicted load-settlement behavior. Overestimation of settlement greater than 100% occurs when capillary and preconsolidation stresses are not accounted for, as is the case in conventional methods.

  5. Geotechnical characterization of some Indian fly ashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, S.K.; Yudhbir

    2005-10-01

    This paper reports the findings of experimental studies with regard to some common engineering properties (e.g., grain size, specific gravity, compaction characteristics, and unconfined compression strength) of both low and high calcium fly ashes, to evaluate their suitability as embankment materials and reclamation fills. In addition, morphology, chemistry, and mineralogy of fly ashes are studied using scanning electron microscope, electron dispersive x-ray analyzer, x-ray diffractometer, and infrared absorption spectroscopy. In high calcium fly ash, mineralogical and chemical differences are observed for particles, {gt}75 {mu} m and the particles of {lt} 45 {mu} m size. The mode and duration of curing significantly affect the strength and stress-strain behavior of fly ashes. The geotechnical properties of fly ash are governed by factors like lime content (CaO), iron content (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and loss on ignition. The distinct difference between self-hardening and pozzolanic reactivity has been emphasized.

  6. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boxley, Chett (Park City, UT); Akash, Akash (Salt lake City, UT); Zhao, Qiang (Natick, MA)

    2012-05-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  7. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2013-01-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  8. Table 2. Percent of Households with Vehicles, Selected Survey...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Percent of Households with Vehicles, Selected Survey Years " ,"Survey Years" ,1983,1985,1988,1991,1994,2001 "Total",85.5450237,89.00343643,88.75545852,89.42917548,87.25590956,92.08...

  9. Arizona - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 Arizona - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S3. Summary statistics for natural gas - Arizona, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 5 5 5 5 5 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 183 168 117 72 106 From

  10. Rocky Flats ash test procedure (sludge stabilization)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winstead, M.L.

    1995-09-14

    Rocky Flats Ash items have been identified as the next set of materials to be stabilized. This test is being run to determine charge sizes and soak times to completely stabilize the Rocky Flats Ash items. The information gathered will be used to generate the heating rampup cycle for stabilization. This test will also gain information on the effects of the glovebox atmosphere (moisture) on the stabilized material. This document provides instructions for testing Rocky Flats Ash in the HC-21C muffle furnace process.

  11. "Variable","Average Absolute Percent Differences","Percent of Projections Over- Estimated"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual Energy Outlook Retrospective Review, 2014" "Variable","Average Absolute Percent Differences","Percent of Projections Over- Estimated" "Gross Domestic Product" "Real Gross Domestic Product (Average Cumulative Growth)* (Table 2)",0.9204312786,45.77777778 "Petroleum" "Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Constant $) (Table 3a)",37.71300779,17.33333333 "Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil

  12. Table 3.3 Consumer Price Estimates for Energy by Source, 1970-2010 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumer Price Estimates for Energy by Source, 1970-2010 (Dollars 1 per Million Btu) Year Primary Energy 2 Electric Power Sector 11,12 Retail Electricity 13 Total Energy 9,10,14 Coal Natural Gas 3 Petroleum Nuclear Fuel Biomass 8 Total 9,10 Distillate Fuel Oil Jet Fuel 4 LPG 5 Motor Gasoline 6 Residual Fuel Oil Other 7 Total 1970 0.38 0.59 1.16 0.73 1.43 2.85 0.42 1.38 1.71 0.18 1.29 1.08 0.32 4.98 1.65 1971 .42 .63 1.22 .77 1.46 2.90 .58 1.45 1.78 .18 1.31 1.15 .38 5.30 1.76 1972 .45 .68 1.22

  13. Industrial co-generation through use of a medium BTU gas from biomass produced in a high throughput reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldmann, H.F.; Ball, D.A.; Paisley, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    A high-throughput gasification system has been developed for the steam gasification of woody biomass to produce a fuel gas with a heating value of 475 to 500 Btu/SCF without using oxygen. Recent developments have focused on the use of bark and sawdust as feedstocks in addition to wood chips and the testing of a new reactor concept, the so-called controlled turbulent zone (CTZ) reactor to increase gas production per unit of wood fed. Operating data from the original gasification system and the CTZ system are used to examine the preliminary economics of biomass gasification/gas turbine cogeneration systems. In addition, a ''generic'' pressurized oxygen-blown gasification system is evaluated. The economics of these gasification systems are compared with a conventional wood boiler/steam turbine cogeneration system.

  14. Ashe County- Wind Energy System Ordinance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2007 Ashe County adopted a wind ordinance to regulate the use of wind-energy systems in unincorporated areas of the county and to describe the conditions by which a permit for installing such a...

  15. Fly ash system technology improves opacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-06-15

    Unit 3 of the Dave Johnston Power Plant east of Glenrock, WY, USA had problems staying at or below the opacity limits set by the state. The unit makes use of a Lodge Cottrell precipitator. When the plant changed to burning Power River Basin coal, ash buildup became a significant issue as the fly ash control system was unable to properly evacuate hoppers on the unit. To overcome the problem, the PLC on the unit was replaced with a software optimization package called SmartAsh for the precipitator fly ash control system, at a cost of $500,000. After the upgrade, there have been no plugged hoppers and the opacity has been reduced from around 20% to 3-5%. 2 figs.

  16. Rocky Flats Ash test procedure (sludge stabilization)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Funston, G.A.

    1995-06-14

    Rocky Flats Ash items have been identified as the next set of materials to be stabilized. This test is being run to determine charge sizes and soak times to completely stabilize the Rocky Flats Ash items. The information gathered will be used to generate the heating rampup cycle for stabilization. The test will provide information to determine charge sizes, soak times and mesh screen sizes (if available at time of test) for stabilization of Rocky Flats Ash items to be processed in the HC-21C Muffle Furnace Process. Once the charge size and soak times have been established, a program for the temperature controller of the HC-21C Muffle Furnace process will be generated for processing Rocky Flats Ash.

  17. COMPCOAL{trademark}: A profitable process for production of a stable high-Btu fuel from Powder River Basin coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, V.E.; Merriam, N.W.

    1994-10-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI) is developing a process to produce a stable, clean-burning, premium fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and other low-rank coals. This process is designed to overcome the problems of spontaneous combustion, dust formation, and readsorption of moisture that are experienced with PRB coal and with processed PRB coal. This process, called COMPCOAL{trademark}, results in high-Btu product that is intended for burning in boilers designed for midwestern coals or for blending with other coals. In the COMPCOAL process, sized coal is dried to zero moisture content and additional oxygen is removed from the coal by partial decarboxylation as the coal is contacted by a stream of hot fluidizing gas in the dryer. The hot, dried coal particles flow into the pyrolyzer where they are contacted by a very small flow of air. The oxygen in the air reacts with active sites on the surface of the coal particles causing the temperature of the coal to be raised to about 700{degrees}F (371{degrees}C) and oxidizing the most reactive sites on the particles. This ``instant aging`` contributes to the stability of the product while only reducing the heating value of the product by about 50 Btu/lb. Less than 1 scf of air per pound of dried coal is used to avoid removing any of the condensible liquid or vapors from the coal particles. The pyrolyzed coal particles are mixed with fines from the dryer cyclone and dust filter and the resulting mixture at about 600{degrees}F (316{degrees}C) is fed into a briquettor. Briquettes are cooled to about 250{degrees}F (121{degrees}C) by contact with a mist of water in a gas-tight mixing conveyor. The cooled briquettes are transferred to a storage bin where they are accumulated for shipment.

  18. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation. Final report, October 1, 1988--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F.; Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C.; Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W.; Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R.

    1992-03-01

    The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal`s emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

  19. Fluidized bed gasification ash reduction and removal process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schenone, Carl E. (Madison, PA); Rosinski, Joseph (Vanderbilt, PA)

    1984-12-04

    In a fluidized bed gasification system an ash removal system to reduce the particulate ash to a maximum size or smaller, allow the ash to cool to a temperature lower than the gasifier and remove the ash from the gasifier system. The system consists of a crusher, a container containing level probes and a means for controlling the rotational speed of the crusher based on the level of ash within the container.

  20. Fluidized bed gasification ash reduction and removal system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schenone, Carl E. (Madison, PA); Rosinski, Joseph (Vanderbilt, PA)

    1984-02-28

    In a fluidized bed gasification system an ash removal system to reduce the particulate ash to a maximum size or smaller, allow the ash to cool to a temperature lower than the gasifier and remove the ash from the gasifier system. The system consists of a crusher, a container containing level probes and a means for controlling the rotational speed of the crusher based on the level of ash within the container.

  1. U.S. Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Deliveries (Percent) U.S. Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2000's 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2010's 100 100 100 100 100 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring Pages: Share of Total U.S. Natural Gas

  2. BOSS Measures the Universe to One-Percent Accuracy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BOSS Measures the Universe to One-Percent Accuracy BOSS Measures the Universe to One-Percent Accuracy The Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey makes the most precise calibration yet of the universe's "standard ruler" January 8, 2014 Contact: Paul Preuss, Paul_Preuss@lbl.gov , +1 415-272-3253 BOSS-BAOv1.jpg Baryon acoustic oscillations (gray spheres), which descend from waves of increased density in the very early universe, are where galaxies have a tendency to cluster or align -- an

  3. Los Alamos reduces water use by 26 percent in 2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Los Alamos reduces water use Los Alamos reduces water use by 26 percent in 2014 The Lab decreased its water usage by 26 percent, with about one-third of the reduction attributable to using reclaimed water to cool a supercomputing center. March 16, 2015 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and

  4. Comparative study on the characteristics of fly ash and bottom ash geopolymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chindaprasirt, Prinya; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Chalee, Wichian; Rattanasak, Ubolluk

    2009-02-15

    This research was conducted to compare geopolymers made from fly ash and ground bottom ash. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium silicate (Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}) solutions were used as activators. A mass ratio of 1.5 Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}/NaOH and three concentrations of NaOH (5, 10, and 15 M) were used; the geopolymers were cured at 65 deg. C for 48 h. A Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used on the geopolymer pastes. Geopolymer mortars were also prepared in order to investigate compressive strength. The results show that both fly ash and bottom ash can be utilized as source materials for the production of geopolymers. The properties of the geopolymers are dependent on source materials and the NaOH concentration. Fly ash is more reactive and produces a higher degree of geopolymerization in comparison with bottom ash. The moderate NaOH concentration of 10 M is found to be suitable and gives fly ash and bottom ash geopolymer mortars with compressive strengths of 35 and 18 MPa.

  5. Scale-Up and Demonstration of Fly Ash Ozonation Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rui Afonso; R. Hurt; I. Kulaots

    2006-03-01

    The disposal of fly ash from the combustion of coal has become increasingly important. When the fly ash does not meet the required specification for the product or market intended, it is necessary to beneficiate it to achieve the desired quality. This project, conducted at PPL's Montour SES, is the first near full-scale ({approx}10 ton/day), demonstration of ash ozonation technology. Bituminous and sub bituminous ashes, including two ash samples that contained activated carbon, were treated during the project. Results from the tests were very promising. The ashes were successfully treated with ozone, yielding concrete-suitable ash quality. Preliminary process cost estimates indicate that capital and operating costs to treat unburned carbon are competitive with other commercial ash beneficiation technologies at a fraction of the cost of lost sales and/or ash disposal costs. This is the final technical report under DOE Cooperative Agreement No.: DE-FC26-03NT41730.

  6. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in District of Columbia

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Represented by the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 -- -- 0 0 0 0 0 2010's

  7. Hydrothermal reaction of fly ash. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, P.W.

    1994-12-31

    The reactions which occur when fly ash is treated under hydrothermal conditions were investigated. This was done for the following primary reasons. The first of these is to determine the nature of the phases that form to assess the stabilities of these phases in the ambient environment and, finally, to assess whether these phases are capable of sequestering hazardous species. The second reason for undertaking this study was whether, depending on the composition of the ash and the presence of selected additives, it would be possible under hydrothermal conditions to form compounds which have cementitious properties. Formation of four classes of compounds, which bracket likely fly ash compositional ranges, were selected for study. The classes are calcium silicate hydrates, calcium selenates, and calcium aluminosulfates, and silicate-based glasses. Specific compounds synthesized were determined and their stability regions assessed. As part of stability assessment, the extent to which selected hazardous species are sequestered was determined. Finally, the cementing properties of these compounds were established. The results obtained in this program have demonstrated that mild hydrothermal conditions can be employed to improve the reactivity of fly ash. Such improvements in reactivity can result in the formation of monolithic forms which may exhibit suitable mechanical properties for selected applications as building materials. If the ashes involved are considered hazardous, the mechanical properties exhibited indicated the forms could be handled in a manner which facilitates their disposal.

  8. Extraction of trace metals from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Wai, C.M.; Nagy, Z.

    1983-08-15

    A process is described for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous. The fly ash has a silicate base and contains surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like. The process is carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl/sub 3/ in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl/sub 3/ to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

  9. Extraction of trace metals from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, Milton (Palos Park, IL); Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Nagy, Zoltan (Woodridge, IL)

    1984-01-01

    A process for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous, the fly ash having a silicate base and containing surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like, with the process being carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl.sub.3 in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl.sub.3 to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

  10. Minnesota Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Minnesota Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.49 2.52 2.65 2.72 2.59 2.44 2.52 2000's 2.60 2.62 2.77 2.72 2.73 2.66 2.68 2.73 2.85 2.79 2010's 2.57 2.66 2.63 2.86 2.88 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  11. Mississippi Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Mississippi Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.57 0.56 0.56 0.58 0.55 0.55 0.52 2000's 0.54 0.59 0.54 0.52 0.50 0.51 0.49 0.47 0.49 0.49 2010's 0.57 0.52 0.47 0.51 0.56 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  12. Missouri Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Missouri Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.71 2.53 2.58 2.62 2.56 2.45 2.37 2000's 2.31 2.44 2.34 2.26 2.25 2.21 2.18 2.15 2.33 2.22 2010's 2.25 2.18 2.00 2.17 2.27 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  13. Montana Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Montana Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.41 0.39 0.41 0.42 0.42 0.42 0.42 2000's 0.40 0.42 0.44 0.40 0.41 0.41 0.45 0.42 0.44 0.46 2010's 0.44 0.46 0.46 0.42 0.42 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  14. Nebraska Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Nebraska Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.97 0.92 0.93 0.94 0.95 0.90 0.86 2000's 0.85 0.98 0.90 0.83 0.79 0.79 0.82 0.82 0.87 0.84 2010's 0.84 0.84 0.75 0.84 0.83 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  15. Nevada Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Nevada Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.42 0.44 0.43 0.43 0.51 0.66 0.61 2000's 0.60 0.68 0.65 0.65 0.75 0.75 0.87 0.81 0.79 0.81 2010's 0.82 0.86 0.89 0.85 0.69 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  16. New Hampshire Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) New Hampshire Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.13 0.14 0.13 0.13 0.14 0.14 0.14 2000's 0.15 0.14 0.14 0.16 0.15 0.16 0.15 0.16 0.14 0.15 2010's 0.14 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  17. New Jersey Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) New Jersey Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 3.95 4.47 4.01 4.25 4.35 4.35 4.43 2000's 4.40 4.51 4.29 4.80 4.77 4.79 4.51 4.83 4.51 4.73 2010's 4.58 4.53 4.61 4.62 4.87 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  18. New Mexico Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) New Mexico Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.64 0.64 0.59 0.64 0.74 0.79 0.75 2000's 0.72 0.73 0.69 0.62 0.71 0.69 0.70 0.71 0.69 0.68 2010's 0.74 0.73 0.78 0.74 0.64 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  19. Ohio Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Ohio Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 7.14 7.08 7.38 7.15 7.11 6.56 6.73 2000's 6.88 6.47 6.57 6.75 6.59 6.69 6.23 6.34 6.27 6.12 2010's 5.93 6.07 6.05 6.07 6.30 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring

  20. Oklahoma Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Oklahoma Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 1.58 1.43 1.42 1.46 1.44 1.47 1.30 2000's 1.34 1.35 1.37 1.29 1.22 1.23 1.21 1.27 1.35 1.30 2010's 1.37 1.30 1.18 1.35 1.36 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  1. Oregon Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Oregon Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.60 0.60 0.58 0.63 0.65 0.76 0.82 2000's 0.78 0.80 0.79 0.73 0.79 0.82 0.94 0.91 0.92 0.94 2010's 0.85 0.99 1.04 0.94 0.81 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  2. Pennsylvania Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Pennsylvania Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 5.43 5.54 5.40 5.32 5.27 4.82 5.11 2000's 5.26 5.01 4.89 5.22 5.09 5.08 4.71 4.90 4.69 4.76 2010's 4.68 4.66 4.76 4.73 5.01 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  3. Colorado Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Colorado Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.14 2.05 2.15 2.12 2.32 2.45 2.37 2000's 2.33 2.59 2.64 2.45 2.48 2.57 2.73 2.77 2.74 2.70 2010's 2.74 2.76 2.79 2.76 2.60 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  4. Delaware Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Delaware Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.17 0.18 0.18 0.19 0.18 0.17 0.19 2000's 0.19 0.19 0.20 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.20 0.21 2010's 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.22 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  5. Florida Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Florida Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.28 0.29 0.30 0.31 0.26 0.31 0.29 2000's 0.30 0.33 0.31 0.31 0.33 0.33 0.36 0.32 0.32 0.32 2010's 0.39 0.35 0.35 0.31 0.33 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  6. Georgia Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Georgia Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.33 2.18 2.36 2.42 2.30 2.38 2.09 2000's 2.82 2.51 2.59 2.56 2.60 2.58 2.52 2.37 2.44 2.48 2010's 2.90 2.40 2.35 2.48 2.64 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  7. Hawaii Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Hawaii Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 2000's 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 2010's 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  8. Idaho Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Idaho Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.25 0.25 0.27 0.29 0.31 0.35 0.38 2000's 0.38 0.40 0.42 0.37 0.42 0.45 0.51 0.50 0.56 0.53 2010's 0.50 0.57 0.58 0.56 0.48 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring

  9. Illinois Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Illinois Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 9.99 9.77 10.33 10.28 9.98 9.07 9.42 2000's 9.35 8.95 9.40 9.32 9.11 9.07 9.12 9.17 9.52 9.21 2010's 8.71 8.87 8.70 9.24 9.42 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  10. Indiana Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Indiana Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 3.31 3.25 3.32 3.43 3.39 3.10 3.21 2000's 3.23 3.09 3.21 3.10 3.05 3.08 2.92 3.02 3.12 2.92 2010's 2.89 2.80 2.78 2.95 3.08 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  11. Iowa Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Iowa Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 1.68 1.61 1.70 1.68 1.64 1.52 1.51 2000's 1.48 1.49 1.46 1.46 1.40 1.39 1.42 1.43 1.54 1.47 2010's 1.43 1.42 1.35 1.48 1.51 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring

  12. Kansas Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Kansas Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 1.71 1.53 1.56 1.63 1.39 1.55 1.44 2000's 1.41 1.47 1.45 1.39 1.34 1.35 1.31 1.34 1.44 1.49 2010's 1.40 1.39 1.22 1.39 1.40 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  13. Kentucky Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Kentucky Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 1.35 1.29 1.36 1.34 1.33 1.23 1.25 2000's 1.29 1.19 1.21 1.22 1.16 1.16 1.08 1.09 1.12 1.08 2010's 1.14 1.08 1.04 1.11 1.13 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  14. Louisiana Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Louisiana Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 1.14 1.09 1.09 1.08 1.06 1.05 0.95 2000's 1.00 1.03 1.01 0.93 0.88 0.85 0.77 0.79 0.76 0.76 2010's 0.95 0.84 0.77 0.79 0.87 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  15. Maine Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Maine Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 2000's 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.03 2010's 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.05 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring

  16. Maryland Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Maryland Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 1.55 1.58 1.58 1.63 1.56 1.51 1.58 2000's 1.68 1.48 1.64 1.79 1.77 1.78 1.63 1.77 1.66 1.73 2010's 1.75 1.65 1.70 1.70 1.78 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  17. Massachusetts Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Massachusetts Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.45 2.47 2.18 2.18 2.25 2.26 2.24 2000's 2.28 2.24 2.24 2.48 2.32 2.46 2.38 2.44 2.71 2.78 2010's 2.63 2.74 2.78 2.39 2.49 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  18. Michigan Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Michigan Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 7.46 7.52 7.84 7.62 7.62 7.07 7.42 2000's 7.36 7.20 7.52 7.59 7.44 7.43 7.23 6.95 6.99 6.84 2010's 6.36 6.75 6.67 6.82 6.97 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  19. Alaska Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Alaska Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.28 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.30 0.35 0.37 2000's 0.32 0.35 0.33 0.33 0.37 0.37 0.47 0.42 0.44 0.42 2010's 0.39 0.43 0.52 0.39 0.35 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  20. Arizona Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Arizona Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.57 0.61 0.55 0.53 0.62 0.80 0.70 2000's 0.70 0.76 0.72 0.71 0.78 0.74 0.83 0.81 0.79 0.73 2010's 0.79 0.82 0.84 0.81 0.64 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  1. Arkansas Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Arkansas Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.92 0.86 0.85 0.88 0.85 0.85 0.77 2000's 0.85 0.78 0.80 0.75 0.71 0.70 0.72 0.69 0.73 0.70 2010's 0.76 0.72 0.63 0.71 0.75 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  2. California Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) California Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 10.11 10.75 9.85 9.03 9.61 12.17 12.03 2000's 10.34 10.75 10.45 9.80 10.52 10.02 11.26 10.43 10.00 10.06 2010's 10.35 10.87 11.52 9.84 7.81 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release

  3. Rhode Island Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Rhode Island Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.40 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.35 2000's 0.37 0.38 0.36 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.39 0.37 0.36 0.37 2010's 0.35 0.36 0.38 0.37 0.39 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  4. South Carolina Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) South Carolina Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.49 0.48 0.52 0.56 0.52 0.56 0.54 2000's 0.58 0.58 0.56 0.57 0.60 0.59 0.57 0.53 0.55 0.57 2010's 0.68 0.57 0.55 0.58 0.63 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  5. South Dakota Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) South Dakota Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.25 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.27 0.26 0.25 2000's 0.25 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.25 0.25 0.26 0.26 0.28 0.28 2010's 0.27 0.27 0.26 0.28 0.28 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  6. Tennessee Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Tennessee Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 1.19 1.18 1.24 1.34 1.29 1.31 1.28 2000's 1.37 1.43 1.42 1.37 1.34 1.37 1.40 1.29 1.41 1.38 2010's 1.55 1.43 1.30 1.45 1.54 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  7. Alabama Natural Gas % of Total Electric Utility Deliveries (Percent)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Electric Utility Deliveries (Percent) Alabama Natural Gas % of Total Electric Utility Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.17 0.13 0.23 0.23 0.29 0.60 0.53 2000's 0.81 1.29 1.98 1.68 2.14 1.79 2.34 2.57 2.46 3.30 2010's 3.81 4.53 4.40 4.08 4.23 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  8. Alabama Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Deliveries (Percent) Alabama Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 1.04 1.03 1.02 1.08 0.97 1.03 0.90 2000's 0.95 1.03 0.95 0.92 0.90 0.87 0.87 0.75 0.77 0.75 2010's 0.88 0.78 0.66 0.72 0.77 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring Pages:

  9. Alabama Natural Gas % of Total Vehicle Fuel Deliveries (Percent)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Fuel Deliveries (Percent) Alabama Natural Gas % of Total Vehicle Fuel Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.44 0.20 0.15 0.08 0.71 0.57 0.57 2000's 0.57 0.52 0.52 0.52 0.52 0.67 0.47 0.36 0.32 0.29 2010's 0.37 0.64 0.64 0.63 0.63 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring Pages:

  10. Alabama Natural Gas Percentage Total Commercial Deliveries (Percent)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Deliveries (Percent) Alabama Natural Gas Percentage Total Commercial Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.90 0.88 0.87 0.92 1.01 0.86 0.91 2000's 0.80 0.87 0.80 0.80 0.85 0.84 0.86 0.78 0.80 0.78 2010's 0.87 0.80 0.74 0.77 0.79 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring

  11. Alabama Natural Gas Percentage Total Industrial Deliveries (Percent)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Deliveries (Percent) Alabama Natural Gas Percentage Total Industrial Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.28 2.23 2.38 2.27 2.36 2.39 2.53 2000's 2.46 2.11 2.13 2.22 2.25 2.29 2.30 2.26 2.13 2.13 2010's 2.12 2.19 2.38 2.42 2.46 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring

  12. Utah Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Utah Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 1.05 1.01 1.01 1.04 1.17 1.26 1.17 2000's 1.11 1.15 1.21 1.08 1.24 1.20 1.37 1.28 1.35 1.36 2010's 1.38 1.49 1.44 1.44 1.23 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring

  13. Vermont Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Vermont Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 2000's 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.07 2010's 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.08 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  14. Virginia Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Virginia Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 1.32 1.34 1.42 1.45 1.48 1.40 1.46 2000's 1.60 1.47 1.54 1.68 1.70 1.77 1.64 1.71 1.63 1.77 2010's 1.84 1.68 1.70 1.75 1.82 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  15. Washington Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Washington Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 1.08 1.10 1.09 1.20 1.24 1.37 1.52 2000's 1.44 1.77 1.50 1.40 1.46 1.53 1.73 1.70 1.73 1.76 2010's 1.58 1.81 1.93 1.70 1.55 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  16. Wisconsin Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Wisconsin Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.63 2.64 2.80 2.82 2.73 2.57 2.70 2000's 2.70 2.63 2.81 2.80 2.78 2.72 2.76 2.78 2.87 2.79 2010's 2.58 2.75 2.71 2.92 2.96 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  17. Wyoming Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Wyoming Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.26 0.24 0.25 0.26 0.26 0.28 0.26 2000's 0.24 0.23 0.27 0.24 0.25 0.24 0.27 0.26 0.27 0.26 2010's 0.27 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.26 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  18. Correlation between the critical viscosity and ash fusion temperatures of coal gasifier ashes*

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsieh, Peter

    2015-07-02

    Coal gasification yields synthesis gas, an important intermediate in chemical manufacturing. It is also vital to the production of liquid fuels through the Fischer-Tropsch process and electricity in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle power generation. Minerals naturally present in coal become molten in entrained-flow slagging gasifiers. Molten coal ash slag penetrates and dissolves refractory bricks, leading to costly plant shutdowns. The extent of coal ash slag penetration and refractory brick dissolution depends on the slag viscosity, the gasification temperature, and the composition of slag and bricks. We measured the viscosity of several synthetic coal ash slags with a high-temperature rotary viscometer and their ash fusion temperatures through optical image analysis. All measurements were made in a carbon monoxide-carbon dioxide reducing atmosphere that approximates coal gasification conditions. Empirical correlation models based on ash fusion temperatures were used to calculate critical viscosity temperatures based on the coal ash compositions. These values were then compared with those obtained from thermodynamic phase-transition models. An understanding of slag viscosity as a function of ash composition is important to reducing refractory wear in slagging coal gasifiers, which would help to reduce the cost and environmental impact of coal for chemical and electricity production.

