National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for brown powder additionally

  1. Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, W. E.; Anderson, A. T.; Ferencz, R. M.; Hodge, N. E.; Kamath, C.; Khairallah, S. A.; Rubencik, A. M.

    2015-12-29

    The production of metal parts via laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing is growing exponentially. However, the transition of this technology from production of prototypes to production of critical parts is hindered by a lack of confidence in the quality of the part. Confidence can be established via a fundamental understanding of the physics of the process. It is generally accepted that this understanding will be increasingly achieved through modeling and simulation. However, there are significant physics, computational, and materials challenges stemming from the broad range of length and time scales and temperature ranges associated with the process. In this study, we review the current state of the art and describe the challenges that need to be met to achieve the desired fundamental understanding of the physics of the process.

  2. Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    King, W. E.; Anderson, A. T.; Ferencz, R. M.; Hodge, N. E.; Kamath, C.; Khairallah, S. A.; Rubencik, A. M.

    2015-12-29

    The production of metal parts via laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing is growing exponentially. However, the transition of this technology from production of prototypes to production of critical parts is hindered by a lack of confidence in the quality of the part. Confidence can be established via a fundamental understanding of the physics of the process. It is generally accepted that this understanding will be increasingly achieved through modeling and simulation. However, there are significant physics, computational, and materials challenges stemming from the broad range of length and time scales and temperature ranges associated with the process. In thismore » study, we review the current state of the art and describe the challenges that need to be met to achieve the desired fundamental understanding of the physics of the process.« less

  3. Flux enhancement with powdered activated carbon addition in the membrane anaerobic bioreactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, H.; Choo, K.H.; Lee, C.H.

    1999-10-01

    The effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition on the performance of a membrane-coupled anaerobic bioreactor (MCAB) was investigated in terms of membrane filterability and treatability through a series of batch and continuous microfiltration (MF) experiments. In both batch and continuous MF of the digestion broth, a flux improvement with PAC addition was achieved, especially when a higher shear rate and/or a higher PAC dose were applied. Both the fouling and cake layer resistances decreased continuously with increasing the PAC dose up to 5 g/L. PAC played an important role in substantially reducing the biomass cake resistance due to its incompressible nature and higher backtransport velocities. PAC might have a scouring effect for removing the deposited biomass cake from the membrane surface while sorbing and/or coagulating dissolved organics and colloidal particles in the broth. The chemical oxygen demand and color in the effluent were much removed with PAC addition, and the system was also more stable against shock loading.

  4. Rapid additive manufacturing of MR compatible multipinhole collimators with selective laser melting of tungsten powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deprez, Karel; Vandenberghe, Stefaan; Van Audenhaege, Karen; Van Vaerenbergh, Jonas; Van Holen, Roel

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: The construction of complex collimators with a high number of oblique pinholes is very labor intensive, expensive or is sometimes impossible with the current available techniques (drilling, milling or electric discharge machining). All these techniques are subtractive: one starts from solid plates and the material at the position of the pinholes is removed. The authors used a novel technique for collimator construction, called metal additive manufacturing. This process starts with a solid piece of tungsten on which a first layer of tungsten powder is melted. Each subsequent layer is then melted on the previous layer. This melting is done by selective laser melting at the locations where the CAD design file defines solid material. Methods: A complex collimator with 20 loftholes with 500 {mu}m diameter pinhole opening was designed and produced (16 mm thick and 70 Multiplication-Sign 52 mm{sup 2} transverse size). The density was determined, the production accuracy was measured (GOM ATOS II Triple Scan, Nikon AZ100M microscope, Olympus IMT200 microscope). Point source measurements were done by mounting the collimator on a SPECT detector. Because there is increasing interest in dual-modality SPECT-MR imaging, the collimator was also positioned in a 7T MRI scanner (Bruker Pharmascan). A uniform phantom was acquired using T1, T2, and T2* sequences to check for artifacts or distortion of the phantom images due to the collimator presence. Additionally, three tungsten sample pieces (250, 500, and 750 {mu}m thick) were produced. The density, attenuation (140 keV beam), and uniformity (GE eXplore Locus SP micro-CT) of these samples were measured. Results: The density of the collimator was equal to 17.31 {+-} 0.10 g/cm{sup 3} (89.92% of pure tungsten). The production accuracy ranges from -260 to +650 {mu}m. The aperture positions have a mean deviation of 5 {mu}m, the maximum deviation was 174 {mu}m and the minimum deviation was -122 {mu}m. The mean aperture diameter

  5. Effect of Cu addition on the martensitic transformation of powder metallurgy processed Ti–Ni alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Yeon-wook; Choi, Eunsoo

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • M{sub s} of Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} powders is 22 °C, while M{sub s} of SPS-sintered porous bulk increases up to 50 °C. • M{sub s} of Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 40}Cu{sub 20} porous bulk is only 2 °C higher than that of the powders. • Recovered stain of porous TiNi and TiNiCu alloy is more than 1.5%. - Abstract: Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} and Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 30}Cu{sub 20} powders were prepared by gas atomization and their transformation behaviors were examined by means of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. One-step B2–B19’ transformation occurred in Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} powders, while Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 30}Cu{sub 20} powders showed B2–B19 transformation behavior. Porous bulks with 24% porosity were fabricated by spark plasma sintering. The martensitic transformation start temperature (50 °C) of Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} porous bulk is much higher than that (22 °C) of the as-solidified powders. However, the martensitic transformation start temperature (35 °C) of Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 30}Cu{sub 20} porous bulk is almost the same as that (33 °C) of the powders. When the specimens were compressed to the strain of 8% and then unloaded, the residual strains of Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} and Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 30}Cu{sub 20} alloy bulks were 3.95 and 3.7%, respectively. However, these residual strains were recovered up to 1.7% after heating by the shape memory phenomenon.

  6. Evaluation of biological treatment of pharmaceutical waste water with PAC (powdered activated carbon) addition. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, D.A.; Osantowski, R.A.

    1988-05-01

    A lack of information on applicable removal technologies for total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) prevented promulgation of best available technology economically achievable (BAT) limitations and new source performance standards (NSPS) for TCOD for pharmaceutical manufacturing plants in 1983 (EPA/440/1-83/084). One technology that was evaluated was powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition to an activated-sludge system (PACT*). A viscous floating mass of mixed-liquor solids (VFMLS) developed in the PACT units and resulted in premature termination of the study. The purposes of the study were to: (1) attempt to find the cause of the formation of the VFMLS; (2) generate additional research data for TCOD removal from pharmaceutical waste water using the PACT process; (3) evaluate the efficiency of PACT in removing specific organics; (4) evaluate the effectiveness of PACT in reducing effluent aquatic toxicity and (5) evaluate the use of a selector to improve the settleability of the mixed liquor. One control unit, two PACT units and a unit equipped with a series of selector basins for improving the settling characteristics of the mixed-liquor suspended solids were operated.

  7. Influence of additives on the increase of the heating value of Bayah’s coal with upgrading brown coal (UBC) method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heriyanto, Heri; Widya Ernayati, K.; Umam, Chairul; Margareta, Nita

    2015-12-29

    UBC (upgrading brown coal) is a method of improving the quality of coal by using oil as an additive. Through processing in the oil media, not just the calories that increase, but there is also water repellent properties and a decrease in the tendency of spontaneous combustion of coal products produced. The results showed a decrease in the water levels of natural coal bayah reached 69%, increase in calorific value reached 21.2%. Increased caloric value and reduced water content caused by the water molecules on replacing seal the pores of coal by oil and atoms C on the oil that is bound to increase the percentage of coal carbon. As a result of this experiment is, the produced coal has better calorific value, the increasing of this new calorific value up to 23.8% with the additive waste lubricant, and the moisture content reduced up to 69.45%.

  8. Effect of addition of Ag nano powder on mechanical properties of epoxy/polyaminoamide adduct coatings filled with conducting polymer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samad, Ubair Abdus; Khan, Rawaiz; Alam, Mohammad Asif; Al-Othman, Othman Y.; Al-Zahrani, Saeed M.

    2015-05-22

    In this study the effect of Ag Nano powder on mechanical properties of epoxy coatings filled with optimized ratio of conducting polymers (Polyaniline and Polyppyrole) was evaluated. Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether epoxy resin (DGEBA) along with polyaminoamide adduct (ARADUR 3282-1 BD) is used as curing agent under optimized stoichiometry values. Curing is performed at room temperature with different percentages of Nano filler. Glass and steel panels were used as coating substrate. Bird applicator was used to coat the samples in order to obtain thin film with wet film thickness (WFT) of about 70-90?m. The samples were kept in dust free environment for about 7 days at room temperature for complete curing. The coated steel panels were used to evaluate the mechanical properties of coating such as hardness, scratch and impact tests whereas coated glass panels were used for measuring pendulum hardness of the coatings. To check the dispersion and morphology of Nano filler in epoxy matrix scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used in addition Nano indentation was also performed to observe the effect of Nano filler on modulus of elasticity and hardness at Nano scale.

  9. Additive Manufacturing/Diagnostics via the High Frequency Induction Heating of Metal Powders: The Determination of the Power Transfer Factor for Fine Metallic Spheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rios, Orlando; Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam; Caravias, George; Holcomb, Matthew

    2015-03-11

    Grid Logic Inc. is developing a method for sintering and melting fine metallic powders for additive manufacturing using spatially-compact, high-frequency magnetic fields called Micro-Induction Sintering (MIS). One of the challenges in advancing MIS technology for additive manufacturing is in understanding the power transfer to the particles in a powder bed. This knowledge is important to achieving efficient power transfer, control, and selective particle heating during the MIS process needed for commercialization of the technology. The project s work provided a rigorous physics-based model for induction heating of fine spherical particles as a function of frequency and particle size. This simulation improved upon Grid Logic s earlier models and provides guidance that will make the MIS technology more effective. The project model will be incorporated into Grid Logic s power control circuit of the MIS 3D printer product and its diagnostics technology to optimize the sintering process for part quality and energy efficiency.

  10. Superhydrophobic powder additives to enhance chemical agent resistant coating systems for military equipment for the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) Corrosion Prevention and Control (CPAC) Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pawel, Steven J.; Armstrong, Beth L.; Haynes, James A.

    2015-07-01

    The primary goal of the CPAC program at ORNL was to explore the feasibility of introducing various silica-based superhydrophobic (SH) powder additives as a way to improve the corrosion resistance of US Department of Defense (DOD) military-grade chemical agent resistant coating (CARC) systems. ORNL had previously developed and patented several SH technologies of interest to the USMC, and one of the objectives of this program was to identify methods to incorporate these technologies into the USMC’s corrosion-resistance strategy. This report discusses findings of the CPAC and their application.

  11. Evaluation of biological treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater with PAC (powdered activated carbon) addition. Volume 2. Appendices. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, D.A.; Osantowski, R.A.

    1988-05-01

    A lack of information on applicable removal technologies for total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) prevented promulgation of best available technology economically achievable (BAT) limitations and new source performance standards (NSPS) for TCOD for pharmaceutical manufacturing plants in 1983 (EPA/440/1-83/084). Therefore, in 1984 EPA conducted a pilot-plant study of activated-carbon-treatment technologies utilizing pharmaceutical waste waters from a manufacturing plant that produces fermentation products (Subcategory A) and chemical synthesis products (Subcategory C). The purposes of the study were to: (1) attempt to find the cause of the formation of the VFMLS; (2) generate additional research data for TCOD removal from pharmaceutical wastewater using the PACT process; (3) evaluate the efficiency of PACT in removing specific organics; (4) evaluate the effectiveness of PACT in reducing effluent aquatic toxicity; and, (5) evaluate the use of a selector to improve the settleability of the mixed liquor. One control unit, two PACT units and a unit equipped with a series of selector basins for improving the settling characteristics of the mixed-liquor suspended solids were operated.

  12. Additive Manufacturing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... laser-sintering) Optomec LENS MR-7 Sciaky EBAM 68 Non-metal additive manufacturing Powder bed FORMIGA P 110 PolyJet 3D ... Fused deposition modeling print technology MakerBot ...

  13. Laser powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing: Physics of complex melt flow and formation mechanisms of pores, spatter, and denudation zones

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khairallah, Saad A.; Anderson, Andrew T.; Rubenchik, Alexander; King, Wayne E.

    2016-02-23

    Our study demonstrates the significant effect of the recoil pressure and Marangoni convection in laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) of 316L stainless steel. A three-dimensional high fidelity powder-scale model reveals how the strong dynamical melt flow generates pore defects, material spattering (sparking), and denudation zones. The melt track is divided into three sections: a topological depression, a transition and a tail region, each being the location of specific physical effects. The inclusion of laser ray-tracing energy deposition in the powder-scale model improves over traditional volumetric energy deposition. It enables partial particle melting, which impacts pore defects in the denudation zone.more » Different pore formation mechanisms are observed at the edge of a scan track, at the melt pool bottom (during collapse of the pool depression), and at the end of the melt track (during laser power ramp down). Finally, we discuss remedies to these undesirable pores are discussed. The results are validated against the experiments and the sensitivity to laser absorptivity.« less

  14. Fermilab Today | Brown University Profile

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Brown University April 29, 2010 NAME: Brown University HOME TOWN: Providence, Rhode Island MASCOT: Bruno the Bear SCHOOL COLORS: Seal brown and cardinal red PARTICLE PHYSICS...

  15. Energetic powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jorgensen, Betty S.; Danen, Wayne C.

    2003-12-23

    Fluoroalkylsilane-coated metal particles. The particles have a central metal core, a buffer layer surrounding the core, and a fluoroalkylsilane layer attached to the buffer layer. The particles may be prepared by combining a chemically reactive fluoroalkylsilane compound with an oxide coated metal particle having a hydroxylated surface. The resulting fluoroalkylsilane layer that coats the particles provides them with excellent resistance to aging. The particles can be blended with oxidant particles to form energetic powder that releases chemical energy when the buffer layer is physically disrupted so that the reductant metal core can react with the oxidant.

  16. Conversation with Paul Brown | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Conversation with Paul Brown Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Personal Communication: Conversation with Paul Brown Author Paul Brown Recipient...

  17. Powder treatment process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weyand, J.D.

    1988-02-09

    Disclosed are: (1) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the slurry containing a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, while reducing the tendency for oxidation of the constituent by including as a liquid constituent of the slurry an organic liquid; (2) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the powder having been pretreated to reduce content of a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, the pretreating comprising heating the powder to react the constituent; and (3) a process comprising reacting ceramic powder, grinding the reacted powder, slurrying the ground powder, spray drying the slurried powder, and blending the dried powder with metal powder. 2 figs.

  18. Powder treatment process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weyand, John D. (Greensburg, PA)

    1988-01-01

    (1) A process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the slurry containing a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, while reducing the tendency for oxidation of the constituent by including as a liquid constituent of the slurry an organic liquid; (2) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the powder having been pretreated to reduce content of a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, the pretreating comprising heating the powder to react the constituent; and (3) a process comprising reacting ceramic powder, grinding the reacted powder, slurrying the ground powder, spray drying the slurried powder, and blending the dried powder with metal powder.

  19. Powder dispersion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorenz, Heather M.; Brockmann, John E.; Lucero, Daniel A.

    2011-09-20

    A powder dispersion method and apparatus comprising an air eductor and a powder dispensing syringe inserted into a suction connection of the air eductor.

  20. Rotary powder feed through apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Gary K. (Los Alamos, NM); Less, Richard M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A device for increasing the uniformity of solids within a solids fabrication system, such as a direct light fabrication (DLF) system in which gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention provides a feed through interface wherein gas entrained powders input from stationary input lines are coupled to a rotating head of the fabrication system. The invention eliminates the need to provide additional slack in the feed lines to accommodate head rotation, and therefore reduces feed line bending movements which induce non-uniform feeding of gas entrained powder to a rotating head.

  1. brown-98.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Resolution Validation in the Shortwave: ASTI/LBLRTM QME P. D. Brown, S. A. Clough, and E. J. Mlawer Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Cambridge, Massachusetts T. R. Shippert Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington F. J. Murcray Denver University Denver, Colorado Introduction To assess our modeling capability in the shortwave and to resolve issues including those described by Cess et al. (1995) and others (Li and Moreau 1996; Arking 1996), a Quality Measurement

  2. brown-99.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NCAR/ARM Multiple Antenna Profiler W.O.J. Brown, S. A. Cohn, M. E. Susedik, C. L. Martin, G. Maclean, and D. B. Parsons National Center for Atmospheric Research Atmospheric Technology Division Boulder, Colorado Introduction National Center for Atmospheric Research/Atmospheric Technology Division (NCAR/ATD), with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, is developing an advanced wind profiler radar known as Multiple Antenna Profiler Radar

  3. Baghouse Slipstream Testing at TXU's Big Brown Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Pavlish; Jason Laumb; Robert Jensen; Jeffery Thompson; Christopher Martin; Mark Musich; Brandon Pavlish; Stanley Miller; Lucinda Hamre

    2007-04-30

    Performing sorbent testing for mercury control at a large scale is a very expensive endeavor and requires months of planning and careful execution. Even with good planning, there are plant limitations on what operating/design parameters can be varied/tested and when. For parameters that cannot be feasibly tested at the full scale (lower/higher gas flow, different bag material, cleaning methods, sorbents, etc.), an alternative approach is used to perform tests on a slipstream unit using flue gas from the plant. The advantage that a slipstream unit provides is the flexibility to test multiple operating and design parameters and other possible technology options without risking major disruption to the operation of the power plant. Additionally, the results generated are expected to simulate full-scale conditions closely, since the flue gas used during the tests comes directly from the plant in question. The Energy & Environmental Research Center developed and constructed a mobile baghouse that allows for cost-effective testing of impacts related to variation in operating and design parameters, as well as other possible mercury control options. Multiple sorbents, air-to-cloth ratios, bag materials, and cleaning frequencies were evaluated while flue gas was extracted from Big Brown when it fired a 70% Texas lignite-30% Powder River Basin (PRB) blend and a 100% PRB coal.

  4. Preparing titanium nitride powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1989-07-04

    A process for making titanium nitride powder by reaction of titanium phosphates with sodium cyanide.

  5. Preparing titanium nitride powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1989-01-01

    A process for making titanium nitride powder by reaction of titanium phosphates with sodium cyanide.

  6. Preparation of metal diboride powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brynestad, J.; Bamberger, C.E.

    Finely-divided titanium diboride or zirconium diboride powders are formed by reacting gaseous boron trichloride with a material selected from the group of consisting of titanium powder, zirconium powder, titanium dichloride powder, titanium trichloride powder, and gaseous titanium trichloride.

  7. Preparation of titanium diboride powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brynestad, Jorulf; Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1985-01-01

    Finely-divided titanium diboride or zirconium diboride powders are formed by reacting gaseous boron trichloride with a material selected from the group consisting of titanium powder, zirconium powder, titanium dichloride powder, titanium trichloride powder, and gaseous titanium trichloride.

  8. Rheological properties of water-coal slurries based on brown coal in the presence of sodium lignosulfonates and alkali

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.P. Savitskii; A.S. Makarov; V.A. Zavgorodnii

    2009-07-01

    The effect of the oxidized surface of brown coal on the structural and rheological properties of water-coal slurries was found. The kinetics of structure formation processes in water-coal slurries based on as-received and oxidized brown coal was studied. The effect of lignosulfonate and alkali additives on the samples of brown coal was considered.

  9. Precision powder feeder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlienger, M. Eric; Schmale, David T.; Oliver, Michael S.

    2001-07-10

    A new class of precision powder feeders is disclosed. These feeders provide a precision flow of a wide range of powdered materials, while remaining robust against jamming or damage. These feeders can be precisely controlled by feedback mechanisms.

  10. Brown County Wind | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name Brown County Wind Facility Brown County Wind Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Adams Electric...

  11. Multiple feed powder splitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Gary K. (Los Alamos, NM); Less, Richard M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  12. Multiple feed powder splitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Gary K. (Los Alamos, NM); Less, Richard M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  13. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-05

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of ternary mixtures consisting of: Ni powder, Cu powder, and Al powder, Ni powder, Cr powder, and Al powder; Ni powder, W powder and Al powder; Ni powder, V powder, and Al powder; Ni powder, Mo powder, and Al powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  14. Polymer quenched prealloyed metal powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Fleischhauer, Grier; German, Randall M.

    2001-01-01

    A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3 % Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

  15. brown out | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    brown out Home Dc's picture Submitted by Dc(266) Contributor 31 October, 2014 - 10:58 What do you know about the grid? black out brown out bulk power system electricity grid future...

  16. Pyrotechnic filled molding powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartzel, Lawrence W.; Kettling, George E.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure relates to thermosetting molding compounds and more particularly to a pyrotechnic filled thermosetting compound comprising a blend of unfilled diallyl phthalate molding powder and a pyrotechnic mixture.

  17. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2004-09-14

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  18. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-07-29

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  19. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-19

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  20. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-26

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  1. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2005-01-25

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  2. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goval, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2005-06-07

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  3. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2005-05-10

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  4. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2004-09-28

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  5. Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Iver E.; Ellis, Timothy W.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Ting, Jason; Terpstra, Robert; Bowman, Robert C.; Witham, Charles K.; Fultz, Brent T.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2000-06-13

    A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

  6. brown-pd99.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Resolution Model/Measurement Validations of Solar Direct-Beam Flux P. D. Brown, E. J. Mlawer, and S. A. Clough Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Cambridge, Massachusetts T. R. Shippert Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington F. J. Murcray and A. W. Dybdahl University of Denver Denver, Colorado L. C. Harrison, P. W. Kiedron, and J. J. Michalsky State University of New York at Albany Albany, New York Introduction A balance between thermal and solar radiation at

  7. Alabama Nuclear Profile - Browns Ferry

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Browns Ferry" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration date" 1,"1,101","8,072",83.7,"BWR","application/vnd.ms-excel","application/vnd.ms-excel"

  8. Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    The same atomization effect seen in a fuel injector is being applied to titanium metal resulting in fine titanium powders that are less than half the width of a human hair. Titanium melts above 3,000°F and is highly corrosive therefore requiring specialized containers. The liquid titanium is poured through an Ames Laboratory - USDOE patented tube which is intended to increase the energy efficiency of the atomization process, which has the ability to dramatically decrease the cost of fine titanium powders. This novel process could open markets for green manufacturing of titanium components from jet engines to biomedical implants.

  9. Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-03-01

    The same atomization effect seen in a fuel injector is being applied to titanium metal resulting in fine titanium powders that are less than half the width of a human hair. Titanium melts above 3,000°F and is highly corrosive therefore requiring specialized containers. The liquid titanium is poured through an Ames Laboratory - USDOE patented tube which is intended to increase the energy efficiency of the atomization process, which has the ability to dramatically decrease the cost of fine titanium powders. This novel process could open markets for green manufacturing of titanium components from jet engines to biomedical implants.

  10. Method for synthesizing powder materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buss, R.J.; Ho, P.

    1988-01-21

    A method for synthesizing ultrafine powder materials, for example, ceramic and metal powders, comprises admitting gaseous reactants from which the powder material is to be formed into a vacuum reaction chamber maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric and at a temperature less than about 400/degree/K (127/degree/C). The gaseous reactants are directed through a glow discharge provided in the vacuum reaction chamber to form the ultrafine powder material. 1 fig.

  11. Method to blend separator powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, Ronald A.; Andazola, Arthur H.; Reinhardt, Frederick W.

    2007-12-04

    A method for making a blended powder mixture, whereby two or more powders are mixed in a container with a liquid selected from nitrogen or short-chain alcohols, where at least one of the powders has an angle of repose greater than approximately 50 degrees. The method is useful in preparing blended powders of Li halides and MgO for use in the preparation of thermal battery separators.

  12. Bifunctional air electrodes containing elemental iron powder charging additive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Chia-tsun; Demczyk, Brian G.; Gongaware, Paul R.

    1982-01-01

    A bifunctional air electrode for use in electrochemical energy cells is made, comprising a hydrophilic layer and a hydrophobic layer, where the hydrophilic layer essentially comprises a hydrophilic composite which includes: (i) carbon; (ii) elemental iron particles having a particle size of between about 25 microns and about 700 microns diameter; (iii) an oxygen evolution material; (iv) a nonwetting agent; and (v) a catalyst, where at least one current collector is formed into said composite.

  13. Additive Manufacturing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MST » MST Research Programs » Additive Manufacturing Additive Manufacturing A method allowing unparalleled manufacturing control, data visualization, and high-value parts repair. Through additive manufacturing, Los Alamos is developing materials for the future. Taking complex manufacturing challenges from design to fabrication. A science and engineering approach for additive manufacturing solutions. Get Expertise John Carpenter Technical Staff Member Metallurgy Email Division Leader Materials

  14. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghunath

    1998-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

  15. Silicon nitride/silicon carbide composite powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunmead, Stephen D.; Weimer, Alan W.; Carroll, Daniel F.; Eisman, Glenn A.; Cochran, Gene A.; Susnitzky, David W.; Beaman, Donald R.; Nilsen, Kevin J.

    1996-06-11

    Prepare silicon nitride-silicon carbide composite powders by carbothermal reduction of crystalline silica powder, carbon powder and, optionally, crystalline silicon nitride powder. The crystalline silicon carbide portion of the composite powders has a mean number diameter less than about 700 nanometers and contains nitrogen. The composite powders may be used to prepare sintered ceramic bodies and self-reinforced silicon nitride ceramic bodies.

  16. Effusion plate using additive manufacturing methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul; Ostebee, Heath Michael; Wegerif, Daniel Gerritt

    2016-04-12

    Additive manufacturing techniques may be utilized to construct effusion plates. Such additive manufacturing techniques may include defining a configuration for an effusion plate having one or more internal cooling channels. The manufacturing techniques may further include depositing a powder into a chamber, applying an energy source to the deposited powder, and consolidating the powder into a cross-sectional shape corresponding to the defined configuration. Such methods may be implemented to construct an effusion plate having one or more channels with a curved cross-sectional geometry.

  17. Powder Metallurgy Fabrication of Molybdenum Accelerator Target Disks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowden, Richard Andrew; Kiggans Jr., James O.; Nunn, Stephen D.; Parten, Randy J.

    2015-12-01

    Powder metallurgy approaches for the fabrication of accelerator target disks are being examined to support the development of Mo-99 production by NorthStar Medical Technologies, LLC. An advantage of powder metallurgy is that very little material is wasted and at present, dense, quality parts are routinely produced from molybdenum powder. The proposed targets, however, are thin wafers, 29 mm in diameter with a thickness of 0.5 mm, with very stringent dimensional tolerances. Although tooling can be machined to very high tolerance levels, the operations of powder feed, pressing and sintering involve complicated mechanisms, each of which affects green density and shrinkage, and therefore the dimensions and shape of the final product. Combinations of powder morphology, lubricants and pressing technique have been explored to produce target disks with minimal variations in thickness and little or no distortion. In addition, sintering conditions that produce densities for optimum target dissolvability are being determined.

  18. Chelsea Brown | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Brown Graduate student Subtask 4 project: "Water Oxidation using Functionalized Porphyrin Chromophores and Iridium Catalyst"

  19. CMI Education Partner: Brown University | Critical Materials Institute

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Education Partner: Brown University Brown University offers courses in several areas: Engineering School Institute of Environment and Study Brown University: Engineering School http://www.brown.edu/academics/engineering/undergraduate-study/courses ENGN 0030 - Introduction to Engineering: An introduction to various engineering disciplines, thought processes, and issues. Topics include computing in engineering, engineering design, optimization, and estimation. Case studies in engineering are used

  20. additive manufacturuing

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    an award last month for his 3D printing innovation. It could revolutionize additive manufacturing.

    Lawrence Livermore Lab engineer Bryan Moran wasn't necessarily...

  1. Microsoft PowerPoint - 7 Kevin Brown

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    (CBP) Toolsets Kevin G. Brown Vanderbilt University and CRESP Cementitious Barriers Partnership Performance & Risk Assessment Community of Practice Technical Exchange Meeting December 11-12, 2014 Las Vegas NM Project Team Members Vanderbilt University & CRESP D. Kosson*, K.G. Brown*, S. Mahadevan, J. Branch, F. Sanchez Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) C. Langton*, G. Flach*, H. Burns*, R. Seitz, S. Marra Energy Research Centre of The Netherlands (ECN) & CRESP H. van der

  2. Ukrainian mineral wax from brown coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shabad, T.

    1986-07-01

    An unusual mineral enterprise is the mineral wax plant of Semenovskoye in the Aleksandriya brown coal basin of the Ukraine. The only plant of its kind in the Soviet Union, it has been in operation since 1959, extracting mineral wax from the local bitumen-rich brown coal. The plant yields about 7.5 tons of mineral wax a day (about 2700 tons a year), for use in a variety of applications.

  3. additive manufacturing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    additive manufacturing - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  4. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  5. Phosphazene additives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  6. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, R.

    1998-08-04

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products. 7 figs.

  7. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghunath; Blaugher, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals, such as nitrate salts of thallium, barium, calcium, and copper, which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of thallium in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

  8. Field Testing of Activated Carbon Injection Options for Mercury Control at TXU's Big Brown Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Christopher Martin; Mark Musich; Lucinda Hamre

    2009-01-07

    The primary objective of the project was to evaluate the long-term feasibility of using activated carbon injection (ACI) options to effectively reduce mercury emissions from Texas electric generation plants in which a blend of lignite and subbituminous coal is fired. Field testing of ACI options was performed on one-quarter of Unit 2 at TXU's Big Brown Steam Electric Station. Unit 2 has a design output of 600 MW and burns a blend of 70% Texas Gulf Coast lignite and 30% subbituminous Powder River Basin coal. Big Brown employs a COHPAC configuration, i.e., high air-to-cloth baghouses following cold-side electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), for particulate control. When sorbent injection is added between the ESP and the baghouse, the combined technology is referred to as TOXECON{trademark} and is patented by the Electric Power Research Institute in the United States. Key benefits of the TOXECON configuration include better mass transfer characteristics of a fabric filter compared to an ESP for mercury capture and contamination of only a small percentage of the fly ash with AC. The field testing consisted of a baseline sampling period, a parametric screening of three sorbent injection options, and a month long test with a single mercury control technology. During the baseline sampling, native mercury removal was observed to be less than 10%. Parametric testing was conducted for three sorbent injection options: injection of standard AC alone; injection of an EERC sorbent enhancement additive, SEA4, with ACI; and injection of an EERC enhanced AC. Injection rates were determined for all of the options to achieve the minimum target of 55% mercury removal as well as for higher removals approaching 90%. Some of the higher injection rates were not sustainable because of increased differential pressure across the test baghouse module. After completion of the parametric testing, a month long test was conducted using the enhanced AC at a nominal rate of 1.5 lb/Macf. During the

  9. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, Michael T.; Basaran, Osman A.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Weaver, Fred J.

