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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brownish-black solid combustible" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

The Combustion of Solid Biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The combustion of solid biomass is covered in this chapter. This covers the general mechanism of combustion, moisture evaporation, devolatilisation, the combustion of the volatiles gases and tars and finally char...

Jenny M. Jones; Amanda R. Lea-Langton…

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Combustion of Solid Biomass: Classification of Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The combustion of solid biomass and the classification of these fuels are considered. Firstly the different methods of combustion appliances and plants are outlined from a ... view. The forms and types of solid biomass

Jenny M. Jones; Amanda R. Lea-Langton…

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Fluid-bed combustion of solid wastes  

SciTech Connect

For over ten years combustion Power Company has been conducting experimental programs and developing fluid bed systems for agencies of the federal government and for private industry and institutions. Many of these activities have involved systems for the combustion of solid waste materials. Discussed here will be three categories of programs, development of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) fired fluid beds, development of wood waste fired fluid beds, and industrial installations. Research and development work on wood wastes has led to the design and construction of two large industrial fluid bed combustors. In one of these, a fluid bed is used for the generation of steam with a fuel that was previously suited only for landfill. Rocks and inerts are continuously removed from this combustor using a patented system. The second FBC is designed to use a variety of fuels as the source of energy to dry hog fuel for use in a high performance power boiler. Here the FBC burns green hog fuel, log yard debris, fly ash (char) from the boiler, and dried wood fines to produce a hot gas system for the wood dryer. A significant advantage of the fluidized bed reactor over conventional incinerators is its ability to reduce noxious gas emission and, finally, the fluidized bed is unique in its ability to efficiently consume low quality fuels. The relatively high inerts and moisture content of solid wastes pose no serious problem and require no associated additional devices for their removal.

Vander Molen, R.H.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers National Energy Technology Laboratory Contact NETL...

5

Novel New Oxygen Carriers for Chemical Looping Combustion of Solid Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Novel New Oxygen Carriers for Chemical Looping Combustion of Solid Fuels ... A loop of chem. ... Energy Combust. ...

Yueying Fan; Ranjani Siriwardane

2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

6

Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of Municipal Solid Waste Combustion Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Also, the energy that results from waste combustion is often used to produce heat and/or electricityNonlinear Model Predictive Control of Municipal Solid Waste Combustion Plants M. Leskens , R.h.Bosgra@tudelft.nl, p.m.j.vandenhof@tudelft.nl Keywords : nonlinear model predictive control, municipal solid waste

Van den Hof, Paul

7

A Generalized Pyrolysis Model for Combustible Solids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

model. ?H c is the heat of combustion, and the ratio ?H c /?may have widely varying heats of combustion (CO vs. gaseous

Lautenberger, Chris

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Novel Reactor Design for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Novel Reactor Design for Solid Fuel Novel Reactor Design for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Opportunity Research is active on the patent pending technology, titled "Apparatus and Method for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion." This technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Overview The removal of CO2 from power plants is challenging because existing methods to separate CO2 from the gas mixture requires a significant fraction of the power plant output. Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a novel technology that utilizes a metal oxide oxygen carrier to transport oxygen to the fuel thereby avoiding direct contact between fuel and air. The use of CLC has the advantages of reducing the energy penalty while

9

Numerical investigation of the heterogeneous combustion processes of solid fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Two-phase computational modelling based on the Euler–Euler was developed to investigate the heterogeneous combustion processes of biomass, in the solid carbon phase, inside a newly designed combustion chamber (Model 1). A transient simulation was carried out for a small amount of carbon powder situated in a cup which was located at the centre of the combustion chamber. A heat source was provided to initiate the combustion with the air supplied by three injection nozzles. The results show that the combustion is sustained in the chamber, as evidenced by the flame temperature. An axisymmetric combustion model (Model 2) based on the Euler–Lagrange approach was formulated to model the combustion of pulverized coal. Three cases with three different char oxidation models are presented. The predicted results have good agreement with the available experimental data and showed that the combustion inside the reactor was affected by the particulate size. A number of simulations were carried out to find the best values of parameters suitable for predicting \\{NOx\\} pollutants.

Blaid Alganash; Manosh C. Paul; Ian A. Watson

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and device are claimed for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Robben, F.A.

1984-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

11

Solid fuel combustion system for gas turbine engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion system for a gas turbine engine includes a carbonizer outside of the engine for gasifying coal to a low Btu fuel gas in a first fraction of compressor discharge, a pressurized fluidized bed outside of the engine for combusting the char residue from the carbonizer in a second fraction of compressor discharge to produce low temperature vitiated air, and a fuel-rich, fuel-lean staged topping combustor inside the engine in a compressed air plenum thereof. Diversion of less than 100% of compressor discharge outside the engine minimizes the expense of fabricating and maintaining conduits for transferring high pressure and high temperature gas and incorporation of the topping combustor in the compressed air plenum of the engine minimizes the expense of modifying otherwise conventional gas turbine engines for solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion.

Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Gaseous emissions during concurrent combustion of biomass and non-recyclable municipal solid waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biomass and municipal solid waste offer sustainable sources ... form of combined cooling, heat and power. Combustion of biomass has a lesser impact than solid fossil ... an integrated, sustainable waste managemen...

René Laryea-Goldsmith; John Oakey; Nigel J Simms

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Haraldrud Municipal Solid Waste Combustion Plant in Oslo.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis has studied Haraldrud MSW combustion process. Haraldrud is a realcombustion plant burning waste for citizens of Oslo. A thoroughly description ofthe combustion process… (more)

Gudim, Simen Johan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Hydrodynamic modeling of poly-solid reactive circulating fluidized beds: Application to Chemical Looping Combustion.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Une étude précise des écoulements gaz-particules poly-solides et réactifs rencontrés dans les lits fluidisés circulants (LFC) appliqués au procédé de Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) est… (more)

Nouyrigat, Nicolas

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Hydrodynamic modeling of poly-solid reactive circulating fluidized beds : Application to Chemical Looping Combustion.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Une étude précise des écoulements gaz-particules poly-solides et réactifs rencontrés dans les lits fluidisés circulants (LFC) appliqués au procédé de Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) est… (more)

Nouyrigat, Nicolas

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Optical detection of combustion zone movement in solid high-energy materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Optical methods in infrared (IR) and visible (VIS) ranges for detection of combustion zone propagation in solid high-energy materials, such as pyrotechnic compositions inserted into pyrolytic...2...laser beam are...

M. Miszczak; W. Swiderski

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Co-combustion of pulverized coal and solid recovered fuel in an entrained flow reactor – General combustion and ash behaviour  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Co-combustion of a bituminous coal and a solid recovered fuel (SRF) was carried out in an entrained flow reactor, and the influence of additives such as NaCl, PVC, ammonium sulphate, and kaolinite on co-combustion was investigated. The co-combustion experiments were carried out with SRF shares of 7.9 wt.%, 14.8 wt.% and 25 wt.%, respectively. The effect of additives was evaluated by maintaining the share of secondary fuel (mixture of SRF and additive) at 14.8 wt.%. The experimental results showed that the fuel burnout, NO and SO2 emission in co-combustion of coal and SRF were decreased with increasing share of SRF. The majority of the additives inhibited the burnout, except for NaCl which seemed to have a promoting effect. The impact of additives on NO emission was mostly insignificant, except for ammonium sulphate which greatly reduced the NO emission. For SO2 emission, it was found that all of the additives increased the S-retention in ash. Analysis of the bulk composition of fly ash from different experiments indicated that the majority of S and Cl in the fuels were released to gas phase during combustion, whereas the K and Na in the fuels were mainly retained in ash. When co-firing coal and SRF, approximately 99 wt.% of the K and Na in fly ash was present in water insoluble form such as aluminosilicates or silicates. The addition of NaCl, PVC, and ammonium sulphate generally promoted the vaporization of Na and K, resulting in an increased formation of water soluble alkalis such as alkali chlorides or sulphates. The vaporization degree of Na and K was found to be correlated during the experiments, suggesting an interaction between the vaporization of Na and K during pulverized fuel combustion. By collecting deposits on an air-cooled probe during the experiments, it was found that the ash deposition propensity in co-combustion was decreased with increasing share of SRF. The addition of NaCl and PVC significantly increased the ash deposition propensity, whereas the addition of ammonium sulphate or kaolinite showed a slight reducing effect. The chlorine content in the deposits generally implied a low corrosion potential during co-combustion of coal and SRF, except for the experiments with NaCl or PVC addition.

Hao Wu; Peter Glarborg; Flemming Jappe Frandsen; Kim Dam-Johansen; Peter Arendt Jensen; Bo Sander

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Amino Acid-Functionalized Ionic Liquid Solid Sorbents for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Amino Acid-Functionalized Ionic Liquid Solid Sorbents for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture ... Amino acid ionic liquids (AAILs) are potential green substitutes of aqueous amine solutions for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. ... However, the viscous nature of AAILs greatly hinders their further development in CO2 capture applications. ...

Xianfeng Wang; Novruz G. Akhmedov; Yuhua Duan; David Luebke; David Hopkinson; Bingyun Li

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

19

Influence of Lime Addition to Ilmenite in Chemical-Looping Combustion (CLC) with Solid Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence of calcined and sulfated limestone addition in an oxygen carrier bed of ilmenite has been investigated for chemical-looping combustion (CLC) with solid fuel. The experiments have been performed in a laboratory-batch fluidized-bed reactor ...

Guillaume Teyssié; Henrik Leion; Georg L. Schwebel; Anders Lyngfelt; Tobias Mattisson

2011-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

20

Impact of solid fuel combustion technology on valence speciation of chromium in fly ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Fly ash (FA) generated in real furnaces was used to evaluate the impact of the kind of the solid fuel burnt and combustion technology on chromium speciation, particularly the presence of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) forms as well as readily and hardly leachable chromium(VI) species in FAs. The \\{FAs\\} originated from a pulverized coal combustion boiler (PCC boiler), a fluidized bed combustion boiler (FBC boiler), a stoker-fired boiler (SF boiler), a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI), a cement rotary kiln (CRK) and a modern domestic boiler (DB). The speciation analysis of chromium was carried out by means of extraction followed by catalytic cathodic stripping voltammetry with adsorption of Cr(III)-DTPA complexes (CCSV-DTPA) for determination of Cr(VI) and AAS was used for determination of Cr content. It has been revealed that the antagonistic action of alkali metal compounds and iron oxides plays a crucial role in shaping valence speciation of chromium. According to the proposed transformation path of oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI), hard coal combustion in an SF boiler, an FBC boiler or a domestic boiler will generate \\{FAs\\} with a low Cr(VI) level. Replacing fuel with biomass should create favorable conditions for generating FA enriched with Cr(VI). Relatively high concentrations of Cr(VI) can also be expected in FA generated in the process of high-temperature combustion of coal in PCC boilers.

Ryszard ?wietlik; Marzena Trojanowska; Monika ?o?y?ska; Artur Molik

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brownish-black solid combustible" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Sulfur Release from Cement Raw Materials during Solid Fuel Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The fuels were tire rubber, pine wood, petcoke, sewage sludge, and polypropylene. ... The sequence of SO2 release for fuel particles in the size interval 1–2 mm was found to be tire rubber granulate > sewage sludge > pine wood sawdust > petcoke > polypropylene flakes. ... Five different solid fuels have been tested: tire rubber, pine wood, polypropylene, petcoke, and sewage sludge. ...

Anders R. Nielsen; Morten B. Larsen; Peter Glarborg; Kim Dam-Johansen

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

22

NETL: IEP - Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Evaluation of Solid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solid Sorbents as a Retrofit Technology for CO2 Capture Solid Sorbents as a Retrofit Technology for CO2 Capture Project No.: DE-FE0004343 ADA-ES Inc. is refining the conceptual design of a commercial solid sorbent-based, post-combustion CO2 capture technology through slipstream pilot testing and process modeling. A pilot unit (~1 MW) will be designed and constructed to demonstrate solid sorbent-based CO2 capture on actual flue gas. The pilot tests and process modeling will provide the information necessary to complete a techno-economic analysis of the technology. The design will be based on a 1 kW-scale transport reactor system built and demonstrated under an existing DOE/NETL CO2 capture project (Figure). There are several advantages solids offer over aqueous MEA. For example, solids have a working capacity over two times that of MEA, by weight, leading to lower regeneration energy attributable to less material to heat. The increased capacity, in conjunction with the lower heat capacity, results in a theoretical regeneration energy approximately half that of MEA, per kg of CO2. This indicates that solids can dramatically reduce the energy requirements for CO2 capture compared to aqueous systems. In addition, circulating less material in a solid-based system compared to aqueous MEA will likely lead to lower pressure drop, depending on the system configuration. Also, solids have the potential to be less corrosive than the solution used in aqueous MEA systems.

23

Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The problem addressed by our invention is that of municipal solid waste utilization. The dimensions of the problem can be visualized by the common comparison that the average individual in America creates in five years time an amount of solid waste equivalent in weight to the Statue of Liberty. The combustible portion of the more than 11 billion tons of solid waste (including municipal solid waste) produced in the United States each year, if converted into useful energy, could provide 32 quads per year of badly needed domestic energy, or more than one-third of our annual energy consumption. Conversion efficiency and many other factors make such a production level unrealistic, but it is clear that we are dealing with a very significant potential resource. This report describes research pertaining to the co-combustion of oil shale with solid municipal wastes in a circulating fluidized bed. The oil shale adds significant fuel content and also constituents that can possible produce a useful cementitious ash.

NONE

1996-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

24

Energy recovery from municipal solid waste and sewage sludge using multi-solid fluidized bed combustion technology  

SciTech Connect

This study was initiated to investigate the recovery of energy from municipal solid waste (MSW) and domestic sewage sludge (DSS) simultaneously by using Battelle's multi-solid fluidized-bed combustion (MS-FBC) technology. The concept was to recover energy as high and low pressure steam, simultaneously. High pressure steam would be generated from flue gas using a conventional tubular boiler. Low pressure steam would be generated by direct contact drying of DSS (as 4% solids) with hot sand in a fluidized bed that is an integral part of the MS-FBC process. It was proposed that high pressure steam could be used for district heating or electricity generation. The low pressure steam could be used for close proximity building heat. Alternatively, low pressure steam could be used to heat wastewater in a sewage treatment plant to enhance sedimentation and biological activity that would provide a captive market for this part of the recovered energy. The direct contact drying or tubeless steam generation eliminates fouling problems that are common during heat exchange with DSS. The MS-FBC process was originally developed for coal and was chosen for this investigation because its combustion rate is about three times that of conventional fluidized beds and it was projected to have the flexibility needed for accomplishing tubeless steam generation. The results of the investigation show that the MS-FBC process concept for the co-utilization of MSW and DSS is technically feasible and that the thermal efficiency of the process is 76 to 82% based on experiments conducted in a 70 to 85 lb/h pilot plant and calculations on three conceptual cases.

Not Available

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Combustion of paper deinking solids in a pilot-scale fluidized bed  

SciTech Connect

Pressed solids from two commercial deinking operations were incinerated in a pilot-scale fluidized-bed combustor. Test parameters included usage of support fuel (dry wood pellets or propane) and supply of overfire air. Stable combustion was achieved for a wide range of feedstock moisture contents (43% and 68%) and bed temperatures (700--1,000 C). Overfire air was varied from 0% to 60% of the total air, and the use of overfire air greatly improved burnout of CO in most cases. NO[sub x] emissions increased when overfire air was used and were in the range of 200 ppm to 275 ppm at 3% O[sub 2]. Ash from the deinking solids did not fuse at temperatures below 1,200 C, and no clinkers were formed in the bed during the trials. The ash consists mainly of kaolinite and contains insignificant quantities of heavy metals.

Douglas, M.A. (ABB Combustion Systems, Gloucester, Ontario (Canada)); Latva-Somppi, J.; Tran, H.N. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)); Razbin, V.V. (Canada Center for Mineral And Energy Technology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)); Friedrich, F.D.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Trace elements in co-combustion of solid recovered fuel and coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Trace element partitioning in co-combustion of a bituminous coal and a solid recovered fuel (SRF) was studied in an entrained flow reactor. The experiments were carried out at conditions similar to pulverized coal combustion, with SRF shares of 7.9 wt.% (wet basis), 14.8 wt.% and 25.0 wt.%. In addition, the effect of additives such as NaCl, PVC, ammonium sulphate, and kaolinite on trace element partitioning was investigated. The trace elements studied were As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Sb and Zn, since these elements were significantly enriched in SRF as compared to coal. During the experiments, bottom ash was collected in a chamber, large fly ash particles were collected by a cyclone with a cut-off diameter of ~ 2.5 ?m, and the remaining fly ash particles were gathered in a filter. It was found that when coal was co-fired with SRF, the As, Cd, Pb, Sb and Zn content in filter ash/cyclone ash increased almost linearly with their content in fuel ash. This linear tendency was affected when the fuels were mixed with additives. The volatility of trace elements during combustion was assessed by applying a relative enrichment (RE) factor, and TEM–EDS analysis was conducted to provide qualitative interpretations. The results indicated that As, Cd, Pb, Sb and Zn were highly volatile when co-firing coal and SRF, whereas the volatility of Cr was relatively low. Compared with coal combustion, co-firing of coal and SRF slightly enhanced the volatility of Cd, Pb and Zn, but reduced the volatility of Cr and Sb. The Cl-based additives increased the volatility of Cd, Pb and As, whereas addition of ammonium sulphate generally decreased the volatility of trace elements. Addition of kaolinite reduced the volatility of Pb, while the influence on other trace elements was insignificant. The results from the present work imply that trace element emission would be significantly increased when coal is co-fired with SRF, which may greatly enhance the toxicity of the dusts from coal-fired power plant. In order to minimize trace element emission in co-combustion, in addition to lowering the trace element content in SRF, utilizing SRF with low Cl content and coal with high S and aluminosilicates content would be desirable.

Hao Wu; Peter Glarborg; Flemming Jappe Frandsen; Kim Dam-Johansen; Peter Arendt Jensen; Bo Sander

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Compression and combustion of non-cryogenic targets with a solid thermonuclear fuel for inertial fusion  

SciTech Connect

Variants of a target with a solid thermonuclear fuel in the form of deuterium-tritium hydrides of light metals for an inertial fusion have been proposed. The laser-pulse-induced compression of non-cryogenic targets, as well as ignition and combustion of such targets, has been examined. The numerical calculations show that, despite a decrease in the caloric content of the fuel and an increase in the energy losses on intrinsic radiation in the target containing deuterium-tritium hydrides of light metals as compared to the target containing deuterium-tritium ice, the non-cryogenic target can ensure the fusion gain sufficient for its use in the energy cycle of a thermonuclear power plant based on the inertial plasma confinement method.

Gus'kov, S. Yu., E-mail: guskov@sci.lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Zmitrenko, N. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (Russian Federation); Sherman, V. E. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University (Russian Federation)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

28

NETL: IEP - Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Evaluation of Solid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluation of Solid Sorbents as a Retrofit Technology for CO2 Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants Evaluation of Solid Sorbents as a Retrofit Technology for CO2 Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants Project No.: DE-NT0005649 ADA-ES Sorbent Test Equipment. ADA-ES Sorbent Test Equipment. ADA-ES Inc. is developing and scaling-up a sorbent-based, post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO2 ) capture process. Investigators are evaluating the performance of sorbents from laboratory- to bench-scale. Various sorbents are being screened in a fixed-bed contactor in the laboratory on simulated flue gas, as well as in the field on actual flue gas. Bench-scale tests are being performed on slip-streams of simulated and actual flue gas with a moving-bed reactor large enough to treat flue gas containing nominally 1 tons of CO2 per day (~100 acfm). The criteria for optimal sorbents will

29

Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Quarterly report, quarter ending 31 December 1994  

SciTech Connect

The test plan is designed to demonstrate that oil shale co-combusted with municipal solid waste (MSW) can reduce gaseous pollutants (SO{sub 2}, CO) to acceptable levels (90%+ reduction) and produce a cementitious ash which will, at a minimum, be acceptable in normal land fills. The small-scale combustion testing will be accomplished in a 6-in. circulating fluid bed combustor (CFBC) at Hazen Research Laboratories. This work will be patterned after the study the authors conducted in 1988 when coal and oil shale were co-combusted in a program sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute. The specific purpose of the test program will be to: determine the required ratio of oil shale to MSW by determining the ratio of absorbent to pollutant (A/P); determine the effect of temperature and resident time in the reactor; and determine if kinetic model developed for coal/oil shale mixture is applicable.

Not Available

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Multinuclear and multidimensional solid-state NMR investigations of combustion chamber deposits  

SciTech Connect

Multinuclear solid-state NMR has been used to study the carbonaceous backbone of combustion chamber deposits (CCDs) generated in both gasoline and diesel engines. The combination of {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C cross-polarization, and dipolar dephasing techniques have been used to {open_quotes}average molecule{close_quotes} parameters for a large number of CCDs. These parameters were correlated with gasoline composition and cylinder cleanliness. Discussion will be presented on deposits from different areas of the chamber - piston top, cylinder head, squish, non-squish, end-gas, non-end gas regions. Deposits from various cylinders in a number of dynamometer engines, fleet car engines will be compared. The use of NMR to observe the effects of bench-test engine modifications on CCD structure will be demonstrated. The macromolecular structure of the deposits was studied by {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C spin-exchange experiments which allow one to observe internuclear dipolar interactions between the various carbon functionalities in the deposit. The spatial information on fuel additive - CCD interactions that these experiments provide will be discussed.

Edwards, J.C. [Texaco Research Center, Beacon, NY (United States)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Bromine as an ash forming element in a fluidised bed boiler combusting solid recovered fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Plastic materials are the main sources of chlorine in solid recovered fuels (SRF). Chlorine is attributed to be the main initiator of slagging, fouling and corrosion in biomass and waste combustion as it lowers the melting point of ash forming matter and reacts chemically with the heat transfer surface steels. SRF may also contain sources of bromine in the form of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) applied in many plastics and textiles. Results presented in this paper from an experimental campaign at an 80 MWth bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) boiler show that bromine is behaving in a similar manner as chlorine: bromine was found at the corrosion front in boiler membrane wall tubes, and as water soluble salts in aerosol samples collected from the furnace and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) ash. It is evident from these results and the data in the literature that most of the salts of bromine are, by both their fate and physical and chemical properties, similar to those of chlorine. It can be concluded that it if there is a source of bromine in the fuel corrosive high vapour pressure bromides can be formed analogously to chlorides.

Pasi Vainikka; Sonja Enestam; Jaani Silvennoinen; Raili Taipale; Patrik Yrjas; Ari Frantsi; Janne Hannula; Mikko Hupa

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Achieve Continuous Injection of Solid Fuels into Advanced Combustion System Pressures  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is the development of a mechanical rotary-disk feeder, known as the Stamet Posimetric High Pressure Solids Feeder System, to feed dry granular coal continuously and controllably into pressurized environments of up to 35 kg/cm{sup 2} (500 psi). This was to be accomplished in two phases. The first task was to review materials handling experience in pressurized operations as it related to the target pressures for this project, and review existing coal preparation processes and specifications currently used in advanced combustion systems. Samples of existing fuel materials were obtained and tested to evaluate flow, sealing and friction properties. This provided input data for use in the design of the Stamet Feeders for the project, and ensured that the material specification used met the requirements of advanced combustion & gasification systems. Ultimately, Powder River Basin coal provided by the PSDF facility in Wilsonville, AL was used as the basis for the feeder design and test program. Based on the material property information, a Phase 1 feeder system was designed and built to accomplish feeding the coal to an intermediate pressure up to 21 kg/cm{sup 2} (300 psi) at feed rates of approximately 100 kilograms (220lbs) per hour. The pump & motor system was installed in a custom built test rig comprising an inlet vessel containing an active live-wall hopper mounted in a support frame, transition into the pump inlet, transition from pump outlet and a receiver vessel containing a receiver drum supported on weigh cells. All pressure containment on the rig was rated for the final pressure requirement of 35 kg/cm{sup 2} (500psi). A program of testing and modification was carried out in Stamet's facility in CA, culminating in successful feeding of coal into the Phase 1 target of 21 kg/cm{sup 2} (300psi) gas pressure in December 2003. Further testing was carried out at CQ Inc's facility in PA, providing longer run times and experience of handling and feeding the coal in winter conditions. Based on the data developed through the testing of the Phase I unit, a Phase II system was designed for feeding coal into pressures of up to 35 kg/cm{sup 2} (500 psi). A further program of testing and modification was then carried out in Stamet's facility, with the target pressure being achieved in January 2005. Repeated runs at pressure were achieved, and optimization of the machine resulted in power reductions of 60% from the first successful pressure runs. General design layout of a commercial-scale unit was conducted, and preliminary cost estimates for a commercial unit obtained.

Derek L. Aldred; Timothy Saunders

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Investigation of chemical looping combustion by solid fuels. 2. redox reaction kinetics and product characterization with coal, biomass, and solid waste as solid fuels and CuO as an oxygen carrier  

SciTech Connect

This paper is the second in a series of two on the investigation of the chemical looping combustion (CLC) of solid fuels. The first paper put forward the concept of the CLC of solid fuels using a circulating fluidized bed as a reactor and Cu-CuO as the oxygen carrier, which was based on an analysis of oxygen transfer capability, reaction enthalpy, and chemical equilibrium. In this second paper, we report the results of the evaluation of the reduction of CuO reduced by solid fuels such as coal and some other 'opportunity' solid fuels. Tests on the reduction of CuO by the selected solid fuels were conducted using simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis, which simulates a microreactor. An attached mass spectrometer (MS) was used for the characterization of evolved gaseous products. The X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used for the characterization of the solid residues. Results strongly supported the feasibility of CuO reduction by selected solid fuels. CuO can be fully converted into Cu in a reduction process, either in a direct path by solid fuels, which was verified by MS analysis under a N{sub 2} atmosphere, or in an indirect path by pyrolysis and gasification products of solid fuels in the reducer. No Cu{sub 2}O exists in reducing atmospheres, which was characterized by an XRD analysis and mass balance calculations. No carbon deposit was found on the surface of the reduced Cu, which was characterized by SEM analysis. CuO reduction by solid fuels can start at temperatures as low as approximately 500 C. Tests indicated that the solid fuels with higher reactivity (higher volatile matter) would be desirable for the development of the chemical looping combustion process of solid fuels, such as sub-bituminous Powder River Basin coal and solid waste and biomass. 4 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

Yan Cao; Bianca Casenas; Wei-Ping Pan [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology

2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

34

The Influence of Particle Size and Crystalline Level on the Combustion Characteristics of Particulated Solids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over the past years, catastrophic dust explosion incidents have caused numerous injuries, fatalities and economical losses. Dust explosions are rapid exothermic reactions that take place when a combustible dust is mixed with air in the presence...

Castellanos Duarte, Diana Yazmin

2013-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

35

Fluidized Bed Combustion of Solid Biomass for Electricity and/or Heat Generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fluidised bed combustion (FBC) technology was developed in the ... . The FBC technology was soon expanded for biomass and other low-grade fuels, which have ... a definite trend to widen the range of biomass fuels...

Panagiotis Grammelis; Emmanouil Karampinis…

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Emission of Oxygenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Indoor Solid Fuel Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(17) The relatively high OPAH emissions from indoor burning can be explained by the different amount of oxygen supply resulting in lower combustion efficiencies and relatively high temperature in the enclosed residential stoves due to low heat loss. ... hydrocarbon (PAH) emission source in developing countries; however, PAH emission factor (EF) data for indoor crop residue combustion, particularly field-measured data, are scarce, leading to large uncertainties in emission inventories. ... Shen, G.; Wang, W.; Yang, Y.; Zhu, C.; Min, Y.; Xue, M.; Ding, J.; Li, W.; Wang, B.; Shen, H.; Wang, R.; Wang, X.; Tao, S.Emission factors and particulate matter size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from residential coal combustions in rural Northern China Atmos. ...

Guofeng Shen; Shu Tao; Wei Wang; Yifeng Yang; Junnan Ding; Miao Xue; Yujia Min; Chen Zhu; Huizhong Shen; Wei Li; Bin Wang; Rong Wang; Wentao Wang; Xilong Wang; Armistead G. Russell

2011-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

37

Formation of fine particles in co-combustion of coal and solid recovered fuel in a pulverized coal-fired power station  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fine particles formed from combustion of a bituminous coal and co-combustion of coal with 7 th% (thermal percentage) solid recovered fuel (SRF) in a pulverized coal-fired power plant were sampled and characterized in this study. The particles from dedicated coal combustion and co-combustion both showed an ultrafine mode centered at approximately 0.1 ?m. Compared with coal combustion, co-combustion of coal and SRF increased the formation of submicron particles, especially ultrafine particles below 0.2 ?m. The morphology of the particles indicated that supermicron particles were primarily formed by the melting of minerals. The ultrafine particles were generated through nucleation and coagulation of vaporized inorganic species, while for the particles in between supermicron and ultrafine particles, condensation of vaporized species or aggregation of nucleates on the existing spherical submicron particles appear to be an important formation mechanism. The elemental composition of the particles from coal combustion showed that S and Ca were significantly enriched in ultrafine particles and P was also enriched considerably. However, compared with supermicron particles, the contents of Al, Si and K were depleted in ultrafine particles. The observed high volatility of Ca was likely related with the high combustion temperature and relative low oxygen condition in the boiler which may promote vaporization of Ca during char oxidation. The discrepancies on the observed volatilities of Ca and alkalis between some laboratory experiments and full-scale measurements were discussed. The composition of the fine particles from co-combustion was generally similar to those from coal combustion. The ultrafine particles from co-combustion were of slightly higher Ca, P, and K contents, and lower S content.

H. Wu; A.J. Pedersen; P. Glarborg; F.J. Frandsen; K. Dam-Johansen; B. Sander

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Solid Fuel - Oxygen Fired Combustion for Production of Nodular Reduced Iron to Reduce CO2 Emissions and Improve Energy Efficiencies  

SciTech Connect

The current trend in the steel industry is an increase in iron and steel produced in electric arc furnaces (EAF) and a gradual decline in conventional steelmaking from taconite pellets in blast furnaces. In order to expand the opportunities for the existing iron ore mines beyond their blast furnace customer base, a new material is needed to satisfy the market demands of the emerging steel industry while utilizing the existing infrastructure and materials handling capabilities. This demand creates opportunity to convert iron ore or other iron bearing materials to Nodular Reduced Iron (NRI) in a recently designed Linear Hearth Furnace (LHF). NRI is a metallized iron product containing 98.5 to 96.0% iron and 2.5 to 4% C. It is essentially a scrap substitute with little impurity that can be utilized in a variety of steelmaking processes, especially the electric arc furnace. The objective of this project was to focus on reducing the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) through reducing the energy intensity using specialized combustion systems, increasing production and the use of biomass derived carbon sources in this process. This research examined the use of a solid fuel-oxygen fired combustion system and compared the results from this system with both oxygen-fuel and air-fuel combustion systems. The solid pulverized fuels tested included various coals and a bio-coal produced from woody biomass in a specially constructed pilot scale torrefaction reactor at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory (CMRL). In addition to combustion, the application of bio-coal was also tested as a means to produce a reducing atmosphere during key points in the fusion process, and as a reducing agent for ore conversion to metallic iron to capture the advantage of its inherent reduced carbon footprint. The results from this study indicate that the approaches taken can reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and the associated energy intensity with the Linear Hearth Furnace process for converting iron ore to metallic iron nodules. Various types of coals including a bio-coal produced though torrefaction can result in production of NRI at reduced GHG levels. The process results coupled with earlier already reported developments indicate that this process technique should be evaluated at the next level in order to develop parameter information for full scale process design. Implementation of the process to full commercialization will require a full cost production analysis and comparison to other reduction technologies and iron production alternatives. The technical results verify that high quality NRI can be produced under various operating conditions at the pilot level.

Donald R. Fosnacht; Richard F. Kiesel; David W. Hendrickson; David J. Englund; Iwao Iwasaki; Rodney L. Bleifuss; Mathew A. Mlinar

2011-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

39

Fluidized bed combustion of alternative solid fuels: Status, successes and problems of the technology  

SciTech Connect

This paper surveys the literature on some of the more important alternative fuels for fluidized bed combustion (FBC) and also makes specific recommendations about problems or major issues with those fuels. Particular attention is given to the use of FBC for coal wastes, wood pulp sludges, petroleum coke and biomass residues. These fuels are emphasized because of their current economic importance, particularly in North America. Such fuels, which are often described as {open_quotes}alternative{close_quotes}, or {open_quotes}opportunity{close_quotes} fuels, also lend themselves to FBC applications if they are to be combusted in an environmentally benign way. Further, waste or low grade fuels are normally available at low or even negative costs. This factor is particularly important in North America, where an essentially flat energy market exists, and low electricity prices mean that considerations other than energy sales must often drive the project economics. 57 refs., 2 tabs.

Anthony, E.J. [CETC, Natural Resources (Canada)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

40

Numerical modelling of solid fuel combustion processes using advanced CFD-based simulation tools  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Computational modelling of combustion processes has been the subject of coninuous research at the Institute of Process Engineering and Power Plant Technology (IVD) over the last two decades. To this end, finite-volume-based computer codes have been developed. In the present paper, some fundamental ideas and approaches of the applied mathematical models and the numerical methods are described, followed by some examples of typical applications of the procedures with special emphasis on the validation of simulation results. These examples show that the application of combustion simulation codes has been extended to comprise a wide range of several different areas ranging from huge bituminous coal-fired utility boilers for electricity production to decentralised small-scale furnaces and tile stove heating inserts for domestic heating.

Uwe Schnell

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brownish-black solid combustible" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Investigation of chemical looping combustion by solid fuels. 1. Process analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper is the first in a series of two, where we present the concept of a CLC process of solid fuels using a circulating fluidized bed with three loop seals. The riser of this circulating fluidized bed was used as the oxidizer of the oxygen carrier; one of the loop seals was used as the reducer of the oxygen carrier and the separator for ash and oxygen carrier, and the other two loop seals were used for pressure balance in the solid recycle process. Pressure profiles of recycled solids using this process are presented in detail. For the development of an oxygen carrier, we focused on the establishment of a theoretical frame of oxygen transfer capability, reaction enthalpy, a chemical equilibrium, and kinetics. Analysis results indicated that Cu-, Ni-, and Co-based oxygen carriers may be the optimum oxygen carriers for the CLC of solid fuels. Thermodynamic analysis indicated that CO{sub 2} can be concentrated and purified to at least 99% purity for the gas-solid reaction mode or even higher for the solid-solid reaction mode on the basis of the selected oxygen carriers. A Cu-based oxygen carrier is the choice that has the potential to make the reducer self-sustaining or autothermal because of its exothermic nature during reduction. This would be beneficial for simplifying the operation of the reducer. The tendency of the Cu-based oxygen carriers to agglomerate can be eliminated by decreasing the operating temperature in the CLC system. In the second part of the series, we will evaluate the reduction kinetics of selected Cu-based oxygen carriers by coal and other 'opportunity solid fuels' using a simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry-thermogravimetric analysis to simulate a microreactor, using an X-ray diffractometer and a scanning electron microscope to characterize the solid residues, and a thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectra to characterize the evolved gas compositions. 46 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Yan Cao; Wei-Ping Pan [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology

2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

42

Leaching behavior and possible resource recovery from air pollution control residues of fluidized bed combustion of municipal solid waste  

SciTech Connect

Ash residues are generated at several points during combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW), i.e., in cyclones, electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters. Such residues are of a complex physical and chemical nature and are often enriched in soluble salts and heavy metals such as Pb, Cd and Zn. Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) of MSW is a relatively new technique and very little information is available about the leaching behavior of its residues. In this study, the total elemental composition, mineralogy and leaching behavior of cyclone and bag-house filter ashes from a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) boiler fired with municipal solid waste have been investigated. In addition, the possibilities of recovery heavy metals from these ashes were studied. The long-term leaching behavior of the ash constituents was evaluated using a two-step batch leaching test known as the CEN-test, whereas short and medium term leaching behavior was evaluated using a Column test. The extraction of elements from cyclone and filter ashes with various acidic solutions was also investigated. The leaching behavior of acid washed ashes was evaluated using the CEN test. The cyclone ash was mainly composed of aluminosilicate minerals, whereas the filter ash consisted of chlorides and hydroxides of alkali and alkaline earth metals. The concentration of heavy metals such as Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb was higher in the filter ash than in the cyclone ash. The leached amounts of sulfates and Pb from the cyclone ash decreased with leaching test contact time, indicating the formation of secondary mineral phases. Large amounts of chlorides, sulfates, Ca, Cu and Pb were leached from the filter ash. Acid extraction removed large amounts ({gt}50%) of Zn, Pb and Cu from the filter ash and approximately 56% of the total amount of Zn present in the cyclone ash. An efficient removal of heavy metal species from these types of ashes can probably be achieved by application of a recycling or multi-step process.