  19. Coal Ash Contaminants in Wetlands | SREL Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Assessing the Ecological Health of the D-Area Ash Plume Wetland David Scott, Brian Metts, Tracey Tuberville, and Bill Hopkins The ash plume wetland (APW). The APW received coal combustion wastes from a breach in a receiving basin in the 1970s. Several trace metals are elevated in sediments of the APW area, including arsenic, selenium, strontium and copper. Coal-fired facilities have been in operation on the SRS since the early 1950s. After combustion, coal combustion waste (CCW, sometimes also

  20. Using fly ash to mitigate explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taulbee, D.

    2008-07-01

    In 2005 the University of Kentucky's Center for Applied Energy Research was given funding to evaluate the use of coal combustion by-products (CCBs) to reduce the explosive potential of ammonium nitrate (AN) fertilizers. Fly ash C (FAC), fly ash F (FAF) and flue gas desulfurization by-product (FGD) were evaluated. It was found that applying a CCB coating to the AN particles at concentrations of 5 wt% or greater prevented the AN explosion from propagating. The article reports on results so far and outlines further work to be done. 6 figs.

  1. Fly Ash Characteristics and Carbon Sequestration Potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palumbo, Anthony V.; Amonette, James E.; Tarver, Jana R.; Fagan, Lisa A.; McNeilly, Meghan S.; Daniels, William L.

    2007-07-20

    Concerns for the effects of global warming have lead to an interest in the potential for inexpensive methods to sequester carbon dioxide (CO2). One of the proposed methods is the sequestration of carbon in soil though the growth of crops or forests.4,6 If there is an economic value placed on sequestration of carbon dioxide in soil there may be an an opportunity and funding to utilize fly ash in the reclamation of mine soils and other degraded lands. However, concerns associated with the use of fly ash must be addressed before this practice can be widely adopted. There is a vast extent of degraded lands across the world that has some degree of potential for use in carbon sequestration. Degraded lands comprise nearly 2 X 109 ha of land throughout the world.7 Although the potential is obviously smaller in the United States, there are still approximately 4 X 106 ha of degraded lands that previously resulted from mining operations14 and an additional 1.4 X 108 ha of poorly managed lands. Thus, according to Lal and others the potential is to sequester approximately 11 Pg of carbon over the next 50 years.1,10 The realization of this potential will likely be dependent on economic incentives and the use of soil amendments such as fly ash. There are many potential benefits documented for the use of fly ash as a soil amendment. For example, fly ash has been shown to increase porosity, water-holding capacity, pH, conductivity, and dissolved SO42-, CO32-, HCO3-, Cl- and basic cations, although some effects are notably decreased in high-clay soils.8,13,9 The potential is that these effects will promote increased growth of plants (either trees or grasses) and result in greater carbon accumulation in the soil than in untreated degraded soils. This paper addresses the potential for carbon sequestration in soils amended with fly ash and examines some of the issues that should be considered in planning this option. We describe retrospective studies of soil carbon accumulation on reclaimed mine lands, leaching studies of fly ash and carbon sorption studies of fly ash.

  2. Market assessment and technical feasibility study of PFBC ash use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, V.E.; Bland, A.E.; Brown, T.H.; Georgiou, D.N.; Wheeldon, J.

    1994-10-01

    The overall objectives of this study are to determine the market potential and the technical feasibility of using PFBC ash in high volume ash use applications. The information will be of direct use to the utility industry in assessing the economics of PFBC power generation in light of ash disposal avoidance through ash marketing. In addition, the research is expected to result in the generation of generic data on the use of PFBC ash that could lead to novel processing options and procedures. The specific objectives of the proposed research and demonstration effort are: Define resent and future market potential of PFBC ash for a range of applications (Phase I); assess the technical feasibility of PFBC ash use in construction, civil engineering and agricultural applications (Phase II); and demonstrate the most promising of the market and ash use options in full-scale field demonstrations (Phase III).

  3. High carbon fly ash finds uses in highway construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, H.; Patton, R.

    2008-07-01

    The beneficial use of high carbon fly ash in a highway construction project is discussed. The fly ash also had a relatively high content of mercury and some other heavy metals. 1 fig., 4 photos.

  4. Eco-friendly fly ash utilization: potential for land application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malik, A.; Thapliyal, A.

    2009-07-01

    The increase in demand for power in domestic, agricultural, and industrial sectors has increased the pressure on coal combustion and aggravated the problem of fly ash generation/disposal. Consequently the research targeting effective utilization of fly ash has also gained momentum. Fly ash has proved to be an economical substitute for expensive adsorbents as well as a suitable raw material for brick manufacturing, zeolite synthesis, etc. Fly ash is a reservoir of essential minerals but is deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. By amending fly ash with soil and/or various organic materials (sewage sludge, bioprocess materials) as well as microbial inoculants like mycorrhizae, enhanced plant growth can be realized. Based on the sound results of large scale studies, fly ash utilization has grown into prominent discipline supported by various internationally renowned organizations. This paper reviews attempts directed toward various utilization of fly ash, with an emphasis on land application of organic/microbial inoculants amended fly ash.

  5. Low NO{sub x} turbine power generation utilizing low Btu GOB gas. Final report, June--August 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.V.; Gabrielson, J.; Glickert, R.

    1995-08-01

    Methane, a potent greenhouse gas, is second only to carbon dioxide as a contributor to potential global warming. Methane liberated by coal mines represents one of the most promising under exploited areas for profitably reducing these methane emissions. Furthermore, there is a need for apparatus and processes that reduce the nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from gas turbines in power generation. Consequently, this project aims to demonstrate a technology which utilizes low grade fuel (CMM) in a combustion air stream to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in the operation of a gas turbine. This technology is superior to other existing technologies because it can directly use the varying methane content gases from various streams of the mining operation. The simplicity of the process makes it useful for both new gas turbines and retrofitting existing gas turbines. This report evaluates the feasibility of using gob gas from the 11,000 acre abandoned Gateway Mine near Waynesburg, Pennsylvania as a fuel source for power generation applying low NO{sub x} gas turbine technology at a site which is currently capable of producing low grade GOB gas ({approx_equal} 600 BTU) from abandoned GOB areas.

  6. Philadelphia gas works medium-Btu coal gasification project: capital and operating cost estimate, financial/legal analysis, project implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    This volume of the final report is a compilation of the estimated capital and operating costs for the project. Using the definitive design as a basis, capital and operating costs were developed by obtaining quotations for equipment delivered to the site. Tables 1.1 and 1.2 provide a summary of the capital and operating costs estimated for the PGW Coal Gasification Project. In the course of its Phase I Feasibility Study of a medium-Btu coal-gas facility, Philadelphia Gas Works (PGW) identified the financing mechanism as having great impact on gas cost. Consequently, PGW formed a Financial/Legal Task Force composed of legal, financial, and project analysis specialists to study various ownership/management options. In seeking an acceptable ownership, management, and financing arrangement, certain ownership forms were initially identified and classified. Several public ownership, private ownership, and third party ownership options for the coal-gas plant are presented. The ownership and financing forms classified as base alternatives involved tax-exempt and taxable financing arrangements and are discussed in Section 3. Project implementation would be initiated by effectively planning the methodology by which commercial operation will be realized. Areas covered in this report are sale of gas to customers, arrangements for feedstock supply and by-product disposal, a schedule of major events leading to commercialization, and a plan for managing the implementation.

  7. Low/medium Btu coal gasification assessment of central plant for the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the technical and economic feasibility of producing, distributing, selling, and using fuel gas for industrial applications in Philadelphia. The primary driving force for the assessment is the fact that oil users are encountering rapidly escalating fuel costs, and are uncertain about the future availability of low sulfur fuel oil. The situation is also complicated by legislation aimed at reducing oil consumption and by difficulties in assuring a long term supply of natural gas. Early in the gasifier selection study it was decided that the level of risk associated with the gasification process sould be minimal. It was therefore determined that the process should be selected from those commercially proven. The following processes were considered: Lurgi, KT, Winkler, and Wellman-Galusha. From past experience and a knowledge of the characteristics of each gasifier, a list of advantages and disadvantages of each process was formulated. It was concluded that a medium Btu KT gas can be manufactured and distributed at a lower average price than the conservatively projected average price of No. 6 oil, provided that the plant is operated as a base load producer of gas. The methodology used is described, assumptions are detailed and recommendations are made. (LTN)

  8. Table 2.4 Household Energy Consumption by Census Region, Selected Years, 1978-2009 (Quadrillion Btu, Except as Noted)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Household 1 Energy Consumption by Census Region, Selected Years, 1978-2009 (Quadrillion Btu, Except as Noted) Census Region 2 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1984 1987 1990 1993 1997 2001 2005 2009 United States Total (does not include wood) 10.56 9.74 9.32 9.29 8.58 9.04 9.13 9.22 10.01 10.25 9.86 10.55 10.18 Natural Gas 5.58 5.31 4.97 5.27 4.74 4.98 4.83 4.86 5.27 5.28 4.84 4.79 4.69 Electricity 3 2.47 2.42 2.48 2.42 2.35 2.48 2.76 3.03 3.28 3.54 3.89 4.35 4.39 Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene 2.19

  9. Utilization of blended fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash and pulverized coal combustion (PCC) fly ash in geopolymer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chindaprasirt, Prinya; Rattanasak, Ubolluk

    2010-04-15

    In this paper, synthesis of geopolymer from fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash and pulverized coal combustion (PCC) fly ash was studied in order to effectively utilize both ashes. FBC-fly ash and bottom ash were inter-ground to three different finenesses. The ashes were mixed with as-received PCC-fly ash in various proportions and used as source material for synthesis of geopolymer. Sodium silicate (Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}) and 10 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions at mass ratio of Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}/NaOH of 1.5 and curing temperature of 65 deg. C for 48 h were used for making geopolymer. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), degree of reaction, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed on the geopolymer pastes. Compressive strength was also tested on geopolymer mortars. The results show that high strength geopolymer mortars of 35.0-44.0 MPa can be produced using mixture of ground FBC ash and as-received PCC-fly ash. Fine FBC ash is more reactive and results in higher degree of reaction and higher strength geopolymer as compared to the use of coarser FBC ash. Grinding increases reactivity of ash by means of increasing surface area and the amount of reactive phase of the ash. In addition, the packing effect due to fine particles also contributed to increase in strength of geopolymers.

  10. Uncovering Fundamental Ash-Formation Mechanisms and Potential Means to

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Control the Impact on DPF Performance and Engine Efficiency | Department of Energy Uncovering Fundamental Ash-Formation Mechanisms and Potential Means to Control the Impact on DPF Performance and Engine Efficiency Uncovering Fundamental Ash-Formation Mechanisms and Potential Means to Control the Impact on DPF Performance and Engine Efficiency Results illustrate ash particle growth and formation pathways, and influence of lubricant chemistry and exhaust conditions on fundamental ash

  11. System and process for the abatement of casting pollution, reclaiming resin bonded sand, and/or recovering a low BTU fuel from castings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scheffer, Karl D. (121 Governor Dr., Scotia, NY 12302)

    1984-07-03

    Air is caused to flow through the resin bonded mold to aid combustion of the resin binder to form a low BTU gas fuel. Casting heat is recovered for use in a waste heat boiler or other heat abstraction equipment. Foundry air pollution is reduced, the burned portion of the molding sand is recovered for immediate reuse and savings in fuel and other energy is achieved.

  12. System and process for the abatement of casting pollution, reclaiming resin bonded sand, and/or recovering a low Btu fuel from castings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scheffer, K.D.

    1984-07-03

    Air is caused to flow through the resin bonded mold to aid combustion of the resin binder to form a low Btu gas fuel. Casting heat is recovered for use in a waste heat boiler or other heat abstraction equipment. Foundry air pollutis reduced, the burned portion of the molding sand is recovered for immediate reuse and savings in fuel and other energy is achieved. 5 figs.

  13. Utilization of CFB fly ash for construction applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conn, R.E.; Sellakumar, K.; Bland, A.E.

    1999-07-01

    Disposal in landfills has been the most common means of handling ash in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler power plants. Recently, larger CFB boilers with generating capacities up to 300 MWe are currently being planned, resulting in increased volumes and disposal cost of ash by-product. Studies have shown that CFB ashes do not pose environmental concerns that should significantly limit their potential utilization. Many uses of CFB ash are being investigated by Foster Wheeler, which can provide more cost-effective ash management. Construction applications have been identified as one of the major uses for CFB ashes. Typically, CFB ash cannot be used as a cement replacement in concrete due to its unacceptably high sulfur content. However, CFB ashes can be used for other construction applications that require less stringent specifications including soil stabilization, road base, structural fill, and synthetic aggregate. In this study, potential construction applications were identified for fly ashes from several CFB boilers firing diverse fuels such as petroleum coke, refuse derived fuel (RDF) and coal. The compressive strength of hydrated fly ashes was measured in order to screen their potential for use in various construction applications. Based on the results of this work, the effects of both ash chemistry and carbon content on utilization potential were ascertained. Actual beneficial uses of ashes evaluated in this study are also discussed.

  14. Screening technology reduces ash in spiral circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodzik, P.

    2007-05-15

    In 2006, the James River Coal Co. selected the Stack Sizer to remove the minus 100 mesh high ash clay fraction from the clean coal spiral product circuits at the McCoy-Elkhorn Bevins Branch prep plant and at the Blue Diamond Leatherwood prep plant in Kentucky. The Stack Sizer is a multi-deck, high-frequency vibrating screen capable of separations as fine as 75 microns when fitted with Derrick Corp.'s patented high open area urethane screen panels. Full-scale lab tests and more than 10 months of continuous production have confirmed that the Stack Sizer fitted with Derrick 100 micron urethane screen panels consistently produces a clean coal fraction that ranges from 8 to 10% ash. Currently, each five-deck Stack Sizer operating at the Bevins Branch and Leatherwood prep plants is producing approximately 33 tons per hour of clean coal containing about 9% ash. This represents a clean coal yield of about 75% and an ash reduction of about 11% from the feed slurry. 3 figs. 2 tabs.

  15. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in California Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 9.0 10.4 12.9 2000's 8.7 9.1 7.7 4.9 5.2 5.5 5.7 5.3 5.1 4.7 2010's 4.6 4.5 4.2 4.0 3.7 3.8

  16. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Connecticut Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 66.4 55.8 55.8 2000's 47.3 54.0 48.9 45.3 44.0 46.4 48.5 50.0 47.3 37.5 2010's 31.1 31.0 32.3 33.4 39.4 47.2

  17. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Louisiana Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 10.1 9.2 8.5 2000's 10.8 8.3 13.4 13.4 21.6 27.9 28.4 25.9 21.4 18.3 2010's 16.7 13.7 14.7 14.2 11.9 11.6

  18. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Massachusetts Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 33.8 26.2 36.9 2000's 27.3 26.3 20.0 45.4 38.2 36.5 34.4 29.9 20.6 21.1 2010's 19.4 20.6 17.7 18.3 22.3 26.3

  19. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Minnesota Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 40.4 39.7 39.8 2000's 40.4 41.9 41.2 45.1 41.0 41.1 34.4 34.2 27.7 28.4 2010's 22.4 19.3 17.8 19.5 17.9

  20. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Mississippi Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 39.6 37.6 26.3 2000's 26.9 28.8 25.9 33.7 34.4 25.2 20.0 15.0 12.2 10.1 2010's 9.6 9.7 9.6 10.6 9.9 9.0

  1. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Hampshire Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 48.8 30.7 24.3 2000's 18.1 13.0 12.3 12.0 10.7 10.6 14.6 15.3 17.7 20.6 2010's 12.8 10.7 9.0 7.5 9.2

  2. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Pennsylvania Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 14.3 13.1 11.8 2000's 11.8 9.9 7.3 6.6 6.4 7.0 5.5 5.4 5.7 4.5 2010's 3.8 2.0 1.3 1.3 1.2 NA

  3. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in South Carolina Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 86.9 86.7 86.1 2000's 86.5 82.1 87.7 78.5 77.8 77.4 71.4 47.3 47.3 47.6 2010's 46.3 45.4 45.1 45.6 43.6

  4. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Tennessee Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 38.3 33.1 34.7 2000's 38.5 36.2 36.0 39.9 40.5 42.4 38.9 38.2 39.9 38.2 2010's 35.7 29.7 29.4 29.7 30.0 29

  5. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Washington Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 23.5 20.1 24.0 2000's 34.5 38.2 27.4 20.1 17.3 15.8 20.2 17.4 12.9 8.7 2010's 8.3 7.5 7.3 6.7 6.5

  6. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in West Virginia Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 12.2 6.3 10.8 2000's 13.8 16.6 12.7 14.0 13.4 17.0 17.0 16.2 19.0 17.4 2010's 14.7 15.6 16.3 18.0 15.6

  7. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Wisconsin Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 27.1 22.0 20.2 2000's 22.1 19.5 21.4 20.2 18.8 18.1 18.3 18.5 18.3 18.1 2010's 17.4 17.8 17.6 18.8 19.6 NA

  8. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in California Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 86.6 77.8 74.5 76.9 48.8 52.1 54.9 50.4 48.7 57.1 2000's 57.1 62.6 68.6 70.3 71.2 68.7 64.7 60.7 56.7 54.9 2010's 54.1 54.3 50.0 49.9 48.4 50.0

  9. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in District of Columbia

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Represented by the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100.0 97.3 99.0 98.0 90.9 76.8 70.5 54.9 52.3 45.9 2000's 35.6 22.4 23.5 30.5 23.3 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2010's 100.0 16.9 17.9 19.1 19.9 21.4

  10. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Louisiana Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100.0 99.1 87.5 98.1 97.9 98.1 98.3 95.9 94.6 93.8 2000's 96.3 96.5 99.0 98.8 98.6 98.6 98.4 98.0 98.4 92.0 2010's 85.9 83.6 78.0 77.7 78.9 79.1

  11. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Massachusetts Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 99.9 99.8 99.8 97.5 76.2 84.9 74.7 62.6 57.9 59.8 2000's 63.0 62.1 57.4 68.7 71.3 70.5 70.6 65.3 57.9 56.9 2010's 52.1 50.0 48.6 39.4 42.3 NA

  12. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Minnesota Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 95.9 95.2 96.2 97.0 96.0 93.7 96.2 98.8 97.6 97.2 2000's 97.4 98.3 90.7 92.8 94.2 93.6 93.7 94.9 95.7 93.7 2010's 93.1 89.8 91.1 90.1 90.2 84.3

  13. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Mississippi Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 95.6 95.9 96.4 96.6 96.6 97.0 97.4 94.8 94.8 96.0 2000's 95.6 95.7 96.7 95.9 95.7 95.7 94.9 88.8 90.4 91.0 2010's 90.6 89.8 89.0 89.1 87.5 NA

  14. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Hampshire Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.2 96.9 92.4 94.1 93.2 2000's 86.4 86.6 80.6 79.2 74.9 75.7 75.4 71.2 58.9 53.9 2010's 57.3 55.6 51.8 50.2 57.0 58

  15. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Pennsylvania Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 78.4 77.3 75.8 77.4 74.4 68.4 70.4 63.6 56.8 56.9 2000's 60.5 63.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2010's 100.0 48.5 42.1 40.2 41.4 NA

  16. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in South Carolina Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 97.8 98.2 98.6 99.2 98.5 96.4 99.0 98.8 97.9 97.1 2000's 98.7 97.5 98.5 96.6 96.4 96.2 95.0 94.9 94.9 93.5 2010's 92.7 91.1 90.6 91.7 92.8

  17. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Tennessee Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 97.5 95.7 96.4 95.8 94.1 93.8 94.3 92.2 87.3 88.8 2000's 92.5 93.6 90.9 90.5 92.2 92.2 92.0 91.9 91.7 90.2 2010's 90.8 89.9 88.8 90.0 90.7 88.6

  18. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Washington Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 93.6 92.2 87.3 93.9 95.4 91.8 85.9 84.1 86.8 89.3 2000's 92.7 94.0 89.8 88.0 88.5 88.8 88.9 89.2 89.0 88.7 2010's 87.8 88.4 87.4 86.8 86.0 85

  19. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in West Virginia Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 58.1 54.9 56.9 54.3 55.2 51.6 56.3 54.5 49.5 51.8 2000's 56.6 63.9 57.4 60.2 57.1 58.2 56.0 58.6 53.5 53.6 2010's 51.0 49.2 48.9 52.9 56.7 53.3

  20. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Wisconsin Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 90.7 91.0 91.3 94.4 93.5 92.0 91.6 82.1 74.0 79.0 2000's 78.1 77.2 75.9 79.1 79.7 79.0 76.0 75.5 76.8 76.8 2010's 76.2 76.4 74.4 77.7 77.0 NA

  1. Stabilizing soft fine-grained soils with fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edil, T.B.; Acosta, H.A.; Benson, C.H.

    2006-03-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of self-cementing fly ashes derived from combustion of subbituminous coal at electric power plants for stabilization of soft fine-grained soils. California bearing ratio (CBR) and resilient modulus (M{sub r}) tests were conducted on mixtures prepared with seven soft fine-grained soils (six inorganic soils and one organic soil) and four fly ashes. The soils were selected to represent a relatively broad range of plasticity, with plasticity indices ranging between 15 and 38. Two of the fly ashes are high quality Class C ashes (per ASTM C 618) that are normally used in Portland cement concrete. The other ashes are off-specification ashes, meaning they do not meet the Class C or Class F criteria in ASTM C 618. Tests were conducted on soils and soil-fly ash mixtures prepared at optimum water content (a standardized condition), 7% wet of optimum water content (representative of the typical in situ condition in Wisconsin), and 9-18% wet of optimum water content (representative of a very wet in situ condition). Addition of fly ash resulted in appreciable increases in the CBR and M{sub r} of the inorganic soils. For water contents 7% wet of optimum, CBRs of the soils alone ranged between 1 and 5. Addition of 10% fly ash resulted in CBRs ranging between 8 and 17, and 18% fly ash resulted in CBRs between 15 and 31. Similarly, M{sub r} of the soil alone ranged between 3 and 15 MPa at 7% wet of optimum, whereas addition of 10% fly ash resulted in M{sub r} between 12 and 60 MPa and 18% fly ash resulted in M{sub r} between 51 and 106 MPa. In contrast, except for one fly ash, addition of fly ash generally had little effect on CBR or M{sub r} of the organic soil.

  2. Fly ash and concrete: a study determines whether biomass, or coal co-firing fly ash, can be used in concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Shuangzhen; Baxter, Larry

    2006-08-01

    Current US national standards for using fly ash in concrete (ASTM C618) state that fly ash must come from coal combustion, thus precluding biomass-coal co-firing fly ash. The co-fired ash comes from a large and increasing fraction of US power plants due to rapid increases in co-firing opportunity fuels with coal. The fly ashes include coal fly ash, wood fly ash from pure wood combustion, biomass and coal co-fired fly ash SW1 and SW2. Also wood fly ash is blended with Class C or Class F to produce Wood C and Wood E. Concrete samples were prepared with fly ash replacing cement by 25%. All fly ash mixes except wood have a lower water demand than the pure cement mix. Fly ashes, either from coal or non coal combustion, increase the required air entraining agent (AEA) to meet the design specification of the mixes. If AEA is added arbitrarily without considering the amount or existence of fly ash results could lead to air content in concrete that is either too low or too high. Biomass fly ash does not impact concrete setting behaviour disproportionately. Switch grass-coal co-fired fly ash and blended wood fly ash generally lie within the range of pure coal fly ash strength. The 56 day flexure strength of all the fly ash mixes is comparable to that of the pure cement mix. The flexure strength from the coal-biomass co-fired fly ash does not differ much from pure coal fly ash. All fly ash concrete mixes exhibit lower chloride permeability than the pure cement mixes. In conclusion biomass coal co-fired fly ash perform similarly to coal fly ash in fresh and hardened concrete. As a result, there is no reason to exclude biomass-coal co-fired fly ash in concrete.