    1995-01-01

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2/ g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

  10. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, M.T.; Basaran, O.A.; Kollie, T.G.; Weaver, F.J.

    1996-01-02

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm{sup 3} and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m{sup 2}/g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraalkyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders. 2 figs.

  11. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, Michael T.; Basaran, Osman A.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Weaver, Fred J.

    1994-01-01

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2 /g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

  12. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, Michael T.; Basaran, Osman A.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Weaver, Fred J.

    1996-01-01

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2/ g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

  13. Method for molding ceramic powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janney, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    A method for molding ceramic powders comprises forming a slurry mixture including ceramic powder, a dispersant for the metal-containing powder, and a monomer solution. The monomer solution includes at least one multifunctional monomer, a free-radical initiator, and an organic solvent. The slurry mixture is transferred to a mold, and the mold containing the slurry mixture is heated to polymerize and crosslink the monomer and form a firm polymer-solvent gel matrix. The solid product may be removed from the mold and heated to first remove the solvent and subsequently remove the polymer, whereafter the product may be sintered.

  14. Method for molding ceramic powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janney, M.A.

    1990-01-16

    A method for molding ceramic powders comprises forming a slurry mixture including ceramic powder, a dispersant for the metal-containing powder, and a monomer solution. The monomer solution includes at least one multifunctional monomer, a free-radical initiator, and an organic solvent. The slurry mixture is transferred to a mold, and the mold containing the slurry mixture is heated to polymerize and crosslink the monomer and form a firm polymer-solvent gel matrix. The solid product may be removed from the mold and heated to first remove the solvent and subsequently remove the polymer, where after the product may be sintered.

  15. Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration Project Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    San Francisco Public Utilities Commission; URS Corporation; Biofuels, Blackgold; Carollo Engineers

    2013-01-30

    Municipal wastewater treatment facilities have typically been limited to the role of accepting wastewater, treating it to required levels, and disposing of its treatment residuals. However, a new view is emerging which includes wastewater treatment facilities as regional resource recovery centers. This view is a direct result of increasingly stringent regulations, concerns over energy use, carbon footprint, and worldwide depletion of fossil fuel resources. Resources in wastewater include chemical and thermal energy, as well as nutrients, and water. A waste stream such as residual grease, which concentrates in the drainage from restaurants (referred to as Trap Waste), is a good example of a resource with an energy content that can be recovered for beneficial reuse. If left in wastewater, grease accumulates inside of the wastewater collection system and can lead to increased corrosion and pipe blockages that can cause wastewater overflows. Also, grease in wastewater that arrives at the treatment facility can impair the operation of preliminary treatment equipment and is only partly removed in the primary treatment process. In addition, residual grease increases the demand in treatment materials such as oxygen in the secondary treatment process. When disposed of in landfills, grease is likely to undergo anaerobic decay prior to landfill capping, resulting in the atmospheric release of methane, a greenhouse gas (GHG). This research project was therefore conceptualized and implemented by the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) to test the feasibility of energy recovery from Trap Waste in the form of Biodiesel or Methane gas. The research goals are given below: To validate technology performance; To determine the costs and benefits [including economic, socioeconomic, and GHG emissions reduction] associated with co-locating this type of operation at a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP); To develop a business case or model for replication of the

  16. Neutron detectors comprising boron powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhehui; Morris, Christopher; Bacon, Jeffrey Darnell; Makela, Mark F; Spaulding, Randy Jay

    2013-05-21

    High-efficiency neutron detector substrate assemblies comprising a first conductive substrate, wherein a first side of the substrate is in direct contact with a first layer of a powder material comprising .sup.10boron, .sup.10boron carbide or combinations thereof, and wherein a conductive material is in proximity to the first layer of powder material; and processes of making said neutron detector substrate assemblies.

  17. Powder Injection Molding of Titanium Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Nyberg, Eric A.; Weil, K. Scott; Miller, Megan R.

    2005-01-01

    Powder injection molding (PIM) is a well-established, cost-effective method of fabricating small-to-moderate size metal components. Derived from plastic injection molding and employing a mixture of metal powder and plastic binder, the process has been used with great success in manufacturing a wide variety of metal products, including those made from stainless steel, nickel-based superalloys, and copper alloys. Less progress has been achieved with titanium and other refractory metal alloys because of problems with alloy impurities that are directly attributable to the injection molding process. Specifically, carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen are left behind during binder removal and become incorporated into the chemistry and microstructure of the material during densification. Even at low concentration, these impurities can cause severe degradation in the mechanical properties of titanium and its alloys. We have developed a unique blend of PIM constituents where only a small volume fraction of binder (~5 10 vol%) is required for injection molding; the remainder of the mixture consists of the metal powder and binder solvent. Because of the nature of decomposition in the binder system and the relatively small amount used, the binder is eliminated almost completely from the pre-sintered component during the initial stage of a two-step heat treatment process. Results will be presented on the first phase of this research, in which the binder, injection molding, de-binding and sintering schedule were developed. Additional data on the mechanical and physical properties of the material produced will be discussed.

  18. Powder collection apparatus/method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, I.E.; Terpstra, R.L.; Moore, J.A.

    1994-01-11

    Device for separating and collecting ultrafine atomized powder from the gas stream of a gas atomizing apparatus comprises a housing having an interior wall oriented at an angle relative to horizontal so as to form a downwardly converging, conical expansion chamber, an inlet conduit communicated to the expansion chamber proximate an upper region thereof for receiving the gas stream, and an outlet proximate a lower region of the expansion chamber. The inlet conduit is oriented at a compound inclined angle (with respect to horizontal) selected to promote separation and collection of powder from the gas stream in the expansion chamber. The compound angle comprises a first entrance angle that is greater than the angle of repose of the powder on the housing interior wall such that any powder accumulation in the inlet conduit tends to flow down the wall toward the outlet. The second angle is selected generally equal to the angle of the housing interior wall measured from the same horizontal plane so as to direct the gas stream into the expansion chamber generally tangent to the housing interior wall to establish a downward swirling gas stream flow in the expansion chamber. A powder collection container is communicated to the outlet of the expansion chamber to collect the powder for further processing. 4 figures.

  19. Brown-Atchison E C A Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Brown-Atchison E C A Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Brown-Atchison E C A Inc Place: Kansas Phone Number: 785-486-2117 Website: baelectric.com Outage Hotline: After Hours:...

  20. FIA-12-0009- In the Matter of Cynthia Brown

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cynthia Brown filed an Appeal regarding a request she filed under the Freedom of Information Act. In December 2011, Ms. Brown filed a request for records regarding her late mother.

  1. FIA-12-0044- In the Matter of Cynthia Brown

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cynthia Brown filed an Appeal regarding a request filed under the Freedom of Information Act. In March 2012, Ms. Brown filed a request for records regarding her late mother.

  2. Taking It from Brown to Green: Renewable Energy on Contaminated...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Taking It from Brown to Green: Renewable Energy on Contaminated Lands - Otto Van Geet (2.61 MB) Brown to Green: Brownfields Redevelopment for Green Power - Johnson (4.79 MB) ...

  3. Ceramic oxide powders and the formation thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Joseph L.; Hung, Cheng-Hung

    1993-01-01

    Ceramic oxide powders and a method for their preparation. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby two or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein said precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders are determined by process conditions.

  4. Ceramic oxide powders and the formation thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, J.L.; Chenghung Hung.

    1993-12-07

    Ceramic oxide powders and a method for their preparation. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby two or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein said precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders are determined by process conditions. 14 figures.

  5. PROCESS OF FORMING POWDERED MATERIAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glatter, J.; Schaner, B.E.

    1961-07-14

    A process of forming high-density compacts of a powdered ceramic material is described by agglomerating the powdered ceramic material with a heat- decompossble binder, adding a heat-decompossble lubricant to the agglomerated material, placing a quantity of the material into a die cavity, pressing the material to form a compact, pretreating the compacts in a nonoxidizing atmosphere to remove the binder and lubricant, and sintering the compacts. When this process is used for making nuclear reactor fuel elements, the ceramic material is an oxide powder of a fissionsble material and after forming, the compacts are placed in a cladding tube which is closed at its ends by vapor tight end caps, so that the sintered compacts are held in close contact with each other and with the interior wall of the cladding tube.

  6. CHARACTERIZING THE BROWN DWARF FORMATION CHANNELS FROM THE INITIAL MASS FUNCTION AND BINARY-STAR DYNAMICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thies, Ingo; Pflamm-Altenburg, Jan; Kroupa, Pavel; Marks, Michael

    2015-02-10

    The stellar initial mass function (IMF) is a key property of stellar populations. There is growing evidence that the classical star-formation mechanism by the direct cloud fragmentation process has difficulties reproducing the observed abundance and binary properties of brown dwarfs and very-low-mass stars. In particular, recent analytical derivations of the stellar IMF exhibit a deficit of brown dwarfs compared to observational data. Here we derive the residual mass function of brown dwarfs as an empirical measure of the brown dwarf deficiency in recent star-formation models with respect to observations and show that it is compatible with the substellar part of the Thies-Kroupa IMF and the mass function obtained by numerical simulations. We conclude that the existing models may be further improved by including a substellar correction term that accounts for additional formation channels like disk or filament fragmentation. The term ''peripheral fragmentation'' is introduced here for such additional formation channels. In addition, we present an updated analytical model of stellar and substellar binarity. The resulting binary fraction and the dynamically evolved companion mass-ratio distribution are in good agreement with observational data on stellar and very-low-mass binaries in the Galactic field, in clusters, and in dynamically unprocessed groups of stars if all stars form as binaries with stellar companions. Cautionary notes are given on the proper analysis of mass functions and the companion mass-ratio distribution and the interpretation of the results. The existence of accretion disks around young brown dwarfs does not imply that these form just like stars in direct fragmentation.

  7. Microsoft PowerPoint - 1 Kevin Brown

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Program Update Interagency Steering Committee on Performance and Risk Assessment Community of Practice Annual Technical Exchange Meeting Richland, Washington December 15-16, 2015 Project Team Members Vanderbilt University & CRESP D. Kosson*, K.G. Brown*, A.C. Garrabrants, S. Mahadevan, J. Branch, F. Sanchez Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) C. Langton*; G. Flach*; H. Burns*; R. Seitz, S. Marra; F.G. Smith, III Energy Research Centre of The Netherlands (ECN) & CRESP H. van der

  8. Additive manufacturing method for SRF components of various geometries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rimmer, Robert; Frigola, Pedro E; Murokh, Alex Y

    2015-05-05

    An additive manufacturing method for forming nearly monolithic SRF niobium cavities and end group components of arbitrary shape with features such as optimized wall thickness and integral stiffeners, greatly reducing the cost and technical variability of conventional cavity construction. The additive manufacturing method for forming an SRF cavity, includes atomizing niobium to form a niobium powder, feeding the niobium powder into an electron beam melter under a vacuum, melting the niobium powder under a vacuum in the electron beam melter to form an SRF cavity; and polishing the inside surface of the SRF cavity.

  9. Ultrafine Hydrogen Storage Powders - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Ultrafine Hydrogen Storage Powders Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryThis invention provides for composition and method of making extremely fine powders for storing hydrogen.DescriptionThe use of the powders decreases problems that are normally encountered when storage powders repeatedly experience during absorption and then desorption of

  10. Additive Manufacturing Meets the Critical Materials Shortage | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Additive Manufacturing Meets the Critical Materials Shortage Additive Manufacturing Meets the Critical Materials Shortage April 9, 2014 - 11:15am Addthis Green light reflection from a low-oxygen environment, 3D-printer laser deposition of metal powder alloys. | Photo courtesy of Critical Materials Institute, Ames Laboratory Green light reflection from a low-oxygen environment, 3D-printer laser deposition of metal powder alloys. | Photo courtesy of Critical Materials Institute, Ames

  11. Mechanical Properties of a Metal Powder-Loaded Polyurethane Foam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. L. Neuschwanger; L. L. Whinnery; S. H. Goods

    1999-04-01

    Quasi-static compression tests have been performed on polyurethane foam specimens. The modulus of the foam exhibited a power-law dependence with respect to density of the form: E* {proportional_to} {rho}*{sup n}, where n = 1.7. The modulus data is well described by a simple geometric model (attributed to the work of Gibson and Ashby) for closed-cell foam in which the stiffness of the foam is governed by the flexure of the cell struts and cell walls. The compressive strength of the foam is also found to follow a power-law behavior with respect to foam density. In this instance, Euler buckling is used to rationalize the density dependence. The modulus of the polyurethane foam was modified by addition of a gas atomized, spherical aluminum powder. Additions of 30 and 50 weight percent of the powder significantly increased the foam modulus. However, there were only slight increases in modulus with 5 and 10 weight percent additions of the metal powder. Strength was also slightly increased at high loading fractions of powder. This increase in modulus and strength could be predicted by combining the above geometric model with a well-known model describing the effect on modulus of a rigid dispersoid in a compliant matrix.

  12. Wetter for fine dry powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, James E.; Williams, Everett H.

    1977-01-01

    A system for wetting fine dry powders such as bentonite clay with water or other liquids is described. The system includes a wetting tank for receiving water and a continuous flow of fine powder feed. The wetting tank has a generally square horizontal cross section with a bottom end closure in the shape of an inverted pyramid. Positioned centrally within the wetting tank is a flow control cylinder which is supported from the walls of the wetting tank by means of radially extending inclined baffles. A variable speed motor drives a first larger propeller positioned immediately below the flow control cylinder in a direction which forces liquid filling the tank to flow downward through the flow control cylinder and a second smaller propeller positioned below the larger propeller having a reverse pitch to oppose the flow of liquid being driven downward by the larger propeller.

  13. MESOSCALE SIMULATIONS OF POWDER COMPACTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lomov, Ilya; Fujino, Don; Antoun, Tarabay; Liu, Benjamin

    2009-12-28

    Mesoscale 3D simulations of shock compaction of metal and ceramic powders have been performed with an Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN. The approach was validated by simulating a well-characterized shock compaction experiment of a porous ductile metal. Simulation results using the Steinberg material model and handbook values for solid 2024 aluminum showed good agreement with experimental compaction curves and wave profiles. Brittle ceramic materials are not as well studied as metals, so a simple material model for solid ceramic (tungsten carbide) has been calibrated to match experimental compaction curves. Direct simulations of gas gun experiments with ceramic powders have been performed and showed good agreement with experimental data. The numerical shock wave profile has same character and thickness as that measured experimentally using VISAR. The numerical results show reshock states above the single-shock Hugoniot line as observed in experiments. We found that for good quantitative agreement with experiments 3D simulations are essential.

  14. Browning: Email in Response to Smart Grid Request for Information |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Browning: Email in Response to Smart Grid Request for Information Browning: Email in Response to Smart Grid Request for Information Email from Stephen Browning explaing the two attachments submitted in response to the Smart Grid Request for Information on Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges. Smart Gird Policy Memo (15.63 KB) More Documents & Publications City Utilities of Springfield Missouri Comments on Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical

  15. MEMORANDUM FROM: THOMAS E. BROWN, DIRECTOR OFFICE OF CONTRACT...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ,2008 MEMORANDUM FROM: THOMAS E. BROWN, DIRECTOR OFFICE OF CONTRACT MANAGEMENT OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND ASSISTANCE MANAGEMENT SUBJECT: Contract Change Order Administration of...

  16. Senior Obama Administration Officials to Join Governor Brown...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Secretary Daniel Poneman will join California Governor Jerry Brown, Los Angeles Mayor Eric Garcetti and state, local and tribal leaders from across the country for a media...

  17. Flow Test At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Brown, 1995) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Flow Test At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Brown, 1995) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  18. Flow Test At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Brown, 1994) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Flow Test At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Brown, 1994) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  19. Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration Project Report (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 09 BIOMASS FUELS Brown Grease; Trap Waste; Biodiesel; Biofuel; Wastewater; Anaerobic Digestion Word Cloud More Like ...

  20. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  1. Pellet fabrication development using thermally denitrated UO{sub 2} powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, N.C.; Griffin, C.W.

    1992-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has evaluted, on a laboratory scale, the characteristics and pellet fabrication properties of UO{sub 3} powder prepared by the thermal denitration process. Excellent quality, 96% TD (percent of theoretical density) pellets were produced from development lots of this powder. Apparently, the key to making this highly sinterable powder from uranyl nitrate is the addition of ammonium nitrate (NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}) to the feed solution prior to thermal denitration. Powder lots were processed with and without the NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} addition in the feed solution. The lots included samples from the ORNL laboratory rotary kiln and from a larger scale rotary kiln at National Lead of Ohio (NLO). In the PNL evaluation, samples of UO{sub 3} were calculated and reduced to UO{sub 2}, followed by conventional process procedures to compare the sinterability of the powder lots. The high density pellets made from the powder lots, which included the NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} addition, were reduced to Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) density range of 88 to 92% TD by the use of poreformers. The NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} addition also improved the sinterability properties of uranium oxide powders that contain thorium and cerium. Thorium and cerium were used as ``stand-in`` for plutonium used in urania-plutonia FBR fuel pellets. A very preliminary examination of a single lot of thermally denitrated uranium-plutonium oxide powder was made. This powder lot was made with the NH{sub 3}NO{sub 3} addition and produced pellets just above the FBR density range.

  2. Trends in powder processing equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppard, L.M.

    1993-05-01

    Spray drying is the most widely used process for producing particles. It is used in industries other than ceramics including food, chemicals, and pharmaceutical. The process involves the atomization of a liquid feed stock into a spray of droplets and contacting the droplets with hot air in a drying chamber. The sprays are produced by either rotary or nozzle atomizers. Evaporation of moisture from the droplets and formation of dry particles proceed under controlled temperature and airflow conditions. Powder is then discharged continuously from the drying chamber. Spray drying equipment is being improved to handle an ever-increasing number of applications. Several developments in particle-size reduction equipment are also described.

  3. Systems and Professional Development - David Brown, Director, Systems &

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Professional Development, OAPM | Department of Energy Systems and Professional Development - David Brown, Director, Systems & Professional Development, OAPM Systems and Professional Development - David Brown, Director, Systems & Professional Development, OAPM Topics Discussed: Importance of Contracting in DOE Compared with Other Civilian Agencies Professional Workforce Workload DOE's Certified Workforce Acquisition Workload The Holy Grail of Contract and Project Management More...

  4. Novel Solvent System for Post Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture Brown...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    COsub 2 Capture Brown, Alfred; Brown, Nathan 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS Clean Coal Technology Coal - Environmental (Carbon Capture) Clean Coal Technology Coal -...

  5. Process for the synthesis of iron powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welbon, W.W.

    1983-11-08

    A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder. 2 figs.

  6. Process for the synthesis of iron powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welbon, William W.

    1983-01-01

    A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder.

  7. Process for the synthesis of iron powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1982-03-06

    A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder.

  8. Recyclability study on Inconel 718 and Ti-6Al-4V powders for use in electron beam melting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nandwana, Peeyush; Peter, William H.; Lowe, Larry E.; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Medina, Francisco; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Kirka, Michael M.

    2015-10-20

    In this study, powder bed based additive manufacturing technologies offer a big advantage in terms of reusability of the powders over multiple cycles that result in cost savings. However, currently there are no standards to determine the factors that govern the powder reuse times. This work presents the results from a recyclability study conducted on Inconel 718 and Ti-6Al-4V powders. It has been found that the Inconel 718 powders are chemically stable over a large number of cycles and their reuse time is limited by physical characteristics of powders such as flowability. Ti-6Al-4V, on the other hand, finds its reuse time governed by the oxygen pick up that occurs during and in between build cycles. The detailed results have been presented.

  9. Recyclability study on Inconel 718 and Ti-6Al-4V powders for use in electron beam melting

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nandwana, Peeyush; Peter, William H.; Lowe, Larry E.; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Medina, Francisco; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Kirka, Michael M.

    2015-10-20

    In this study, powder bed based additive manufacturing technologies offer a big advantage in terms of reusability of the powders over multiple cycles that result in cost savings. However, currently there are no standards to determine the factors that govern the powder reuse times. This work presents the results from a recyclability study conducted on Inconel 718 and Ti-6Al-4V powders. It has been found that the Inconel 718 powders are chemically stable over a large number of cycles and their reuse time is limited by physical characteristics of powders such as flowability. Ti-6Al-4V, on the other hand, finds its reusemore » time governed by the oxygen pick up that occurs during and in between build cycles. The detailed results have been presented.« less

  10. Wet powder seal for gas containment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stang, L.G.

    1979-08-29

    A gas seal is formed by a compact layer of an insoluble powder and liquid filling the fine interstices of that layer. The smaller the particle size of the selected powder, such as sand or talc, the finer will be the interstices or capillary spaces in the layer and the greater will be the resulting sealing capacity, i.e., the gas pressure differential which the wet powder layer can withstand. Such wet powder seal is useful in constructing underground gas reservoirs or storage cavities for nuclear wastes as well as stopping leaks in gas mains buried under ground or situated under water. The sealing capacity of the wet powder seal can be augmented by the hydrostatic head of a liquid body established over the seal.

  11. Wet powder seal for gas containment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stang, Louis G.

    1982-01-01

    A gas seal is formed by a compact layer of an insoluble powder and liquid filling the fine interstices of that layer. The smaller the particle size of the selected powder, such as sand or talc, the finer will be the interstices or capillary spaces in the layer and the greater will be the resulting sealing capacity, i.e., the gas pressure differential which the wet powder layer can withstand. Such wet powder seal is useful in constructing underground gas reservoirs or storage cavities for nuclear wastes as well as stopping leaks in gas mains buried under ground or situated under water. The sealing capacity of the wet powder seal can be augmented by the hydrostatic head of a liquid body established over the seal.

  12. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects.more » Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.« less

  13. A new parallax measurement for the coldest known brown dwarf

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luhman, K. L.; Esplin, T. L.

    2014-11-20

    WISE J085510.83–071442.5 was recently discovered as the coldest known brown dwarf based on four epochs of images from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer and the Spitzer Space Telescope. We have improved the accuracy of its parallax measurement by obtaining two additional epochs of Spitzer astrometry. We derive a parallactic distance of 2.31 ± 0.08 pc, which continues to support its rank as the fourth closest known system to the Sun when compared to WISE J104915.57–531906.1 AB (2.02 ± 0.02 pc) and Wolf 359 (2.386 ± 0.012 pc). The new constraint on the absolute magnitude at 4.5 μm indicates an effective temperature of 235-260 K based on four sets of theoretical models. We also show the updated positions of WISE J085510.83–071442.5 in two color-magnitude diagrams. Whereas Faherty and coworkers cited its location in M {sub W2} versus J – W2 as evidence of water clouds, we find that those data can be explained instead by cloudless models that employ non-equilibrium chemistry.

  14. Brown County, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Brown County is a county in Ohio. Its FIPS County Code is 015. It is classified as ASHRAE...

  15. Brown County, Indiana: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Brown County is a county in Indiana. Its FIPS County Code is 013. It is classified as ASHRAE...

  16. Brown County, Kansas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Brown County is a county in Kansas. Its FIPS County Code is 013. It is classified as ASHRAE...

  17. Brown County, Minnesota: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Brown County is a county in Minnesota. Its FIPS County Code is 015. It is classified as...

  18. Brown County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Brown County is a county in Texas. Its FIPS County Code is 049. It is classified as ASHRAE...

  19. Brown County, South Dakota: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Brown County is a county in South Dakota. Its FIPS County Code is 013. It is classified as...

  20. From: Meredith Brown Subject: Yellow Alert:...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fri, 12 Jun 1998 17:03:23 -0500 From: Meredith Brown Subject: Yellow Alert: Small Bench Top Fire Title: Bench Top Fire Involving Use of Alcohol and Burner...

  1. Brown County, Nebraska: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Brown County is a county in Nebraska. Its FIPS County Code is 017. It is classified as...

  2. Brown County, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Brown County is a county in Wisconsin. Its FIPS County Code is 009. It is classified as...

  3. Brown County Rural Elec Assn | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rural Elec Assn Jump to: navigation, search Name: Brown County Rural Elec Assn Place: Minnesota Phone Number: 1-800-658-2368 Website: www.browncountyrea.coop Outage Hotline:...

  4. Brown County, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Brown County is a county in Illinois. Its FIPS County Code is 009. It is classified as...

  5. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Brown University - Metcalf Research

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Lab - RI 01 Brown University - Metcalf Research Lab - RI 01 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Brown University (Metcalf Research Lab.) (RI.01 ) Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Providence , Rhode Island RI.01-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 RI.01-1 Site Operations: Research/Development on the preparation of pure halides of heavy metals, Bench Scale Process, and Sample & Analysis. RI.01-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated -

  6. NanoComposite Stainless Steel Powder Technologies (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    NanoComposite Stainless Steel Powder Technologies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: NanoComposite Stainless Steel Powder Technologies You are accessing a document from ...

  7. Water Outgassing from PBX-9502 powder by isoconversional thermal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water Outgassing from PBX-9502 powder by isoconversional thermal analysis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Water Outgassing from PBX-9502 powder by isoconversional ...

  8. Solid State Processing of New Low Cost Titanium Powders Enabling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Powders Enabling Affordable Automotive Components Solid State Processing of New Low Cost Titanium Powders Enabling Affordable Automotive Components Presentation given at ...

  9. Powder Dropper | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Powder Dropper This device releases micron-sized dust particles at a controlled rate through an aperture in a vibrating crystal. The amount of dust released ranges from a few particles per second up to the choking point of the closed aperture. Our present crystal will pass ~ 5 million particles per second assuming particle diameter of 50 microns. The powder is released by vibrating a piezo crystal at the bottom of a reservoir. The amount of powder or dust that is released is controlled by

  10. Denudation of metal powder layers in laser powder bed fusion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 114; Journal Issue: C; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2016-05-29 01:01:52; Journal ID: ISSN 1359-6454 Publisher: Elsevier ...

  11. Laminated composite of magnetic alloy powder and ceramic powder and process for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moorhead, A.J.; Kim, H.

    1999-08-10

    A laminated composite structure of alternating metal powder layers, and layers formed of an inorganic bonding media powder, and a method for manufacturing same are disclosed. The method includes the steps of assembling in a cavity alternating layers of a metal powder and an inorganic bonding media of a ceramic, glass, and glass-ceramic. Heat, with or without pressure, is applied to the alternating layers until the particles of the metal powder are sintered together and bonded into the laminated composite structure by the layers of sintered inorganic bonding media to form a strong composite structure. The method finds particular application in the manufacture of high performance magnets wherein the metal powder is a magnetic alloy powder. 9 figs.

  12. Laminated composite of magnetic alloy powder and ceramic powder and process for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moorhead, Arthur J.; Kim, Hyoun-Ee

    1999-01-01

    A laminated composite structure of alternating metal powder layers, and layers formed of an inorganic bonding media powder, and a method for manufacturing same are discosed. The method includes the steps of assembling in a cavity alternating layers of a metal powder and an inorganic bonding media of a ceramic, glass, and glass-ceramic. Heat, with or without pressure, is applied to the alternating layers until the particles of the metal powder are sintered together and bonded into the laminated composite structure by the layers of sintered inorganic bonding media to form a strong composite structure. The method finds particular application in the manufacture of high performance magnets wherein the metal powder is a magnetic alloy powder.

  13. Synthesis and processing of monosized oxide powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barringer, Eric A.; Fegley, Jr., M. Bruce; Bowen, H. Kent

    1985-01-01

    Uniform-size, high-purity, spherical oxide powders are formed by hydrolysis of alkoxide precursors in dilute alcoholic solutions. Under controlled conditions (concentrations of 0.03 to 0.2 M alkoxide and 0.2 to 1.5 M water, for example) oxide particles on the order of about 0.05 to 0.7 micron can be produced. Methods of doping such powders and forming sinterable compacts are also disclosed.

  14. Synthesis and processing of monosized oxide powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barringer, E.A.; Fegley, M.B. Jr.; Bowen, H.K.

    1985-09-24

    Uniform-size, high-purity, spherical oxide powders are formed by hydrolysis of alkoxide precursors in dilute alcoholic solutions. Under controlled conditions (concentrations of 0.03 to 0.2 M alkoxide and 0.2 to 1.5 M water, for example) oxide particles on the order of about 0.05 to 0.7 microns can be produced. Methods of doping such powders and forming sinterable compacts are also disclosed. 6 figs.

  15. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.

    2001-01-01

    A biaxially textured alloy article comprises Ni powder and at least one powder selected from the group consisting of Cr, W, V, Mo, Cu, Al, Ce, YSZ, Y, Rare Earths, (RE), MgO, CeO.sub.2, and Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; compacted and heat treated, then rapidly recrystallized to produce a biaxial texture on the article. In some embodiments the alloy article further comprises electromagnetic or electro-optical devices and possesses superconducting properties.

  16. Synthesis of nanoscale magnesium diboride powder

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Finnemore, D. K.; Marzik, J. V.