Abbas, Z.; Andersson, B.A.; Steenari, B.M.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Characterization of Solid Emissions from Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Combustion of Two Czech Lignites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In fluidized-bed combustion, particles of coal burn within the bed of vigorously moving smaller inert particles with bed temperatures between 1000 and 1300 K. Due to intense heat transfer from the burning particle to bed particles and percolating gas, the temperature of a particle is on average 200 K above that of the bed (29, 30). ... Two lignites from the Centrum mine and the Vršany open pit mine (North Bohemian Coal Basin) were used in this study. ... The reactor is equipped with a supplementary natural gas burner, a feeding system, and measuring and control peripherals. ...

Ji?í Smolík; Jaroslav Schwarz; Václav Veselý; Ivana Sýkorová; Jan Kuc?era; Vladimír Havránek

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Low NOx combustion  

SciTech Connect

Combustion of hydrocarbon liquids and solids is achieved with less formation of NOx by feeding a small amount of oxygen into the fuel stream.

Kobayashi; Hisashi (Putnam Valley, NY), Bool, III; Lawrence E. (Aurora, NY)

2007-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

45

Low NOx combustion  

SciTech Connect

Combustion of hydrocarbon liquids and solids is achieved with less formation of NOx by feeding a small amount of oxygen into the fuel stream.

Kobayashi, Hisashi (Putnam Valley, NY); Bool, III, Lawrence E. (Aurora, NY)

2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

46

Introduction to Biomass Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biomass was the major fuel in the world ... hundreds when coal then became dominant. The combustion of solid biofuels as a primary energy...

Jenny M. Jones; Amanda R. Lea-Langton…

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Modelling, simulation and validation of the solid biomass combustion in different plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For the combustion of biomass, mathematical models have been developed at the LUAT on the basis of models for waste incineration. These models were proven by comparison to experimental date under the same conditions. The optimisation was done for the MARS-plant and for a big biomass fired steam generator. The main focus for the optimisation of the MARS-plant is the air distribution. For the operational plant, the results from the computer simulations have been confirmed by measurements. Based on these results, the plant operation could be improved. From the point of view of the manufacturers, these tools and techniques can also be applied to the basic design of new plants.

K. Goerner; Th. Klasen

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Reversed flow fluidized-bed combustion apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a fluidized-bed combustion apparatus provided with a U-shaped combustion zone. A cyclone is disposed in the combustion zone for recycling solid particulate material. The combustion zone configuration and the recycling feature provide relatively long residence times and low freeboard heights to maximize combustion of combustible material, reduce nitrogen oxides, and enhance sulfur oxide reduction.

Shang, Jer-Yu (Fairfax, VA); Mei, Joseph S. (Morgantown, WV); Wilson, John S. (Morgantown, WV)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Investigation of different manganese ores as oxygen carriers in chemical-looping combustion (CLC) for solid fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The chemical-looping combustion (CLC) process is a novel solution for efficient combustion with direct capture of carbon dioxide. The process uses a metal oxide as an oxygen carrier to transfer oxygen from an air to a fuel reactor, where the fuel reacts with the solid oxygen carrier. In this work, six different manganese ores are investigated as oxygen carriers for CLC application. The chemical-looping characteristics of the oxygen carriers were evaluated in a laboratory-scale fluidized-bed reactor in the temperature range of 900–970 °C during alternating reducing and oxidizing conditions. Three of the manganese ores showed a small oxygen release in inert environment between 850 and 950 °C. During reactivity tests, the gas yield with methane increased with the temperature and complete conversion of 50% CO in H2 was obtained for all of the ores. The rates of char gasification of two fuels, namely Mexican petroleum coke and Swedish wood char, were compared for the different manganese ores at 970 °C and with 50% H2O in N2 as fluidizing gas. Ilmenite and a manufactured Mn-oxide oxygen carrier consisting of Mn3O4 and MgO-stabilized ZrO2 as support were also included for comparison. The char gasification rate and the gas conversion were higher with the manganese ores and the Mn-oxide oxygen carrier compared to ilmenite. However, the higher reactivity of the manganese ores with H2 and the ensuing decrease in H2 inhibition for manganese ores is not sufficient to explain their higher rate of char gasification. Surface analysis of partially gasified petcoke particles in the presence of manganese ores showed formation of cavities and channels as well as a uniform distribution of potassium and sodium elements. The rate of char gasification also increased with the concentration of potassium and sodium impurities in the manganese ores. Thus the results suggest that the increased rate of char conversion for manganese ores is due to alkali-catalyzed steam gasification. The increase in rate of char gasification, in combination with potentially low costs of these materials suggests that manganese ores could be interesting materials for CLC with solid fuels.

Mehdi Arjmand; Henrik Leion; Tobias Mattisson; Anders Lyngfelt

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Chemical-looping combustion of solid fuels in a 10 kW reactor system using natural minerals as oxygen carrier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is an unmixed combustion concept where fuel and combustion air are kept separate by means of an oxygen carrier, and the CO2 capture is inherently achieved. This work presents findings from a continuously operated 10 kW pilot for solid fuels. Using petcoke as fuel, the following oxygen carriers are compared: (a) ilmenite, (b) ilmenite + lime, (c) manganese ore, and (d) manganese ore + lime. Compared to ilmenite, the use of manganese ore as oxygen carrier greatly enhanced the rate of gasification. By adding lime particles to the Mn ore, performance improved further. The addition of lime to ilmenite had a small beneficial effect on gas conversion and char gasification rate.

Carl Linderholm; Anders Lyngfelt; Cristina Dueso

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Numerical investigation of Solid Recovered Fuels’ co-firing with brown coal in large scale boilers – Evaluation of different co-combustion modes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the current work the co-combustion of Solid Recovered Fuels’ (SRFs’) with brown coal in large scale pulverised coal boilers under different operational conditions is numerically investigated. In order to overcome the difficulty of the complex, inhomogeneous nature of waste recovered fuels, SRF is modelled as a mixture of two different fractions, the biogenic and the plastic one. For each fraction different combustion mechanisms are presented, whilst for the first time the proposed combustion mechanism of the plastic fraction is incorporated in a commercial CFD code and validated against available experimental data. A 600 MWe brown coal boiler is simulated as a reference and its operational characteristics are compared with parameterised scenarios of SRF co-firing conditions. Based on the numerical results, the optimum co-firing concepts regarding the more efficient operation of the boiler (hot spots and fuel’s burnout) are identified, decreasing the environmental impact of the boiler’s emissions.

Michalis Agraniotis; Nikos Nikolopoulos; Aris Nikolopoulos; Panagiotis Grammelis; Emmanuel Kakaras

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Development of thermoelectric power generation system utilizing heat of combustible solid waste  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents the development of thermoelectric power generation system utilizing heat of municipal solid waste. The systematic classification and design guideline are proposed in consideration of the characteristics of solid waste processing system. The conceptual design of thermoelectric power generation system is carried out for a typical middle scale incinerator system (200 ton/day) by the local model. Totally the recovered electricity is 926.5 kWe by 445 units (569,600 couples). In order to achieve detailed design, one dimensional steady state model taking account of temperature dependency of the heat transfer performance and thermoelectric properties is developed. Moreover, small scale on-site experiment on 60 W class module installed in the real incinerator is carried out to extract various levels of technological problems. In parallel with the system development, high temperature thermoelectric elements such as Mn-Si and so on are developed aiming the optimization of ternary compound and high performance due to controlled fine-grain boundary effect. The manganese silicide made by shrinking-rate controlled sintering method performs 5 ({mu}W/cm K{cflx 2}) in power factor at 800 K. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

Kajikawa, T.; Ito, M.; Katsube, I. [Shonan Institute of Technology, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, 251 (Japan); Shibuya, E. [NKK Corporation, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 230 (Japan)

1994-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

53

Achieve Continuous Injection of Solid Fuels into Advanced Combustion System Pressures  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is the development of a mechanical rotary-disk feeder, known as the Stamet Posimetric High Pressure Solids Feeder System, to demonstrate feeding of dry granular coal continuously and controllably into pressurized environments of up to 70 kg/cm2 (1,000 psi). This is the Phase III of the ongoing program. Earlier Phases 1 and II successfully demonstrated feeding into pressures up to 35 kg/cm{sup 2} (500 psi). The final report for those phases was submitted in April 2005. Based on the previous work done in Phases I & II using Powder River Basin coal provided by the PSDF facility in Wilsonville, AL, a Phase III feeder system was designed and built to accomplish the target of feeding the coal into a pressure of 70 kg/cm2 (1,000 psi) and to be capable of feed rates of up to 550 kilograms (1,200lbs) per hour. The drive motor system from Phase II was retained for use on Phase III since projected performance calculations indicated it should be capable of driving the Phase III pump to the target levels. The pump & motor system was installed in a custom built test rig comprising an inlet vessel containing an active live-wall hopper mounted on weigh cells in a support frame, transition into the pump inlet, transition from pump outlet and a receiver vessel containing a receiver drum supported on weigh cells. All pressure containment on the rig was rated to105 kg/cm{sup 2} (1,500psi) to accommodate the final pressure requirement of a proposed Phase IV of the program. A screw conveyor and batch hopper were added to transfer coal at atmospheric pressure from the shop floor up into the test rig to enable continuous feeding up to the capacity of the receiving vessel. Control & monitoring systems were up-rated from the Phase II system to cover the additional features incorporated in the Phase III rig, and provide closer control and expanded monitoring of the entire system. A program of testing and modification was carried out in Stamet's facility in CA, culminating in the first successful feeding of coal into the Phase III target of 70 kg/cm{sup 2} (1,000 psi) gas pressure in March 2007. Subsequently, repeated runs at pressure were achieved, and comparison of the data with Phase II results when adjusted for scale differences showed further power reductions of 40% had been achieved from the final Phase II pressure runs. The general design layout of a commercial-scale unit was conducted, and preliminary cost estimates made.

Derek L. Aldred; Timothy Saunders

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

54

An investigation of steam production in chemical-looping combustion (CLC) and chemical-looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU) for solid fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) and chemical-looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU) are being actively explored as solid fuel combustion technologies that have the potential to facilitate CO2 capture. While CLC and CLOU have similarities operationally, there are some key differences. In particular, the CLC process requires a coal gasification step where coal is first broken down into a syngas with the use of steam or CO2. The resulting syngas is then oxidized with the metal oxide to release energy. In the CLOU process the metal oxide releases oxygen that combusts the solid fuel, resulting in a lower residence time, as the coal gasification reactions are avoided. The CLC and CLOU systems were modeled with ASPEN Plus at a 10 \\{MWth\\} scale, and the process streams were analyzed by ASPEN Energy Analyzer to determine the amount of industrial process steam that could be generated from CLC or CLOU. Both the air and fuel reactor were analyzed as two circulating fluidized beds, with metal oxide circulating between the two reactors. The air reactor, where metal oxide is oxidized, was fluidized with air. The fuel reactor, where the metal oxide is reduced, was fluidized with steam for CLC and recirculated CO2 for CLOU. It was identified that the CLOU process had the potential to produce more steam, approximately 7920 kg/hr, as compared to CLC (6910 kg/hr).

J.K. Dansie; A.H. Sahir; M.A. Hamilton; J.S. Lighty

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Process modeling aspects of chemical-looping with oxygen uncoupling and chemical-looping combustion for solid fuels.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is one of the candidate technologies that is currently being explored to reduce the energy penalty associated with capturing CO2 from coal-fired… (more)

Sahir, Asad Hasan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Municipal solid waste combustion: Waste-to-energy technologies, regulations, and modern facilities in USEPA Region V  

SciTech Connect

Table of Contents: Incinerator operations (Waste preprocessing, combustion, emissions characterization and emission control, process monitoring, heat recovery, and residual ash management); Waste-to-energy regulations (Permitting requirements and operating regulations on both state and Federal levels); Case studies of EPA Region V waste-to-energy facilities (Polk County, Minnesota; Jackson County, Michigan; La Crosse, Wisconsin; Kent County, Michigan; Elk River, Minnesota; Indianapolis, Indiana); Evaluation; and Conclusions.

Sullivan, P.M.; Hallenbeck, W.H.; Brenniman, G.R.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Diode pumped solid state kilohertz disk laser system for time-resolved combustion diagnostics under microgravity at the drop tower Bremen  

SciTech Connect

We describe a specially designed diode pumped solid state laser system based on the disk laser architecture for combustion diagnostics under microgravity (?g) conditions at the drop tower in Bremen. The two-stage oscillator-amplifier-system provides an excellent beam profile (TEM{sub 00}) at narrowband operation (?? < 1 pm) and is tunable from 1018 nm to 1052 nm. The laser repetition rate of up to 4 kHz at pulse durations of 10 ns enables the tracking of processes on a millisecond time scale. Depending on the specific issue it is possible to convert the output radiation up to the fourth harmonic around 257 nm. The very compact laser system is integrated in a slightly modified drop capsule and withstands decelerations of up to 50 g (>11 ms). At first the concept of the two-stage disk laser is briefly explained, followed by a detailed description of the disk laser adaption to the drop tower requirements with special focus on the intended use under ?g conditions. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the capsule laser as a tool for ?g combustion diagnostics, we finally present an investigation of the precursor-reactions before the droplet ignition using 2D imaging of the Laser Induced Fluorescence of formaldehyde.

Wagner, Volker; Paa, Wolfgang; Triebel, Wolfgang [Institute of Photonic Technology, Laser Diagnostics, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 07745 Jena (Germany)] [Institute of Photonic Technology, Laser Diagnostics, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Eigenbrod, Christian; Klinkov, Konstantin [Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity, University Bremen, Am Fallturm, 28359 Bremen (Germany)] [Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity, University Bremen, Am Fallturm, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Larionov, Mikhail; Giesen, Adolf; Stolzenburg, Christian [Institut für Strahlwerkzeuge (IFSW), Pfaffenwaldring 43, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)] [Institut für Strahlwerkzeuge (IFSW), Pfaffenwaldring 43, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

58

Capture of carbon dioxide over porous solid adsorbents lithium silicate, lithium aluminate and magnesium aluminate at pre-combustion temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The capturing process for carbon dioxide over porous solid adsorbents such as ... resonance (NMR), and surface area. The capturing of carbon dioxide over lithium silicate, lithium aluminate, ... as exposure time,...

P. V. Korake; A. G. Gaikwad

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

http://www.genie.uottawa.ca/~hallett/hallett.htm Combustion Research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Engineering Main themes: - solid fuel combustion/packed beds - liquid droplet combustion - biofuels (biomass, Mechanical Engineering #12;Liquid Droplet Combustion W. Hallett, Mechanical Engineering Recent Work - biomasshttp://www.genie.uottawa.ca/~hallett/hallett.htm Combustion Research W. Hallett, Mechanical

Hallett, William L.H.

60

Modeling radiation in particle clouds: On the importance of inter-particle radiation for pulverized solid fuel combustion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The importance of inter-particle radiation for clusters of gray and diffuse particles is investigated. The radiative cooling of each individual particle is found to vary strongly with its position in the cluster, and a mean radiative particle cooling term is proposed for single particle simulations of particle clusters or for high detail simulation, like Direct Numerical Simulations of small sub-volumes of large clusters of particles. Radiative cooling is shown to be important both for furnaces for coal gasification and coal combustion. Broadening the particle size distribution is found to have just a minor effect on the radiative particle cooling. This is particularly the case for large and dense particle clusters where there is essentially no effect of size distribution broadening at all. For smaller and more dilute particle clusters, the effect of distribution broadening is clear but still not dominant.

Haugen, Nils Erland L

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brownish-black solid combustible" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Coal combustion products (CCPs  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

combustion products (CCPs) combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the largest segment of U.S. electricity generation (45 percent in 2010), finding a sustainable solution for CCPs is an important environmental challenge. When properly managed, CCPs offer society environmental and economic benefits without harm to public health and safety. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE) has made an important contribution in this regard. Fossil Energy Research Benefits Coal Combustion Products Fossil Energy Research Benefits

62

1. Solid Flame, Merzhanov A. and Mukasyan A., Torus Press, Nauka, Moscow 2007, 280. 2. Combustion of Heterogeneous Systems: Fundamentals and Applications for Material  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Combustion of Heterogeneous Systems: Fundamentals and Applications for Material Synthesis, ed. Mukasyan A. "Combustion Synthesis of Advanced Materials", in ASM Handbook: Powder Metal Technologies and Applications of Heterogeneous Systems: Fundamentals and Applications for Material Synthesis, Research Signpost Publisher, 2007

Mukasyan, Alexander

63

Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Quarterly report, quarter ending December 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to demonstrate that cocombustion of municipal solid waste and oil shale can reduce emissions of gaseous pollutants (SO{sub 2} and HCl) to acceptable levels. Tests in 6- and 15-inch units showed that the oil shale absorbs acid gas pollutants and produces an ash which could be, at the least, disposed of in a normal landfill. Further analysis of the results are underway to estimate scale-up to commercial size. Additional work will be done to evaluate the cementitious properties of oil shale ash.

NONE

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

The fate of chlorine, sulfur, and potassium during co-combustion of bark, sludge, and solid recovered fuel in an industrial scale BFB boiler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of fuel composition on the fate of chlorine, sulfur, and potassium was investigated during an extensive measurement campaign in a 107 \\{MWth\\} bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) combustor. Bark, sludge, and solid recovered fuel (SRF) were co-combusted in different proportions during the campaign. The elemental composition of the fuel and outgoing ashes was determined, supplemented with gas composition measurements, to obtain the distribution of chlorine, sulfur, and potassium. Additionally, chemical fractionation was carried out for the pure fuels to study the leachability of the ash-forming elements. When firing bark and bark +sludge, potassium, sulfur, and chlorine ended up mainly in the fly ash stream. When SRF was a part of the fuel mixture a considerable amount of SO2 was measured in the second pass. Most of the chlorine entering with the fuel was found as gaseous \\{HCl\\} in the second pass, which indicates that sulfation reactions took place in the furnace. Most of the \\{HCl\\} and a part of the SO2 were captured in the baghouse filter ash and the emissions of these gases were low. This work showed the positive effects of co-firing challenging fuels.

Emil Vainio; Patrik Yrjas; Maria Zevenhoven; Anders Brink; Tor Laurén; Mikko Hupa; Tuula Kajolinna; Hannu Vesala

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Assessment of fluidized-bed-combustion solid wastes for land disposal. Volume 5. Appendix G. Final report, June 1980-June 1984  

SciTech Connect

This report, Appendix G, gives results of: (1) an analysis of representative samples of fluidized-bed-combustion (FBC) wastes, (2) an assessment of the characteristics of leachates generated from the wastes under laboratory and field (landfill) conditions, (3) a characterization of the attenuation of the leachates by earth materials that are typical of disposal settings, (4) development of a way to predict the leachate generation behavior of FBC wastes under landfill conditions on the basis of laboratory test results by establishing a rigorous statistical relationship between the laboratory and field-leaching results, and (5) assessment of the compatibility of commonly used landfill-liner materials with FBC waste leachates. FBC is an emerging energy technology that holds promise for both high efficiency of energy conversion and minimization of adverse air-quality impacts. A major advantage of FBC is that high-sulfur coal can be burned without the use of flue-gas desulfurization equipment to meet air-quality standards. The solid residues that are generated in an FBC unit are usually larger in volume and have different properties than the typical bottom ash from a conventional boiler.

Williamson, H.J.; Grimshaw, T.W.; Dunn, J.E.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Assessment of fluidized-bed-combustion solid wastes for land disposal. Volume 3. Appendices D and E. Final report, June 1980-June 1984  

SciTech Connect

This report, Appendices D and E, gives results of: (1) an analysis of representative samples of fluidized-bed-combustion (FBC) wastes, (2) an assessment of the characteristics of leachates generated from the wastes under laboratory and field (landfill) conditions, (3) a characterization of the attenuation of the leachates by earth materials that are typical of disposal settings, (4) development of a way to predict the leachate generation behavior of FBC wastes under landfill conditions on the basis of laboratory test results by establishing a rigorous statistical relationship between the laboratory and field-leaching results, and (5) assessment of the compatibility of commonly used landfill-liner materials with FBC waste leachates. FBC is an emerging energy technology that holds promise for both high efficiency of energy conversion and minimization of adverse air-quality impacts. A major advantage of FBC is that high-sulfur coal can be burned without the use of flue-gas desulfurization equipment to meet air-quality standards. The solid residues that are generated in an FBC unit are usually larger in volume and have different properties than the typical bottom ash from a conventional boiler.

Minear, R.A.; Grimshaw, T.W.; Little, W.M.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Assessment of fluidized-bed-combustion solid wastes for land disposal. Volume 6. Appendix H. Final report, June 1980-June 1984  

SciTech Connect

This report, Appendix H, gives results of: (1) an analysis of representative samples of fluidized-bed-combustion (FBC) wastes, (2) an assessment of the characteristics of leachates generated from the wastes underlaboratory and field (landfill) conditions, (3) a characterization of the attenuation of the leachates by earth materials that are typical of disposal settings, (4) development of a way to predict the leachate generation behavior of FBC wastes under landfill conditions on the basis of laboratory test results by establishing a rigorous statistical relationship between the laboratory and field-leaching results, and (5) assessment of the compatibility of commonly used landfill-liner materials with FBC waste leachates. FBC is an emerging energy technology that holds promise for both high efficiency of energy conversion and minimization of adverse air-quality impacts. A major advantage of FBC is that high-sulfur coal can be burned without the use of flue-gas desulfurization equipment to meet air-quality standards. The solid residues that are generated in an FBC unit are usually larger in volume and have different properties than the typical bottom ash from a conventional boiler.

Williamson, H.J.; Heinrich, D.L.; Grimshaw, T.W.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Assessment of fluidized-bed-combustion solid wastes for land disposal. Volume 7. Appendix I. Final report, June 1980-June 1984  

SciTech Connect

This report, Appendix 1, gives results of: (1) an analysis of representative samples of fluidized-bed-combustion (FBC) wastes, (2) an assessment of the characteristics of leachates generated from the wastes under laboratory and field (landfill) conditions, (3) a characterization of the attenuation of the leachates by earth materials that are typical of disposal settings, (4) development of a way to predict the leachate generation behavior of FBC wastes under landfill conditions on the basis of laboratory test results by establishing a rigorous statistical relationship between the laboratory and field-leaching results, and (5) assessment of the compatibility of commonly used landfill-liner materials with FBC waste leachates. FBC is an emerging energy technology that holds promise for both high efficiency of energy conversion and minimization of adverse air-quality impacts. A major advantage of FBC is that high-sulfur coal can be burned without the use of flue-gas desulfurization equipment to meet air-quality standards. The solid residues that are generated in an FBC unit are usually larger in volume and have different properties than the typical bottom ash from a conventional boiler.

Eklund, A.G.; Grimshaw, T.W.; Minear, R.A.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Assessment of fluidized-bed-combustion solid wastes for land disposal. Volume 2. Appendices A through C. Final report, June 1980-June 1984  

SciTech Connect

This report Appendices A through C, gives results of: (1) an analysis of representative samples of fluidized-bed-combustion (FBC) wastes, (2) an assessment of the characteristics of leachates generated from the wastes under laboratory and field (landfill) conditions, (3) a characterization of the attenuation of the leachates by earth materials that are typical of disposal settings, (4) development of a way to predict the leachate generation behavior of FBC wastes under landfill conditions on the basis of laboratory test results by establishing a rigorous statistical relationship between the laboratory and field-leaching results, and (5) assessment of the compatibility of commonly used landfill-liner materials with FBC waste leachates. FBC is an emerging energy technology that holds promise for both high efficiency of energy conversion and minimization of adverse air-quality impacts. A major advantage of FBC is that high-sulfur coal can be burned without the use of flue-gas desulfurization equipment to meet air-quality standards. The solid residues that are generated in an FBC unit are usually larger in volume and have different properties than the typical bottom ash from a conventional boiler.

Little, W.M.; Gibson, T.S.; Grimshaw, T.W.; Eklund, A.G.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Assessment of fluidized-bed-combustion solid wastes for land disposal. Volume 1. Final report. Report for June 1980-June 1984  

SciTech Connect

This report, including 10 appendices, gives results of: (1) an analysis of representative samples of fluidized-bed-combustion (FBC) wastes, (2) an assessment of the characteristics of leachates generated from the wastes under laboratory and field (landfill) conditions, (3) a characterization of the attenuation of the leachates by earth materials that are typical of disposal settings, (4) development of a way to predict the leachate generation behavior of FBC wastes under landfill conditions on the basis of laboratory test results by establishing a rigorous statistical relationship between the laboratory and field-leaching results, and (5) assessment of the compatibility of commonly used landfill-liner materials with FBC waste leachates. FBC is an emerging energy technology that holds promise for both high efficiency of energy conversion and minimization of adverse air-quality impacts. A major advantage of FBC is that high-sulfur coal can be burned without the use of flue-gas desulfurization equipment to meet air-quality standards. The solid residues that are generated in an FBC unit are usually larger in volume and have different properties than the typical bottom ash from a conventional boiler.

Grimshaw, T.W.; Minear, R.A.; Eklund, A.G.; Little, W.M.; Dunn, J.E.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Assessment of fluidized-bed-combustion solid wastes for land disposal. Volume 4. Appendix F. Final report, June 1980-June 1984  

SciTech Connect

This report, Appendix F, gives results of: (1) an analysis of representative samples of fluidized-bed-combustion (FBC) wastes, (2) an assessment of the characteristics of leachates generated from the wastes under laboratory and field (landfill) conditions, (3) a characterization of the attenuation of the leachates by earth materials that are typical of disposal settings, (4) development of a way to predict the leachate generation behavior of FBC wastes under landfill conditions on the basis of laboratory test results by establishing a rigorous statistical relationship between the laboratory and field-leaching results, and (5) assessment of the compatibility of commonly used landfill-liner materials with FBC waste leachates. FBC is an emerging energy technology that holds promise for both high efficiency of energy conversion and minimization of adverse air-quality impacts. A major advantage of FBC is that high-sulfur coal can be burned without the use of flue-gas desulfurization equipment to meet air-quality standards. The solid residues that are generated in an FBC unit are usually larger in volume and have different properties than the typical bottom ash from a conventional boiler.

Eklund, A.G.; Grimshaw, T.W.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Assessment of fluidized-bed-combustion solid wastes for land disposal. Volume 8. Appendix J. Final report, June 1980-June 1984  

SciTech Connect

This report, Appendix J, gives results of: (1) an analysis of representative samples of fluidized-bed-combustion (FBC) wastes, (2) an assessment of the characteristics of leachates generated from the wastes under laboratory and field (landfill) conditions, (3) a characterization of the attenuation of the leachates by earth materials that are typical of disposal settings, (4) development of a way to predict the leachate generation behavior of FBC wastes under landfill conditions on the basis of laboratory test results by establishing a rigorous statistical relationship between the laboratory and field-leaching results, and (5) assessment of the compatibility of commonly used landfill-liner materials with FBC waste leachates. FBC is an emerging energy technology that holds promise for both high efficiency of energy conversion and minimization of adverse air-quality impacts. A major advantage of FBC is that high-sulfur coal can be burned without the use of flue-gas desulfurization equipment to meet air-quality standards. The solid residues that are generated in an FBC unit are usually larger in volume and have different properties than the typical bottom ash from a conventional boiler.

Williamson, H.J.; South, R.C.; Grimshaw, T.W.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

In Situ Measurement Technique for Simultaneous Detection of K, KCl, and KOH Vapors Released During Combustion of Solid Biomass Fuel in a Single Particle Reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A quantitative and simultaneous measurement of K, KCl, and KOH vapors from a burning fuel sample combusted in a single particle reactor was performed using collinear photofragmentation...

Sorvajärvi, Tapio; DeMartini, Nikolai; Rossi, Jussi; Toivonen, Juha

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Characteristics of biomass in flameless combustion: A review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The demands of energy and pollutant emissions reduction have motivated the combustion researchers to work on combustion improvement. Flameless combustion or high temperature air combustion has many features such as flame stability, low pollutant emission and uniform profiles of temperature compared to the other modes of combustion. Combustion of solid fuels likes biomass and wastes in flameless combustion conditions has not been investigated as comprehensive as combustion of gaseous fuels. The aim of using biomass in combustion is to reduce the pollutant emissions and to decrease the rate of fossil fuel consumption. In this review, combustion characteristics of biomass in flameless combustion are explained. The paper summarizes the research on the mass loss, ignition time, and \\{NOx\\} emissions during biomass flameless combustion. These summaries show that biomass under flameless combustion gives low pollutant emissions, low mass loss and it decreases the ignition time.

A.A.A. Abuelnuor; M.A. Wahid; Seyed Ehsan Hosseini; A. Saat; Khalid M. Saqr; Hani H. Sait; M. Osman

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Development of All-Solid-State Sensors for Measurement of Nitric Oxide and Ammonia Concentrations by Optical Absorption in Particle-Laden Combustion Exhaust Streams  

SciTech Connect

An all-solid-state continuous-wave (cw) laser system for ultraviolet absorption measurements of the nitric oxide (NO) molecule has been developed and demonstrated. For the NO sensor, 250 nW of tunable cw ultraviolet radiation is produced by sum-frequency-mixing of 532-nm radiation from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser and tunable 395-nm radiation from an external cavity diode laser (ECDL). The sum-frequency-mixing process occurs in a beta-barium borate crystal. The nitric oxide absorption measurements are performed by tuning the ECDL and scanning the sum-frequency-mixed radiation over strong nitric oxide absorption lines near 226 nm. In Year 1 of the research, the nitric oxide sensor was used for measurements in the exhaust of a coal-fired laboratory combustion facility. The Texas A&M University boiler burner facility is a 30 kW (100,000 Btu/hr) downward-fired furnace with a steel shell encasing ceramic insulation. Measurements of nitric oxide concentration in the exhaust stream were performed after modification of the facility for laser based NOx diagnostics. The diode-laser-based ultraviolet absorption measurements were successful even when the beam was severely attenuated by particulate in the exhaust stream and window fouling. Single-laser-sweep measurements were demonstrated with an effective time resolution of 100 msec, limited at this time by the scan rate of our mechanically tuned ECDL system. In Year 2, the Toptica ECDL in the original system was replaced with a Sacher Lasers ECDL. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Toptica ECDL were 25 GHz and a few Hz, respectively. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Sacher Lasers ECDL were 90 GHz and a few hundred Hz, respectively. The Sacher Lasers ECDL thus allows us to scan over the entire NO absorption line and to determine the absorption baseline with increased accuracy and precision. The increased tuning rate is an advantage in that data can be acquired much more rapidly and the absorption measurements are less susceptible to the effects of transient fluctuations in the properties of the coal combustor exhaust stream. Gas cell measurements were performed using the NO sensor with the new ECDL, and a few spectra were acquired from the coal exhaust stream. However, the laser diode in the new ECDL failed during the coal combustor tests. In Year 3, however, we obtained a new GaN laser diode for our ECDL system, installed it, and completed an extensive series of measurements in the Texas A&M coal-fired laboratory combustion facility. The combustor was operated with coal and coal/biomass as fuels, with and without reburn, and with and without ammonia injection. Several different fuel equivalence ratios were investigated for each operating condition.

Jerald A. Caton; Kalyan Annamalai; Robert P. Lucht

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

76

A new type of self-organization in combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... a solid-phase gasless combustion3 which proceeds with the formation of a melt or a flameless gas3'4. ... gas3'4. Flameless combustion has recently been described for several tetrazole compounds5.

A. I. Lesnikovich; V. V. Sviridov; G. V. Printsev; O. A. Ivashkevich; P. N. Gaponik

1986-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

77

Advanced Combustion  

SciTech Connect

Topics covered in this presentation include: the continued importance of coal; related materials challenges; combining oxy-combustion & A-USC steam; and casting large superalloy turbine components.

Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL

2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

78

Salt-assistant combustion synthesis of nanocrystalline Nd{sub 2}(Zr{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x}){sub 2}O{sub 7} (0 {<=} x {<=} 1) solid solutions  

SciTech Connect

Nanocrystalline Nd{sub 2}(Zr{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x}){sub 2}O{sub 7} series solid solutions were prepared by a convenient salt-assisted combustion process using glycine as fuel. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The results showed the Zr ion can be partially replaced by Sn ion. The partial substituted products were still single-phase solid solutions and the crystal form remained unchanged. TEM images reveal that the products are composed of well-dispersed square-shaped nanocrystals. The method provides a convenient and low-cost route for the synthesis of nanostructures of oxide materials.

Tong Yuping, E-mail: huabeitong@yahoo.cn [School of Civil Engineering and Communication, North China Institute of Water Conservancy and Hydroelectric Power, Zhengzhou 450011 (China); Wang Yanping [College of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

79

Combustion Noise  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

stabilize or destabilize the modes of the system, depending on the configuration of the combustor and the form of the coupling [26, 30]. In contrast to combustion instability, in broad-band combustion noise the unsteadiness in the rate of combustion... from th s in a mod on tempera , entropic a de of indir t frequenci r, open que sical theory assical expe s [14] who it by a spa d a transie le gases. A e bubble si idered as a flame was ent was o ng and dif depended udy it wa ion, ? ?,p r t? : (a...

Dowling, Ann P.; Mahmoudi, Yasser

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Estimating heat of combustion for waste materials  

SciTech Connect

Describes a method of estimating the heat of combustion of hydrocarbon waste (containing S,N,Q,C1) in various physical forms (vapor, liquid, solid, or mixtures) when the composition of the waste stream is known or can be estimated. Presents an equation for predicting the heat of combustion of hydrocarbons containing some sulfur. Shows how the method is convenient for estimating the heat of combustion of a waste profile as shown in a sample calculation.

Chang, Y.C.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brownish-black solid combustible" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Combustion Engine  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Pictured here is an animation showing the basic mechanics of how an internal combustion engine works. With support from the Energy Department, General Motors researchers developed a new technology ...

82

Combustion-thermoelectric tube  

SciTech Connect

In direct combustion-thermoelectric energy conversion, direct fuel injection and reciprocation of the air flowing in a solid matrix are combined with the solid conduction to allow for obtaining super-adiabatic temperatures at the hot junctions. While the solid conductivity is necessary, the relatively large thermal conductivity of the available high-temperature thermoelectric materials (e.g., Si-Ge alloys) results in a large conduction loss from the hot junctions and deteriorates the performance. Here a combustion-thermoelectric tube is introduced and analyzed. Radially averaged temperatures are used for the fluid and solid phases. A combination of external cooling of the cold junctions, and direct injection of the fuel, has been used to increase the energy conversion efficiency for low thermal conductivity, high-melting temperature thermoelectric materials. The parametric study (geometry, flow, stoichiometry, materials) shows that with the current high figure of merit, high temperature Si{sub 0.7}Ge{sub 0.3} properties, a conversion efficiency of about 11% is achievable. With lower thermal conductivities for these high-temperature materials, efficiencies about 25% appear possible. This places this energy conversion in line with the other high efficiency, direct electric power generation methods.