  3. Helium transport and ash control studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miley, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Primary goal of this research is to develop a helium (ash) transport scaling law based on experimental data from devices such as TFTR and JET. To illustrate the importance of this, we have studied ash accumulation effects on ignition requirements using a O-D transport model. Ash accumulation is characterized in the model by the ratio of the helium particle confinement time to the energy confinement time t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E}. Results show that the ignition window'' shrinks rapidly as t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E} increases, closing for high t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E} increases, closing for high t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E}. A best'' value for t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E} will ultimately be determined from our scaling law studies. A helium transport scaling law is being sought that expresses the transport coefficients (D{sub {alpha}}, V{sub {alpha}}) as a function of the local plasma parameters. This is necessary for use in transport code calculations, e.g. for BALDUR. Based on experimental data from L-mode plasma operation in TFTR, a scaling law to a power law expression has been obtained using a least-square fit method. It is found that the transport coefficients are strongly affected by the local magnetic field and safety factor q. A preliminary conclusion from this work is that active control of ash buildup must be developed. To study control, we have developed a O-D plasma model which employs a simple pole-placement control model. Some preliminary calculations with this model are presented.

  4. Manufacture of ceramic tiles from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hnat, J.G.; Mathur, A.; Simpson, J.C.

    1999-08-10

    The present invention relates to a process for forming glass-ceramic tiles. Fly ash containing organic material, metal contaminants, and glass forming materials is oxidized under conditions effective to combust the organic material and partially oxidize the metallic contaminants and the glass forming materials. The oxidized glass forming materials are vitrified to form a glass melt. This glass melt is then formed into tiles containing metallic contaminants. 6 figs.

  5. Manufacture of ceramic tiles from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hnat, James G. (Collegeville, PA); Mathur, Akshay (Tampa, FL); Simpson, James C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for forming glass-ceramic tiles. Fly ash containing organic material, metal contaminants, and glass forming materials is oxidized under conditions effective to combust the organic material and partially oxidize the metallic contaminants and the glass forming materials. The oxidized glass forming materials are vitrified to form a glass melt. This glass melt is then formed into tiles containing metallic contaminants.

  6. Eirich technology for the preparation of ashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eirich, G.

    1994-12-31

    The paper describes a mixer manufactured by Maschinenfabrik Gustav Eirich that can be used in the agglomeration of power plant ashes and residues. No matter whether the power plant burns coal, fuel oil, wood, peat, or garbage or whether the power plant plans to dispose or utilize the residue, most flowsheets will contain an agglomeration step. The paper describes some of the uses to which this mixer can be put.

  7. Water quality investigation of Kingston Fossil Plant dry ash stacking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohac, C.E.

    1990-04-01

    Changing to a dry ash disposal systems at Kingston Fossil Plant (KFP) raises several water quality issues. The first is that removing the fly ash from the ash pond could alter the characteristics of the ash pond discharge to the river. The second concerns proper disposal of the runoff and possibly leachate from the dry ash stack. The third is that dry ash stacking might change the potential for groundwater contamination at the KFP. This report addresses each of these issues. The effects on the ash pond and its discharge are described first. The report is intended to provide reference material to TVA staff in preparation of environmental review documents for new ash disposal areas at Kingston. Although the investigation was directed toward analysis of dry stacking, considerations for other disposal options are also discussed. This report was reviewed in draft form under the title Assessment of Kingston Fossil Plant Dry Ash Stacking on the Ash Pond and Groundwater Quality.'' 11 refs., 3 figs., 18 tabs.

  8. Application of solid ash based catalysts in heterogeneous catalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaobin Wang

    2008-10-01

    Solid wastes, fly ash, and bottom ash are generated from coal and biomass combustion. Fly ash is mainly composed of various metal oxides and possesses higher thermal stability. Utilization of fly ash for other industrial applications provides a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way of recycling this solid waste, significantly reducing its environmental effects. On the one hand, due to the higher stability of its major component, aluminosilicates, fly ash could be employed as catalyst support by impregnation of other active components for various reactions. On the other hand, other chemical compounds in fly ash such as Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} could also provide an active component making fly ash a catalyst for some reactions. In this paper, physicochemical properties of fly ash and its applications for heterogeneous catalysis as a catalyst support or catalyst in a variety of catalytic reactions were reviewed. Fly-ash-supported catalysts have shown good catalytic activities for H{sub 2} production, deSOx, deNOx, hydrocarbon oxidation, and hydrocracking, which are comparable to commercially used catalysts. As a catalyst itself, fly ash can also be effective for gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds, aqueous-phase oxidation of organics, solid plastic pyrolysis, and solvent-free organic synthesis. 107 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. The leaching characteristics of selenium from coal fly ashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, T.; Wang, J.; Burken, J.G.; Ban, H.; Ladwig, K.

    2007-11-15

    The leaching characteristics of selenium from several bituminous and subbituminous coal fly ashes under different pH conditions were investigated using batch methods. Results indicated that pH had a significant effect on selenium leaching from bituminous coal ash. The minimum selenium leaching occurred in the pH range between 3 and 4, while the maximum selenium leaching occurred at pH 12. The release of selenium from subbituminous coal ashes was very low for the entire experimental pH range, possibly due to the high content of calcium which can form hydration or precipitation products as a sink for selenium. The adsorption results for different selenium species indicated that Se(VI) was hardly adsorbable on either bituminous coal ashes or subbitumminous coal ashes at any pH. However, Se(I) was highly adsorbed by bituminous coal ashes under acidic pH conditions and was mostly removed by subbitumminous coal ashes across the entire pH range. This result suggests that the majority of selenium released from the tested fly ashes was Se(IV). A speciation-based model was developed to simulate the adsorption of Se(IV) on bituminous coal fly ash, and the pH-independent adsorption constants of HSeO{sup 3-} and SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} were determined. The modeling approach is useful for understanding and predicting the release process of selenium from fly ash.

  10. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in California Represented by

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 94.6 95.1 93.0 88.3 94.8 92.8 89.4 87.8 91.0 88.5 90.1 92.2 1990 95.8 81.1 94.4 90.4 90.2 85.6 78.0 82.6 79.1 82.3 85.6 88.3 1991 90.5 88.4 90.2 71.0 82.2 71.0 68.0 85.8 68.0 64.7 69.8 80.3 1992 86.6 65.6 75.7 79.0 63.5 74.5 60.9 64.6 79.7 79.0 76.7 81.4 1993 79.9 82.3 77.6 80.7 76.8 71.4 76.4 70.3 70.6 73.8 75.7 78.8 1994 51.3 47.2 50.6 40.5 47.4 32.2 36.4 46.5 46.0 52.2 57.8 68.2 1995 61.3 58.6 64.7 56.8 50.3

  11. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Connecticut Represented by

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100.0 100.0 98.4 90.0 81.6 76.5 74.5 80.4 74.8 85.5 90.8 99.5 1990 100.0 100.0 98.7 95.9 92.3 89.9 87.5 86.9 87.2 91.3 98.3 99.1 1991 99.4 99.4 97.5 92.5 85.9 79.2 76.2 77.1 77.9 85.9 93.0 96.6 1992 97.7 97.2 95.6 94.4 93.6 87.2 95.8 98.8 98.7 97.8 98.2 98.4 1993 97.2 97.7 97.2 98.1 99.4 99.3 88.3 98.4 99.6 100.0 100.0 100.0 1994 89.2 90.7 88.4 88.8 74.2 67.8 62.4 61.1 57.4 68.8 77.9 83.4 1995 86.7 88.1 85.7 81.6

  12. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in District of Columbia

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Represented by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1990 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1991 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 92.4 86.7 89.4 90.6 91.1 95.7 99.5 1992 99.6 100.0 100.0 97.4 97.6 100.0 91.4 99.5 99.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1993 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.8 96.8 88.4 90.1 92.6 95.9 97.1 1994 99.8 99.8 100.0 98.8 95.7 94.4 76.6

  13. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Louisiana Represented by

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 1990 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1991 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 98.5 98.6 98.4 98.5 98.4 97.4 97.6 1992 82.3 87.7 88.7 90.6 90.5 90.1 90.6 90.2 91.1 90.6 81.4 86.4 1993 97.4 97.9 98.1 98.6 98.9 98.9 98.8 98.8 98.8 98.2 97.1 97.5 1994 97.7 98.1 98.1 98.0 98.0 97.9 98.4 97.6 98.1 97.9 97.9 97.5 1995 97.8 98.2

  14. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Massachusetts Represented

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 1990 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.8 99.8 99.8 99.7 99.7 1991 99.8 99.8 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.8 99.7 99.6 99.6 99.8 99.9 99.9 1992 99.9 99.9 99.8 99.8 99.7 99.8 99.7 99.6 99.6 99.6 99.7 99.8 1993 98.9 98.7 98.5 97.7 96.5 97.7 96.8 89.2 97.5 96.7 96.9 97.8 1994 75.2 78.4 72.5 69.8 69.8 61.2 67.0 86.0 79.7 90.6 81.2 87.1 1995 87.9 89.4 92.0

  15. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Minnesota Represented by

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 97.3 97.4 97.0 95.8 95.0 92.4 89.4 89.9 92.7 91.9 94.9 97.0 1990 97.7 96.4 95.9 94.9 94.9 91.4 86.2 89.9 90.1 92.8 97.9 98.7 1991 96.8 96.3 97.6 95.9 89.2 80.9 79.3 81.5 90.5 97.8 97.0 99.0 1992 99.6 95.3 96.0 95.5 92.2 88.3 93.1 89.8 93.0 99.4 96.5 97.6 1993 98.7 96.9 96.3 99.2 99.2 93.4 88.2 87.1 96.2 95.3 96.5 99.1 1994 97.2 97.6 97.3 96.8 98.5 91.4 97.0 91.8 89.8 91.9 95.6 95.2 1995 93.3 93.6 95.0 96.2 95.5

  16. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Mississippi Represented by

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1990 97.6 96.0 95.7 95.6 94.5 94.3 93.7 93.5 93.9 94.4 95.2 95.8 1991 96.6 97.0 96.3 95.9 94.5 94.9 94.3 94.6 95.1 94.9 95.5 96.4 1992 96.9 97.3 96.4 96.6 95.2 95.4 95.5 94.8 95.6 95.6 95.9 97.4 1993 97.3 97.3 97.2 97.1 96.1 96.0 96.0 95.7 95.5 95.4 96.1 96.5 1994 97.2 97.6 97.1 96.9 96.1 96.9 97.1 95.1 94.9 94.3 96.2 96.6 1995 96.4 97.4 98.2

  17. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Hampshire Represented

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1990 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1991 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1992 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1993 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1994 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

  18. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Pennsylvania Represented by

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 89.4 88.9 88.7 87.4 81.7 76.8 79.6 77.2 76.4 80.3 82.9 85.3 1990 85.9 83.6 80.9 80.0 74.0 70.2 68.5 68.3 67.2 69.6 74.9 79.2 1991 82.2 79.4 78.8 77.7 72.1 72.9 70.6 71.6 72.2 72.9 76.4 76.7 1992 77.1 79.6 76.6 75.1 71.8 73.1 68.1 67.2 69.4 74.0 74.1 79.4 1993 80.5 79.7 79.5 78.2 72.1 72.9 72.9 69.7 70.3 76.5 75.9 77.0 1994 79.0 80.2 77.5 73.9 71.6 70.8 67.1 71.4 67.9 62.7 68.7 72.1 1995 75.1 74.4 74.9 71.4 68.7

  19. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in South Carolina Represented

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 98.5 98.5 98.6 98.3 98.1 98.2 98.1 97.7 97.7 97.8 98.0 97.3 1990 98.6 98.4 98.3 98.1 92.2 97.6 97.6 97.5 97.9 97.3 98.0 98.6 1991 98.7 98.9 98.7 96.9 97.4 97.5 97.3 97.7 97.7 97.4 98.9 98.9 1992 99.1 99.1 98.9 98.6 98.5 95.8 95.5 95.8 97.0 99.7 100.0 100.0 1993 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 95.1 94.6 100.0 95.3 100.0 100.0 1994 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.7 97.8 98.3 97.0 95.7 95.2 95.6 96.2 99.9 1995 97.8 97.5

  20. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Tennessee Represented by

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 99.1 98.9 98.9 97.5 96.8 95.9 96.7 95.8 96.9 97.1 97.4 99.1 1990 98.9 98.5 98.7 97.9 95.4 95.4 95.1 95.9 95.1 95.5 96.5 97.5 1991 97.9 94.6 93.6 96.0 94.8 94.3 93.8 93.8 94.0 95.3 97.1 97.8 1992 96.6 97.1 96.8 97.2 93.7 95.8 97.3 90.4 91.6 97.3 97.5 97.4 1993 96.6 96.9 96.6 96.5 97.7 91.3 91.6 91.1 91.4 92.3 94.7 98.9 1994 96.7 98.5 97.9 93.0 90.0 89.4 87.2 87.1 89.3 88.4 91.7 94.4 1995 95.5 95.8 93.4 90.8 89.6

  1. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Washington Represented by

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 95.5 94.8 96.9 93.2 93.0 89.7 87.0 92.6 87.3 93.0 93.6 96.5 1990 96.2 95.9 93.2 92.1 90.9 88.9 88.3 88.4 90.1 91.7 95.7 96.5 1991 97.8 94.9 94.3 93.2 91.2 90.5 88.3 87.2 85.6 85.2 88.7 92.1 1992 92.1 89.0 88.7 85.5 83.5 80.7 78.5 80.3 81.6 83.4 86.8 92.3 1993 93.8 93.2 93.9 93.6 90.8 89.8 90.5 90.4 90.6 94.8 97.4 98.0 1994 97.6 97.6 97.6 97.4 92.1 92.1 92.4 91.7 94.4 93.8 94.1 94.7 1995 94.3 94.0 94.2 92.6 91.8

  2. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Wisconsin Represented by

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 94.1 94.2 94.5 94.0 92.6 87.7 86.1 84.2 84.2 84.3 91.1 95.0 1990 91.6 91.5 91.9 91.9 90.3 86.5 83.1 82.4 82.6 87.5 90.1 93.3 1991 93.8 92.3 92.9 91.2 88.8 83.8 80.7 84.7 83.6 86.7 91.5 92.1 1992 92.7 92.1 91.6 90.0 85.8 82.3 83.3 84.1 85.2 90.7 93.4 95.1 1993 95.2 96.0 95.3 93.5 92.1 90.8 89.2 88.5 90.0 92.6 95.2 96.0 1994 97.1 97.6 97.4 96.6 91.8 89.9 83.5 87.1 87.8 90.8 94.4 84.4 1995 93.5 94.0 93.2 92.4 90.0

  3. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Connecticut Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 66.1 48.5 50.9 50.2 58.7 44.3 34.1 58.5 55.7 73.8 58.9 51.8 2002 45.0 47.4 53.0 41.3 52.5 50.1 38.1 49.3 53.9 52.2 49.1 54.2 2003 45.5 42.0 48.4 45.5 43.4 42.2 40.0 38.9 41.2 44.0 55.4 54.2 2004 41.0 40.9 39.5 45.6 43.7 45.0 47.5 44.3 43.7 47.4 46.5 46.2 2005 51.3 45.1 46.1 48.5 45.8 42.9 43.2 42.6 48.1 48.4 49.1 44.9 2006 49.2 48.5 45.1 47.1 50.0 49.0 51.8 49.9 50.5 52.2 42.5 47.8 2007 50.6 50.0 47.4 49.5 51.1

  4. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in District of Columbia

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Represented by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2004 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2005 0 0 0 0 -- -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2012 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2013 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2014

  5. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Minnesota Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 29.4 54.7 49.7 43.1 36.9 40.4 40.4 46.1 38.1 52.1 30.3 41.2 2002 41.9 35.7 38.7 37.1 48.7 29.2 29.8 34.2 39.3 57.4 44.8 49.4 2003 47.8 46.5 42.8 40.0 43.5 43.5 38.9 42.4 51.4 46.0 48.1 46.9 2004 44.8 41.0 38.4 44.5 44.7 31.4 32.8 40.2 32.6 48.1 42.6 47.4 2005 35.7 40.4 47.3 38.7 35.0 27.3 44.0 43.9 44.4 48.2 38.9 46.3 2006 42.3 38.3 35.7 39.6 31.1 33.6 29.7 42.1 25.5 23.8 34.1 34.5 2007 40.0 41.3 37.8 37.0 25.8

  6. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Mississippi Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 28.2 32.5 24.3 32.8 25.6 33.3 27.5 30.2 28.5 21.2 31.3 31.1 2002 27.5 29.8 27.4 27.0 23.9 26.2 24.1 25.8 24.2 23.9 26.3 25.2 2003 32.3 39.3 37.3 34.5 31.8 37.2 34.6 32.3 32.7 28.6 27.0 35.7 2004 39.9 36.9 33.0 32.8 29.8 33.8 32.8 33.7 36.7 31.0 33.7 38.8 2005 26.7 24.2 23.6 24.4 23.7 22.1 23.2 22.8 42.3 24.8 28.8 23.7 2006 24.7 28.1 24.8 23.5 19.5 19.2 18.1 17.2 16.6 17.5 15.6 18.0 2007 18.4 19.6 17.4 15.6 13.4

  7. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Tennessee Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 48.0 40.7 40.0 33.7 32.1 29.6 33.1 33.6 35.5 29.3 37.7 38.4 2002 36.3 39.0 44.3 34.8 36.6 33.0 32.5 31.8 33.8 35.5 33.9 38.2 2003 36.7 41.2 40.2 37.2 35.5 33.9 38.7 40.5 42.6 44.0 42.1 46.8 2004 44.2 43.4 42.1 40.5 41.0 36.5 36.4 34.6 37.0 38.3 41.5 47.1 2005 39.9 40.5 44.7 47.3 42.5 39.5 39.5 43.3 42.8 41.5 39.7 46.7 2006 40.9 44.6 40.1 37.3 37.4 39.1 35.5 35.5 34.9 38.2 41.6 39.2 2007 38.8 44.2 40.4 35.4 37.8

  8. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Washington Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 40.1 37.3 39.3 33.9 31.2 31.0 27.1 35.1 34.9 46.1 46.5 46.1 2002 25.9 28.6 29.4 32.8 30.0 24.4 27.5 20.7 24.7 25.4 31.6 26.9 2003 26.3 26.9 25.5 19.5 18.5 15.1 13.6 15.3 17.5 18.9 18.7 22.2 2004 20.9 21.0 21.4 19.1 15.8 16.0 13.2 17.1 15.0 16.2 14.5 15.6 2005 15.1 14.4 15.2 12.9 11.7 11.7 11.0 15.0 15.5 18.8 20.6 25.3 2006 22.9 22.8 22.6 19.7 19.5 17.8 17.2 16.8 17.1 19.2 21.8 22.3 2007 23.5 22.4 23.2 18.7 16.9

  9. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Wisconsin Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 25.3 26.6 26.1 18.3 12.5 11.2 12.3 12.4 10.9 15.9 19.9 23.0 2002 25.3 23.6 25.8 21.2 18.5 14.3 11.1 13.3 14.7 20.9 24.7 28.9 2003 27.0 27.3 25.9 18.8 15.3 11.7 10.7 11.7 12.2 17.7 21.3 26.2 2004 26.4 24.1 23.9 19.3 13.5 14.1 12.9 10.4 12.4 17.6 19.6 18.6 2005 21.7 20.9 20.8 15.9 13.4 11.2 12.3 13.2 13.9 16.4 21.9 25.1 2006 21.6 21.7 23.0 13.3 14.1 13.5 11.1 12.3 13.3 18.2 22.8 24.2 2007 22.3 23.7 24.1 17.8 13.6

  10. Utilization of ash from municipal solid waste combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, C.; Hahn, J.; Magee, B.; Yuen, N.; Sandefur, K.; Tom, J.; Yap, C.

    1999-09-01

    This ash study investigated the beneficial use of municipal waste combustion combined ash from the H-POWER facility in Oahu. These uses were grouped into intermediate cover for final closure of the Waipahu landfill, daily cover at the Waimanalo Gulch Landfill, and partial replacement for aggregate in asphalt for road paving. All proposed uses examine combined fly and bottom ash from a modern waste-to-energy facility that meets requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments for Maximum Achievable Control Technology.

  11. Lubricant Formulation and Consumption Effects on Diesel Exhaust Ash

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions: | Department of Energy Lubricant Formulation and Consumption Effects on Diesel Exhaust Ash Emissions: Lubricant Formulation and Consumption Effects on Diesel Exhaust Ash Emissions: 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters PDF icon 2005_deer_plumley.pdf More Documents & Publications Detailed Characterization of Lubricant-Derived Ash-Related Species in Diesel Exhaust and Aftertreatment Systems Unraveling DPF Degradation using Chemical

  12. Recovery of aluminum and other metal values from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDowell, William J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Seeley, Forest G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1981-01-01

    The invention described herein relates to a method for improving the acid leachability of aluminum and other metal values found in fly ash which comprises sintering the fly ash, prior to acid leaching, with a calcium sulfate-containing composition at a temperature at which the calcium sulfate is retained in said composition during sintering and for a time sufficient to quantitatively convert the aluminum in said fly ash into an acid-leachable form.

  13. Development of Artificial Ash Accelerated Accumulation Test | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Artificial Ash Accelerated Accumulation Test Development of Artificial Ash Accelerated Accumulation Test Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. PDF icon p-04_fujii.pdf More Documents & Publications Impact of Honeycomb Ceramics Geometrical Cell Design on Urea SCR System Controlled Experiments on the Effects of Lubricant/Additive (Low-Ash, Ashless) Characteristics on DPF Degradation

  14. Data Summary Report for Hanford Site Coal Ash Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sulloway, H. M.

    2012-03-06

    The purpose of this report is to present data and findings from sampling and analysis of five distinct areas of coal ash within the Hanford Site River Corridor

  15. Ash Fork, Arizona: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ash Fork, Arizona: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 35.2250114, -112.4840675 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingser...

  16. Using fly ash and natural pozzolans in long life structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramme, B.; Jacobsmeyer, J.

    2008-07-01

    The use of fly ash and natural pozzolans in various structures (roads, temples, bridges, buildings etc.) in the USA and Canada is discussed. 22 refs., 4 photos.

  17. Retention of elemental mercury in fly ashes in different atmospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. Lopez-Anton; M. Diaz-Somoano; M.R. Martinez-Tarazona

    2007-01-15

    Mercury is an extremely volatile element, which is emitted from coal combustion to the environment mostly in the vapor phase. To avoid the environmental problems that the toxic species of this element may cause, control technologies for the removal of mercury are necessary. Recent research has shown that certain fly ash materials have an affinity for mercury. Moreover, it has been observed that fly ashes may catalyze the oxidation of elemental mercury and facilitate its capture. However, the exact nature of Hg-fly ash interactions is still unknown, and mercury oxidation through fly ash needs to be investigated more thoroughly. In this work, the influence of a gas atmosphere on the retention of elemental mercury on fly ashes of different characteristics was evaluated. The retention capacity was estimated comparatively in inert and two gas atmospheres containing species present in coal gasification and coal combustion. Fly ashes produced in two pulverized coal combustion (PCC) plants, produced from coals of different rank (CTA and CTSR), and a fly ash (CTP) produced in a fluidized bed combustion (FBC) plant were used as raw materials. The mercury retention capacity of these fly ashes was compared to the retention obtained in different activated carbons. Although the capture of mercury is very similar in the gasification atmosphere and N{sub 2}, it is much more efficient in a coal combustion retention, being greater in fly ashes from PCC than those from FBC plants. 22 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Ashe County, North Carolina: Energy Resources | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ashe County, North Carolina: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 36.4339674, -81.4718387 Show Map Loading map......

  19. Reducing Lubricant Ash Impact on Exhaust Aftertreatment with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The strong base filter reduced lubricant acidity by absorbing acidic contaminants in the lubricant PDF icon deer09watson.pdf More Documents & Publications Minimizing Lubricant-Ash ...