    2015-12-18

    A procedure has been developed for the preparation of small grained magnesium diboride (MgB2) powder by reacting nanometer size boron powder in a magnesium vapor. Plasma synthesized boron powder that had particle sizes ranging from 20 to 300nm was mixed with millimeter size chunks of Mg by rolling stoichiometric amounts of the powders in a sealed cylindrical container under nitrogen gas. This mixture then was placed in a niobium reaction vessel, evacuated, and sealed by e-beam welding. The vessel was typically heated to approximately 830°C for several hours. The resulting MgB2 particles have a grain size in the 200 nmmore » to 800 nm range. Agglomerates of loosely bound particles could be broken up by light grinding in a mortar and pestle. At 830°C, many particles are composed of several grains grown together so that the average particle size is about twice the average grain size. Furthermore, experiments were conducted primarily with undoped boron powder, but carbon-doped boron powder showed very similar results.« less

  17. Synthesis of nanoscale magnesium diboride powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finnemore, D. K.; Marzik, J. V.

    2015-12-18

    A procedure has been developed for the preparation of small grained magnesium diboride (MgB2) powder by reacting nanometer size boron powder in a magnesium vapor. Plasma synthesized boron powder that had particle sizes ranging from 20 to 300nm was mixed with millimeter size chunks of Mg by rolling stoichiometric amounts of the powders in a sealed cylindrical container under nitrogen gas. This mixture then was placed in a niobium reaction vessel, evacuated, and sealed by e-beam welding. The vessel was typically heated to approximately 830°C for several hours. The resulting MgB2 particles have a grain size in the 200 nm to 800 nm range. Agglomerates of loosely bound particles could be broken up by light grinding in a mortar and pestle. At 830°C, many particles are composed of several grains grown together so that the average particle size is about twice the average grain size. Furthermore, experiments were conducted primarily with undoped boron powder, but carbon-doped boron powder showed very similar results.

  18. I. V. Khalzov, B. P. Brown, F. Ebrahimi, D. D. Schnack, and C. B. Forest

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simulation of laminar plasma dynamos in a cylindrical von Kármán flow I. V. Khalzov, B. P. Brown, F. Ebrahimi, D. D. Schnack, and C. B. Forest Citation: Phys. Plasmas 18, 032110 (2011); doi: 10.1063/1.3559472 View online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3559472 View Table of Contents: http://pop.aip.org/resource/1/PHPAEN/v18/i3 Published by the American Institute of Physics. Additional information on Phys. Plasmas Journal Homepage: http://pop.aip.org/ Journal Information:

  19. I. V. Khalzov, B. P. Brown, N. Katz, and C. B. Forest

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Parker instability in a rotating plasma screw pinch I. V. Khalzov, B. P. Brown, N. Katz, and C. B. Forest Citation: Phys. Plasmas 19, 022107 (2012); doi: 10.1063/1.3684240 View online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3684240 View Table of Contents: http://pop.aip.org/resource/1/PHPAEN/v19/i2 Published by the American Institute of Physics. Additional information on Phys. Plasmas Journal Homepage: http://pop.aip.org/ Journal Information: http://pop.aip.org/about/about_the_journal Top downloads:

  20. Additive Manufacturing Technology Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Additive Manufacturing 1 Technology Assessment 2 1. Contents 3 1. Introduction to the Technology/System ............................................................................................... 2 4 1.1 Introduction to Additive Manufacturing ....................................................................................... 2 5 1.2 Additive Manufacturing Processes ............................................................................................... 2 6 1.3 Benefits of Additive

  1. Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies, Inc. | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies, Inc. America's Next Top Energy Innovator Challenge 6067 likes Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies, Inc. Ames Laboratory Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies, Inc. (IPAT) aims to become a leading domestic titanium powder producer allowing for a paradigm shift in the cost of titanium powders for metal injection molding (MIM) feedstock. Decreasing this cost will create vast opportunities for aerospace, military, biomedical, and consumer applications. Titanium

  2. Slip casting nano-particle powders for making transparent ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuntz, Joshua D.; Soules, Thomas F.; Landingham, Richard Lee; Hollingsworth, Joel P.

    2011-04-12

    A method of making a transparent ceramic including the steps of providing nano-ceramic powders in a processed or unprocessed form, mixing the powders with de-ionized water, the step of mixing the powders with de-ionized water producing a slurry, sonifing the slurry to completely wet the powder and suspend the powder in the de-ionized water, separating very fine particles from the slurry, molding the slurry, and curing the slurry to produce the transparent ceramic.

  3. Characterization of temperature-dependent optical material properties of polymer powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laumer, Tobias; Stichel, Thomas; Bock, Thomas; Amend, Philipp; Schmidt, Michael

    2015-05-22

    In former works, the optical material properties of different polymer powders used for Laser Beam Melting (LBM) at room temperature have been analyzed. With a measurement setup using two integration spheres, it was shown that the optical material properties of polymer powders differ significantly due to multiple reflections within the powder compared to solid bodies of the same material. Additionally, the absorption behavior of the single particles shows an important influence on the overall optical material properties, especially the reflectance of the powder bed. Now the setup is modified to allow measurements at higher temperatures. Because crystalline areas of semi-crystalline thermoplastics are mainly responsible for the absorption of the laser radiation, the influence of the temperature increase on the overall optical material properties is analyzed. As material, conventional polyamide 12 and polypropylene as new polymer powder material, is used. By comparing results at room temperature and at higher temperatures towards the melting point, the temperature-dependent optical material properties and their influence on the beam-matter interaction during the process are discussed. It is shown that the phase transition during melting leads to significant changes of the optical material properties of the analyzed powders.

  4. Die-target for dynamic powder consolidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flinn, John E.; Korth, Gary E.

    1986-01-01

    A die/target is disclosed for consolidation of a powder, especially an atomized rapidly solidified metal powder, to produce monoliths by the dynamic action of a shock wave, especially a shock wave produced by the detonation of an explosive charge. The die/target comprises a rectangular metal block having a square primary surface with four rectangular mold cavities formed therein to receive the powder. The cavities are located away from the geometrical center of the primary surface and are distributed around such center while also being located away from the geometrical diagonals of the primary surface to reduce the action of reflected waves so as to avoid tensile cracking of the monoliths. The primary surface is covered by a powder retention plate which is engaged by a flyer plate to transmit the shock wave to the primary surface and the powder. Spawl plates are adhesively mounted on other surfaces of the block to act as momentum traps so as to reduce reflected waves in the block.

  5. Dynamic compaction of tungsten carbide powder.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gluth, Jeffrey Weston; Hall, Clint Allen; Vogler, Tracy John; Grady, Dennis Edward

    2005-04-01

    The shock compaction behavior of a tungsten carbide powder was investigated using a new experimental design for gas-gun experiments. This design allows the Hugoniot properties to be measured with reasonably good accuracy despite the inherent difficulties involved with distended powders. The experiments also provide the first reshock state for the compacted powder. Experiments were conducted at impact velocities of 245, 500, and 711 m/s. A steady shock wave was observed for some of the sample thicknesses, but the remainder were attenuated due to release from the back of the impactor or the edge of the sample. The shock velocity for the powder was found to be quite low, and the propagating shock waves were seen to be very dispersive. The Hugoniot density for the 711 m/s experiment was close to ambient crystal density for tungsten carbide, indicating nearly complete compaction. When compared with quasi-static compaction results for the same material, the dynamic compaction data is seen to be significantly stiffer for the regime over which they overlap. Based on these initial results, recommendations are made for improving the experimental technique and for future work to improve our understanding of powder compaction.

  6. Die-target for dynamic powder consolidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flinn, J.E.; Korth, G.E.

    1985-06-27

    A die/target is disclosed for consolidation of a powder, especially an atomized rapidly solidified metal powder, to produce monoliths by the dynamic action of a shock wave, especially a shock wave produced by the detonation of an explosive charge. The die/target comprises a rectangular metal block having a square primary surface with four rectangular mold cavities formed therein to receive the powder. The cavities are located away from the geometrical center of the primary surface and are distributed around such center while also being located away from the geometrical diagonals of the primary surface to reduce the action of reflected waves so as to avoid tensile cracking of the monoliths. The primary surface is covered by a powder retention plate which is engaged by a flyer plate to transmit the shock wave to the primary surface and the powder. Spawl plates are adhesively mounted on other surfaces of the block to act as momentum traps so as to reduce reflected waves in the block. 4 figs.

  7. Effect of calcium modification on the microstructure and oxidation property of submicron spherical palladium powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Che, S.; Sakurai, O.; Funakubo, H.; Shinozaki, K.; Mizutani, N.

    1997-02-01

    Ca-modified spherical palladium particles were prepared from the mixed solution of Pd(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. Pure palladium powder and that modified with less than 55 ppm Ca were composed of single crystal particles. However, Ca addition of more than 550 ppm resulted in polycrystalline particles. Crystallite size of the particles decreased with the increase of Ca addition and changed dramatically at the addition of some hundred ppm. Ca additive did not form solid solution with palladium but formed CaPd{sub 3}O{sub 4} on the surface and grain boundary of the particles. 50 ppm{endash}1{percent} of Ca addition significantly reduced the oxidization of palladium powder. More addition of Ca resulted in excess oxidation due to the reaction between palladium and calcium oxide. {copyright} {ital 1997 Materials Research Society.}

  8. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-10-21

    A strengthened, biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed, compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: Ni, Ag, Ag--Cu, Ag--Pd, Ni--Cu, Ni--V, Ni--Mo, Ni--Al, Ni--Cr--Al, Ni--W--Al, Ni--V--Al, Ni--Mo--Al, Ni--Cu--Al; and at least one fine metal oxide powder; the article having a grain size which is fine and homogeneous; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  9. System and method for high power diode based additive manufacturing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    El-Dasher, Bassem S.; Bayramian, Andrew; Demuth, James A.; Farmer, Joseph C.; Torres, Sharon G.

    2016-04-12

    A system is disclosed for performing an Additive Manufacturing (AM) fabrication process on a powdered material forming a substrate. The system may make use of a diode array for generating an optical signal sufficient to melt a powdered material of the substrate. A mask may be used for preventing a first predetermined portion of the optical signal from reaching the substrate, while allowing a second predetermined portion to reach the substrate. At least one processor may be used for controlling an output of the diode array.

  10. Atomization methods for forming magnet powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sellers, Charles H.; Branagan, Daniel J.; Hyde, Timothy A.

    2000-01-01

    The invention encompasses methods of utilizing atomization, methods for forming magnet powders, methods for forming magnets, and methods for forming bonded magnets. The invention further encompasses methods for simulating atomization conditions. In one aspect, the invention includes an atomization method for forming a magnet powder comprising: a) forming a melt comprising R.sub.2.1 Q.sub.13.9 B.sub.1, Z and X, wherein R is a rare earth element; X is an element selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and mixtures thereof; Q is an element selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co and mixtures thereof; and Z is an element selected from the group consisting of Ti, Zr, Hf and mixtures thereof; b) atomizing the melt to form generally spherical alloy powder granules having an internal structure comprising at least one of a substantially amorphous phase or a substantially nanocrystalline phase; and c) heat treating the alloy powder to increase an energy product of the alloy powder; after the heat treatment, the alloy powder comprising an energy product of at least 10 MGOe. In another aspect, the invention includes a magnet comprising R, Q, B, Z and X, wherein R is a rare earth element; X is an element selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and mixtures thereof; Q is an element selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co and mixtures thereof; and Z is an element selected from the group consisting of Ti, Zr, Hf and mixtures thereof; the magnet comprising an internal structure comprising R.sub.2.1 Q.sub.13.9 B.sub.1.

  11. Synthesis of ultrafine powders by microwave heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meek, Thomas T.; Sheinberg, Haskell; Blake, Rodger D.

    1988-01-01

    A method of synthesizing ultrafine powders using microwaves is described. A water soluble material is dissolved in water and the resulting aqueous solution is exposed to microwaves until the water has been removed. The resulting material is an ultrafine powder. This method can be used to make Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, NiO+Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and NiO as well as a number of other materials including GaBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x.

  12. Synthesis of ultrafine powders by microwave heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meek, T.T.; Sheinberg, H.; Blake, R.D.

    1987-04-24

    A method of synthesizing ultrafine powders using microwaves is described. A water soluble material is dissolved in water and the resulting aqueous solution is exposed to microwaves until the water has dissolved. The resulting material is an ultrafine powder. This method can be used to make Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, NiO /plus/ Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and NiO as well as a number of other materials including GaBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub x/. 1 tab.

  13. Desensitizing nano powders to electrostatic discharge ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steelman, Ryan; Clark, Billy; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Daniels, Michael A.

    2015-08-01

    Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is a main cause for ignition in powder media ranging from grain silos to fireworks. Nanoscale particles are orders of magnitude more ESD ignition sensitive than their micron scale counterparts. This study shows that at least 13 vol. % carbon nanotubes (CNT) added to nano-aluminum and nano-copper oxide particles (nAl + CuO) eliminates ESD ignition sensitivity. The CNT act as a conduit for electric energy and directs electric charge through the powder to desensitize the reactive mixture to ignition. For nanoparticles, the required CNT concentration for desensitizing ESD ignition acts as a diluent to quench energy propagation.

  14. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1994-12-06

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft. 3 figures.

  15. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1995-12-26

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft. 3 figs.

  16. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1995-01-01

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft.

  17. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1994-01-01

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft.

  18. Process for preparing active oxide powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berard, Michael F.; Hunter, Jr., Orville; Shiers, Loren E.; Dole, Stephen L.; Scheidecker, Ralph W.

    1979-02-20

    An improved process for preparing active oxide powders in which cation hydroxide gels, prepared in the conventional manner are chemically dried by alternately washing the gels with a liquid organic compound having polar characteristics and a liquid organic compound having nonpolar characteristics until the mechanical water is removed from the gel. The water-free cation hydroxide is then contacted with a final liquid organic wash to remove the previous organic wash and speed drying. The dried hydroxide treated in the conventional manner will form a highly sinterable active oxide powder.

  19. Advanced NDE Technologies for Powder Metal Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, P; Haskins, J; Thomas, G; Dolan, K

    2003-05-01

    Nondestructive evaluation encompasses numerous technologies that assess materials and determine important properties. This paper demonstrates the applicability of several of these technologies to the field of powder metallurgy. The usual application of nondestructive evaluation is to detect and quantify defects in fully sintered product. But probably its most appealing role is to sense problems earlier in the manufacturing process to avoid making defects at all. Also nondestructive evaluation can be incorporated into the manufacturing processes to monitor important parameters and control the processes to produce defect free product. Nondestructive evaluation can characterize powders, evaluate components in the green state, monitor the sintering process, and inspect the final component.

  20. Additive Manufacturing: Going Mainstream

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Additive manufacturing, or 3D printing, is receiving attention from media, investment communities and governments around the world transforming it from obscurity to something to be talked about.

  1. Additive Manufacturing Technology Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... For instance, the following parts have already been manufactured additively: 179 Structure parts for unmanned aircraft by SAAB Avitronics 15, 16; 180 Special tools for ...

  2. High-Pressure and High-Temperature Powder Diffraction (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High-Pressure and High-Temperature Powder Diffraction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Pressure and High-Temperature Powder Diffraction Authors: Fei, Yingwei ; Wang, ...

  3. QER - Comment of Powder River Energy Corporation | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Powder River Energy Corporation is an equal opportunity provider and employer. ... Note: PrivilegedConfidential information may be ...

  4. An efficient and cost-effective method for preparing transmission electron microscopy samples from powders

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wen, Haiming; Lin, Yaojun; Seidman, David N.; Schoenung, Julie M.; van Rooyen, Isabella J.; Lavernia, Enrique J.

    2015-09-09

    The preparation of transmission electron microcopy (TEM) samples from powders with particle sizes larger than ~100 nm poses a challenge. The existing methods are complicated and expensive, or have a low probability of success. Herein, we report a modified methodology for preparation of TEM samples from powders, which is efficient, cost-effective, and easy to perform. This method involves mixing powders with an epoxy on a piece of weighing paper, curing the powder–epoxy mixture to form a bulk material, grinding the bulk to obtain a thin foil, punching TEM discs from the foil, dimpling the discs, and ion milling the dimpledmore » discs to electron transparency. Compared with the well established and robust grinding–dimpling–ion-milling method for TEM sample preparation for bulk materials, our modified approach for preparing TEM samples from powders only requires two additional simple steps. In this article, step-by-step procedures for our methodology are described in detail, and important strategies to ensure success are elucidated. Furthermore, our methodology has been applied successfully for preparing TEM samples with large thin areas and high quality for many different mechanically milled metallic powders.« less

  5. Oxidation kinetics of calcium-doped palladium powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, S.; Kodas, T.T.; Hampden-Smith, M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The oxidation kinetics of submicron Ca-containing Pd powders produced by spray pyrolysis were studied in the temperature range 600 to 675 C using thermogravimetric analysis. The oxidation of pure Pd powder had an activation energy of {approximately}230 kJ/mol in the region 27% < oxidation < 70% and 65 kJ/mol for oxidation > 70%. The activation energies for Pd particles containing 0.01 weight percent (w/o) and 0.4 w/o Ca in the region 27% < oxidation < 70% were {approximately}230 kJ/mol and {approximately}50 kJ/mol, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy suggested that the conversion of Pd to Pd{sup II}O (stoichiometric PdO) proceeds from the particle surface into the interior and not homogeneously throughout the particle. The predictions of a variety of models and rate laws (shrinking core, parabolic, cubic, logarithmic, and inverse logarithmic) were compared with the data. The comparison suggested a mechanism in which oxidation of pure Pd proceeds by chemisorption and diffusion of oxygen to form a substoichiometric oxide, followed by the conversion of substoichiometric PdO to Pd{sup II}O. Oxidation of pure Pd is then probably limited by the diffusion of oxygen through the substoichiometric PdO and/or Pd{sup II}O. The addition of Ca increased the oxidation resistance of Pd most likely by inhibiting oxygen diffusion through the metal oxide layers surrounding the Pd.

  6. Additional Distinguished Awards

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Additional Distinguished Awards Additional Distinguished The Lab's mission is to develop and apply science and technology to ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the U.S. nuclear deterrent; reduce global threats; and solve other emerging national security and energy challenges. Contact Jenna L. Montoya (505) 665-4230 Email The atomic bomb made the prospect of future war unendurable. It has led us up those last few steps to the mountain pass; and beyond there is a different country. ~

  7. Ignition of THKP and TKP pyrotechnic powders :

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maharrey, Sean P.; Erikson, William W; Highley, Aaron M.; Wiese-Smith, Deneille; Kay, Jeffrey J

    2014-03-01

    We have conducted Simultaneous Thermogravimetric Modulated Beam Mass Spectrometry (STMBMS) experiments on igniter/actuator pyrotechnic powders to characterize the reactive processes controlling the ignition and combustion behavior of these materials. The experiments showed a complex, interactive reaction manifold involving over ten reaction pathways. A reduced dimensionality reaction manifold was developed from the detailed 10-step manifold and is being incorporated into existing predictive modeling codes to simulate the performance of pyrotechnic powders for NW component development. The results from development of the detailed reaction manifold and reduced manifold are presented. The reduced reaction manifold has been successfully used by SNL/NM modelers to predict thermal ignition events in small-scale testing, validating our approach and improving the capability of predictive models.

  8. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1994-02-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a PCM material. The silica-PCM mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 2 figures.

  9. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1993-10-19

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (pcm) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7[times]10[sup [minus]3] to about 7[times]10[sup [minus]2] microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 10 figures.

  10. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1994-01-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a PCM material. The silica-PCM mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  11. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, J.L.; Tran, T.D.; Feikert, J.H.; Mayer, S.T.

    1997-06-10

    Fabrication is described for conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive deionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m{sup 2}/gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon composites with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced. 1 fig.

  12. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, James L.; Tran, Tri D.; Feikert, John H.; Mayer, Steven T.

    1997-01-01

    Fabrication of conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive dionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m.sup.2 /gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon compositives with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to be high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced.

  13. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1993-01-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7.times.10.sup.-3 to about 7.times.10.sup.-2 microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  14. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1992-04-21

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] to about 7 [times] 10[sup [minus]2] microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 9 figs.

  15. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1993-01-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7.times.10.sup.-3 to about 7.times.10.sup.-2 microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garmets, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  16. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1992-01-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7.times.10.sup.-3 to about 7.times.10.sup.-2 microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  17. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1993-05-18

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7[times]10[sup [minus]3] to about 7[times]10[sup [minus]2] microns and the p.c.m. must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less p.c.m. per combined weight of silica and p.c.m. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a p.c.m. material. The silica-p.c.m. mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  18. Full body powder antichip. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-04-17

    Chipping is the major paint defect listed for automobile customer dissatisfaction. The improved chip resistance and smoother paint surfaces produced by full body powder antichip will result in greater customer satisfaction and greater demand for US-produced automobiles. Powder antichip contains virtually no solvent, thereby reducing the potential VOC emissions from Newark Assembly by more than 90 tons per year as compared to the solvent-borne material presently applied in most full body applications. Since Newark Assembly Plant is in a severe non-attainment air quality area, which must demonstrate a 15% reduction in emissions by 1996, projects such as this are crucial to the longevity of industry in this region. The liquid paint spray systems include incineration of the oven volatile organic compounds (VOC`s) at 1,500 F. Since there are minimal VOC`s in powder coatings and the only possible releases occur only during polymerization, incineration is not required. The associated annual savings resulting from the elimination of the incinerator utilized on the liquid spray system is 1.44 {times} 10{sup 10} BTU`s per unit installed. The annual cost savings is approximately $388 thousand, far below the original estimates.

  19. Counterflow diffusion flame synthesis of ceramic oxide powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Joseph L.; Miquel, Philippe F.

    1997-01-01

    Ceramic oxide powders and methods for their preparation are revealed. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby one or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein the precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The nature of the ceramic oxide powder produced is determined by process conditions. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders may be varied by the temperature of the flame, the precursor concentration ratio, the gas stream and the gas velocity.

  20. Counterflow diffusion flame synthesis of ceramic oxide powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, J.L.; Miquel, P.F.

    1997-07-22

    Ceramic oxide powders and methods for their preparation are revealed. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby one or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein the precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The nature of the ceramic oxide powder produced is determined by process conditions. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders may be varied by the temperature of the flame, the precursor concentration ratio, the gas stream and the gas velocity. 24 figs.

  1. Enery Efficient Press and Sinter of Titanium Powder for Low-Cost Components in Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Zwitter; Phillip Nash; Xiaoyan Xu; Chadwick Johnson

    2011-03-31

    This is the final technical report for the Department of Energy NETL project NT01931 Energy Efficient Press and Sinter of Titanium Powder for Low-Cost Components in Vehicle Applications. Titanium has been identified as one of the key materials with the required strength that can reduce the weight of automotive components and thereby reduce fuel consumption. Working with newly developed sources of titanium powder, Webster-Hoff will develop the processing technology to manufacture low cost vehicle components using the single press/single sinter techniques developed for iron based powder metallurgy today. Working with an automotive or truck manufacturer, Webster-Hoff will demonstrate the feasibility of manufacturing a press and sinter titanium component for a vehicle application. The project objective is two-fold, to develop the technology for manufacturing press and sinter titanium components, and to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a titanium component for a vehicle application. The lowest cost method for converting metal powder into a net shape part is the Powder Metallurgy Press and Sinter Process. The method involves compaction of the metal powder in a tool (usually a die and punches, upper and lower) at a high pressure (up to 60 TSI or 827 MPa) to form a green compact with the net shape of the final component. The powder in the green compact is held together by the compression bonds between the powder particles. The sinter process then converts the green compact to a metallurgically bonded net shape part through the process of solid state diffusion. The goal of this project is to expand the understanding and application of press and sinter technology to Titanium Powder applications, developing techniques to manufacture net shape Titanium components via the press and sinter process. In addition, working with a vehicle manufacturer, demonstrate the feasibility of producing a titanium component for a vehicle. This is not a research program, but rather a

  2. Production and degradation of oxalic acid by brown rot fungi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Espejo, E.; Agosin, E. )

    1991-07-01

    Our results show that all of the brown rot fungi tested produce oxalic acid in liquid as well as in semisolid cultures. Gloeophyllum trabeum, which accumulates the lowest amount of oxalic acid during decay of pine holocellulose, showed the highest polysaccharide-depolymerizing activity. Semisolid cultures inoculated with this fungus rapidly converted {sup 14}C-labeled oxalic acid to CO{sub 2} during cellulose depolymerization. The other brown rot fungi also oxidized {sup 14}C-labeled oxalic acid, although less rapidly. In contrast, semisolid cultures inoculated with the white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor did not significantly catabolize the acid and did not depolymerize the holocellulose during decay. Semisolid cultures of G. trabeum amended with desferrioxamine, a specific iron-chelating agent, were unable to lower the degree of polymerization of cellulose or to oxidize {sup 14}C-labeled oxalic acid to the extent or at the rate that control cultures did. These results suggest that both iron and oxalic acid are involved in cellulose depolymerization by brown rot fungi.

  3. Silicon nitride/silicon carbide composite densified materials prepared using composite powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunmead, S.D.; Weimer, A.W.; Carroll, D.F.; Eisman, G.A.; Cochran, G.A.; Susnitzky, D.W.; Beaman, D.R.; Nilsen, K.J.

    1997-07-01

    Prepare silicon nitride-silicon carbide composite powders by carbothermal reduction of crystalline silica powder, carbon powder and, optionally, crystalline silicon nitride powder. The crystalline silicon carbide portion of the composite powders has a mean number diameter less than about 700 nanometers and contains nitrogen. The composite powders may be used to prepare sintered ceramic bodies and self-reinforced silicon nitride ceramic bodies.

  4. A novel process route for the production of spherical SLS polymer powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, Jochen; Sachs, Marius; Blümel, Christina; Winzer, Bettina; Toni, Franziska; Wirth, Karl-Ernst; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2015-05-22

    Currently, rapid prototyping gradually is transferred to additive manufacturing opening new applications. Especially selective laser sintering (SLS) is promising. One drawback is the limited choice of polymer materials available as optimized powders. Powders produced by cryogenic grinding show poor powder flowability resulting in poor device quality. Within this account we present a novel process route for the production of spherical polymer micron-sized particles of good flowability. The feasibility of the process chain is demonstrated for polystyrene e. In a first step polymer microparticles are produced by a wet grinding method. By this approach the mean particle size and the particle size distribution can be tuned between a few microns and several 10 microns. The applicability of this method will be discussed for different polymers and the dependencies of product particle size distribution on stressing conditions and process temperature will be outlined. The comminution products consist of microparticles of irregular shape and poor powder flowability. An improvement of flowability of the ground particles is achieved by changing their shape: they are rounded using a heated downer reactor. The influence of temperature profile and residence time on the product properties will be addressed applying a viscous-flow sintering model. To further improve the flowability of the cohesive spherical polymer particles nanoparticles are adhered onto the microparticles’ surface. The improvement of flowability is remarkable: rounded and dry-coated powders exhibit a strongly reduced tensile strength as compared to the comminution product. The improved polymer powders obtained by the process route proposed open new possibilities in SLS processing including the usage of much smaller polymer beads.

  5. Large Bore Powder Gun Qualification (U)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabern, Donald A.; Valdiviez, Robert

    2012-04-02

    A Large Bore Powder Gun (LBPG) is being designed to enable experimentalists to characterize material behavior outside the capabilities of the NNSS JASPER and LANL TA-55 PF-4 guns. The combination of these three guns will create a capability to conduct impact experiments over a wide range of pressures and shock profiles. The Large Bore Powder Gun will be fielded at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) U1a Complex. The Complex is nearly 1000 ft below ground with dedicated drifts for testing, instrumentation, and post-shot entombment. To ensure the reliability, safety, and performance of the LBPG, a qualification plan has been established and documented here. Requirements for the LBPG have been established and documented in WE-14-TR-0065 U A, Large Bore Powder Gun Customer Requirements. The document includes the requirements for the physics experiments, the gun and confinement systems, and operations at NNSS. A detailed description of the requirements is established in that document and is referred to and quoted throughout this document. Two Gun and Confinement Systems will be fielded. The Prototype Gun will be used primarily to characterize the gun and confinement performance and be the primary platform for qualification actions. This gun will also be used to investigate and qualify target and diagnostic modifications through the life of the program (U1a.104 Drift). An identical gun, the Physics Gun, will be fielded for confirmatory and Pu experiments (U1a.102D Drift). Both guns will be qualified for operation. The Gun and Confinement System design will be qualified through analysis, inspection, and testing using the Prototype Gun for the majority of process. The Physics Gun will be qualified through inspection and a limited number of qualification tests to ensure performance and behavior equivalent to the Prototype gun. Figure 1.1 shows the partial configuration of U1a and the locations of the Prototype and Physics Gun/Confinement Systems.

  6. Laser production of articles from powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, G.K.; Milewski, J.O.; Cremers, D.A.; Nemec, R.B.; Barbe, M.R.

    1998-11-17

    Method and apparatus for forming articles from materials in particulate form in which the materials are melted by a laser beam and deposited at points along a tool path to form an article of the desired shape and dimensions. Preferably the tool path and other parameters of the deposition process are established using computer-aided design and manufacturing techniques. A controller comprised of a digital computer directs movement of a deposition zone along the tool path and provides control signals to adjust apparatus functions, such as the speed at which a deposition head which delivers the laser beam and powder to the deposition zone moves along the tool path. 20 figs.

  7. Laser production of articles from powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Gary K.; Milewski, John O.; Cremers, David A.; Nemec, Ronald B.; Barbe, Michael R.

    1998-01-01

    Method and apparatus for forming articles from materials in particulate form in which the materials are melted by a laser beam and deposited at points along a tool path to form an article of the desired shape and dimensions. Preferably the tool path and other parameters of the deposition process are established using computer-aided design and manufacturing techniques. A controller comprised of a digital computer directs movement of a deposition zone along the tool path and provides control signals to adjust apparatus functions, such as the speed at which a deposition head which delivers the laser beam and powder to the deposition zone moves along the tool path.