Park, C.W.; Kaviany, M.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Pulse combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pulse combustion has been gaining increased interest because of its potential for higher combustion efficiency greater combustion intensity and lower pollutant emissions. Unsteady combustion causes increased mass momentum and heat transfer. As a result reactants mix faster heat release is accelerated and heat transfer is enhanced in unsteady reacting flows. Many of these phenomena were discovered long ago by engineers looking for the cause of often detrimental combustion instabilities. Much more recently some of these enhanced transfer properties have been used to design efficient and compact pulse combustors. Although to date successful commercialization on a large scale has been limited to home heating units (e.g. the Lenox Pulse Furnace) highly efficient pulse spray dryers (Bepex Unison Dryer) pulse calciners and pulse waste incinerators have been designed. Pulsations have also been applied to carbon black fluidized bed gasifiers. Not all these designs will become economically viable. However the development of tunable pulse combustors that can be acoustically matched to the changing resonance frequency of these pulse processes have made many of them more promising. Recent findings that pulsation can enhance burning even in turbulent flows lend further encouragement to the developers of novel pulse combustion devices.

Jechiel I. Jagoda

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

COMBUSTION RESEARCH - FY-1979  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

deposition due to the heat of combustion. The problem wedimensionless heat of combustion, QpYoxoolhw t transferredfraction of specie i heat of combustion per gram of fuel

,

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

20 - Chemical looping combustion (CLC)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a new combustion technology with inherent separation of the greenhouse gas CO2. The technology involves the use of a metal oxide as an oxygen carrier which transfers oxygen from combustion air to the fuel, and hence a direct contact between air and fuel is avoided. Two inter-connected fluidized beds, i.e. fuel reactor and air reactor, are used in the process. The outlet gas from the fuel reactor consists ideally of CO2 and H2O, and the latter is easily removed by condensation. This chapter presents the basic principles, gives an overview of oxygen-carrier materials and operational experiences, discusses the application to gaseous, liquid and solid fuels, and the use for combustion as well as for hydrogen production.

A. Lyngfelt

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Advanced Combustion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Systems Systems Advanced Combustion Background Conventional coal-fired power plants utilize steam turbines to generate electricity, which operate at efficiencies of 35-37 percent. Operation at higher temperatures and pressures can lead to higher efficiencies, resulting in reduced fuel consumption and lower greenhouse gas emissions. Higher efficiency also reduces CO2 production for the same amount of energy produced, thereby facilitating a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. When combined, oxy-combustion comes with an efficiency hit, so it will actually increase the amount of CO2 to be captured. But without so much N2 in the flue gas, it will be easier and perhaps more efficient to capture, utilize and sequester. NETL's Advanced Combustion Project and members of the NETL-Regional University

87

Impact of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Quality on the Behavior of Alkali Metals and Trace Elements during Combustion: A Thermodynamic Equilibrium Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Light, thermal- and bacterial-resistant, and inexpensive leathers, especially in the footwear industry, are obtained by the Cr tanning method. ... The selected waste items are representing the major combustible fractions found in MSW, i.e. paper, plastic, textile, and biogenic materials (both food and biomass), but also the other waste fraction (a mixed and poorly defined fraction). ... Pedersen et al.(6) studies six different waste fractions separately under different operational conditions in a full-scale incinerator: NaCl (road salt), household batteries, automotive shredder waste (rubber and plastics), Cu?Cr?As (CCA)-impregnated wood, PVC, and shoes (leather mainly). ...

Michae?l Becidan; Lars Sørum; Daniel Lindberg

2010-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

88

Sandia Combustion Research Program: Annual report, 1986  

SciTech Connect

This report presents research results of the past year, divided thematically into some ten categories. Publications and presentations arising from this work are included in the appendix. Our highlighted accomplishment of the year is the announcement of the discovery and demonstration of the RAPRENOx process. This new mechanism for the elimination of nitrogen oxides from essentially all kinds of combustion exhausts shows promise for commercialization, and may eventually make a significant contribution to our nation's ability to control smog and acid rain. The sections of this volume describe the facility's laser and computer system, laser diagnostics of flames, combustion chemistry, reacting flows, liquid and solid propellant combustion, mathematical models of combustion, high-temperature material interfaces, studies of engine/furnace combustion, coal combustion, and the means of encouraging technology transfer. 182 refs., 170 figs., 12 tabs.

Not Available

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Turbulent combustion  

SciTech Connect

Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.

Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Combustion & Health  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FFCOMBUSTION & HEALTH Winifred J. Hamilton, PhD, SM Clear Air Through Energy Efficiency (CATEE) Galveston, TX October 9?11, 2012 FFCOMBUSTION & HEALTH FFCOMBUSTION: THE THREAT ? Biggest threat to world ecosystems (and to human health...) ? Combustion of fossil fuels for ? Electricity ? Industrial processes ? Vehicle propulsion ? Cooking and heat ? Other ? Munitions ? Fireworks ? Light ? Cigarettes, hookahs? FFCOMBUSTION & HEALTH FFCOMBUSTION: THE THREAT ? SCALE (think health...

Hamilton, W.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Stretch Efficiency for Combustion Engines: Exploiting New Combustion...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Stretch Efficiency for Combustion Engines: Exploiting New Combustion Regimes Stretch Efficiency for Combustion Engines: Exploiting New Combustion Regimes 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel...

92

Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion Experiments Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion Experiments 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and...

93

Combustion Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

using a liquid fuel. The air and fuel valve designs are vastly different, with different flow characteristics. These factors make the initial adjustment of the system difficult, and proper maintenance of ratio accuracy unlikely. Linked valves... casing of the fuel control regulator with the combustion air piping. The upstream pressure on the burner air orifice is applied to the main diaphragm of the pressure balanced regulator. Assuming sufficient gas pressure at the regulator inlet...

Riccardi, R. C.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Co-Combustion of Refuse Derived Fuel with Anthracites in a CFB Boiler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Combustion of Refuse derived fuel (RDF) is considered as a priority solution to energy recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW). The co-combustion characteristics of anthracite coals with RDF were determined in ...

Dong-Won Kim; Jong-Min Lee; Jae-Sung Kim

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Trace elements found in the fuel and in-furnace fine particles collected from 80MW BFB combusting solid recovered fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main fine particle (dp SRF) combustion the main elements were found to be: Ba, Br, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Sb, Sn and Zn. Fine particle composition is presented for 6 different furnace heights of a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) boiler. As the fine particles are formed of vaporized ash species the experimental results are discussed with the support of thermodynamic equilibrium modeling for estimating the forms of the gaseous elements in the furnace. The occurrence of bromine was found to be similar to chlorine as the main forms of bromine in the furnace were estimated to be KBr(g) and NaBr(g) complemented with CuBr3(g). It is proposed that the trace elements mentioned originate mainly from plastics and rubber where they are used as production additives, stabilisers, dyes, colorants and flame retardants. Cr, Cu and Zn may originate to a large extent from alloys and other metallic impurities. SEM-EDS analyses carried out for the SRF supports the postulated origin of the elements.

P. Vainikka; D. Lindberg; A. Moilanen; H. Ollila; M. Tiainen; J. Silvennoinen; M. Hupa

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium  

SciTech Connect

Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, 'clean coal' combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered 'allowable' under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and private-sector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

97

Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium  

SciTech Connect

Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, “clean coal” combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered “allowable” under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

98

Combustion chemistry  

SciTech Connect

This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Study of the combustion mechanism of oil shale semicoke in a thermogravimetric analyzer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Oil shale semicoke, formed in retort furnaces, is ... solid waste. For the industrial application of oil shale semicoke in combustion, this present work focused...

X. X. Han; X. M. Jiang; Z. G. Cui

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminum particle combustion Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Physics, Stanford University Collection: Physics 43 POTENTIAL ADVANTAGES OF INCINERATION IN FLUIDIZED BEDS Summary: compact method for combustion of solid particles. The...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brownish-black solid combustible" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Stretch Efficiency for Combustion Engines: Exploiting New Combustion...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

D.C. ace15daw.pdf More Documents & Publications Stretch Efficiency for Combustion Engines: Exploiting New Combustion Regimes Stretch Efficiency for Combustion Engines:...

102

Advanced Combustion | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Combustion Advanced Combustion Combustion engines drive a large percentage of our nation's transportation vehicles and power generation and manufacturing facilities. Today's...

103

Chemical Looping Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chemical looping combustion (CLC) and looping cycles in general represent an important new ... technologies, which can be deployed for direct combustion as well as be used in gasification...2...stream suitable fo...

Edward John (Ben) Anthony

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Chemistry of Combustion Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The quantitative description and understanding of combustion processes needs extreme computational efforts and has at ... treatment can give a lot of insight into combustion processes, as demonstrated in the foll...

J. Warnatz

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Overview of Biomass Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main combustion systems for biomass fuels are presented and the respective requirements ... etc.) in industrial boilers or for co-combustion in power plants. For fuels with high ... moving grate firings are u...

T. Nussbaumer; J. E. Hustad

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

A Generalized Pyrolysis Model for Combustible Solids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

oxygen concentration on gasification rates of PMMA 20effects on the endothermic gasification and piloted ignitiondescribing the steady–state gasification of bubble– forming

Lautenberger, Chris

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

A Generalized Pyrolysis Model for Combustible Solids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

intumescent material as a phase change process, but with anmaterial [58–68], analogous to the Stefan problem where phase changechange, either due to material consumption (surface regression) or swelling (attributed to intumescence or a condensed phase

Lautenberger, Chris

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

A Generalized Pyrolysis Model for Combustible Solids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

processes such as flash pyrolysis [187], but it has not yetreaction model for flash wood pyrolysis,” Fuel 68: 1408–

Lautenberger, Chris

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

A Generalized Pyrolysis Model for Combustible Solids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

processes of wood and biomass pyrolysis,” to appear ineffect during biomass pyrolysis,” Industrial & Engineeringprocesses during pyrolysis of a large biomass particle,”

Lautenberger, Chris

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Electrostatic Precipitator Collection Efficiency and Trace Element Emissions from Co-Combustion of Biomass and Recovered Fuel in Fluidized-Bed Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electrostatic Precipitator Collection Efficiency and Trace Element Emissions from Co-Combustion of Biomass and Recovered Fuel in Fluidized-Bed Combustion ... In this investigation, electrostatic precipitator fractional collection efficiency and trace metal emissions were determined experimentally at a 66 MW biomass-fueled bubbling fluidized-bed combustion plant. ... The solid fuel combustion-generated particle emissions typically consist of two types of particles:? fine particles approximately 0.1?1 ?m in diameter that are formed from the ash-forming species that are volatilized during combustion and residual ash particles larger than 1 ?m in diameter that are formed from mineral impurities in the fuels (4). ...

Terttaliisa Lind; Jouni Hokkinen; Jorma K. Jokiniemi; Sanna Saarikoski; Risto Hillamo

2003-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

111

Chemical Looping Combustion Kinetics  

SciTech Connect

One of the most promising methods of capturing CO{sub 2} emitted by coal-fired power plants for subsequent sequestration is chemical looping combustion (CLC). A powdered metal oxide such as NiO transfers oxygen directly to a fuel in a fuel reactor at high temperatures with no air present. Heat, water, and CO{sub 2} are released, and after H{sub 2}O condensation the CO{sub 2} (undiluted by N{sub 2}) is ready for sequestration, whereas the nickel metal is ready for reoxidation in the air reactor. In principle, these processes can be repeated endlessly with the original nickel metal/nickel oxide participating in a loop that admits fuel and rejects ash, heat, and water. Our project accumulated kinetic rate data at high temperatures and elevated pressures for the metal oxide reduction step and for the metal reoxidation step. These data will be used in computational modeling of CLC on the laboratory scale and presumably later on the plant scale. The oxygen carrier on which the research at Utah is focused is CuO/Cu{sub 2}O rather than nickel oxide because the copper system lends itself to use with solid fuels in an alternative to CLC called 'chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling' (CLOU).

Edward Eyring; Gabor Konya

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

112

Reactivity of a CaSO4-oxygen carrier in chemical-looping combustion of methane in a fixed bed reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a promising technology for the combustion of gas or solid fuel with efficient...2. A reactivity study of CaSO4 oxygen carrier in CLC of methane was conducted in a laboratory s...

Qilei Song; Rui Xiao; Zhongyi Deng; Laihong Shen…

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Utilization of Combustion?Driven Oscillations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The possible applications of combustion?driven oscillations fall into two categories. The first category includes applications that are related to the combustion process itself such as those concerned with the possibility of alterlog space heat?release rate combustion efficiency heat transfer to surfaces and agglomeration of solid or liquid products of combustion. A consideration of available experimental and theoreticalinformation indicates that none of these applications are too promising when compared with alternative methods of performing the same functions. The second category includes applications that use pulsatory phenomena to do a particular iob. Examples are the application of valveless pulse jets to (a) the propulsion of drones (b) helicopter blade?tip propulsion (c) cutting of Arctic ice and (d) inducing pressure rises in through?flow combustion systems. For one reason or another most of these ideas have been dropped. However the use of the pulsating?combustion process to supply both the air at a high flow velocity to a combustor and the products of combustion at a high velocity to a heat exchanger thereby making possible a compact self?contained unit appears to have great promise. One such unit of residential boiler size is already available. Although this unit is valved as was the V?1 conversion to a valveless unit appears possible. The development of industrial?sized units appears equally feasible. Apparently the development of such units is contingent upon (a) adequate understanding of how to design effective aerodynamic valves and (b) the collaboration of an inventor experimentalist analyst and financier on a specific program.

Abbott A. Putnam

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Coal Combustion Science  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Fifteenth combustion research conference  

SciTech Connect

The BES research efforts cover chemical reaction theory, experimental dynamics and spectroscopy, thermodynamics of combustion intermediates, chemical kinetics, reaction mechanisms, combustion diagnostics, and fluid dynamics and chemically reacting flows. 98 papers and abstracts are included. Separate abstracts were prepared for the papers.

NONE

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Method and system for the removal of oxides of nitrogen and sulfur from combustion processes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for removing oxide contaminants from combustion gas, and employing a solid electrolyte reactor, includes: (a) flowing the combustion gas into a zone containing a solid electrolyte and applying a voltage and at elevated temperature to thereby separate oxygen via the solid electrolyte, (b) removing oxygen from that zone in a first stream and removing hot effluent gas from that zone in a second stream, the effluent gas containing contaminant, (c) and pre-heating the combustion gas flowing to that zone by passing it in heat exchange relation with the hot effluent gas.

Walsh, John V. (Glendora, CA)

1987-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

117

Emission of nanoparticles during combustion of waste biomass in fireplace  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Contamination of air by solid particles is serious problem for human health and also environment. Small particles in nano-sizes are more dangerous than same weight of larger size. Negative effect namely of the solid particles depends on (i) number (ii) specific surface area (iii) respirability and (iv) bonding of others substances (e.g. PAHs As Cd Zn Cu etc.) which are higher for smaller (nano-sizes) particles compared to larger one. For this reason mentioned above this contribution deals with measuring of amount and distribution of nanoparticles produced form combustion of waste city biomass in small combustion unit with impactor DLPI.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

IGNITION PROCESSES AND FLAME SPREADING IN A GRANULAR SOLID PROPELLANT BED.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Understanding the detailed ignition, flame spreading, and combustion processes inside of a granular solid propellant bed is vital for accurate internal ballistic modeling and development… (more)

Colletti, Alexander

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Thermal ignition combustion system  

SciTech Connect

A thermal ignition combustion system adapted for use with an internal combustion engine is described comprising: (a) means for providing ignition chamber walls defining an ignition chamber, the chamber walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m/sup 0/C. and a specific heat greater than 480J/kg/sup 0/C., the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber; (b) means for maintaining the temperature of the chamber walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel; and (c) means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber.

Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

1988-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

120

Sandia Combustion Research: Technical review  

SciTech Connect

This report contains reports from research programs conducted at the Sandia Combustion Research Facility. Research is presented under the following topics: laser based diagnostics; combustion chemistry; reacting flow; combustion in engines and commercial burners; coal combustion; and industrial processing. Individual projects were processed separately for entry onto the DOE databases.

NONE

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brownish-black solid combustible" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Packed Bed Combustion: An Overview  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

;Packed Bed Combustion - University of Ottawa - CICS 2005 fuel fuel feed air products air fuel Retort) products Underfeed Combustion fuel feed air #12;Packed Bed Combustion - University of Ottawa - CICS 2005 required #12;Packed Bed Combustion - University of Ottawa - CICS 2005 Overfeed Bed fuel motion products air

Hallett, William L.H.

122

Engine Combustion & Efficiency - FEERC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Engine Combustion & Efficiency Engine Combustion & Efficiency ORNL currently and historically supports the U.S. DOE on multi-cylinder and vehicle applications of diesel combustion, lean burn gasoline combustion, and low temperature combustion processes, and performs principal research on efficiency enabling technologies including emission controls, thermal energy recovery, and bio-renewable fuels. Research areas span from fundamental concepts to engine/vehicle integration and demonstration with a particular emphasis on the following areas: Thermodynamics for identifying and characterizing efficiency opportunities for engine-systems as well as the development of non-conventional combustion concepts for reducing fundamental combustion losses. Nonlinear sciences for improving the physical understanding and

123

Definition: Combustion | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Combustion Combustion Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Combustion The process of burning; chemical oxidation accompanied by the generation of light and heat.[1][2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition "Burning" redirects here. For combustion without external ignition, see spontaneous combustion. For the vehicle engine, see internal combustion engine. For other uses, see Burning (disambiguation) and Combustion (disambiguation). Error creating thumbnail: Unable to create destination directory This article's introduction section may not adequately summarize its contents. To comply with Wikipedia's lead section guidelines, please consider modifying the lead to provide an accessible overview of the article's key points in such a way that it can stand on its own as a

124

Spontaneous Human Combustion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Spontaneous Human Combustion Spontaneous Human Combustion Name: S. Phillips. Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: One of our 8th grade students has tried to find information in our library about spontaneous human combustion, but to no avail. Could you tell us where we might locate a simple reference, or provide some in information about this subject for him. Replies: Sorry, but this is definitely "fringe science"...try asking in bookstores. I seem to recall one of those "believe it or not" type of TV shows did an episode on spontaneous human combustion a few years ago in which they reported on some British scientists who investigated this purported phenomenon. Remember that people (back in the Dark Ages, and before) used to believe in "spontaneous generation" of certain plants and animals because they were not aware of the reproduction methods used by those plants and animals.

125

Advanced diesel combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Future emission norms will further reduce the vehicle emissions of diesel engines. To meet the goal of achieving these stringent limits while maintaining attractive attributes of marketability, the combustion ...

Dirk Adolph; Hartwig Busch; Stefan Pischinger; Andreas Kolbeck…

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Advanced Combustion Technologies  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The workhorse of America's electric power sector is the coal-fired power plant. Today, coal combustion plants account for more than half of the Nation's electric power generation. Largely because...

127

Catalytic Combustion Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work presents experimental data on the effect of catalytic additives on the combustion characteristics of ammonium nitrate and perchlorate and the explosives of different classes. Burning rates are determ...

A. P. Glaskova

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Investigation of a Coupled Fuel Reactor for Coal-Fueled Chemical Looping Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To determine the solids circulation rate, an annular loop-seal was designed. ... Shen, L.; Wu, J.; Xiao, J.Experiments on chemical looping combustion of coal with a NiO based oxygen carrier Combust. ... Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research (2013), 52 (18), 6119-6128 CODEN: IECRED; ISSN:0888-5885. ...

Hongming Sun; Lei Xu; Zhenshan Li; Ningsheng Cai

2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

129

Gasification characteristics of combustible wastes in a 5 ton/day fixed bed gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The gasification characteristics of combustible wastes were determined in ... To capture soot or unburned carbon from the gasification reaction, solid/gas separator and water fluidized...2: 10.7%, CH4: 6.0%, CO2:...

See Hoon Lee; Kyong Bin Choi; Jae Goo Lee…

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Study on drying and combustion process in grate-CFB incinerator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The drying and combustion process in the combined grate and circulating fluidized bed (grate-CFB) municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator was ... was proposed. A 260 t/d grate-CFB incinerator was modeled and the ...

QingHai Li; YanGuo Zhang; MeiQian Chen…

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Sewage sludge ash as an alternative low-cost oxygen carrier for chemical looping combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, novel low-cost oxygen carriers containing Fe2O3 are evaluated for use in chemical looping combustion. Sewage sludge ashes and reference samples were...2...) fuel and a solid fuel (hard coal) were t...

Ewelina Ksepko

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Advanced Combustion Technology to Enable High Efficiency Clean...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Combustion Technology to Enable High Efficiency Clean Combustion Advanced Combustion Technology to Enable High Efficiency Clean Combustion Summary of advanced combustion research...

133

Coal combustion system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a coal combustion system suitable for a gas turbine engine, pulverized coal is transported to a rich zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio exceeding 1 at a temperature above the slagging temperature of the coal so that combustible hot gas and molten slag issue from the rich zone combustor. A coolant screen of water stretches across a throat of a quench stage and cools the combustible gas and molten slag to below the slagging temperature of the coal so that the slag freezes and shatters into small pellets. The pelletized slag is separated from the combustible gas in a first inertia separator. Residual ash is separated from the combustible gas in a second inertia separator. The combustible gas is mixed with secondary air in a lean zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio of less than 1 to produce hot gas motive at temperature above the coal slagging temperature. The motive fluid is cooled in a dilution stage to an acceptable turbine inlet temperature before being transported to the turbine.

Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN); Tramm, Peter C. (Indianapolis, IN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Sandia Combustion Research Program  

SciTech Connect

During the late 1970s, in response to a national energy crisis, Sandia proposed to the US Department of Energy (DOE) a new, ambitious program in combustion research. Shortly thereafter, the Combustion Research Facility (CRF) was established at Sandia's Livermore location. Designated a ''user facility,'' the charter of the CRF was to develop and maintain special-purpose resources to support a nationwide initiative-involving US inventories, industry, and national laboratories--to improve our understanding and control of combustion. This report includes descriptions several research projects which have been simulated by working groups and involve the on-site participation of industry scientists. DOE's Industry Technology Fellowship program, supported through the Office of Energy Research, has been instrumental in the success of some of these joint efforts. The remainder of this report presents results of calendar year 1988, separated thematically into eleven categories. Referred journal articles appearing in print during 1988 and selected other publications are included at the end of Section 11. Our traditional'' research activities--combustion chemistry, reacting flows, diagnostics, engine and coal combustion--have been supplemented by a new effort aimed at understanding combustion-related issues in the management of toxic and hazardous materials.

Johnston, S.C.; Palmer, R.E.; Montana, C.A. (eds.)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Combustion Model for Engine Concept Development | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Combustion Model for Engine Concept Development Presentation shows how 1-cylinder testing, 3D combustion CFD and 1D gas exchange with an advanced combustion model are used...

136

Chapter 8 - Coal Combustion Residue Disposal Options  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Coal combustion residues (CCRs) are presently regulated as solid waste (Subtitle D) under the Resource Conservation Recovery Act. Such classification promotes beneficial use by end-users i.e. mitigating excessive liability. According to the US Environmental Protection agency (USEPA), about 131 million tons of coal combustion residuals—including 71 million tons of fly ash, 20 million tons of bottom ash and boiler slag, and 40 million tons of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material—were generated in the US in 2007. Of this, approximately 36% was disposed of in landfills, 21% was disposed of in surface impoundments, 38% was beneficially reused, and 5% was used as minefill. Stringent regulation, as Subtitle C (hazardous waste), would impose a perceived liability upon end-users; greatly reducing beneficial use opportunities. Mandatory use of synthetic liners—would not have prevented dike wall failure and fails to consider inherent engineering characteristics of CCRs.

Richard W. Goodwin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D.; Swank, W. David

2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

138

Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

Daniels, Michael A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Heaps, Ronald J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Steffler, Eric D (Idaho Falls, ID); Swank, William D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

139

Surface Combustion Microengines Based on Photocatalytic Oxidations of Hydrocarbons at Room Temperature  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Surface Combustion Microengines Based on Photocatalytic Oxidations of Hydrocarbons at Room Temperature ... For instance internal combustion engines depend on an exothermic combustion of a mixture of hydrocarbon fuel or hydrogen and air, inside a sealed cylinder equipped with a movable piston.1 Once ignited using an electrical or compression heating system, the combustion products have more available energy than the original mixture, and this energy can be translated into work by driving the piston. ... One possible explanation for the lack of data is that the temperature increase of surface or suspended colloids is hard to measure due to fast heat dissipation through solid bond vibrations or solvent molecules in continuous UV radiation. ...

Ming Su; Vinayak P. Dravid

2005-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

140

Definition: Coal | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Coal Coal Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Coal A combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock composed mostly of carbon and hydrocarbons. It is formed from plant remains that have been compacted, hardened, chemically altered, and metamorphosed by heat and pressure over geologic time (typically millions of years). It is the most abundant fossil fuel produced in the United States.[1][2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Coal (from the Old English term col, which has meant "mineral of fossilized carbon" since the 13th century) is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brownish-black solid combustible" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Combustion Safety Overview  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

March 1-2, 2012 March 1-2, 2012 Building America Stakeholders Meeting Austin, Texas Combustion Safety in the Codes Larry Brand Gas Technology Institute Acknowledgement to Paul Cabot - American Gas Association 2 | Building America Program www.buildingamerica.gov Combustion Safety in the Codes Widely adopted fuel gas codes: * National Fuel Gas Code - ANSI Z223.1/NFPA 54, published by AGA and NFPA (NFGC) * International Fuel Gas Code - published by the International Code Council (IFGC) * Uniform Plumbing Code published by IAPMO (UPC) Safety codes become requirements when adopted by the Authority Having Jurisdiction (governments or fire safety authorities) 3 | Building America Program www.buildingamerica.gov Combustion Safety in the Codes Formal Relationships Between these codes: - The IFGC extracts many safety

142

A MODEL FOR POROUS-MEDIUM COMBUSTION  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......these applied in coal combustion appears in...understanding of the chemistry of combustion...GLASSMAN, Combustion (Academic Press...ESSENHIGH, In Chemistry of Coal Utilization...POROUS-MEDIUM COMBUSTION 177 8. D. A......

J. NORBURY; A. M. STUART

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Vehicle Technologies Office: Combustion Engine Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Combustion Engine Combustion Engine Research to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Combustion Engine Research on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Combustion Engine Research on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Combustion Engine Research on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Combustion Engine Research on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Combustion Engine Research on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Combustion Engine Research on AddThis.com... Just the Basics Hybrid & Vehicle Systems Energy Storage Advanced Power Electronics & Electrical Machines Advanced Combustion Engines Combustion Engines Emission Control Waste Heat Recovery Fuels & Lubricants Materials Technologies Combustion Engine Research

144

Vehicle Technologies Office: Advanced Combustion Engines  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Combustion Advanced Combustion Engines to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Advanced Combustion Engines on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Advanced Combustion Engines on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Advanced Combustion Engines on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Advanced Combustion Engines on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Advanced Combustion Engines on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Advanced Combustion Engines on AddThis.com... Just the Basics Hybrid & Vehicle Systems Energy Storage Advanced Power Electronics & Electrical Machines Advanced Combustion Engines Combustion Engines Emission Control Waste Heat Recovery Fuels & Lubricants Materials Technologies Advanced Combustion Engines

145

Thermal ignition combustion system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m C and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg C with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber. 8 figs.

Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

1988-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

146

Studies in combustion dynamics  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this program is to develop a fundamental understanding and a quantitative predictive capability in combustion modeling. A large part of the understanding of the chemistry of combustion processes comes from {open_quotes}chemical kinetic modeling.{close_quotes} However, successful modeling is not an isolated activity. It necessarily involves the integration of methods and results from several diverse disciplines and activities including theoretical chemistry, elementary reaction kinetics, fluid mechanics and computational science. Recently the authors have developed and utilized new tools for parallel processing to implement the first numerical model of a turbulent diffusion flame including a {open_quotes}full{close_quotes} chemical mechanism.

Koszykowski, M.L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Thermal ignition combustion system  

SciTech Connect

The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m.degree. C. and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg.degree. C. with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber.

Kamo, Roy (Columbus, IN); Kakwani, Ramesh M. (Columbus, IN); Valdmanis, Edgars (Columbus, IN); Woods, Melvins E. (Columbus, IN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Nanoparticle Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Nanoparticle Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines Nanoparticle Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference...

149

Improving alternative fuel utilization: detailed kinetic combustion...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

alternative fuel utilization: detailed kinetic combustion modeling & experimental testing Improving alternative fuel utilization: detailed kinetic combustion modeling &...

150

Mechanism of Hydrocarbon Formation in Combustion Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Emissions from transportation systems that derive their energy directly from combustion processes include products of incomplete combustion, oxides of...

R. A. Matula

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Grain-size effects in nanoscaled electrolyte and cathode thin films for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC).  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Due to their high energy conversion efficiencies and low emissions, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) show promise as a replacement for combustion-based electrical generators at… (more)

Peters, Christoph

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Steady state thermal stress analyses of two-dimensional and three-dimensional solid oxide fuel cells.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Fuel cells are electrochemical devices which convert fuels directly into electrical energy without combustion. The Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is the most promising energy… (more)

Valluru, Srividya.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Aviation Combustion Toxicology: An Overview  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......in a radiant heat furnace. Rats...the produced combustion products in...in both the combustion tube and radiant heat systems proved...literature data for CO2, low...acrolein, and heat expo- sures...primary toxic combustion gases and are...structures. The hydrocarbon constituents......

Arvind K. Chaturvedi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Four Lectures on Turbulent Combustion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, combustion in a Diesel engine or in furnaces essentially taakes place under non-premixed conditions. In the Diesel engine a liquid fuel spray is injected into hot compressed air, the fuel evaporates and mixes combustion are in general subdivided into two classes: premixed or non-premixed combustion. For example

Peters, Norbert

155

Nonequilibrium hydrogen combustion in one- and two-phase supersonic flow  

SciTech Connect

A time-splitting method for the numerical simulation of stiff nonequilibrium combustion problem was developed. The algorithm has been applied to simulate the shock-induced combustion and to investigate a supersonic one-and two-phase flowfield. The results are physically reasonable and demonstrate that the presence of particles has a dramatic effect on the nozzle flowfield and the thrust. Supersonic combustion usually happens in high speed flying aerodynamic problems, such as supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) engine for hypersonic airbreathing vehicles. Particularly for the scramjet engine, due to short residence time in the combustion chamber, it still contains incomplete combustion fuel as it enters the nozzle. For solid propellant rocket motors, the exhaust stream contains particles of aluminum oxide. In these two-phase nozzle flows, transfer of momentum and heat between gas particles often result in a decrease of nozzle efficiency.

Chang, H.T.; Hourng, L.W. [National Central Univ., Chung Li (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Chien, L.C. [Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Inst. of Physics

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Oil shale ash-layer thickness and char combustion kinetics  

SciTech Connect

A Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retort is being studied at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In the HRS process, raw shale is heated by mixing it with burnt retorted shale. Retorted shale is oil shale which has been heated in an oxygen deficient atmosphere to pyrolyze organic carbon, as kerogen into oil, gas, and a nonvolatile carbon rich residue, char. In the HRS retort process, the char in the spent shale is subsequently exposed to an oxygen environment. Some of the char, starting on the outer surface of the shale particle, is burned, liberating heat. In the HRS retort, the endothermic pyrolysis step is supported by heat from the exothermic char combustion step. The rate of char combustion is controlled by three resistances; the resistance of oxygen mass transfer through the gas film surrounding the solid particle, resistance to mass transfer through a ash layer which forms on the outside of the solid particles as the char is oxidized and the resistance due to the intrinsic chemical reaction rate of char and oxygen. In order to estimate the rate of combustion of the char in a typical oil shale particle, each of these resistances must be accurately estimated. We begin by modeling the influence of ash layer thickness on the over all combustion rate of oil shale char. We then present our experimental measurements of the ash layer thickness of oil shale which has been processed in the HRS retort.

Aldis, D.F.; Singleton, M.F.; Watkins, B.E.; Thorsness, C.B.; Cena, R.J.

1992-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

157

Adsorption of pyridine by combusted oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Large volumes of solid waste material will be produced during the commercial production of shale oil. An alternative to the disposal of the solid waste product is utilization. One potential use of spent oil shale is for the stabilization of hazardous organic compounds. The objective of this study was to examine the adsorption of pyridine, commonly found in oil shale process water, by spent oil shale. The adsorption of pyridine by fresh and weathered samples of combusted New Albany Shale and Green River Formation oil shale was examined. In general, pyridine adsorption can be classified as L-type and the isotherms modeled with the Langmuir and Freundlich equations. For the combusted New Albany Shale, weathering reduced the predicted pyridine adsorption maximum and increased the amount of pyridine adsorption maximum. The pyridine adsorption isotherms were similar to those mathematically described by empirical models, the reduction in solution concentrations of pyridine was generally less than 10 mg L{sup {minus}1} at an initial concentration of 100 mg L{sup {minus}1}. 31 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Essington, M.E.; Hart, B.K.

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Combustion powered linear actuator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides robotic vehicles having wheeled and hopping mobilities that are capable of traversing (e.g. by hopping over) obstacles that are large in size relative to the robot and, are capable of operation in unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides combustion powered linear actuators, which can include latching mechanisms to facilitate pressurized fueling of the actuators, as can be used to provide wheeled vehicles with a hopping mobility.

Fischer, Gary J. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

159

US DRIVE Advanced Combustion and Emission Control Technical Team Roadmap  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The ACEC focuses on advanced engine and aftertreatment technology for three major combustion strategies: (1) Low-Temperature Combustion, (2) Dilute Gasoline combustion, and (3) Clean Diesel Combustion.

160

Assessment of Combustion and Turbulence Models for the Simulation...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Combustion and Turbulence Models for the Simulation of Combustion Processes in a DI Diesel Engine Assessment of Combustion and Turbulence Models for the Simulation of Combustion...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brownish-black solid combustible" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

US DRIVE Advanced Combustion and Emission Control Technical Team...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

for three major combustion strategies: (1) Low-Temperature Combustion, (2) Dilute Gasoline combustion, and (3) Clean Diesel Combustion. acecroadmapjune2013.pdf More Documents...

162

Computational fluid dynamics simulations of oxy-coal combustion for carbon capture at atmospheric and elevated pressures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxy-fuel combustion of solid fuels, often performed in a mixture of oxygen and wet or dry recycled carbon dioxide, has gained significant interest in the last two decades as one of the leading carbon capture technologies ...

Chen, Lei, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

The fluidized bed combustion ash management puzzle  

SciTech Connect

As the electric and industrial power generation industry upgrades and expands, the amount of coal and other solid fuels also expands. With increased environmental controls, the introduction of a competitive market for power, and the increased interest in opportunity fuels will increase the usage of Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) boilers in the power industry. The combustion of these solid fuels will generate combustion ashes. Power generators, including FBC boilers owners, have traditionally looked to landfills for the disposal of their ash. With the tighter environmental controls being placed on landfills at the federal and state level, power generators are beginning to see constantly escalating tipping fees which now make the landfill option less attractive. In some instances, landfills are beginning to refuse to accept ash regardless of the tipping fee. In view of this, the power generators are now struggling to find a place to store or dispose of the ash that is produced by their power boiler. Other disposal alternatives such as backhaul to the mine and beneficial reuse are now being considered. Either alternative presents its own set of technical and environmental variables to be considered in developing an effective ash management plan. To be effective, these plans need to incorporate an aggressive, yet realistic, role to support beneficial reuse of the ash. Many applications exist for reuse of the various types of ash. The applications for conventional ashes such as those from pulverized coal boilers and stoker fired boilers are mature and more commonplace. The uses for FBC ash are not as well researched and demonstrated and therefore the marketing opportunities for FBC ash continue to require development. FBC boiler owners and operators must be willing to accept the challenges posed in developing these reuse applications for FBC ash for the market to accept the applications for FBC ash and allow the full value of the FBC ash to be realized.

Fitzgerald, H.B. [ReUse Technology, Inc., Kennesaw, GA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

164

NETL: Combustion Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Abbreviations & Acronyms Abbreviations & Acronyms Reference Shelf Solicitations & Awards Abbreviations & Acronyms The Combustion Technologies Product uses a number of abbreviations and acronyms. This web page gives you a definition of frequently used terms, as follows: 1½-Generation PFBC -- A PFBC plant where the hot (about 1400ºF) PFBC exhaust gases are used as a vitiated air supply for a natural gas combustor supplying high-temperature gas (above 2000ºF) to a combustion turbine expander (synonym for "PFB-NGT"). 1st-Generation PFBC -- Commercial PFBC technology where an unfired low-temperature (below 1650ºF) ruggedized turbine expander expands PFBC exhaust gases (synonym for "PFB-EGT"). 2nd-Generation PFBC (see synonyms: "APFBC," "PFB-CGT") -- Advanced PFBC where a carbonizer (mild gasifier) provides hot (about 1400ºF) coal-derived synthetic fuel gas to a special topping combustor. The carbonizer char is burned in the PFBC, and the PFBC exhaust is used as a hot (about 1400ºF) vitiated air supply for the topping combustor. The syngas and vitiated air are burned in a topping combustor to provide high-temperature gas (above 1700ºF) to a combustion turbine expander.