  20. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in West Virginia Represented

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 68.6 69.0 65.3 63.9 55.0 45.3 39.8 39.5 40.5 49.5 58.6 71.5 1990 72.4 67.8 64.6 60.4 53.8 41.6 34.0 37.7 34.7 38.3 56.1 61.2 1991 64.6 65.8 65.4 54.5 42.1 34.1 31.0 33.9 36.5 45.2 55.6 58.0 1992 65.0 65.9 59.9 63.0 54.5 39.3 35.8 33.6 33.4 48.1 56.8 58.9 1993 60.7 61.3 61.7 60.2 47.5 33.6 30.3 30.6 33.0 46.8 54.9 60.1 1994 67.4 65.2 61.9 58.3 47.8 39.6 29.5 34.3 34.2 41.3 47.5 55.7 1995 55.5 59.5 56.1 50.6 42.2

  1. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in California Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 14.3 12.9 13.0 10.4 9.0 7.7 6.6 6.7 6.4 8.0 8.2 8.0 2002 8.0 9.4 8.8 7.4 9.5 7.0 6.6 6.9 6.7 7.7 7.2 8.1 2003 3.3 7.1 4.9 5.8 5.1 4.6 4.0 4.8 4.3 4.1 5.3 6.2 2004 5.2 8.3 5.8 5.2 5.3 3.8 4.6 4.4 4.3 5.0 5.3 5.9 2005 5.6 6.6 4.8 5.3 5.2 5.1 4.5 4.8 5.2 5.8 5.9 6.7 2006 6.2 7.2 5.7 5.9 6.0 5.4 4.6 4.7 4.9 5.3 6.1 6.2 2007 6.0 7.2 6.5 5.3 5.6 4.9 4.5 4.3 4.3 5.1 4.8 5.3 2008 5.7 6.6 5.9 5.6 5.6 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.4 4.7 4.7

  2. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Louisiana Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 8.2 7.6 6.3 8.0 7.2 5.9 9.1 9.6 9.0 8.6 10.0 9.1 2002 13.4 13.3 13.0 13.6 14.3 13.5 12.2 13.1 12.9 12.7 13.4 14.8 2003 12.0 13.2 12.0 13.5 13.7 13.7 11.8 12.8 13.4 14.1 16.3 14.3 2004 14.5 15.7 16.4 22.9 22.7 23.7 23.3 22.9 22.8 23.3 25.2 26.0 2005 26.3 25.9 27.3 27.8 28.6 28.2 27.2 28.9 29.0 28.8 28.8 29.0 2006 29.4 28.6 29.2 26.8 28.8 28.3 28.0 29.5 26.3 25.7 28.6 31.5 2007 29.7 31.7 27.3 28.8 29.9 33.6 23.9 23.8

  3. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Massachusetts Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 36.9 37.4 48.4 27.7 23.2 18.9 14.1 10.3 18.5 18.6 29.5 21.8 2002 27.5 26.6 23.0 21.7 16.9 14.0 16.5 11.1 9.4 14.8 21.7 28.6 2003 40.7 44.0 44.6 41.6 37.9 36.3 38.9 42.3 35.8 78.7 23.9 36.9 2004 47.9 47.2 45.8 39.9 36.5 34.4 31.3 27.0 23.1 29.2 23.2 40.5 2005 40.9 43.4 42.6 37.2 32.0 29.0 26.8 22.1 22.3 26.9 33.6 40.9 2006 42.4 41.0 40.2 36.9 31.5 28.6 25.2 26.5 26.5 23.7 32.2 31.2 2007 34.8 36.0 37.0 30.2 29.7

  4. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Pennsylvania Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 17.0 16.4 11.3 10.2 7.7 5.1 7.3 7.5 8.2 8.8 7.3 8.4 2002 8.8 8.3 7.0 5.9 5.7 5.5 4.8 5.0 7.2 7.5 8.1 11.4 2003 8.5 8.5 8.8 7.3 5.7 5.4 5.2 5.0 5.2 5.5 5.9 6.5 2004 7.7 8.1 7.3 6.8 5.3 4.8 4.8 5.1 5.2 4.7 6.5 8.3 2005 8.8 8.4 8.2 7.0 6.1 5.5 5.9 7.1 5.2 5.2 6.7 8.2 2006 8.2 7.3 7.1 5.3 4.8 4.2 4.1 4.1 6.2 4.2 4.6 5.4 2007 6.7 8.5 8.3 5.9 5.6 3.7 3.3 3.2 4.1 3.1 4.5 6.6 2008 7.7 7.3 7.3 6.9 5.7 4.8 4.4 4.3 3.8 3.9

  5. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in South Carolina Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 91.8 86.4 82.7 82.0 77.6 80.8 80.2 80.2 80.3 79.8 82.4 84.4 2002 89.9 87.6 85.4 88.3 90.4 87.4 90.5 84.4 90.3 90.3 84.3 82.9 2003 79.4 79.6 75.8 79.3 81.8 81.7 78.9 77.3 78.4 77.0 76.5 75.9 2004 76.9 75.6 77.0 79.2 79.0 78.2 78.5 79.0 78.6 78.3 77.2 76.4 2005 78.2 78.8 78.0 77.4 78.1 78.2 78.8 78.7 73.2 76.4 67.9 81.3 2006 80.1 78.6 74.0 80.2 71.2 75.3 75.9 77.2 70.6 74.8 48.6 44.6 2007 48.9 48.4 47.5 46.1 47.5

  6. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in West Virginia Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 11.2 6.1 6.1 8.6 8.2 7.3 7.7 8.9 5.9 60.8 7.0 62.1 2002 12.1 12.6 11.7 15.0 12.6 12.1 14.7 13.0 16.1 10.7 13.1 10.4 2003 14.3 12.6 20.3 13.9 14.0 14.7 13.6 13.5 14.6 12.9 14.1 10.9 2004 10.7 10.5 11.4 11.5 19.8 15.0 15.7 15.3 14.3 14.8 14.7 12.8 2005 11.4 12.8 12.5 13.7 17.4 21.1 23.5 20.4 22.1 23.0 20.7 18.5 2006 16.3 14.8 17.3 18.6 16.9 20.3 15.7 16.4 19.0 16.7 16.4 16.7 2007 15.2 13.4 15.9 16.3 17.8 18.5 18.5

  7. EECBG 11-002 Clarification of Ten Percent Limitation on Use of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    11-002 Clarification of Ten Percent Limitation on Use of Funds for Administrative Expenses EECBG 11-002 Clarification of Ten Percent Limitation on Use of Funds for Administrative...

  8. Recovery Act Exceeds Major Cleanup Milestone, DOE Complex Now 74 Percent

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Remediated | Department of Energy Recovery Act Exceeds Major Cleanup Milestone, DOE Complex Now 74 Percent Remediated Recovery Act Exceeds Major Cleanup Milestone, DOE Complex Now 74 Percent Remediated The Office of Environmental Management's (EM) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Program recently achieved 74 percent footprint reduction, exceeding the originally established goal of 40 percent. EM has reduced its pre-Recovery Act footprint of 931 square miles, established in 2009, by 688

  9. Hot-Gas Filter Ash Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanson, M.L.; Hurley, J.P.; Dockter, B.A.; O`Keefe, C.A.

    1997-07-01

    Large-scale hot-gas filter testing over the past 10 years has revealed numerous cases of cake buildup on filter elements that has been difficult, if not impossible, to remove. At times, the cake can blind or bridge between candle filters, leading to filter failure. Physical factors, including particle-size distribution, particle shape, the aerodynamics of deposition, and system temperature, contribute to the difficulty in removing the cake, but chemical factors such as surface composition and gas-solid reactions also play roles in helping to bond the ash to the filters or to itself. This project is designed to perform the research necessary to determine the fuel-, sorbent-, and operations-related conditions that lead to blinding or bridging of hot-gas particle filters. The objectives of the project are threefold: (1) Determine the mechanisms by which a difficult-to-clean ash is formed and how it bridges hot-gas filters (2) Develop a method to determine the rate of bridging based on analyses of the feed coal and sorbent, filter properties, and system operating conditions and (3) Suggest and test ways to prevent filter bridging.

  10. Fly ash and coal mineral matter surface transformations during heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baer, D R; Smith, R D

    1982-05-01

    A study is reported of surface segregation phenomena for fly ash and aluminosilicates representative of coal mineral matter during heating. The materials studied included a 20-..mu..m average diameter fly ash powder, a glass prepared from the fly ash, and Ca- and K-rich aluminosilicate minerals. The samples were heated both in air and under vacuum for extended periods at temperatures up to 1100/sup 0/C. XPS, Auger and SIMS methods were used to obtain relative surface elemental concentrations for major and minor components and depth profiles for some of the samples. Major differences were noted between samples heated in air (oxidizing) and those heated in vacuum (reducing) environments. For the fly ash glass heated in air Fe, Ti and Mg become enriched on the surfaces while heating in vacuum leads to Si surface segregation. Different trends upon heating were also observed for the Ca- and K-rich aluminosilicates. The results indicate two levels of surface enrichment upon the fly ash glass; a thin (< 500 A) layer and a thicker (1- to 2-..mu..m) layer most evident for heating in air where an Fe-rich layer is formed. The present results indicate that the rates of surface segregation may not be sufficiently fast on the time scale of fly ash formation to result in equilibrium surface segregation. It is concluded that condensation processes during fly ash formation probably play a major role in the observed fly ash surface enrichments.

  11. The recycling of the coal fly ash in glass production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erol, M.M.; Kucukbayrak, S.; Ersoy-Mericboyu, A.

    2006-09-15

    The recycling of fly ash obtained from the combustion of coal in thermal power plant has been studied. Coal fly ash was vitrified by melting at 1773 K for 5 hours without any additives. The properties of glasses produced from coal fly ash were investigated by means of Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques. DTA study indicated that there was only one endothermic peak at 1003 K corresponding to the glass transition temperature. XRD analysis showed the amorphous state of the glass sample produced from coal fly ash. SEM investigations revealed that the coal fly ash based glass sample had smooth surface. The mechanical, physical and chemical properties of the glass sample were also determined. Recycling of coal fly ash by using vitrification technique resulted to a glass material that had good mechanical, physical and chemical properties. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) results showed that the heavy metals of Pb, Cr, Zn and Mn were successfully immobilized into the glass. It can be said that glass sample obtained by the recycling of coal fly ash can be taken as a non-hazardous material. Overall, results indicated that the vitrification technique is an effective way for the stabilization and recycling of coal fly ash.

  12. Optimizing the use of fly ash in concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, M.

    2007-07-01

    The optimum amount of fly ash varies not only with the application, but also with composition and proportions of all the materials in the concrete mixture (especially the fly ash), the conditions during placing (especially temperature), construction practices (for example, finishing and curing) and the exposure conditions. This document discusses issues related to using low to very high levels of fly ash in concrete and provides guidance for the use of fly ash without compromising the construction process or the quality of the finished product. The nature of fly ashes including their physical, mineralogical and chemical properties is covered in detail, as well as fly ash variability due to coal composition and plant operating conditions. A discussion on the effects of fly ash characteristics on fresh and hardened concrete properties includes; workability, bleeding, air entrainment, setting time, heat of hydration, compressive strength development, creep, drying shrinkage, abrasion resistance, permeability, resistance to chlorides, alkali-silica reaction (ASR), sulfate resistance, carbonation, and resistance to freezing and thawing and deicer salt scaling. Case studies were selected as examples of some of the more demanding applications of fly ash concrete for ASR mitigation, chloride resistance, and green building.

  13. STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen

    2002-09-10

    The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. During this fourth project period we completed the characterization of ozone-treated carbon surfaces and wrote a comprehensive report on the mechanism through which ozone suppresses the adsorption of concrete surfactants.

  14. Toxicity mitigation and solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash using alkaline activated coal ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivan Diaz-Loya, E.; Allouche, Erez N.; Eklund, Sven; Joshi, Anupam R.; Kupwade-Patil, Kunal

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incinerator fly ash (IFA) is added to an alkali activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Means of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in construction applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was chemically characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmentally friendly solution to IFA disposal by reducing its toxicity levels. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a common and effective practice to reduce the volume of solid waste in urban areas. However, the byproduct of this process is a fly ash (IFA), which contains large quantities of toxic contaminants. The purpose of this research study was to analyze the chemical, physical and mechanical behaviors resulting from the gradual introduction of IFA to an alkaline activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix, as a mean of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in industrial construction applications, where human exposure potential is limited. IFA and CFA were analyzed via X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) to obtain a full chemical analysis of the samples, its crystallographic characteristics and a detailed count of the eight heavy metals contemplated in US Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR). The particle size distribution of IFA and CFA was also recorded. EPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was followed to monitor the leachability of the contaminants before and after the activation. Also images obtained via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), before and after the activation, are presented. Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was subjected to a full mechanical characterization; tests include compressive strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and setting time. The leachable heavy metal contents (except for Se) were below the maximum allowable limits and in many cases even below the reporting limit. The leachable Chromium was reduced from 0.153 down to 0.0045 mg/L, Arsenic from 0.256 down to 0.132 mg/L, Selenium from 1.05 down to 0.29 mg/L, Silver from 0.011 down to .001 mg/L, Barium from 2.06 down to 0.314 mg/L and Mercury from 0.007 down to 0.001 mg/L. Although the leachable Cd exhibited an increase from 0.49 up to 0.805 mg/L and Pd from 0.002 up to 0.029 mg/L, these were well below the maximum limits of 1.00 and 5.00 mg/L, respectively.

  15. COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS: SOLVING ASH DEPOSITION PROBLEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Steven A. Benson; Jay R. Gunderson

    2001-04-01

    The accumulation of slagging and fouling ash deposits in utility boilers has been a source of aggravation for coal-fired boiler operators for over a century. Many new developments in analytical, modeling, and combustion testing methods in the past 20 years have made it possible to identify root causes of ash deposition. A concise and comprehensive guidelines document has been assembled for solving ash deposition as related to coal-fired utility boilers. While this report accurately captures the current state of knowledge in ash deposition, note that substantial research and development is under way to more completely understand and mitigate slagging and fouling. Thus, while comprehensive, this document carries the title ''interim,'' with the idea that future work will provide additional insight. Primary target audiences include utility operators and engineers who face plant inefficiencies and significant operational and maintenance costs that are associated with ash deposition problems. Pulverized and cyclone-fired coal boilers are addressed specifically, although many of the diagnostics and solutions apply to other boiler types. Logic diagrams, ash deposit types, and boiler symptoms of ash deposition are used to aid the user in identifying an ash deposition problem, diagnosing and verifying root causes, determining remedial measures to alleviate or eliminate the problem, and then monitoring the situation to verify that the problem has been solved. In addition to a step-by-step method for identifying and remediating ash deposition problems, this guideline document (Appendix A) provides descriptions of analytical techniques for diagnostic testing and gives extensive fundamental and practical literature references and addresses of organizations that can provide help in alleviating ash deposition problems.

  16. Fluidization characteristics of power-plant fly ashes and fly ash-charcoal mixtures. [MS Thesis; 40 references

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, C.T.

    1980-03-01

    As a part of the continuing research on aluminum recovery from fly ash by HiChlor process, a plexiglass fluidization column system was constructed for measurement of fluidization parameters for power-plant fly ashes and fly ash-charcoal mixtures. Several bituminous and subbituminous coal fly ashes were tested and large differences in fluidization characteristics were observed. Fly ashes which were mechanically collected fluidized uniformly at low gas flow rates. Most fly ashes which were electrostatically precipitated exhibited channeling tendency and did not fluidize uniformly. Fluidization characteristics of electrostatically collected ashes improve when the finely divided charcoal powder is added to the mixture. The fluidization of the mixture was aided initially by a mechanical stirrer. Once the fluidization had succeeded, the beds were ready to fluidize without the assistance of a mechanical action. Smooth fluidization and large bed expansion were usually observed. The effects of charcoal size and aspect ratio on fluidization characteristics of the mixtures were also investigated. Fluidization characteristics of a fly ash-coal mixture were tested. The mixture fluidized only after being oven-dried for a few days.

  17. Near Zero Emissions at 50 Percent Thermal Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-12-31

    Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) has successfully completed a 10 year DOE sponsored heavy-duty truck engine program, hereafter referred to as the NZ-50 program. This program was split into two major phases. The first phase was called ??Near-Zero Emission at 50 Percent Thermal Efficiency,? and was completed in 2007. The second phase was initiated in 2006, and this phase was named ??Advancements in Engine Combustion Systems to Enable High-Efficiency Clean Combustion for Heavy-Duty Engines.? This phase was completed in September, 2010. The key objectives of the NZ-50 program for this first phase were to: ? Quantify thermal efficiency degradation associated with reduction of engine-out NOx emissions to the 2007 regulated level of ~1.1 g/hp-hr. ? Implement an integrated analytical/experimental development plan for improving subsystem and component capabilities in support of emerging engine technologies for emissions and thermal efficiency goals of the program. ? Test prototype subsystem hardware featuring technology enhancements and demonstrate effective application on a multi-cylinder, production feasible heavy-duty engine test-bed. ? Optimize subsystem components and engine controls (calibration) to demonstrate thermal efficiency that is in compliance with the DOE 2005 Joule milestone, meaning greater than 45% thermal efficiency at 2007 emission levels. ? Develop technology roadmap for meeting emission regulations of 2010 and beyond while mitigating the associated degradation in engine fuel consumption. Ultimately, develop technical prime-path for meeting the overall goal of the NZ-50 program, i.e., 50% thermal efficiency at 2010 regulated emissions. These objectives were successfully met during the course of the NZ-50 program. The most noteworthy achievements in this program are summarized as follows: ? Demonstrated technologies through advanced integrated experiments and analysis to achieve the technical objectives of the NZ-50 program with 50.2% equivalent thermal efficiency under EPA 2010 emissions regulations. ? Experimentally demonstrate brake efficiency of 48.5% at EPA 2010 emission level at single steady-state point. ? Analytically demonstrated additional brake efficiency benefits using advanced aftertreatment configuration concept and air system enhancement including, but not limited to, turbo-compound, variable valve actuator system, and new cylinder head redesign, thus helping to achieve the final program goals. ? Experimentally demonstrated EPA 2010 emissions over FTP cycles using advanced integrated engine and aftertreatment system. These aggressive thermal efficiency and emissions results were achieved by applying a robust systems technology development methodology. It used integrated analytical and experimental tools for subsystem component optimization encompassing advanced fuel injection system, increased EGR cooling capacity, combustion process optimization, and advanced aftertreatment technologies. Model based controls employing multiple input and output techniques enabled efficient integration of the various subsystems and ensured optimal performance of each system within the total engine package. . The key objective of the NZ-50 program for the second phase was to explore advancements in engine combustion systems using high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) techniques to minimize cylinder-out emissions, targeting a 10% efficiency improvement. The most noteworthy achievements in this phase of the program are summarized as follows: ? Experimentally and analytically evaluated numerous air system improvements related to the turbocharger and variable valve actuation. Some of the items tested proved to be very successful and modifications to the turbine discovered in this program have since been incorporated into production hardware. ? The combustion system development continued with evaluation of various designs of the 2-step piston bowl. Significant improvements in engine emissions have been obtained, but fuel economy improvements have been tougher to realize. ? Development of a neural network control system progressed to the point that the system was fully functional and showing significant fuel economy gains in transient engine testing. ? Development of the QuantLogic injector with the capability of both a hollow cone spray during early injection and conventional diesel injection at later injection timings was undertaken and proved to be problematic. This injector was designed to be a key component in a PCCI combustion system, but this innovative fuel injector required significantly more development effort than this program??s resources or timing would allow.

  18. Effect of fuel properties on the bottom ash generation rate by a laboratory fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rozelle, P.L.; Pisupati, S.V.; Scaroni, A.W.

    2007-06-15

    The range of fuels that can be accommodated by an FBC boiler system is affected by the ability of the fuel, sorbent, and ash-handling equipment to move the required solids through the boiler. Of specific interest is the bottom ash handling equipment, which must have sufficient capacity to remove ash from the system in order to maintain a constant bed inventory level, and must have sufficient capability to cool the ash well below the bed temperature. Quantification of a fuel's bottom ash removal requirements can be useful for plant design. The effect of fuel properties on the rate of bottom ash production in a laboratory FBC test system was examined. The work used coal products ranging in ash content from 20 to 40+ wt. %. The system's classification of solids by particle size into flyash and bottom ash was characterized using a partition curve. Fuel fractions in the size range characteristic of bottom ash were further analyzed for distributions of ash content with respect to specific gravity, using float sink tests. The fuel fractions were then ashed in a fixed bed. In each case, the highest ash content fraction produced ash with the coarsest size consist (characteristic of bottom ash). The lower ash content fractions were found to produce ash in the size range characteristic of flyash, suggesting that the high ash content fractions were largely responsible for the production of bottom ash. The contributions of the specific gravity fractions to the composite ash in the fuels were quantified. The fuels were fired in the laboratory test system. Fuels with higher amounts of high specific gravity particles, in the size ranges characteristic of bottom ash, were found to produce more bottom ash, indicating the potential utility of float sink methods in the prediction of bottom ash removal requirements.

  19. Table 1.13 U.S. Government Energy Consumption by Agency and Source, Fiscal Years 2003, 2010, and 2011 (Trillion Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 U.S. Government Energy Consumption by Agency and Source, Fiscal Years 2003, 2010, and 2011 (Trillion Btu) Resource and Fiscal Years Agriculture Defense Energy GSA 1 HHS 2 Interior Justice NASA 3 Postal Service Trans- portation Veterans Affairs Other 4 Total Coal 2003 (s) 15.4 2.0 0.0 (s) (s) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 17.7 2010 (s) 15.5 4.5 .0 0.0 0.0 .0 .0 (s) .0 .1 .0 20.1 2011 P 0.0 14.3 4.2 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 (s) .0 .1 .0 18.6 Natural Gas 5 2003 1.4 76.6 7.0 7.6 3.7 1.3 8.6 2.9 10.4 .7 15.6 4.2

  20. Table 3.4 Consumer Price Estimates for Energy by End-Use Sector, 1970-2010 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumer Price Estimates for Energy by End-Use Sector, 1970-2010 (Dollars 1 per Million Btu) Year Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Natural Gas 2 Petroleum Retail Electricity 3 Total 4 Natural Gas 2 Petroleum 5 Retail Electricity 3 Total 6,7 Coal Natural Gas 2 Petroleum 5 Biomass 8 Retail Electricity 3 Total 7,9 Petroleum 5 Total 7,10 1970 1.06 1.54 6.51 2.10 0.75 0.90 [R] 6.09 1.97 0.45 0.38 0.98 1.59 2.99 0.84 2.31 2.31 1971 1.12 1.59 6.80 2.24 .80 1.02 6.44 2.15 .50 .41 1.05

  1. Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of coal fly ash water leachate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, R.; Mukherjee, A.

    2009-03-15

    Fly ash is a by-product of coal-fired electricity generation plants. The prevalent practice of disposal is as slurry of ash and water to storage or ash ponds located near power stations. This has lain to waste thousands of hectares of land all over the world. Since leaching is often the cause of off-site contamination and pathway of introduction into the human environment, a study on the genotoxic effects of fly ash leachate is essential. Leachate prepared from the fly ash sample was analyzed for metal content, and tested for mutagenicity and genotoxicity. Analyses of metals show predominance of the metals - sodium, silicon, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, and sulphate. The Ames Salmonella mutagenicity assay, a short-term bacterial reverse mutation assay, was conducted on two-tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97a and TA102. For genotoxicity, the alkaline version of comet assay on fly ash leachate was carried in vitro on human blood cells and in vivo on Nicotiana plants. The leachate was directly mutagenic and induced significantconcentration-dependent increases in DNA damage in whole blood cells, lymphocytes, and in Nicotiana plants. The comet parameters show increases in tail DNA percentage (%), tail length (mu m), and olive tail moment (arbitrary units). Our results indicate that leachate from fly ash dumpsites has the genotoxic potential and may lead to adverse effects on vegetation and on the health of exposed human populations.

  2. Water holding capacities of fly ashes: Effect of size fractionation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarkar, A.; Rano, R.

    2007-07-01

    Water holding capacities of fly ashes from different thermal power plants in Eastern India have been compared. Moreover, the effect of size fractionation (sieving) on the water holding capacities has also been determined. The desorption rate of water held by the fly ash fractions at ambient temperature (25-30{sup o}C) has been investigated. The effect of mixing various size fractions of fly ash in increasing the water holding capacities of fly ash has been studied. It is observed that the fly ash obtained from a thermal power plant working on stoker-fired combustor has the highest water holding capacity, followed by the one that works on pulverized fuel combustor. Fly ash collected from super thermal power plant has the least water holding capacity (40.7%). The coarser size fractions of fly ashes in general have higher water holding capacities than the finer ones. An attempt has been made to correlate the results obtained, with the potential use in agriculture.

  3. Characterization and possible uses of ashes from wastewater treatment plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merino, Ignacio; Arevalo, Luis F. . E-mail: fromero@ehu.es

    2005-07-01

    This work, on the ashes from the wastewater treatment plant of Galindo (Vizcaya, Spain), has been outlined with the purpose of finding their physico-chemical properties and suggesting possible applications. Ashes contain important quantities of iron, calcium, silica, alumina and phosphates. X-Ray diffraction data make it possible to estimate the mineralogical compositions of the original ashes and also, after thermal treatment at 1200 and 1300 deg. C, the main reactions occurring in thermal treatment. Particle size analysis makes it possible to classify ashes as a very fine powdered material. The thermal treatment leads to a densification of the material and provokes losses of weight mainly due to the elimination of water, carbon dioxide and sulphur trioxide. Application tests show that ashes are not suitable for landfill and similar applications, because of their plastic properties. Testing for pozzolanic character, after the ashes had been heated at 1200 deg. C, did not lead to a strong material probably due to low contents in silica and alumina or to requiring a higher heating temperature. Thermal treatment leads to densification of the material with a considerable increase of compressive strength of the probes. The use of additives (clays and powdered glass) to improve ceramic properties of ashes will be the aim of a future work.