  8. Scalable synthesis of nanoporous palladium powders.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, David B.; Tran, Kim L.; Clift, W. Miles; Arslan Ilke; Langham, Mary Elizabeth; Ong, Markus D.; Fares, Stephen James

    2009-03-01

    Nanoporous palladium powders are synthesized on milligram to gram scales by chemical reduction of tetrachloro complexes by ascorbate in a concentrated aqueous surfactant at temperatures between -20 and 30 C. Particle diameters are approximately 50 nm, and each particle is perforated by 3 nm pores, as determined by electron tomography. These materials are of potential value for storage of hydrogen isotopes and electrical charge; producing them at large scales in a safe and efficient manner will help realize this. A slightly modified procedure also results in nanoporous platinum.

  9. I. V. Khalzov, B. P. Brown, E. J. Kaplan, N. Katz, C. Paz-Soldan et al.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resistive and ferritic-wall plasma dynamos in a sphere I. V. Khalzov, B. P. Brown, E. J. Kaplan, N. Katz, C. Paz-Soldan et al. Citation: Phys. Plasmas 19, 104501 (2012); doi: 10.1063/1.4757219 View online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4757219 View Table of Contents: http://pop.aip.org/resource/1/PHPAEN/v19/i10 Published by the American Institute of Physics. Additional information on Phys. Plasmas Journal Homepage: http://pop.aip.org/ Journal Information: http://pop.aip.org/about/about_the_journal

  10. From Meredith Brown racer@lanl.gov Subject: Yellow Alert- Supplied...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12 Jan 2000 130859 -0700 From Meredith Brown racer@lanl.gov Subject: Yellow Alert- Supplied Air Fitting Failure Title: Yellow Alert- Mechanical Failure of Supplied Air Fitting...

  11. From: Meredith Brown Subject: Red Alert: Contaminatio...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Meredith Brown Subject: Red Alert: Contamination Spread Outside of RCAs ... Priority Descriptor: REDUrgent (based on the actual spread of contamination offsite) ...

  12. Method for preparing metal powder, device for preparing metal powder, method for processing spent nuclear fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Jong-Hee (Clarendon Hills, IL)

    2011-11-29

    A method for producing metal powder is provided the comprising supplying a molten bath containing a reducing agent, contacting a metal oxide with the molten bath for a time and at a temperature sufficient to reduce the metal in the metal oxide to elemental metal and produce free oxygen; and isolating the elemental metal from the molten bath.

  13. Selection of powder factor in large diameter blastholes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eloranta, J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper documents the relationship between material handling and processing costs compared to blasting cost. The old adage, The cheapest crushing is done in the pit, appears accurate in this case study. Comparison of the accumulated cost of: powder, selected wear materials and electricity; indicate a strong, inverse correlation with powder factor (lbs powder/long ton of rock). In this case, the increased powder cost is more than offset by electrical savings alone. Measurable, overall costs decline while shovel and crusher productivity rise by about 5% when powder factor rises by 15%. These trends were previously masked by the effects of: weather, ore grade fluctuations and accounting practices. Attempts to correlate increased powder factor to: wear materials in the crushing plant and to shovel hoist rope life have not shown the same benefit.

  14. ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION OF BROWN DWARFS: JETS, VORTICES, AND TIME VARIABILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xi; Showman, Adam P.

    2014-06-10

    A variety of observational evidence demonstrates that brown dwarfs exhibit active atmospheric circulations. In this study we use a shallow-water model to investigate the global atmospheric dynamics in the stratified layer overlying the convective zone on these rapidly rotating objects. We show that the existence and properties of the atmospheric circulation crucially depend on key parameters including the energy injection rate and radiative timescale. Under conditions of strong internal heat flux and weak radiative dissipation, a banded flow pattern comprised of east-west jet streams spontaneously emerges from the interaction of atmospheric turbulence with the planetary rotation. In contrast, when the internal heat flux is weak and/or radiative dissipation is strong, turbulence injected into the atmosphere damps before it can self-organize into jets, leading to a flow dominated by transient eddies and isotropic turbulence instead. The simulation results are not very sensitive to the form of the forcing. Based on the location of the transition between jet-dominated and eddy-dominated regimes, we suggest that many brown dwarfs may exhibit atmospheric circulations dominated by eddies and turbulence (rather than jets) due to the strong radiative damping on these worlds, but a jet structure is also possible under some realistic conditions. Our simulated light curves capture important features from observed infrared light curves of brown dwarfs, including amplitude variations of a few percent and shapes that fluctuate between single-peak and multi-peak structures. More broadly, our work shows that the shallow-water system provides a useful tool to illuminate fundamental aspects of the dynamics on these worlds.

  15. NanoComposite Stainless Steel Powder Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeHoff, R.; Glasgow, C.

    2012-07-25

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been investigating a new class of Fe-based amorphous material stemming from a DARPA, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency initiative in structural amorphous metals. Further engineering of the original SAM materials such as chemistry modifications and manufacturing processes, has led to the development of a class of Fe based amorphous materials that upon processing, devitrify into a nearly homogeneous distribution of nano sized complex metal carbides and borides. The powder material is produced through the gas atomization process and subsequently utilized by several methods; laser fusing as a coating to existing components or bulk consolidated into new components through various powder metallurgy techniques (vacuum hot pressing, Dynaforge, and hot isostatic pressing). The unique fine scale distribution of microstructural features yields a material with high hardness and wear resistance compared to material produced through conventional processing techniques such as casting while maintaining adequate fracture toughness. Several compositions have been examined including those specifically designed for high hardness and wear resistance and a composition specifically tailored to devitrify into an austenitic matrix (similar to a stainless steel) which poses improved corrosion behavior.

  16. Hydration mechanisms of ternary Portland cements containing limestone powder and fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Weerdt, K.; Haha, M. Ben; Le Saout, G.; Kjellsen, K.O.; Justnes, H.; Lothenbach, B.

    2011-03-15

    The effect of minor additions of limestone powder on the properties of fly ash blended cements was investigated in this study using isothermal calorimetry, thermogravimetry (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques, and pore solution analysis. The presence of limestone powder led to the formation of hemi- and monocarbonate and to a stabilisation of ettringite compared to the limestone-free cements, where a part of the ettringite converted to monosulphate. Thus, the presence of 5% of limestone led to an increase of the volume of the hydrates, as visible in the increase in chemical shrinkage, and an increase in compressive strength. This effect was amplified for the fly ash/limestone blended cements due to the additional alumina provided by the fly ash reaction.

  17. Electrochemical cell with powdered electrically insulative material as a separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathers, James P.; Olszanski, Theodore W.; Boquist, Carl W.

    1978-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell includes electrodes separated by a layer of electrically insulative powder. The powder includes refractory materials selected from the oxides and nitrides of metals and metaloids. The powdered refractory material, blended with electrolyte particles, can be compacted in layers with electrode materials to form an integral electrode structure or separately assembled into the cell. The assembled cell is heated to operating temperature leaving porous layers of electrically insulative, refractory particles, containing molten electrolyte between the electrodes.

  18. From: Doris Brown To: Congestion Study Comments Subject: NIETCs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Doris Brown To: Congestion Study Comments Subject: NIETCs Date: Monday, October 20, 2014 2:47:39 PM I am opposed to the establishment of National Interest Energy Transmission Corridors (NIETC's) Easements for the corridors will mainly have to be obtained through eminent domain. Compensation for the easements can only be "just" as required in the Bill of Rights if it reflects all the possibilities of what the easement may be used for. Utilities do not want to farm the land, so farming

  19. Method of manufacturing iron aluminide by thermomechanical processing of elemental powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deevi, Seetharama C.; Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton; Sikka, Vinod K.; Hajaligol, Mohammed R.

    2000-01-01

    A powder metallurgical process of preparing iron aluminide useful as electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 20 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.05% Zr or ZrO.sub.2 stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element, .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Zr, .ltoreq.1% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1 % rare earth metal, .ltoreq.1% oxygen, and/or .ltoreq.3% Cu. The process includes forming a mixture of aluminum powder and iron powder, shaping the mixture into an article such as by cold rolling the mixture into a sheet, and sintering the article at a temperature sufficient to react the iron and aluminum powders and form iron aluminide. The sintering can be followed by hot or cold rolling to reduce porosity created during the sintering step and optional annealing steps in a vacuum or inert atmosphere.

  20. Process for synthesizing compounds from elemental powders and product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rabin, Barry H.; Wright, Richard N.

    1993-01-01

    A process for synthesizing intermetallic compounds from elemental powders. The elemental powders are initially combined in a ratio which approximates the stoichiometric composition of the intermetallic compound. The mixed powders are then formed into a compact which is heat treated at a controlled rate of heating such that an exothermic reaction between the elements is initiated. The heat treatment may be performed under controlled conditions ranging from a vacuum (pressureless sintering) to compression (hot pressing) to produce a desired densification of the intermetallic compound. In a preferred form of the invention, elemental powders of Fe and Al are combined to form aluminide compounds of Fe.sub.3 Al and FeAl.

  1. Joining of parts via magnetic heating of metal aluminum powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Ian

    2013-05-21

    A method of joining at least two parts includes steps of dispersing a joining material comprising a multi-phase magnetic metal-aluminum powder at an interface between the at least two parts to be joined and applying an alternating magnetic field (AMF). The AMF has a magnetic field strength and frequency suitable for inducing magnetic hysteresis losses in the metal-aluminum powder and is applied for a period that raises temperature of the metal-aluminum powder to an exothermic transformation temperature. At the exothermic transformation temperature, the metal-aluminum powder melts and resolidifies as a metal aluminide solid having a non-magnetic configuration.

  2. POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON FROM NORTH DAKOTA LIGNITE: AN OPTION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CARBON FROM NORTH DAKOTA LIGNITE: AN OPTION FOR DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT CONTROL IN WATER TREATMENT PLANTS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: POWDERED ACTIVATED...

  3. Vacuum Attachment for Collection of Lithium Powder ---- Inventor...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Lithium Powder ---- Inventor(s) Hans Schneider and Stephan Jurczynski The Vacuum Attachment is part of an integrated system designed to collect Lithium (Li) Power for ...

  4. Forming gas treatment of lithium ion battery anode graphite powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Contescu, Cristian Ion; Gallego, Nidia C; Howe, Jane Y; Meyer, III, Harry M; Payzant, Edward Andrew; Wood, III, David L; Yoon, Sang Young

    2014-09-16

    The invention provides a method of making a battery anode in which a quantity of graphite powder is provided. The temperature of the graphite powder is raised from a starting temperature to a first temperature between 1000 and 2000.degree. C. during a first heating period. The graphite powder is then cooled to a final temperature during a cool down period. The graphite powder is contacted with a forming gas during at least one of the first heating period and the cool down period. The forming gas includes H.sub.2 and an inert gas.

  5. Reactive nanophase oxide additions to melt-processed high-{Tc} superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goretta, K.C.; Brandel, B.P.; Lanagan, M.T.; Hu, J.; Miller, D.J.; Sengupta, S.; Parker, J.C.; Ali, M.N.; Chen, Nan

    1994-10-01

    Nanophase TiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders were synthesized by a vapor-phase process and mechanically mixed with stoichiometric YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} and TlBa{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} powders in 20 mole % concentrations. Pellets produced from powders with and without nanophase oxides were heated in air or O{sub 2} above the peritectic melt temperature and slow-cooled. At 4.2 K, the intragranular critical current density (J{sub c}) increased dramatically with the oxide additions. At 35--50 K, effects of the oxide additions were positive, but less pronounced. At 77 K, the additions decreased J{sub c}, probably because of inducing a depresion of the transition temperature.

  6. Improving properties of Mg with AlCu additions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rashad, Muhammad; Pan, Fusheng; Asif, Muhammad; Hussain, Shahid; Saleem, Muhammad

    2014-09-15

    The present work reports improvement in tensile properties of the Mg matrix reinforced with micron-sized copperaluminum particulate hybrids. The AlCu particulate hybrids were incorporated into the Mg matrix through powder metallurgy method. The synthesized alloys exhibited homogeneously dispersed Mg{sub 2}Cu particles in the matrix, therefore leading to a 110% increase in yield strength (221 MPa) and a 72% enhancement in ultimate tensile strength (284 MPa) by addition of 1.0 wt.%Al0.6 wt.%Cu particle hybrids. Optical microscopy, scanning election microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to investigate the microstructure and intermetallic phases of the synthesized alloys. - Highlights: Mg matrix is reinforced with AlCu particulate hybrids. Powder metallurgic method is used to fabricate the alloys. Tensile strength and ductility were increased simultaneously.

  7. NEOWISE-R observation of the coolest known brown dwarf

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Edward L.; Mainzer, Amy; Bauer, James; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Davy Kirkpatrick, J.; Masci, Frank; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Gelino, Christopher R.; Beichman, Charles A.; Cutri, Roc; Cushing, Michael C.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Grav, T.

    2014-11-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) spacecraft has been reactivated as NEOWISE-R to characterize and search for near-Earth objects. The brown dwarf WISE J085510.83–071442.5 has now been re-observed by NEOWISE-R, and we confirm the results of Luhman, who found a very low effective temperature (≈250 K), a very high proper motion (8.''1 ± 0.''1 yr{sup –1}), and a large parallax (454 ± 45 mas). The large proper motion has separated the brown dwarf from the background sources that influenced the 2010 WISE data, allowing a measurement of a very red WISE color of W1 – W2 >3.9 mag. A re-analysis of the 2010 WISE astrometry using only the W2 band, combined with the new NEOWISE-R 2014 position, gives an improved parallax of 448 ± 33 mas and a proper motion of 8.''08 ± 0.''05 yr{sup –1}. These are all consistent with values from Luhman.

  8. CONFIRMATION OF ONE OF THE COLDEST KNOWN BROWN DWARFS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luhman, K. L.; Bochanski, J. J.; Burgasser, A. J.; Labbe, I.; Monson, A. J.; Persson, S. E.; Saumon, D.; Marley, M. S.

    2012-01-10

    Using two epochs of 4.5 {mu}m images from the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on board the Spitzer Space Telescope, we recently identified a common proper motion companion to the white dwarf WD 0806-661 that is a candidate for the coldest known brown dwarf. To verify its cool nature, we have obtained images of this object at 3.6 {mu}m with IRAC, at J with the High Acuity Wide-field K-band Imager (HAWK-I) on the Very Large Telescope, and in a filter covering the red half of J with FourStar on Magellan. WD 0806-661 B is detected by IRAC but not HAWK-I or FourStar. From these data we measure colors of [3.6] - [4.5] = 2.77 {+-} 0.16 and J - [4.5] > 7.0 (S/N < 3). Based on these colors and its absolute magnitudes, WD 0806-661 B is the coldest companion directly imaged outside of the solar system and is a contender for the coldest known brown dwarf with the Y dwarf WISEP J1828+2650. It is unclear which of these two objects is colder given the available data. A comparison of its absolute magnitude at 4.5 {mu}m to the predictions of theoretical spectra and evolutionary models suggests that WD 0806-661 B has T{sub eff} = 300-345 K.

  9. Apparatus for producing nanoscale ceramic powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Helble, Joseph J.; Moniz, Gary A.; Morse, Theodore F.

    1997-02-04

    An apparatus provides high temperature and short residence time conditions for the production of nanoscale ceramic powders. The apparatus includes a confinement structure having a multiple inclined surfaces for confining flame located between the surfaces so as to define a flame zone. A burner system employs one or more burners to provide flame to the flame zone. Each burner is located in the flame zone in close proximity to at least one of the inclined surfaces. A delivery system disposed adjacent the flame zone delivers an aerosol, comprising an organic or carbonaceous carrier material and a ceramic precursor, to the flame zone to expose the aerosol to a temperature sufficient to induce combustion of the carrier material and vaporization and nucleation, or diffusion and oxidation, of the ceramic precursor to form pure, crystalline, narrow size distribution, nanophase ceramic particles.

  10. Apparatus for producing nanoscale ceramic powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helble, J.J.; Moniz, G.A.; Morse, T.F.

    1995-09-05

    An apparatus provides high temperature and short residence time conditions for the production of nanoscale ceramic powders. The apparatus includes a confinement structure having a multiple inclined surfaces for confining flame located between the surfaces so as to define a flame zone. A burner system employs one or more burners to provide flame to the flame zone. Each burner is located in the flame zone in close proximity to at least one of the inclined surfaces. A delivery system disposed adjacent the flame zone delivers an aerosol, comprising an organic or carbonaceous carrier material and a ceramic precursor, to the flame zone to expose the aerosol to a temperature sufficient to induce combustion of the carrier material and vaporization and nucleation, or diffusion and oxidation, of the ceramic precursor to form pure, crystalline, narrow size distribution, nanophase ceramic particles. 5 figs.

  11. Apparatus for producing nanoscale ceramic powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Helble, Joseph J.; Moniz, Gary A.; Morse, Theodore F.

    1995-09-05

    An apparatus provides high temperature and short residence time conditions for the production of nanoscale ceramic powders. The apparatus includes a confinement structure having a multiple inclined surfaces for confining flame located between the surfaces so as to define a flame zone. A burner system employs one or more burners to provide flame to the flame zone. Each burner is located in the flame zone in close proximity to at least one of the inclined surfaces. A delivery system disposed adjacent the flame zone delivers an aerosol, comprising an organic or carbonaceous carrier material and a ceramic precursor, to the flame zone to expose the aerosol to a temperature sufficient to induce combustion of the carrier material and vaporization and nucleation, or diffusion and oxidation, of the ceramic precursor to form pure, crystalline, narrow size distribution, nanophase ceramic particles.

  12. Apparatus for producing nanoscale ceramic powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helble, J.J.; Moniz, G.A.; Morse, T.F.

    1997-02-04

    An apparatus provides high temperature and short residence time conditions for the production of nanoscale ceramic powders. The apparatus includes a confinement structure having a multiple inclined surfaces for confining flame located between the surfaces so as to define a flame zone. A burner system employs one or more burners to provide flame to the flame zone. Each burner is located in the flame zone in close proximity to at least one of the inclined surfaces. A delivery system disposed adjacent the flame zone delivers an aerosol, comprising an organic or carbonaceous carrier material and a ceramic precursor, to the flame zone to expose the aerosol to a temperature sufficient to induce combustion of the carrier material and vaporization and nucleation, or diffusion and oxidation, of the ceramic precursor to form pure, crystalline, narrow size distribution, nanophase ceramic particles. 5 figs.

  13. Process for preparing titanium nitride powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bamberger, C.E.

    1988-06-17

    A process for making titanium nitride powder by reaction of titanium phosphates with sodium cyanide. The process of this invention may comprise mixing one or more phosphates of Ti with a cyanide salt in the absence of oxygen and heating to a temperature sufficient to cause reaction to occur. In the preferred embodiment the ratio of cyanide salt to Ti should be at least 2 which results in the major Ti-containing product being TiN rather than sodium titanium phosphate byproducts. The process is an improvement over prior processes since the byproducts are water soluble salts of sodium which can easily be removed from the preferred TiN product by washing. 2 tabs.

  14. Method of manufacturing aluminide sheet by thermomechanical processing of aluminide powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Scorey, Clive; Sikka, Vinod K.; Deevi, Seetharama C.; Fleishhauer, Grier; Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton; German, Randall M.

    2003-12-09

    A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3% Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

  15. Method of manufacturing aluminide sheet by thermomechanical processing of aluminide powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Scorey, Clive; Sikka, Vinod K.; Deevi, Seetharama C.; Fleischhauer, Grier; Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton; German, Randall M.

    2000-01-01

    A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr.ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3% Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

  16. Microstructural characterization of a new mechanically alloyed Ni-base ODS superalloy powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seyyed Aghamiri, S.M.; Shahverdi, H.R.; Ukai, S.; Oono, N.; Taya, K.; Miura, S.; Hayashi, S.; Okuda, T.

    2015-02-15

    The microstructure of a new Ni-base oxide dispersion strengthened superalloy powder was studied for high temperature gas turbine applications after the mechanical alloying process. In this study, an atomized powder with a composition similar to the CMSX-10 superalloy was mechanically alloyed with yttria and Hf powders. The mechanically alloyed powder included only the supersaturated solid solution γ phase without γ′ and yttria provided by severe plastic deformation, while after the 3-step aging, the γ′ phase was precipitated due to the partitioning of Al and Ta to the γ′ and Co, Cr, Re, W, and Mo to the γ phase. Mechanical alloying modified the morphology of γ′ to the new coherent γ–γ′ nanoscale lamellar structure to minimize the elastic strain energy of the precipitation, which yielded a low lattice misfit of 0.16% at high temperature. The γ′ lamellae aligned preferentially along the elastically soft [100] direction. Also, the precipitated oxide particles were refined in the γ phase by adding Hf from large incoherent YAlO{sub 3} to fine semi-coherent Y{sub 2}Hf{sub 2}O{sub 7} oxide particles with the average size of 7 nm and low interparticle spacing of 76 nm. - Highlights: • A new Ni-base ODS superalloy powder was produced by mechanical alloying. • The nanoscale γ–γ′ lamellar structure was precipitated after the aging treatment. • Fine semi-coherent Y{sub 2}Hf{sub 2}O{sub 7} oxide particles were precipitated by addition of Hf.

  17. Three new cool brown dwarfs discovered with the wide-field infrared survey explorer (WISE) and an improved spectrum of the Y0 dwarf wise J041022.71+150248.4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cushing, Michael C.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Mace, Gregory N.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Gould, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    As part of a larger search of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data for cool brown dwarfs with effective temperatures less than 1000 K, we present the discovery of three new cool brown dwarfs with spectral types later than T7. Using low-resolution, near-infrared spectra obtained with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility and the Hubble Space Telescope, we derive spectral types of T9.5 for WISE J094305.98+360723.5, T8 for WISE J200050.19+362950.1, and Y0: for WISE J220905.73+271143.9. The identification of WISE J220905.73+271143.9 as a Y dwarf brings the total number of spectroscopically confirmed Y dwarfs to 17. In addition, we present an improved spectrum (i.e., higher signal-to-noise ratio) of the Y0 dwarf WISE J041022.71+150248.4 that confirms the Cushing et al. classification of Y0. Spectrophotometric distance estimates place all three new brown dwarfs at distances less than 12 pc, with WISE J200050.19+362950.1 lying at a distance of only 3.9-8.0 pc. Finally, we note that brown dwarfs like WISE J200050.19+362950.1 that lie in or near the Galactic plane offer an exciting opportunity to directly measure the mass of a brown dwarf via astrometric microlensing.

  18. Fabrication of metal matrix composite by semi-solid powder processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Yufeng

    2012-11-28

    Various metal matrix composites (MMCs) are widely used in the automotive, aerospace and electrical industries due to their capability and flexibility in improving the mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of a component. However, current manufacturing technologies may suffer from insufficient process stability and reliability and inadequate economic efficiency and may not be able to satisfy the increasing demands placed on MMCs. Semi-solid powder processing (SPP), a technology that combines traditional powder metallurgy and semi-solid forming methods, has potential to produce MMCs with low cost and high efficiency. In this work, the analytical study and experimental investigation of SPP on the fabrication of MMCs were explored. An analytical model was developed to understand the deformation mechanism of the powder compact in the semi-solid state. The densification behavior of the Al6061 and SiC powder mixtures was investigated with different liquid fractions and SiC volume fractions. The limits of SPP were analyzed in terms of reinforcement phase loading and its impact on the composite microstructure. To explore adoption of new materials, carbon nanotube (CNT) was investigated as a reinforcing material in aluminum matrix using SPP. The process was successfully modeled for the mono-phase powder (Al6061) compaction and the density and density distribution were predicted. The deformation mechanism at low and high liquid fractions was discussed. In addition, the compaction behavior of the ceramic-metal powder mixture was understood, and the SiC loading limit was identified by parametric study. For the fabrication of CNT reinforced Al6061 composite, the mechanical alloying of Al6061-CNT powders was first investigated. A mathematical model was developed to predict the CNT length change during the mechanical alloying process. The effects of mechanical alloying time and processing temperature during SPP were studied on the mechanical, microstructural and

  19. Vacuum pyrolysis of waste tires with basic additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Xinghua; Wang Tiejun Ma Longlong; Chang Jie

    2008-11-15

    Granules of waste tires were pyrolyzed under vacuum (3.5-10 kPa) conditions, and the effects of temperature and basic additives (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, NaOH) on the properties of pyrolysis were thoroughly investigated. It was obvious that with or without basic additives, pyrolysis oil yield increased gradually to a maximum and subsequently decreased with a temperature increase from 450 deg. C to 600 deg. C, irrespective of the addition of basic additives to the reactor. The addition of NaOH facilitated pyrolysis dramatically, as a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 48 wt% was achieved at 550 deg. C without the addition of basic additives, while a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 50 wt% was achieved at 480 deg. C by adding 3 wt% (w/w, powder/waste tire granules) of NaOH powder. The composition analysis of pyrolytic naphtha (i.b.p. (initial boiling point) {approx}205 deg. C) distilled from pyrolysis oil showed that more dl-limonene was obtained with basic additives and the maximal content of dl-limonene in pyrolysis oil was 12.39 wt%, which is a valuable and widely-used fine chemical. However, no improvement in pyrolysis was observed with Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} addition. Pyrolysis gas was mainly composed of H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. Pyrolytic char had a surface area comparable to commercial carbon black, but its proportion of ash (above 11.5 wt%) was much higher.

  20. Characterization of novel sorghum brown midrib mutants from an EMS-mutagenized population

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sattler, Scott E.; Saballos, Ana; Xin, Zhanguo; Funnell-Harris, Deanna L.; Vermerris, Wilfred; Pedersen, Jeffrey F.

    2014-09-02

    Reducing lignin concentration in lignocellulosic biomass can increase forage digestibility for ruminant livestock and saccharification yields of biomass for bioenergy. In sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and several other C4 grasses, brown midrib (bmr) mutants have been shown to reduce lignin concentration. Putative bmr mutants isolated from an EMS-mutagenized population were characterized and classified based on their leaf midrib phenotype and allelism tests with the previously described sorghum bmr mutants bmr2, bmr6, and bmr12. These tests resulted in the identification of additional alleles of bmr2, bmr6,and bmr12, and, in addition, six bmr mutants were identified that were not allelic tomore » these previously described loci. Further allelism testing among these six bmr mutants showed that they represented four novel bmr loci. Based on this study, the number of bmr loci uncovered in sorghum has doubled. The impact of these lines on agronomic traits and lignocellulosic composition was assessed in a 2-yr field study. Most of the identified bmr lines showed reduced lignin concentration of their biomass relative to wild-type (WT). Effects of the six new bmr mutants on enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic materials were determined, but the amount of glucose released from the stover was similar to WT in all cases. Like bmr2, bmr6, and bmr12, these mutants may affect monolignol biosynthesis and may be useful for bioenergy and forage improvement when stacked together or in combination with the three previously described bmr alleles.« less

  1. RAMONA-3B application to Browns Ferry ATWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slovik, G.C.; Neymotin, L.; Cazzoli, E.; Saha, P.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses two preliminary MSIV clsoure ATWS calculations done using the RAMONA-3B code and the work being done to create the necessary cross section sets for the Browns Ferry Unit 1 reactor. The RAMONA-3B code employs a three-dimensional neutron kinetics model coupled with one-dimensional, four equation, nonhomogeneous, nonequilibrium thermal hydraulics. To be compatible with 3-D neutron kinetics, the code uses parallel coolant channels in the core. It also includes a boron transport model and all necessary BWR components such as jet pump, recirculation pump, steam separator, steamline with safety and relief valves, main steam isolation valve, turbine stop valve, and turbine bypass valve. A summary of RAMONA-3B neutron kinetics and thermal hydraulics models is presented in the Appendix.

  2. ATWS at Browns Ferry Unit One - accident sequence analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrington, R.M.; Hodge, S.A.

    1984-07-01

    This study describes the predicted response of Unit One at the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant to a postulated complete failure to scram following a transient occurrence that has caused closure of all Main Steam Isolation Valves (MSIVs). This hypothetical event constitutes the most severe example of the type of accident classified as Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS). Without the automatic control rod insertion provided by scram, the void coefficient of reactivity and the mechanisms by which voids are formed in the moderator/coolant play a dominant role in the progression of the accident. Actions taken by the operator greatly influence the quantity of voids in the coolant and the effect is analyzed in this report. The progression of the accident sequence under existing and under recommended procedures is discussed. For the extremely unlikely cases in which equipment failure and wrongful operator actions might lead to severe core damage, the sequence of emergency action levels and the associated timing of events are presented.

  3. ATWS analysis for Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant Unit 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dallman, R.J.; Jouse, W.C.

    1985-01-01

    Analyses of postulated Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) were performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant Unit 1 (BFNP1) was selected as the subject of this work because of the cooperation of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The work is part of the Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) Program of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A Main Steamline Isolation Valve (MSIV) closure served as the transient initiator for these analyses, which proceeded a complete failure to scram. Results from the analyses indicate that operator mitigative actions are required to prevent overpressurization of the primary containment. Uncertainties remain concerning the effectiveness of key mitigative actions. The effectiveness of level control as a power reduction procedure is limited. Power level resulting from level control only reduce the Pressure Suppression Pool (PSP) heatup rate from 6 to 4F/min.

  4. 2016-3-17_Allocations_Brown_Bag

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bagwell & Richard Gerber! ! NERSC Brown Bag! March 17, 2016 Allocations --- 1 --- Allocations Summary * How t he N ERSC p ie i s d istributed - A l i'le h istory * DOE O ffices & P rograms * NERSC r eserves * The E RCAP p rocess * How u ser a ccounts a nd a llocaBons w ork * What h appens w hen u ser/repo r un o ut o f B me * Q & A --- 2 --- Allocations History 0 500000000 1E+09 1.5E+09 2E+09 2.5E+09 3E+09 3.5E+09 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

  5. Porosity of additive manufacturing parts for process monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slotwinski, J. A.; Garboczi, E. J.