165

NETL: Combustion Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nebraska Public Power District's Sheldon Station with APFBC Technology Nebraska Public Power District's Sheldon Station with APFBC Technology FBC Repower APFBC AES Greenidge APFBC Dan River FBC, APFBC Four Corners CHIPPS H.F. Lee Products Summary Sheldon Summary APFBC Sheldon GFBCC Sheldon APFBC L.V. Sutton Contents: APFBC Repowering Project Summary Key Features Site Layout Performance Environmental Characteristics Cost Other Combustion Systems Repowering Study Links: A related study is underway that would repower Sheldon Unit 1 and Unit 2 with gasification fluidized-bed combined cycle technology (GFBCC). CLICK HERE to find out more about repowering the Sheldon station with GFBCC instead. APFBC Repowering Project Summary Click on picture to enlarge Advanced circulating pressurized fluidized-bed combustion combined cycle systems (APFBC) are systems with jetting-bed pressurized fluidized-bed (PFB) carbonizer/gasifier and circulating PFBC combustor. The PFB carbonizer and PFBC both operate at elevated pressures (10 to 30 times atmospheric pressure) to provide syngas for operating a gas turbine topping combustor giving high cycle energy efficiency. The remaining char from the PFB carbonizer is burned in the pressurized PFBC. The combustion gas from the PFB also feeds thermal energy to the gas turbine topping combustor. This provides combined cycle plant efficiency on coal by providing the opportunity to generate electricity using both high efficiency gas turbines and steam.

166

Stretch Efficiency for Combustion Engines: Exploiting New Combustion...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

boost. * H 2 enrichment extends lean limit, improves C p C v ratio, lowers cylinder heat loss, assists cold start, lowers combustion irreversibility. IC Engine Work Reformer...

167

CFD model for the simulation of chemical looping combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A chemical looping combustion (CLC) system uses a metal oxide solid carrier to combust a source of fuel in isolation from the source of oxygen which produces an exhaust gas of primarily carbon dioxide and water. In this work, a full three-dimensional model of a chemical looping combustion system was developed to simulate the particle–fluid hydrodynamics, thermal characteristics, and reaction efficiency of the CLC system using coal particles as a fuel source. Multiple heterogeneous and homogenous reactions are considered in the CLC model including the oxidation and reduction reactions of the metal oxide carrier and gasification reactions. Within each coal particle, the temperature-dependent devolatilization, moisture release, and particle swelling effects are included. Modeling results showing fluidization regimes, circulation rate, reactor efficiencies, and temperature profiles are presented to demonstrate the utility of the model.

James M. Parker

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Sandia National Laboratories: Diesel Combustion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Diesel Combustion Caterpillar, Sandia CRADA Opens Door to Multiple Research Projects On April 17, 2013, in Capabilities, Computational Modeling & Simulation, CRF, Materials...

169

Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

This revised ITP tip sheet on boiler combustion efficiency provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Municipal Waste Combustion (New Mexico)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This rule establishes requirements for emissions from, and design and operation of, municipal waste combustion units. "Municipal waste" means all materials and substances discarded from residential...

171

ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

are produced, generally, when insufficient oxygen or other factors result in incomplete combustion of organic matter (e.g., in engines and incinerators, when biomass burns in...

172

Numerical Modeling of HCCI Combustion  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Numerical Modeling of HCCI Combustion Salvador M. Aceves, Daniel L. Flowers, J. Ray Smith, Joel Martinez-Frias, Francisco Espinosa-Loza, Tim Ross, Bruce Buchholz, Nick...

173

Space shuttle based microgravity smoldering combustion experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

zone, and smolder heat of combustion (energy per unit massand Q is the smolder heat of combustion. The mass fluxes ofdata. The smolder heat of combustion is not well determined

Walther, David C; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos; Urban, David L

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Combustion Catalysts in Industry- An Update  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

applications of combustion catalysts for coal are presented. Combustion efficiency and calculations are discussed, followed by an explanation of the theories of combustion catalysis and a review of three case histories....

Merrell, G. A.; Knight, R. S.

175

Self-tuning regulators for combustion oscillations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...interaction of acoustic waves and combustion processes. An abundant literature...numerical simulations of the combustion processes and coupled fluid dynamics...nonlinear analysis of controlled combustion processes. In Proc. 1999 IEEE Int...

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

A thermodynamic analysis of alternative approaches to chemical looping combustion  

SciTech Connect

In this article, we review and clarify some of the points made by previous authors regarding chemical looping combustion (CLC). While much of the recent interest in chemical looping combustion has been associated with carbon sequestration, our primary interest here is its potential to increase the thermodynamic efficiency of converting fuel chemical energy into useful work. We expand on several points about the details of CLC that we feel have not previously been sufficiently explored, and suggest alternative (and possibly more practical) approaches that exploit some of the same thermodynamic concepts. We illustrate our key points with {First} and {Second} Law analyses of ideal conceptual processes, which in addition to {CLC} also include isothermal, non-equilibrium, preheated combustion and combustion with thermochemical recuperation. Our results suggest that a significant portion of the potential efficiency benefit of CLC might be achieved without the need to handle and transport large quantities of solid oxygen storage material. Exploitation of this fact may lead to higher efficiency approaches for power generation from hydrocarbon fuels combustion.

Chakravarthy, Veerathu K [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Investigation of a Canadian Ilmenite as an Oxygen Carrier for Chemical Looping Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CLC uses an oxygen carrier (OC), usually a metal oxide, to provide oxygen for combusting fuel without the presence of nitrogen from air. ... Chemical-Looping Combustion with NiO and Fe2O3 in a Thermobalance and Circulating Fluidized Bed Reactor with Double Loops ... Application of Fe2O3-Al2O3 Composite Particles as Solid Looping Material of the Chemical-Loop Combustor ...

Fang Liu; Yi Zhang; Liangyong Chen; Dali Qian; James K. Neathery; Saito Kozo; Kunlei Liu

2013-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

178

Ultrarich Filtration Combustion of Ethane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ultrarich filtration combustion of ethane is studied in a porous medium composed of alumina spheres with the aim to achieve optimized conversion to hydrogen and syngas. ... Dhamrat, R. S.; Ellzey, J. L.Numerical and experimental study of the conversion of methane to hydrogen in a porous media reactor Combust. ...

Mario Toledo; Khriscia Utria; Alexei V. Saveliev

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

179

Optimization of Advanced Diesel Engine Combustion Strategies...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Optimization of Advanced Diesel Engine Combustion Strategies Optimization of Advanced Diesel Engine Combustion Strategies 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual...

180

Advanced Combustion Concepts - Enabling Systems and Solutions...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

engine * Integration of proposed air path and HCCI combustion control strategies into ECU software * Prototype level 2 updates and proof of combustion concept for vehicle readiness...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brownish-black solid combustible" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Advanced Combustion Concepts - Enabling Systems and Solutions...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

engine installed and vehicle available for application, emission and fuel economy optimization with advanced combustion modes. 4 Advanced combustion control strategy, capable of...

182

Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24,...

183

Vehicle Technologies Office: Advanced Combustion Engines | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Batteries Fuel Efficiency & Emissions Combustion Engines Fuel Effects on Combustion Idle Reduction Emissions Waste Heat Recovery Lightweighting Parasitic Loss Reduction Lubricants...

184

Sandia Hydrogen Combustion Research | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Sandia Hydrogen Combustion Research Sandia Hydrogen Combustion Research Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review 2008 on February 25, 2008...

185

Integrated Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling using KH-ACT Primary Breakup Model & Detailed Chemistry Integrated Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling using KH-ACT Primary...

186

Spent Isopropanol Solution as Possible Liquid Fuel for Moving Bed Reactor in Chemical Looping Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Spent Isopropanol Solution as Possible Liquid Fuel for Moving Bed Reactor in Chemical Looping Combustion ... The fuels, such as natural gas, coal, petroleum coke, and biomass combusted by CLC are frequently studied by various researchers(17, 26-31) and compared in the previous studies;(20, 33) however, only few studies on liquid fuel combustion are reported. ... Ishida, M.; Takeshita, K.; Susuki, K.; Ohba, T..Application of Fe2O3-Al2O3 composite particles as solid looping material of the chemical loop combustor Energy Fuels 2005, 19, 2514– 2518 ...

Ping-Chin Chiu; Young Ku; Hsuan-Chih Wu; Yu-Lin Kuo; Yao-Hsuan Tseng

2013-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

187

CIRCULATING MOVING BED COMBUSTION PROOF OF CONCEPT  

SciTech Connect

Circulating Moving Bed (CMB) combustion technology has its roots in traditional circulating fluidized bed technology and involves a novel method of solid fuel combustion and heat transfer. CMB technology represents a step change in improved performance and cost relative to conventional PC and FBC boilers. The CMB heat exchanger preheats the energy cycle working fluid, steam or air, to the high temperature levels required in systems for advanced power generation. Unique features of the CMB are the reduction of the heat transfer surfaces by about 60% as a result of the enhanced heat transfer rates, flexibility of operation, and about 30% lower cost over existing technology. The CMB Phase I project ran from July 2001 through March 2003. Its objective was to continue development of the CMB technology with a series of proof of concept tests. The tests were conducted at a scale that provided design data for scale up to a demonstration plant. These objectives were met by conducting a series of experiments in ALSTOM Power’s Multi-use Test Facility (MTF). The MTF was modified to operate under CMB conditions of commercial interest. The objective of the tests were to evaluate gas-to-solids heat transfer in the upper furnace, assess agglomeration in the high temperature CMB bubbling bed, and evaluate solids-to-tube heat transfer in the moving bed heat exchanger. The Phase I program results showed that there are still some significant technical uncertainties that needed to be resolved before the technology can be confidently scaled up for a successful demonstration plant design. Work remained in three primary areas: • scale up of gas to solid heat transfer • high temperature finned surface design • the overall requirements of mechanical and process design. The CMB Phase II workscope built upon the results of Phase I and specifically addressed the remaining technical uncertainties. It included a scaled MTF heat transfer test to provide the necessary data to scale up gas-to-solids heat transfer. A stress test rig was built and tested to provide validation data for a stress model needed to support high temperature finned surface design. Additional cold flow model tests and MTF tests were conducted to address mechanical and process design issues. This information was then used to design and cost a commercial CMB design concept. Finally, the MBHE was reconfigured into a slice arrangement and tested for an extended duration at a commercial CFB plant.

Jukkola, Glen

2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

188

Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping  

SciTech Connect

For the past several years Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), a leading world-wide power system manufacturer and supplier, has been in the initial stages of developing an entirely new, ultra-clean, low cost, high efficiency power plant for the global power market. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion-gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology The process consists of the oxidation, reduction, carbonation, and calcination of calcium-based compounds, which chemically react with coal, biomass, or opportunity fuels in two chemical loops and one thermal loop. The chemical and thermal looping technology can be alternatively configured as (i) a combustion-based steam power plant with CO{sub 2} capture, (ii) a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas for gas turbines or fuel cells, or (iii) an integrated hybrid combustion-gasification process producing hydrogen for gas turbines, fuel cells or other hydrogen based applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. In its most advanced configuration, this new concept offers the promise to become the technology link from today's Rankine cycle steam power plants to tomorrow's advanced energy plants. The objective of this work is to develop and verify the high temperature chemical and thermal looping process concept at a small-scale pilot facility in order to enable AL to design, construct and demonstrate a pre-commercial, prototype version of this advanced system. In support of this objective, Alstom and DOE started a multi-year program, under this contract. Before the contract started, in a preliminary phase (Phase 0) Alstom funded and built the required small-scale pilot facility (Process Development Unit, PDU) at its Power Plant Laboratories in Windsor, Connecticut. Construction was completed in calendar year 2003. The objective for Phase I was to develop the indirect combustion loop with CO{sub 2} separation, and also syngas production from coal with the calcium sulfide (CaS)/calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}) loop utilizing the PDU facility. The results of Phase I were reported in Reference 1, 'Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping Coal Power Development Technology Development Phase I Report' The objective for Phase II was to develop the carbonate loop--lime (CaO)/calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) loop, integrate it with the gasification loop from Phase I, and ultimately demonstrate the feasibility of hydrogen production from the combined loops. The results of this program were reported in Reference 3, 'Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping Coal Power Development Technology Development Phase II Report'. The objective of Phase III is to operate the pilot plant to obtain enough engineering information to design a prototype of the commercial Chemical Looping concept. The activities include modifications to the Phase II Chemical Looping PDU, solids transportation studies, control and instrumentation studies and additional cold flow modeling. The deliverable is a report making recommendations for preliminary design guidelines for the prototype plant, results from the pilot plant testing and an update of the commercial plant economic estimates.

Herbert Andrus; Gregory Burns; John Chiu; Gregory Lijedahl; Peter Stromberg; Paul Thibeault

2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

189

Combustion of viscous hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for utilizing viscous hydrocarbons as combustible pre-atomized fuels, comprising: (A) forming a hydrocarbon-in-water emulsion using an effective amount of a surfactant package comprising at least one water-soluble surfactant, the hydrocarbon-in-water emulsion (1) comprising a hydrocarbon characterized by API gravity of about 20/sup 0/ API or less, viscosity of about 1000 centipoise or greater at 212/sup 0/F., a paraffin content of about 50% by weight or less and, an aromatic content of about 15% by weight or greater, and (2) having a hydrocarbon water ratio from about 60:40 to about 90:10 by volume; and (B) burning the resultant hydrocarbon-in-water emulsion.

Hayes, M.E.; Hrebenar, K.R.; Murphy, P.L.; Futch, L.E. Jr.; Deal, J.F. III; Bolden, P.L. Jr.

1987-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

190

Combustion of viscous hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for utilizing viscous hydrocarbons as combustible fuels comprising: (A) forming a hydrocarbosol using a surfactant package in a proportion of about 1:100 to about 1:20,000 by weight based on hydrocarbon, (1) the surfactant package comprising (a) at least one water-soluble surfactant, an effective amount of which surfactant promotes emulsification of a hydrocarbon with API gravity of about 20/sup 0//sup o/ API or less; and (b) at least one water-soluble bioemulsifier, being a microboally-derived substance which predominantly resides at hydrocarbon/water interfaces to substantially surround hydrocarbon droplets in hydrocarbon-in-water emulsions; (2) the hydrocarbosol (a) comprising a hydrocarbon characterized by an API gravity of about 20/sup 0//sup o/ API or less; (b) having a hydrocarbon:water ratio of about 70:30 by volume; and (B) burning the resultant hydrocarbosol.

Hayes, M.E.; Hrebenar, K.R.; Murphy, P.L.; Futch, L.E. Jr.; Deal, J.F. III

1986-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

191

NETL: Combustion Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gas Turbines for APFBC Gas Turbines for APFBC FBC Repower Simple Description Detailed Description APFBC Specs GTs for APFBC Suited for Repowering Existing Power Plants with Advanced Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combined Cycles APFBC combined cycles have high energy efficiency levels because they use modern, high-temperature, high-efficiency gas turbines as the core of a combined power cycle. This web page discusses a current U.S. Department of Energy project that is evaluating combustion turbines suited for repowering existing steam plants. The natural-gas-fueled version of the Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation W501F. Modified versions of this gas turbine core are suited for operating in APFBC power plants. Contents: Introduction APFBC Repowering Considerations

192

Alternative Solid Fuel Production from Paper Sludge Employing Hydrothermal Treatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Then, the treatment condition was achieved by injecting a saturated steam generated by a fire-tube boiler fueled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). ... From the lab-scale solid fuel production process, the dried solid input was 24% (moisture content 76%), and 22.7% dried solid fuel was recovered accounting 94.6% of fuel recovery. ... Drier fuels resulted in fuel-rich combustion and higher CO concn. ...

Chinnathan Areeprasert; Peitao Zhao; Dachao Ma; Yafei Shen; Kunio Yoshikawa

2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

193

Solid waste disposal options: an optimum disposal model for the management of municipal solid waste  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and compostable material was generally burned in backyards. In 1970, the Clean Air Act was passed restricting the burning of leaves and other yard waste. ' These wastes were then disposed in landfills. As landfills reached capacity, commu- nities composted... separation pro- grams because of their "throw-away" mentality. " ~ln in r ttgtt Incineration is the controlled burning of the combustible fraction of solid waste. The first electrical generating station in the United States that was fueled by solid waste...

Haney, Brenda Ann

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

194

Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Applied low temperature combustion to the Navistar 6.4L V8 engine with 0.2g NOx/bhp-hr operation attained at the rated 16.5 BMEP

195

Modeling of Combustion Processes in Internal Combustion Engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Improving internal combustion engines (ICE) and increasing the quality of operation are linked with the necessity of maximally increasing the degree of compression. For ICE with spark ignition (otto cycle), th...

V. A. Vinokurov; V. A. Kaminskii; V. A. Frost…

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Some recent advances in droplet combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper reviews the theoretical and experimental advances in droplet combustion since the 1982 Second International Colloquium on Drops and Bubbles. Specific topics discussed include multicomponent droplet combustion and microexplosion convection droplet combustion the combustion of slurries propellants and hazardous wastes soot formation in droplet burning and several miscellaneous subjects. Areas of further research are suggested.

C. K. Law

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Staged Combustion of Pulverized Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The emissions of nitrogen oxides are much higher with the combustion of fossil fuels containing organic bound nitrogen compounds than with clean fuels like natural gas and light distillate oil. During combusti...

H. Kremer; R. Mechenbier; W. Schulz

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

fuel efficiency over the FTP city drive cycle by 10.5% over today's state-of-the-art diesel engine. Develop & design an advanced combustion system that synergistically meets...

199

Chemical Kinetics of Combustion Processes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Combustion Processes Hai Wang B. Yang, J. Camacho, S. Lieb, S. Memarzadeh, S.-K. Gao and S. Koumlis University of Southern California 2010 CEFRC Conference Benzene + O( 3 P) ...

200

Plum Combustion | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Plum Combustion Plum Combustion Jump to: navigation, search Name Plum Combustion Place Atlanta, Georgia Product Combustion technology, which reduces NOx-emissions. Coordinates 33.748315°, -84.391109° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":33.748315,"lon":-84.391109,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brownish-black solid combustible" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Experimental investigation of wood combustion in a fixed bed with hot air  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: • Upward combustion is a new combustion concept with ignition by hot primary air. • Upward combustion has three stages: short drying, rapid devolatilization and char combustion. • Variation of fuel moisture and inert content have little influence on the combustion. • Experimental comparison between conventional and upward combustion is presented. - Abstract: Waste combustion on a grate with energy recovery is an important pillar of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in the Netherlands. In MSW incinerators fresh waste stacked on a grate enters the combustion chamber, heats up by radiation from the flame above the layer and ignition occurs. Typically, the reaction zone starts at the top of the waste layer and propagates downwards, producing heat for drying and devolatilization of the fresh waste below it until the ignition front reaches the grate. The control of this process is mainly based on empiricism. MSW is a highly inhomogeneous fuel with continuous fluctuating moisture content, heating value and chemical composition. The resulting process fluctuations may cause process control difficulties, fouling and corrosion issues, extra maintenance, and unplanned stops. In the new concept the fuel layer is ignited by means of preheated air (T > 220 °C) from below without any external ignition source. As a result a combustion front will be formed close to the grate and will propagate upwards. That is why this approach is denoted by upward combustion. Experimental research has been carried out in a batch reactor with height of 4.55 m, an inner diameter of 200 mm and a fuel layer height up to 1 m. Due to a high quality two-layer insulation adiabatic conditions can be assumed. The primary air can be preheated up to 350 °C, and the secondary air is distributed via nozzles above the waste layer. During the experiments, temperatures along the height of the reactor, gas composition and total weight decrease are continuously monitored. The influence of the primary air speed, fuel moisture and inert content on the combustion characteristics (ignition rate, combustion rate, ignition front speed and temperature of the reaction zone) is evaluated. The upward combustion concept decouples the drying, devolatilization and burnout phase. In this way the moisture and inert content of the waste have almost no influence on the combustion process. In this paper an experimental comparison between conventional and reversed combustion is presented.

Markovic, Miladin, E-mail: m.markovic@utwente.nl; Bramer, Eddy A.; Brem, Gerrit

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

202

EMSL - solids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

solids en Iodine Solubility in Low-Activity Waste Borosilicate Glass at 1000 °C. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublicationsiodine-solubility-low-activity-waste-borosilicate-...

203

Combustion method for simultaneous control of nitrogen oxides and products of incomplete combustion  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for combusting material with controlled generation of both nitrogen oxides and products of incomplete combustion comprising: (A) combusting material in a first combustion zone to produce gaseous exhaust containing products of incomplete combustion and products of complete combustion; (B) passing the gaseous exhaust from the first combustion zone into a second combustion zone having a width and an axial direction; (C) injecting through a lance with an orientation substantially parallel to said axial direction at least one stream of oxidant, without fuel, having a diameter less than 1/100 of the width of the second combustion zone and having an oxygen concentration of at least 30% into the second combustion zone at a high velocity of at least 300 feet per second; (D) aspirating products of incomplete combustion into the high velocity oxidant; (E) combusting products of incomplete combustion aspirated into the high velocity oxidant with high velocity oxidant within the second combustion zone to carry out a stable combustion by the mixing of the aspirated products of incomplete combustion with the high velocity oxidant; and (F) spreading out the combustion reaction by aspiration of products of complete combustion into the oxidant, said products of complete combustion also serving as a heat sink, to inhibit NO[sub x] formation.

Ho, Min-Da.

1993-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

204

Particle Characterisation in Chemical Looping Combustion with Solid Fuels.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??It is well known that carbon dioxide (CO2) is a greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming. Nowadays, a third of the worldwide anthropogenic CO2… (more)

Sim, Chern Yean

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Complex analysis of energy production technologies from solid biomass in the Ukraine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The results of the energetic, economic, and environmental analyses of technologies of energy production from solid biomass are considered. Examples of the introduction of the technology of the direct combustion o...

T. A. Zheliezna; O. I. Drozdova

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Particulate emissions from combustion of biomass in conventional combustion (air) and oxy-combustion conditions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Oxy-fuel combustion is a viable technology for new and existing coal-fired power plants, as it facilitates carbon capture and thereby, can reduce carbon dioxide emissions.… (more)

Ruscio, Amanda

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Advanced High Efficiency Clean Diesel Combustion with Low Cost...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Efficiency Clean Diesel Combustion with Low Cost for Hybrid Engines Advanced High Efficiency Clean Diesel Combustion with Low Cost for Hybrid Engines Clean, in-cylinder combustion...

208

Low-Temperature Automotive Diesel Combustion | Department of...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

in Low Temperature Automotive Diesel Combustion Systems Mixture Formation in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion Experiments...

209

Oxy-Combustion CO2 Control | netl.doe.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Combustion Oxy-Combustion Chemical Looping Combustion Program Plan Project Portfolio Project Information POSTED January 27, 2015 - Funding Opportunity Announcement DE-FOA-...

210

PARAMETRIC STUDY OF SUBMICRON PARTICULATES FROM PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

D. , Trace Element Chemistry of Coal during Combustion andthe Emissions from Coal-Fired Plants. Prog. Energy Combust.Combustion of Pulverized Coal, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

Pennucci, J.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency...

212

A cycle simulation of coal particle fueled reciprocating internal-combustion engines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- Summary of Experimental Diesel Engine Operation on Solid Coal Fuels Page Table 2 - Property Data for Coal (Char) Particles . . 23 Table 3 - Summary of the Combustion Model and Reaction Constants 40 Table 4 ? Specifications of the Base Case Engine... Efforts The first attempt to operate a solid particle fueled piston engine was performed nearly a century ago by Rudolf Diesel, inventor of the compression-ignition engine. Since then, at least a dozen separate attempts to oper- ate diesel engines...

Rosegay, Kenneth Harold

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

213

The Effects of Ethanol/Gasoline Blends on Advanced Combustion Strategies in Internal Combustion Engines.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This dissertation presents the effects of blending ethanol with gasoline on advanced combustion strategies in internal combustion engines. The unique chemical, physical and thermal properties… (more)

Fatouraie, Mohammad

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure.

Oppenheim, Antoni K. (Kensington, CA); Maxson, James A. (Berkeley, CA); Hensinger, David M. (Albany, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

EstablishmEnt EstablishmEnt of an EnvironmEntal Control tEChnology laboratory with a CirCulating fluidizEd-bEd Combustion systEm Description In response to President Bush's Clear Skies Initiative in 2002-a legislative proposal to control the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), and mercury (Hg) from power plants-the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) organized a Combustion Technology University Alliance and hosted a Solid Fuel Combustion Technology Alliance Workshop. The workshop identified four high- priority research needs for controlling emissions from fossil-fueled power plants: multipollutant control, improved sorbents and catalysts, mercury monitoring and capture, and an improved understanding of the underlying combustion chemistry.

216

Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium  

SciTech Connect

The Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) program was developed as a focused program to remove and/or minimize the barriers for effective management of over 123 million tons of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) annually generated in the USA. At the time of launching the CBRC in 1998, about 25% of CCBs were beneficially utilized while the remaining was disposed in on-site or off-site landfills. During the ten (10) year tenure of CBRC (1998-2008), after a critical review, 52 projects were funded nationwide. By region, the East, Midwest, and West had 21, 18, and 13 projects funded, respectively. Almost all projects were cooperative projects involving industry, government, and academia. The CBRC projects, to a large extent, successfully addressed the problems of large-scale utilization of CCBs. A few projects, such as the two Eastern Region projects that addressed the use of fly ash in foundry applications, might be thought of as a somewhat smaller application in comparison to construction and agricultural uses, but as a novel niche use, they set the stage to draw interest that fly ash substitution for Portland cement might not attract. With consideration of the large increase in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in response to EPA regulations, agricultural uses of FGD gypsum hold promise for large-scale uses of a product currently directed to the (currently stagnant) home construction market. Outstanding achievements of the program are: (1) The CBRC successfully enhanced professional expertise in the area of CCBs throughout the nation. The enhanced capacity continues to provide technology and information transfer expertise to industry and regulatory agencies. (2) Several technologies were developed that can be used immediately. These include: (a) Use of CCBs for road base and sub-base applications; (b) full-depth, in situ stabilization of gravel roads or highway/pavement construction recycled materials; and (c) fired bricks containing up to 30%-40% F-fly ash. Some developed technologies have similar potential in the longer term. (3) Laboratory studies have been completed that indicate that much higher amounts of fly ash could be added in cement-concrete applications under some circumstances. This could significantly increase use of fly ash in cement-concrete applications. (4) A study of the long-term environmental effects of structural fills in a surface mine in Indiana was completed. This study has provided much sought after data for permitting large-volume management options in both beneficial as well as non-beneficial use settings. (5) The impact of CBRC on CCBs utilization trends is difficult to quantify. However it is fair to say that the CBRC program had a significant positive impact on increased utilization of CCBs in every region of the USA. Today, the overall utilization of CCBs is over 43%. (6) CBRC-developed knowledge base led to a large number of other projects completed with support from other sources of funding. (7) CBRC research has also had a large impact on CCBs management across the globe. Information transfer activities and visitors from leading coal producing countries such as South Africa, Australia, England, India, China, Poland, Czech Republic and Japan are truly noteworthy. (8) Overall, the CBRC has been a truly successful, cooperative research program. It has brought together researchers, industry, government, and regulators to deal with a major problem facing the USA and other coal producing countries in the world.

Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

217

Development of Iron Oxide Carriers for Chemical Looping Combustion Using Sol?Gel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Development of Iron Oxide Carriers for Chemical Looping Combustion Using Sol?Gel ... Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research (2008), 47 (6), 1747-1754 CODEN: IECRED; ISSN:0888-5885. ... Ishida, M.; Takeshita, K.; Suzuki, K.; Ohba, T. Application of FeO?AlO composite particles as solid looping material of the chemical-loop combustor Energy Fuels 2005, 19, 2514– 2518 ...

A. M. Kierzkowska; C. D. Bohn; S. A. Scott; J. P. Cleeton; J. S. Dennis; C. R. Müller

2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

218

REACTION AND COMBUSTION INDICATORS IN MSW LANDFILLS Jeffrey W. Martin1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

REACTION AND COMBUSTION INDICATORS IN MSW LANDFILLS Jeffrey W. Martin1 ,P.G., R.S., Timothy D, Ohio. ABSTRACT Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills may contain aluminum from residential, particularly aluminum production wastes, may react exothermically with liquid within a landfill and cause

219

Computational Fluid Dynamics Evaluation of Good Combustion Performance in Waste Incinerators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a legal requirement to minimize pollution in municipal solid waste incinerators. The conditions for in-furnace destruction of pollutants are stated as: good combustion is achieved when 2-second gas residence time at 850 C of potential pollutants. The residence time needs to be carefully determined based on the gas inlet position

Kim, Yong Jung

220

Turbulent Combustion in SDF Explosions  

SciTech Connect

A heterogeneous continuum model is proposed to describe the dispersion and combustion of an aluminum particle cloud in an explosion. It combines the gas-dynamic conservation laws for the gas phase with a continuum model for the dispersed phase, as formulated by Nigmatulin. Inter-phase mass, momentum and energy exchange are prescribed by phenomenological models. It incorporates a combustion model based on the mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gasdynamic fields, along with a model for mass transfer from the particle phase to the gas. The model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the C-4 booster with air, and the combustion of the Al particles with air. The model equations were integrated by high-order Godunov schemes for both the gas and particle phases. Numerical simulations of the explosion fields from 1.5-g Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) charge in a 6.6 liter calorimeter were used to validate the combustion model. Then the model was applied to 10-kg Al-SDF explosions in a an unconfined height-of-burst explosion. Computed pressure histories are compared with measured waveforms. Differences are caused by physical-chemical kinetic effects of particle combustion which induce ignition delays in the initial reactive blast wave and quenching of reactions at late times. Current simulations give initial insights into such modeling issues.

Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E

2009-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brownish-black solid combustible" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

HCCI Combustion: Analysis and Experiments  

SciTech Connect

Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a new combustion technology that may develop as an alternative to diesel engines with high efficiency and low NOx and particulate matter emissions. This paper describes the HCCI research activities being currently pursued at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and at the University of California Berkeley. Current activities include analysis as well as experimental work. On analysis, we have developed two powerful tools: a single zone model and a multi-zone model. The single zone model has proven very successful in predicting start of combustion and providing reasonable estimates for peak cylinder pressure, indicated efficiency and NOX emissions. This model is being applied to develop detailed engine performance maps and control strategies, and to analyze the problem of engine startability. The multi-zone model is capable of very accurate predictions of the combustion process, including HC and CO emissions. The multi-zone model h as applicability to the optimization of combustion chamber geometry and operating conditions to achieve controlled combustion at high efficiency and low emissions. On experimental work, we have done a thorough evaluation of operating conditions in a 4-cylinder Volkswagen TDI engine. The engine has been operated over a wide range of conditions by adjusting the intake temperature and the fuel flow rate. Satisfactory operation has been obtained over a wide range of operating conditions. Cylinder-to-cylinder variations play an important role in limiting maximum power, and should be controlled to achieve satisfactory performance.

Salvador M. Aceves; Daniel L. Flowers; Joel Martinez-Frias; J. Ray Smith; Robert Dibble; Michael Au; James Girard

2001-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

222

Kinetics of Magnetite (Fe3O4) Oxidation to Hematite (Fe2O3) in Air for Chemical Looping Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Rui, X.; Qilei, S.; Min, S.; Zuoji, L.; Shuai, Z.; Laihong, S.Pressurized chemical-looping combustion of coal with an iron ore-based oxygen carrier Combust. ... Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research (2013), 52 (42), 14808-14816 CODEN: IECRED; ISSN:0888-5885. ... Application of Fe2O3-Al2O3 Composite Particles as Solid Looping Material of the Chemical-Loop Combustor ...

Esmail R. Monazam; Ronald W. Breault; Ranjani Siriwardane

2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

223

Major research topics in combustion  

SciTech Connect

The Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE) and NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) hosted a workshop on October 2--4, 1989 to discuss some combustion problems of technological interest to LaRC and to foster interaction with the academic community in these research areas. The topics chosen for this purpose were flame structure, flame holding/extinction, chemical kinetics, turbulence-kinetics interaction, transition to detonation, and reacting free shear layers. This document contains the papers and edited versions of general discussions on these topics. The lead paper set the stage for the meeting by discussing the status and issues of supersonic combustion relevant to the scramjet engine. Experts were then called upon to review the current knowledge in the aforementioned areas, to focus on how this knowledge can be extended and applied to high-speed combustion, and to suggest future directions of research in these areas.

Hussaini, M.Y.; Kumar, A.; Voigt, R.G. (eds.)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Natural Ores as Oxygen Carriers in Chemical Looping Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Natural Ores as Oxygen Carriers in Chemical Looping Combustion ... Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology that utilizes oxygen from oxygen carriers (OC), such as metal oxides, instead of air to combust fuels. ...

Hanjing Tian; Ranjani Siriwardane; Thomas Simonyi; James Poston

2013-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

225

Combustion heater for oil shale  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

1983-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

226

Combustion heater for oil shale  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA); Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Chemical kinetics and combustion modeling  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this program is to gain qualitative insight into how pollutants are formed in combustion systems and to develop quantitative mathematical models to predict their formation rates. The approach is an integrated one, combining low-pressure flame experiments, chemical kinetics modeling, theory, and kinetics experiments to gain as clear a picture as possible of the process in question. These efforts are focused on problems involved with the nitrogen chemistry of combustion systems and on the formation of soot and PAH in flames.

Miller, J.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Combustion synthesis method and products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method of producing dense refractory products, comprising: (a) obtaining a quantity of exoergic material in powder form capable of sustaining a combustion synthesis reaction; (b) removing absorbed water vapor therefrom; (c) cold-pressing said material into a formed body; (d) plasma spraying said formed body with a molten exoergic material to form a coat thereon; and (e) igniting said exoergic coated formed body under an inert gas atmosphere and pressure to produce self-sustained combustion synthesis. Also disclosed are products produced by the method.

Holt, J.B.; Kelly, M.

1993-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

229

Combustion synthesis method and products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method of producing dense refractory products, comprising: (a) obtaining a quantity of exoergic material in powder form capable of sustaining a combustion synthesis reaction; (b) removing absorbed water vapor therefrom; (c) cold-pressing said material into a formed body; (d) plasma spraying said formed body with a molten exoergic material to form a coat thereon; and (e) igniting said exoergic coated formed body under an inert gas atmosphere and pressure to produce self-sustained combustion synthesis. Also disclosed are products produced by the method.

Holt, J. Birch (San Jose, CA); Kelly, Michael (West Alexandria, OH)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Engine Combustion Network Experimental Data  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Maintained by the Engine Combustion Department of Sandia National Laboratories, data currently available on the website includes reacting and non-reacting sprays in a constant-volume chamber at conditions typical of diesel combustion. The data are useful for model development and validation because of the well-defined boundary conditions and the wide range of conditions employed. A search utility displays data based on experimental conditions such as ambient temperature, ambient density, injection pressure, nozzle size, fuel, etc. Experiment-related visualizations are also available. The search utility for experimental data is located at http://public.ca.sandia.gov/ecn/cvdata/frameset.html (Specialized Interface)

231

Transonic Combustion Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Transonic Combustion Inc Transonic Combustion Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Transonic Combustion, Inc. Place Camarillo, California Zip CA 93012 Sector Efficiency, Renewable Energy Product Transonic Combustion, Inc. is a US based research & development company focused on developing ultra-high efficiency automotive engines that run on gasoline and bio-renewable flex fuels. References Transonic Combustion, Inc.[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Transonic Combustion, Inc. is a company located in Camarillo, California . References ↑ "Transonic Combustion, Inc." Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Transonic_Combustion_Inc&oldid=352376

232

Biomass Combustion: Carbon Capture and Storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter deals with the capture and storage of carbon dioxide produced by the combustion of biomass. Since biomass combustion is potentially carbon neutral, this technique could provide a method of reducing t...