  4. Commercial low-Btu coal-gasification plant. Feasibility study: General Refractories Company, Florence, Kentucky. Volume I. Project summary. [Wellman-Galusha

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-11-01

    In response to a 1980 Department of Energy solicitation, the General Refractories Company submitted a Proposal for a feasibility study of a low Btu gasification facility for its Florence, KY plant. The proposed facility would substitute low Btu gas from a fixed bed gasifier for natural gas now used in the manufacture of insulation board. The Proposal from General Refractories was prompted by a concern over the rising costs of natural gas, and the anticipation of a severe increase in fuel costs resulting from deregulation. The proposed feasibility study is defined. The intent is to provide General Refractories with the basis upon which to determine the feasibility of incorporating such a facility in Florence. To perform the work, a Grant for which was awarded by the DOE, General Refractories selected Dravo Engineers and Contractors based upon their qualifications in the field of coal conversion, and the fact that Dravo has acquired the rights to the Wellman-Galusha technology. The LBG prices for the five-gasifier case are encouraging. Given the various natural gas forecasts available, there seems to be a reasonable possibility that the five-gasifier LBG prices will break even with natural gas prices somewhere between 1984 and 1989. General Refractories recognizes that there are many uncertainties in developing these natural gas forecasts, and if the present natural gas decontrol plan is not fully implemented some financial risks occur in undertaking the proposed gasification facility. Because of this, General Refractories has decided to wait for more substantiating evidence that natural gas prices will rise as is now being predicted.

  5. Distribution of arsenic and mercury in lime spray dryer ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panuwat Taerakul; Ping Sun; Danold W. Golightly; Harold W. Walker; Linda K. Weavers

    2006-08-15

    The partitioning of As and Hg in various components of lime spray dryer (LSD) ash samples from a coal-fired boiler was characterized to better understand the form and fate of these elements in flue gas desulfurization byproducts. LSD ash samples, collected from the McCracken Power Plant on the Ohio State University campus, were separated by a 140-mesh (106 {mu}m) sieve into two fractions: a fly-ash-/unburned-carbon-enriched fraction (> 106 {mu}m) and a calcium-enriched fraction (< 106 {mu}m). Unburned carbon and fly ash in the material > 106 {mu}m were subsequently separated by density using a lithium heteropolytungstate solution. The concentrations of As and Hg were significant in all fractions. The level of As was consistently greater in the calcium-enriched fraction, while Hg was evenly distributed in all components of LSD ash. Specific surface area was an important factor controlling the distribution of Hg in the different components of LSD ash, but not for As. Comparing the LSD ash data to samples collected from the economizer suggests that As was effectively captured by fly ash at 600{sup o}C, while Hg was not. Leaching tests demonstrated that As and Hg were more stable in the calcium-enriched fraction than in the fly-ash- or carbon-enriched fractions, potentially because of the greater pH of the leachate and subsequently greater stability of small amounts of calcium solids containing trace elements in these fractions. 37 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Increasing Class C fly ash reduces alkali silica reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hicks, J.K.

    2007-07-01

    Contrary to earlier studies, it has been found that incremental additions of Class C fly ash do reduce alkali silica reactivity (ASR), in highly reactive, high alkali concrete mixes. AST can be further reduced by substituting 5% metakaolin or silica fume for the aggregate in concrete mixes with high (more than 30%) Class C fly ash substitution. The paper reports results of studies using Class C fly ash from the Labadie Station plant in Missouri which typically has between 1.3 and 1.45% available alkalis by ASTM C311. 7 figs.

  7. Novel microorganism for selective separation of coal from pyrite and ash. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Misra, M.; Smith, R.W.

    1995-09-01

    The separation of fine coal from ash and pyrite was evaluated using a microorganism Mycobacterium phlei.

  8. EECBG 11-002 Clarification of Ten Percent Limitation on Use of Funds for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Administrative Expenses | Department of Energy 11-002 Clarification of Ten Percent Limitation on Use of Funds for Administrative Expenses EECBG 11-002 Clarification of Ten Percent Limitation on Use of Funds for Administrative Expenses U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program (EECBG), ten percent limitation, administrative expenses, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. PDF icon

  9. Fact #720: March 26, 2012 Eleven Percent of New Light Trucks...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Trucks Sold have Gasoline Direct Injection Fact 720: March 26, 2012 Eleven Percent of New Light Trucks Sold have Gasoline Direct Injection Gasoline direct fuel injection (GDI) ...

  10. Recoverable immobilization of transuranic elements in sulfate ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O. (Richland, WA)

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of reversibly immobilizing sulfate ash at least about 20% of which is sulfates of transuranic elements. The ash is mixed with a metal which can be aluminum, cerium, samarium, europium, or a mixture thereof, in amounts sufficient to form an alloy with the transuranic elements, plus an additional amount to reduce the transuranic element sulfates to elemental form. Also added to the ash is a fluxing agent in an amount sufficient to lower the percentage of the transuranic element sulfates to about 1% to about 10%. The mixture of the ash, metal, and fluxing agent is heated to a temperature sufficient to melt the fluxing agent and the metal. The mixture is then cooled and the alloy is separated from the remainder of the mixture.

  11. The Development of a Small Engine Based Accelerated Ash Loading...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Accelerated Ash Loading Protocol Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st...

  12. Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, John W. (Belle Mead, NJ); Wecharatana, Methi (Parsippany, NJ); Jaturapitakkul, Chai (Bangkok, TH); Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E. (late of Livingston, NJ)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specifications required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs.

  13. Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, John W. (Belle Mead, NJ); Wecharatana, Methi (Parsippany, NJ); Jaturapitakkul, Chai (Bangkok, TH); Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E. (late of Livingston, NJ)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specification required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs.

  14. Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

    1997-04-29

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specifications required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs. 33 figs.

  15. Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

    1998-12-29

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specification required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs. 33 figs.

  16. Blue Ash, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Blue Ash is a city in Hamilton County, Ohio. It falls under Ohio's 2nd congressional...

  17. Reducing Lubricant Ash Impact on Exhaust Aftertreatment with a Oil

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Conditioning Filter | Department of Energy Reducing Lubricant Ash Impact on Exhaust Aftertreatment with a Oil Conditioning Filter Reducing Lubricant Ash Impact on Exhaust Aftertreatment with a Oil Conditioning Filter Under the test conditions used in this study, the strong base filter had a significant and beneficial effect on the rate of oil degradation. The strong base filter reduced lubricant acidity by absorbing acidic contaminants in the lubricant PDF icon deer09_watson.pdf More

  18. Ash Reduction of Corn Stover by Mild Hydrothermal Preprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Toufiq Reza; Rachel Emerson; M. Helal Uddin; Garold Gresham; Charles J. Coronella

    2014-04-22

    Lignocellulosic biomass such as corn stover can contain high ash content, which may act as an inhibitor in downstream conversion processes. Most of the structural ash in biomass is located in the cross-linked structure of lignin, which is mildly reactive in basic solutions. Four organic acids (formic, oxalic, tartaric, and citric) were evaluated for effectiveness in ash reduction, with limited success. Because of sodium citrates chelating and basic characteristics, it is effective in ash removal. More than 75 % of structural and 85 % of whole ash was removed from the biomass by treatment with 0.1 g of sodium citrate per gram of biomass at 130 C and 2.7 bar. FTIR, fiber analysis, and chemical analyses show that cellulose and hemicellulose were unaffected by the treatment. ICPAES showed that all inorganics measured were reduced within the biomass feedstock, except sodium due to the addition of Na through the treatment. Sodium citrate addition to the preconversion process of corn stover is an effective way to reduced physiological ash content of the feedstock without negatively impacting carbohydrate and lignin content.

  19. Ash level meter for a fixed-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E.

    1984-01-01

    An ash level meter for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which utilizes the known ash level temperature profile to monitor the ash bed level. A bed stirrer which travels up and down through the extent of the bed ash level is modified by installing thermocouples to measure the bed temperature as the stirrer travels through the stirring cycle. The temperature measurement signals are transmitted to an electronic signal process system by an FM/FM telemetry system. The processing system uses the temperature signals together with an analog stirrer position signal, taken from a position transducer disposed to measure the stirrer position to compute the vertical location of the ash zone upper boundary. The circuit determines the fraction of each total stirrer cycle time the stirrer-derived bed temperature is below a selected set point, multiplies this fraction by the average stirrer signal level, multiplies this result by an appropriate constant and adds another constant such that a 1 to 5 volt signal from the processor corresponds to a 0 to 30 inch span of the ash upper boundary level. Three individual counters in the processor store clock counts that are representative of: (1) the time the stirrer temperature is below the set point (500.degree. F.), (2) the time duration of the corresponding stirrer travel cycle, and (3) the corresponding average stirrer vertical position. The inputs to all three counters are disconnected during any period that the stirrer is stopped, eliminating corruption of the measurement by stirrer stoppage.

  20. Leaching of Mixtures of Biochar and Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Porat, Iris; Phillips, Jana Randolph; Amonette, J. E.; Drake, Meghan M; Brown, Steven D; Schadt, Christopher Warren

    2009-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, especially CO2, and their effects on global temperature have led to interest in the possibility of carbon storage in terrestrial environments.2, 5, 6 Both the residual char from biomass pyrolysis7-9, 12 (biochar) and fly ash from coal combustion1, 13, 14 have the potential to significantly expand terrestrial sequestration options. Both biochar and fly ash also have potentially beneficial effects on soil properties. Fly ash has been shown to increase porosity, water-holding capacity, pH, conductivity, and dissolved SO42-, CO32-, Cl- and basic cations.10, 11, 16 Adding biochar to soil generally raises pH, increases total nitrogen and total phosphorous, encourages greater root development, improves cation exchange capacity and reduces available aluminum.3, 17 Combinations of these benefits likely lead to the observed increased yields for crops including corn and sugarcane.17 with biochar addition to soil. In addition, it has been found that soils with added biochar emit lower amounts of other greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide) 8, 17 than do unammended soils. Biochar and fly ash amendments may be useful in promoting terrestrial carbon sequestration on currently underutilized and degraded lands. For example, about 1% of the US surface lands consist of previously mined lands or highway rights-of-way.18 Poorly managed lands could count for another 15% of US area. Biochar and fly ash amendments could increase productivity of these lands and increase carbon storage in the soil Previous results showed minimal leaching of organic carbon and metals from a variety of fly ashes.15 Here, we are examining the properties of mixtures of biochar, fly ash, and soil and evaluating leaching of organic carbon and metals from the mixtures.

  1. Fact #727: May 14, 2012 Nearly Twenty Percent of Households Own Three or

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Vehicles | Department of Energy 7: May 14, 2012 Nearly Twenty Percent of Households Own Three or More Vehicles Fact #727: May 14, 2012 Nearly Twenty Percent of Households Own Three or More Vehicles Household vehicle ownership has changed over the last six decades. In 1960, over twenty percent of households did not own a vehicle, but by 2010, that number fell to less than 10%. The number of households with three or more vehicles grew from 2% in 1960 to nearly 20% in 2010. Before 1990,

  2. U.S. Utility-Scale Solar 60 Percent Towards Cost-Competition Goal |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Utility-Scale Solar 60 Percent Towards Cost-Competition Goal U.S. Utility-Scale Solar 60 Percent Towards Cost-Competition Goal February 12, 2014 - 11:05am Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - The Energy Department announced today that the U.S. solar industry is more than 60 percent of the way to achieving cost-competitive utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity - only three years into the Department's decade-long SunShot Initiative. To help

  3. ADVANCED POWER SYSTEMS ASH BEHAVIOR IN POWER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHRISTOPHER J. ZYGARLICKE; DONALD P. MCCOLLOR; JOHN P. KAY; MICHAEL L. SWANSON

    1998-09-01

    The overall goal of this initiative is to develop fundamental knowledge of ash behavior in power systems for the purpose of increasing power production efficiency, reducing operation and maintenance costs, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. The specific objectives of this initiative focus primarily on ash behavior related to advanced power systems and include the following: ? Determine the current status of the fundamental ash interactions and deposition formation mechanisms as already reported through previous or ongoing projects at the EERC or in the literature. ? Determine sintering mechanisms for temperatures and particle compositions that are less well known and remain for the most part undetermined. ? Identify the relationship between the temperature of critical viscosity (Tcv ) as measured in a viscometer and the crystallization occurring in the melt. ? Perform a literature search on the use of heated-stage microscopy (HSM) for examining in situ ash-sintering phenomena and then validate the use of HSM in the determination of viscosity in spherical ash particles. ? Ascertain the formation and stability of specific mineral or amorphous phases in deposits typical of advanced power systems. ? Evaluate corrosion for alloys being used in supercritical combustion systems.

  4. Chloride chemical form in various types of fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenfen Zhu; Masaki Takaoka; Kenji Shiota; Kazuyuki Oshita; Yoshinori Kitajima

    2008-06-01

    Chloride content is a critical problem for the reuse of fly ash as a raw material in cement, and the method used by recyclers to reduce the fly ash chloride content depends on the chemical form of the chlorides. However, limited information is available on the quantitative distribution of chlorides and the identity of some chlorides such as Friedel's salt. We examined chloride forms and percentages using X-ray absorption near edge structure and X-ray diffraction analyses, as well as corresponding washing experiments. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in raw fly ash was estimated to be in the form of NaCl, 10% in KCl, 50% in CaCl{sub 2}, and the remainder in the form of Friedel's salt. Fly ash collected in a bag filter with the injection of calcium hydroxide for acid gas removal (CaFA) contained 35% chlorine as NaCl, 11% as KCl, 37% as CaCl{sub 2}, 13% as Friedel's salt, and the remaining 4% as CaClOH. In fly ash collected in a bag filter with the injection of sodium bicarbonate for acid gas removal (NaFA), approximately 79% of chlorine was in NaCl, 12% was in KCl, and 9% was in Friedel's salt. 25 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Release of Ammonium and Mercury from NOx Controlled Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, K.T.; Cardone, C.R.; Kim, A.G

    2007-07-01

    One of the goals of the Department of Energy is to increase the reuse of coal utilization byproducts (CUB) to 50% by 2010. This will require both developing new markets and maintaining traditional ones such as the use of fly ash in concrete. However, the addition of pollution control devices can introduce side-effects that affect the marketability of the CUB. Such can be the case when NOx control is achieved using selective catalytic or non-catalytic reduction (SCR or SNCR). Depending on site-specific details, the ammonia slip can cause elevated levels of NH3 in the fly ash. Disposal of ammoniated fly ash can present environmental concerns related to the amount of ammonia that might be released, the amount of water that might become contaminated, and the extent to which metals might be mobilized by the presence of the ammonia. Ammonia retained in fly ash appears to be present as either an ammonium salt or as a chemisorbed species. Mercury in the leachates correlated to neither the amount of leachable ammonium nor to the total amount of Hg in the ash. The strongest correlation was between the decreases in the amount of Hg leached with increased LOI.

  6. Ash bed level control system for a fixed-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV); Rotunda, John R. (Fairmont, WV)

    1984-01-01

    An ash level control system is provided which incorporates an ash level meter to automatically control the ash bed level of a coal gasifier at a selected level. The ash level signal from the ash level meter is updated during each cycle that a bed stirrer travels up and down through the extent of the ash bed level. The ash level signal is derived from temperature measurements made by thermocouples carried by the stirrer as it passes through the ash bed and into the fire zone immediately above the ash bed. The level signal is compared with selected threshold level signal to determine if the ash level is above or below the selected level once each stirrer cycle. A first counter is either incremented or decremented accordingly. The registered count of the first counter is preset in a down counter once each cycle and the preset count is counted down at a selected clock rate. A grate drive is activated to rotate a grate assembly supporting the ash bed for a period equal to the count down period to maintain the selected ash bed level. In order to avoid grate binding, the controller provides a short base operating duration time each stirrer cycle. If the ash bed level drops below a selected low level or exceeds a selected high level, means are provided to notify the operator.

  7. Impacts of Increasing Natural Gas Fueled CHP from 20 to 35 Percent...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impacts of Increasing Natural Gas Fueled CHP from 20 to 35 Percent of Total Electricity Production in Texas, April 2011 Impacts of Increasing Natural Gas Fueled CHP from 20 to 35 ...

  8. If I generate 20 percent of my national electricity from wind...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    If I generate 20 percent of my national electricity from wind and solar - what does it do to my GDP and Trade Balance ? Home I think that the economics of fossil fuesl are well...

  9. Evaluation Prompts ENERGY STAR Program to Replace Web Tool, Saving 90 Percent of Annual Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document, from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's ENERGY STAR Residential Program, is part of the Case Study Series, highlighting how "Evaluation Prompts ENERGY STAR Program to Replace Web Tool, Saving 90 Percent of Annual Costs."

  10. EECBG 11-002 Clarification of Ten Percent Limitation on Use of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EECBG PROGRAM NOTICE 11-002 EFFECTIVE DATE: July 28, 2011 SUBJECT: CLARIFICATION OF TEN PERCENT LIMATION ON USE OF FUNDS FOR ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSES PURPOSE To provide guidance to...

  11. Cementation and solidification of Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, J.A.; Semones, G.B.

    1994-04-01

    Cementation studies on various aqueous waste streams at Rocky Flats have shown this technology to be effective for immobilizing the RCRA constituents in the waste. Cementation is also being evaluated for encapsulation of incinerator ash. Experiments will initially evaluate a surrogate ash waste using a Taguchi experimental design to optimize the cement formulation and waste loading levels for this application. Variables of waste loading, fly ash additions, water/cement ratio, and cement type will be tested at three levels each during the course of this work. Tests will finally be conducted on actual waste using the optimized cement formulation developed from this testing. This progression of tests will evaluate the effectiveness of cement encapsulation for this waste stream without generating any additional wastes.

  12. New Water Booster Pump System Reduces Energy Consumption by 80 Percent and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Increases Reliability | Department of Energy New Water Booster Pump System Reduces Energy Consumption by 80 Percent and Increases Reliability New Water Booster Pump System Reduces Energy Consumption by 80 Percent and Increases Reliability This case study outlines how General Motors (GM) developed a highly efficient pumping system for their Pontiac Operations Complex in Pontiac, Michigan. In short, GM was able to replace five original 60- to 100-hp pumps with three 15-hp pumps whose speed

  13. NREL Study Shows 20 Percent Wind is Possible by 2024 - News Releases | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Study Shows 20 Percent Wind is Possible by 2024 Analysis Shows Transmission Upgrades, Offshore Wind, and Operational Changes Needed to Incorporate 20 to 30 Percent Wind January 20, 2010 Today, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) released the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS). This unprecedented two-and-a-half year technical study of future high-penetration wind scenarios was designed to analyze the economic, operational,

  14. NREL Study: Hybrid Delivery Vans Show Nearly 20 Percent Higher Fuel Economy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - News Releases | NREL Study: Hybrid Delivery Vans Show Nearly 20 Percent Higher Fuel Economy September 28, 2012 The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE)'s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently completed a performance evaluation report that showed significant fuel economy benefits of hybrid electric delivery vans compared to similar conventional vans. "During the on-road portion of our study, the hybrid vans demonstrated a 13 to 20 percent higher fuel economy than the

  15. Moab Mill Tailings Pile 25 Percent Disposed: DOE Moab Project Reaches

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Significant Milestone | Department of Energy Pile 25 Percent Disposed: DOE Moab Project Reaches Significant Milestone Moab Mill Tailings Pile 25 Percent Disposed: DOE Moab Project Reaches Significant Milestone June 3, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contacts Donald Metzler Moab Federal Project Director (970) 257-2115 Wendee Ryan S&K Aerospace Public Affairs Manager (970) 257-2145 Grand Junction, CO - One quarter of the uranium mill tailings pile located in Moab, Utah, has been relocated to

  16. Ash reduction system using electrically heated particulate matter filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; He, Yongsheng [Sterling Heights, MI

    2011-08-16

    A control system for reducing ash comprises a temperature estimator module that estimates a temperature of an electrically heated particulate matter (PM) filter. A temperature and position estimator module estimates a position and temperature of an oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter. An ash reduction control module adjusts at least one of exhaust flow, fuel and oxygen levels in the electrically heated PM filter to adjust a position of the oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter based on the oxidation wave temperature and position.

  17. Recovery Act Workers Complete Environmental Cleanup of Coal Ash Basin

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Site (SRS) recently cleaned up a 17- acre basin containing coal ash residues from Cold War operations. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act project was safely completed at a cost of $8.9 million, $2.9 million under budget. The manmade earthen basin received ash from the former R Area Pow- erhouse operations, which ended in 1964. The first of five reactors con- structed at SRS, the R Reactor produced nuclear materials for national defense. Recovery Act funding allowed SRS to accelerate

  18. Continuous air agglomeration method for high carbon fly ash beneficiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, McMahon L. (Pittsburgh, PA); Champagne, Kenneth J. (Monongahela, PA); Finseth, Dennis H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2000-01-01

    The carbon and mineral components of fly ash are effectively separated by a continuous air agglomeration method, resulting in a substantially carboree mineral stream and a highly concentrated carbon product. The method involves mixing the fly ash comprised of carbon and inorganic mineral matter with a liquid hydrocarbon to form a slurry, contacting the slurry with an aqueous solution, dispersing the hydrocarbon slurry into small droplets within the aqueous solution by mechanical mixing and/or aeration, concentrating the inorganic mineral matter in the aqueous solution, agglomerating the carbon and hydrocarbon in the form of droplets, collecting the droplets, separating the hydrocarbon from the concentrated carbon product, and recycling the hydrocarbon.

  19. Geotechnical properties of fly and bottom ash mixtures for use in highway embankments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, B.; Prezzi, M.; Salgado, R.

    2005-07-01

    Class F fly ash and bottom ash are the solid residue byproducts produced by coal-burning electric utilities. They are usually disposed of together as a waste in utility disposal sites with a typical disposal rate of 80% fly ash and 20% bottom ash. Direct use of these materials in construction projects consuming large volumes of materials, such as highway embankment construction, not only provides a promising solution to the disposal problem, but also an economic alternative to the use of traditional materials. Representative samples of class F fly and bottom ash were collected from two utility power plants in Indiana and tested for their mechanical properties (compaction, permeability, strength, stiffness, and compressibility). Three mixtures of fly and bottom ash with different mixture ratios (i.e., 50, 75, and 100% fly ash content by weight) were prepared for testing. Test results indicated that ash mixtures compare favorably with conventional granular materials.

  20. Structure of the SPRY domain of human Ash2L and its interactions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Structure of the SPRY domain of human Ash2L and its interactions with RbBP5 and DPY30 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structure of the SPRY domain of human Ash2L and its ...

  1. Ashe County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ashe County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Ashe County, North Carolina ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate...

  2. Developing Engineered Fuel (Briquettes) Using Fly Ash from the Aquila Coal-Fired Power Plant in Canon City and Locally Available Biomass Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. Carrasco; H. Sarper

    2006-06-30

    The objective of this research is to explore the feasibility of producing engineered fuels from a combination of renewable and non renewable energy sources. The components are flyash (containing coal fines) and locally available biomass waste. The constraints were such that no other binder additives were to be added. Listed below are the main accomplishments of the project: (1) Determination of the carbon content of the flyash sample from the Aquila plant. It was found to be around 43%. (2) Experiments were carried out using a model which simulates the press process of a wood pellet machine, i.e. a bench press machine with a close chamber, to find out the ideal ratio of wood and fly ash to be mixed to get the desired briquette. The ideal ratio was found to have 60% wood and 40% flyash. (3) The moisture content required to produce the briquettes was found to be anything below 5.8%. (4) The most suitable pressure required to extract the lignin form the wood and cause the binding of the mixture was determined to be 3000psi. At this pressure, the briquettes withstood an average of 150psi on its lateral side. (5) An energy content analysis was performed and the BTU content was determined to be approximately 8912 BTU/lb. (6) The environmental analysis was carried out and no abnormalities were noted. (7) Industrial visits were made to pellet manufacturing plants to investigate the most suitable manufacturing process for the briquettes. (8) A simulation model of extrusion process was developed to explore the possibility of using a cattle feed plant operating on extrusion process to produce briquettes. (9) Attempt to produce 2 tons of briquettes was not successful. The research team conducted a trial production run at a Feed Mill in La Junta, CO to produce two (2) tons of briquettes using the extrusion process in place. The goal was to, immediately after producing the briquettes; send them through Aquila's current system to test the ability of the briquettes to flow through the system without requiring any equipment or process changes. (10) Although the above attempt failed, the plant is still interested in producing briquettes. (11) An economic analysis of investing in a production facility manufacturing such briquettes was conducted to determine the economic viability of the project. Such a project is estimated to have an internal rate of return of 14% and net present value of about $400,000. (12) An engineering independent study class (4 students) is now working on selecting a site near the power plant and determining the layout of the future plant that will produce briquettes.