    2014-02-18

    Some metal additive manufacturing processes can produce parts with internal porosity, either intentionally (with careful selection of the process parameters) or unintentionally (if the process is not well-controlled.) Material porosity is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants, since surface-breaking pores allow for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part's porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the process. We are developing an ultrasonic sensor for detecting changes in porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system, for use as a process monitor. This paper will describe our work to develop an ultrasonic-based sensor for monitoring part porosity during an additive build, including background theory, the development and detailed characterization of reference additive porosity samples, and a potential design for in-situ implementation.

  6. Preparation of cuxinygazsen precursor films and powders by electroless deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N.; Batchelor, Wendi Kay; Wiesner, Holm; Ramanathan, Kannan; Noufi, Rommel

    1999-01-01

    A method for electroless deposition of Cu.sub.x In.sub.y Ga.sub.z Se.sub.n (x=0-2, y=0-2, z=0-2, n=0-3) precursor films and powders onto a metallic substrate comprising: preparing an aqueous bath solution of compounds selected from the group consisting of: I) a copper compound, a selenium compound, an indium compound and gallium compound; II) a copper compound, a selenium compound and an indium compound; III) a selenium compound, and indium compound and a gallium compound; IV) a selenium compound and a indium compound; and V) a copper compound and selenium compound; each compound being present in sufficient quantity to react with each other to produce Cu.sub.x In.sub.y Ga.sub.z Se.sub.n (x=0-2, y=0-2, z=0-2, n=0-3); adjusting the pH of the aqueous bath solution to an acidic value by the addition of a dilute acid; and initiating an electroless reaction with an oxidizing counterelectrode for a sufficient time to cause a deposit of Cu.sub.x In.sub.y Ga.sub.z Se.sub.n (x=0-2, y=0-2, z=0-2, n=0-3) from the aqueous bath solution onto a metallic substrate.

  7. Defectiveness of the crystal structure of electroerosion powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fominskii, L.P.; Myuller, A.S.; Levchuk, M.V.

    1988-03-01

    The fine structure and defectiveness of metal powder crystal lattices produced by electroerosion dispersion were examined. Dispersion was performed on granulated aluminum, Armco iron, carbon steels, and tungsten. The fine structure was examined by x-ray diffraction. Harmonic analysis was performed using a computer and a program which calculates not only the expansion coefficients of the functions into a Fourier series but also the microdistortions and the dimensions of the mosaic blocks. Electroerosion powders were found to have higher density of crystal lattice defects which can increase their chemical and catalytic activity, improve the metallic electroerosion powder passivation, and increase their corrosion resistance.

  8. Atomizing apparatus for making polymer and metal powders and whiskers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Otaigbe, Joshua U.; McAvoy, Jon M.; Anderson, Iver E.; Ting, Jason; Mi, Jia; Terpstra, Robert

    2003-03-18

    Method for making polymer particulates, such as spherical powder and whiskers, by melting a polymer material under conditions to avoid thermal degradation of the polymer material, atomizing the melt using gas jet means in a manner to form atomized droplets, and cooling the droplets to form polymer particulates, which are collected for further processing. Atomization parameters can be controlled to produce polymer particulates with controlled particle shape, particle size, and particle size distribution. For example, atomization parameters can be controlled to produce spherical polymer powders, polymer whiskers, and combinations of spherical powders and whiskers. Atomizing apparatus also is provided for atoomizing polymer and metallic materials.

  9. Melting of Uranium Metal Powders with Residual Salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin-Mok Hur; Dae-Seung Kang; Chung-Seok Seo

    2007-07-01

    The Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process (ACP) of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute focuses on the conditioning of Pressurized Water Reactor spent oxide nuclear fuel. After the oxide reduction step of the ACP, the resultant metal powders containing {approx} 30 wt% residual LiCl-Li{sub 2}O should be melted for a consolidation of the fine metal powders. In this study, we investigated the melting behaviors of uranium metal powders considering the effects of a LiCl-Li{sub 2}O residual salt. (authors)

  10. Zinc electrode with cement additive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Charkey, Allen

    1982-06-01

    A zinc electrode having a cement additive, preferably, Portland Cement, distributed in the zinc active material.

  11. Apparatus for making environmentally stable reactive alloy powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Iver E.; Lograsso, Barbara K.; Terpstra, Robert L.

    1996-12-31

    Apparatus and method for making powder from a metallic melt by atomizing the melt to form droplets and reacting the droplets downstream of the atomizing location with a reactive gas. The droplets are reacted with the gas at a temperature where a solidified exterior surface is formed thereon and where a protective refractory barrier layer (reaction layer) is formed whose penetration into the droplets is limited by the presence of the solidified surface so as to avoid selective reduction of key reactive alloyants needed to achieve desired powder end use properties. The barrier layer protects the reactive powder particles from environmental constituents such as air and water in the liquid or vapor form during subsequent fabrication of the powder to end-use shapes and during use in the intended service environment.

  12. Environmentally stable reactive alloy powders and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Iver E.; Lograsso, Barbara K.; Terpstra, Robert L.

    1998-09-22

    Apparatus and method for making powder from a metallic melt by atomizing the melt to form droplets and reacting the droplets downstream of the atomizing location with a reactive gas. The droplets are reacted with the gas at a temperature where a solidified exterior surface is formed thereon and where a protective refractory barrier layer (reaction layer) is formed whose penetration into the droplets is limited by the presence of the solidified surface so as to avoid selective reduction of key reactive alloyants needed to achieve desired powder end use properties. The barrier layer protects the reactive powder particles from environmental constituents such as air and water in the liquid or vapor form during subsequent fabrication of the powder to end-use shapes and during use in the intended service environment.

  13. Process for synthesizing compounds from elemental powders and product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rabin, B.H.; Wright, R.N.

    1993-12-14

    A process for synthesizing intermetallic compounds from elemental powders is described. The elemental powders are initially combined in a ratio which approximates the stoichiometric composition of the intermetallic compound. The mixed powders are then formed into a compact which is heat treated at a controlled rate of heating such that an exothermic reaction between the elements is initiated. The heat treatment may be performed under controlled conditions ranging from a vacuum (pressureless sintering) to compression (hot pressing) to produce a desired densification of the intermetallic compound. In a preferred form of the invention, elemental powders of Fe and Al are combined to form aluminide compounds of Fe[sub 3] Al and FeAl. 25 figures.

  14. Apparatus for making environmentally stable reactive alloy powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, I.E.; Lograsso, B.K.; Terpstra, R.L.

    1996-12-31

    Apparatus and method are disclosed for making powder from a metallic melt by atomizing the melt to form droplets and reacting the droplets downstream of the atomizing location with a reactive gas. The droplets are reacted with the gas at a temperature where a solidified exterior surface is formed thereon and where a protective refractory barrier layer (reaction layer) is formed whose penetration into the droplets is limited by the presence of the solidified surface so as to avoid selective reduction of key reactive alloyants needed to achieve desired powder end use properties. The barrier layer protects the reactive powder particles from environmental constituents such as air and water in the liquid or vapor form during subsequent fabrication of the powder to end-use shapes and during use in the intended service environment. 7 figs.

  15. Environmentally stable reactive alloy powders and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, I.E.; Lograsso, B.K.; Terpstra, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    Apparatus and method are disclosed for making powder from a metallic melt by atomizing the melt to form droplets and reacting the droplets downstream of the atomizing location with a reactive gas. The droplets are reacted with the gas at a temperature where a solidified exterior surface is formed thereon and where a protective refractory barrier layer (reaction layer) is formed whose penetration into the droplets is limited by the presence of the solidified surface so as to avoid selective reduction of key reactive alloys needed to achieve desired powder end use properties. The barrier layer protects the reactive powder particles from environmental constituents such as air and water in the liquid or vapor form during subsequent fabrication of the powder to end-use shapes and during use in the intended service environment. 7 figs.

  16. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Tyson Valley Powder Farm...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    MO.11-1 - Letter; Dickenson to Duff; Subject: Granted continued use of storage magazine at Tyson Valley Powder Farm for TNT storage; May 21, 1947 MO.11-2 - Aerospace Report; FUSRAP ...

  17. Process for preparing fine grain silicon carbide powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wei, G.C.

    Method of producing fine-grain silicon carbide powder comprises combining methyltrimethoxysilane with a solution of phenolic resin, acetone and water or sugar and water, gelling the resulting mixture, and then drying and heating the obtained gel.

  18. Active hopper for promoting flow of bulk granular or powdered...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Data Explorer Search Results Active hopper for promoting flow of bulk granular or powdered ... An apparatus that promotes the flow of materials has a body having an inner shape for ...

  19. Compacting Plastic-Bonded Explosive Molding Powders to Dense Solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Olinger

    2005-04-15

    Dense solid high explosives are made by compacting plastic-bonded explosive molding powders with high pressures and temperatures for extended periods of time. The density is influenced by manufacturing processes of the powders, compaction temperature, the magnitude of compaction pressure, pressure duration, and number of repeated applications of pressure. The internal density variation of compacted explosives depends on method of compaction and the material being compacted.

  20. Method for removing oxide contamination from titanium diboride powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brynestad, Jorulf; Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1984-01-01

    A method for removing oxide contamination from titanium diboride powder involves the direct chemical treatment of TiB.sub.2 powders with a gaseous boron halide, such as BCl.sub.3, at temperatures in the range of 500.degree.-800.degree. C. The BCl.sub.3 reacts with the oxides to form volatile species which are removed by the BCl.sub.3 exit stream.

  1. Method for removing oxide contamination from titanium diboride powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brynestad, J.; Bamberger, C.E.

    A method for removing oxide contamination from titanium diboride powder involves the direct chemical treatment of TiB/sub 2/ powders with a gaseous boron halide, such as BCl/sub 3/, at temperatures in the range of 500 to 800/sup 0/C. The BCl/sub 3/ reacts with the oxides to form volatile species which are removed by the BCl/sub 3/ exit stream.

  2. Neutron detectors comprising ultra-thin layers of boron powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhehul; Morris, Christopher

    2013-07-23

    High-efficiency neutron detector substrate assemblies comprising a first conductive substrate, wherein a first side of the substrate is in direct contact with a first layer of a powder material having a thickness of from about 50 nm to about 250 nm and comprising .sup.10boron, .sup.10boron carbide or combinations thereof, and wherein a conductive material is in proximity to the first layer of powder material; and processes of making said neutron detector substrate assemblies.

  3. Quality experimental and calculated powder x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullenger, D.B.; Cantrell, J.S.; Beiter, T.A.; Tomlin, D.W.

    1996-08-01

    For several years, we have submitted quality powder XRD patterns to the International Centre for Diffraction Data for inclusion as reference standards in their Powder Diffraction File. The procedure followed is described; examples used are {beta}-UH{sub 3}, {alpha}- BaT{sub 2}, alpha-lithium disilicate ({alpha}-Li{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}), and 2,2`,4,4`,6,6`hexanitroazobenzene-III (HNAB-III).

  4. Craig Brown | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bloch, Eric D; Queen, Wendy L; Krishna, Rajamani; Zadrozny, Joseph M.; Brown, Craig M; and Long, Jeffrey R Hydrocarbon Separations in a Metal-Organic Framework with Open Iron(II) ...

  5. Travis Brown and Kamran Baksh, Final Submission | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Travis Brown and Kamran Baksh, Final Submission Home > Groups > 2014 Geothermal Case Study Challenge CSM's picture Submitted by CSM(5) Member 14 May, 2014 - 21:59 Colorado School...

  6. Laboratory measurements of resistivity in warm dense plasmas relevant to the microphysics of brown dwarfs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booth, N.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Hakel, P.; Clarke, R. J.; Dance, R. J.; Doria, D.; Gizzi, L. A.; Gregori, G.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; Levato, T.; Li, B.; Makita, M.; Mancini, R. C.; Pasley, J.; Rajeev, P. P.; Riley, D.; Wagenaars, E.; Waugh, J. N.; Woolsey, N. C.

    2015-11-06

    Since the observation of the first brown dwarf in 1995, numerous studies have led to a better understanding of the structures of these objects. Here we present a method for studying material resistivity in warm dense plasmas in the laboratory, which we relate to the microphysics of brown dwarfs through viscosity and electron collisions. Here we use X-ray polarimetry to determine the resistivity of a sulphur-doped plastic target heated to Brown Dwarf conditions by an ultra-intense laser. The resistivity is determined by matching the plasma physics model to the atomic physics calculations of the measured large, positive, polarization. Furthermore, the inferred resistivity is larger than predicted using standard resistivity models, suggesting that these commonly used models will not adequately describe the resistivity of warm dense plasma related to the viscosity of brown dwarfs.

  7. Laboratory measurements of resistivity in warm dense plasmas relevant to the microphysics of brown dwarfs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Booth, N.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Hakel, P.; Clarke, R. J.; Dance, R. J.; Doria, D.; Gizzi, L. A.; Gregori, G.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; et al

    2015-11-06

    Since the observation of the first brown dwarf in 1995, numerous studies have led to a better understanding of the structures of these objects. Here we present a method for studying material resistivity in warm dense plasmas in the laboratory, which we relate to the microphysics of brown dwarfs through viscosity and electron collisions. Here we use X-ray polarimetry to determine the resistivity of a sulphur-doped plastic target heated to Brown Dwarf conditions by an ultra-intense laser. The resistivity is determined by matching the plasma physics model to the atomic physics calculations of the measured large, positive, polarization. Furthermore, themore » inferred resistivity is larger than predicted using standard resistivity models, suggesting that these commonly used models will not adequately describe the resistivity of warm dense plasma related to the viscosity of brown dwarfs.« less

  8. Titanium Metal Powder Production by the Plasma Quench Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. A. Cordes; A. Donaldson

    2000-09-01

    The goals of this project included the scale-up of the titanium hydride production process to a production rate of 50 kg/hr at a purity level of 99+%. This goal was to be achieved by incrementally increasing the production capability of a series of reactor systems. This methodic approach was designed to allow Idaho Titanium Technologies to systematically address the engineering issues associated with plasma system performance, and powder collection system design and performance. With quality powder available, actual fabrication with the titanium hydride was to be pursued. Finally, with a successful titanium production system in place, the production of titanium aluminide was to be pursued by the simultaneously injection of titanium and aluminum precursors into the reactor system. Some significant accomplishments of the project are: A unique and revolutionary torch/reactor capable of withstanding temperatures up to 5000 C with high thermal efficiency has been operated. The dissociation of titanium tetrachloride into titanium powder and HC1 has been demonstrated, and a one-megawatt reactor potentially capable of producing 100 pounds per hour has been built, but not yet operated at the powder level. The removal of residual subchlorides and adsorbed HC1 and the sintering of powder to form solid bodies have been demonstrated. The production system has been operated at production rates up to 40 pounds per hour. Subsequent to the end of the project, Idaho Titanium Technologies demonstrated that titanium hydride powder can indeed be sintered into solid titanium metal at 1500 C without sintering aids.

  9. Supercritical fluid molecular spray thin films and fine powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Richard D.

    1988-01-01

    Solid films are deposited, or fine powders formed, by dissolving a solid material into a supercritical fluid solution at an elevated pressure and then rapidly expanding the solution through a short orifice into a region of relatively low pressure. This produces a molecular spray which is directed against a substrate to deposit a solid thin film thereon, or discharged into a collection chamber to collect a fine powder. The solvent is vaporized and pumped away. Solution pressure is varied to determine, together with flow rate, the rate of deposition and to control in part whether a film or powder is produced and the granularity of each. Solution temperature is varied in relation to formation of a two-phase system during expansion to control porosity of the film or powder. A wide variety of film textures and powder shapes are produced of both organic and inorganic compounds. Films are produced with regular textural feature dimensions of 1.0-2.0 .mu.m down to a range of 0.01 to 0.1 .mu.m. Powders are formed in very narrow size distributions, with average sizes in the range of 0.02 to 5 .mu.m.

  10. Additive Manufacturing for Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Blake Marshall, AMO's lead for Additive Manufacturing Technologies, will provide an overview of current R&D activities in additive manufacturing and its application to fuel cell prototyping and...

  11. Lubrication with boric acid additives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, Ali

    2000-01-01

    Self-lubricating resin compositions including a boric acid additive and a synthetic polymer including those thermoset materials.

  12. Additive Manufacturing: Technology and Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Additive Manufacturing: Technology and Applications Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and ... * Success in development and integration of multidisciplinary teams ...

  13. Effect of reductant and PVP on morphology and magnetic property of ultrafine Ni powders prepared via hydrothermal route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jun Wang, Xiucai; Li, Lili; Li, Chengxuan; Peng, Shuge

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: The ultrafine Ni powders with the shapes including sphere, pearl-string, leaf, fish-bone, hexagonal sheet and silknet were prepared through one-step hydrothermal reduction using different reductants. Their saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization and coercivity sequentially increase, and the coercivity of hexagonal sheet-like Ni powders increases by 25% compared with the Ni bulk counterpart. - Highlights: • The ultrafine Ni powders with various shapes of sphere, fish-bone, hexagonal sheet, etc. • Facile and one-step hydrothermal reduction using three reductants and PVP additive was developed. • Magnetic properties of the ultrafine Ni powders with different shapes were measured. • Compared with bulk Ni material, coercivity of hexagonal sheet Ni increases by 25%. • The formation mechanism of the shapes was suggested. - Abstract: The ultrafine nickel particles with different shapes including sphere, pearl-string, leaf, fish-bone, hexagonal sheet and silknet were prepared through one-step hydrothermal reduction using hydrazine hydrate, sodium hypophosphite and ethylene glycol as reductants, polyvinylpyrrolidone as structure-directing agent. It has been verified with the characterization of X-ray powder diffraction and transmission/scanning electronic microscopy that as-prepared products belong to face-centered cubic structure of nickel microcrystals with high purity and fine dispersity. The magnetic hysteresis loops measured at room temperature reveal that the values of saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization and coercivity rise sequentially from silknet, sphere to hexagonal sheet. In comparison with nickel bulk counterpart, the coercivity of the hexagonal sheet nickel powders increases by 25%.

  14. RAMONA-3B application to Browns Ferry ATWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slovik, G.C.; Neymotin, L.Y.; Saha, P.

    1985-01-01

    The Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) is known to be a dominant accident sequence for possible core melt in a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). A recent Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) analysis for the Browns Ferry nuclear power plant indicates that ATWS is the second most dominant transient for core melt in BWR/4 with Mark I containment. The most dominant sequence being the failure of long term decay heat removal function of the Residual Heat Removal (RHR) system. Of all the various ATWS scenarios, the Main Steam Isolation Valve (MSIV) closure ATWS sequence was chosen for present analysis because of its relatively high frequency of occurrence and its challenge to the residual heat removal system and containment integrity. The objective of this paper is to discuss four MSIV closure ATWS calculations using the RAMONA-3B code. The paper is a summary of a report being prepared for the USNRC Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) program which should be referred to for details. 10 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  16. Effects of Surface Modification Conditions on Hydrophobicity of Silica-based Coating Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, Beth L; Pawel, Steven J; Hunter, Scott Robert; Haynes, James A; Hillesheim, Daniel A

    2013-01-01

    Superhydrophobic silica (SHS) powders are being evaluated as a potential additive to the polyurethane topcoats used in Chemical Agent Resistant Coating (CARC) systems, with the goal of improving water repellency and corrosion protection characteristics. The current generation of CARC topcoats is already highly loaded with solids, and thus there is a premium on minimization of the total SHS powder required to achieve the desired properties. Therefore, efficient surface modification of the silica and proper dispersion in the coating will be required. The effect of a dispersant on the surface modification of silica particles by chlorosilanes was addressed in this study. The properties of various SHS powders were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis and mass spectroscopy. Correlations between powder modification conditions and the ultimate effects of the modified particles on hydrophobicity of CARC topcoats were assessed. The use of contact and rolling angle measurements along with scanning electron microscopy are discussed as they pertain to the ability to quantify the effects of modified silicas on corrosion prevention coatings. Furthermore, a systematic approach to modifying and testing both powders and top coats of corrosion prevention systems is presented.

  17. Early anisotropic hydrodynamics and thermalization and Hanbury-Brown-Twiss puzzles in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Florkowski, Wojciech

    2010-08-15

    We address the problem of whether the early thermalization and Hanbury-Brown-Twiss (HBT) puzzles in relativistic heavy-ion collisions may be solved by the assumption that the early dynamics of the produced matter is locally anisotropic. The hybrid model describing the purely transverse hydrodynamic evolution followed by the perfect-fluid hydrodynamic stage is constructed. The transition from the transverse to perfect-fluid hydrodynamics is described by the Landau matching conditions applied at a fixed proper time {tau}{sub tr}. The global fit to the RHIC data reproduces the soft hadronic observables (the pion, kaon, and the proton spectra, the pion and kaon elliptic flow, and the pion HBT radii) with the accuracy of about 20%. These results indicate that the assumption of the very fast thermalization may be relaxed. In addition, the presented model suggests that a large part of the inconsistencies between the theoretical and experimental HBT results may be removed.

  18. Advancements in Ti Alloy Powder Production by Close-Coupled Gas Atomization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heidloff, Andy; Rieken, Joel; Anderson, Iver; Byrd, David

    2011-04-01

    As the technology for titanium metal injection molding (Ti-MIM) becomes more readily available, efficient Ti alloy fine powder production methods are required. An update on a novel close-coupled gas atomization system has been given. Unique features of the melting apparatus are shown to have measurable effects on the efficiency and ability to fully melt within the induction skull melting system (ISM). The means to initiate the melt flow were also found to be dependent on melt apparatus. Starting oxygen contents of atomization feedstock are suggested based on oxygen pick up during the atomization and MIM processes and compared to a new ASTM specification. Forming of titanium by metal injection molding (Ti-MIM) has been extensively studied with regards to binders, particle shape, and size distribution and suitable de-binding methods have been discovered. As a result, the visibility of Ti-MIM has steadily increased as reviews of technology, acceptability, and availability have been released. In addition, new ASTM specification ASTM F2885-11 for Ti-MIM for biomedical implants was released in early 2011. As the general acceptance of Ti-MIM as a viable fabrication route increases, demand for economical production of high quality Ti alloy powder for the preparation of Ti-MIM feedstock correspondingly increases. The production of spherical powders from the liquid state has required extensive pre-processing into different shapes thereby increasing costs. This has prompted examination of Ti-MIM with non-spherical particle shape. These particles are produced by the hydride/de-hydride process and are equi-axed but fragmented and angular which is less than ideal. Current prices for MIM quality titanium powder range from $40-$220/kg. While it is ideal for the MIM process to utilize spherical powders within the size range of 0.5-20 {mu}m, titanium's high affinity for oxygen to date has prohibited the use of this powder size range. In order to meet oxygen requirements the top size

  19. Additional Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Additional Resources Additional Resources Additional Resources Energy Assurance Planning The Local Government Energy Assurance Planning (LEAP) program, developed by the Public Technology Institute and the U.S. Department of Energy, offers resources to help local governments of all sizes in developing energy assurance plans for their communities. U.S. Department of Energy, State and Local Energy Assurance Planning The National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO) The National Association

  20. LANL installs additional protective measures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lab completes additional protections LANL installs additional protective measures Work crews completed additional flood and erosion-control measures this week to reduce the environmental effects of any flash floods following the Las Conchas Fire. July 20, 2011 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma

  1. Gas atomized precursor alloy powder for oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rieken, Joel

    2011-12-13

    Gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS) was employed as a simplified method for producing precursor powders for oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic stainless steels (e.g., Fe-Cr-Y-(Ti,Hf)-O), departing from the conventional mechanical alloying (MA) process. During GARS processing a reactive atomization gas (i.e., Ar-O{sub 2}) was used to oxidize the powder surfaces during primary break-up and rapid solidification of the molten alloy. This resulted in envelopment of the powders by an ultra-thin (t < 150 nm) metastable Cr-enriched oxide layer that was used as a vehicle for solid-state transport of O into the consolidated microstructure. In an attempt to better understand the kinetics of this GARS reaction, theoretical cooling curves for the atomized droplets were calculated and used to establish an oxidation model for this process. Subsequent elevated temperature heat treatments, which were derived from Rhines pack measurements using an internal oxidation model, were used to promote thermodynamically driven O exchange reactions between trapped films of the initial Cr-enriched surface oxide and internal Y-enriched intermetallic precipitates. This novel microstructural evolution process resulted in the successful formation of nano-metric Y-enriched dispersoids, as confirmed using high energy X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), equivalent to conventional ODS alloys from MA powders. The thermal stability of these Y-enriched dispersoids was evaluated using high temperature (1200°C) annealing treatments ranging from 2.5 to 1,000 hrs of exposure. In a further departure from current ODS practice, replacing Ti with additions of Hf appeared to improve the Y-enriched dispersoid thermal stability by means of crystal structure modification. Additionally, the spatial distribution of the dispersoids was found to depend strongly on the original rapidly solidified microstructure. To exploit this, ODS microstructures were engineered from different

  2. AVLIS modified direct denitration: UO{sub 3} powder evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slagle, O.D.; Davis, N.C.; Parchen, L.J.

    1994-02-01

    The evaluation study demonstrated that AVLIS-enriched uranium converted to UO{sub 3} can be used to prepare UO{sub 3} pellets having densities in the range required for commercial power reactor fuel. Specifically, the program has demonstrated that MDD (Modified Direct Denitration)-derived UO{sub 2} powders can be reduced to sinterable UO{sub 2} powder using reduction techniques that allow control of the final powder characteristics; the resulting UO{sub 2} powders can be processed/sintered using standard powder preparation and pellet fabrication techniques to yield pellets with densities greater than 96% TD; pellet microstructures appear similar to those of power reactor fuel, and because of the high final pellet densities, it is expected that they would remain stable during in-reactor operation; the results of the present study confirm the results of a similar study carried out in 1982 (Davis and Griffin 1992). The laboratory processes were selected on the basis that they could be scaled up to standard commercial fuel processing. However, larger scale testing may be required to establish techniques compatible with commercial fuel fabrication techniques.

  3. Microstructural Development in Al-Si Powder During Rapid Solidification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amber Lynn Genau

    2004-12-19

    Powder metallurgy has become an increasingly important form of metal processing because of its ability to produce materials with superior mechanical properties. These properties are due in part to the unique and often desirable microstructures which arise as a result of the extreme levels of undercooling achieved, especially in the finest size powder, and the subsequent rapid solidification which occurs. A better understanding of the fundamental processes of nucleation and growth is required to further exploit the potential of rapid solidification processing. Aluminum-silicon, an alloy of significant industrial importance, was chosen as a model for simple eutectic systems displaying an unfaceted/faceted interface and skewed coupled eutectic growth zone, Al-Si powder produced by high pressure gas atomization was studied to determine the relationship between microstructure and alloy composition as a function of powder size and atomization gas. Critical experimental measurements of hypereutectic (Si-rich) compositions were used to determine undercooling and interface velocity, based on the theoretical models which are available. Solidification conditions were analyzed as a function of particle diameter and distance from nucleation site. A revised microstructural map is proposed which allows the prediction of particle morphology based on temperature and composition. It is hoped that this work, by providing enhanced understanding of the processes which govern the development of the solidification morphology of gas atomized powder, will eventually allow for better control of processing conditions so that particle microstructures can be optimized for specific applications.

  4. Method for producing microcomposite powders using a soap solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maginnis, Michael A.; Robinson, David A.

    1996-01-01

    A method for producing microcomposite powders for use in superconducting and non-superconducting applications. A particular method to produce microcomposite powders for use in superconducting applications includes the steps of: (a) preparing a solution including ammonium soap; (b) dissolving a preselected amount of a soluble metallic such as silver nitrate in the solution including ammonium soap to form a first solution; (c) adding a primary phase material such as a single phase YBC superconducting material in particle form to the first solution; (d) preparing a second solution formed from a mixture of a weak acid and an alkyl-mono-ether; (e) adding the second solution to the first solution to form a resultant mixture; (f) allowing the resultant mixture to set until the resultant mixture begins to cloud and thicken into a gel precipitating around individual particles of the primary phase material; (g) thereafter drying the resultant mixture to form a YBC superconducting material/silver nitrate precursor powder; and (h) calcining the YBC superconducting material/silver nitrate precursor powder to convert the silver nitrate to silver and thereby form a YBC/silver microcomposite powder wherein the silver is substantially uniformly dispersed in the matrix of the YBC material.

  5. Spectroscopic, scanning laser OBIC, and I-V/QE characterizations of browned EVA solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pern, F.J.; Eisgruber, I.L.; Micheels, R.H.

    1996-05-01

    The effects of ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) discoloration due to accelerated field or laboratory exposure on the encapsulated silicon (Si) solar cells or EVA/glass laminates were characterized quantitatively by using non-invasive, non-destructive ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometry, spectrocolorimetry, spectrofluorometry, scanning laser OBIC (optical beam induced current) spectroscopy, and current-voltage (I-V) and quantum efficiency (QE) measurements. The results show that the yellowness index (YI) measured directly over the AR-coated solar cells under the glass superstrate increased from the range of -80 to -90 to the range of -20 to 15 as the EVA changed from clear to brown. The ratio of two fluorescence emission peak areas generally increased from 1.45 to 5.69 as browning increased, but dropped to 4.21 on a darker EVA. For a solar cell with brown EVA in the central region, small-area grating QE measurements and scanning laser OBIC analysis between the brown and clear EVA regions showed that the quantum efficiency loss at 633 nm was 42%-48% of the loss at 488 nm, due to a reduced decrease of transmittance in browned EVA at the longer wavelengths. The portion of the solar cell under the browned EVA showed a decrease of {approximately}36% in efficiency, as compared to the cell efficiency under clear EVA. Transmittance loss at 633 nm was 38% of the loss at 488 nm for a light yellow-brown EVA/glass laminate that showed a small increase of 10 in the yellowness index.