Jenny M. Jones; Amanda R. Lea-Langton…

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Coal Characterization in Relation to Coal Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Most coals are used worldwide for combustion today. Generally all kinds of coals are applicable for combustion. The major methods of burning are fixed bed firing, fluidized bed firing and suspension firing. Th...

Harald Jüntgen

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Practical Use of Coal Combustion Research  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Laboratory measurements of coal rapid pyrolysis char yield and char reactivity, together with a simple model of pulverized coal combustion, have been used to predict coal combustion efficiency in utility boile...

P. T. Roberts; C. Morley

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Emissions and Heat Transfer in Combustion Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A variety of combustion systems that employ turbulent diffusion combustion have been major sources of air pollutants such as NOx, particulates and hydrocarbons in spite of their high thermal efficiency compare...

Y. Daisho

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Simulation of lean premixed turbulent combustion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

combustion systems that can burn fuels such as hydrogen or syngas.syngas, which is obtained from coal gasi?cation. E?ective utilization of these fuels requires combustion

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Volatile Organic Compounds — Emissions from Biomass Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) from biomass combustion have been investigated. VOC contribute both to ... 0.5–10 MW. A variety of biomass fuel types and combustion equipment was covered. The su...

Lennart Gustavsson; Mats-Lennart Karlsson

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Fuel Modification t Facilitate Future Combustion Regimes? | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Modification t Facilitate Future Combustion Regimes? Fuel Modification t Facilitate Future Combustion Regimes? 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference...

239

Modeling of HCCI and PCCI Combustion Processes  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

combustion timing control - Startup - Fuel air ratio measurement and control - Low Power Density - Hydrocarbon and CO emissions Approach: Fundamental and...

240

Oxy-combustion Boiler Material Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxy-combustion Boiler Material Oxy-combustion Boiler Material Development Background In an oxy-combustion system, combustion air (79 percent nitrogen, 21 percent oxygen) is replaced by oxygen and recycled flue gas (carbon dioxide [CO 2 ] and water), eliminating nitrogen in the flue gas stream. When applied to an existing boiler, the flue gas recirculation rate is adjusted to enable the boiler to maintain its original air-fired heat absorption performance, eliminating the need to derate the boiler

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brownish-black solid combustible" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Polymer combustion: effects of flame emissivity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...gas phase. Polymer combustion chemistry is modelled...investigating polymer combustion it has proven advantageous...properties and treat the heat flux from the ignition...luminous flames from hydrocarbon fuels, it is common...A (1999) Polymer combustion: effects of flame emissivity...

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Fundamental Study of Single Biomass Particle Combustion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fundamental Study of Single Biomass Particle Combustion Maryam Momeni #12;Fundamental Study of Single Biomass Particle Combustion Maryam Momeni Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of Engineering Fundamental Study of Single Biomass Particle Combustion This thesis is a comprehensive study of single biomass

Berning, Torsten

243

Investigation of Gasification Chemical Looping Combustion Combined Cycle Performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Combining CLC with a gas turbine combined cycle offers a novel power generation technique with high efficiency and CO2 separation. ... Here, we have developed looping materials based on the integration of NiO, as solid reactants, with a composite metal oxide of NiAl2O4, as a binder, leading to a significant role in improving reaction rate, conversion, and regenerability in cyclic reaction in this combustor, compared with the other materials. ... Chemical looping combustion for combined cycles with CO2 capture. ...

Wenguo Xiang; Sha Wang; Tengteng Di

2008-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

244

Method of combustion for dual fuel engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and a method of introducing a primary fuel, which may be a coal water slurry, and a high combustion auxiliary fuel, which may be a conventional diesel oil, into an internal combustion diesel engine comprises detecting the load conditions of the engine, determining the amount of time prior to the top dead center position of the piston to inject the main fuel into the combustion chamber, and determining the relationship of the timing of the injection of the auxiliary fuel into the combustion chamber to achieve a predetermined specific fuel consumption, a predetermined combustion efficiency, and a predetermined peak cylinder firing pressure. 19 figures.

Hsu, B.D.; Confer, G.L.; Zujing Shen; Hapeman, M.J.; Flynn, P.L.

1993-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

245

Method of combustion for dual fuel engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and a method of introducing a primary fuel, which may be a coal water slutty, and a high combustion auxiliary fuel, which may be a conventional diesel oil, into an internal combustion diesel engine comprises detecting the load conditions of the engine, determining the amount of time prior to the top dead center position of the piston to inject the main fuel into the combustion chamber, and determining the relationship of the timing of the injection of the auxiliary fuel into the combustion chamber to achieve a predetermined specific fuel consumption, a predetermined combustion efficiency, and a predetermined peak cylinder firing pressure.

Hsu, Bertrand D. (Erie, PA); Confer, Gregory L. (Erie, PA); Shen, Zujing (Erie, PA); Hapeman, Martin J. (Edinboro, PA); Flynn, Paul L. (Fairview, PA)

1993-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

246

Modeling of Laser-Induced Metal Combustion  

SciTech Connect

Experiments involving the interaction of a high-power laser beam with metal targets demonstrate that combustion plays an important role. This process depends on reactions within an oxide layer, together with oxygenation and removal of this layer by the wind. We present an analytical model of laser-induced combustion. The model predicts the threshold for initiation of combustion, the growth of the combustion layer with time, and the threshold for self-supported combustion. Solutions are compared with detailed numerical modeling as benchmarked by laboratory experiments.

Boley, C D; Rubenchik, A M

2008-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

247

Solid fuel applications to transportation engines  

SciTech Connect

The utilization of solid fuels as alternatives to liquid fuels for future transportation engines is reviewed. Alternative liquid fuels will not be addressed nor will petroleum/solid fuel blends except for the case of diesel engines. With respect to diesel engines, coal/oil mixtures will be addressed because of the high interest in this specific application as a result of the large number of diesel engines currently in transportation use. Final assessments refer to solid fuels only for diesel engines. The technical assessments of solid fuels utilization for transportation engines is summarized: solid fuel combustion in transportation engines is in a non-developed state; highway transportation is not amenable to solid fuels utilization due to severe environmental, packaging, control, and disposal problems; diesel and open-cycle gas turbines do not appear worthy of further development, although coal/oil mixtures for slow speed diesels may offer some promise as a transition technology; closed-cycle gas turbines show some promise for solid fuels utilization for limited applications as does the Stirling engine for use of cleaner solid fuels; Rankine cycle engines show good potential for limited applications, such as for locomotives and ships; and any development program will require large resources and sophisticated equipment in order to advance the state-of-the-art.

Not Available

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Measurement and simulation of swirling coal combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Particle image velocimetry (PIV), thermocouples and flue gas analyzer are used to study swirling coal combustion and NO formation under different secondary-air ratios. Eulerian–Lagrangian large-eddy simulation (LES) using the Smagorinsky–Lilly sub-grid scale stress model, presumed-PDF fast chemistry and eddy-break-up (EBU) gas combustion models, particle devolatilization and particle combustion models, are simultaneously used to simulate swirling coal combustion. Statistical LES results are validated by measurement results. Instantaneous LES results show that the coherent structures for swirling coal combustion are stronger than those for swirling gas combustion. Particles are shown to concentrate along the periphery of the coherent structures. Combustion flame is located in the high vorticity and high particle concentration zones. Measurement shows that secondary-air ratios have little effect on final NO formation at the exit of the combustor.

Liyuan Hu; Lixing Zhou; Yonghao Luo; Caisong Xu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Momentum, energy and scalar transport in polydisperse gas-solid flows using particle-resolved direct numerical simulations.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Gas-solid flows are commonly encountered in Nature and in several industrial applications. Emerging carbon-neutral or carbon negative technologies such as chemical looping combustion and CO2… (more)

Tenneti, Sudheer

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Soil stabilization using oil-shale solid waste  

SciTech Connect

Oil-shale solid wastes are evaluated for use as soil stabilizers. A laboratory study consisted of the following tests on compacted samples of soil treated with water and spent oil shale: unconfined compressive strength, moisture-density relationships, wet-dry and freeze-thaw durability, and resilient modulus. Significant increases in strength, durability, and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a silty sand with combusted western oil shale. Moderate increases in durability and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a highly plastic clay with combusted western oil shale. Solid waste from eastern oil shale appears to be feasible for soil stabilization only if limestone is added during combustion. Testing methods, results, and recommendations for mix design of spent shale-stabilized pavement subgrades are presented and the mechanisms of spent-shale cementation are discussed.

Turner, J.P. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Civil and Archeological Engineering)

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Evaluation of reaction mechanism of coal-metal oxide interactions in chemical-looping combustion  

SciTech Connect

The knowledge of reaction mechanism is very important in designing reactors for chemical-looping combustion (CLC) of coal. Recent CLC studies have considered the more technically difficult problem of reactions between abundant solid fuels (i.e. coal and waste streams) and solid metal oxides. A definitive reaction mechanism has not been reported for CLC reaction of solid fuels. It has often been assumed that the solid/solid reaction is slow and therefore requires that reactions be conducted at temperatures high enough to gasify the solid fuel, or decompose the metal oxide. In contrast, data presented in this paper demonstrates that solid/solid reactions can be completed at much lower temperatures, with rates that are technically useful as long as adequate fuel/metal oxide contact is achieved. Density functional theory (DFT) simulations as well as experimental techniques such as thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), flow reactor studies, in situ X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS), in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to evaluate how the proximal interaction between solid phases proceeds. The data indicate that carbon induces the Cu-O bond breaking process to initiate the combustion of carbon at temperatures significantly lower than the spontaneous decomposition temperature of CuO, and the type of reducing medium in the vicinity of the metal oxide influences the temperature at which the oxygen release from the metal oxide takes place. Surface melting of Cu and wetting of carbon may contribute to the solid-solid contacts necessary for the reaction. (author)

Siriwardane, Ranjani; Richards, George; Poston, James [US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, 3610 Collins Ferry Road, P.O. Box 880, Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 (United States); Tian, Hanjing; Miller, Duane; Simonyi, Thomas [US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, 3610 Collins Ferry Road, P.O. Box 880, Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 (United States); URS, 3610 Collins Ferry Road, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

252

Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives  

SciTech Connect

This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

Not Available

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Cover and startup gas supply system for solid oxide fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cover and startup gas supply system for a solid oxide fuel cell power generator is disclosed. Hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas or diesel fuel, and oxygen-containing gas are supplied to a burner. Combustion gas exiting the burner is cooled prior to delivery to the solid oxide fuel cell. The system mixes the combusted hydrocarbon fuel constituents with hydrogen which is preferably stored in solid form to obtain a non-explosive gas mixture. The system may be used to provide both non-explosive cover gas and hydrogen-rich startup gas to the fuel cell.

Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); George, Raymond A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Cover and startup gas supply system for solid oxide fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cover and startup gas supply system for a solid oxide fuel cell power generator is disclosed. Hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas or diesel fuel, and oxygen-containing gas are supplied to a burner. Combustion gas exiting the burner is cooled prior to delivery to the solid oxide fuel cell. The system mixes the combusted hydrocarbon fuel constituents with hydrogen which is preferably stored in solid form to obtain a non-explosive gas mixture. The system may be used to provide both non-explosive cover gas and hydrogen-rich startup gas to the fuel cell. 4 figs.

Singh, P.; George, R.A.

1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

255

Combustion synthesis continuous flow reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a reactor for combustion synthesis of inorganic powders. The reactor includes a reaction vessel having a length and a first end and a second end. The reaction vessel further has a solution inlet and a carrier gas inlet. The reactor further has a heater for heating both the solution and the carrier gas. In a preferred embodiment, the reaction vessel is heated and the solution is in contact with the heated reaction vessel. It is further preferred that the reaction vessel be cylindrical and that the carrier gas is introduced tangentially into the reaction vessel so that the solution flows helically along the interior wall of the reaction vessel. As the solution evaporates and combustion produces inorganic material powder, the carrier gas entrains the powder and carries it out of the reactor.

Maupin, Gary D. (Richland, WA); Chick, Lawrence A. (West Richland, WA); Kurosky, Randal P. (Maple Valley, WA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Homogeneous catalysts in hypersonic combustion  

SciTech Connect

Density and residence time both become unfavorably small for efficient combustion of hydrogen fuel in ramjet propulsion in air at high altitude and hypersonic speed. Raising the density and increasing the transit time of the air through the engine necessitates stronger contraction of the air flow area. This enhances the kinetic and thermodynamic tendency of H/sub 2/O to form completely, accompanied only by N/sub 2/ and any excess H/sub 2/(or O/sub 2/). The by-products to be avoided are the energetically expensive fragment species H and/or O atoms and OH radicals, and residual (2H/sub 2/ plus O/sub 2/). However, excessive area contraction raises air temperature and consequent combustion-product temperature by adiabatic compression. This counteracts and ultimately overwhelms the thermodynamic benefit by which higher density favors the triatomic product, H/sub 2/O, over its monatomic and diatomic alternatives. For static pressures in the neighborhood of 1 atm, static temperature must be kept or brought below ca. 2400 K for acceptable stability of H/sub 2/O. Another measure, whose requisite chemistry we address here, is to extract propulsive work from the combustion products early in the expansion. The objective is to lower the static temperature of the combustion stream enough for H/sub 2/O to become adequately stable before the exhaust flow is massively expanded and its composition ''frozen.'' We proceed to address this mechanism and its kinetics, and then examine prospects for enhancing its rate by homogeneous catalysts. 9 refs.

Harradine, D.M.; Lyman, J.L.; Oldenborg, R.C.; Pack, R.T.; Schott, G.L.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Illinois Solid Waste Management Act (Illinois) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Illinois Solid Waste Management Act (Illinois) Illinois Solid Waste Management Act (Illinois) Illinois Solid Waste Management Act (Illinois) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Program Info State Illinois Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Illinois EPA It is the purpose of this Act to reduce reliance on land disposal of solid waste, to encourage and promote alternative means of managing solid waste, and to assist local governments with solid waste planning and management. In furtherance of those aims, while recognizing that landfills will continue to be necessary, this Act establishes the following waste management hierarchy, in descending order of preference, as State policy: volume reduction at the source; recycling and reuse; combustion

258

NETL: IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Oxy-Combustion Boiler  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development Project No.: DE-NT0005262 CLICK ON IMAGE TO ENLARGE Foster Wheeler Oxy-combustion CFD Graphic The objectives of this Foster Wheeler Corporation-managed program are to assess the corrosion characteristics of oxy-combustion relative to air-fired combustion; identify the corrosion mechanisms involved; and determine the effects of oxy-combustion on conventional boiler tube materials, conventional protective coatings, and alternative materials and coatings when operating with high to low sulfur coals. The program involves the prediction of oxy-combustion gas compositions by computational fluid dynamic calculations, exposure of coupons of boiler materials and coverings coated with coal ash deposit to simulated oxy-combustion gases in electric

259

A fundamental study of biomass oxy-fuel combustion and co-combustion.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??While oxy-fuel combustion research is developing and large scale projects are proceeding, little information is available on oxy-biomass combustion and cocombustion with coal. To address… (more)

Farrow, Timipere Salome

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Supersonic combustion studies using a multivariate quadrature based method for combustion modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of predictive models for supersonic combustion is a critical step in design and development of scramjet engines

Raman, Venkat

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brownish-black solid combustible" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Solid Oxide Fuel Cells FE researchers at NETL have developed a unique test platform, called the multi-cell array (MCA), to rapidly test multiple fuel cells and determine how they degrade when contaminants exist in the fuel stream, such as might occur when using syngas from a coal gasifier. FE researchers at NETL have developed a unique test platform, called the multi-cell array (MCA), to rapidly test multiple fuel cells and determine how they degrade when contaminants exist in the fuel stream, such as might occur when using syngas from a coal gasifier. Fuel cells are an energy user's dream: an efficient, combustion-less, virtually pollution-free power source, capable of being sited in downtown urban areas or in remote regions that runs almost silently and has few

262

Researchers create successful predictions of combustion reaction...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

chemical reactions that take place during the combustion process, said Sandia's Ahren Jasper, the study's lead author. As they determine and understand the speeds and outcomes of...

263

combustion index | netl.doe.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in electricity cost. Advanced Combustion Research Overview Experience with steam boilers has provided information on existing boiler alloys, but limited data is available at...

264

Optimization of Advanced Diesel Engine Combustion Strategies  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

B, extending combustion duration Location B with dummy plug installed Location A with optics installed fiber to FTIR common rail injector common rail fuel spray Location B with...

265

Chemical Kinetic Models for Advanced Engine Combustion  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

barriers to increased engine efficiency and decreased emissions by allowing optimization of fuels with advanced engine combustion 6 LLNL-PRES-652979 2014 DOE Merit Review...

266

Oxygen-Enriched Combustion | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

tip sheet discusses how an increase in oxygen in combustion air can reduce the energy loss in the exhaust gases and increase process heating system efficiency. PROCESS HEATING...

267

Vehicle Technologies Office: Advanced Combustion Strategies ...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

element of LTC - is achieved by controlling the timing of the autoignition and rate of heat release. This process works to eliminate excessive combustion rates that can cause...

268

Advanced Combustion Concepts - Enabling Systems and Solutions...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fuel efficiency as key market driver Stringent emission requirements System cost of advanced combustion Targets 30% fuel efficiency improvement SULEV emissions...

269

Laser in situ monitoring of combustion processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Several examples of laser in situ monitoring of combustion processes are presented. Using a frequency modulated 13CO2 waveguide laser, in situ concentrations of...

Arnold, A; Becker, H; Hemberger, R; Hentschel, W; Ketterle, W; Kollner, M; Meienburg, W; Monkhouse, P; Neckel, H; Schafer, M; Schindler, K P; Sick, V; Suntz, R; Wolfrum, J

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Supersonic Jet Sampling for Combustion Diagnostics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The purpose of this note is to describe a novel application of supersonic molecular beam spectrometry to the study of combustion processes in piston engines. In this technique,...

Whitten, W B

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Advanced Control Methodology for Biomass Combustion.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis presents a feasibility study for a low cost sensor-based combustion control system using a predictive chemical kinetic model that captures efficiencies and pollution… (more)

Bjornsson, Stefan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Partially Premixed Combustion | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

that enables PPC to reach the market deer11andersson.pdf More Documents & Publications Combustion Model for Engine Concept Development Path to High Efficiency Gasoline Engine...

273

Research Teams - Combustion Energy Frontier Research Center  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Research Teams Research Teams Associates Greg Smith, Senior Research Chemist, SRI International Jeffrey A. Sutton, Assistant Professor, Ohio State Univeristy Combustion Energy...

274

Chemistry and Transport - Combustion Energy Frontier Research...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemistry and Transport Chemistry and Transport The overall goal of the flame chemistry working group is to obtain fundamental combustion and emission properties of low and high...

275

Integrated Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Combustion, and Emission Modeling Using KH-ACT Primary Breakup Model & Detailed Chemistry Sibendu Som, Douglas E. Longman Engine and Emissions Group (Energy Systems Division)...

276

Chemistry: Mechanism and Experiment - Combustion Energy Frontier...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemistry: Mechanism and Experiment Chemistry: Mechanism and Experiment The Mechanism and Experiment DWG uses an array of advanced experimental apparatus to probe the combustion...

277

Coal combustion: Effect of process conditions on char reactivity. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--May 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Coal utilization involves two major stages: coal pyrolysis and char combustion. Figure 1.1 summarizes the steps of these processes. During the pyrolysis stage, heated particles from plastic coals soften, swell and release their volatiles before resolidifying again. During the combustion or gasification stage, char particles may ignite and fragment as the carbon is consumed leaving behind a solid ash residue. Process conditions such as pyrolysis heating rate, heat treatment temperature, pyrolysis atmosphere, and particle size are shown to chemically and physically affect the coal during pyrolysis and the resulting char. Consequently, these pyrolysis conditions as well as the combustion conditions such as the oxygen concentration and combustion temperature affect the char reactivity and ignition phenomena during the combustion stage. Better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of coal pyrolysis and char combustion is needed to achieve greater and more efficient utilization of coal. Furthermore, this knowledge also contributes to the development of more accurate models that describe the transient processes involved in coal combustion. The project objectives were to investigate the effect of pyrolysis conditions on the macropore structure and subsequent reactivity of chars.

Zygourakis, K.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Theoretical Predictions of the thermodynamic Properties of Solid Sorbents Capture CO2 Applications  

SciTech Connect

We are establishing a theoretical procedure to identify most potential candidates of CO{sub 2} solid sorbents from a large solid material databank to meet the DOE programmatic goal for energy conversion; and to explore the optimal working conditions for the promising CO{sub 2} solid sorbents, especially from room to warm T ranges with optimal energy usage, used for both pre- and post-combustion capture technologies.

Duan, Yuhua; Sorescu, Dan; Luebke David; Pennline, Henry

2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

279

Novel Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle Utilizing Pressured Oxy-combustion in Conjunction with Cryogenic Compression  

SciTech Connect

The team of Southwest Research Institute® (SwRI) and Thar Energy LLC (Thar) applied technology engineering and economic analysis to evaluate two advanced oxy-combustion power cycles, the Cryogenic Pressurized Oxy-combustion Cycle (CPOC), and the Supercritical Oxy-combustion Cycle. This assessment evaluated the performance and economic cost of the two proposed cycles with carbon capture, and included a technology gap analysis of the proposed technologies to determine the technology readiness level of the cycle and the cycle components. The results of the engineering and economic analysis and the technology gap analysis were used to identify the next steps along the technology development roadmap for the selected cycle. The project objectives, as outlined in the FOA, were 90% CO{sub 2} removal at no more than a 35% increase in cost of electricity (COE) as compared to a Supercritical Pulverized Coal Plant without CO{sub 2} capture. The supercritical oxy-combustion power cycle with 99% carbon capture achieves a COE of $121/MWe. This revised COE represents a 21% reduction in cost as compared to supercritical steam with 90% carbon capture ($137/MWe). However, this represents a 49% increase in the COE over supercritical steam without carbon capture ($80.95/MWe), exceeding the 35% target. The supercritical oxy-combustion cycle with 99% carbon capture achieved a 37.9% HHV plant efficiency (39.3% LHV plant efficiency), when coupling a supercritical oxy-combustion thermal loop to an indirect supercritical CO{sub 2} (sCO{sub 2}) power block. In this configuration, the power block achieved 48% thermal efficiency for turbine inlet conditions of 650°C and 290 atm. Power block efficiencies near 60% are feasible with higher turbine inlet temperatures, however a design tradeoff to limit firing temperature to 650°C was made in order to use austenitic stainless steels for the high temperature pressure vessels and piping and to minimize the need for advanced turbomachinery features such as blade cooling. The overall technical readiness of the supercritical oxy-combustion cycle is TRL 2, Technology Concept, due to the maturity level of the supercritical oxy-combustor for solid fuels, and several critical supporting components, as identified in the Technical Gap Analysis. The supercritical oxycombustor for solid fuels operating at pressures near 100 atm is a unique component of the supercritical oxy-combustion cycle. In addition to the low TRL supercritical oxy-combustor, secondary systems were identified that would require adaptation for use with the supercritical oxycombustion cycle. These secondary systems include the high pressure pulverized coal feed, high temperature cyclone, removal of post-combustion particulates from the high pressure cyclone underflow stream, and micro-channel heat exchangers tolerant of particulate loading. Bench scale testing was utilized to measure coal combustion properties at elevated pressures in a CO{sub 2} environment. This testing included coal slurry preparation, visualization of coal injection into a high pressure fluid, and modification of existing test equipment to facilitate the combustion properties testing. Additional bench scale testing evaluated the effectiveness of a rotary atomizer for injecting a coal-water slurry into a fluid with similar densities, as opposed to the typical application where the high density fluid is injected into a low density fluid. The swirl type supercritical oxy-combustor was developed from initial concept to an advanced design stage through numerical simulation using FLUENT and Chemkin to model the flow through the combustor and provide initial assessment of the coal combustion reactions in the flow path. This effort enabled the initial combustor mechanical layout, initial pressure vessel design, and the conceptual layout of a pilot scale test loop. A pilot scale demonstration of the supercritical oxy-combustion cycle is proposed as the next step in the technology development. This demonstration would advance the supercritical oxy-combustion cycle and the supercritical

Brun, Klaus; McClung, Aaron; Davis, John

2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

280

Syngas production from wood pellet using filtration combustion of lean natural gas–air mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A common method for the production of hydrogen and syngas is solid fuel gasification. This paper discusses the experimental results obtained from the combustion of lean natural gas–air mixtures in a porous medium composed of aleatory alumina spheres and wood pellets, called hybrid bed. Temperature, velocity, and chemical products (H2, CO, CO2, CH4) of the combustion waves were recorded experimentally in an inert bed (baseline) and hybrid bed (with a volume wood fraction of 50%), for equivalence ratios (?) from 0.3 to 1.0, and a constant filtration velocity of 15 cm/s. Upstream, downstream and standing combustion waves were observed for inert and hybrid bed. The maximum hydrogen conversion in hybrid filtration combustion is found to be ?99% at ? = 0.3. Results demonstrate that wood gasification process occurs with high temperature (1188 K) and oxygen available, and the lean hybrid filtration process can be used to reform solid fuels into hydrogen and syngas.

Karina Araus; Felipe Reyes; Mario Toledo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brownish-black solid combustible" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Theoretical studies of combustion dynamics  

SciTech Connect

The basic objectives of this research program are to develop and apply theoretical techniques to fundamental dynamical processes of importance in gas-phase combustion. There are two major areas currently supported by this grant. One is reactive scattering of diatom-diatom systems, and the other is the dynamics of complex formation and decay based on L{sup 2} methods. In all of these studies, the authors focus on systems that are of interest experimentally, and for which potential energy surfaces based, at least in part, on ab initio calculations are available.

Bowman, J.M. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Circulating fluidised-bed combustion  

SciTech Connect

Steam generators with circulating fluidized-bed combustion systems (CFBC) are characterized by a high degree of environmental comparability and a wide acceptance for FBC boiler plants involving a wide fuel spectrum which ranges from dried brown coal to high-ash coal and low-volatile bituminous coal as well as wood waste and bark. These plants incorporate a variety of CFBC systems. The choice in favor of different system options was not motivated by the inherent fuel properties but has evolved from the progressive advancement in power station FBC technology. The article elucidates several FBC system variants.

Rettemeier, W.; von der Kammer, G. (Steinmueller (L.u.C.) GmbH, Gummersbach (Germany, F.R.))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Chemical looping combustion of coal in interconnected fluidized beds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chemical looping combustion is the indirect combustion by use of oxygen carrier. It can...2...capture in power generating processes. In this paper, chemical looping combustion of coal in interconnected fluidized ...

LaiHong Shen; Min Zheng; Jun Xiao; Hui Zhang…

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Fuel reforming for scramjet thermal management and combustion optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fuel reforming for scramjet thermal management and combustion optimization E. DANIAU* , M. BOUCHEZ in a Scramjet combustion chamber. Another critical point is that mixing and combustion should be sufficiently

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

285

Comparing the greenhouse gas emissions from three alternative waste combustion concepts  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant GHG reductions are possible by efficient WtE technologies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CHP and high power-to-heat ratio provide significant GHG savings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sub 2}O and coal mine type are important in LCA GHG emissions of FBC co-combustion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting coal and fuel oil by waste is beneficial in electricity and heat production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting natural gas by waste may not be reasonable in CHP generation. - Abstract: Three alternative condensing mode power and combined heat and power (CHP) waste-to-energy concepts were compared in terms of their impacts on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a heat and power generation system. The concepts included (i) grate, (ii) bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) and (iii) circulating fluidised bed (CFB) combustion of waste. The BFB and CFB take advantage of advanced combustion technology which enabled them to reach electric efficiency up to 35% and 41% in condensing mode, respectively, whereas 28% (based on the lower heating value) was applied for the grate fired unit. A simple energy system model was applied in calculating the GHG emissions in different scenarios where coal or natural gas was substituted in power generation and mix of fuel oil and natural gas in heat generation by waste combustion. Landfilling and waste transportation were not considered in the model. GHG emissions were reduced significantly in all of the considered scenarios where the waste combustion concepts substituted coal based power generation. With the exception of condensing mode grate incinerator the different waste combustion scenarios resulted approximately in 1 Mton of fossil CO{sub 2}-eq. emission reduction per 1 Mton of municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerated. When natural gas based power generation was substituted by electricity from the waste combustion significant GHG emission reductions were not achieved.

Vainikka, Pasi, E-mail: pasi.vainikka@vtt.fi [VTT, Koivurannantie 1, FIN 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Tsupari, Eemeli; Sipilae, Kai [VTT, Koivurannantie 1, FIN 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hupa, Mikko [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Piispankatu 8, FIN 20500 Turku (Finland)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

286

Novel Water-Neutral Diesel Fuel Processor and Sulfur Trap„Precision Combustion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Novel Water-Neutral Diesel Fuel Novel Water-Neutral Diesel Fuel Processor and Sulfur Trap-Precision Combustion Background Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology for auxiliary power units (APUs) offers the potential for major contributions toward Department of Energy (DOE) objectives such as clean energy deployment and improved efficiency. Reforming of conventional liquid fuels to produce synthesis gas (syngas) fuel for SOFC stacks is a practical approach for operating fuel cell APUs

287

Internal combustion engine intake valve  

SciTech Connect

In a inlet valve for use in an internal combustion engine in which the valve has a stem and a head, the head having, when seated, a first side positioned within a combustion chamber of an engine block and a second, opposite, side attached to the stem, the second side including that piston of the head forming the seat with the engine block when the valve is in a seated position, and first side including that portion of the head from the seat toward the chamber when the valve is in the seated position, and the engine including means for moving the valve from the closed position to an open position to allow a fuel mixture to enter the chamber, the improvement in the valve comprising: an extension ridge from the first side, positioned in alignment with the periphery of the valve head, the ridge forming with the seat a single, continuous, smooth outer surface along the periphery thereof for reducing the coefficient of drag of the fuel entering the chamber around the valve head when the valve is in the open position.

Mosler, W.B.

1988-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

288

Method and system for controlled combustion engines  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for controlling combustion in internal combustion engines of both the Diesel or Otto type, which relies on establishing fluid dynamic conditions and structures wherein fuel and air are entrained, mixed and caused to be ignited in the interior of a multiplicity of eddies, and where these structures are caused to sequentially fill the headspace of the cylinders.

Oppenheim, A. K. (Berkeley, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

The Cool Flame Combustion of Ethanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article The Cool Flame Combustion of Ethanol J. Brown C. F. H. Tipper The kinetics...products of the cool flame combustion of ethanol between about 280 and 330 C have been...much less for a 1 : 2 than for a 1 : 1 ethanol/oxygen mixture at constant T and varied...

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Numerical modelling of MILD combustion for coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Emissions of nitrogen oxides from coal combustion are a major environmental problem because they have been shown to contribute to the formation of acid rain and photochemical smog. Moderate and Intensive Low oxygen Dilution (MILD) combustion is a promising technology for decreasing pollutant emissions and improving combustion efficiency. A combination of air preheating and fuel dilution with combustion products of low oxygen concentration are the main features of this technique. In the MILD combustion mode, preheated air and fuel are gradually mixed with large amounts of recirculated exhaust gas. The objective of the present work is to investigate the capability of present fuel NO mechanisms for pulverised coal combustion to predict the observed nitrogen oxide levels in MILD combustion mode. For this purpose, knowledge of the fate of coal nitrogen during the combustion process is vital. The interaction between turbulence and chemistry is modelled by an advanced Eddy Dissipation Concept (EDC). The NOx model is used to predict NO profiles that are compared to measurements obtained from semi-industrial scale experiments.

Ju Pyo Kim; U. Schnell; G. Scheffknecht; A.C. Benim

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Redeeming features of in situ combustion  

SciTech Connect

In situ combustion remains the most tantalizing enhanced oil recovery method. It has been tested extensively - in over 150 field tests - in both heavy and light oil reservoirs. What we have learned from this experience is that in situ combustion works under most conditions, but the nature of the problems is such that it is seldom profitable. Also, looking at many previous in situ combustion tests, steam injection, and even waterflooding, would have been a better choice. Yet in situ combustion has unique features not found in any other EOR method. These must be weighed against its shortcomings to evaluate a potential application. This paper discusses the redeeming features of in situ combustion, in particular the reservoir conditions under which in situ combustion may be superior to other EOR methods are outlined. All variations of in situ combustion - forward, reverse, wet, dry - as well as combinations with other EOR methods are considered. The conclusions is that in situ combustion still has a place, and its future application would depend on research on certain crucial aspects of the process.

Farouq Ali, S.M. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility  

SciTech Connect

NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

None

2013-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

293

Generating Resources Combined Cycle Combustion Turbine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

turbine (s) Heat recovery steam generator (s) - HRSG with or without duct firing Natural gas supply11/17/2014 1 Generating Resources Combined Cycle Combustion Turbine Utility Scale Solar PV Steven doing recently around two key supply-side resource technologies 1. Combined Cycle Combustion Turbine

294

Coal slurry combustion and technology. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions of the Coal Slurry Combustion and Technology Symposium: (1) bench-scale testing; (2) pilot testing; (3) combustion; and (4) rheology and characterization. Thirty-three papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

Not Available

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

None

2014-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

296

Pulse Combustion Characteristics of Various Gaseous Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pulse combustion performance of fuels with low and high heating values is also compared. ... Selected gaseous fuels such as low molecular weight hydrocarbons, high molecular weight hydrocarbons, biofuels, and mixed fuels are tested for pulse combustion, and their operational properties are presented and compared. ... Heat transfer data for several exptl. ...

Wu Zhonghua; Arun S. Mujumdar

2008-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

297

Combustion Modeling for Diesel Engine Control Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Combustion Modeling for Diesel Engine Control Design Von der Fakult¨at f¨ur Maschinenwesen der Combustion Modeling for Diesel Engine Control Design WICHTIG: D 82 überprüfen !!! #12;Bibliographic research stays at General Motors R&D in Warren, MI, USA, possible. Furthermore, I would like thank Tom

Peters, Norbert

298

Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring System  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Efficiency of existing boilers can be improved in three ways; replacement with new boilers, replacement of the burner, or installation of a combustion control system. While installation of a new boiler or replacement of the burner can lead to the greatest efficiency gains, the higher costs associated with these measures typically leads to longer payback periods than combustion control systems.

299

Collaborative Combustion Research with BES | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Combustion Research with BES Collaborative Combustion Research with BES 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

300

Overview of Sonex Combustion Systems (SCS) for DI Engines | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Sonex Combustion Systems (SCS) for DI Engines Overview of Sonex Combustion Systems (SCS) for DI Engines The SCS system has undergone computational and experimental verification and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brownish-black solid combustible" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Sandia National Laboratories: Low--Temperature Combustion Enables...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ECFacilitiesCRFLow--Temperature Combustion Enables Cleaner, More Efficient Engines Low--Temperature Combustion Enables Cleaner, More Efficient Engines Assessing the Economic...

302

Evaluation of High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) Strategies...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Combustion (HECC) Strategies for Meeting Future Emissions Regulations in Light-Duty Engines Evaluation of High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) Strategies for Meeting Future...

303

2008 DOE Annual Merit Review Advanced Combustion Engines and...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Advanced Combustion Engines and Fuels R&DTechnology Integration Plenary Session Overview 2008 DOE Annual Merit Review Advanced Combustion Engines and Fuels R&DTechnology...

304

High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Design for Compression Ignition...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Design for Compression Ignition Engines High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Design for Compression Ignition Engines Presentation given at DEER 2006,...

305

Complete Fuel Combustion for Diesel Engines Resulting in Greatly...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Complete Fuel Combustion for Diesel Engines Resulting in Greatly Reduced Emissions and Improved Fuel Efficiency Complete Fuel Combustion for Diesel Engines Resulting in Greatly...