  3. Controlled Experiments on the Effects of Lubricant/Additive (Low-Ash,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ashless) Characteristics on DPF Degradation | Department of Energy Experiments on the Effects of Lubricant/Additive (Low-Ash, Ashless) Characteristics on DPF Degradation Controlled Experiments on the Effects of Lubricant/Additive (Low-Ash, Ashless) Characteristics on DPF Degradation Effects of lubricant additive chemistries and exhaust conditions on ash properties affecting diesel particulate filter performance. Comparison of ash characteristics such as packing density and elemental

  4. Hydration and strength development of binder based on high-calcium oil shale fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freidin, C. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede-Boqer (Israel)] [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede-Boqer (Israel)

    1998-06-01

    The properties of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, which are produced in Israeli power stations, were investigated. High-calcium oil shale fly ash was found to contain a great amount of CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} in the form of lime and anhydrite. Mixtures of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, termed fly ash binder, were shown to cure and have improved strength. The influence of the composition and curing conditions on the compressive strength of fly ash binders was examined. The microstructure and the composition of fly ash binder after curing and long-term exposure in moist air, water and open air conditions were studied. It was determined that ettringite is the main variable in the strength and durability of cured systems. The positive effect of calcium silicate hydrates, CSH, which are formed by interaction of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash components, on the carbonation and dehydration resistance of fly ash binder in open air is pronounced. It was concluded that high-calcium oil shale fly ash with high CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} content can be used as a binder for building products.

  5. Comparison of leaching characteristics of heavy metals from bottom and fly ashes in Korea and Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shim, Young-Sook; Rhee, Seung-Whee; Lee, Woo-Keun . E-mail: woklee@kangwon.ac.kr

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the leaching characteristics of heavy metals such as cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, etc., in Korean and Japanese municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ash. The rate of leaching of heavy metal was measured by KSLT and JTL-13, and the amount of heavy metals leached was compared with the metal content in each waste component. Finally, bio-availability testing was performed to assess the risks associated with heavy metals leached from bottom ash and fly ash. From the results, the value of neutralization ability in Japanese fly ash was four times higher than that in Korean fly ash. The reason was the difference in the content of Ca(OH){sub 2} in fly ash. The amount of lead leached exceeded the regulatory level in both Japanese and Korean fly ash. The rate of leaching was relatively low in ash with a pH in the range of 6-10. The bio-availability test in fly ash demonstrated that the amount of heavy metals leached was Pb > Cd > Cr, but the order was changed to Pb > Cr > Cd in the bottom ash. The leaching concentration of lead exceeded the Japanese risk level in all fly ashes from the two countries, but the leaching concentration of cadmium exceeded the regulatory level in Korean fly ash only.

  6. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in lime spray dryer ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ping Sun; Panuwat Taerakul; Linda K. Weavers; Harold W. Walker

    2005-10-01

    Four lime spray dryer (LSD) ash samples were collected from a spreader stoker boiler and measured for their concentrations of 16 U.S. EPA specified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results showed that the total measured PAH concentration correlated with the organic carbon content of the LSD ash. Each LSD ash sample was then separated using a 140 mesh sieve into two fractions: a carbon-enriched fraction ({gt}140 mesh) and a lime-enriched fraction ({lt}140 mesh). Unburned carbon was further separated from the carbon-enriched fraction with a lithiumheteropolytungstate (LST) solution. PAH measurements on these different fractions showed that unburned carbon had the highest PAH concentrations followed by the carbon-enriched fraction, indicating that PAHs were primarily associated with the carbonaceous material in LSD ash. However, detectable levels of PAHs were also found in the lime-enriched fraction, suggesting that the fine spray of slaked lime may sorb PAH compounds from the flue gas in the LSD process. 37 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. MFT homogeneity study at TNX: Final report on the low weight percent solids concentration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, W.J.

    1993-09-21

    A statistical design and analysis of both elemental analyses and weight percent solids analyses data was utilized to evaluate the MFT homogeneity at low heel levels and low agitator speed at both high and low solids feed concentrations. The homogeneity was also evaluated at both low and high agitator speed at the 6000+ gallons static level. The dynamic level portion of the test simulated feeding the Melter from the MFT to evaluate the uniformity of the solids slurry composition (Frit-PHA-Sludge) entering the melter from the MFT. This final report provides the results and conclusions from the second half of the study, the low weight percent solids concentration portion, as well as a comparison with the results from the first half of the study, the high weight percent solids portion.

  8. Mechanical characterization of filler sandcretes with rice husk ash additions. Study applied to Senegal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cisse, I.K.; Laquerbe, M.

    2000-01-01

    To capitalize on the local materials of Senegal (agricultural and industrial wastes, residual fines from crushing process, sands from dunes, etc.), rise husk ash and residues of industrial and agricultural wastes have been used as additions in sandcretes. The mechanical resistance of sandcrete blocks obtained when unground ash (and notably the ground ash) is added reveals that there is an increase in performance over the classic mortar blocks. In addition, the use of unground rice husk ash enables production of a lightweight sandcrete with insulating properties, at a reduced cost. The ash pozzolanic reactivity explains the high strengths obtained.

  9. Soil stabilization and pavement recycling with self-cementing coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-01-15

    This manual provides design information for self-cementing coal fly ash as the sole stabilizing agent for a wide range of engineering applications. As in any process, the application of sound engineering practices, appropriate testing, and evaluation of fly ash quality and characteristics will lend themselves to successful projects using the guidelines in this manual. Topics discussed include: self-cementing coal fly ash characteristics; laboratory mix design; stabilization of clay soils; stabilisation of granular materials; construction considerations; high sulfate ash; environmental considerations for fly ash stabilization; design considerations; state specification/guidelines/standards; and a sample of a typical stabilization specification.

  10. Wind Energy Could Produce 20 Percent of U.S. Electricity By 2030 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Energy Could Produce 20 Percent of U.S. Electricity By 2030 Wind Energy Could Produce 20 Percent of U.S. Electricity By 2030 May 12, 2008 - 11:30am Addthis DOE Report Analyzes U.S. Wind Resources, Technology Requirements, and Manufacturing, Siting and Transmission Hurdles to Increasing the Use of Clean and Sustainable Wind Power WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) today released a first-of-its kind report that examines the technical feasibility of

  11. NREL Solar Cell Sets World Efficiency Record at 40.8 Percent - News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Releases | NREL NREL Solar Cell Sets World Efficiency Record at 40.8 Percent August 13, 2008 Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have set a world record in solar cell efficiency with a photovoltaic device that converts 40.8 percent of the light that hits it into electricity. This is the highest confirmed efficiency of any photovoltaic device to date. The inverted metamorphic triple-junction solar cell was designed, fabricated and

  12. Fact #763: January 21, 2013 Eighty-four Percent of Scrapped Tires Are

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Recycled | Department of Energy 3: January 21, 2013 Eighty-four Percent of Scrapped Tires Are Recycled Fact #763: January 21, 2013 Eighty-four Percent of Scrapped Tires Are Recycled There were 263 million tires scrapped in 2009 (latest available data) which amounts to more than 4.7 million tons of waste. Fortunately, 84% of that waste was recycled. Most of the recycled tires were used to make fuel for industries such as pulp and paper mills, cement kilns, and electric utilities. Ground

  13. Novel Sorbent Achieves 90 Percent Carbon Capture in DOE-Sponsored Test |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Novel Sorbent Achieves 90 Percent Carbon Capture in DOE-Sponsored Test Novel Sorbent Achieves 90 Percent Carbon Capture in DOE-Sponsored Test August 21, 2012 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The successful bench-scale test of a novel carbon dioxide (CO2) capturing sorbent promises to further advance the process as a possible technological option for reducing CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants. The new sorbent, BrightBlack™, was originally developed for a

  14. BTU LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Small start-up with breakthrough technology seeking funding to prove commercial feasibility Coordinates: 45.425788, -122.765754 Show Map Loading map......

  15. Regeneratively cooled coal combustor/gasifier with integral dry ash removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beaufrere, A.H.

    1982-04-30

    A coal combustor/gasifier is disclosed which produces a low or medium combustion gas fired furnances or boilers. Two concentric shells define a combustion air flows to provide regenerative cooling of the inner shell for dry ash operation. A fuel flow and a combustion air flow having opposed swirls are mixed and burned in a mixing-combustion portion of the combustion volume and the ash laden combustion products flow with a residual swirl into an ash separation region. The ash is cooled below the fusion temperature and is moved to the wall by centrifugal force where it is entrained in the cool wall boundary layer. The boundary layer is stabilized against ash re-entrainment as it is moved to an ash removal annulus by a flow of air from the plenum through slots in the inner shell, and by suction on an ash removal skimmer slot.

  16. Method for increasing the rate of compressive strength gain in hardenable mixtures containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, John W. (Belle Mead, NJ); Wecharatana, Methi (Parsippany, NJ); Jaturapitakkul, Chai (Bangkok, TH); Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E. (late of Livingston, NJ)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention provides a method for increasing the rate of strength gain of a hardenable mixture containing fly ash by exposing the fly ash to an aqueous slurry of calcium oxide (lime) prior to its incorporation into the hardenable mixture. The invention further relates to such hardenable mixtures, e.g., concrete and mortar, that contain fly ash pre-reacted with calcium oxide. In particular, the fly ash is added to a slurry of calcium oxide in water, prior to incorporating the fly ash in a hardenable mixture. The hardenable mixture may be concrete or mortar. In a specific embodiment, mortar containing fly ash treated by exposure to an aqueous lime slurry are prepared and tested for compressive strength at early time points.

  17. Automated system for removal and pneumatic transport of fly ash from electric precipitator hoppers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.K. Konovalov; O.V. Yashkin; V.V. Ermakov

    2008-03-15

    A system for removal and pneumatic transport of fly ash is examined, in which air pulses act on batches (pistons) of ash formed in a duct. Studies are made of the effect of several physical parameters on the force required to displace a piston of ash and these serve as a basis for choosing a system for removal and pneumatic transport of ash simultaneously from several hoppers of an electric precipitator. This makes it possible to separate the ash particles according to size without introducing additional components. Formulas are given for calculating the structural and dynamic parameters of this system and measurements of indirect dynamic parameters are used to calculate the input-output characteristics of the system. In order to optimize the system, configurations for summing several ducts into a single transport duct for pneumatic ash transport are proposed. Some variants of dry ash utilization and the advantages of producing of size-separated particles are considered.

  18. Method for increasing the rate of compressive strength gain in hardenable mixtures containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

    1997-10-28

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention provides a method for increasing the rate of strength gain of a hardenable mixture containing fly ash by exposing the fly ash to an aqueous slurry of calcium oxide (lime) prior to its incorporation into the hardenable mixture. The invention further relates to such hardenable mixtures, e.g., concrete and mortar, that contain fly ash pre-reacted with calcium oxide. In particular, the fly ash is added to a slurry of calcium oxide in water, prior to incorporating the fly ash in a hardenable mixture. The hardenable mixture may be concrete or mortar. In a specific embodiment, mortar containing fly ash treated by exposure to an aqueous lime slurry are prepared and tested for compressive strength at early time points. 2 figs.

  19. Leaching of mixtures of biochar and fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palumbo, Anthony V.; Porat, Iris; Phillips, Jana R.; Amonette, James E.; Drake, Meghan M.; Brown, Steven D.; Schadt, Christopher W.

    2009-06-22

    Increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, especially CO2, and their effects on global temperature have led to interest in the possibility of carbon storage in terrestrial environments. Both the residual char from biomass pyrolysis (biochar) and fly ash from coal combustion have the potential to significantly expand terrestrial sequestration options. Both biochar and fly ash also have potentially beneficial effects on soil properties. Fly ash has been shown to increase porosity, water-holding capacity, pH, conductivity, and dissolved SO42-, CO32-, Cl- and basic cations. Adding biochar to soil generally raises pH, increases total nitrogen and total phosphorous, encourages greater root development, improves cation exchange capacity and decreases available aluminum. A combination of these benefits likely is responsible for observed increases in yields for crops such as corn and sugarcane. In addition, it has been found that soils with added biochar emit lower amounts of other greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide) than do unamended soils. Biochar and fly ash amendments may be useful in promoting terrestrial carbon sequestration on currently underutilized and degraded lands. For example, about 1% of the US surface lands consist of previously mined lands or highway rights-of-way. Poorly managed lands could count for another 15% of US area. Biochar and fly ash amendments could increase productivity of these lands and increase carbon storage in the soil. Previous results showed minimal leaching of organic carbon and metals from a variety of fly ashes. In the present study, we examined the properties of mixtures of biochar, fly ash, and soil and evaluated the leaching of organic carbon and metals from these mixtures. The carbon sorption experiments showed release of carbon from biochar, rather than sorption, except at the highest concentrations in the Biochar HW sample. Similar results were obtained by others for oxidative leaching of bituminous coal, in which more C was released as dissolved C than was oxidized to CO2 by the oxygen in water. We confirmed that both fly ash and two types of biochar (oak char [OKEB], and hardwood [HW] char) exhibited minimal leaching of heavy metals including Cr, Ni, Zn, Ga, and Ag, and no detectable leaching of Pb or Cd (data not shown) under the conditions tested. The Biochar HW had a slightly higher C/N ratio (334) and pH (7.7) than did the Biochar OKEB (284 and 6.5). There was no toxicity exhibited by the fly ash (not shown) or biochar leachates as measured by the Microtox assay under the conditions tested. In previous results no toxicity was reported in testing the fly ash samples except for one high-pH sample. The most notable leachate component from both types of biochar, but not the fly ash, was organic carbon with the HW biochar leaching less organic carbon than the OKEB biochar (5.71 ppm vs. 59.3 ppm). Alone (in batch sorption experiments), or in mixtures of 90% soil and 10% biochar (column studies), we noted significant loss of carbon from the biochar into soluble components. However, when we added fly ash to the column experiments (80% soil, 10% fly ash, and 10% biochar) we observed significant decreases in the amounts of C leached (20% for HW, and 47% for OKEB). The results indicate that applying a combination of fly ash and biochar may result in maximizing the amount of carbon sequestration in soil while also increasing beneficial soil properties and fertility. The lower amount of carbon leached from the HW biochar compared to the OKEB biochar is likely due to the more recalcitrant form of the carbon in the HW char, due to its preparation at a higher temperature (600 C) than the OKEB biochar (450 C). High heat treatment temperatures during biochar preparation increase both the total carbon content of the biochar and the proportion of the carbon that is present in fused aromatic rings resistant to chemical and physical degradation.

  20. WPN 93-14: 40 Percent Waiver Provisions for Multifamily and Mobile Home Units

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This program notice provides guidance on multifamily and mobile home units weatherized by states, which adopt the approved 4.0 version of NEAT or other similar approved energy audits and receive a waiver of the 40 percent requirement from DOE.

  1. WPN 94-8: 40 Percent Waiver Provisions for Mobile Home Units

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This program notice provides clarifying guidance previously issued under Weatherization Program Notice 93-14 on mobile home units weatherized by states which adopt the approved 4.0 version of NEAT or other similar approved energy audits and receive a waiver of the 40 percent requirement from DOE.

  2. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Hawaii Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100 100 100 2000's 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2010's

  3. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Hawaii Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2000's 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2010's

  4. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Vermont Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2000's 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2010's 100 100 100 100 100 NA

  5. Figure 5. Production Schedules at Two Development Rates for the 5 Percent

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Probability of Recovering 16.0 Billion Barrels 5. Production Schedules at Two Development Rates for the 5 Percent Probability of Recovering 16.0 Billion Barrels of Technically Recoverable Oil from the ANWR Coastal Plain of Alaska fig5.jpg (3770

  6. Fly Ash and Mercury Oxidation/Chlorination Reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sukh Sidhu; Patanjali Varanasi

    2008-12-31

    Mercury is a known pollutant that has detrimental effect on human health and environment. The anthropogenic emissions of mercury account for 10 to 30% of worldwide mercury emissions. There is a need to control/reduce anthropogenic mercury emissions. Many mercury control technologies are available but their effectiveness is dependent on the chemical form of mercury, because different chemical forms of mercury have different physical and chemical properties. Mercury leaves the boiler in its elemental form but goes through various transformations in the post-combustion zone. There is a need to understand how fly ash and flue gas composition affect speciation, partitioning, and reactions of mercury under the full range of post-combustion zone conditions. This knowledge can then be used to predict the chemical transformation of mercury (elemental, oxidized or particulate) in the post combustion zone and thus help with the control of mercury emissions from coal-burning power plants. To accomplish this goal present study was conducted using five coal fly ashes. These ashes were characterized and their catalytic activity was compared under selected reaction conditions in a fixed bed reactor. Based on the results from these fly ash experiments, three key components (carbon, iron oxide and calcium oxide) were chosen. These three components were then used to prepare model fly ashes. Silica/alumina was used as a base for these model fly ashes. One, two or three component model fly ashes were then prepared to investigate mercury transformation reactions. The third set of experiments was performed with CuO and CuCl2 catalysts to further understand the mercury oxidation process. Based on the results of these three studies the key components were predicted for different fly ash compositions under variety of flue gas conditions. A fixed bed reactor system was used to conduct this study. In all the experiments, the inlet concentration of Hg0(g) was maintained at 35 {micro}g/m3 using a diffusion tube as the source of Hg0(g). All experiments were conducted using 4% O2 in nitrogen mix as a reaction gas, and other reactants (HCl, H2O and SO2, NO2, Br2) were added as required. The fixed bed reactor was operated over a temperature range of 200 to 400 C. In each experiment, the reactor effluent was analyzed using the modified Ontario-Hydro method. After each experiment, fly ash particles were also analyzed for mercury. The results show that the ability of fly ash to adsorb and/or oxidize mercury is primarily dependent on its carbon, iron and calcium content. There can be either one or more than one key component at a particular temperature and flue gas condition. Surface area played a secondary role in effecting the mercury transformations when compared to the concentration of the key component in the fly ash. Amount of carbon and surface area played a key important role in the adsorption of mercury. Increased concentration of gases in the flue gas other than oxygen and nitrogen caused decreased the amount of mercury adsorbed on carbon surface. Mercury adsorption by iron oxide primarily depended on the crystalline structure of iron oxide. {alpha}-Iron oxide had no effect on mercury adsorption or oxidation under most of the flue gas conditions, but ?-iron oxide adsorbed mercury under most of the flue gas conditions. Bromine is a very good oxidizing agent for mercury. But in the presence of calcium oxide containing fly ashes, all the oxidized mercury would be reduced to elemental form. Among the catalysts, it was observed that presence of free lattice chlorine in the catalyst was very important for the oxidation of mercury. But instead of using the catalyst alone, using it along with carbon may better serve the purpose by providing the adsorption surface for mercury and also some extra surface area for the reaction to occur (especially for fly ashes with low surface area).

  7. Ash reduction in clean coal spiral product circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodzik, P.

    2007-04-15

    The article describes the Derrick Corporation's Stack Sizer{trademark} technology for high capacity fine wet cleaning with long-lasting high open-area urethane screen panels. After field trials, a Stack Sizer fitted with a 100-micron urethane panel is currently processing approximately 40 stph of clean coal spiral product having about 20% ash at McCoy-Elkhorn's Bevin Branch coal preparation plant in Kentucky, USA. Product yield is about 32.5 short tons per hour with 10% ash. The material is then fed to screen bowl centrifuges for further processing. At Blue Diamond Coal's Leatherwood preparation plant similar Stacker Sizers are achieving the same results. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 2 photo.

  8. Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system. Quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1982-10-21

    The overall objective of the Westinghouse coal gasification program is to demonstrate the viability of the Westinghouse pressurized, fluidized bed, gasification system for the production of medium-Btu fuel gas for syngas, electrical power generation, chemical feedstocks, or industrial fuels and to obtain performance and scaleup data for the process and hardware. Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) operation and maintenance of the process development unit (PDU); (2) process analysis; (3) cold flow scaleup facility; (4) process and component engineering and design; and (5) laboratory support studies. Some of the highlights for this period are: TP-032-1, a single stage, oxygen-steam blown gasifier test was conducted in three operational phases from March 30, 1982 through May 2, 1982; TP-032-2 was conducted in two operational phases from May 20, 1982 through May 27, 1982; TP-032-1 and TP-032-2 successfully served as shakedown and demonstrations of the full cyclone cold wall; no visible deposits were found on the cold wall after processing highly fouling coals; samples of product gas produced during TP-032-1, were passed through four different scrubbing solutions and analyzed for 78 EPA primary organic pollutants, all of which were found to be below detection limits; TP-M004, a CO/sub 2/ tracer gas test, was initiated and completed; data analysis of test TP-M002-2 was completed and conclusions are summarized in this report; design, procurement and fabrication of the solids injection device were completed; laboratory studies involved gas-solids flow modeling and coal/ash behavior. 2 references, 11 figures, 39 tables.

  9. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) (formerly ICPP) ash reutilization study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langenwalter, T.; Pettet, M.; Ochoa, R.; Jensen, S.

    1998-05-01

    Since 1984, the coal-fired plant at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC, formerly Idaho Chemical Processing Plant) has been generating fly ash at a rate of approximately 1,000 tons per year. This ash is hydrated and placed in an ash bury pit near the coal-fired plant. The existing ash bury pit will be full in less than 1 year at its present rate of use. A conceptual design to build a new ash bury pit was completed, and the new pit is estimated to cost $1.7 million. This report evaluates ash reutilization alternatives that propose to eliminate this waste stream and save the $1.7 million required to build a new pit. The alternatives include using ash for landfill day cover, concrete admixture, flowable fill, soil stabilization, waste remediation, and carbon recovery technology. Both physical and chemical testing, under the guidance of the American Society for Testing and Materials, have been performed on ash from the existing pit and from different steps within the facility`s processes. The test results have been evaluated, compared to commercial ash, and are discussed as they relate to reutilization alternatives. This study recommends that the ash be used in flowable fill concrete for Deactivation and Demolition work at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

  10. Effects of pulverized coal fly-ash addition as a wet-end filler in papermaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinha, A.S.K.

    2008-09-15

    This experimental study is based on the innovative idea of using pulverized coal fly ash as a wet-end filler in papermaking. This is the first evaluation of the possible use of fly ash in the paper industry. Coal-based thermal power plants throughout the world are generating fly ash as a solid waste product. The constituents of fly ash can be used effectively in papermaking. Fly ash has a wide variation in particle size, which ranges from a few micrometers to one hundred micrometers. Fly ash acts as an inert material in acidic, neutral, and alkaline papermaking processes. Its physical properties such as bulk density (800-980 kg/m{sup 3}), porosity (45%-57%), and surface area (0.138-2.3076 m{sup 2}/g) make it suitable for use as a paper filler. Fly ash obtained from thermal power plants using pulverized coal was fractionated by a vibratory-sieve stack. The fine fraction with a particle size below 38 micrometers was used to study its effect on the important mechanical-strength and optical properties of paper. The effects of fly-ash addition on these properties were compared with those of kaolin clay. Paper opacity was found to be much higher with fly ash as a filler, whereas brightness decreased as the filler percentage increased Mechanical strength properties of the paper samples with fly ash as filler were superior to those with kaolin clay.

  11. Construction of an embankment with a fly and bottom ash mixture: field performance study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, S.; Balunaini, U.; Yildirim, I.Z.; Prezzi, M.; Siddiki, N.Z.

    2009-06-15

    Fly ash and bottom ash are coal combustion by-products (CCBPs) that are generated in large quantities throughout the world. It is often economical to dispose ash as mixtures rather than separately; that notwithstanding, only a few studies have been performed to investigate the behavior of fly and bottom ash mixtures, particularly those with high contents of fly ash. Also, there is very limited data available in the literature on the field performance of structures constructed using ash mixtures. This paper describes the construction and the instrumentation of a demonstration embankment built with an ash mixture (60:40 by weight of fly ash:bottom ash) on State Road 641, Terre Haute, Ind. Monitoring of the demonstration embankment was conducted for a period of 1 year from the start of construction of the embankment. The settlement of the embankment stabilized approximately 5 months after the end of its construction. According to horizontal inclinometer readings, the differential settlement at the top of the embankment is about 5 mm. Results from field quality control tests performed during construction of the demonstration embankment and monitoring data from vertical and horizontal inclinometers and settlement plates indicate that the ash mixture investigated can be considered an acceptable embankment construction material.

  12. Differences in gasification behaviors and related properties between entrained gasifier fly ash and coal char

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jing Gu; Shiyong Wu; Youqing Wu; Ye Li; Jinsheng Gao

    2008-11-15

    In the study, two fly ash samples from Texaco gasifiers were compared to coal char and the physical and chemical properties and reactivity of samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), SEM-energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} adsorption method, and isothermal thermogravimetric analysis. The main results were obtained. The carbon content of gasified fly ashes exhibited 31-37%, which was less than the carbon content of 58-59% in the feed coal. The fly ashes exhibited higher Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, richer meso- and micropores, more disordered carbon crystalline structure, and better CO{sub 2} gasification reactivity than coal char. Ashes in fly ashes occurred to agglomerate into larger spherical grains, while those in coal char do not agglomerate. The minerals in fly ashes, especial alkali and alkaline-earth metals, had a catalytic effect on gasification reactivity of fly ash carbon. In the low-temperature range, the gasification process of fly ashes is mainly in chemical control, while in the high-temperature range, it is mainly in gas diffusion control, which was similar to coal char. In addition, the carbon in fly ashes was partially gasified and activated by water vapor and exhibited higher BET surface area and better gasification activity. Consequently, the fact that these carbons in fly ashes from entrained flow gasifiers are reclaimed and reused will be considered to be feasible. 15 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Oil shale ash-layer thickness and char combustion kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldis, D.F.; Singleton, M.F.; Watkins, B.E.; Thorsness, C.B.; Cena, R.J.