  6. A simple procedure to prepare spherical {alpha}-alumina powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Hongyu [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China); Ning Guiling [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)], E-mail: ninggl@dlut.edu.cn; Gan Zhihong; Lin Yuan [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)

    2009-04-02

    Spherical {alpha}-alumina powders were prepared by the controlled hydrolysis of aluminum isopropoxide in a hydrolysis system consisting of octanol and acetonitrile. Diverse solvents to dissolve reactant formed diverse hydrolysis systems and affected particle shape of {alpha}-alumina powders. The precursors crystallized to {gamma}-alumina at 1000 deg. C and converted to {alpha}-alumina at 1150 deg. C without intermediate phases. The particle morphology of precursor was retained after it crystallized to {alpha}-alumina. The heating rate influenced the particle shape and the state of agglomeration during calcination process. The thermal properties of the precursors were characterized by thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis. X-ray diffraction technique was used to confirm the conversion of crystalline phase of alumina powders from amorphous to {alpha}-phase. Transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the morphologies and size of the precursors and products.

  7. Method and apparatus for the production of metal oxide powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, M.T.; Scott, T.C.; Byers, C.H.

    1992-06-16

    The present invention provides a method for preparing metal oxide powder. A first solution, which is substantially organic, is prepared. A second solution, which is an aqueous solution substantially immiscible in the first solution, is prepared and delivered as drops to the first solution. The drops of the second solution are atomized by a pulsed electric field forming micro-drops of the second solution. Reagents in the first solution diffuse into and react with reactants in the micro-drops of the second solution forming metal hydroxide or oxalate particles. The metal hydroxide or metal oxalate particles are then recovered and dried to produce the metal oxide powder. An apparatus for preparing a metal oxide powder is also disclosed. 2 figs.

  8. Aqueous slip casting of stabilized AlN powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groat, E.A.; Mroz, T.J. )

    1994-11-01

    Because of the interest in aluminum nitride (AlN) for various refractory and structural applications, methods are required to cost-effectively process a water-sensitive material into the required shapes. The existence of water-resistant AlN powders has allowed the consideration of aqueous processing of a material that previously required solvent-based formulation. The composition and procedures developed for aqueous slip-casting water-resistant AlN powders provide a manufacturing route for the fabrication of large and complex geometries. Technology to create aqueous dispersions of these powders also potentially enables other manufacturing processes, such as extrusion and spray drying, to utilize the cost advantages of aqueous processing.

  9. Method and apparatus for the production of metal oxide powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Byers, Charles H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for preparing metal oxide powder. A first solution, which is substantially organic, is prepared. A second solution, which is an aqueous solution substantially immiscible in the first solution, is prepared and delivered as drops to the first solution. The drops of the second solution are atomized by a pulsed electric field forming micro-drops of the second solution. Reagents in the first solution diffuse into and react with reactants in the micro-drops of the second solution forming metal hydroxide or oxalate particles. The metal hydroxide or metal oxalate particles are then recovered and dried to produce the metal oxide powder. An apparatus for preparing a metal oxide powder is also disclosed.

  10. Method and apparatus for the production of metal oxide powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Byers, Charles H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for preparing metal oxide powder. A first solution, which is substantially organic, is prepared. A second solution, which is an aqueous solution substantially immiscible in the first solution, is prepared and delivered as drops to the first solution. The drops of the second solution are atomized by a pulsed electric field forming micro-drops of the second solution. Reagents in the first solution diffuse into and react with reactants in the micro-drops of the second solution forming metal hydroxide or oxalate particles. The metal hydroxide or metal oxalate particles are then recovered and dried to produce the metal oxide powder. An apparatus for preparing a metal oxide powder is also disclosed.

  11. Method of freeform fabrication by selective gelation of powder suspensions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baskaran, Suresh; Graff, Gordon L.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is a novel method for freeform fabrication. Specifically, the method of solid freeform fabrication has the steps of: (a) preparing a slurry by mixing powder particles with a suspension medium and a gelling polysaccharide; (b) making a layer by depositing an amount of said powder slurry in a confined region; (c) hardening a selected portion of the layer by applying a gelling agent to the selected portion; and (d) repeating steps (b) and (c) to make successive layers and forming a layered object. In many applications, it is desirable to remove unhardened material followed by heating to remove gellable polysaccharide then sintering.

  12. Method of freeform fabrication by selective gelation of powder suspensions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baskaran, S.; Graff, G.L.

    1997-12-09

    The present invention is a novel method for freeform fabrication. Specifically, the method of solid freeform fabrication has the steps of: (a) preparing a slurry by mixing powder particles with a suspension medium and a gelling polysaccharide; (b) making a layer by depositing an amount of said powder slurry in a confined region; (c) hardening a selected portion of the layer by applying a gelling agent to the selected portion; and (d) repeating steps (b) and (c) to make successive layers and forming a layered object. In many applications, it is desirable to remove unhardened material followed by heating to remove gellable polysaccharide then sintering. 2 figs.

  13. Process for preparing fine grain titanium carbide powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janney, M.A.

    1985-03-12

    A method for preparing finely divided titanium carbide powder in which an organotitanate is reacted with a carbon precursor polymer to provide an admixture of the titanium and the polymer at a molecular level due to a crosslinking reaction between the organotitanate and the polymer. The resulting gel is dried, pyrolyzed to drive off volatile components and provide carbon. The resulting solids are then heated at an elevated temperature to convert the titanium and carbon to high-purity titanium carbide powder in a submicron size range.

  14. Process for preparing fine grain titanium carbide powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janey, Mark A.

    1986-01-01

    A method for preparing finely divided titanium carbide powder in which an organotitanate is reacted with a carbon precursor polymer to provide an admixture of the titanium and the polymer at a molecular-level due to a crosslinking reaction between the organotitanate and the polymer. The resulting gel is dried, pyrolyzed to drive off volatile components and provide carbon. The resulting solids are then heated at an elevated temperature to convert the titanium and carbon to high-purity titanium carbide powder in a submicron size range.

  15. Nano powders, components and coatings by plasma technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKechnie, Timothy N.; Antony, Leo V. M.; O'Dell, Scott; Power, Chris; Tabor, Terry

    2009-11-10

    Ultra fine and nanometer powders and a method of producing same are provided, preferably refractory metal and ceramic nanopowders. When certain precursors are injected into the plasma flame in a reactor chamber, the materials are heated, melted and vaporized and the chemical reaction is induced in the vapor phase. The vapor phase is quenched rapidly to solid phase to yield the ultra pure, ultra fine and nano product. With this technique, powders have been made 20 nanometers in size in a system capable of a bulk production rate of more than 10 lbs/hr. The process is particularly applicable to tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium, tungsten carbide, molybdenum carbide and other related materials.

  16. Process for preparing fine grain silicon carbide powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wei, G.C.

    Finely divided silicon carbide powder is obtained by mixing colloidal silica and unreacted phenolic resin in either acetone or methanol, evaporating solvent from the obtained solution to form a gel, drying and calcining the gel to polymerize the phenolic resin therein, pyrolyzing the dried and calcined gel at a temperature in the range of 500 to 1000/sup 0/C, and reacting silicon and carbon in the pyrolyzed gel at a temperature in the range of 1550 to 1700/sup 0/C to form the powder.

  17. Method for forming biaxially textured articles by powder metallurgy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN); Williams, Robert K. (Knoxville, TN); Kroeger, Donald M. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    A method of preparing a biaxially textured alloy article comprises the steps of preparing a mixture comprising Ni powder and at least one powder selected from the group consisting of Cr, W, V, Mo, Cu, Al, Ce, YSZ, Y, Rare Earths, (RE), MgO, CeO.sub.2, and Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; compacting the mixture, followed by heat treating and rapidly recrystallizing to produce a biaxial texture on the article. In some embodiments the alloy article further comprises electromagnetic or electro-optical devices and possesses superconducting properties.

  18. Oxide-dispersion strengthening of porous powder metalurgy parts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Judkins, Roddie R. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthening of porous metal articles includes the incorporation of dispersoids of metallic oxides in elemental metal powder particles. Porous metal articles, such as filters, are fabricated using conventional techniques (extrusion, casting, isostatic pressing, etc.) of forming followed by sintering and heat treatments that induce recrystallization and grain growth within powder grains and across the sintered grain contact points. The result is so-called "oxide dispersion strengthening" which imparts, especially, large increases in creep (deformation under constant load) strength to the metal articles.

  19. A data-driven approach for retrieving temperatures and abundances in brown dwarf atmospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Line, Michael R.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Marley, Mark S.; Sorahana, Satoko

    2014-09-20

    Brown dwarf spectra contain a wealth of information about their molecular abundances, temperature structure, and gravity. We present a new data driven retrieval approach, previously used in planetary atmosphere studies, to extract the molecular abundances and temperature structure from brown dwarf spectra. The approach makes few a priori physical assumptions about the state of the atmosphere. The feasibility of the approach is first demonstrated on a synthetic brown dwarf spectrum. Given typical spectral resolutions, wavelength coverage, and noise, property precisions of tens of percent can be obtained for the molecular abundances and tens to hundreds of K on the temperature profile. The technique is then applied to the well-studied brown dwarf, Gl 570D. From this spectral retrieval, the spectroscopic radius is constrained to be 0.75-0.83 R {sub J}, log (g) to be 5.13-5.46, and T {sub eff} to be between 804 and 849 K. Estimates for the range of abundances and allowed temperature profiles are also derived. The results from our retrieval approach are in agreement with the self-consistent grid modeling results of Saumon et al. This new approach will allow us to address issues of compositional differences between brown dwarfs and possibly their formation environments, disequilibrium chemistry, and missing physics in current grid modeling approaches as well as a many other issues.

  20. Development of Low Cost Gas Atomization of Precursor Powders for Simplified ODS Alloy Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Iver

    2014-08-05

    function of powder size) was investigated at Ames Lab as a function of reactive gas composition and bulk alloy composition. The results indicated that the pulsatile gas atomization mechanism and a significantly enhanced yield of fine powders reported in the literature for this type of process were not observed. Also it was determined that reactive gas may marginally improve the fine powder yield but further experiments are required. The oxygen content in the gas also did not have any detrimental effect on the microstructure (i.e. did not significantly reduce undercooling). On the contrary, the oxygen addition to the atomization gas may have mitigated some potent catalytic nucleation sites, but not enough to significantly alter the microstructure vs. particle size relationship. Overall the downstream injection of oxygen was not found to significantly affect either the particle size distribution or undercooling (as inferred from microstructure and XRD observations) but injection further upstream, including in the gas atomization nozzle, remains to be investigated in later work.

  1. Jonathan Brown | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BA in Chemistry, University of Southern California EFRC research: Metal Organic Frameworks ... includes additional metalation of the framework for possible enhanced catalytic and ...

  2. Ozone induces glucose intolerance and systemic metabolic effects in young and aged brown Norway rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bass, V.; Gordon, C.J.; Jarema, K.A.; MacPhail, R.C.; Cascio, W.E.; Phillips, P.M.; Ledbetter, A.D.; Schladweiler, M.C.; Andrews, D.; Miller, D.; Doerfler, D.L.; Kodavanti, U.P.

    2013-12-15

    Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. We hypothesized that ozone would impair glucose homeostasis by altering insulin signaling and/or endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress in young and aged rats. One, 4, 12, and 24 month old Brown Norway (BN) rats were exposed to air or ozone, 0.25 or 1.0 ppm, 6 h/day for 2 days (acute) or 2 d/week for 13 weeks (subchronic). Additionally, 4 month old rats were exposed to air or 1.0 ppm ozone, 6 h/day for 1 or 2 days (time-course). Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed immediately after exposure. Serum and tissue biomarkers were analyzed 18 h after final ozone for acute and subchronic studies, and immediately after each day of exposure in the time-course study. Age-related glucose intolerance and increases in metabolic biomarkers were apparent at baseline. Acute ozone caused hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in rats of all ages. Ozone-induced glucose intolerance was reduced in rats exposed for 13 weeks. Acute, but not subchronic ozone increased ?{sub 2}-macroglobulin, adiponectin and osteopontin. Time-course analysis indicated glucose intolerance at days 1 and 2 (2 > 1), and a recovery 18 h post ozone. Leptin increased day 1 and epinephrine at all times after ozone. Ozone tended to decrease phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 in liver and adipose tissues. ER stress appeared to be the consequence of ozone induced acute metabolic impairment since transcriptional markers of ER stress increased only after 2 days of ozone. In conclusion, acute ozone exposure induces marked systemic metabolic impairments in BN rats of all ages, likely through sympathetic stimulation. - Highlights: Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. Acute ozone exposure produces profound metabolic alterations in rats. Age influences metabolic risk factors in aging BN rats. Acute metabolic effects are reversible and repeated exposure reduces these effects. Ozone metabolic effects

  3. Powder-based adsorbents having high adsorption capacities for recovering dissolved metals and methods thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janke, Christopher J.; Dai, Sheng; Oyola, Yatsandra

    2016-05-03

    A powder-based adsorbent and a related method of manufacture are provided. The powder-based adsorbent includes polymer powder with grafted side chains and an increased surface area per unit weight to increase the adsorption of dissolved metals, for example uranium, from aqueous solutions. A method for forming the powder-based adsorbent includes irradiating polymer powder, grafting with polymerizable reactive monomers, reacting with hydroxylamine, and conditioning with an alkaline solution. Powder-based adsorbents formed according to the present method demonstrated a significantly improved uranium adsorption capacity per unit weight over existing adsorbents.

  4. Explosively driven low-density foams and powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viecelli, James A.; Wood, Lowell L.; Ishikawa, Muriel Y.; Nuckolls, John H.; Pagoria, Phillip F.

    2010-05-04

    Hollow RX-08HD cylindrical charges were loaded with boron and PTFE, in the form of low-bulk density powders or powders dispersed in a rigid foam matrix. Each charge was initiated by a Comp B booster at one end, producing a detonation wave propagating down the length of the cylinder, crushing the foam or bulk powder and collapsing the void spaces. The PdV work done in crushing the material heated it to high temperatures, expelling it in a high velocity fluid jet. In the case of boron particles supported in foam, framing camera photos, temperature measurements, and aluminum witness plates suggest that the boron was completely vaporized by the crush wave and that the boron vapor turbulently mixed with and burned in the surrounding air. In the case of PTFE powder, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of residues recovered from fragments of a granite target slab suggest that heating was sufficient to dissociate the PTFE to carbon vapor and molecular fluorine which reacted with the quartz and aluminum silicates in the granite to form aluminum oxide and mineral fluoride compounds.

  5. Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Iron Aluminide by CVD Coated Powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asit Biswas Andrew J. Sherman

    2006-09-25

    This I &I Category2 program developed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of iron, aluminum and aluminum oxide coated iron powders and the availability of high temperature oxidation, corrosion and erosion resistant coating for future power generation equipment and can be used for retrofitting existing fossil-fired power plant equipment. This coating will provide enhanced life and performance of Coal-Fired Boilers components such as fire side corrosion on the outer diameter (OD) of the water wall and superheater tubing as well as on the inner diameter (ID) and OD of larger diameter headers. The program also developed a manufacturing route for readily available thermal spray powders for iron aluminide coating and fabrication of net shape component by powder metallurgy route using this CVD coated powders. This coating can also be applid on jet engine compressor blade and housing, industrial heat treating furnace fixtures, magnetic electronic parts, heating element, piping and tubing for fossil energy application and automotive application, chemical processing equipment , heat exchanger, and structural member of aircraft. The program also resulted in developing a new fabrication route of thermal spray coating and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) iron aluminide composites enabling more precise control over material microstructures.

  6. Geothermal resources of the Southern Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heasler, H.P.; Buelow, K.L.; Hinckley, B.S.

    1985-06-13

    This report describes the geothermal resources of the Southern Powder River Basin. The report contains a discussion of the hydrology as it relates to the movement of heated water, a description and interpretation of the thermal regime, and four maps: a generalized geological map, a structure contour map, a thermal gradient contour map, and a ground water temperature map. 10 figs. (ACR)

  7. Green strength of zirconium sponge and uranium dioxide powder compacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balakrishna, Palanki Murty, B. Narasimha; Sahoo, P.K.; Gopalakrishna, T.

    2008-07-15

    Zirconium metal sponge is compacted into rectangular or cylindrical shapes using hydraulic presses. These shapes are stacked and electron beam welded to form a long electrode suitable for vacuum arc melting and casting into solid ingots. The compact electrodes should be sufficiently strong to prevent breakage in handling as well as during vacuum arc melting. Usually, the welds are strong and the electrode strength is limited by the green strength of the compacts, which constitute the electrode. Green strength is also required in uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) powder compacts, to withstand stresses during de-tensioning after compaction as well as during ejection from the die and for subsequent handling by man and machine. The strengths of zirconium sponge and UO{sub 2} powder compacts have been determined by bending and crushing respectively, and Weibul moduli evaluated. The green density of coarse sponge compact was found to be larger than that from finer sponge. The green density of compacts from lightly attrited UO{sub 2} powder was higher than that from unattrited category, accompanied by an improvement in UO{sub 2} green crushing strength. The factors governing green strength have been examined in the light of published literature and experimental evidence. The methodology and results provide a basis for quality control in metal sponge and ceramic powder compaction in the manufacture of nuclear fuel.

  8. Fight over fuel additive rekindled

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stringer, J.

    1996-03-20

    Ethyl and EPA are trading punches over EPA`s doubts about the safety of Ethyl`s gasoline additive methylcyclopentadienyl manganese (MMT). Late last week, EPA released a statement reaffirming its position that there has not been enough research on health effects of MMT and asking gas stations to label pumps that contain the additive so consumers will be aware they are using it. Responding to that statement, Ethyl has written Administrator Carol Browner asking why she appears to be supporting the Environmental Defense Fund`s (EDF; Washington) campaign against MMT and advocating the delay of the additive use in light of its known emission-reducing characteristics. The tension began in the early `90s, when the EPA refused to allow Ethyl to market MMT and required it to perform more long-term health studies. Last October a court ordered the agency to grant Ethyl approval to use MMT in nonreformulated gasoline.

  9. Harold Brown, 1992 | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Harold Brown, 1992 The Enrico Fermi Award Fermi Award Home Nomination & Selection Guidelines Award Laureates 2010's 2000's 1990's 1980's 1970's 1960's 1950's Ceremony The Life of Enrico Fermi Contact Information The Enrico Fermi Award U.S. Department of Energy SC-2/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-2411 E: Email Us 1990's Harold Brown, 1992 Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page Citation For his outstanding contributions to national security;

  10. Out of Bounds Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holshouser, Chris [Lockheed Martin Corporation; Newell, Clint [Lockheed Martin Corporation; Palas, Sid [Lockheed Martin Corporation; Love, Lonnie J [ORNL; Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL; Lind, Randall F [ORNL; Lloyd, Peter D [ORNL; Rowe, John C [ORNL; Blue, Craig A [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL; Dehoff, Ryan R [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing (AM) system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

  11. Out of bounds additive manufacturing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Holshouser, Chris; Newell, Clint; Palas, Sid; Love, Lonnie J.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lind, Randall F.; Lloyd, Peter D.; Rowe, John C.; Blue, Craig A.; Duty, Chad E.; et al

    2013-03-01

    Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

  12. Neutron powder diffraction analysis of (Tm{sub 0.50}Ca{sub 0...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Neutron powder diffraction analysis of (Tmsub 0.50Casub 0.50)MnOsub 3 and (Lusub 0.50Casub 0.50)MnOsub 3 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Neutron powder ...

  13. The metallurgy and processing science of metal additive manufacturing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sames, William J.; List, III, Frederick Alyious; Pannala, Sreekanth; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh

    2016-03-07

    Here, additive Manufacturing (AM), widely known as 3D printing, is a method of manufacturing that forms parts from powder, wire, or sheets in a process that proceeds layer-by-layer.Many techniques (using many different names) have been developed to accomplish this via melting or solid - state joining. In this review, these techniques for producing metal parts are explored, with a focus on the science of metal AM: processing defects, heat transfer, solidification, solid- state precipitation, mechanical properties, and post-processing metallurgy. The various metal AM techniques are compared, with analysis of the strengths and limitations of each. Few alloys have been developedmore » for commercial production, but recent development efforts are presented as a path for the ongoing development of new materials for AM processes.« less

  14. Low Activation Joining of SiC/SiC Composites for Fusion Applications: Tape Casting TiC+Si Powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henager, Charles H.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Canfield, Nathan L.; Shin, Yongsoon; Luscher, Walter G.; Mansurov, Jirgal; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Borlaug, Brennan A.

    2013-08-06

    The use of SiC composites in fusion environments likely requires joining of plates using reactive joining or brazing. One promising reactive joining method uses solid-state displacement reactions between Si and TiC to produce Ti3SiC2 + SiC. We continue to explore the processing envelope for this joint for the TITAN collaboration in order to produce optimal joints to undergo irradiation studies in HFIR. One noted feature of the joints produced using tape-calendared powders of TiC+Si has been the large void regions that have been apparently unavoidable. Although the produced joints are very strong, these voids are undesirable. In addition, the tapes that were made for this joining were produced about 20 years ago and were aging. Therefore, we embarked on an effort to produce some new tape cast powders of TiC and Si that could replace our aging tape calendared materials.

  15. Functionalization of polymer powders for SLS-processes using an atmospheric plasma jet in a fluidized bed reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sachs, Marius; Schmitt, Adeliene; Schmidt, Jochen; Peukert, Wolfgang; Wirth, Karl-Ernst

    2015-05-22

    Recently additive manufacturing processes such as selective laser sintering (SLS) of polymers have gained more importance for industrial applications [1]. Tailor-made modification of polymers is essential in order to make these processes more efficient and to cover the industrial demands. The so far used polymer materials show weak performance regarding the mechanical stability of processed parts. To overcome this limitation, a new route to functionalize the surface of commercially available polymer particles (PA12; PE-HD; PP) using an atmospheric plasma jet in combination with a fluidized bed reactor has been investigated. Consequently, an improvement of adhesion and wettability [2] of the polymer surface without restraining the bulk properties of the powder is achieved. The atmospheric plasma jet process can provide reactive species at moderate temperatures which are suitable for polymer material. The functionalization of the polymer powders improves the quality of the devices build in a SLS-process.

  16. Nonaqueous solution synthesis process for preparing oxide powders of lead zirconate titanate and related materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Voigt, James A.; Sipola, Diana L.; Tuttle, Bruce A.; Anderson, Mark T.

    1999-01-01

    A process for producing powders of perovskite-type compounds which comprises mixing a metal alkoxide solution with a lead acetate solution to form a homogeneous, clear metal solution, adding an oxalic acid/n-propanol solution to this metal solution to form an easily filterable, free-flowing precursor powder and then calcining this powder. This process provides fine perovskite-phase powders with ferroelectric properties which are particularly useful in a variety of electronic applications.

  17. Nonaqueous solution synthesis process for preparing oxide powders of lead zirconate titanate and related materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Voigt, J.A.; Sipola, D.L.; Tuttle, B.A.; Anderson, M.T.

    1999-06-01

    A process is disclosed for producing powders of perovskite-type compounds which comprises mixing a metal alkoxide solution with a lead acetate solution to form a homogeneous, clear metal solution, adding an oxalic acid/n-propanol solution to this metal solution to form an easily filterable, free-flowing precursor powder and then calcining this powder. This process provides fine perovskite-phase powders with ferroelectric properties which are particularly useful in a variety of electronic applications. 4 figs.

  18. Niobium-titanium superconductors produced by powder metallurgy having artificial flux pinning centers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jablonski, Paul D.; Larbalestier, David C.

    1993-01-01

    Superconductors formed by powder metallurgy have a matrix of niobium-titanium alloy with discrete pinning centers distributed therein which are formed of a compatible metal. The artificial pinning centers in the Nb-Ti matrix are reduced in size by processing steps to sizes on the order of the coherence length, typically in the range of 1 to 10 nm. To produce the superconductor, powders of body centered cubic Nb-Ti alloy and the second phase flux pinning material, such as Nb, are mixed in the desired percentages. The mixture is then isostatically pressed, sintered at a selected temperature and selected time to produce a cohesive structure having desired characteristics without undue chemical reaction, the sintered billet is reduced in size by deformation, such as by swaging, the swaged sample receives heat treatment and recrystallization and additional swaging, if necessary, and is then sheathed in a normal conducting sheath, and the sheathed material is drawn into a wire. The resulting superconducting wire has second phase flux pinning centers distributed therein which provide enhanced J.sub.ct due to the flux pinning effects.

  19. Uranium silicide pellet fabrication by powder metallurgy for accident tolerant fuel evaluation and irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harp, Jason Michael; Lessing, Paul Alan; Hoggan, Rita Elaine

    2015-06-21

    In collaboration with industry, Idaho National Laboratory is investigating uranium silicide for use in future light water reactor fuels as a more accident resistant alternative to uranium oxide base fuels. Specifically this project was focused on producing uranium silicide (U3Si2) pellets by conventional powder metallurgy with a density greater than 94% of the theoretical density. This work has produced a process to consistently produce pellets with the desired density through careful optimization of the process. Milling of the U3Si2 has been optimized and high phase purity U3Si2 has been successfully produced. Results are presented from sintering studies and microstructural examinations that illustrate the need for a finely ground reproducible particle size distribution in the source powder. The optimized process was used to produce pellets for the Accident Tolerant Fuel-1 irradiation experiment. The average density of these pellets was 11.54 ±0.06 g/cm3. Additional characterization of the pellets by scaning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction has also been performed. As a result, pellets produced in this work have been encapsulated for irradiation, and irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor is expected soon.

  20. Uranium silicide pellet fabrication by powder metallurgy for accident tolerant fuel evaluation and irradiation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Harp, Jason Michael; Lessing, Paul Alan; Hoggan, Rita Elaine

    2015-06-21

    In collaboration with industry, Idaho National Laboratory is investigating uranium silicide for use in future light water reactor fuels as a more accident resistant alternative to uranium oxide base fuels. Specifically this project was focused on producing uranium silicide (U3Si2) pellets by conventional powder metallurgy with a density greater than 94% of the theoretical density. This work has produced a process to consistently produce pellets with the desired density through careful optimization of the process. Milling of the U3Si2 has been optimized and high phase purity U3Si2 has been successfully produced. Results are presented from sintering studies and microstructural examinationsmore » that illustrate the need for a finely ground reproducible particle size distribution in the source powder. The optimized process was used to produce pellets for the Accident Tolerant Fuel-1 irradiation experiment. The average density of these pellets was 11.54 ±0.06 g/cm3. Additional characterization of the pellets by scaning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction has also been performed. As a result, pellets produced in this work have been encapsulated for irradiation, and irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor is expected soon.« less

  1. Uranium silicide pellet fabrication by powder metallurgy for accident tolerant fuel evaluation and irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harp, Jason Michael; Lessing, Paul Alan; Hoggan, Rita Elaine

    2015-06-21

    In collaboration with industry, Idaho National Laboratory is investigating uranium silicide for use in future light water reactor fuels as a more accident resistant alternative to uranium oxide base fuels. Specifically this project was focused on producing uranium silicide (U3Si2) pellets by conventional powder metallurgy with a density greater than 94% of the theoretical density. This work has produced a process to consistently produce pellets with the desired density through careful optimization of the process. Milling of the U3Si2 has been optimized and high phase purity U3Si2 has been successfully produced. Results are presented from sintering studies and microstructural examinations that illustrate the need for a finely ground reproducible particle size distribution in the source powder. The optimized process was used to produce pellets for the Accident Tolerant Fuel-1 irradiation experiment. The average density of these pellets was 11.54 0.06 g/cm3. Additional characterization of the pellets by scaning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction has also been performed. As a result, pellets produced in this work have been encapsulated for irradiation, and irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor is expected soon.

  2. Study of the fast reaction characteristics of aluminized PETN explosive powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu Dong; Sun Zhumei

    1996-05-01

    The fast reaction characteristics of aluminized PETN (pentaerythrite tetranitrate) explosive powders have been studied successfully by means of a spectrum-detecting and recovery technique. The results show that the appropriate particle size and content of aluminium powder in the aluminized PETN explosive powders are 44 {micro}m and 33%, respectively.

  3. Development of Metal/Polymer Mixtures for Micro Powder Injection Moulding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinard, C.; Barriere, T.; Gelin, J. C.

    2007-04-07

    Important research tasks at ENSMM/LMA are concerned for the development of mixtures of Fine powders associated to polymer binders dedicated to the powder injection moulding (PIM) and to the powder injection micro-moulding ({mu}PIM) in accordance with many works already carried out with different feedstock suppliers dedicated to the macro-components.

  4. Compression under conditions of the plane-strain state of composite powdered materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leshchinskii, V.M.; Blokhin, A.G.; Ermolaeva, I.E.

    1995-03-01

    The deviator part of the stress tensor has a key effect on the compaction of a highly-porous powdered material. The composition of the powder mixture promotes strengthening processes in the plastic phase. The nature of the macroscopic behavior of the composite powdered mixture is affected substantially by the reinforcement of contacts between particles.

  5. EIS-0435: Modification of the Groton Generation Station Interconnection Agreement, Brown County, South Dakota

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal for DOE's Western Area Power Administration to modify its Large Generator Connection Agreement for the Groton Generation Station in Brown County, South Dakota. The modification would allow Basin Electric Power Cooperative, which operates the generation station, to produce power above the current operating limit of 50 average megawatts.

  6. Spitzer and z' secondary eclipse observations of the highly irradiated transiting brown dwarf KELT-1b

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beatty, Thomas G.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Collins, Karen A.; Kielkopf, John F.; Fortney, Jonathan; Knutson, Heather; Bruns, Jacob M.; Showman, Adam P.; Eastman, Jason; Pepper, Joshua; Siverd, Robert J.; Stassun, Keivan G.