306

Syngas Enhanced High Efficiency Low Temperature Combustion for...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Enhanced High Efficiency Low Temperature Combustion for Clean Diesel Engines Syngas Enhanced High Efficiency Low Temperature Combustion for Clean Diesel Engines A significant...

307

Non-Petroleum-Based Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Non-Petroleum-Based Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Non-Petroleum-Based Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit...

308

Catalyst for Improving the Combustion Efficiency of Petroleum...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

for Improving the Combustion Efficiency of Petroleum Fuels in Diesel Engines Catalyst for Improving the Combustion Efficiency of Petroleum Fuels in Diesel Engines 2005 Diesel...

309

World's Largest Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Project Begins...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

World's Largest Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Project Begins Construction World's Largest Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Project Begins Construction July 15, 2014 - 9:55am Addthis...

310

The Role of Advanced Combustion in Improving Thermal Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Combustion plays an important role in enabling high thermal efficiencies. Technologies that deliver short combustion duration and low soot emissions are needed.

311

Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion Cross-Cut Research | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion A Conceptual Model for Partially PremixedLow-Temperature Diesel Combustion Based onIn-Cylinder Laser Diagnostics and Chemical Kinetics Modeling...

312

Enabling High Efficiency Clean Combustion with Micro-Variable...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

of variable orifice fuel injector are described that will extend the operation maps of early PCCI combustion and enable dual-mode combustion over full operating maps....

313

Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion Cross-Cut Research | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion Cross-Cut Research Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion Cross-Cut Research 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review...

314

Development of Fuel-Flexible Combustion Systems Utilizing Opportunity...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Fuel-Flexible Combustion Systems Utilizing Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines - Fact Sheet, May 2014 Development of Fuel-Flexible Combustion Systems Utilizing Opportunity Fuels in...

315

Oscillatory Flame Response in Acoustically Coupled Fuel Droplet Combustion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and volumetric heats of combustion in biofuels render themVaporization [kJ/kg] Heat of Combustion [kJ/kg] †Estimated

Sevilla Esparza, Cristhian Israel

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

2014 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Advanced Combustion...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Advanced Combustion Engine Technologies 2014 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Advanced Combustion Engine Technologies Merit review of DOE Vehicle Technologies research...

317

Advanced Combustion Technology to Enable High Efficiency Clean...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Combustion System + Air Handling Air Handling + Sensors + Calibration Low P, High Flow Rate EGR + VVA - Simulated Robustness Advanced Combustion Concepts - Simulated 0.0...

318

2.61 Internal Combustion Engines, Spring 2004  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fundamentals of how the design and operation of internal combustion engines affect their performance, operation, fuel requirements, and environmental impact. Study of fluid flow, thermodynamics, combustion, heat transfer ...

Heywood, John B.

319

Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Document:  ace012_flowers_2013_o.pdfTechnology Area: Advanced Combustion; Combustion and Emissions ControlPresenter: Dan FlowersPresenting Organization: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL...

320

Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry -...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry - Presentation by Frito-Lay North America, June 2011 Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry -...

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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators Substantial increases in brake power and considerably lower peak...

322

Modeling Combustion Control for High Power Diesel Mode Switching...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Combustion Control for High Power Diesel Mode Switching Modeling Combustion Control for High Power Diesel Mode Switching Poster presentation given at the 16th Directions in...

323

High Efficiency Clean Combustion for Heavy-Duty Engine  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Explore advancements in engine combustion systems using high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) techniques to minimize engine-out emissions while optimizing fuel economy.

324

Low Temperature Combustion and Diesel Emission Reduction Research...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Low Temperature Combustion and Diesel Emission Reduction Research Low Temperature Combustion and Diesel Emission Reduction Research Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24,...

325

Dilute Clean Diesel Combustion Achieves Low Emissions and High...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Dilute Clean Diesel Combustion Achieves Low Emissions and High Efficiency While Avoiding Control Problems of HCCI Dilute Clean Diesel Combustion Achieves Low Emissions and High...

326

Unregulated Emissions from High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Modes...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Unregulated Emissions from High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Modes - ORNL-FEERC Unregulated Emissions from High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Modes - ORNL-FEERC Poster presentation at...

327

Low-Temperature Automotive Diesel Combustion | Department of...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Diesel Combustion Low-Temperature Automotive Diesel Combustion 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation...

328

State Grid Biomass Fuel and Combustion Technology Laboratory...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Combustion Technology Laboratory Jump to: navigation, search Name: State Grid Biomass Fuel and Combustion Technology Laboratory Place: Beijing Municipality, China Sector: Biomass...

329

Fuel Effects on Ignition and Their Impact on Advanced Combustion...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Ignition and Their Impact on Advanced Combustion Engines Fuel Effects on Ignition and Their Impact on Advanced Combustion Engines Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24,...

330

Combustion Exhaust Gas Heat to Power Using Thermoelectric Engines...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Combustion Exhaust Gas Heat to Power Using Thermoelectric Engines Combustion Exhaust Gas Heat to Power Using Thermoelectric Engines Discusses a novel TEG which utilizes a...

331

Hydrogen Assisted Diesel Combustion in a Common Rail Turbodiesel...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Assisted Diesel Combustion in a Common Rail Turbodiesel Engine P-3 Hydrogen Assisted Diesel Combustion in a Common Rail Turbodiesel Engine P-3 Gregory Lilik, Jos Martn...

332

Hydrogen Assisted Diesel Combustion in a Common Rail Turbodiesel...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Assisted Diesel Combustion in a Common Rail Turbodiesel Engine Hydrogen Assisted Diesel Combustion in a Common Rail Turbodiesel Engine This study measured the effects of hydrogen...

333

Heavy-Duty Low Temperature Combustion Development Activities...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

soot emissions - Cylinder pressure and rise rate limits - Low load combustion stabilityignition Robust combustion control - Cylinder-to-cylinder variability - Ambient...

334

2011 2nd Annual CEFRC Conference - Combustion Energy Frontier...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

chemistry and diagnostics (HansenYang) Chemical kinetics and transport of combustion processes (Wang) H2O number density measurements in an RCM and plasma combustion using...

335

Modeling of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

merit08flowers.pdf More Documents & Publications Modeling of HCCI and PCCI Combustion Processes Numerical Modeling of HCCI Combustion Improving alternative fuel utilization:...

336

Modeling of HCCI and PCCI Combustion Processes | Department of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

HCCI and PCCI Combustion Processes Modeling of HCCI and PCCI Combustion Processes 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters...

337

Factors Affecting HCCI Combustion Phasing for Fuels with Single...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Affecting HCCI Combustion Phasing for Fuels with Single- and Dual-Stage Chemistry Factors Affecting HCCI Combustion Phasing for Fuels with Single- and Dual-Stage Chemistry 2004...

338

CFD Combustion Modeling with Conditional Moment Closure using Tabulated Chemistry  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A method is presented that allows for efficient conditional moment closure combustion simulations through the use of a progress variable based parameterization of the combustion chemistry.

339

CFD Combustion Modeling with Conditional Moment Closure using...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Combustion Modeling with Conditional Moment Closure using Tabulated Chemistry CFD Combustion Modeling with Conditional Moment Closure using Tabulated Chemistry A method is...

340

Accurate Predictions of Fuel Effects on Combustion and Emissions...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

on Combustion and Emissions in Engines Using CFD Simulations With Detailed Fuel Chemistry Accurate Predictions of Fuel Effects on Combustion and Emissions in Engines Using...

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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Numerical Modeling of PCCI Combustion | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Modeling of HCCI and PCCI Combustion Processes Numerical Modeling of HCCI Combustion Bridging the Gap between Fundamental Physics and Chemistry and Applied Models for HCCI Engines...

342

Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Engines | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion: Heavy-Duty Optical-Engine Research Greenpower Trap Mufflerl System Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion...

343

High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Gasoline...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Gasoline and Diesel Engines High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Gasoline and Diesel Engines 2009 DOE Hydrogen...

344

Light-Duty Diesel Combustion | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Light-Duty Diesel Combustion Light-Duty Diesel Combustion 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting...

345

Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation...

346

Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Poster presented at the 16th Directions...

347

Dry low NOx combustion system with pre-mixed direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A combustion system includes a first combustion chamber and a second combustion chamber. The second combustion chamber is positioned downstream of the first combustion chamber. The combustion system also includes a pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle. The pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle extends through the first combustion chamber into the second combustion chamber.

Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas; Ziminsky, Willy; Khan, Abdul

2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

349

Oxy-coal Combustion Studies  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to move toward the development of a predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. This validation research brings together multi-scale experimental measurements and computer simulations. The combination of simulation development and validation experiments is designed to lead to predictive tools for the performance of existing air fired pulverized coal boilers that have been retrofitted to various oxy-firing configurations. In addition, this report also describes novel research results related to oxy-combustion in circulating fluidized beds. For pulverized coal combustion configurations, particular attention is focused on the effect of oxy-firing on ignition and coal-flame stability, and on the subsequent partitioning mechanisms of the ash aerosol. To these ends, the project has focused on the following: â?¢ The development of reliable Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of oxy-coal flames using the Direct Quadrature Method of Moments (DQMOM) (Subtask 3.1). The simulations were validated for both non-reacting particle-laden jets and oxy-coal flames. â?¢ The modifications of an existing oxy-coal combustor to allow operation with high levels of input oxygen to enable in-situ laser diagnostic measurements as well as the development of strategies for directed oxygen injection (Subtask 3.2). Flame stability was quantified for various burner configurations. One configuration that was explored was to inject all the oxygen as a pure gas within an annular oxygen lance, with burner aerodynamics controlling the subsequent mixing. â?¢ The development of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) for identification of velocity fields in turbulent oxy-coal flames in order to provide high-fidelity data for the validation of oxy-coal simulation models (Subtask 3.3). Initial efforts utilized a laboratory diffusion flame, first using gas-fuel and later a pulverized-coal flame to ensure the methodology was properly implemented and that all necessary data and image-processing techniques were fully developed. Success at this stage of development led to application of the diagnostics in a large-scale oxy-fuel combustor (OFC). â?¢ The impact of oxy-coal-fired vs. air-fired environments on SO{sub x} (SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}) emissions during coal combustion in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) (Subtask 3.4). Profiles of species concentration and temperature were obtained for both conditions, and profiles of temperature over a wide range of O{sub 2} concentration were studied for oxy-firing conditions. The effect of limestone addition on SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} emissions were also examined for both air- and oxy- firing conditions. â?¢ The investigation of O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} environments on SO{sub 2 emissions during coal combustion in a bench-scale single-particle fluidized-bed reactor (Subtask 3.5). Moreover, the sulfation mechanisms of limestone in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} environments were studied, and a generalized gassolid and diffusion-reaction single-particle model was developed to study the effect of major operating variables. â?¢ The investigation of the effect of oxy-coal combustion on ash formation, particle size distributions (PSD), and size-segregated elemental composition in a drop-tube furnace and the 100 kW OFC (Subtask 3.6). In particular, the effect of coal type and flue gas recycle (FGR, OFC only) was investigated.

J. Wendt; E. Eddings; J. Lighty; T. Ring; P. Smith; J. Thornock; Y. Jia, W. Morris; J. Pedel; D. Rezeai; L. Wang; J. Zhang; K. Kelly

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Argonne TTRDC - Engines - Combustion Visualization - emissions,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Combustion Visualization Combustion Visualization Exploring Combustion Using Advanced Imaging Techniques In the photo, the GM diesel test cell is shown with vehicle exhaust aftertreatment hardware (diesel particulate filtration and diesel oxidation catalyst) along with other advanced technology-such as a variable geometry turbocharger, cooled exhaust gas recirculation and a common-rail fuel injection system. Fig. 1. The GM diesel test cell is shown with vehicle exhaust aftertreatment hardware (diesel particulate filtration and diesel oxidation catalyst) along with other advanced technology-such as a variable geometry turbocharger, cooled exhaust gas recirculation and a common-rail fuel injection system. Two-dimensional image of hydrogen combustion OH chemiluminescence. Fig. 2. Two-dimensional image of hydrogen combustion OH chemiluminescence.

351

Fine Particle Emissions from Combustion Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fine Particle Emissions from Combustion Systems Fine Particle Emissions from Combustion Systems Speaker(s): Allen Robinson Date: November 11, 2005 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Combustion systems such as motor vehicles and power plants are major sources of fine particulate matter. This talk describes some of the changes in fine particle emissions that occur as exhaust from combustion systems mix with background air. This mixing cools and dilutes the exhaust which influences gas-particle partitioning of semi-volatile species, the aerosol size distribution, and the fine particle mass. Dilution sampling is used to characterize fine particle emissions from combustion systems because it simulates the rapid cooling and dilution that occur as exhaust mixes with the atmosphere. Results from dilution sampler

352

Advanced Combustion Technologies | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Science & Innovation » Clean Coal » Advanced Combustion Science & Innovation » Clean Coal » Advanced Combustion Technologies Advanced Combustion Technologies Joe Yip, a researcher at FE's National Energy Technology Laboratory, uses laser-based Rayleigh light scattering to measure flame density and speed over a flat flame burner. Oxyfuel combustion, using oxygen in place of air with diluents such as steam or carbon dioxide, can reduce pollutant emissions in advanced power cycles using gas turbines. Photo courtesy of NETL Multimedia. Joe Yip, a researcher at FE's National Energy Technology Laboratory, uses laser-based Rayleigh light scattering to measure flame density and speed over a flat flame burner. Oxyfuel combustion, using oxygen in place of air with diluents such as steam or carbon dioxide, can reduce pollutant

353

Experimental determination of agglomeration tendency in fluidized bed combustion of biomass by measuring slip resistance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A method by measuring the slip resistance between particles was used to determine the agglomeration tendency in fluidized bed combustion of biomass. Solid particles were taken from different stages of biomass combustion in a fluidized bed and loaded into a bench-scale test apparatus with two concentric cylinders. A precision variable frequency motor and a torque sensor were employed to measure the torque driven by the inner cylinder at a constant speed, which is directly related to the slip resistance of the solid particles. The measurement results showed significant difference in the slip resistance of the bed solids taken from different stages of biomass combustion at different operating temperatures. A strong correlation was found between the onset of agglomeration and increase in the slip resistance, especially near the onset of agglomeration, due to the build-up of molten biomass ashes, presence of liquid bridges between particles and formation of incipient agglomerates. With further validation, the method developed in the present study can potentially be used to quantify agglomeration tendency in a fluidized bed reactor and characterize the dynamic process of agglomeration.

Chunjiang Yu; Zifeng Tang; Leiyun Zeng; Chen Chen; Bin Gong

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Axial cylinder internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes improvement in a barrel type internal combustion engine including an engine block having axial-positioned cylinders with reciprocating pistons arranged in a circular pattern: a drive shaft concentrically positioned within the cylinder block having an offset portion extending outside the cylinder block; a wobble spider rotatably journaled to the offset portion; connecting rods for each cylinder connecting each piston to the wobble spider. The improvement comprising: a first sleeve bearing means supporting the drive shaft in the engine block in a cantilevered manner for radial loads; a second sleeve bearing means rotatably supporting the wobble spider on the offset portion of the drive shaft for radial loads; a first roller bearing means positioned between the offset portion of the drive shaft and the wobble spider carrying thrust loadings only; a second roller bearing means carrying thrust loads only reacting to the first roller bearing located on the opposite end of the driveshaft between the shaft and the engine block.

Gonzalez, C.

1992-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

355

Advances in pulverized coal combustion  

SciTech Connect

A combustion system has been developed to operate cost effectively in the difficult regulatory and economic climate of the 1980's. The system is designed to reduce auxiliary fuel oil comsumption by at least 30% while meeting all relevant emissions limits. This is achieved with the fewest components consistent with practical reliable design criteria. The Controlled Flow Split/Flame low NO/sub x/ burner, MBF pulverizer and Two-Stage ignition system are integrated into a mutually supporting system which is applicable to both new steam generators and, on a retrofit basis, to existing units. In the future, a pulverized coal ignition system will be available to eliminate fuel oil use within the boiler.

Vatsky, J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Vehicle Technologies Office: Advanced Combustion Engines  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Combustion Engines Combustion Engines Improving the efficiency of internal combustion engines is one of the most promising and cost-effective near- to mid-term approaches to increasing highway vehicles' fuel economy. The Vehicle Technologies Office's research and development activities address critical barriers to commercializing higher efficiency, very low emissions advanced internal combustion engines for passenger and commercial vehicles. This technology has great potential to reduce U.S. petroleum consumption, resulting in greater economic, environmental, and energy security. Already offering outstanding drivability and reliability to over 230 million passenger vehicles, internal combustion engines have the potential to become substantially more efficient. Initial results from laboratory engine tests indicate that passenger vehicle fuel economy can be improved by more than up to 50 percent, and some vehicle simulation models estimate potential improvements of up to 75 percent. Advanced combustion engines can utilize renewable fuels, and when combined with hybrid electric powertrains could have even further reductions in fuel consumption. As the EIA reference case forecasts that by 2035, more than 99 percent of light- and heavy-duty vehicles sold will still have internal combustion engines, the potential fuel savings is tremendous.

357

Low NOx combustion system for heavy oil  

SciTech Connect

As a result of the increasing demand for white oil as one of countermeasures for pollution control and as a fuel for motor vehicle, coupled with the increasing import of heavy crude oil, heavy oils such as asphalt and distillation residue have become surplus in Japan. It is difficult by the conventional low NOx technology to control the NOx emission from the industrial small and medium capacity boilers, which use heavy oil as their fuels. The authors have been developing and improving NOx control technologies for boilers such as low NOx burners, two-stage combustion methods and so on. They have developed a new combustion system for heavy oil, which generates less NOx and soot than conventional systems, by applying the knowledge, obtained in the course of their development of Coal Partial Combustor (CPC). The conventional low NOx combustion method for oil firing boilers has been developed based on decreasing the flame temperature and delaying the combustion reaction. In the system, however, the heavy oil shall be combusted in the intense reducing atmosphere at the high flame temperature between 1,500 C and 1,600 C, and then the combustions gas shall be cooled and oxidized by two-stage combustion air. With this system, NOx emission can be suppressed below 100ppm (converted as O{sub 2}=4%).

Kurata, Chikatoshi; Sasaki, Hideki

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Solid–Solid Interactions on Active Adsorbents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... on the different grades of alumina provide a measure of the relative activities of such adsorbents. When the solid-solid adsorption processes were essentially complete, the absorbance maxima were virtually ...

PHILIP ANTHONY; HARRY ZEITLIN

1960-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

359

Gas turbine alternative fuels combustion characteristics  

SciTech Connect

An experimental investigation was conducted to obtain combustion performance and exhaust pollutant concentrations for specific synthetic hydrocarbon fuels. Baseline comparison fuels used were gasoline and diesel fuel number two. Testing was done over a range of fuel to air mass ratios, total mass flow rates, and input combustion air temperatures in a flame-tube-type gas turbine combustor. Test results were obtained in terms of released heat and combustion gas emission values. The results were comparable to those obtained with the base fuels with variations being obtained with changing operating conditions. The release of carbon particles during the tests was minimal. 22 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

Rollbuhler, R.J.

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

In Situ NMR Spectroscopy of Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In situ nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of high-temperature reactions is of potential value for the investigation of catalytic combustion and other high-temperature applications of catalysts such as partial oxidation of hydrocarbons and steam reforming. ... Two-dimensional (2D) studies of gas exchange within different heat zones of the combustion process provide valuable insights into the gas-phase dynamics. ... This may be the case at the high combustion temperatures, but neither experimental nor theoretical xenon chemical shift data is available in current literature for temperatures above 1000 K. ...

Satyanarayana Anala; Galina E. Pavlovskaya; Prakash Pichumani; Todd J. Dieken; Michael D. Olsen; Thomas Meersmann

2003-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brownish-black solid combustible" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Combustion in cracks of PBX 9501  

SciTech Connect

Recent experiments involving the combustion of PBX 9501 explosive under confined conditions reveal the importance of crack and flaws in reaction violence. Experiments on room temperature confined disks of pristine and thermally damaged PBX 9501 reveal that crack ignition depends on hot gases entering existing or pressure induced cracks rather than on energy release at the crack tip. PBX 9501 slot combustion experiments show that the reaction propagation rate in the slot does not depend on the external pressure. We have observed 1500 d s in long slots of highly-confined PBX 9501. We present experiments that examine the combustion of mechanically and thermally damaged samples of PBX 9501.

Berghout, H. L. (Henry L.); Son, S. F. (Steven F.); Bolme, C. A. (Cynthia A.); Hill, L. G. (Larry G.); Asay, B. W. (Blaine W.); Dickson, P. M. (Peter M.); Henson, B. F. (Bryan F.); Smilowitz, L. B. (Laura B.)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Diesel knock noise from combustion phenomenon to perceived signals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Diesel knock noise from combustion phenomenon to perceived signals O. Sauvagea , A. Lauracb , M for reducing Diesel knock are modifications of engine parameters used for controlling combustion processes-acoustic properties, throught its noticeable combustion noise (also called "Diesel knock"). Combustion noise generated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

363

Thermodynamic Analysis of Alternative Approaches to Chemical Looping Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermodynamic Analysis of Alternative Approaches to Chemical Looping Combustion ... Because H2 and syngas have similar combustion irreversibilities, when reforming is done optimally (with TR close to 650 K), iso-octane can be combusted with the same efficiency as that of preheated, isothermal H2 combustion. ... A loop of chem. ...

V. Kalyana Chakravarthy; C. Stuart Daw; Josh A. Pihl

2011-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

364

US National Technical Meeting of the Combustion Institute  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

potential to enhance combustion performance in gas turbines and scramjet engines. Extensive efforts have

Ju, Yiguang

365

Robust Feedback Control of Combustion Instability with Modeling Uncertainty  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to mod- ulate combustion processes in propulsion sys- tems has recently received extensive attention [1

Ray, Asok

366

Chemical Looping Combustion Reactions and Systems  

SciTech Connect

Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) is one promising fuel-combustion technology, which can facilitate economic CO{sub 2} capture in coal-fired power plants. It employs the oxidation/reduction characteristics of a metal, or oxygen carrier, and its oxide, the oxidizing gas (typically air) and the fuel source may be kept separate. This topical report discusses the results of four complementary efforts: (5.1) the development of process and economic models to optimize important design considerations, such as oxygen carrier circulation rate, temperature, residence time; (5.2) the development of high-performance simulation capabilities for fluidized beds and the collection, parameter identification, and preliminary verification/uncertainty quantification; (5.3) the exploration of operating characteristics in the laboratoryscale bubbling bed reactor, with a focus on the oxygen carrier performance, including reactivity, oxygen carrying capacity, attrition resistance, resistance to deactivation, cost and availability; and (5.4) the identification of kinetic data for copper-based oxygen carriers as well as the development and analysis of supported copper oxygen carrier material. Subtask 5.1 focused on the development of kinetic expressions for the Chemical Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling (CLOU) process and validating them with reported literature data. The kinetic expressions were incorporated into a process model for determination of reactor size and oxygen carrier circulation for the CLOU process using ASPEN PLUS. An ASPEN PLUS process model was also developed using literature data for the CLC process employing an iron-based oxygen carrier, and the results of the process model have been utilized to perform a relative economic comparison. In Subtask 5.2, the investigators studied the trade-off between modeling approaches and available simulations tools. They quantified uncertainty in the high-performance computing (HPC) simulation tools for CLC bed applications. Furthermore, they performed a sensitivity analysis for velocity, height and polydispersity and compared results against literature data for experimental studies of CLC beds with no reaction. Finally, they present an optimization space using simple non-reactive configurations. In Subtask 5.3, through a series of experimental studies, behavior of a variety of oxygen carriers with different loadings and manufacturing techniques was evaluated under both oxidizing and reducing conditions. The influences of temperature, degree of carrier conversion and thermodynamic driving force resulting from the difference between equilibrium and system O{sub 2} partial pressures were evaluated through several experimental campaigns, and generalized models accounting for these influences were developed to describe oxidation and oxygen release. Conversion of three solid fuels with widely ranging reactivities was studied in a small fluidized bed system, and all but the least reactive fuel (petcoke) were rapidly converted by oxygen liberated from the CLOU carrier. Attrition propensity of a variety of carriers was also studied, and the carriers produced by freeze granulation or impregnation of preformed substrates displayed the lowest rates of attrition. Subtask 5.4 focused on gathering kinetic data for a copper-based oxygen carrier to assist with modeling of a functioning chemical looping reactor. The kinetics team was also responsible for the development and analysis of supported copper oxygen carrier material.

Sarofim, Adel; Lighty, JoAnn; Smith, Philip; Whitty, Kevin; Eyring, Edward; Sahir, Asad; Alvarez, Milo; Hradisky, Michael; Clayton, Chris; Konya, Gabor; Baracki, Richard; Kelly, Kerry

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Emission formation during wood log combustion in fireplaces â?? part I: volatile combustion stage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A CFD-based tool for the analysis of combustion and emissions in batch-fired wood log combustion is introduced. It consists of submodels for drying and pyrolysis of a wood log, for combustion of volatilised fuel and char, for radiative heat transfer, and for NO formation implemented in a commercial CFD-programme (Fluent) for turbulent flows. Comparing model predictions to experimental data in a test oven shows the applicability of the different submodels and combination of them.

M. Huttunen; J. Saastamoinen; P. Kilpinen; L. Kjaldman; H. Oravainen; S. Bostrom

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Biomass Combustion Systems Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Combustion Systems Inc Combustion Systems Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Biomass Combustion Systems Inc Address 67 Millbrook St Place Worcester, Massachusetts Zip 01606 Sector Biomass Product Combustion systems for wood fuel Website http://www.biomasscombustion.c Coordinates 42.290195°, -71.799627° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.290195,"lon":-71.799627,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

369

Chemical Looping for Combustion and Hydrogen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ChemiCal looping for Combustion and ChemiCal looping for Combustion and hydrogen produCtion Objective The objective of this project is to determine the benefits of chemical looping technology used with coal to reduce CO 2 emissions. Background Chemical looping is a new method to convert coal or gasified coal to energy. In chemical looping, there is no direct contact between air and fuel. The chemical looping process utilizes oxygen from metal oxide oxygen carrier for fuel combustion, or for making hydrogen by "reducing" water. In combustion applications, the products of chemical looping are CO 2 and H 2 O. Thus, once the steam is condensed, a relatively pure stream of CO 2 is produced ready for sequestration. The production of a sequestration ready CO 2 stream does not require any additional separation units

370

Coal fuel slurry for internal combustion engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A technoeconomic study of the production of coal-water fuel slurry for internal combustion engines and thermal power plants was performed. Based on the accumulated experimental data, it was found that, in the ...

N. I. Red’kina; G. S. Khodakov; E. G. Gorlov

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

The Role of Volatiles in Coal Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Our knowledge of the role of volatiles in coal combustion ranges at this time from the self-evident to the ambiguous. The clearest point on which all agree is that pyrolysis will occur during the total coal co...

Robert H. Essenhigh; Eric M. Suuberg

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Oil shale retorting and combustion system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to the extraction of energy values from l shale containing considerable concentrations of calcium carbonate in an efficient manner. The volatiles are separated from the oil shale in a retorting zone of a fluidized bed where the temperature and the concentration of oxygen are maintained at sufficiently low levels so that the volatiles are extracted from the oil shale with minimal combustion of the volatiles and with minimal calcination of the calcium carbonate. These gaseous volatiles and the calcium carbonate flow from the retorting zone into a freeboard combustion zone where the volatiles are burned in the presence of excess air. In this zone the calcination of the calcium carbonate occurs but at the expense of less BTU's than would be required by the calcination reaction in the event both the retorting and combustion steps took place simultaneously. The heat values in the products of combustion are satisfactorily recovered in a suitable heat exchange system.

Pitrolo, Augustine A. (Fairmont, WV); Mei, Joseph S. (Morgantown, WV); Shang, Jerry Y. (Fairfax, VA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Coal Combustion By-Products (Maryland)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Department of the Environment is responsible for regulating fugitive air emissions from the transportation of coal combustion by-products and the permissible beneficial uses of these by...

374

Control of NOx by combustion process modifications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A theoretical and experimental study was carried out to determine lower bounds of NOx emission from staged combustion of a 0.7%N #6 fuel oil. Thermodynamic and chemical kinetic calculations have shown minimum NOx emissions ...

Ber?, J. M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the fourth quarter January-March 2001 in the following task areas: Task 1 - Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2 - Oxygen Transport Membranes and Task 4 - Program Management. This report will also recap the results of the past year. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the first year. OTM material characterization was completed. 100% of commercial target flux was demonstrated with OTM disks. The design and assembly of Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility was completed. The production of oxygen with a purity of better than 99.5% was demonstrated. Coal combustion testing was conducted at the University of Arizona. Modest oxygen enhancement resulted in NOx emissions reduction. The injector for oxygen enhanced coal based reburning was conducted at Praxair. Combustion modeling with Keystone boiler was completed. Pilot-scale combustion test furnace simulations continued this quarter.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Virtual Design of Stirling Engine Combustion Chamber  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper deals with the designing of a combustion chamber of the Stirling engine using the CFD approach. Virtual prototypes enabled ... . The presented results help to increase the Stirling engine efficiency tog...

Z. Kaplan; P. Novotný; V. Píšt?k

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Vortex driven flame dynamics and combustion instability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Combustion instability in premixed combustors mostly arises due to the coupling between heat release rate dynamics and system acoustics. It is crucial to understand the instability mechanisms to design reliable, high ...

Altay, Hurrem Murat

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

State of Industrial Fluidized Bed Combustion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new combustion technique has been developed in the last decade that permits the burning of low quality coal, lignite and other fuels, while maintaining stack emissions within State and Federal limits. Low quality fuels can be burned directly...

Mesko, J. E.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Coal Combustion Products Extension Program  

SciTech Connect

This final project report presents the activities and accomplishments of the ''Coal Combustion Products Extension Program'' conducted at The Ohio State University from August 1, 2000 to June 30, 2005 to advance the beneficial uses of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highway and construction, mine reclamation, agricultural, and manufacturing sectors. The objective of this technology transfer/research program at The Ohio State University was to promote the increased use of Ohio CCPs (fly ash, FGD material, bottom ash, and boiler slag) in applications that are technically sound, environmentally benign, and commercially competitive. The project objective was accomplished by housing the CCP Extension Program within The Ohio State University College of Engineering with support from the university Extension Service and The Ohio State University Research Foundation. Dr. Tarunjit S. Butalia, an internationally reputed CCP expert and registered professional engineer, was the program coordinator. The program coordinator acted as liaison among CCP stakeholders in the state, produced information sheets, provided expertise in the field to those who desired it, sponsored and co-sponsored seminars, meetings, and speaking at these events, and generally worked to promote knowledge about the productive and proper application of CCPs as useful raw materials. The major accomplishments of the program were: (1) Increase in FGD material utilization rate from 8% in 1997 to more than 20% in 2005, and an increase in overall CCP utilization rate of 21% in 1997 to just under 30% in 2005 for the State of Ohio. (2) Recognition as a ''voice of trust'' among Ohio and national CCP stakeholders (particularly regulatory agencies). (3) Establishment of a national and international reputation, especially for the use of FGD materials and fly ash in construction applications. It is recommended that to increase Ohio's CCP utilization rate from 30% in 2005 to 40% by 2010, the CCP Extension Program be expanded at OSU, with support from state and federal agencies, utilities, trade groups, and the university, to focus on the following four specific areas of promise: (a) Expanding use in proven areas (such as use of fly ash in concrete); (b) Removing or reducing regulatory and perceptual barriers to use (by working in collaboration with regulatory agencies); (c) Developing new or under-used large-volume market applications (such as structural fills); and (d) Placing greater emphasis on FGD byproducts utilization.

Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe

2006-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

380

Fundamental Studies in Syngas Premixed Combustion Dynamics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Studies Studies in Syngas Premixed Combustion Dynamics Ahmed F. Ghoniem, Anuradha M. Annaswamy, Raymond L. Speth, H. Murat Altay Massachusetts Institute of Technology SCIES Project 05-01-SR121 Project Awarded (08/01/2005, 36 Month Duration) Needs & Objectives Gas Turbine Needs Flexibility to operate with variable syngas compositions Ensure stable operation over a wide range of conditions Reduce emissions of CO and NO x Project Objectives Study experimentally lean premixed syngas combustion

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brownish-black solid combustible" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Oxy-combustion: Oxygen Transport Membrane Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

combustion: Oxygen Transport combustion: Oxygen Transport Membrane Development Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Existing Plants, Emissions & Capture (EPEC) Research & Development (R&D) Program is to develop innovative environmental control technologies to enable full use of the nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. The EPEC R&D

382

Building America Expert Meeting: Combustion Safety  

SciTech Connect

This is a meeting overview of 'The Best Approach to Combustion Safety in a Direct Vent World', held June 28, 2012, in San Antonio, Texas. The objective of this Expert Meeting was to identify gaps and barriers that need to be addressed by future research, and to develop data-driven technical recommendations for code updates so that a common approach for combustion safety can be adopted by all members of the building energy efficiency and code communities.

Brand, L.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Rapid Deployment of Rich Catalytic Combustion  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this research under the Turbines Program is the deployment of fuel flexible rich catalytic combustion technology into high-pressure ratio industrial gas turbines. The resulting combustion systems will provide fuel flexibility for gas turbines to burn coal derived synthesis gas or natural gas and achieve NO{sub x} emissions of 2 ppmvd or less (at 15 percent O{sub 2}), cost effectively. This advance will signify a major step towards environmentally friendly electric power generation and coal-based energy independence for the United States. Under Phase 1 of the Program, Pratt & Whitney (P&W) performed a system integration study of rich catalytic combustion in a small high-pressure ratio industrial gas turbine with a silo combustion system that is easily scalable to a larger multi-chamber gas turbine system. An implementation plan for this technology also was studied. The principal achievement of the Phase 1 effort was the sizing of the catalytic module in a manner which allowed a single reactor (rather than multiple reactors) to be used by the combustion system, a conclusion regarding the amount of air that should be allocated to the reaction zone to achieve low emissions, definition of a combustion staging strategy to achieve low emissions, and mechanical integration of a Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) combustor liner with the catalytic module.

Richard S. Tuthill

2004-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

384

Effect of Oxyfuel Combustion on Superheater Corrosion  

SciTech Connect

Combustion of coal in an oxygen environment (as opposed to air) will facilitate the sequestering of carbon dioxide by minimizing the amount of nitrogen in the exit gas stream. The presence of higher levels of certain gases associated with oxyfuel combustion (eg, CO2, SO2, and H2O) may impact the corrosion of waterwalls, superheaters, headers, reheaters, and other boiler components. Research is being conducted on bare and ash-embedded boiler tube materials in simulated oxyfuel- combustion and air-combustion environments at a superheater temperature of 675°C. Alloys were exposed at temperature to two different gaseous environments. Preliminary results show: (1) an increase in corrosion rate of bare K02707, K11547, K21590, K91560, K92460, S30409, S34700, and N06617 exposed to the oxyfuel combustion environment when compared to the air combustion environment; (2) an increase in corrosion rate of alloys K21590, K92460, S34700, and N06617, when embedded in ash in comparison to bare exposure; and (3) no effect of gaseous environment on alloy corrosion rate when embedded in ash.

Covino, B.S., Jr.; Matthes, S.A.; Bullard, S.J.

2008-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

385

Combustion kinetics and reaction pathways  

SciTech Connect

This project is focused on the fundamental chemistry of combustion. The overall objectives are to determine rate constants for elementary reactions and to elucidate the pathways of multichannel reactions. A multitechnique approach that features three independent experiments provides unique capabilities in performing reliable kinetic measurements over an exceptionally wide range in temperature, 300 to 2500 K. Recent kinetic work has focused on experimental studies and theoretical calculations of the methane dissociation system (CH{sub 4} + Ar {yields} CH{sub 3} + H + Ar and H + CH{sub 4} {yields} CH{sub 3} + H{sub 2}). Additionally, a discharge flow-photoionization mass spectrometer (DF-PIMS) experiment is used to determine branching fractions for multichannel reactions and to measure ionization thresholds of free radicals. Thus, these photoionization experiments generate data that are relevant to both reaction pathways studies (reaction dynamics) and fundamental thermochemical research. Two distinct advantages of performing PIMS with high intensity, tunable vacuum ultraviolet light at the National Synchrotron Light Source are high detection sensitivity and exceptional selectivity in monitoring radical species.