    1992-04-15

    A Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retort is being studied at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In the HRS process, raw shale is heated by mixing it with burnt retorted shale. Retorted shale is oil shale which has been heated in an oxygen deficient atmosphere to pyrolyze organic carbon, as kerogen into oil, gas, and a nonvolatile carbon rich residue, char. In the HRS retort process, the char in the spent shale is subsequently exposed to an oxygen environment. Some of the char, starting on the outer surface of the shale particle, is burned, liberating heat. In the HRS retort, the endothermic pyrolysis step is supported by heat from the exothermic char combustion step. The rate of char combustion is controlled by three resistances; the resistance of oxygen mass transfer through the gas film surrounding the solid particle, resistance to mass transfer through a ash layer which forms on the outside of the solid particles as the char is oxidized and the resistance due to the intrinsic chemical reaction rate of char and oxygen. In order to estimate the rate of combustion of the char in a typical oil shale particle, each of these resistances must be accurately estimated. We begin by modeling the influence of ash layer thickness on the over all combustion rate of oil shale char. We then present our experimental measurements of the ash layer thickness of oil shale which has been processed in the HRS retort.

  14. Leaching characteristics of arsenic and selenium from coal fly ash: role of calcium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian Wang; Jianmin Wang; Yulin Tang; Honglan Shi; Ken Ladwig

    2009-05-15

    Understanding the leaching behavior of arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) in coal fly ash is important in evaluating the potential environmental impact of coal fly ash. Batch experiments were employed to systematically investigate the leaching behavior of As and Se in two major types of coal fly ashes, bituminous coal ash and sub-bituminous coal ash, and to determine the underlying processes that control As and Se leaching. The effects of pH, solid/liquid (S/L) ratio, calcium addition, and leaching time on the release of As and Se were studied. Overall, bituminous coal ash leached significantly more As and Se than sub-bituminous coal ash, and Se was more readily leachable, in both absolute concentration and relative fraction, than As for both types of fly ashes. Adsorption/desorption played a major role on As and Se leaching from bituminous coal ashes. However, calcium precipitation played the most important role in reducing As and Se leaching from sub-bituminous coal ashes in the entire experimental pH range. The leaching of As and Se from bituminous coal ashes generally increased with increases in the S/L ratio and leaching time. However, for sub-bituminous coal ashes, the leaching of As was not detected under most experimental conditions, while the leaching of Se increased with increases in the S/L ratio and leaching time. As{sup V} and Se{sup IV} were found to be the major species in all ash leachates in this study. 46 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Effects of Sediment Containing Coal Ash from the Kingston Ash Release on Embryo-Larval Development in the Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas (Rafinesque, 1820)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen; Elmore, Logan R; McCracken, Kitty; Sherrard, Rick

    2014-01-01

    The largest environmental release of coal ash in U.S. history occurred in December 2008 with the failure of a retention structure at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant in East Tennessee. A byproduct of coal-burning power plants, coal ash is enriched in metals and metalloids such as selenium and arsenic with known toxicity to fish including embryonic and larval stages. The effects of contact exposure to sediments containing up to 78 % coal ash from the Kingston spill on the early development of fish embryos and larvae were examined in 7-day laboratory tests with the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). No significant effects were observed on hatching success, incidences of gross developmental abnormalities, or embryo-larval survival. Results suggest that direct exposures to sediment containing residual coal ash from the Kingston ash release may not present significant risks to fish eggs and larvae in waterways affected by the spill.

  16. Relationship between textural properties, fly ash carbons, and Hg capture in fly ashes derived from the combustion of anthracitic pulverized feed blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isabel Surez-Ruiz; Jose B. Parra

    2007-08-15

    In this work, the textural properties of a series of whole anthracitic-derived fly ashes sampled in eight hoppers from the electrostatic precipitators and their sized fractions (from {gt}150 to {lt}25 {mu}m) are investigated. Data from N{sub 2} adsorption isotherms at 77 K, helium density, and mercury porosimetry have contributed to establish a relationship between the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas, VTOT, porosity, carbon content (the type of fly ash carbons), and Hg retention in these fly ashes. The unburned carbons in these ashes are macroporous materials, and they are different from the carbons in fly ashes from classes C and F (the latter derived from the combustion of bituminous coals) and show different textural properties. These ashes represent the end member of the fly ash classes C and F with respect to certain textural properties. Although the BET surface area and VTOT values for the studied samples are the lowest reported, they increase with the increase in carbon content, anisotropic carbon content, and particle size of the ashes. Thus, a positive relationship between all these parameters and Hg capture by the coarser ash fractions was found. The finest fraction of carbons ({lt}25 {mu}m) represented an exception. Although it makes a significant contribution to the total carbon of the whole fly ashes and shows relatively higher surface areas and VTOT values, its Hg concentration was found to be the lowest. This suggests that the type of unburned carbons in the finest fraction and/or other adsorption mechanisms may play a role in Hg concentration. Because the textural properties of anisotropic carbons depend on their subtype and on their origin, the need for its differentiation has been evidenced. 54 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Alaska Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 97.8 99.4 99.1 2000's 99.8 96.2 90.2 72.2 66.9 68.6 63.1 70.0 78.2 72.5 2010's 70.5 60.8 100.0 9

  18. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Florida Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 10.5 7.3 5.0 2000's 5.2 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.7 3.4 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.2 2010's 3.0 3.0 2.7 3.2

  19. Evaluation Prompts ENERGY STAR Program to Replace Web Tool, Saving 90 Percent of Annual Costs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Program U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 
 
 November 2009 Case Study Series-Demonstrating Value of Program Evaluation 
 Evaluation Prompts ENERGY STAR Program to Replace Web Tool, Saving 90 Percent of Annual Costs A program within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is saving $90,000 per year on its online energy audit tool after an evaluation prompted managers to scale back its features. The Home Energy Advisor collects information from homeowners and makes

  20. NNSA Achieves 50 Percent Production for W76-1 Units | National Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Administration Achieves 50 Percent Production for W76-1 Units | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo

  1. NNSA hits 21 percent of CFC goal | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    hits 21 percent of CFC goal | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs

  2. Comparative performance of geopolymers made with metakaolin and fly ash after exposure to elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, Daniel L.Y.; Sanjayan, Jay G. Sagoe-Crentsil, Kwesi

    2007-12-15

    This paper presents the results of a study on the effect of elevated temperatures on geopolymers manufactured using metakaolin and fly ash of various mixture proportions. Both types of geopolymers (metakaolin and fly ash) were synthesized with sodium silicate and potassium hydroxide solutions. The strength of the fly ash-based geopolymer increased after exposure to elevated temperatures (800 deg. C). However, the strength of the corresponding metakaolin-based geopolymer decreased after similar exposure. Both types of geopolymers were subjected to thermogravimetric, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry tests. The paper concludes that the fly ash-based geopolymers have large numbers of small pores which facilitate the escape of moisture when heated, thus causing minimal damage to the geopolymer matrix. On the other hand, metakaolin geopolymers do not possess such pore distribution structures. The strength increase in fly ash geopolymers is also partly attributed to the sintering reactions of un-reacted fly ash particles.

  3. Evaluation of Ohio fly ash/hydrated lime slurries and Type 1 cement sorbent slurries in the U.C. Pilot spray dryer facility. Final report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J.; Meyers, G.R.

    1995-02-01

    The objectives of this year`s work included an evaluation of the performance of fly ash/hydrated lime as well as hydrated cement sorbents for spray drying adsorption (SDA) of SO{sub 2} from a simulated high-sulfur flue gas. These sorbents were evaluated for several different hydration methods, and under different SDA operating conditions. In addition, the physical properties of surface area and porosity of the sorbents was determined. The most reactive fly ash/hydrated lime sorbent studied was prepared at room temperature with milled fly ash. Milling fly ash prior to hydration with lime did have a beneficial effect on calcium utilization. No benefit in utilization was experienced either by hydrating the slurries at a temperature of 90{degrees}C as compared to hydration at room temperature, or by increasing hydration time. While the surface areas varied greatly from sorbent to sorbent, the pore size distributions indicated ``ink bottle`` pores with surface porosity on the order of 0.5 microns. No correlation could be drawn between the surface area of the sorbents and calcium utilization. These results suggest that the composition of the resulting sorbent might be more important than its surface area. The most effective sorbent studied this year was produced by hydrating cement for 3 days at room temperature. This sorbent provided a removal efficiency and a calcium utilization over 25 percent higher than baseline results at an approach to saturation temperature of 30{degrees}F and a stoichiometric ratio of 0.9. A maximum SO{sub 2} removal efficiency of about 90 percent was experienced with this sorbent at an approach to saturation temperature of 20{degrees}F.

  4. Recovery Act Workers Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Basin |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Basin Recovery Act Workers Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Basin American Recovery and Reinvestment Act workers recently cleaned up a second basin containing coal ash residues from Cold War operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS). About $24 million from the Recovery Act funded the environmental restoration project, allowing SRS to complete the project at least five years ahead of schedule. The work is part

  5. The Sensitivity of DPF Performance to the Spatial Distribution of Ash

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Generated from Six Lubricant Formulations | Department of Energy The Sensitivity of DPF Performance to the Spatial Distribution of Ash Generated from Six Lubricant Formulations The Sensitivity of DPF Performance to the Spatial Distribution of Ash Generated from Six Lubricant Formulations Discusses potential of DPF pressure drop reduction by optimizing the spatial distribution of ash inside DPF inlet channel PDF icon deer12_wang.pdf More Documents & Publications Controlled Experiments on

  6. Savannah River Site Takes on Another Environmental Cleanup Challenge: Coal-Fired Ash

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    AIKEN, S.C. – Workers have begun excavating a thick layer of coal ash covering approximately 100 acres of the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  7. Experimental and numerical analysis of metal leaching from fly ash-amended highway bases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cetin, Bora; Aydilek, Ahmet H.; Li, Lin

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study is the evaluation of leaching potential of fly ash-lime mixed soils. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This objective is met with experimental and numerical analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zn leaching decreases with increase in fly ash content while Ba, B, Cu increases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decrease in lime content promoted leaching of Ba, B and Cu while Zn increases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Numerical analysis predicted lower field metal concentrations. - Abstract: A study was conducted to evaluate the leaching potential of unpaved road materials (URM) mixed with lime activated high carbon fly ashes and to evaluate groundwater impacts of barium, boron, copper, and zinc leaching. This objective was met by a combination of batch water leach tests, column leach tests, and computer modeling. The laboratory tests were conducted on soil alone, fly ash alone, and URM-fly ash-lime kiln dust mixtures. The results indicated that an increase in fly ash and lime content has significant effects on leaching behavior of heavy metals from URM-fly ash mixture. An increase in fly ash content and a decrease in lime content promoted leaching of Ba, B and Cu whereas Zn leaching was primarily affected by the fly ash content. Numerically predicted field metal concentrations were significantly lower than the peak metal concentrations obtained in laboratory column leach tests, and field concentrations decreased with time and distance due to dispersion in soil vadose zone.

  8. 2.8-Ma Ash-Flow Caldera At Chegem River In The Northern Caucasus...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    .8-Ma Ash-Flow Caldera At Chegem River In The Northern Caucasus Mountains (Russia), Contemporaneous Granites, And Associated Ore Deposits Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  9. The Development of a Small Engine Based Accelerated Ash Loading Protocol |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Accelerated Ash Loading Protocol The Development of a Small Engine Based Accelerated Ash Loading Protocol Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. PDF icon 2006_deer_bunting.pdf More Documents & Publications The Development of a Small Engine Based Ash Loading Protocol Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate

  10. The Development of a Small Engine Based Ash Loading Protocol | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Ash Loading Protocol The Development of a Small Engine Based Ash Loading Protocol When 5% lubrication oil is added to diesel fuel in a small engine test, ash increases linearly and at the back of a filter, the amount depending on the differences in substrate and wash-coat type. PDF icon deer08_bunting.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design

  11. Method to produce alumina aerogels having porosities greater than 80 percent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poco, John F.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.

    2003-09-16

    A two-step method for producing monolithic alumina aerogels having porosities of greater than 80 percent. Very strong, very low density alumina aerogel monoliths are prepared using the two-step sol-gel process. The method of preparing pure alumina aerogel modifies the prior known sol method by combining the use of substoichiometric water for hydrolysis, the use of acetic acid to control hydrolysis/condensation, and high temperature supercritical drying, all of which contribute to the formation of a polycrystalline aerogel microstructure. This structure provides exceptional mechanical properties of the alumina aerogel, as well as enhanced thermal resistance and high temperature stability.

  12. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in U.S. Total Represented by

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 18.1 16.1 18.8 2000's 19.8 20.8 22.7 22.1 23.6 24.0 23.4 22.2 20.4 18.8 2010's 18.0 16.3 16.2 16.6 15.9 15.9

  13. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Alabama Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 24.6 23.3 21.8 2000's 22.4 22.2 21.6 21.2 20.8 23.6 23.5 24.0 27.2 27.9 2010's 23.7 23.5 22.1 23.6 23.3 23.3

  14. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Arizona Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 25.1 33.4 36.2 2000's 26.8 46.4 41.2 40.0 55.1 43.6 37.9 31.3 29.6 29.1 2010's 25.5 24.2 21.4 16.6 12.8 NA

  15. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Arkansas Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 10.7 9.5 10.1 2000's 8.3 6.0 5.0 5.4 5.9 5.2 4.8 4.2 3.9 3.7 2010's 2.8 2.1 1.8 1.7 1.8

  16. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Colorado Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 7.3 7.6 7.1 2000's 1.8 0.7 1.2 0.9 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.5 2010's 5.2 7.5 6.8 7.2 7.7 NA

  17. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Delaware Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 31.0 22.4 16.6 2000's 10.6 16.1 13.4 15.6 11.7 12.2 9.0 9.8 5.8 2.1 2010's 5.3 1.6 0.3 0.3 0.3 NA

  18. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Georgia Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 26.7 25.3 23.9 2000's 20.2 19.9 19.2 15.9 16.4 17.1 17.0 17.2 16.1 17.6 2010's 18.2 18.2 20.0 18.9 20.0 NA

  19. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Idaho Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.0 2.5 2.7 2000's 2.7 2.2 2.0 2.1 2.4 2.3 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.7 2010's 1.8 2.0 1.9 2.5 2.8 NA

  20. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Illinois Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 11.5 9.3 9.1 2000's 9.0 9.9 9.3 9.9 9.0 9.5 8.7 9.5 9.4 7.7 2010's 7.4 6.3 6.0 6.8 6.4 5.7

  1. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Indiana Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 16.0 9.3 5.8 2000's 10.3 7.7 8.6 9.0 8.3 7.9 7.2 7.4 6.7 7.0 2010's 5.6 3.5 1.9 2.0 2.1 NA

  2. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Iowa Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 8.7 6.8 7.4 2000's 7.0 7.5 7.6 7.9 8.4 9.8 8.5 6.5 6.6 6.4 2010's 5.8 5.5 5.2 5.6 4.8 NA

  3. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Kansas Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 9.2 9.9 10.1 2000's 10.4 9.3 10.8 7.9 6.9 6.3 7.3 5.9 7.8 6.7 2010's 7.0 9.5 9.7 9.3 8.3 NA

  4. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Kentucky Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 19.2 17.8 17.5 2000's 19.0 18.7 17.7 18.8 16.9 16.9 15.8 16.6 17.5 18.1 2010's 17.9 17.6 17.8 18.3 17.2 16.0

  5. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Maine Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 91.4 87.4 78.2 2000's 13.1 8.1 10.7 10.5 1.7 3.1 0.9 0.8 0.8 1.2 2010's 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.9 1.9

  6. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Maryland Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 7.4 7.0 6.5 2000's 6.1 8.5 8.0 10.0 8.2 8.2 6.7 7.8 6.3 5.3 2010's 5.3 5.5 5.1 6.8 7.3 NA

  7. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Michigan Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 12.5 10.8 11.1 2000's 10.2 11.3 10.2 10.9 10.7 10.1 10.2 12.6 12.5 11.8 2010's 8.8 9.3 7.4 7.4 7.6 NA

  8. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Missouri Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 21.5 18.2 18.5 2000's 16.8 16.5 16.0 14.8 13.8 14.2 13.2 12.8 13.9 13.2 2010's 13.1 13.4 12.5 13.9 14.0 12.3

  9. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Montana Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 3.1 1.5 1.7 2000's 1.9 2.2 2.1 1.8 1.6 1.8 0.7 0.8 1.0 1.1 2010's 1.5 1.3 1.0 1.2 1.4 NA

  10. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Nebraska Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 27.0 12.7 14.2 2000's 15.4 18.0 15.7 16.5 16.5 16.3 11.6 9.7 10.2 8.9 2010's 8.2 7.6 6.8 7.8 7.4 7.1

  11. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Nevada Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 6.3 15.5 22.5 2000's 18.1 33.3 34.3 19.1 16.5 17.2 16.8 17.1 17.8 17.3 2010's 18.4 17.8 15.5 15.7 15.5 NA

  12. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Jersey Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 49.3 49.5 47.9 2000's 23.5 21.6 20.8 19.5 16.4 19.9 19.5 20.6 11.0 9.0 2010's 8.4 8.2 6.5 6.1 6.6 NA

  13. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Mexico Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 9.5 9.8 16.4 2000's 16.5 10.1 15.6 12.3 11.2 8.4 11.6 10.6 10.0 11.9 2010's 12.4 10.2 7.9 8.0 7.5 NA

  14. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in North Dakota Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 18.5 14.6 14.9 2000's 13.9 9.8 9.2 45.9 51.1 27.5 42.3 48.1 46.2 34.8 2010's 29.7 37.4 34.7 37.9 34.7 39.6

  15. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Ohio Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 5.7 4.3 4.1 2000's 5.3 6.5 4.0 3.9 3.5 3.6 3.0 2.7 2.7 2.8 2010's 2.1 2.0 1.6 2.2 2.0 NA

  16. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Oklahoma Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 4.7 3.6 3.9 2000's 4.2 4.2 3.3 2.4 1.6 1.6 1.1 0.9 0.6 0.5 2010's 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.8 NA

  17. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Oregon Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 16.3 14.3 13.6 2000's 17.7 21.5 14.4 17.5 24.9 33.2 26.6 21.8 20.1 18.9 2010's 17.1 17.1 16.7 16.9 17.2

  18. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Rhode Island Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 17.4 7.4 6.5 2000's 34.0 27.3 27.3 18.9 15.7 15.3 13.6 11.6 11.7 9.2 2010's 6.5 6.0 6.3 9.0 8.1 5.3

  19. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in South Dakota Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 24.1 35.6 37.0 2000's 41.9 42.1 19.4 25.5 28.2 30.2 33.6 17.8 16.9 14.4 2010's 10.4 4.7 4.3 5.2 4.6 4.1

  20. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Texas Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 17.2 14.1 23.7 2000's 29.6 35.0 43.0 43.9 48.8 54.6 55.4 54.7 50.4 47.2 2010's 48.6 39.0 39.4 41.7 40.3 40.7

  1. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Utah Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 8.9 8.6 9.5 2000's 10.0 10.4 13.6 13.6 19.8 19.5 20.1 14.1 12.7 12.2 2010's 12.1 12.7 11.0 11.1 10.5 8.6

  2. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Vermont Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100.0 100.0 76.6 2000's 83.8 75.4 74.7 78.8 78.3 81.7 78.4 78.0 79.6 77.9 2010's 77.1 80.9 100.0 100.0 100.0 NA

  3. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Virginia Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 13.0 12.8 12.1 2000's 17.6 17.3 15.3 17.3 16.0 17.1 13.9 14.1 17.3 15.8 2010's 15.3 13.6 10.9 10.3 11.1 NA

  4. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Wyoming Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.5 2.0 2.9 2000's 2.6 2.5 2.9 1.8 2.1 3.7 3.5 3.0 3.2 3.1 2010's 1.1 1.0 0.9 1.2 1.3

  5. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Alabama Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 79.6 82.7 80.7 80.8 80.3 80.1 81.1 64.7 80.5 70.5 2000's 81.4 82.5 80.5 81.8 82.1 80.5 80.2 79.8 80.2 78.8 2010's 79.3 78.9 76.2 76.6 78.4 77.6

  6. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Alaska Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 79.9 63.4 54.5 49.6 55.4 2000's 59.3 60.5 60.0 59.1 55.5 51.2 56.3 76.0 74.9 85.3 2010's 87.7 88.6 94.9 94.5 94.5 98.2

  7. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Arizona Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 95.7 93.2 92.6 91.5 90.7 88.4 85.2 84.5 85.0 82.5 2000's 83.7 92.6 92.8 90.7 93.5 93.3 93.1 93.4 93.1 88.0 2010's 88.7 87.8 86.6 85.5 84.4 83.8

  8. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Arkansas Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 92.3 91.5 90.7 91.8 95.1 96.0 95.0 94.2 90.8 89.3 2000's 89.9 87.0 80.8 81.9 80.3 74.1 71.7 70.4 64.5 59.4 2010's 55.6 51.5 40.2 43.7 45.5 42.5

  9. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Colorado Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 97.3 96.0 95.5 95.5 94.8 94.2 93.2 92.8 94.3 97.5 2000's 97.4 95.6 95.3 95.3 94.7 95.2 95.4 95.7 95.2 94.8 2010's 94.6 93.8 92.2 94.7 94.5 NA

  10. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Delaware Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 98.8 2000's 98.0 98.3 82.8 82.8 81.6 83.3 77.5 74.8 70.6 53.5 2010's 49.8 53.4 43.7 45.0 46.2 45.7

  11. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Florida Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 97.6 97.4 97.7 97.8 97.9 97.6 97.1 97.5 96.6 94.5 2000's 67.4 56.6 42.3 42.3 41.2 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2010's 100.0 38.5 37.0 33.3 32.3 NA

  12. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Georgia Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 88.4 87.5 88.1 90.5 92.0 93.5 94.1 89.1 83.6 61.0 2000's 17.1 20.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2010's

  13. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Idaho Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 87.9 87.6 85.7 86.8 85.9 86.0 86.6 86.1 86.4 85.9 2000's 86.3 86.3 85.9 85.2 85.7 85.6 85.8 84.8 86.0 83.7 2010's 82.0 80.8 77.0 77.4 76.6 74.6

  14. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Illinois Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 57.6 59.0 57.7 55.3 52.8 50.4 53.9 54.3 47.4 42.8 2000's 41.9 41.1 40.9 43.1 41.2 41.5 39.7 42.2 43.3 41.3 2010's 42.3 38.1 36.8 38.4 38.5 NA

  15. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Indiana Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 95.7 94.2 96.8 95.2 92.3 87.8 96.3 89.9 79.2 78.3 2000's 78.0 77.1 78.4 79.8 78.2 82.1 79.4 78.1 77.9 73.9 2010's 72.5 70.2 67.4 68.2 67.6 NA

  16. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Iowa Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 97.6 97.7 95.7 94.7 90.4 89.3 87.7 88.2 85.8 83.4 2000's 81.1 82.0 81.4 78.0 78.3 78.3 77.3 77.7 75.8 72.5 2010's 72.0 72.1 72.2 72.5 74.4 NA

  17. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Kansas Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 91.6 89.2 84.4 82.6 78.4 73.6 71.7 70.3 69.5 66.7 2000's 57.3 63.1 58.9 59.1 57.3 68.5 65.4 64.8 64.9 65.7 2010's 66.0 62.6 59.8 61.4 59.3 NA

  18. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Kentucky Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 95.0 94.0 93.1 92.6 91.4 89.2 90.8 90.0 87.4 87.9 2000's 85.6 81.8 78.9 79.2 78.7 79.7 81.3 81.7 82.0 80.1 2010's 80.5 79.2 77.4 78.8 80.5 79.2

  19. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Maine Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2000's 100.0 100.0 61.6 70.2 64.6 59.9 48.7 46.2 45.0 51.0 2010's 45.0 45.8 42.1 42.6 49.1 51.5

  20. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Maryland Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 95.6 96.6 96.0 96.6 97.1 96.9 91.9 67.1 36.6 33.4 2000's 39.1 32.6 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2010's 100.0 27.3 24.7 26.2 27.3 27.4

  1. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Michigan Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 69.9 68.3 68.8 68.6 65.7 66.4 66.9 63.7 59.7 56.6 2000's 58.8 63.5 62.9 64.2 65.6 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2010's 100.0 54.1 51.0 53.2 55.2 55.4

  2. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Missouri Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 86.0 85.9 85.5 84.6 83.3 83.3 82.2 79.9 78.3 78.6 2000's 80.0 80.8 80.0 80.5 77.4 77.1 76.4 76.9 77.5 76.7 2010's 76.5 73.1 69.2 72.3 70.5 71.1