    2014-03-10

    We present secondary eclipse observations of the highly irradiated transiting brown dwarf KELT-1b. These observations represent the first constraints on the atmospheric dynamics of a highly irradiated brown dwarf, the atmospheres of irradiated giant planets at high surface gravity, and the atmospheres of brown dwarfs that are dominated by external, rather than internal, energy. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope, we measure secondary eclipse depths of 0.195% ± 0.010% at 3.6 μm and 0.200% ± 0.012% at 4.5 μm. We also find tentative evidence for the secondary eclipse in the z' band with a depth of 0.049% ± 0.023%. These measured eclipse depths are most consistent with an atmosphere model in which there is a strong substellar hotspot, implying that heat redistribution in the atmosphere of KELT-1b is low. While models with a more mild hotspot or even with dayside heat redistribution are only marginally disfavored, models with complete heat redistribution are strongly ruled out. The eclipse depths also prefer an atmosphere with no TiO inversion layer, although a model with TiO inversion is permitted in the dayside heat redistribution case, and we consider the possibility of a day-night TiO cold trap in this object. For the first time, we compare the IRAC colors of brown dwarfs and hot Jupiters as a function of effective temperature. Importantly, our measurements reveal that KELT-1b has a [3.6] – [4.5] color of 0.07 ± 0.11, identical to that of isolated brown dwarfs of similarly high temperature. In contrast, hot Jupiters generally show redder [3.6] – [4.5] colors of ∼0.4, with a very large range from ∼0 to ∼1. Evidently, despite being more similar to hot Jupiters than to isolated brown dwarfs in terms of external forcing of the atmosphere by stellar insolation, KELT-1b appears to have an atmosphere most like that of other brown dwarfs. This suggests that surface gravity is very important in controlling the atmospheric systems of substellar mass bodies.

  7. The oxidation-reduction kinetics of palladium powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munir, Z.A.; Coombs, P.G.

    1983-03-01

    The cyclic oxidation-reduction of submicrometer sized palladium powder was investigated over the temperature range 848 to 923 K. The total oxygen uptake decreased with increasing number of cycles as a consequence of sintering. Sintering was restricted to the reduction steps in these cycles. The relationships for the rate constants of the oxidation and reduction processes are, respectively, (1.04)10/sup 6/ exp(-(74.1)10/sup 3//RT), and (7.63)10/sup 12/ exp(-(207.9)10/sup 3//RT). The activation energies for the oxidation of palladium powder and the reduction of palladium oxide are 74.1 and 207.9 kJ mol/sup -1/, respectively.

  8. A dry powder stump applicator for a feller-buncher.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karsky, Richard, J.; Cram Michelle; Thistle, Harold

    1998-07-11

    Karsky, D., M. Cram, and H. Thistle. 1998. A dry powder borax stump applicator for a feller-buncher. Presented at the 1998 ASAE Annual International Meeting at Colorado Springs Resort, Orlando, Florida, July 11-16, 1998. Paper No. 987023. ASAE, 2950 Niles Road, St. Joseph, MI 49085-9659. Annosum root rot affects conifers throughout the Northern Hemisphere, infecting the roots and eventually killing the trees. An applicator attachment has been developed that mounts to the back of a feller-buncher saw head, that can reduce mortality from Heterobasidion annosum. The attachment applies a borax powder to a stump immediately after the tree has been cut. This document provides information on the design, development and testing of an applicator for applying dry borax on tree stumps at the time of harvesting to reduce future losses due to root rot.

  9. Surface modification of silicon nitride powder with aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, K.R.; Lim, C.S.; Hong, M.J.; Choi, S.K.; Kwon, S.H.

    1996-02-01

    Surface modification of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} with alumina was tried. It was achieved by simply mixing Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} powder with an alumina sol up to {approximately}2 wt% as alumina in an aqueous medium, dried, and followed by calcination at 400 C for 1 h. A TEM micrograph showed a coating layer of {approximately} 15 nm thickness. The isoelectric point of the modified Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} powder with porous alumina was at 0H 7.8, which is different from 5.8 and 8.6 for Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and amorphous alumina, respectively.

  10. Report on Characterization and Processing of MDD Powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luther, Erik Paul

    2012-08-21

    Uranium oxide powers most civilian nuclear reactors worldwide. A large infrastructure based on a well-established technology is in place to support this strategic component of the energy industry. Because uranium oxide fuels are used so ubiquitously, it is expected that ceramic fuel pellets will continue to be used. A better understanding of the properties of the starting materials, the processing methods used to fabricate fuel pellets and how the properties of pellets change in service, are important aspects being studied via experiments, models and simulations. A close integration of these approaches is essential if we are to find new ways to optimize both the fuel composition and structure for the purpose of improving performance, e.g., designed microstructures, reducing process losses, e.g. by net shape sintering, and enabling reprocessing of used fuel; e.g., incorporation of transuranics. Ceramic oxide fuel pellets are typically cold pressed and sintered from a powder feedstock. Consequently, a complete understanding of pellet fabrication requires a thorough knowledge of the process from powder synthesis through quality control and acceptance. In this study, uranium oxide powder synthesized by Modified Direct Denitration (MDD) is evaluated. Use of powders synthesized by novel, simplified approaches such as MDD are both a challenge and an opportunity. The MDD synthesis process offers an opportunity to simplify the fabrication process potentially reducing process losses. MDD also provides a simple path to incorporate transuranics from used fuel reprocessing with minimal handling. The challenge is to demonstrate and ultimately prove the reliability and reproducibility of simplified processing with the performance of fuel pellets experiencing in-pile service. This report summarizes a processing study of uranium oxide pellets made from MDD uranium oxide.

  11. The Advanced Automation for Powder Diffraction toward Industrial Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osaka, Keiichi; Matsumoto, Takuya; Miura, Keiko; Sato, Masugu; Hirosawa, Ichiro; Watanabe, Yoshio

    2010-06-23

    A highly automated system for powder diffraction with synchrotron radiation was installed on the large Debye-Scherrer camera at the BL19B2 Engineering Science Research I beamline of SPring-8. Combined with a sample transfer and an automated centering system, we have succeeded in increasing the ratio of exposure time in the user beam time to 85%. The proposed system can be applied to a wide range of industrial uses.

  12. Mesoporous-silica films, fibers, and powders by evaporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruinsma, Paul J.; Baskaran, Suresh; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Liu, Jun

    1999-01-01

    This invention pertains to surfactant-templated nanometer-scale porosity of a silica precursor solution and forming a mesoporous material by first forming the silica precursor solution into a preform having a high surface area to volume ratio, then rapid drying or evaporating a solvent from the silica precursor solution. The mesoporous material may be in any geometric form, but is preferably in the form of a film, fiber, powder or combinations thereof. The rapid drying or evaporation of solvent from the solution is accomplished by layer thinning, for example spin casting, liquid drawing, and liquid spraying respectively. Production of a film is by layer thinning, wherein a layer of the silica precursor solution is formed on a surface followed by removal of an amount of the silica precursor solution and leaving a geometrically thinner layer of the silica precursor solution from which the solvent quickly escapes via evaporation. Layer thinning may be by any method including but not limited to squeegeeing and/or spin casting. In powder formation by spray drying, the same conditions of fast drying exists as in spin-casting (as well as in fiber spinning) because of the high surface-area to volume ratio of the product. When a powder is produced by liquid spraying, the particles or micro-bubbles within the powder are hollow spheres with walls composed of mesoporous silica. Mesoporous fiber formation starts with a similar silica precursor solution but with an added pre-polymer making a pituitous mixture that is drawn into a thin strand from which solvent is evaporated leaving the mesoporous fiber(s).

  13. Mesoporous-silica films, fibers, and powders by evaporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruinsma, Paul J.; Baskaran, Suresh; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Liu, Jun

    2008-05-06

    This invention pertains to surfactant-templated nanometer-scale porosity of a silica precursor solution and forming a mesoporous material by first forming the silica precursor solution into a preform having a high surface area to volume ratio, then rapid drying or evaporating a solvent from the silica precursor solution. The mesoporous material may be in any geometric form, but is preferably in the form of a film, fiber, powder or combinations thereof. The rapid drying or evaporation of solvent from the solution is accomplished by layer thinning, for example spin casting, liquid drawing, and liquid spraying respectively. Production of a film is by layer thinning, wherein a layer of the silica precursor solution is formed on a surface followed by removal of an amount of the silica precursor solution and leaving a geometrically thinner layer of the silica precursor solution from which the solvent quickly escapes via evaporation. Layer thinning may be by any method including but not limited to squeegeeing and/or spin casting. In powder formation by spray drying, the same conditions of fast drying exists as in spin-casting (as well as in fiber spinning) because of the high surface-area to volume ratio of the product. When a powder is produced by liquid spraying, the particles or micro-bubbles within the powder are hollow spheres with walls composed of mesoporous silica. Mesoporous fiber formation starts with a similar silica precursor solution but with an added pre-polymer making a pituitous mixture that is drawn into a thin strand from which solvent is evaporated leaving the mesoporous fiber(s).

  14. Mesoporous-silica films, fibers, and powders by evaporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruinsma, P.J.; Baskaran, S.; Bontha, J.R.; Liu, J.

    1999-07-13

    This invention pertains to surfactant-templated nanometer-scale porosity of a silica precursor solution and forming a mesoporous material by first forming the silica precursor solution into a preform having a high surface area to volume ratio, then rapid drying or evaporating a solvent from the silica precursor solution. The mesoporous material may be in any geometric form, but is preferably in the form of a film, fiber, powder or combinations thereof. The rapid drying or evaporation of solvent from the solution is accomplished by layer thinning, for example spin casting, liquid drawing, and liquid spraying respectively. Production of a film is by layer thinning, wherein a layer of the silica precursor solution is formed on a surface followed by removal of an amount of the silica precursor solution and leaving a geometrically thinner layer of the silica precursor solution from which the solvent quickly escapes via evaporation. Layer thinning may be by any method including but not limited to squeegeeing and/or spin casting. In powder formation by spray drying, the same conditions of fast drying exists as in spin-casting (as well as in fiber spinning) because of the high surface-area to volume ratio of the product. When a powder is produced by liquid spraying, the particles or micro-bubbles within the powder are hollow spheres with walls composed of mesoporous silica. Mesoporous fiber formation starts with a similar silica precursor solution but with an added pre-polymer making a pituitous mixture that is drawn into a thin strand from which solvent is evaporated leaving the mesoporous fiber(s). 24 figs.

  15. Coating Surfaces with Superhydrophobic Powder - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind Energy Wind Energy Startup America Startup America Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Hydropower, Wave and Tidal Hydropower, Wave and Tidal Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Coating Surfaces with Superhydrophobic Powder Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication UT-B ID 200601697 5 3 12.pdf (338 KB) Technology Marketing SummaryResearchers at ORNL have developed a method of

  16. Fuel Additives: Canada bans MMT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sissell, K.

    1997-04-16

    The Canadian Senate voted late last week to ban use of the manganese-based fuel additive MMT, produced only in the US by Ethyl. MMT, which has been sold in Canada for the past 20 years and accounts for about half of Ethyl`s Canadian sales, has been criticized by environmentalists, who have raised public health concerns, and automakers, who say it harms emission control systems. {open_quotes}Canada`s vote is a great victory for public health and the environment,{close_quotes} says Environmental Defense Fund executive director Fred Krupp. {open_quotes}The US should move swiftly to follow suit and suspend sales of MMT until adequate toxicity testing on the additive is completed.{close_quotes} EPA had refused to approve MMT for sale because of health concerns but was compelled to do so by a December 1995 court ruling. Ethyl asserts the ban violates Canada`s obligations under Nafta and says it will file a damage claim with the Nafta arbitration panel.

  17. Titanium Sheet Fabricated from Powder for Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter, William H; Muth, Thomas R; Chen, Wei; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Jolly, Brian C; Stone, Nigel; Cantin, G.M.D.; Barnes, John; Paliwal, Muktesh; Smith, Ryan; Capone, Joseph; Liby, Alan L; Williams, James C; Blue, Craig A

    2012-01-01

    In collaboration with Ametek and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Oak Ridge National Laboratory has evaluated three different methods for converting titanium hydride-dehydride (HDH) powder into thin gauge titanium sheet from a roll compacted preform. Methodologies include sintering, followed by cold rolling and annealing; direct hot rolling of the roll-compacted sheet; and hot rolling of multiple layers of roll compacted sheet that are encapsulated in a steel can. All three methods have demonstrated fully consolidated sheet, and each process route has the ability to produce sheet that meets ASTM B265 specifications. However, not every method currently provides sheet that can be highly formed without tearing. The degree of sintering between powder particles, post processing density, and the particle to particle boundary layer where compositional variations may exist, have a significant effect on the ability to form the sheet into useful components. Uniaxial tensile test results, compositional analysis, bend testing, and biaxial testing of the titanium sheet produced from hydride-dehydride powder will be discussed. Multiple methods of fabrication and the resulting properties can then be assessed to determine the most economical means of making components for industrial applications.

  18. Supercritical fluid molecular spray film deposition and powder formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Richard D.

    1986-01-01

    Solid films are deposited, or fine powders formed, by dissolving a solid material into a supercritical fluid solution at an elevated pressure and then rapidly expanding the solution through a short orifice into a region of relatively low pressure. This produces a molecular spray which is directed against a substrate to deposit a solid thin film thereon, or discharged into a collection chamber to collect a fine powder. Upon expansion and supersonic interaction with background gases in the low pressure region, any clusters of solvent are broken up and the solvent is vaporized and pumped away. Solute concentration in the solution is varied primarily by varying solution pressure to determine, together with flow rate, the rate of deposition and to control in part whether a film or powder is produced and the granularity of each. Solvent clustering and solute nucleation are controlled by manipulating the rate of expansion of the solution and the pressure of the lower pressure region. Solution and low pressure region temperatures are also controlled.

  19. Sol-spray preparation, particulate characteristics, and sintering of alumina powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varma, H.K.; Mani, T.V.; Damodaran, A.D.; Warrier, K.G.K.; Balachandran, U.

    1993-07-01

    Fine alumina powders of spherical morphology and narrow particle-size distribution have been synthesized by a technique that uses precipitation/peptization/spray drying of boehmite sol prepared from aluminum nitrate. The spray-dried powder was further washed with solvents of varying polarities, such as acetone, isopropanol, and tert-butanol. This post-spray-drying treatment changed the powder`s particle-size distribution, morphology, density, and compaction characteristics. Microstructure, dielectric properties, and effect of post-treatment on the boehmite-sol-derived alumina powders in reducing agglomeration are discussed.

  20. Thermal analysis of pentaerythritol tetranitrate and development of a powder aging model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Geoffrey W; Sandstrom, Mary M; Giambra, Anna M; Archuleta, Jose G; Monroe, Deirde C

    2009-01-01

    We have applied a range of different physical and thermal analysis techniques to characterize the thermal evolution of the specific surface area of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) powders. Using atomic force microscopy we have determined that the mass transfer mechanism leading to powder coarsening is probably sublimation and redeposition of PETN. Using thermogravimetric analysis we have measured vapor pressures of PETN powders whose aging will be simulated in future work. For one specific powder we have constructed an empirical model of the coarsening that is fit to specific surface area measurements at 60 C to 70 C to provide predictive capability of that powder's aging. Modulated differential scanning calorimetry and mass spectroscopy measurements highlight some of the thermal behavior of the powders and suggest that homologue-based eutectics and impurities are localized in the powder particles.

  1. The Wyodak-Anderson coal assessment, Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana -- An ArcView project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flores, R.M.; Gunther, G.; Ochs, A.; Ellis, M.E.; Stricker, G.D.; Bader, L.R.

    1998-12-31

    In 1997, more than 305 million short tons of clean and compliant coal were produced from the Wyodak-Anderson and associated coal beds and zones of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana. To date, all coal produced from the Wyodak-Anderson, which averages 0.47 percent sulfur and 6.44 percent ash, has met regulatory compliance standards. Twenty-eight percent of the total US coal production in 1997 was from the Wyodak-Anderson coal. Based on the current consumption rates and forecast by the Energy Information Administration (1996), the Wyodak-Anderson coal is projected to produce 413 million short tons by the year 2016. In addition, this coal deposit as well as other Fort Union coals have recently been targeted for exploration and development of methane gas. New US Geological Survey (USGS) digital products could provide valuable assistance in future mining and gas development in the Powder River Basin. An interactive format, with querying tools, using ArcView software will display the digital products of the resource assessment of Wyodak-Anderson coal, a part of the USGS National Coal Resource Assessment of the Powder River Basin. This ArcView project includes coverages of the data point distribution; land use; surface and subsurface ownerships; coal geology, stratigraphy, quality and geochemistry; and preliminary coal resource calculations. These coverages are displayed as map views, cross sections, tables, and charts.

  2. An electrochemical cell for in operando studies of lithium/sodium batteries using a conventional x-ray powder diffractometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Yanbin; Pedersen, Erik E.; Christensen, Mogens; Iversen, Bo B.

    2014-10-15

    An electrochemical cell has been designed for powder X-ray diffraction studies of lithium ion batteries (LIB) and sodium ion batteries (SIB) in operando with high time resolution using a conventional powder X-ray diffractometer. The cell allows for studies of both anode and cathode electrode materials in reflection mode. The cell design closely mimics that of standard battery testing coin cells and allows obtaining powder X-ray diffraction patterns under representative electrochemical conditions. In addition, the cell uses graphite as the X-ray window instead of beryllium, and it is easy to operate and maintain. Test examples on lithium insertion/extraction in two spinel-type LIB electrode materials (Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anode and LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode) are presented as well as first results on sodium extraction from a layered SIB cathode material (Na{sub 0.84}Fe{sub 0.56}Mn{sub 0.44}O{sub 2})

  3. Martensitic transformation behaviors of rapidly solidified TiNiMo powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Yeon-wook

    2012-10-15

    For the fabrication of bulk near-net-shape shape memory alloys and porous metallic biomaterials, consolidation of TiNiMo alloy powders is more useful than that of elemental powders of Ti, Ni and Mo. Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 49.9}Mo{sub 0.1} shape memory alloy powders were prepared by gas atomization, and transformation temperatures and microstructures of those powders were investigated as a function of powder size. XRD analysis showed that the B2RB19 martensitic transformation occurred in powders smaller than 150 ?m. According to DSC analysis of the as-atomized powders, the B2R transformation temperature (T{sub R}) of the 2550 ?m powders was 18.4 C. The T{sub R} decreased with increasing powder size, however, the difference in T{sub R} between 2550 ?m powders and 100150 ?m powders is only 1 C. Evaluation of powder microstructures was based on SEM examination of the surface and the polished and etched powder cross sections and the typical images of the rapidly solidified powders showed cellular morphology. Porous cylindrical foams of 10 mm diameter and 1.5 mm length were fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) at 800 C and 5 MPa. Finally these porous TiNi alloy samples are heat-treated for 1 h at 850 C, and then quenched in ice water. The bulk samples have 23% porosity and 4.6 g/cm{sup 3} density and their T{sub R} is 17.8 C.

  4. Develop & evaluate materials & additives that enhance thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Additives that Enhance Thermal and Overcharge Abuse Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives Advanced Electrolyte Additives for PHEVEV Lithium-ion Battery

  5. Recommendation 212: Evaluate additional storage and disposal...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2: Evaluate additional storage and disposal options Recommendation 212: Evaluate additional storage and disposal options The ORSSAB encourages DOE to evaluate additional storage...

  6. LONG-TERM DEMONSTRATION OF SORBENT ENHANCEMENT ADDITIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR MERCURY CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason D. Laumb; Dennis L. Laudal; Grant E. Dunham; John P. Kay; Christopher L. Martin; Jeffrey S. Thompson; Nicholas B. Lentz; Alexander Azenkeng; Kevin C. Galbreath; Lucinda L. Hamre

    2011-05-27

    Long-term demonstration tests of advanced sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) technologies have been completed at five coal-fired power plants. The targeted removal rate was 90% from baseline conditions at all five stations. The plants included Hawthorn Unit 5, Mill Creek Unit 4, San Miguel Unit 1, Centralia Unit 2, and Hoot Lake Unit 2. The materials tested included powdered activated carbon, treated carbon, scrubber additives, and SEAs. In only one case (San Miguel) was >90% removal not attainable. The reemission of mercury from the scrubber at this facility prevented >90% capture.

  7. An investigation on the influence of milling time and calcination temperature on the characterization of nano cerium oxide powder synthesized by mechanochemical route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aminzare, M.; Amoozegar, Z.; Sadrnezhaad, S.K.

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ? Synthesis of nanosized CeO{sub 2} was carried out using mechanochemical reactions plus sequential calcinations procedure. ? The effect of milling time and calcinations procedure on crystallite size and surface area of the as-synthesized powders was investigated. ? The extended milling times were exposed to result in the smaller crystallite size, and hence higher surface area for the as-synthesized powder. ? Higher calcinations temperatures, on the other hand, led to the as-synthesized powder with a larger crystallite size and therefore, lower surface area. ? Activation energy for nanocrystallite growth was calculated during the calcinations procedure and the aforementioned crystallite growth was found to be conducted in the light of interfacial reactions. -- Abstract: The synthesis of nano-sized CeO{sub 2} powder was investigated via mechanochemical reactions between hydrate cerium chloride and sodium hydroxide as the starting materials. The process was followed by a subsequent calcination procedure. Characterization of as-synthesized powder was performed using X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, BrunnerEmmettTeller (BET) nitrogen gas absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and particle size analyzer (PSA). The precursors were milled for different milling times and then were subjected to different heat treatment procedure at variable temperatures from 100 to 700 C. According to the results, milling time and calcination temperatures induce paramountal effects on crystallite size and surface area of as-synthesized powders. In addition, the average activation energy for the growth of nanocrystals during calcination was determined to be about 12.53 kJ/mol, suggesting the influence of interfacial reactions on the crystallite growth during the calcination procedure.

  8. Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives Develop & evaluate materials & additives that enhance thermal & overcharge abuse ...

  9. Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Development of Advanced Electrolytes and Electrolyte Additives Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives Develop & evaluate ...

  10. Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives Develop & Evaluate ...

  11. Recommendation 223: Recommendations on Additional Waste Disposal...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    3: Recommendations on Additional Waste Disposal Capacity Recommendation 223: Recommendations on Additional Waste Disposal Capacity ORSSAB's recommendations encourage DOE to...

  12. Palynostratigraphy of the Erkovtsy field of brown coal (the Zeya-Bureya sedimentary basin)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kezina, T.V.; Litvinenko, N.D.

    2007-08-15

    The Erkovtsy brown coal field in the northwestern Zeya-Bureya sedimentary basin (129-130{sup o}E, 46-47{sup o}N) is structurally confined to southern flank of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Belogor'e depression. The verified stratigraphic scheme of the coalfield sedimentary sequence is substantiated by palynological data on core samples from 18 boreholes sampled in the course of detailed prospecting and by paleobotanical analysis of sections in the Yuzhnyi sector of the coalfield (data of 1998 by M.A. Akhmetiev and S.P. Manchester). Sections of the Erkovtsy, Arkhara-Boguchan, and Raichikha brown-coal mines are correlated. Stratigraphic subdivisions distinguished in the studied sedimentary succession are the middle and upper Tsagayan subformations (the latter incorporating the Kivda Beds), Raichikha, Mukhino, Buzuli, and Sazanka formations.

  13. Hot Superplastic Powder Forging for Transparent nanocrystalline Ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cannon, W. Roger

    2006-05-22

    The program explored a completely new, economical method of manufacturing nanocrystalline ceramics, Hot Superplastic Powder Forging (HSPF). The goal of the work was the development of nanocrystalline/low porosity optically transparent zirconia/alumina. The high optical transparency should result from lack of grain boundary scattering since grains will be smaller than one tenth the wavelength of light and from elimination of porosity. An important technological potential for this process is manufacturing of envelopes for high-pressure sodium vapor lamps. The technique for fabricating monolithic nanocrystalline material does not begin with powder whose particle diameter is <100 nm as is commonly done. Instead it begins with powder whose particle diameter is on the order of 10-100 microns but contains nanocrystalline crystallites <<100 nm. Spherical particles are quenched from a melt and heat treated to achieve the desired microstructure. Under a moderate pressure within a die or a mold at temperatures of 1100C to 1300C densification is by plastic flow of superplastic particles. A nanocrystalline microstructure results, though some features are greater than 100nm. It was found, for instance, that in the fully dense Al2O3-ZrO2 eutectic specimens that a bicontinuous microstructure exists containing <100 nm ZrO2 particles in a matrix of Al2O3 grains extending over 1-2 microns. Crystallization, growth, phase development and creep during hot pressing and forging were studied for several compositions and so provided some details on development of polycrystalline microstructure from heating quenched ceramics.

  14. Production of films and powders for semiconductor device applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu Nath; Noufi, Rommel; Wang, Li

    1998-01-01

    A process for chemical bath deposition of selenide and sulfide salts as films and powders employable as precursors for the fabrication of solar cell devices. The films and powders include (1) Cu.sub.x Se.sub.n, wherein x=1-2 and n=1-3; (2) Cu.sub.x Ga.sub.y Se.sub.n, wherein x=1-2, y=0-1 and n=1-3; (3) Cu.sub.x In.sub.y Se.sub.n, wherein x=1-2.27, y=0.72-2 and n=1-3; (4) Cu.sub.x (InGa).sub.y Se.sub.n, wherein x=1-2.17, y=0.96-2 and n=1-3; (5) In.sub.y Se.sub.n, wherein y=1-2.3 and n=1-3; (6) Cu.sub.x S.sub.n, wherein x=1-2 and n=1-3; and (7) Cu.sub.x (InGa).sub.y (SeS).sub.n, wherein x=1-2, y=0.07-2 and n=0.663-3. A reaction vessel containing therein a substrate upon which will form one or more layers of semiconductor material is provided, and relevant solution mixtures are introduced in a sufficient quantity for a sufficient time and under favorable conditions into the vessel to react with each other to produce the resultant salt being prepared and deposited as one or more layers on the substrate and as a powder on the floor of the vessel. Hydrazine is present during all reaction processes producing non-gallium containing products and optionally present during reaction processes producing gallium-containing products to function as a strong reducing agent and thereby enhance reaction processes.

  15. Production of films and powders for semiconductor device applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, R.N.; Noufi, R.; Li Wang

    1998-03-24

    A process is described for chemical bath deposition of selenide and sulfide salts as films and powders employable as precursors for the fabrication of solar cell devices. The films and powders include (1) Cu{sub x}Se{sub n}, wherein x=1--2 and n=1--3; (2) Cu{sub x}Ga{sub y}Se{sub n}, wherein x=1--2, y=0--1 and n=1--3; (3) Cu{sub x}In{sub y}Se{sub n}, wherein x=1--2.27, y=0.72--2 and n=1--3; (4) Cu{sub x}(InGa){sub y}Se{sub n}, wherein x=1--2.17, y=0.96--2 and n=1--3; (5) In{sub y}Se{sub n}, wherein y=1--2.3 and n=1--3; (6) Cu{sub x}S{sub n}, wherein x=1--2 and n=1--3; and (7) Cu{sub x}(InGa){sub y}(SeS){sub n}, wherein x=1--2, y=0.07--2 and n=0.663--3. A reaction vessel containing therein a substrate upon which will form one or more layers of semiconductor material is provided, and relevant solution mixtures are introduced in a sufficient quantity for a sufficient time and under favorable conditions into the vessel to react with each other to produce the resultant salt being prepared and deposited as one or more layers on the substrate and as a powder on the floor of the vessel. Hydrazine is present during all reaction processes producing non-gallium containing products and optionally present during reaction processes producing gallium-containing products to function as a strong reducing agent and thereby enhance reaction processes. 4 figs.

  16. Structural studies of magnesium nitride fluorides by powder neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brogan, Michael A.; Hughes, Robert W.; Smith, Ronald I.; Gregory, Duncan H.

    2012-01-15

    Samples of ternary nitride fluorides, Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} and Mg{sub 2}NF have been prepared by solid state reaction of Mg{sub 3}N{sub 2} and MgF{sub 2} at 1323-1423 K and investigated by powder X-ray and powder neutron diffraction techniques. Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} is cubic (space group: Pm3m) and has a structure related to rock-salt MgO, but with one cation site vacant. Mg{sub 2}NF is tetragonal (space group: I4{sub 1}/amd) and has an anti-LiFeO{sub 2} related structure. Both compounds are essentially ionic and form structures in which nitride and fluoride anions are crystallographically ordered. The nitride fluorides show temperature independent paramagnetic behaviour between 5 and 300 K. - Graphical abstract: Definitive structures of the ternary magnesium nitride fluorides Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} and the lower temperature polymorph of Mg{sub 2}NF have been determined from powder neutron diffraction data. The nitride halides are essentially ionic and exhibit weak temperature independent paramagnetic behaviour. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Definitive structures of Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} and Mg{sub 2}NF were determined by neutron diffraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitride and fluoride anions are crystallographically ordered in both structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both compounds exhibit weak, temperature independent paramagnetic behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The compounds are essentially ionic with ionicity increasing with F{sup -} content.

  17. ECCENTRIC ROLLING OF POWDER AND BONDING AGENT INTO SPHERICAL PELLETS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patton, G. Jr.; Zirinsky, S.

    1961-06-01

    A machine is described for pelletizing powder and bonding agent into spherical pellets of high density and uniform size. In this device, the material to be compacted is added to a flat circular pan which is moved in a circular orbit in a horizontal plane about an axis displaced from that of the pan's central axis without rotating the pan about its central axis. This movement causes the material contained therein to roll around the outside wall of the container and build up pellets of uniform shape, size, and density.

  18. New coal dewatering technology turns sludge to powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-03-15

    Virginian Tech's College of Engineering's Roe-Hoan Yoon and his group have developed a hyperbaric centrifuge that can dewater coal as fine as talcum powder. Such coal fines presently must be discarded by even the most advanced coal cleaning plants because of their high moisture content. The new technology can be used with the Microcel technology to remove ash, to re-mine the fine coal discarded to impoundments and to help minimize waste generation. Virginia Tech has received $1 million in funding from the US Department of State to also help the Indian coal industry produce a cleaner product. 1 photo.