Klemm, R.B.; Sutherland, J.W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Pilot scale production and combustion of liquid fuels from refuse derived fuel (RDF): Part 2  

SciTech Connect

EnerTech is developing a process for producing pumpable slurry fuels, comparable to Coal-Water-Fuels (CWF), from solid Refuse Derived Fuels (RDF). Previous reports have described the characteristics of the enhanced carbonized RDF slurry fuels. This paper summarizes those fuel characteristics and reports on the latest combustion tests performed with the final product fuel. The objective of this research was to determine the boiler and emission performance from the carbonized RDF slurry fuel using statistical screening experiments. Eight combustion tests were performed with a pilot scale pulverized coal/oil boiler simulator, with CO, SO{sub 2}, and NO{sub x} emissions determined on-line. The combustion tests produced simultaneous CO and NO{sub x} emissions well below and SO{sub 2} emissions comparable to the promulgated New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). This research will form the basis for later combustion experiments to be performed with the carbonized RDF slurry fuel, in which dioxin/furan and trace metal emissions will be determined.

Klosky, M.K. [EnerTech Environmental, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Chemicl-looping combustion of coal with metal oxide oxygen carriers  

SciTech Connect

The combustion and reoxidation properties of direct coal chemical-looping combustion (CLC) over CuO, Fe2O3, Co3O4, NiO, and Mn2O3 were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and bench-scale fixed-bed flow reactor studies. When coal is heated in either nitrogen or carbon dioxide (CO2), 50% of weight loss was observed because of partial pyrolysis, consistent with the proximate analysis. Among various metal oxides evaluated, CuO showed the best reaction properties: CuO can initiate the reduction reaction as low as 500 °C and complete the full combustion at 700 °C. In addition, the reduced copper can be fully reoxidized by air at 700 °C. The combustion products formed during the CLC reaction of the coal/metal oxide mixture are CO2 and water, while no carbon monoxide was observed. Multicycle TGA tests and bench-scale fixed-bed flow reactor tests strongly supported the feasibility of CLC of coal by using CuO as an oxygen carrier. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of solid reaction products indicated some changes in the surface morphology of a CuO-coal sample after reduction/oxidation reactions at 800 °C. However, significant surface sintering was not observed. The interactions of fly ash with metal oxides were investigated by X-ray diffraction and thermodynamic analysis. Overall, the results indicated that it is feasible to develop CLC with coal by metal oxides as oxygen carriers.

Siriwardane, R.; Tian, H.; Richards, G.; Simonyi, T.; Poston, J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Apparatus for improving gasoline comsumption, power and reducing emission pollutants of internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for improving performance and reducing fuel comsumption and emission pollutants from an internal combustion gasoline engine. This apparatus consists of: 1.) an internal combustion gasoline engine having, in part, an intake manifold and an exhaust manifold where the exhaust manifold is modified to include a manifold exhaust port; 2.) a modified internal combustion engine carburetor connected to the intake manifold on the engine; 3.) a positive crankcase ventilation valve (PCV) which has an input port conventionally connected to the internal combustion engine and also has a PCV output port; 4.) an automobile fuel pump having an input connected to a conventional fuel tank and having a fuel pump output port; 5.) a thermic reactor; 6.) a thermic reactor air cleaner pneumatically connected to the clean air input port on the thermic reactor; 7.) a catalytic gas injector; 8.) a fuel regulator/restrictor consisting of a solid block having a fuel pump input port and a carburetor output port.

Piedrafita, R.

1986-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

389

Reducible Oxide Based Oxygen Carriers for Chemical Looping Combustion and Partial Oxidation of Methane.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a novel combustion technology that offers a highly efficient route towards clean combustion of fuel with inherent CO2 capture. In… (more)

Bhavsar, Saurabh

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

An In-Cylinder Imaging Survey of Low-Temperature, High-Efficiency Combustion Strategies  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

High speed imaging of in-cylinder spray and combustion luminosity of low temperature combustion strategies are contrasted to conventional gasoline and diesel engine combustion

391

Advanced High Efficiency Clean Diesel Combustion with Low Cost for Hybrid Engines  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Clean, in-cylinder combustion can be enabled by a micro-variable circular orifice, dual mode PCCI, dew film combustion, and a novel combustion chamber design

392

Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

emissions during biomass combustion: Controlling factors andfrom smoldering combustion of biomass measured by open-pathduring the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory

McMeeking, Gavin R.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion: Heavy-Duty Optical-Engine...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion: Heavy-Duty Optical-Engine Research Fuels and Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion...

394

Combustion Synthesis of Silicon Carbide 389 Combustion Synthesis of Silicon Carbide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Combustion Synthesis of Silicon Carbide 389 X Combustion Synthesis of Silicon Carbide Alexander S velocity and 17 #12;Properties and Applications of Silicon Carbide390 reaction rate throughout the mixture by graphite during SHS of carbides. Local reaction initiation is typically accomplished by hot tungsten wire

Mukasyan, Alexander

395

NETL: IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Oxy-Combustion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

IEP - Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control IEP - Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Oxy-Combustion Technology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications Project No.: DE-NT0005290 Alstom oxy-combustion test facility Alstom oxy-combustion test facility. Alstom will develop an oxyfuel firing system design specifically for retrofit to tangential-fired (T-fired) boilers and provide information to address the technical gaps for commercial boiler design. Several oxyfuel system design concepts, such as internal flue gas recirculation and various oxygen injection schemes, will be evaluated for cost-effectiveness in satisfying furnace design conditions in a T-fired boiler. The evaluation will use an array of tools, including Alstom's proprietary models and design codes, along with 3-D computational fluid dynamics modeling. A

396

Energy aspects of solid waste management: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The Eighteenth Annual Illinois Energy Conference entitled ``Energy Aspects of Solid Waste Management`` was held in Chicago, Illinois on October 29--30, 1990. The conference program was developed by a planning committee that drew upon Illinois energy and environmental specialists from the major sectors including energy industries, environmental organizations, research universities, utility companies, federal, state and local government agencies, and public interest groups. Within this framework, the committee identified a number of key topic areas surrounding solid waste management in Illinois which were the focus of the conference. These issues included: review of the main components of the solid waste cycle in the Midwest and what the relative impact of waste reduction, recycling, incineration and land disposal might be on Illinois` and the Midwest`s solid waste management program. Investigation of special programs in the Midwest dealing with sewage sludge, combustion residuals and medical/infectious wastes. Review of the status of existing landfills in Illinois and the Midwest and an examination of the current plans for siting of new land disposal systems. Review of the status of incinerators and waste-to-energy systems in Illinois and the Midwest, as well as an update on activities to maximize methane production from landfills in the Midwest.

Not Available

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

397

Integrated facility for municipal solid waste disposal, electrical generation, and desalination. Master`s thesis  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary design was completed for a facility that uses municipal solid waste as fuel for generating electricity and cogeneration steam for a seawater desalination unit. An average city of 100,000 population is the basis of the design. The design showed that heat from the combustion of municipal solid waste will provide nearly 2% of per capita electrical power needs and 7% of fresh water requirements. This thesis proposes a new arrangement of known technologies for use in Public Works.

Hanby, G.F.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

398

9 - Oxyfuel combustion systems and technology for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture in power plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: Oxyfuel combustion uses pure oxygen instead of air to burn carbonaceous materials, resulting in a CO2 separation efficiency theoretically close to 100 % should the fuel and oxygen be free of contaminants. This chapter examines several oxyfuel systems, considering two categories of power cycle – those based on steam cycles and those based on gas cycles – both of which generate oxygen using a cryogenic air separation unit. Also covered is the AZEP cycle, which belongs in the second category but which uses a ceramic membrane integrated into the system to separate oxygen from air. Oxy-combustion in IGCC plants and in gas turbine cycles integrating solid oxide fuel cells is also examined here as a low emission process. The technical issues and future potential for each option are discussed and reference is made to several pilot installations and ongoing R & D projects.

P. Mathieu

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

ESTABLISHMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY WITH A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

This report is to present the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period July 1, 2004 through September 30, 2004. The following tasks have been completed. First, renovation of the new Combustion Laboratory and the construction of the Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Combustor Building have started. Second, the design if the component parts of the CFBC system have been reviewed and finalized so that the drawings may be released to the manufacturers during the next quarter. Third, the experiments for solid waste (chicken litter) incineration have been conducted using a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA). This is in preparation for testing in the simulated fluidized-bed combustor. The experimental results from this study are presented in this report. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter has been outlined in this report.

Wei-Ping Pan; Andy Wu; John T. Riley

2004-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

400

Federal Energy Management Program: FEMP Technology Brief: Boiler Combustion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FEMP Technology FEMP Technology Brief: Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring System to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: FEMP Technology Brief: Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring System on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: FEMP Technology Brief: Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring System on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: FEMP Technology Brief: Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring System on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: FEMP Technology Brief: Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring System on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: FEMP Technology Brief: Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring System on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: FEMP

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brownish-black solid combustible" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solid-State Lighting Search Solid-State Lighting Search Search Help Solid-State Lighting HOME ABOUT THE PROGRAM R&D PROJECTS MARKET-BASED PROGRAMS SSL BASICS INFORMATION RESOURCES FINANCIAL OPPORTUNITIES EERE » Building Technologies Office » Solid-State Lighting Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting on AddThis.com... Pause/Resume Photo of a large room with people standing around poster boards.

402

Soil stabilization using oil shale solid wastes: Laboratory evaluation of engineering properties  

SciTech Connect

Oil shale solid wastes were evaluated for possible use as soil stabilizers. A laboratory study was conducted and consisted of the following tests on compacted samples of soil treated with water and spent oil shale: unconfined compressive strength, moisture-density relationships, wet-dry and freeze-thaw durability, and resilient modulus. Significant increases in strength, durability, and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a silty sand with combusted western oil shale. Moderate increases in strength, durability, and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a highly plastic clay with combusted western oil shale. Solid waste from eastern shale can be used for soil stabilization if limestone is added during combustion. Without limestone, eastern oil shale waste exhibits little or no cementation. The testing methods, results, and recommendations for mix design of spent shale-stabilized pavement subgrades are presented. 11 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

Turner, J.P.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Flamelet model for pulverized coal combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A new flamelet model applicable to the simulation of pulverized coal combustion has been developed. First, a modeling approach that considers the coupling with both devolatilization and char combustion was adopted. We changed the fuel composition of the flamelet equation relative to the states of devolatilization and char combustion. In order to determine the fuel composition coming through the char combustion, all the gasified char was assumed to be converted into CO by the oxidation reaction. The validity of the developed flamelet model was examined in a simple two-dimensional pulverized coal jet field ignited by burnt co-flows. The accuracy of the model was evaluated by comparing its instantaneous distributions of temperature, CO2 mass fraction, and OH mass fraction with those of a detailed chemistry model. Good agreement was obtained in terms of the overall features of turbulent structures and combustion state, although the flamelet model showed slightly quicker ignition due to the transitional state in the ignition process being insufficiently reproducible.

Junya Watanabe; Kenji Yamamoto

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Reaction and diffusion in turbulent combustion  

SciTech Connect

The motivation for this project is the need to obtain a better quantitative understanding of the technologically-important phenomenon of turbulent combustion. In nearly all applications in which fuel is burned-for example, fossil-fuel power plants, furnaces, gas-turbines and internal-combustion engines-the combustion takes place in a turbulent flow. Designers continually demand more quantitative information about this phenomenon-in the form of turbulent combustion models-so that they can design equipment with increased efficiency and decreased environmental impact. For some time the PI has been developing a class of turbulent combustion models known as PDF methods. These methods have the important virtue that both convection and reaction can be treated without turbulence-modelling assumptions. However, a mixing model is required to account for the effects of molecular diffusion. Currently, the available mixing models are known to have some significant defects. The major motivation of the project is to seek a better understanding of molecular diffusion in turbulent reactive flows, and hence to develop a better mixing model.

Pope, S.B. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Ithaca, NY (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the fourth quarter January-March 2002 in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. This report will also recap the results of the past year. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the second year. The first round of pilot scale testing with 3 bituminous coals was completed at the University of Utah. Full-scale testing equipment is in place and experiments are underway. Coal combustion lab-scale testing was completed at the University of Arizona. Modest oxygen enhancement resulted in NOx emissions reduction. Combustion modeling activities continued with pilot-scale combustion test furnace simulations. 75% of target oxygen flux was demonstrated with small PSO1 tube in Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility. The production of oxygen with a purity of better than 99.999% was demonstrated. Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Two potential host sites have been identified.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Descargue Datos de Ahorro de Combustible  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Descargue Datos de Ahorro de Combustible Descargue Datos de Ahorro de Combustible Los datos de ahorro de combustible son el resultado de las pruebas realizadas en el Laboratorio de Emisiones de Combustible y Vehículos de la Agencia Nacional de Protección del Medio Ambiente en Ann Arbor, Michigan y por fabricantes de automóviles, con la supervisión de la EPA. Archivo Descargable de Ahorro de Combustible Archivo* de la Guía de Ahorremos Gasolina Archivo 2014 No Disponible Archivo 2013 de la Guía de Ahorremos Gasolina 2013 Ícono de Adobe Acrobat Archivo 2012 de la Guía de Ahorremos Gasolina 2012 Ícono de Adobe Acrobat Archivo 2011 de la Guía de Ahorremos Gasolina 2011 Ícono de Adobe Acrobat Archivo 2010 de la Guía de Ahorremos Gasolina 2010 Ícono de Adobe Acrobat Archivo 2009 de la Guía de Ahorremos Gasolina 2009 Ícono de Adobe Acrobat

407

Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 1  

SciTech Connect

Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL hot recycle solids oil shale retorting process has been studied as a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH{sub 3} as areductant. Combusted Green River oil shale heated at 10{degrees}C/min in an Ar/O{sub 2}/NO/NH{sub 3} mixture ({approximately}93%/6%/2000 ppm/4000 ppm) with a gas residence time of {approximately}0.6 sec exhibited NO removal between 250 and 500{degrees}C, with maximum removal of 70% at {approximately}400{degrees}C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was found to be {approximately}64%. When CO{sub 2} was added to the gas mixture at {approximately}8%, the NO removal dropped to {approximately}50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to {approximately}1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. These results are not based on optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized (combusted) oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH{sub 3} as the reductant.

Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

1992-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

408

Combustion of pulverized coal in vortex structures. Quarterly progress report No. 1, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of the project are: to investigate the changes in the characteristics of large scale vortex structures in the shear layer caused by the introduction of inert solid particles in one of the feed streams; to understand the effects of pyrolyzing solids on the shear layer behavior; to study the effect of combustion of the pyrolysis products on the shear layer structure, heat release rate, and pollutant emission characteristics; and to study the effect of modifying the shear layer characteristics on the ensuing flame behavior. The specific objectives for the first quarter were: to update the literature survey, to design and fabrication of the two-dimensional nozzle, and to modify the combustion chamber facility already existing in the lab to accommodate the nozzle constructed.

Gollahalli, S.R.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 12, Numerically indexed bibliography  

SciTech Connect

This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

none,

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Clean solid biofuel production from high moisture content waste biomass employing hydrothermal treatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Our society currently faces three challenges, including resource depletion, waste accumulation and environmental degradation, leading to rapidly escalating raw material costs and increasingly expensive and restrictive waste disposal legislation. This work aims to produce clean solid biofuel from high moisture content waste biomass (bio-waste) with high nitrogen (N)/chlorine (Cl) content by mild hydrothermal (HT) conversion processes. The newest results are summarized and discussed in terms of the mechanical dewatering and upgrading, dechlorination, denitrification and coalification resulting from the HT pretreatment. Moreover, both the mono-combustion and co-combustion characteristics of the solid fuel are reviewed by concentrating on the pollutants emission control, especially the NO emission properties. In addition, the feasibility of this HT solid biofuel production process is also discussed in terms of “Energy Balance and economic viability”. As an alternative to dry combustion/dry pyrolysis/co-combustion, the HT process, combining the dehydration and decarboxylation of a biomass to raise its carbon content aiming to achieve a higher calorific value, opens up the field of potential feedstock for lignite-like solid biofuel production from a wide range of nontraditional renewable and plentiful wet agricultural residues, sludge and municipal wastes. It would contribute to a wider application of HT pretreatment bio-wastes for safe disposal and energy recycling.

Peitao Zhao; Yafei Shen; Shifu Ge; Zhenqian Chen; Kunio Yoshikawa

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Methane Combustion over Pd/ZrO2/SiC, Pd/CeO2/SiC, Pd/Zr0.5Ce0.5O2/SiC Catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Methane Combustion over Pd/ZrO2/SiC, Pd/CeO2/SiC, Pd/Zr0.5Ce0.5O2/SiC Catalysts Xiaoning Guo a Laboratory of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Taiyuan 030001, PR China b GREMI UMR6606 CNRS0.5O2 solid solution) modified Pd/SiC catalysts for methane combustion are studied. XRD and XPS

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

412

LASER STABILIZATION FOR NEAR ZERO NO{sub x} GAS TURBINE COMBUSTION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

Historically, the development of new industrial gas turbines has been primarily driven by the intent to achieve higher efficiency, lower operating costs and lower emissions. Higher efficiency and lower cost is obtained through higher turbine operating temperatures, while reduction in emissions is obtained by extending the lean operating limit of the combustor. However reduction in the lean stability limit of operation is limited greatly by the chemistry of the combustion process and by the occurrence of thermo-acoustic instabilities. Solar Turbines, CFD Research Corporation, and Los Alamos National Laboratory have teamed to advance the technology associated with laser-assisted ignition and flame stabilization, to a level where it could be incorporated onto a gas turbine combustor. The system being developed is expected to enhance the lean stability limit of the swirl stabilized combustion process and assist in reducing combustion oscillations. Such a system has the potential to allow operation at the ultra-lean conditions needed to achieve NO{sub x} emissions below 5 ppm without the need of exhaust treatment or catalytic technologies. The research effort was focused on analytically modeling laser-assisted flame stabilization using advanced CFD techniques, and experimentally demonstrating the technology, using a solid-state laser and low-cost durable optics. A pulsed laser beam was used to generate a plasma pool at strategic locations within the combustor flow field such that the energy from the plasma became an ignition source and helped maintain a flame at ultra lean operating conditions. The periodic plasma generation and decay was used to nullify the fluctuations in the heat release from the flame itself, thus decoupling the heat release from the combustor acoustics and effectively reducing the combustion oscillations. The program was built on an existing technology base and includes: extending LANL's existing laser stabilization experience to a sub-scale combustor rig, performing and validating CFD predictions, and ultimately conducting a full system demonstration in a multi-injector combustion system at Solar Turbines.

Vivek Khanna

2002-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

413

Multiphase CFD-based models for chemical looping combustion process: Fuel reactor modeling  

SciTech Connect

Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a flameless two-step fuel combustion that produces a pure CO2 stream, ready for compression and sequestration. The process is composed of two interconnected fluidized bed reactors. The air reactor which is a conventional circulating fluidized bed and the fuel reactor which is a bubbling fluidized bed. The basic principle is to avoid the direct contact of air and fuel during the combustion by introducing a highly-reactive metal particle, referred to as oxygen carrier, to transport oxygen from the air to the fuel. In the process, the products from combustion are kept separated from the rest of the flue gases namely nitrogen and excess oxygen. This process eliminates the energy intensive step to separate the CO2 from nitrogen-rich flue gas that reduce the thermal efficiency. Fundamental knowledge of multiphase reactive fluid dynamic behavior of the gas–solid flow is essential for the optimization and operation of a chemical looping combustor. Our recent thorough literature review shows that multiphase CFD-based models have not been adapted to chemical looping combustion processes in the open literature. In this study, we have developed the reaction kinetics model of the fuel reactor and implemented the kinetic model into a multiphase hydrodynamic model, MFIX, developed earlier at the National Energy Technology Laboratory. Simulated fuel reactor flows revealed high weight fraction of unburned methane fuel in the flue gas along with CO2 and H2O. This behavior implies high fuel loss at the exit of the reactor and indicates the necessity to increase the residence time, say by decreasing the fuel flow rate, or to recirculate the unburned methane after condensing and removing CO2.

Jung, Jonghwun (ANL); Gamwo, I.K.

2008-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

414

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the second quarter July--September 2000 in the following task areas: Task 1-Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2-Oxygen Transport Membranes and Task 4-Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the first year. OTM tube characterization is well underway, the design and assembly of the high pressure permeation test facility is complete and the facility will be in full operation during the next quarter. Combustion testing has been initiated at both the University of Arizona and Praxair. Testing at the University of Arizona has experienced some delays; steps have been take to get the test work back on schedule. Completion of the first phase of the testing is expected in next quarter. Combustion modeling has been started at both REI and Praxair, preliminary results are expected in the next quarter.

Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen; David R. Thompson

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Understanding the thermodynamic inefficiencies in combustion processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The thermodynamic inefficiencies associated with any energy conversion process are expressed by the exergy destruction and the exergy losses associated with the process. Combustion processes exhibit very high thermodynamic inefficiencies caused by chemical reaction, heat transfer, friction, and mixing. In this paper, we discuss how to estimate the thermodynamic inefficiencies resulting from each one of these sources. The thermodynamic evaluation can be conducted with the aid of either a conventional exergetic analysis or an advanced one. The latter allows estimation of the potential for improvement of the process being considered and demonstrates the interactions among the components of the system in which combustion takes place. The paper discusses how advanced exergy-based evaluations can be used to reduce the thermodynamic inefficiencies, costs, and environmental impacts associated with energy conversion systems including combustion processes.

George Tsatsaronis; Tatiana Morosuk; Daniela Koch; Max Sorgenfrei

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Premixed Combustion of Hydrogen Augmented Natural Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Premixed Combustion of Hydrogen Premixed Combustion of Hydrogen Augmented Natural Gas * Lean premixed combustion * Effective for emission reduction with natural gas * High hydrogen flame speed requires care in premixer design for SGH fuels * UC Irvine study quantifies effectiveness of hydrogen augmentation strategy * Lean stability limit improves linearly with hydrogen augmentation * Emissions reduction can be achieved * Two OEM's and the California Energy Commission have used the results to help guide them on adapting to hydrogen fuel UC Irvine Scott Samuelsen / Vince McDonell Project 98-01-SR062 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Hydrogen Volume in Main Fuel (%) Adiabatic Flame Temperature (K) P0(3/4) High Stability High Stability Low emission Low emission operational zone operational zone

417

Study of the potential valorization of metal contaminated Salix via phytoextraction by combustion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, different energy-recovery- techniques (incineration, combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

418

Use of manganese ore in chemical-looping combustion (CLC)—Effect on steam gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The chemical-looping combustion (CLC) process is a novel solution for efficient combustion with direct separation of carbon dioxide. The process uses a metal oxide as an oxygen carrier to transfer oxygen from an air to a fuel reactor, where the fuel reacts with the solid oxygen carrier. When solid fuel is used in CLC, the char needs to be gasified by e.g. steam to form H2 and CO that can be subsequently oxidized to H2O and CO2 by the oxygen carrier. In this work, the influence of the oxygen carrier on the rate of steam gasification is studied, by comparing the conversion of petcoke in the presence of manganese ore to that of ilmenite. The experiments were carried out in a fluidized-bed reactor at 970 °C using a fluidization gas of 50% steam in nitrogen. The manganese ore shows an increase by a factor five in the rate of steam gasification of char as compared to ilmenite. The dramatic increase in rate of steam gasification, in combination with potentially low costs of this material suggests that manganese ore could be an interesting material for CLC with solid fuels.

Mehdi Arjmand; Henrik Leion; Anders Lyngfelt; Tobias Mattisson

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

NO/sub x/ control and recovery from products of combustion  

SciTech Connect

The disclosed method for removing nitric oxide and or nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub x/) from a gaseous stream comprises the step of intimately mixing sodium or potassium carbonate and either ferric oxide or manganese dioxide. The gaseous stream containing NO/sub x/ is subsequently brought into contact with the mixture at a temperature between 300/sup 0/C and 500/sup 0/C to cause absorption of the NO/sub x/ in the mixture. Nitric oxide can be desorbed from the mixture by elevating its temperature or by other chemical processes. It is also possible to return the concentrated NO/sub x/ gaseous products to the producing combustion chamber for decomposition at the equilibrium concentration at the combustion chamber temperature. It is a first object of this disclosure to provide an effective solid sorbent for NO/sub x/ in a gaseous stream, the sorbent being produced by simple mixing without requiring further preprocessing of the chemicals before or after their mixture. Another object of this invention is to provide a solid sorbent having higher absorbing capabilities than those previously reported. Another object is to provide a solid sorbent which is effective in gaseous streams containing substantial quantities of either carbon dioxide or oxygen.

Evoniuk, C.J.; McCandless, F.P.

1980-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

420

Hydrothermal combustion of biofuels in supercritical water  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) has long been recognized as a safe, clean and energy efficient method for destroying a wide range of organic materials and hazardous wastes. As SCWO systems operate at elevated pressure, all effluent streams are fully contained allowing efficient recovery of thermal energy using compact heat exchangers. Water vapor produced by the combustion efficiency, especially for fuels with increasing moisture content such as biomass. This paper compares the performance of a simple Rankine vapor power cycle which derives it`s heat input from (1) a hydrothermal combustion system, and (2) a conventionally-fired steam boiler. The study is based on a hypothetical cellulose-based organic fuel with a higher heating value of 7,000 BT/1bm (dry). For a constant organic feedrate of 100 tons/day (bone dry) mixed in 20:80 fuel/water ratio with water, the calculated net electric power output from the 31.93%. Whereas, for an organic feedrate of 100 tons/day (bone dry) with zero of 5,382 kW, at an overall thermal efficiency of 31.48%. The hydrothermal combustion power cycle is unaffected by free moisture in the fuel, and thereby uniquely well-suited for use in biomass power generation applications. The hydrothermal combustion process is exceptionally clean burning, and allows full control over carbon dioxide and SOx emissions. NOx levels are inherently ultra-low due to lower combustion temperatures. Hydrothermal combustion technology is ready for pilot-scale engineering development and demonstration.

McGuinness, T.G. [Summit Research Corporation, Sante Fe, NM (United States); Marentis, R. [Summit Research Corporation, Allentown, PA (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brownish-black solid combustible" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Argonne TTRDC - Engines - Home - combustion, compression ignition,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

* Combustion Visualization * Combustion Visualization * Compression-Ignition * Emissions Control * Fuel Injection and Sprays * Idling * Multi-Dimensional Modeling * Particulate Matter * Spark Ignition Green Racing GREET Hybrid Electric Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Materials Modeling, Simulation & Software Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles PSAT Smart Grid Student Competitions Technology Analysis Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center Working With Argonne Contact TTRDC Engines Omnivorous engine tested by Thomas Wallner Thomas Wallner tests the omnivorous engine, a type of spark-ignition engine. Argonne's engine research is contributing to advances in technology that will impact the use of conventional and alternative fuels and the design of advanced technology vehicles. Compression Ignition

422

Building America Expert Meeting: Combustion Safety  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Meeting: Combustion Safety Meeting: Combustion Safety L. Brand Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit March 2013 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, subcontractors, or affiliated partners makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply

423

Building America Expert Meeting: Combustion Safety  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This expert meeting, The Best Approach to Combustion Safety in a Direct Vent World, was conducted by the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit team on June 28, 2012, in San Antonio, TX. The objective of this Expert Meeting was to identify gaps and barriers that need to be addressed by future research, and to develop data-driven technical recommendations for code updates so that a common approach for combustion safety can be adopted by all members of the building energy efficiency and code communities.

424

Kinetic data base for combustion modeling  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this work is to develop a set of evaluated rate constants for use in the simulation of hydrocarbon combustion. The approach has been to begin with the small molecules and then introduce larger species with the various structural elements that can be found in all hydrocarbon fuels and decomposition products. Currently, the data base contains most of the species present in combustion systems with up to four carbon atoms. Thus, practically all the structural grouping found in aliphatic compounds have now been captured. The direction of future work is the addition of aromatic compounds to the data base.

Tsang, W.; Herron, J.T. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Resonance ionization detection of combustion radicals  

SciTech Connect

Fundamental research on the combustion of halogenated organic compounds with emphasis on reaction pathways leading to the formation of chlorinated aromatic compounds and the development of continuous emission monitoring methods will assist in DOE efforts in the management and disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. Selective laser ionization techniques are used in this laboratory for the measurement of concentration profiles of radical intermediates in the combustion of chlorinated hydrocarbon flames. A new ultrasensitive detection technique, made possible with the advent of tunable VUV laser sources, enables the selective near-threshold photoionization of all radical intermediates in premixed hydrocarbon and chlorinated hydrocarbon flames.

Cool, T.A. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Past experiences with automotive external combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

GMR (General Motors Research Laboratories, now GM R and D Center) has a history of improving the internal combustion engine, especially as it relates to automotive use. During the quarter century from 1950--75, considerable effort was devoted to evaluating alternative powerplants based on thermodynamic cycles different from those on which the established spark-ignition and diesel engines are founded. Two of these, the steam engine and the Stirling engine, incorporated external combustion. Research on those two alternatives is reviewed. Both were judged to fall short of current needs for commercial success as prime movers for conventional automotive vehicles.

Amann, C.A.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Evaluating the fluidized bed combustion options  

SciTech Connect

The proceedings from a conference on fluidized bed combustion are now available. The book discusses the immediate availability of atmospheric fluidized bed combustion technology as a practical, environmentally sound option for burning all grades of coal, wood, wood wastes, and biomass. The economics and technical fundamentals of atmospheric FBC are explained for the benefit of owners and managers of industrial boilers, boiler operators, architects/engineers, boiler manufacturers, and fuel suppliers. More than 15 FBC experts have contributed their expertise and experiences to the book.

Sheahan, R.T. (ed.)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

1 - Combustion processes of textile fibres  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: This chapter reviews the current knowledge of the processes involved in the combustion behaviour of textiles and approaches to their flame retardant protection. Synthetic fibre-forming polymers, both thermoplastic and high temperature resistant, as well as naturally occurring fibre types are discussed. The combustion process is described with reference to the thermal stability, degradation and oxidative degradation of various individual polymer types. The significance of textile structure is considered with respect to the textile flammability. The mechanisms of the different flame retardant systems applied to various textiles are discussed as well as the more recent application of nano-composites. Finally, a prediction of potential future developments is presented.

D. Price; A.R. Horrocks

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Non-Petroleum Based Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion (Agreement...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Non-Petroleum Based Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion (Agreement 13425) Non-Petroleum Based Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion (Agreement 13425) Presentation from the U.S. DOE...

430

Conditions of realization of superwet in-situ combustion  

SciTech Connect

In in-situ combustion adding water to the air considerably improves the characteristics of the process: the combustible fuel concentration is reduced, the steam plateau ahead of the combustion front increases, less oxidizer is required to displace the oil, and the thermal wave has a higher propagation velocity. In wet combustion the temperature in the combustion zone reaches approx. 500/sup 0/C. In superwet combustion it depends on the reservoir pressure and may be 200-300/sup 0/C. It is not known in advance whether the heat of combustion will suffice to sustain the thermal wave, and if it does suffice, what will be the maximum values of the water-air ratio for the process. This paper attempts to construct a mathematical model of the superwet combustion process.

Bokserman, A.A.; Stepanov, V.P.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Large-Eddy Simulation of Swirling Pulverized-Coal Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Eulerian-Lagrangian large-eddy simulation (LES) with a Smagorinsky-Lilly sub-grid scale stress model, presumed-PDF fast chemistry and EBU gas combustion models, particle devolatilization and particle combustion

L. Y. Hu; L. X. Zhou; Y. H. Luo; C. S. Xu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Carbonation of Fly Ash in Oxy-fuel CFB Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Oxy-fuel combustion of fossil fuel is one of the most promising methods to produce a stream of concentrated CO2 ready for sequestration. Oxy-fuel FBC (fluidized bed combustion) can use limestone as a sorbent for

Chunbo Wang; Lufei Jia; Yewen Tan…

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

A Comparison of Combustion and Emissions of Diesel Fuels and...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

A Comparison of Combustion and Emissions of Diesel Fuels and Oxygenated Fuels in a Modern DI Diesel Engine A Comparison of Combustion and Emissions of Diesel Fuels and Oxygenated...

434

Advanced Combustion Systems Project Information | netl.doe.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FC26-07NT43088 Recovery Act: Oxy-combustion: Oxygen Transport Membrane Development Praxair, Inc. Completed Projects FE0009686 High Efficiency Molten-Bed Oxy-Coal Combustion...

435

COMBUSTION RESEARCH PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT ANNUAL REPORT 1977  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The pulverized coal has significant ash content, about 6%.of Ash and Trace Metals from Pulverized Coal Combustion P.of Ash and Trace Metals from Pulverized Coal Combustion P.

Authors, Various

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

MILD combustion for hydrogen and syngas at elevated pressures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As gas recirculation constitutes a fundamental condition for the realization of MILD combustion, it is necessary to determine gas recirculation ratio before designing MILD combustor. MILD combustion model with ga...

Mingming Huang; Zhedian Zhang; Weiwei Shao; Yan Xiong…

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Combustion of Low-Calorific Waste Biomass Syngas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The industrial combustion chamber designed for burning low-calorific syngas from gasification of waste biomass is presented. ... chips and turkey feathers the non-premixed turbulent combustion in the chamber is s...

Kamil Kwiatkowski; Marek Dudy?ski; Konrad Bajer

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

The role played by self-inhibition in combustion processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The absence of correlations between the heat of combustion of substances and substance combustion characteristics is shown to be caused by the special features of competition between reaction chain branching a...

V. V. Azatyan; I. A. Bolod’yan; Yu. N. Shebeko…

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Thermogravimetric analysis of co-combustion of biomass and biochar  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The co-combustion of biomass and biochar was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis....R M...) for different blends were used to evaluate co-combustion features. As the biomass content increas...

Qiguo Yi; Fangjie Qi; Gong Cheng…

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

The Inorganic Chemistry of Biomass Combustion: Problems and Solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High temperature molten products of the combustion of biomass present special problems related to fouling and ... performed calculations of the total inorganic chemistry of biomass combustion using a free energy ...

M. Blander

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brownish-black solid combustible" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Light-Duty Advanced Diesel Combustion Research | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Light-Duty Advanced Diesel Combustion Research Light-Duty Advanced Diesel Combustion Research Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review 2008...

442

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is typically composed of two porous electrodes, interposed between an electrolyte made of a particular solid oxide ceramic material. The system originates from the work of Nernst...

Nigel M. Sammes; Roberto Bove; Jakub Pusz

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced wall-fired combustion Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biomass and Animal Waste Combustion Energy Engine Emission Fuel Cells... Gasification Internal Combustion Engine Performance Pollutants Formation (NOx, Hg) and...

444

Using Parametrized Finite Combustion Stage Models to Characterize Combustion in Diesel Engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Characterizing combustion in diesel engines is not only necessary when researching the instantaneous combustion phenomena but also when investigating the change of the combustion process under variable engine operating conditions. ... This project partly is financially supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, Harbin Engineering University, China, HEUCF120307, and the International Science and Technology Cooperation Program of China. ... Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy (2011), 225 (3), 309-318 CODEN: PMAEET; ISSN:0957-6509. ...

Yu Ding; Douwe Stapersma; Hugo Grimmelius

2012-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

445

Laser cooling of solids  

SciTech Connect

We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Substantial increases in brake power and considerably lower peak pressure can result from oxygen-enriched diesel combustion

447

Trash or treasure? Putting coal combustion waste to work  

SciTech Connect

The use of coal combustion wastes from power plants in construction materials, leaching and the impact of regulations are discussed.

Tenenbaum, D.J.

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

448

Traveling-Wave Thermoacoustic Engines With Internal Combustion  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Thermoacoustic devices are disclosed wherein, for some embodiments, a combustion zone provides heat to a regenerator using a mean flow of compressible fluid. In other embodiments, burning of a combustible mixture within the combustion zone is pulsed in phase with the acoustic pressure oscillations to increase acoustic power output. In an example embodiment, the combustion zone and the regenerator are thermally insulated from other components within the thermoacoustic device.