  3. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Montana Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 97.9 97.5 95.4 93.2 91.8 91.6 91.5 91.5 77.2 79.8 2000's 73.5 76.1 75.1 68.8 76.0 77.4 76.9 78.5 79.6 49.2 2010's 54.6 53.3 52.8 53.3 53.5 NA

  4. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Nebraska Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 93.9 91.8 88.2 91.0 80.2 77.1 70.0 74.2 72.5 66.6 2000's 61.1 63.7 63.7 65.4 63.5 64.5 65.1 63.9 57.5 61.3 2010's 60.6 60.6 55.8 57.3 56.4 56.1

  5. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Nevada Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 97.7 90.8 88.3 92.7 82.5 76.5 74.2 71.3 70.2 60.9 2000's 54.6 73.9 78.5 67.2 67.9 68.1 68.2 67.0 67.0 65.1 2010's 65.4 64.3 61.4 60.1 58.4 57.9

  6. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Jersey Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 94.8 93.9 92.4 91.6 91.6 86.3 73.3 56.2 60.5 56.0 2000's 56.9 57.5 49.1 50.7 48.1 51.6 46.9 44.2 42.1 38.3 2010's 36.1 32.6 30.8 35.2 32.0 NA

  7. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Mexico Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 83.1 77.7 70.0 62.5 62.4 60.3 64.7 71.0 67.0 63.0 2000's 62.2 67.3 72.5 70.3 69.0 69.0 65.0 64.2 62.6 58.2 2010's 60.7 59.8 57.0 57.0 54.4 NA

  8. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in North Dakota Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 74.8 70.0 68.9 72.7 79.6 80.9 88.0 88.9 83.8 88.2 2000's 89.5 90.1 91.6 94.4 92.6 92.9 93.0 93.3 93.4 92.9 2010's 92.6 92.8 91.9 92.6 93.1 NA

  9. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Ohio Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 87.3 86.7 85.6 84.6 81.5 76.3 71.8 65.5 55.0 46.4 2000's 45.2 41.8 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2010's

  10. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Oklahoma Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 92.1 91.3 88.5 90.0 88.5 85.2 84.5 81.8 73.2 71.6 2000's 72.4 74.0 71.0 71.3 61.6 53.1 49.9 48.1 51.3 46.4 2010's 47.5 46.3 41.1 44.6 45.3 43.7

  11. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Oregon Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 97.7 97.9 97.8 97.9 98.1 98.1 98.3 98.5 99.0 98.8 2000's 98.8 99.3 98.7 98.4 98.6 98.6 98.5 98.5 98.5 98.4 2010's 97.4 97.4 96.9 96.6 96.0 NA

  12. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Rhode Island Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 95.9 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 91.8 80.5 59.2 53.2 2000's 53.2 58.0 65.9 72.1 73.3 74.3 73.1 66.5 66.2 68.0 2010's 61.2 56.9 55.4 54.5 52.2 53.9

  13. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in South Dakota Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 86.4 81.8 82.4 83.9 89.1 86.9 82.7 83.3 84.2 81.2 2000's 83.1 84.2 83.1 82.3 82.3 83.5 82.1 81.2 83.0 82.2 2010's 80.9 81.7 81.6 81.6 81.6 81

  14. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Texas Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 89.8 89.3 79.7 83.8 82.4 68.6 83.5 61.4 81.0 77.3 2000's 79.0 88.4 71.8 73.7 74.6 79.5 82.0 81.9 82.5 78.3 2010's 76.4 73.4 72.4 72.8 72.6 NA

  15. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Utah Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 83.3 81.8 81.9 83.2 82.5 82.9 2000's 83.9 84.4 83.7 84.4 84.4 86.8 86.8 86.9 86.4 85.6 2010's 86.2 86.7 83.9 81.8 78.3 77.0

  16. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Virginia Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 93.2 93.6 90.7 88.8 86.7 84.1 85.3 77.9 72.1 67.4 2000's 66.4 65.8 61.4 65.7 63.6 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2010's 100.0 54.1 52.1 54.6 55.8 54

  17. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Wyoming Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 99.8 99.0 98.0 98.0 96.1 93.6 85.9 84.1 90.5 89.1 2000's 90.0 86.5 48.7 51.7 51.4 49.3 47.8 49.3 65.6 65.5 2010's 65.3 64.0 62.6 62.9 60.8 NA

  18. New Water Booster Pump System Reduces Energy Consumption by 80 Percent and Increases Reliability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This case study outlines how General Motors (GM) developed a highly efficient pumping system for their Pontiac Operations Complex in Pontiac, Michigan. In short, GM was able to replace five original 60- to 100-hp pumps with three 15-hp pumps whose speed could be adjusted to meet plant requirements. As a result, the company reduced pumping system energy consumption by 80 percent (225,100 kWh per year), saving an annual $11,255 in pumping costs. With a capital investment of $44,966 in the energy efficiency portion of their new system, GM projected a simple payback of 4 years.

  19. Speciation of Selenium, Arsenic, and Zinc in Class C Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Yun; Giammar, Daniel E.; Huhmann, Brittany L.; Catalano, Jeffrey G.

    2011-11-17

    A major environmental concern associated with coal fly ash is the mobilization of trace elements that may contaminate water. To better evaluate proper use of fly ash, determine appropriate disposal methods, and monitor postdisposal conditions, it is important to understand the speciation of trace elements in fly ash and their possible environmental impact. The speciation of selenium, arsenic, and zinc was determined in five representative Class C fly ash samples from combustion of sub-bituminous Powder River Basin coal using synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy to provide an improved understanding of the mechanisms of trace element association with the fly ash. Selenium in all fly ash samples occurs predominantly as Se(IV), with the exception of one sample, in which there was a minor amount of Se(0). Se(0) is likely associated with the high content of unburned coal in the sample. Arsenic exists in the fly ash as a single phase most consistent with calcium pyroarsenate. In contrast, zinc occurs as two distinct species in the silicate glass matrix of the fly ash. This work demonstrates that residual carbon in fly ash may reduce potential Se mobility in the environment by retaining it as less soluble elemental Se instead of Se(IV). Further, this work suggests that As and Zn in Class C fly ash will display substantially different release and mobilization behaviors in aquatic environments. While As release will primarily depend upon the dissolution and hydrolysis of calcium pyroarsenate, Zn release will be controlled by the dissolution of alkaline aluminosilicate glass in the ash.

  20. Growth and elemental accumulation by canola on soil amended with coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yunusa, I.A.M.; Manoharan, V.; DeSilva, D.L.; Eamus, D.; Murray, B.R.; Nissanka, S.P.

    2008-05-15

    To explore the agronomic potential of an Australian coal fly ash, we conducted two glasshouse experiments in which we measured chlorophyll fluorescence, CO{sub 2} assimilation (A), transpiration, stomatal conductance, biomass accumulation, seed yield, and elemental uptake for canola (Brassica napus) grown on soil amended with an alkaline fly ash. In Experiment 1, application of up to 25 Mg/ha of fly ash increased A and plant weight early in the season before flowering and seed yield by up to 21%. However, at larger rates of ash application A, plant growth, chlorophyll concentration, and yield were all reduced. Increases in early vigor and seed yield were associated with enhanced uptake of phosphorus (P) by the plants treated with fly ash. Fly ash application did not influence accumulation of B, Cu, Mo, or Zn in the stems at any stage of plant growth or in the seed at harvest, except Mo concentration, which was elevated in the seed. Accumulation of these elements was mostly in the leaves, where concentrations of Cu and Mo increased with any amount of ash applied while that of B occurred only with ash applied at 625 Mg/ha. In Experiment 2, fly ash applied at 500 Mg/ha and mixed into the whole 30 cm soil core was detrimental to growth and yield of canola, compared with restricting mixing to 5 or 15 cm depth. In contrast, application of ash at 250 Mg/ha with increasing depth of mixing increased A and seed yield. We concluded that fly ash applied at not more than 25 Mg/ha and mixed into the top 10 to 15 cm of soil is sufficient to obtain yield benefits.

  1. Evaluation of rice husk ash as filler in tread compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandes, M. R. S.; Furtado, C. R. G. E-mail: ana.furtado.sousa@gmail.com; Sousa, A. M. F. de E-mail: ana.furtado.sousa@gmail.com

    2014-05-15

    Rice which is one of the largest agriculture crops produces around 22% of rice rusk during its milling process. This material is mainly used as fuel for energy generation, which results in an ash, which disposal represents an environmental issue. The rice husk ash (RHA) contains over than 70% of silica in an amorphous form and a lot of applications is being developed for it all over the world. The use of silica as a filler in the tire industry is growing since it contributes significantly to the reduction of fuel consumption of the automobiles, allowing at the same time better traction (safety). This paper presents an evaluation of the use of RHA as filler in rubber tread compounds prepared in lab scale and compares its performance with compounds prepared with commercial silica and carbon black, the fillers normally used in tire industry. Mechanical and rheological properties are evaluated, with emphasis for tan delta as an indicator of tread performance related with rolling resistance (fuel consumption) and wet grip/traction (safety)

  2. Quantification of the degree of reaction of fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben Haha, M.; De Weerdt, K.; Lothenbach, B.

    2010-11-15

    The quantification of the fly ash (FA) in FA blended cements is an important parameter to understand the effect of the fly ash on the hydration of OPC and on the microstructural development. The FA reaction in two different blended OPC-FA systems was studied using a selective dissolution technique based on EDTA/NaOH, diluted NaOH solution, the portlandite content and by backscattered electron image analysis. The amount of FA determined by selective dissolution using EDTA/NaOH is found to be associated with a significant possible error as different assumptions lead to large differences in the estimate of FA reacted. In addition, at longer hydration times, the reaction of the FA is underestimated by this method due to the presence of non-dissolved hydrates and MgO rich particles. The dissolution of FA in diluted NaOH solution agreed during the first days well with the dissolution as observed by image analysis. At 28 days and longer, the formation of hydrates in the diluted solutions leads to an underestimation. Image analysis appears to give consistent results and to be most reliable technique studied.

  3. Determination of Total Solids and Ash in Algal Biomass: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Wychen, S.; Laurens, L. M. L.

    2013-12-01

    This procedure describes the methods used to determine the amount of moisture or total solids present in a freeze-dried algal biomass sample, as well as the ash content. A traditional convection oven drying procedure is covered for total solids content, and a dry oxidation method at 575?C is covered for ash content.

  4. Power-plant fly-ash utilization: a chemical processing perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnet, G.; Murtha, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The 1976 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) deals with the management of solid and hazardous wastes, and encourages energy and resource recovery. Recent research has indicated that solid wastes from coal combustion, including fly ash, could be classified as hazardous under present EPA definitions. The seriousness of this possibility has been recognized and new rules for coal ash waste disposal are being considered. Ames Laboratory research on fly ash utilization as an alternative to disposal includes extraction of metals from the ash and discovery of uses for the process residues. Recovery of alumina and iron oxides by physical and chemical processing would permit large scale utilization of fly ash and help reduce dependency on imports. One of the processes investigated uses a lime-soda sinter method to form soluble aluminate compounds from mixtures of fly ash, limestone, and soda ash. The aluminates are extracted, treated to remove silicates, and precipitated: the precipitate is calcined to metallurgical grade alumina. The extract residue shows promise as a raw material for the production of Portland cement. Process economics are presented, and the effects of alumina and silica contents of the fly ash, sintering temperatures and time, and sales credits for by-products are discussed.

  5. California bearing ratio behavior of soil-stabilized class F fly ash systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leelavathamma, B.; Mini, K.M.; Pandian, N.S.

    2005-11-01

    Fly ash is a finely divided mineral residue resulting from the combustion of coal in power plants that occupies large extents of land and also causes environmental problems. Hence, concerted attempts are being made to effectively use fly ash in an environmentally friendly way instead of dumping. Several studies have been carried out for its bulk utilization, such as its addition to improve the California bearing ratio (CBR) of soil in roads and embankments. But a thorough mixing of fly ash with soil may not be possible in the field. Hence a study has been carried out on the CBR behavior of black cotton soil and Raichur fly ash (which is class F) in layers and compared with the same in mixes. The results show that the CBR values of soil-fly ash mixes are better than layers, as expected. To improve the strength of layers, cement is used as an additive to fly ash. The results show that black cotton soil can be improved with stabilized fly ash, solving its strength problem as well as the disposal problem of fly ash.

  6. Stabilization of Oklahoma expensive soils using lime and class C fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buhler, R.L.; Cerato, A.B.

    2007-01-15

    This study uses lime and class C fly ash, an industrial byproduct of electric power production produced from burning lignite and subbituminous coal, to study the plasticity reduction in highly expensive natural clays from Idabel, Oklahoma. This study is important, especially in Oklahoma, because most of the native soils are expansive and cause seasonal damage to roadways and structures. The addition of lime or fly ash helps to arrest the shrinkage and swelling behavior of soil. Four soil samples with the same AASHTO classification were used in this study to show shrinkage variability within a soil group with the addition of lime and class C fly ash. The plasticity reduction in this study was quantified using the linear shrinkage test. It was found that soils classified within the same AASHTO group had varying shrinkage characteristics. It was also found that both lime and fly ash reduced the lienar shrinkage, however, the addition of lime reduced the linear shrinkage to a greater degree than the same percentage of class C fly ash. Even though it takes much less lime than fly ash to reduce the plasticity of a highly expansive soil, it may be less expensive to utilize fly ash, which is a waste product of electric power production. Lime also has a lower unit weight than fly ash so weight percentage results may be misleading.

  7. INVESTIGATION OF FLY ASH AND ACTIVATED CARBON OBTAINED FROM PULVERIZED COAL BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward K. Levy; Christopher Kiely

    2004-11-01

    One of the techniques for Hg capture in coal-fired boilers involves injection of activated carbon (AC) into the boiler downstream of the air preheater. Hg is adsorbed onto the AC particles and fly ash, which are then both removed in an electrostatic precipitator or baghouse. This project addresses the issues of Hg on activated carbon and on fly ash from a materials re-use point of view. It also addresses the possible connection between SCR reactors, fly ash properties and Hg capture. The project is determining the feasibility of separating AC from fly ash in a fluidized bed and of regenerating the separated AC by heating the AC to elevated temperatures in a fluidized bed. The temperatures needed to drive off the Hg from the ash in a fluidized bed are also being determined. Finally, samples of fly ash from power plants with SCR reactors for NO{sub x} control, are being analyzed to determine the effect of SCR on the ash. These analyses will also determine the properties of ash which are important for Hg capture.

  8. Site-specific study on stabilization of acid-generating mine tailings using coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shang, J.Q.; Wang, H.L.; Kovac, V.; Fyfe, J.

    2006-03-15

    A site-specific study on stabilizing acid-generating mine tailings from Sudbury Mine using a coal fly ash from Nanticoke Generating Station is presented in this paper. The objective of the study is to evaluate the feasibility of codisposal of the fly ash and mine tailings to reduce environmental impacts of Sudbury tailings disposal sites. The study includes three phases, i.e., characterization of the mine tailings, and coal fly ash, oxidation tests on the mine tailings and kinetic column permeation tests. The results of the experiments indicate that when permeated with acid mine drainage, the hydraulic conductivity of Nanticoke coal fly ash decreased more than three orders of magnitude (from 1 x 10{sup -6} to 1 x 10{sup -9} cm/s), mainly due to chemical reactions between the ash solids and acid mine drainage. Furthermore, the hydraulic gradient required for acid mine drainage to break through the coal fly ash is increased up to ten times (from 17 to 150) as compared with that for water. The results also show that the leachate from coal fly ash neutralizes the acidic pore fluid of mine tailings. The concentrations of trace elements in effluents from all kinetic column permeation tests indicated that coplacement of coal fly ash with mine tailings has the benefit of immobilizing trace elements, especially heavy metals. All regulated element concentrations from effluent during testing are well below the leachate quality criteria set by the local regulatory authority.

  9. Influence of combustion conditions and coal properties on physical properties of fly ash generated from pulverized coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiromi Shirai; Hirofumi Tsuji; Michitaka Ikeda; Toshinobu Kotsuji

    2009-07-15

    To develop combustion technology for upgrading the quality of fly ash, the influences of the coal properties, such as the size of pulverized coal particles and the two-stage combustion ratio during the combustion, on the fly ash properties were investigated using our test furnace. The particle size, density, specific surface area (obtained by the Blaine method), and shape of fly ash particles of seven types of coal were measured. It was confirmed that the size of pulverized coal particles affects the size of the ash particles. Regarding the coal properties, the fuel ratio affected the ash particle size distribution. The density and shape of the ash particles strongly depended on their ash size. Our results indicated that the shape of the ash particles and the concentration of unburned carbon affected the specific surface area. The influence of the two-stage combustion ratio was limited. 8 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Mercury retention by fly ashes from coal combustion: Influence of the unburned carbon content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez-Anton, M.A.; Diaz-Somoano, M.; Martinez-Tarazona, M.R.

    2007-01-31

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of unburned carbon particles present in fly ashes produced by coal combustion on mercury retention. To achieve this objective, the work was divided into two parts. The aim of the first part of the study was to estimate the amount of mercury captured by the fly ashes during combustion in power stations and the relationship of this retention to the unburned carbon content. The second part was a laboratory-scale study aimed at evaluating the retention of mercury concentrations greater than those produced in power stations by fly ashes of different characteristics and by unburned carbon particles. From the results obtained it can be inferred that the unburned carbon content is not the only variable that controls mercury capture in fly ashes. The textural characteristics of these unburned particles and of other components of fly ashes also influence retention.

  11. pH-dependent leaching of dump coal ash - retrospective environmental analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popovic, A.; Djordjevic, D. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia). Dept. of Chemistry

    2009-07-01

    Trace and major elements in coal ash particles from dump of 'Nikola Tesla A' power plant in Obrenovac near Belgrade (Serbia) can cause pollution, due to leaching by atmospheric and surface waters. In order to assess this leaching potential, dump ash samples were subjected to extraction with solutions of decreasing pH values (8.50, 7.00, 5.50, and 4.00), imitating the reactions of the alkaline ash particles with the possible alkaline, neutral, and acidic (e.g., acid rain) waters. The most recently deposited ash represents the greatest environmental threat, while 'aged' ash, because of permanent leaching on the dump, was shown to have already lost this pollution potential. On the basis of the determined leachability, it was possible to perform an estimation of the acidity of the regional rainfalls in the last decades.

  12. Table 8.3a Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Total (All Sectors), 1989-2011 (Sum of Tables 8.3b and 8.3c; Billion Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Total (All Sectors), 1989-2011 (Sum of Tables 8.3b and 8.3c; Billion Btu) Year Fossil Fuels Renewable Energy Other 7 Total Coal 1 Petroleum 2 Natural Gas 3 Other Gases 4 Total Biomass Total Wood 5 Waste 6 1989 323,191 95,675 461,905 92,556 973,327 546,354 30,217 576,571 39,041 1,588,939 1990 362,524 127,183 538,063 140,695 1,168,465 650,572 36,433 687,005 40,149 1,895,619 1991 351,834 112,144 546,755 148,216 1,158,949 623,442 36,649

  13. Table 8.3c Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Commercial and Industrial Sectors, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.3a; Billion Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    c Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Commercial and Industrial Sectors, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.3a; Billion Btu) Year Fossil Fuels Renewable Energy Other 7 Total Coal 1 Petroleum 2 Natural Gas 3 Other Gases 4 Total Biomass Total Wood 5 Waste 6 Commercial Sector 8<//td> 1989 13,517 3,896 9,920 102 27,435 145 10,305 10,450 – 37,885 1990 14,670 5,406 15,515 118 35,709 387 10,193 10,580 – 46,289 1991 15,967 3,684 20,809 118 40,578 169 8,980 9,149 1 49,728 1992

  14. Simulation of Coal Ash Particle Deposition Experiments (Copyright 2011, American Chemical Society)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ai, Weiguo; Kuhlman, John M

    2011-01-20

    Existing experimental ash particle deposition measurements from the literature have been simulated using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) discrete phase model (DPM) Lagrangian particle tracking method and an existing ash particle deposition model based on the Johnson−Kendall−Roberts (JKR) theory, in the Fluent commercial CFD code. The experimental heating tube was developed to simulate ash temperature histories in a gasifier; ash-heating temperatures ranged from 1873 to 1573 K, spanning the ash-melting temperature. The present simulations used the realizable k−ε turbulence model to compute the gas flow field and the heat transfer to a cooled steel particle impact probe and DPM particle tracking for the particle trajectories and temperatures. A user-defined function (UDF) was developed to describe particle sticking/rebounding and particle detachment on the impinged wall surface. Expressions for the ash particle Young’s modulus in the model, E, versus the particle temperature and diameter were developed by fitting to the E values that were required to match the experimental ash sticking efficiencies from several particle size cuts and ash-heating temperatures for a Japanese bituminous coal. A UDF that implemented the developed stiffness parameter equations was then used to predict the particle sticking efficiency, impact efficiency, and capture efficiency for the entire ash-heating temperature range. Frequency histogram comparisons of adhesion and rebound behavior by particle size between model and experiments showed good agreement for each of the four ash-heating temperatures. However, to apply the present particle deposition model to other coals, a similar validation process would be necessary to develop the effective Young’s modulus versus the particle diameter and temperature correlation for each new coal.

  15. Gypsum treated fly ash as a liner for waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivapullaiah, Puvvadi V.; Baig, M. Arif Ali

    2011-02-15

    Fly ash has potential application in the construction of base liners for waste containment facilities. While most of the fly ashes improve in the strength with curing, the ranges of permeabilities they attain may often not meet the basic requirement of a liner material. An attempt has been made in the present context to reduce the hydraulic conductivity by adding lime content up to 10% to two selected samples of class F fly ashes. The use of gypsum, which is known to accelerate the unconfined compressive strength by increasing the lime reactivity, has been investigated in further improving the hydraulic conductivity. Hydraulic conductivities of the compacted specimens have been determined in the laboratory using the falling head method. It has been observed that the addition of gypsum reduces the hydraulic conductivity of the lime treated fly ashes. The reduction in the hydraulic conductivity of the samples containing gypsum is significantly more for samples with high amounts of lime contents (as high as 1000 times) than those fly ashes with lower amounts of lime. However there is a relatively more increase in the strengths of the samples with the inclusion of gypsum to the fly ashes at lower lime contents. This is due to the fact that excess lime added to fly ash is not effectively converted into pozzolanic compounds. Even the presence of gypsum is observed not to activate these reactions with excess lime. On the other hand the higher amount of lime in the presence of sulphate is observed to produce more cementitious compounds which block the pores in the fly ash. The consequent reduction in the hydraulic conductivity of fly ash would be beneficial in reducing the leachability of trace elements present in the fly ash when used as a base liner.

  16. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Hawaii Represented by the

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1990 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1991 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1992 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1993 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1994 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1995 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1996 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

  17. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Vermont Represented by the

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1990 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1991 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1992 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1993 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1994 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1995 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1996 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

  18. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in U.S. Total Represented by

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 93.1 90.8 89.1 1990's 86.6 85.1 83.2 83.9 79.3 76.7 77.6 70.8 67.0 66.1 2000's 63.9 66.0 77.4 78.2 78.0 82.1 80.8 80.4 79.7 77.8 2010's 77.5 67.3 65.2 65.8 65.8 65.3

  19. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Hawaii Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2002 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2003 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2004 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2005 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2006 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2007 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2008 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

  20. Evaluation of the effects of coal fly ash amendments on the toxicity of a contaminated marine sediment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burgess, R.M.; Perron, M.M.; Friedman, C.L.; Suuberg, E.M.; Pennell, K.G.; Cantwell, M.G.; Pelletier, M.C.; Ho, K.T.; Serbst, J.R.; Ryba, S.A.

    2009-01-15

    Approaches for cleaning up contaminated sediments range from dredging to in situ treatment. In this study, we discuss the effects of amending reference and contaminated sediments with coal fly ash to reduce the bioavailability and toxicity of a field sediment contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Six fly ashes and a coconut charcoal were evaluated in 7-d whole sediment toxicity tests with a marine amphipod (Ampelisca abdita) and mysid (Americamysis bahia). Fly ashes with high carbon content and the coconut charcoal showed proficiency at reducing toxicity. Some of the fly ashes demonstrated toxicity in the reference treatments. It is suspected that some of this toxicity is related to the presence of ammonia associated with fly ashes as a result of postoxidation treatment to reduce nitrous oxide emissions. Relatively simple methods exist to remove ammonia from fly ash before use, and fly ashes with low ammonia content are available. Fly ashes were also shown to effectively reduce overlying water concentrations of several PAHs. No evidence was seen of the release of the metals cadmium, copper, nickel, or lead from the fly ashes. A preliminary 28-d polychaete bioaccumulation study with one of the high-carbon fly ashes and a reference sediment was also performed. Although preliminary, no evidence was seen of adverse effects to worm growth or lipid content or of accumulation of PAHs or mercury from exposure to the fly ash. These data show fly ashes with high carbon content could represent viable remedial materials for reducing the bioavailability of organic contaminants in sediments.