Weiland, Nathan Thomas (Blacksburg, VA); Zinn, Ben T. (Atlanta, GA); Swift, Gregory William (Sante Fe, NM)

2004-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

449

Advanced Combustion Modeling with STAR-CD using Transient Flemelet...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

occurs - Spray modeling is required * Autoignition, combustion, pollutant formation chemistry - Kinetic modeling required for various fuels - Soot, NOx models required *...

450

Simulation of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines and Detailed...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

ongoing work exploring fuel chemistry, analysis of and improving simulation methodologies for high efficiency clean combustion regimes, and computational performance...

451

Impact of Extreme Injection Pressure and EGR on the Combustion...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Analyse of the Injection System * Simulation * Hydraulic Characterisation * Optical Spray Diagnostics Engine Investigations * Experimental Results * Optical Combustion...

452

Improved solid aerosol generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

1988-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

453

Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Videos  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solid-State Lighting Videos to Solid-State Lighting Videos to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Videos on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Videos on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Videos on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Videos on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Videos on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Videos on AddThis.com... Conferences & Meetings Presentations Publications Webcasts Videos Tools Solid-State Lighting Videos On this page you can access DOE Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Program videos. Photo of a museum art gallery with LED lights in track fixtures overhead. The City of Los Angeles LED Streetlight Program

454

Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Contacts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

About the About the Program Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Contacts to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Contacts on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Contacts on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Contacts on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Contacts on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Contacts on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Contacts on AddThis.com... Contacts Partnerships Solid-State Lighting Contacts For information about Solid-State Lighting, contact James Brodrick Lighting Program Manager Building Technologies Office U.S. Department of Energy

455

Combustion Air Preheat Should Be More Than Simply Recycling Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Combustion air preheat can and should result in fuel savings far in excess of the energy added to the combustion air. In a typical installation of air preheat on a fired tubular reactor, the addition of 2.5 million BTU/hr to the combustion air...

Grantom, R. L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

ME 374C Combustion Engine Processes ABET EC2000 syllabus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

combustion engines, fuels, carburetion, combustion, exhaust emissions, knock, fuel injection, and factors engine, although diesels and 2-strokes are also discussed. Topics Covered (# of classes per topic): 1 of an Engineering System 4. Introduction to Engine Modeling 5. Fuels 6. Combustion and Knock 7. 4-stroke SI Engines

Ben-Yakar, Adela

457

Fast computation of multi-scale combustion systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...consider a detailed combustion mechanism for air...The mean specific heat (under constant...being the specific heat of species i (mass...with a detailed combustion mechanism, where...between retrieved data and detailed solution...combustion mechanism for hydrocarbons. Moreover, on...

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Paper # A02 Topic: Laminar Flames US Combustion Meeting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

been focused on synthetic fuel gas (syngas) combustion. Syngas is derived from coal throughPaper # A02 Topic: Laminar Flames 1 5th US Combustion Meeting Organized by the Western States Section of the Combustion Institute and Hosted by the University of California at San Diego March 25

Seitzman, Jerry M.

459

NOTE / NOTE Variability in organic matter lost by combustion in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) to the atmosphere through combustion of biomass. An estimated 1470 ± 59 km2 of peatland burns annually in boreal libère du carbone (C) directement dans l'atmosphère par la combustion de biomasse. AnnuellementNOTE / NOTE Variability in organic matter lost by combustion in a boreal bog during the 2001

Benscoter, Brian W.

460

Electricity from coal and utilization of coal combustion by-products  

SciTech Connect

Most electricity in the world is conventionally generated using coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear energy, or hydropower. Due to environmental concerns, there is a growing interest in alternative energy sources for heat and electricity production. The major by-products obtained from coal combustion are fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials. The solid wastes produced in coal-fired power plants create problems for both power-generating industries and environmentalists. The coal fly ash and bottom ash samples may be used as cementitious materials.

Demirbas, A. [Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brownish-black solid combustible" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Self-Sustaining Smoldering Combustion for NAPL Remediation: Laboratory Evaluation of Process Sensitivity to Key Parameters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Common examples, in which the solid matrix is itself combustible, include smoldering charcoal briquettes in a barbeque grill and smoldering foam cushions starting a house fire. ... This was underlain by an air diffuser supplied by an air compressor and an inconel-sheathed cable heater (Watlow Ltd., UK). ... To reduce heat losses at the perimeter to a level closer to that expected in field conditions, the column was insulated with a flexible electric heater (240 V, 1040 W, Omega Inc., USA) for these two experiments only. ...

Paolo Pironi; Christine Switzer; Jason I. Gerhard; Guillermo Rein; Jose L. Torero

2011-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

462

NETL: News Release - Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Reaches One Year of Operations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

January 31, 2000 January 31, 2000 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Reaches One Year of Operations Netherlands Test Boosts Confidence for Commercial Introduction by 2004 An experimental all solid-state fuel cell - the possible prototype for a future "combustion-less" power plant - has passed a key milestone in a joint public-private development effort. Schematic Diagram of Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell The Siemens Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cell is a tubular arrangement of concentric ceramic electrodes and a solid-state electrolyte. Siemens-Westinghouse Power Corp., headquartered in Orlando, FL, announced this week that its 100-kilowatt solid oxide fuel cell power system, the world's largest, has completed one year of total operating time, the longest any fuel cell of this type and size has run. The milestone marked

463

Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System  

SciTech Connect

On February 14, 2002, President Bush announced the Clear Skies Initiative, a legislative proposal to control the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and mercury from power plants. In response to this initiative, the National Energy Technology Laboratory organized a Combustion Technology University Alliance and hosted a Solid Fuel Combustion Technology Alliance Workshop. The workshop identified multi-pollutant control; improved sorbents and catalysts; mercury monitoring and capture; and improved understanding of the underlying reaction chemistry occurring during combustion as the most pressing research needs related to controlling environmental emissions from fossil-fueled power plants. The Environmental Control Technology Laboratory will help meet these challenges and offer solutions for problems associated with emissions from fossil-fueled power plants. The goal of this project was to develop the capability and technology database needed to support municipal, regional, and national electric power generating facilities to improve the efficiency of operation and solve operational and environmental problems. In order to effectively provide the scientific data and the methodologies required to address these issues, the project included the following aspects: (1) Establishing an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory using a laboratory-scale, simulated fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) system; (2) Designing, constructing, and operating a bench-scale (0.6 MW{sub th}), circulating fluidized-bed combustion (CFBC) system as the main component of the Environmental Control Technology Laboratory; (3) Developing a combustion technology for co-firing municipal solid waste (MSW), agricultural waste, and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with high sulfur coals; (4) Developing a control strategy for gaseous emissions, including NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, organic compounds, and heavy metals; and (5) Developing new mercury capturing sorbents and new particulate filtration technologies. Major tasks during this period of the funded project's timeframe included: (1) Conducting pretests on a laboratory-scale simulated FBC system; (2) Completing detailed design of the bench-scale CFBC system; (3) Contracting potential bidders to fabricate of the component parts of CFBC system; (4) Assembling CFBC parts and integrating system; (5) Resolving problems identified during pretests; (6) Testing with available Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and co-firing of PRB coal with first wood pallet and then chicken wastes; and (7) Tuning of CFBC load. Following construction system and start-up of this 0.6 MW CFBC system, a variety of combustion tests using a wide range of fuels (high-sulfur coals, low-rank coals, MSW, agricultural waste, and RDF) under varying conditions were performed to analyze and monitor air pollutant emissions. Data for atmospheric pollutants and the methodologies required to reduce pollutant emissions were provided. Integration with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) slipstream unit did mimic the effect of flue gas composition, including trace metals, on the performance of the SCR catalyst to be investigated. In addition, the following activities were also conducted: (1) Developed advanced mercury oxidant and adsorption additives; (2) Performed laboratory-scale tests on oxygen-fuel combustion and chemical looping combustion; and (3) Conducted statistical analysis of mercury emissions in a full-scale CFBC system.

Wei-Ping Pan; Yan Cao; John Smith

2008-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

464

Combustion Model for a CFB Boiler with Consideration of Post-Combustion in the Cyclone  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Severe post combustion in the cyclone of CFB boilers could destroy heat absorbing balance among ... rarely considered in the design phase of a CFB boiler. Based on our previous experiment results ... added into a...

S. H. Li; H. R. Yang; H. Zhang; Y. X. Wu…

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Control of Combustion Processes in an Internal Combustion Engine by Low-Temperature Plasma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new method of operation of internal combustion engines enhances power and reduces fuel consumption and exhaust toxicity. Low-temperature plasma control combines working processes of thermal engines and steam machines into a single process.

E. A. Olenev

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Control of Combustion Processes in an Internal Combustion Engine by Low-Temperature Plasma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new method of operation of internal combustion engines enhances power and reduces fuel consumption and exhaust toxicity. Low-temperature plasma control combines working processes of thermal engines and steam...

E. A. Olenev

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Assessment of Combustion and Turbulence Models for the Simulation of Combustion Processes in a DI Diesel Engine  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Various applied combustion and turbulence models were investigated along with chemical kinetic mechanisms simulating a biodiesel-fueled engine

468

Some Experimental Studies of Oscillatory Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Measurements of the perturbations in pressure as recorded by flush?mounted transducers during the combustion of mixtures of air and natural gas in a cooled copper tube at atmospheric pressure are reported for a range of mixture ratios. Also presented are the residual quantities of the oxides of nitrogen as well as the principal components of the products of reaction. The results indicate two stable modes of oscillation. One was found predominantly at mixture ratios above stoichiometric. There was a region near stoichiometric where both modes existed. The quantities of the residual oxides of nitrogen were from 10–30 times as large during oscillatory combustion as during relatively steady combustion. In addition measurements in a smaller cooled copper combustor at pressures up to 50 lb/sq in. absolute are recorded. Again two stable modes of oscillation were encountered and the double amplitude of the oscillation for the mode near stoichiometric was nearly five times as great as that away from stoichiometric. The influence of mixture ratio and rates of flow was explored. The quantities of the oxides of nitrogen were determined after quenching the products of reaction at rates of approximately 5° per ?sec. Again the presence of oscillatory combustion appeared to exert a pronounced influence on the presence of oxides of nitrogen. In the case of the high?pressure combustor the premixed fuel and oxidant were introduced through a supersonic converging?diverging nozzle to avoid coupling between the feed system and the combustor.

B. H. Sage

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the ninth quarter April-June 2002 in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the third year. Full-scale testing using the Industrial Boiler Simulation Facility (ISBF) at Alstom Power was completed. The pilot scale experiments to evaluate the effect of air preheat and transport air stoichiometric ratio (SR) on NOx emissions were conducted at the University of Utah. Combustion modeling activities continued with full-scale combustion test furnace simulations. An OTM element was tested in Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility and two thermal cycles were completed. PSO1d elements of new dimension were tested resulting in a lower flux than previous PSO1d elements of different dimensions, however, no element deformation was observed. Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Two potential host beta sites have been identified and proposals submitted.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Starting apparatus for internal combustion engines  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This report is a patent description for a system to start an internal combustion engine. Remote starting and starting by hearing impaired persons are addressed. The system monitors the amount of current being drawn by the starter motor to determine when the engine is started. When the engine is started the system automatically deactivates the starter motor. Five figures are included.

Dyches, G.M.; Dudar, A.M.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

A MODEL FOR POROUS-MEDIUM COMBUSTION  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......usually taken from experiments; Vo is determined by the inlet gas velocity under consideration, and for the typical combustion processes where Vo is parallel to the z-axis in which we are interested it is natural to choose V3o~0-1 to 1-Oms......

J. NORBURY; A. M. STUART

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Sandia National Laboratories Combustion Research Facility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogen & Combustion Technologies Department Livermore, CA DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure collector, compressor, high-P storage, pump, FC stack (efficiency vs power) · Developing: ICE gen-set, wind Borns, Scott Jones, Paul Pickard ­ Economic modeling of H2 unit cost · Production: reforming

473

Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development  

SciTech Connect

Under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to determine the effect of oxy-combustion on boiler tube corrosion. In this program, CFD modeling was used to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of air-fired and oxy-fired boilers operating with low to high sulfur coals. Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those coals and exposed to the CFD predicted flue gases for up to 1000 hours. The tests were conducted in electric tube furnaces using oxy-combustion and air-fired flue gases synthesized from pressurized cylinders. Following exposure, the test coupons were evaluated to determine the total metal wastage experienced under air and oxy-combustions conditions and materials recommendations were made. Similar to air-fired operation, oxy-combustion corrosion rates were found to vary with the boiler material, test temperature, deposit composition, and gas composition. Despite this, comparison of air-fired and oxy-fired corrosion rates showed that oxy-firing rates were, for the most part, similar to, if not lower than those of air-firing; this finding applied to the seven furnace waterwall materials (wrought and weld overlay) and the ten superheater/reheater materials (wrought and weld overlay) that were tested. The results of the laboratory oxy-combustion tests, which are based on a maximum bulk flue gas SO{sub 2} level of 3200 ppmv (wet) / 4050 ppmv (dry), suggest that, from a corrosion standpoint, the materials used in conventional subcritical and supercritical, air-fired boilers should also be suitable for oxy-combustion retrofits. Although the laboratory test results are encouraging, they are only the first step of a material evaluation process and it is recommended that follow-on corrosion tests be conducted in coal-fired boilers operating under oxy-combustion to provide longer term (one to two year) data. The test program details and data are presented herein.

Michael Gagliano; Andrew Seltzer; Hans Agarwal; Archie Robertson; Lun Wang

2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

474

Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development  

SciTech Connect

Under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to determine the effect of oxy-combustion on boiler tube corrosion. In this program, CFD modeling was used to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of air-fired and oxy-fired boilers operating with low to high sulfur coals. Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those coals and exposed to the CFD predicted flue gases for up to 1000 hours. The tests were conducted in electric tube furnaces using oxy-combustion and air-fired flue gases synthesized from pressurized cylinders. Following exposure, the test coupons were evaluated to determine the total metal wastage experienced under air and oxy-combustions conditions and materials recommendations were made. Similar to air-fired operation, oxy-combustion corrosion rates were found to vary with the boiler material, test temperature, deposit composition, and gas composition. Despite this, comparison of air-fired and oxy-fired corrosion rates showed that oxy-firing rates were, for the most part, similar to, if not lower than those of air-firing; this finding applied to the seven furnace waterwall materials (wrought and weld overlay) and the ten superheater/reheater materials (wrought and weld overlay) that were tested. The results of the laboratory oxy-combustion tests, which are based on a maximum bulk flue gas SO2 level of 3200 ppmv (wet) / 4050 ppmv (dry), suggest that, from a corrosion standpoint, the materials used in conventional subcritical and supercritical, air-fired boilers should also be suitable for oxy-combustion retrofits. Although the laboratory test results are encouraging, they are only the first step of a material evaluation process and it is recommended that follow-on corrosion tests be conducted in coal-fired boilers operating under oxy-combustion to provide longer term (one to two year) data. The test program details and data are presented herein.

Gagliano, Michael; Seltzer, Andrew; Agarwal, Hans; Robertson, Archie; Wang, Lun

2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

475

Subdue solids in towers  

SciTech Connect

Many distillation, absorption, and stripping columns operate with solids present in the system. The presence of solids may be either intentional or unintentional. But, in all cases, the solids must be handled or tolerated by the vapor/liquid mass-transfer equipment. Such solids should be dealt with by a combination of four methods. From most favorable to least favorable, these are: (1) keep the solids out; (2) keep the solids moving; (3) put the solids somewhere harmless; and (4) make it easier to clean the hardware. The key precept for all these approaches is the realization that solids present in a system just don't disappear. In this article, the authors review the techniques and design issues involved in making a vapor/liquid mass-transfer system operate with solids present. They assume that the solids cannot be kept out, eliminating the first choice. The type of mass-transfer service does not matter. The same principles apply equally well to distillation, adsorption, and stripping. They include equipment design criteria based on the methods outlined above, as well as detailed recommendations for each of the major equipment choices that can be made for mass-transfer devices. Then, they illustrate the approach via an example--a vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) unit having solids as an inherent part of its feed.

Sloley, A.W.; Martin, G.R.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Combustion toxics: Available data and additional needs  

SciTech Connect

With the continuing expansion of air pollution regulations there is an increasing awareness of the potential need to assess the emissions and impact of trace compounds from combustion sources in refineries and chemical plants. It has been found that these trace compounds may be emitted as the result of incomplete fuel combustion, formation of new compounds during combustion, or the presence of inorganics (e.g., metals) in the fuel. Emission factors based on field data from these sources have recently been published by both the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). The emission factors indicate that a large number of trace compounds may be emitted from combustion sources including volatiles, semi-volatiles, PAHs, metals, and dioxins/furans. Some of these trace compounds have been classified as hazardous or toxic. A review of the EPA and API published data sets indicates that, while there is some overlap, many gaps exist in specific source and emission types. Where gaps exist, there is a lack of confirmation for the reported emission factor. Comparison of the EPA and API emission factors for gas and fuel oil fired boilers, however, indicates reasonable agreement for several metals and some PAHs where the data overlap. EPA, however, has sampled for many more metals than API and several EPA factors for PAHs are significantly higher than reported by API. Additionally tests may be warranted where there is insufficient overlap. Much additional work needs to be done to provide reliable factors which can be used to estimate trace toxic emissions from combustion. Many gaps and inconsistencies exist in the emission factors database and changes to existing factors are expected as the database is expanded.

Siegell, J.H.

2000-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

477

Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solid-State Lighting Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Workshop to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Workshop on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Workshop on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Workshop on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Workshop on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Workshop on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Workshop on AddThis.com... Conferences & Meetings Past Conferences Presentations Publications Webcasts Videos Tools Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Workshop Nearly 200 lighting industry leaders, chip makers, fixture and component

478

2009 Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Annual Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

COMBUSTION COMBUSTION ENGINE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT annual progress report 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 Approved by Gurpreet Singh Team Leader, Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Office of Vehicle Technologies FY 2009 Progress rePort For AdvAnced combustion engine reseArcH And deveLoPment Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Vehicle Technologies December 2009 U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue, S.W. Washington, D.C. 20585-0121 ii Advanced Combustion Engine Technologies FY 2009 Annual Progress Report

479

FEMP Technology Brief: Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring System |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring System FEMP Technology Brief: Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring System October 7, 2013 - 9:12am Addthis This composite photo shows technicians observing operation at the monitoring station and making subsequent fine adjustments on combustion system controls Technical staff are making boiler adjustments with the control and monitoring system. Photo courtesy of the Department of Defense's Environmental Security Technology Certification Program. Technology Description A novel combustion control system, along with gas sensors, sets the opening of fuel and air inlets based on flue-gas concentrations. Continuous feedback from measurements of oxygen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxide concentrations enable the control system

480

Process aspects in combustion and gasification Waste-to-Energy (WtE) units  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The utilisation of energy in waste, Waste to Energy (WtE), has become increasingly important. Waste is a wide concept, and to focus, the feedstock dealt with here is mostly municipal solid waste. It is found that combustion in grate-fired furnaces is by far the most common mode of fuel conversion compared to fluidized beds and rotary furnaces. Combinations of pyrolysis in rotary furnace or gasification in fluidized or fixed bed with high-temperature combustion are applied particularly in Japan in systems whose purpose is to melt ashes and destroy dioxins. Recently, also in Japan more emphasis is put on WtE. In countries with high heat demand, WtE in the form of heat and power can be quite efficient even in simple grate-fired systems, whereas in warm regions only electricity is generated, and for this product the efficiency of boilers (the steam data) is limited by corrosion from the flue gas. However, combination of cleaned gas from gasification with combustion provides a means to enhance the efficiency of electricity production considerably. Finally, the impact of sorting on the properties of the waste to be fed to boilers or gasifiers is discussed. The description intends to be general, but examples are mostly taken from Europe.

Bo Leckner

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brownish-black solid combustible" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Analysis of options for coal combustion waste management in the Pacific Basin  

SciTech Connect

Many Pacific Basin countries rely on oil for electricity production. Alternative fuel sources such as coal, which is available in the Pacific Basin, can help mitigate adverse impacts of sudden price increases or supply disruptions. Coal combustion produces solid and potentially hazardous wastes of concern to environmental regulators and utility managers. This paper identifies issues associated with managing coal combustion wastes in the Pacific Basin, using the state of Hawaii as a case study. Hawaii is typical of many Pacific Basin locations in that it depends on oil, has limited sites, for waste management operations, and is subject to domestic and international waste management regulations. The paper discusses coal-fired utility wastes, environmental impacts of coal combustion waste disposal, and regulatory requirements that impact coal waste management. From this baseline, potential on- and off-island options for coal waste management are identified. Waste management costs are estimated and non-quantifiable issues are addressed for each option. Many options are applicable across the Pacific Rim and may serve as a basis for future fuel-use decisions.

Elcock, D.; Gasper, J.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Drag coefficient of Solid Recovered Fuels (SRF)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The numerical simulation of Solid Recovered Fuels (SRF) co-combustion in pulverised coal power plants requires a flexible particle model, which among other properties should be able to predict the aerodynamic behaviour of the irregular-shaped particles, especially their trajectories along the boiler axis. This will help to provide vital information on whether the SRF particles are entrained in the combustion gases or drop to the boiler bottom. One difficulty encountered in the process is the true value of the drag coefficient (CD) of the coarse SRF particles. Most of the numerical simulation codes calculate the particle trajectories by integrating the force balance of the particles in which the CD plays an important role. As a result, a true CD of SRF will definitely lead to more realistic results. In this short communication, the authors have taken a practical approach in determining the CD of the SRF. It was found that within the Newton’s law range the CD of the SRF lies between 0.6 and 2.0 with a mean value of 1.5. The results were further validated by correlating the calculated lift velocities of SRF using different CD values and that obtained through experiment.

Gregory Dunnu; Jörg Maier; Uwe Schnell; Günter Scheffknecht

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Studies of siloxane decomposition in biomethane combustion.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Biogas, which is produced from sludge biodegradation in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), and landfill gas (LFG), which is generated from solid waste in landfills, are… (more)

Jalali, Mir Aydin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this concept offers substantial savings over SCR and is an economically attractive alternative to purchasing NOx credits or installing other conventional technologies. In conjunction with the development of oxygen based low NOx technology, Praxair also worked on developing the economically enhancing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology which is ideally suited for integration with combustion systems to achieve further significant cost reductions and efficiency improvements. This OTM oxygen production technology is based on ceramic mixed conductor membranes that operate at high temperatures and can be operated in a pressure driven mode to separate oxygen with infinite selectivity and high flux. An OTM material was selected and characterized. OTM elements were successfully fabricated. A single tube OTM reactor was designed and assembled. Testing of dense OTM elements was conducted with promising oxygen flux results of 100% of target flux. However, based on current natural gas prices and stand-alone air separation processes, ceramic membranes do not offer an economic advantage for this application. Under a different DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement, Praxair is continuing to develop oxygen transport membranes for the Advanced Boiler where the economics appear more attractive.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Modeling of the chemical-looping combustion of methane using a Cu-based oxygen-carrier  

SciTech Connect

A mathematical model for a bubbling fluidized bed has been developed to simulate the performance of the fuel-reactor in chemical-looping combustion (CLC) systems. This model considers both the fluid dynamic of the fluidized bed and freeboard and the kinetics of reduction of the oxygen-carrier, here CuO impregnated on alumina. The main outputs of the model are the conversion of the carrier and the gas composition at the reactor exit, the axial profiles of gas concentrations and the fluid dynamical structure of the reactor. The model was validated using measurements when burning CH{sub 4} in a 10 kW{sub th} prototype using a Cu-based oxygen-carrier. The influence of the circulation rate of solids, the load of fuel gas, the reactor temperature and size of the oxygen-carrier particles were analyzed. Combustion efficiencies predicted by the model showed a good agreement with measurements. Having validated the model, the implications for designing and optimizing a fuel-reactor were as follows. The inventory of solids for a high conversion of the fuel was sensitive to the reactor's temperature, the solids' circulation rate and the extent to which the solids entering to the reactor had been regenerated. The optimal ratio of oxygen-carrier to fuel was found to be 1.7-4 for the Cu-based oxygen-carrier used here. In this range, the inventory of solids to obtain a combustion efficiency of 99.9% at 1073 K was less than 130 kg/MW{sub th}. In addition, the model's results were very sensitive to the resistance to gas diffusing between the emulsion and bubble phases in the bed, to the decay of solids' concentration in the freeboard and to the efficiency contact between gas and solids in the freeboard. Thus, a simplified model, ignoring any restriction to gas and solids contacting each other, will under-predict the inventory of solids by a factor of 2-10. (author)

Abad, Alberto; Adanez, Juan; Garcia-Labiano, Francisco; de Diego, Luis F.; Gayan, Pilar [Instituto de Carboquimica (CSIC), Department of Energy and Environment, Miguel Luesma Castan 4, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

486

Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lighting Lighting Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting on AddThis.com... Pause/Resume Photo of a large room with people standing around poster boards. Register Now for DOE's 11th Annual SSL R&D Workshop January 28-30, join other SSL R&D professionals from industry, government, and academia to learn, share, and shape the future of lighting.

487

Aspen Plus simulations of fluidised beds for chemical looping combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) is a technology able to generate energy whilst managing CO2 emissions. A system composed by two interconnected fluidised beds is often used in CLC: the two fluidised beds are employed for carrying out the oxidation and reduction reactions of the metal oxide employed as oxygen carrier. In this work, a model to implement fluidised bed systems in Aspen Plus is presented. Depending on the hydrodynamic regimes, two different models are considered: one of the two fluidised beds, called the fuel reactor, is modelled according to the two-phase theory (i.e. emulsion and bubble phase) whilst the other bed, called the air reactor, is assumed to operate in the fast fluidisation regime. Kinetic equations for heterogeneous gas/solid reactions are also considered in the model. Simulation tests for each fluidised bed are carried out, and comparisons are made with experimental data from the literature. A comparison with the largely used Gibbs reactor model is carried out showing the advantages of using the models developed here. In addition, the net heat duty of the whole process is calculated and the role of the main variables that affect the process is investigated.

Rosario Porrazzo; Graeme White; Raffaella Ocone

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the thirteenth quarter, April-June 2003, in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with project objectives. REI's model was modified to evaluate mixing issues in the upper furnace of a staged unit. Analysis of the results, and their potential application to this unit is ongoing. Economic evaluation continues to confirm the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. A contract for a commercial demonstration has been signed with the Northeast Generation Services Company to supply oxygen and license the oxygen enhanced low NOx combustor technology for use at the 147-megawatt coal fired Mt. Tom Station in Holyoke, MA. Commercial proposals have been submitted. Economic analysis of a beta site test performance was conducted.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Critical reaction rates in hypersonic combustion chemistry  

SciTech Connect

High Mach number flight requires that the scramjet propulsion system operate at a relatively low static inlet pressure and a high inlet temperature. These two constraints can lead to extremely high temperatures in the combustor, yielding high densities of radical species and correspondingly poor chemical combustion efficiency. As the temperature drops in the nozzle expansion, recombination of these excess radicals can produce more product species, higher heat yield, and potentially more thrust. The extent to which the chemical efficiency can be enhanced in the nozzle expansion depends directly on the rate of the radical recombination reactions. A comprehensive assessment of the important chemical processes and an experimental validation of the critical rate parameters is therefore required if accurate predictions of scramjet performance are to be obtained. This report covers the identification of critical reactions, and the critical reaction rates in hypersonic combustion chemistry. 4 refs., 2 figs.

Oldenborg, R.C.; Harradine, D.M.; Loge, G.W.; Lyman, J.L.; Schott, G.L.; Winn, K.R.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Diesel Engine Combustion of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biomass pyrolysis oils are manufactured through a moderate-temperature process (?500 °C) in which the biomass feedstock is subjected to rapid heating in the absence of air, where it vaporizes, cracks, and is condensed after a short residence time (?500 ms) into a dark brown liquid composed of a complex mixture of oxygenated hydrocarbons whose heating value is approximately half that of No. 2 diesel fuel. ... The combustion air inlet temperature can be preheated up to 130 °C through the use of an in-line electric heater, which allows engine operation with fuels that have long ignition delay, without relying on any ignition additives. ... Their data showed that in addition to reducing the peak heat release magnitude, slower chemical kinetics resulted in reduced rate of instantaneous heat release (the slope of the instantaneous heat release curve) in the early combustion phase, resulting in delayed peak heat release timing relative to SOC. ...

Alan Shihadeh; Simone Hochgreb

2000-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

491

Fluidized bed combustion picks up steam  

SciTech Connect

Industrial interest in fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) continues, although the technology has been slow to enter the marketplace. Two FBC pilot plants funded by DOE and one commercial size project are in operation. FBC designs and commercial warranties are already available from the boiler industry, but 1981 was the first year to see significant numbers of privately-funded orders, now numbering 38 out of 50 boilers. Manufacturers are working on a universal boiler able to accept any fuel, but potential users are wary of new technology without a long-term demonstration of reliability and economics. There is interest in second generation designs, a new shallow-bed design suitable for retrofitting, and circulating bed types that decouple the combustion system from the heat removal system. (DCK)

Lawn, J.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Chemical-looping combustion of coal with metal oxide oxygen carriers  

SciTech Connect

The combustion and reoxidation properties of direct coal chemical-looping combustion (CLC) over CuO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CO{sub 3}O{sub 4}, NiO, and Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and bench-scale fixed-bed flow reactor studies. When coal is heated in either nitrogen or carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), 50% of weight loss was observed because of partial pyrolysis, consistent with the proximate analysis. Among various metal oxides evaluated, CuO showed the best reaction properties: CuO can initiate the reduction reaction as low as 500{sup o}C and complete the full combustion at 700{sup o}C. In addition, the reduced copper can be fully reoxidized by air at 700{sup o}C. The combustion products formed during the CLC reaction of the coal/metal oxide mixture are CO{sub 2} and water, while no carbon monoxide was observed. Multicycle TGA tests and bench-scale fixed-bed flow reactor tests strongly supported the feasibility of CLC of coal by using CuO as an oxygen carrier. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of solid reaction products indicated some changes in the surface morphology of a CuO-coal sample after reduction/oxidation reactions at 800 {sup o}C. However, significant surface sintering was not observed. The interactions of fly ash with metal oxides were investigated by X-ray diffraction and thermodynamic analysis. Overall, the results indicated that it is feasible to develop CLC with coal by metal oxides as oxygen carriers. 22 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

Ranjani Siriwardane; Hanjing Tian; George Richards; Thomas Simonyi; James Poston [United States Department of Energy, Morgantown, WN (United States). National Energy Technology Laboratory

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

493

Use of coal as fuel for chemical-looping combustion with Ni-based oxygen carrier  

SciTech Connect

Chemical-looping combustion is an indirect combustion technology with inherent separation of the greenhouse gas CO{sub 2}. The feasibility of using NiO as an oxygen carrier during chemical-looping combustion of coal has been investigated experimentally at 800-960{degree}C in the present work. The experiments were carried out in a fluidized bed, where the steam acted as the gasification-fluidization medium. Coal gasification and the reaction of oxygen carrier with the water gas take place simultaneously in the reactor. The oxygen carrier particles exhibit high reactivity above 900{degree}C, and the dry basis concentration of CO{sub 2} in the exit gas of the reactor is nearly 95%. The flue gas composition as a function of the reactor temperature and cyclic reduction number is discussed. At 800-960{degree}C, the dry basis concentration of CO{sub 2} in the flue gas presents a monotonously increasing trend, whereas the dry basis concentration of CO, H{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4} decreases monotonously. The concentrations of CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4} in the flue gas as a function of cyclic reduction number present a para-curve characteristic at 900{degree}C. With the increase of cyclic reduction number, the dry basis concentration of CO{sub 2} decreases remarkably, while the dry basis concentrations of CO, H{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4} increase rapidly. Moreover, the peak value of H{sub 2} concentration is less than that of CO. The performance of the NiO-based oxygen carriers was also evaluated using an X-ray diffractometer and a scanning electron microscope to characterize the solid residues of oxygen carrier. The results indicate that NiO is one of the suitable oxygen carriers for chemical-looping combustion of coal.

Gao, Z.P.; Shen, L.H.; Xiao, J.; Qing, C.J.; Song, Q.L. [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). Thermoenergy Engineering Research Institute

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

494

Fire protection guide for solid waste metal drum storage  

SciTech Connect

This guide provides a method to assess potential fire development in drum storage facilities. The mechanism of fire propagation/spread through stored drum arrays is a complex process. It involves flame heat transfer, transient conduction,convection, and radiation between drums (stored in an array configuration). There are several phenomena which may occur when drums are exposed to fire. The most dramatic is violent lid failure which results in total lid removal. When a drum loses its lid due to fire exposure, some or all of the contents may be ejected from the drum, and both the ejected combustible material and the combustible contents remaining within the container will burn. The scope of this guide is limited to storage arrays of steel drums containing combustible (primarily Class A) and noncombustible contents. Class B combustibles may be included in small amounts as free liquid within the solid waste contents.Storage arrays, which are anticipated in this guide, include single or multi-tier palletized (steel or wood pallets) drums,high rack storage of drums, and stacked arrays of drums where plywood sheets are used between tiers. The purpose of this guide is to describe a simple methodology that estimates the consequences of a fire in drum storage arrays. The extent of fire development and the resulting heat release rates can be estimated. Release fractions applicable to this type of storage are not addressed, and the transport of contaminants away from the source is not addressed. However, such assessments require the amount of combustible material consumed and the surface area of this burning material. The methods included in this guide do provide this information.

Bucci, H.M.

1996-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

495

Advanced Combustion R&D Selections  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

In 2013, the Department of Energy made several project selections under the Fossil Energy Advanced Combustion R&D program. Through these four selections, nearly $37 million, $26 million from the Energy Department and $11 million in cost-share from industry, universities, and other research institutions, are being committed over four years to address CO2 compliance required by the proposed regulations to reduce CO2 emissions.

496

Dilute Oxygen Combustion - Phase 3 Report  

SciTech Connect

Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good, and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel's standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion on furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

Riley, Michael F.

2000-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

497

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 3 Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel?s standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion of furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

Riley, M.F.; Ryan, H.M.

2000-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

498

Marine propulsion device internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an internal combustion engine. It comprises an engine block including a surface, means including the engine block surface for defining a substantially sealed chamber, and pressure relief means including a movable valve member for venting the chamber when the pressure in the chamber exceeds a predetermined value, the chamber containing one of the following: a flywheel, means for generating an electrical current, a finned heat exchanger, and means for starting the engine.

Anderson, P.A.; Bernau, W.A.; Breckenfeld, P.W.; Broughton, G.L.

1992-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

499

Fluid Bed Combustion Applied to Industrial Waste  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of its relatively recent application to coal fired steam production, fluid beds have been uti lized in industry for over 60 years. Beginning in Germany in the twenties for coal gasification, the technology was applied to catalytic cracking of heavy... system cost), use of minimum excess air required, and maintaining the min"imum reactor temperature neces sary to sustain combustion. For superautogenous fuels, where incineration. only is desired, minimum capital cost is achieved by using direct bed...

Mullen, J. F.; Sneyd, R. J.

500

Real-Time Combustion Controls and Diagnostics Sensors (CCADS)  

SciTech Connect

The present invention is directed to an apparatus for the monitoring of the combustion process within a combustion system. The apparatus comprises; a combustion system, a means for supplying fuel and an oxidizer, a device for igniting the fuel and oxidizer in order to initiate combustion, and a sensor for determining the current conducted by the combustion process. The combustion system comprises a fuel nozzle and an outer shell attached to the combustion nozzle. The outer shell defines a combustion chamber. Preferably the nozzle is a lean premix fuel nozzle (LPN). Fuel and an oxidizer are provided to the fuel nozzle at separate rates. The fuel and oxidizer are ignited. A sensor positioned within the combustion system comprising at least two electrodes in spaced-apart relationship from one another. At least a portion of the combustion process or flame is between the first and second electrodes. A voltage is applied between the first and second electrodes and the magnitude of resulting current between the first and second electrodes is determined.

Thornton, J.D.; Richard, G.A.; Dodrill, K.A.; Nutter, R.S. Jr; Straub, D.

2005-05-03T23:59:59.000Z