  19. Bulk synthesis of nanoporous palladium and platinum powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, David B; Fares, Stephen J; Tran, Kim L; Langham, Mary E

    2014-04-15

    Disclosed is a method for providing nanoporous palladium and platinum powders. These materials were synthesized on milligram to gram scales by chemical reduction of tetrahalo-complexes with ascorbate in a concentrated aqueous surfactant at temperatures between -20.degree. C. and 30.degree. C. The prepared particles have diameters of approximately 50 nm, wherein each particle is perforated by pores having diameters of approximately 3 nm, as determined by electron tomography. These materials are of potential value for hydrogen and electrical charge storage applications.

  20. Bulk synthesis of nanoporous palladium and platinum powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, David B.; Fares, Stephen J.; Tran, Kim L.; Langham, Mary E.

    2012-04-17

    Disclosed is a method for providing nanoporous palladium and platinum powders. These materials were synthesized on milligram to gram scales by chemical reduction of tetrahalo-complexes with ascorbate in a concentrated aqueous surfactant at temperatures between -20.degree. C. and 30.degree. C. The prepared particles have diameters of approximately 50 nm, wherein each particle is perforated by pores having diameters of approximately 3 nm, as determined by electron tomography. These materials are of potential value for hydrogen and electrical charge storage applications.

  1. Dr. Benjamin L. Brown | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Benjamin L. Brown Deputy Director for Science Programs Deputy Director Home Mission & Functions Deputy Director Biography Organization Staff Presentations & Testimony Federal Advisory Committees Committees of Visitors Contact Information Deputy Director for Science Programs U.S. Department of Energy SC-2/Forrestal Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (202) 586-5430 F: (202) 586-4120 E: Email Us U.S. Department of Energy SC-2/Germantown Building 1000 Independence

  2. Methane, carbon monoxide, and ammonia in brown dwarfs and self-luminous giant planets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zahnle, Kevin J.; Marley, Mark S. E-mail: Mark.S.Marley@NASA.gov

    2014-12-10

    We address disequilibrium abundances of some simple molecules in the atmospheres of solar composition brown dwarfs and self-luminous extrasolar giant planets using a kinetics-based one-dimensional atmospheric chemistry model. Our approach is to use the full kinetics model to survey the parameter space with effective temperatures between 500 K and 1100 K. In all of these worlds, equilibrium chemistry favors CH{sub 4} over CO in the parts of the atmosphere that can be seen from Earth, but in most disequilibrium favors CO. The small surface gravity of a planet strongly discriminates against CH{sub 4} when compared to an otherwise comparable brown dwarf. If vertical mixing is like Jupiter's, the transition from methane to CO occurs at 500 K in a planet. Sluggish vertical mixing can raise this to 600 K, but clouds or more vigorous vertical mixing could lower this to 400 K. The comparable thresholds in brown dwarfs are 1100 100 K. Ammonia is also sensitive to gravity, but, unlike CH{sub 4}/CO, the NH{sub 3}/N{sub 2} ratio is insensitive to mixing, which makes NH{sub 3} a potential proxy for gravity. HCN may become interesting in high-gravity brown dwarfs with very strong vertical mixing. Detailed analysis of the CO-CH{sub 4} reaction network reveals that the bottleneck to CO hydrogenation goes through methanol, in partial agreement with previous work. Simple, easy to use quenching relations are derived by fitting to the complete chemistry of the full ensemble of models. These relations are valid for determining CO, CH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3}, HCN, and CO{sub 2} abundances in the range of self-luminous worlds we have studied, but may not apply if atmospheres are strongly heated at high altitudes by processes not considered here (e.g., wave breaking).

  3. Developments in Die Pressing Strategies for Low-Cost Titanium Powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hovanski, Yuri; Weil, K. Scott; Lavender, Curt A.

    2009-05-01

    Recent developments in the production of low-cost titanium powders have rejuvenated interest in manufacturing titanium powder metallurgy components by direct press and sinter techniques. However excessive friction typically observed during titanium powder pressing operations leads to numerous problems ranging from non-homogeneous green densities of the compacted powder to excessive part ejection forces and reduced die life due to wear and galling. An instrumented double-acting die press was developed to both investigate the mechanics of titanium powder pressing (particularly for the new low-cost powder morphologies) and to screen potential lubricants that could reduce frictional effects. As will be discussed, the instrument was used to determine friction coefficients and to evaluate a number of candidate lubricants. These results were then used to optimize the lubricant system to reduce die-wall stresses and improve part density uniformity.

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Latest Additions

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Publications » Latest Additions Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Latest Additions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Latest Additions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Latest Additions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Latest Additions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Latest Additions on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Latest Additions on Digg Find More

  5. Method for removing oxide contamination from silicon carbide powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brynestad, J.; Bamberger, C.E.

    1984-08-01

    The described invention is directed to a method for removing oxide contamination in the form of oxygen-containing compounds such as SiO/sub 2/ and B/sub 2/O/sub 3/ from a charge of finely divided silicon carbide. The silicon carbide charge is contacted with a stream of hydrogen fluoride mixed with an inert gas carrier such as argon at a temperature in the range of about 200/sup 0/ to 650/sup 0/C. The oxides in the charge react with the heated hydrogen fluoride to form volatile gaseous fluorides such as SiF/sub 4/ and BF/sub 3/ which pass through the charge along with unreacted hydrogen fluoride and the carrier gas. Any residual gaseous reaction products and hydrogen fluoride remaining in the charge are removed by contacting the charge with the stream of inert gas which also cools the powder to room temperature. The removal of the oxygen contamination by practicing the present method provides silicon carbide powders with desirable pressing and sintering characteristics. 1 tab.

  6. Double helix boron-10 powder thermal neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhehui; Morris, Christopher L.; Bacon, Jeffrey D.

    2015-06-02

    A double-helix Boron-10 powder detector having intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency comparable to 36'' long, 2-in diameter, 2-bar Helium-3 detectors, and which can be used to replace such detectors for use in portal monitoring, is described. An embodiment of the detector includes a metallic plate coated with Boron-10 powder for generating alpha and Lithium-7 particles responsive to neutrons impinging thereon supported by insulators affixed to at least two opposing edges; a grounded first wire wound in a helical manner around two opposing insulators; and a second wire having a smaller diameter than that of the first wire, wound in a helical manner around the same insulators and spaced apart from the first wire, the second wire being positively biased. A gas, disposed within a gas-tight container enclosing the plate, insulators and wires, and capable of stopping alpha and Lithium-7 particles and generating electrons produces a signal on the second wire which is detected and subsequently related to the number of neutrons impinging on the plate.

  7. Powder metallurgy processing and deformation characteristics of bulk multimodal nickel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farbaniec, L.; Dirras, G.; Krawczynska, A.; Mompiou, F.; Couque, H.; Naimi, F.; Bernard, F.; Tingaud, D.

    2014-08-15

    Spark plasma sintering was used to process bulk nickel samples from a blend of three powder types. The resulting multimodal microstructure was made of coarse (average size ? 135 ?m) spherical microcrystalline entities (the core) surrounded by a fine-grained matrix (average grain size ? 1.5 ?m) or a thick rim (the shell) distinguishable from the matrix. Tensile tests revealed yield strength of ? 470 MPa that was accompanied by limited ductility (? 2.8% plastic strain). Microstructure observation after testing showed debonding at interfaces between the matrix and the coarse entities, but in many instances, shallow dimples within the rim were observed indicating local ductile events in the shell. Dislocation emission and annihilation at grain boundaries and twinning at crack tip were the main deformation mechanisms taking place within the fine-grained matrix as revealed by in-situ transmission electron microscopy. Estimation of the stress from loop's curvature and dislocation pile-up indicates that dislocation emission from grain boundaries and grain boundary overcoming largely contributes to the flow stress. - Highlights: Bulk multi-modal Ni was processed by SPS from a powder blend. Ultrafine-grained matrix or rim observed around spherical microcrystalline entities Yield strength (470 MPa) and ductility (2.8% plastic strain) were measured. Debonding was found at the matrix/microcrystalline entity interfaces. In-situ TEM showed twinning, dislocation emission and annihilation at grain boundaries.

  8. GRADIENT INDEX SPHERES BY THE SEQUENTIAL ACCRETION OF GLASS POWDERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MARIANO VELEZ

    2008-06-15

    The Department of Energy is seeking a method for fabricating mm-scale spheres having a refractive index that varies smoothly and continuously from the center to its surface [1]. The fabrication procedure must allow the creation of a range of index profiles. The spheres are to be optically transparent and have a refractive index differential greater than 0.2. The sphere materials can be either organic or inorganic and the fabrication technique must be capable of scaling to low cost production. Mo-Sci Corporation proposed to develop optical quality gradient refractive index (GRIN) glass spheres of millimeter scale (1 to 2 mm diameter) by the sequential accretion and consolidation of glass powders. Other techniques were also tested to make GRIN spheres as the powder-accretion method produced non-concentric layers and poor optical quality glass spheres. Potential ways to make the GRIN spheres were (1) by "coating" glass spheres (1 to 2 mm diameter) with molten glass in a two step process; and (2) by coating glass spheres with polymer layers.

  9. Strain and particle size of palladium powders by time-of-flight neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawson, A.C.; Conant, J.W.; Talcott, C.L.; David, M.A.; Vaninetti, J.; Goldstone, J.A.; Williams, A.; Von Dreele, R.B.; Roof, R.B.; Hitterman, R.L.; Richardson, J.W. Jr.; Faber, J. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    We have determined the strain and particle size for several samples of palladium powder by time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction on two different diffractometers and by x-ray powder diffraction. The results are compared and found to be in fair agreement. The time-of-flight method gives good enough precision to reveal deficiencies in the simple models used for strain and particle size line broadening. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Method of preparing a powdered, electrically insulative separator for use in an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, Tom O.; Miller, William E.

    1978-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell includes electrodes separated by a layer of electrically insulative powder. The powder includes refractory materials selected from the oxides and nitrides of metals and metaloids. The powdered refractory material, blended with electrolyte particles, is compacted as layers onto an electrode to form an integral electrode structure and assembled into the cell. The assembled cell is heated to its operating temperature leaving porous layers of electrically insulative, refractory particles, containing molten electrolyte between the electrodes.

  11. Production and Characterization of Atomized U-Mo Powder by the Rotating Electrode Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.R. Clark; B.R. Muntifering; J.F. Jue

    2007-09-01

    In order to produce feedstock fuel powder for irradiation testing, the Idaho National Laboratory has produced a rotating electrode type atomizer to fabricate uranium-molybdenum alloy fuel. Operating with the appropriate parameters, this laboratory-scale atomizer produces fuel in the desired size range for the RERTR dispersion experiments. Analysis of the powder shows a homogenous, rapidly solidified microstructure with fine equiaxed grains. This powder has been used to produce irradiation experiments to further test adjusted matrix U-Mo dispersion fuel.

  12. Metal oxide superconducting powder comprised of flake-like single crystal particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Capone, Donald W.; Dusek, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    Powder of a ceramic superconducting material is synthesized such that each particle of the powder is a single crystal having a flake-like, nonsymmetric morphology such that the c-axis is aligned parallel to the short dimension of the flake. Nonflake powder is synthesized by the normal methods and is pressed into pellets or other shapes and fired for excessive times to produce a coarse grained structure. The fired products are then crushed and ground producing the flake-like powder particles which exhibit superconducting characteristics when aligned with the crystal lattice.

  13. Metal oxide superconducting powder comprised of flake-like single crystal particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Capone, D.W.; Dusek, J.

    1994-10-18

    Powder of a ceramic superconducting material is synthesized such that each particle of the powder is a single crystal having a flake-like, nonsymmetric morphology such that the c-axis is aligned parallel to the short dimension of the flake. Nonflake powder is synthesized by the normal methods and is pressed into pellets or other shapes and fired for excessive times to produce a coarse grained structure. The fired products are then crushed and ground producing the flake-like powder particles which exhibit superconducting characteristics when aligned with the crystal lattice. 3 figs.

  14. Characterization of novel sorghum brown midrib mutants from an EMS-mutagenized population

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sattler, Scott E.; Saballos, Ana; Xin, Zhanguo; Funnell-Harris, Deanna L.; Vermerris, Wilfred; Pedersen, Jeffrey F.

    2014-09-02

    Reducing lignin concentration in lignocellulosic biomass can increase forage digestibility for ruminant livestock and saccharification yields of biomass for bioenergy. In sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and several other C4 grasses, brown midrib (bmr) mutants have been shown to reduce lignin concentration. Putative bmr mutants isolated from an EMS-mutagenized population were characterized and classified based on their leaf midrib phenotype and allelism tests with the previously described sorghum bmr mutants bmr2, bmr6, and bmr12. These tests resulted in the identification of additional alleles of bmr2, bmr6,and bmr12, and, in addition, six bmr mutants were identified that were not allelic to these previously described loci. Further allelism testing among these six bmr mutants showed that they represented four novel bmr loci. Based on this study, the number of bmr loci uncovered in sorghum has doubled. The impact of these lines on agronomic traits and lignocellulosic composition was assessed in a 2-yr field study. Most of the identified bmr lines showed reduced lignin concentration of their biomass relative to wild-type (WT). Effects of the six new bmr mutants on enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic materials were determined, but the amount of glucose released from the stover was similar to WT in all cases. Like bmr2, bmr6, and bmr12, these mutants may affect monolignol biosynthesis and may be useful for bioenergy and forage improvement when stacked together or in combination with the three previously described bmr alleles.

  15. Additive Manufacturing: Pursuing the Promise | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fact sheet overviewing additive manufacturing techniques that are projected to exert a profound impact on manufacturing. Additive Manufacturing: Pursuing the Promise More Documents...

  16. Advanced Qualification of Additive Manufacturing Materials Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Qualification of Additive Manufacturing Materials Workshop Advanced Qualification of Additive Manufacturing Materials Workshop WHEN: Jul 20, 2015 8:30 AM - Jul 21, 2015...

  17. Development of Advanced Electrolytes and Electrolyte Additives...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrolytes and Electrolyte Additives Development of Advanced Electrolytes and Electrolyte Additives 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and ...

  18. Develop & Evaluate Materials & Additives that Enhance Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluate Materials & Additives that Enhance Thermal & Overcharge Abuse Develop & Evaluate Materials & Additives that Enhance Thermal & Overcharge Abuse 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel ...

  19. Directives Requiring Additional Documentation - DOE Directives,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Delegations, and Requirements Requiring Additional Documentation by Website Administrator PDF document icon DirectivesRequiringAdditionalDocumentation (1).pdf - PDF document, 35 KB (36219

  20. Dual Functional Cathode Additives for Battery Technologies -...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Return to Search Dual Functional Cathode Additives for Battery Technologies Brookhaven ... activation of the cell of a lithium battery having a primary metal sulfide additive ...

  1. Additional Guidance Regarding Application of Current Procedures...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Additional Guidance Regarding Application of Current Procedures for Testing Energy Consumption of Clothes Washers with Warm Rinse Cycles, Issued: June 30, 2010 Additional Guidance...

  2. Advanced Qualification of Additive Manufacturing Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Additive Manufacturing Workshop Poster Abstract Submission - deadline July 10, 2015 Advanced Qualification of Additive Manufacturing Materials using in situ sensors, diagnostics...

  3. Room-temperature ferromagnetism in cerium dioxide powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rakhmatullin, R. M. Pavlov, V. V.; Semashko, V. V.; Korableva, S. L.

    2015-08-15

    Room-temperature ferromagnetism is detected in a CeO{sub 2} powder with a grain size of about 35 nm and a low (<0.1 at %) manganese and iron content. The ferromagnetism in a CeO{sub 2} sample with a submicron crystallite size and the same manganese and iron impurity content is lower than in the nanocrystalline sample by an order of magnitude. Apart from ferromagnetism, both samples exhibit EPR spectra of localized paramagnetic centers, the concentration of which is lower than 0.01 at %. A comparative analysis of these results shows that the F-center exchange (FCE) mechanism cannot cause ferromagnetism. This conclusion agrees with the charge-transfer ferromagnetism model proposed recently.

  4. Manufacture of SOFC electrodes by wet powder spraying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkenhoener, R.; Mallener, W.; Buchkremer, H.P.

    1996-12-31

    The reproducible and commercial manufacturing of electrodes with enhanced electrochemical performance is of central importance for a successful technical realization of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) systems. The route of electrode fabrication for the SOFC by Wet Powder Spraying (WPS) is presented. Stabilized suspensions of the powder materials for the electrodes were sprayed onto a substrate by employing a spray gun. After drying of the layers, binder removal and sintering are performed in one step. The major advantage of this process is its applicability for a large variety of materials and its flexibility with regard to layer shape and thickness. Above all, flat or curved substrates of any size can be coated, thus opening up the possibility of {open_quotes}up-scaling{close_quotes} SOFC technology. Electrodes with an enhanced electrochemical performance were developed by gradually optimizing the different process steps. For example an optimized SOFC cathode of the composition La{sub 0.65}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} with 40% 8YSZ showed a mean overpotential of about -50 mV at a current density of -0.8 A/cm{sup 2}, with a standard deviation amounting to 16 mV (950{degrees}C, air). Such optimized electrodes can be manufactured with a high degree of reproducibility, as a result of employing a computer-controlled X-Y system for moving the spray gun. Several hundred sintered composites, comprising the substrate anode and the electrolyte, of 100x 100 mm{sup 2} were coated with the cathode by WPS and used for stack integration. The largest manufactured electrodes were 240x240 mm{sup 2}, and data concerning their thickness homogeneity and electrochemical performance are given.

  5. Preparation of lead-zirconium-titanium film and powder by electrodeposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, R.N.; Ginley, D.S.

    1995-10-31

    A process is disclosed for the preparation of lead-zirconium-titanium (PZT) film and powder compositions. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath, providing soluble salts of lead, zirconium and titanium metals to this bath, electrically energizing the bath to thereby direct ions of each respective metal to a substrate electrode and cause formation of metallic particles as a recoverable film of PZT powder on the electrode, and also recovering the resultant film as a powder. Recovery of the PZT powder can be accomplished by continually energizing the bath to thereby cause powder initially deposited on the substrate-electrode to drop therefrom into the bath from which it is subsequently removed. A second recovery alternative comprises energizing the bath for a period of time sufficient to cause PZT powder deposition on the substrate-electrode only, from which it is subsequently recovered. PZT film and powder so produced can be employed directly in electronic applications, or the film and powder can be subsequently oxidized as by an annealing process to thereby produce lead-zirconium-titanium oxide for use in electronic applications. 4 figs.

  6. Preparation of lead-zirconium-titanium film and powder by electrodeposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N.; Ginley, David S.

    1995-01-01

    A process for the preparation of lead-zirconium-titanium (PZT) film and powder compositions. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath, providing soluble salts of lead, zirconium and titanium metals to this bath, electrically energizing the bath to thereby direct ions of each respective metal to a substrate electrode and cause formation of metallic particles as a recoverable film of PZT powder on the electrode, and also recovering the resultant film as a powder. Recovery of the PZT powder can be accomplished by continually energizing the bath to thereby cause powder initially deposited on the substrate-electrode to drop therefrom into the bath from which it is subsequently removed. A second recovery alternative comprises energizing the bath for a period of time sufficient to cause PZT powder deposition on the substrate-electrode only, from which it is subsequently recovered. PZT film and powder so produced can be employed directly in electronic applications, or the film and powder can be subsequently oxidized as by an annealing process to thereby produce lead-zirconium-titanium oxide for use in electronic applications.

  7. Synthesis of multi-hierarchical structured yttria-stabilized zirconia powders and their enhanced thermophysical properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Fengmei; Gao, Yanfeng; Chen, Hongfei; Liu, Xinling; Tang, Xiaoping; Luo, Hongjie

    2013-06-01

    Multi-hierarchical structured yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) powders were successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal-calcination process. The morphology, crystallinity, and microstructure of the products were characterized by SEM, XRD, TEM, and BET. A possible formation mechanism of the unique structure formed during hydrothermal processing was also investigated. The measured thermophysical results indicated that the prepared YSZ powders had a low thermal conductivity (0.631.27 W m? K?), good short-term high-temperature stability up to 1300 C. The influence of the morphology and microstructure on their thermophysical properties was briefly discussed. The unique multi-hierarchical structure makes the prepared YSZ powders candidates for use in enhanced applications involving thermal barrier coatings. - Graphical abstract: There are many tiny pores and grain boundaries in the multi-hierarchical structured yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) powders,which greatly decrease the thermal conductivities of the YSZ powders. - Highlights: Multi-hierarchical structured YSZ powders were successfully prepared. The prepared YSZ powders had a low thermal conductivity (0.631.27 W m? K?). Improved high-temperature stability had been achieved for the prepared YSZ powders. The influence of the morphology on their thermophysical properties was explored.

  8. Trenton strata in western Illinois Basin, Brown and Schuyler Counties, Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pochel, R.M.

    1984-12-01

    Trenton strata in the western Illinois basin are very good prospects for oil exploration. Much drilling has been done in the area but, as yet, no producing wells have been completed. Oil stains and some tars have been found in some samples from most wells. The Trenton in the area of Brown and Schuyler Counties is a fine-grained limestone that underlies the Maquoketa Shale at an average depth of 800 ft (244 m). Because of its position near the edge of the Illinois basin, the stratigraphy varies considerably and inconsistencies are present in most samples viewed.

  9. Mid-infrared followup of cold brown dwarfs: diversity in age, mass and metallicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saumon, Didier; Leggett, Sandy K; Burningham, Ben; Marley, Mark S; Waren, S J; Jones, H R A; Pinfield, D J; Smart, R L

    2009-01-01

    We present new Spitzer IRAC [3.6], [4.5], [5.8] and [8.0] photometry of nine very late-type T dwarfs. Combining this with previously published photometry, we investigate trends with type and color that are useful for both the planning and interpretation of infrared surveys designed to discover the coldest T or Y dwarfs. Brown dwarfs with effective temperature (T{sub eff}) below 700 K emit more than half their flux at wavelengths longer than 3 {micro}m, and the ratio of the mid-infrared flux to the near-infrared flux becomes very sensitive to T{sub eff} at these low temperatures. We confirm that the color H (1.6 {micro}m) - [4.5] is a good indicator of T{sub eff} with a relatively weak dependence on metallicity and gravity. Conversely, the colors H - K (2.2 {micro}m) and [4.5] - [5.8] are sensitive to metallicity and gravity. Thus near- and mid-infrared photometry provide useful indicators of the fundamental properties of brown dwarfs, and if temperature and gravity are known, then mass and age can be reliably determined from evolutionary models. There are twelve dwarfs currently known with H - [4.5] > 3.0, and {approx} 500 < T{sub eff} K {approx}< 800, which we examine in detail. The ages of the dwarfs in the sample range from very young (0.1 - 1.0 Gyr) to relatively old (3 - 12 Gyr). The mass range is possibly as low as 5 Jupiter masses to up to 70 Jupiter masses, i.e. near the hydrogen burning limit. The metallicities also span a large range, from [m/H]= -0.3 to [m/H]= +0.2. The small number of T8 - T9 dwarfs found in the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey to date appear to be predominantly young low-mass dwarfs. Accurate mid-infrared photometry of cold brown dwarfs is essentially impossible from the ground, and extensions to the mid-infrared space missions warm-Spitzer and WISE are desirable in order to obtain the vital mid-infrared data for cold brown dwarfs, and to discover more of these rare objects.

  10. High throughput screening of ligand binding to macromolecules using high resolution powder diffraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Von Dreele, Robert B.; D'Amico, Kevin

    2006-10-31

    A process is provided for the high throughput screening of binding of ligands to macromolecules using high resolution powder diffraction data including producing a first sample slurry of a selected polycrystalline macromolecule material and a solvent, producing a second sample slurry of a selected polycrystalline macromolecule material, one or more ligands and the solvent, obtaining a high resolution powder diffraction pattern on each of said first sample slurry and the second sample slurry, and, comparing the high resolution powder diffraction pattern of the first sample slurry and the high resolution powder diffraction pattern of the second sample slurry whereby a difference in the high resolution powder diffraction patterns of the first sample slurry and the second sample slurry provides a positive indication for the formation of a complex between the selected polycrystalline macromolecule material and at least one of the one or more ligands.

  11. Causal Factors of Weld Porosity in Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Powder Metallurgy Produced Titanium Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muth, Thomas R; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Frederick, David Alan; Contescu, Cristian I; Chen, Wei; Lim, Yong Chae; Peter, William H; Feng, Zhili

    2013-01-01

    ORNL undertook an investigation using gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding on consolidated powder metallurgy (PM) titanium (Ti) plate, to identify the causal factors behind observed porosity in fusion welding. Tramp element compounds of sodium and magnesium, residual from the metallothermic reduction of titanium chloride used to produce the titanium, were remnant in the starting powder and were identified as gas forming species. PM-titanium made from revert scrap where sodium and magnesium were absent, showed fusion weld porosity, although to a lesser degree. We show that porosity was attributable to hydrogen from adsorbed water on the surface of the powders prior to consolidation. The removal / minimization of both adsorbed water on the surface of titanium powder and the residues from the reduction process prior to consolidation of titanium powders, are critical to achieve equivalent fusion welding success similar to that seen in wrought titanium produced via the Kroll process.

  12. Continuous Process for Low-Cost, High-Quality YSZ Powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott L. Swartz; Michael Beachy; Matthew M. Seabaugh

    2006-03-31

    This report describes results obtained by NexTech Materials, Ltd. in a project funded by DOE under the auspices of the Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA). The project focused on development of YSZ electrolyte powder synthesis technology that could be ''tailored'' to the process-specific needs of different solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) designs being developed by SECA's industry teams. The work in the project involved bench-scale processing work aimed at establishing a homogeneous precipitation process for producing YSZ electrolyte powder, scaleup of the process to 20-kilogram batch sizes, and evaluation of the YSZ powder products produced by the process. The developed process involved the steps of: (a) preparation of an aqueous hydrous oxide slurry via coprecipitation; (b) washing of residual salts from the precipitated hydroxide slurry followed by drying; (c) calcination of the dried powder to crystallize the YSZ powder and achieve desired surface area; and (d) milling of the calcined powder to targeted particle size. YSZ powders thus prepared were subjected to a comprehensive set of characterization and performance tests, including particle size distribution and surface area analyses, sintering performance studies, and ionic conductivity measurements. A number of different YSZ powder formulations were established, all of which had desirable performance attributes relative to commercially available YSZ powders. Powder characterization and performance metrics that were established at the onset of the project were met or exceeded. A manufacturing cost analysis was performed, and a manufactured cost of $27/kg was estimated based on this analysis. The analysis also allowed an identification of process refinements that would lead to even lower cost.

  13. Recovery of yttrium from cathode ray tubes and lamps’ fluorescent powders: experimental results and economic simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Innocenzi, V. De Michelis, I.; Ferella, F.; Vegliò, F.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Fluorescent powder of lamps. • Fluorescent powder of cathode ray rubes. • Recovery of yttrium from fluorescent powders. • Economic simulation for the processes to recover yttrium from WEEE. - Abstract: In this paper, yttrium recovery from fluorescent powder of lamps and cathode ray tubes (CRTs) is described. The process for treating these materials includes the following: (a) acid leaching, (b) purification of the leach liquors using sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide, (c) precipitation of yttrium using oxalic acid, and (d) calcinations of oxalates for production of yttrium oxides. Experimental results have shown that process conditions necessary to purify the solutions and recover yttrium strongly depend on composition of the leach liquor, in other words, whether the powder comes from treatment of CRTs or lamp. In the optimal experimental conditions, the recoveries of yttrium oxide are about 95%, 55%, and 65% for CRT, lamps, and CRT/lamp mixture (called MIX) powders, respectively. The lower yields obtained during treatments of MIX and lamp powders are probably due to the co-precipitation of yttrium together with other metals contained in the lamps powder only. Yttrium loss can be reduced to minimum changing the experimental conditions with respect to the case of the CRT process. In any case, the purity of final products from CRT, lamps, and MIX is greater than 95%. Moreover, the possibility to treat simultaneously both CRT and lamp powders is very important and interesting from an industrial point of view since it could be possible to run a single plant treating fluorescent powder coming from two different electronic wastes.

  14. MOA-2010-BLG-073L: AN M-DWARF WITH A SUBSTELLAR COMPANION AT THE PLANET/BROWN DWARF BOUNDARY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Street, R. A.; Tsapras, Y.; Choi, J.-Y.; Han, C.; Furusawa, K.; Hundertmark, M.; Horne, K.; Dominik, M.; Browne, P.; Bajek, D.; Sumi, T.; Bond, I. A.; Wouters, D.; Zellem, R.; Udalski, A.; Snodgrass, C.; Kains, N.; Bramich, D. M.; Steele, I. A.; Collaboration: RoboNet Collaboration; MOA Collaboration; OGLE Collaboration; muFUN Collaboration; PLANET Collaboration; MiNDSTEp Collaboration; and others

    2013-01-20

    We present an analysis of the anomalous microlensing event, MOA-2010-BLG-073, announced by the Microlensing Observations in Astrophysics survey on 2010 March 18. This event was remarkable because the source was previously known to be photometrically variable. Analyzing the pre-event source light curve, we demonstrate that it is an irregular variable over timescales >200 days. Its dereddened color, (V - I) {sub S,0}, is 1.221 {+-} 0.051 mag, and from our lens model we derive a source radius of 14.7 {+-} 1.3 R {sub Sun }, suggesting that it is a red giant star. We initially explored a number of purely microlensing models for the event but found a residual gradient in the data taken prior to and after the event. This is likely to be due to the variability of the source rather than part of the lensing event, so we incorporated a slope parameter in our model in order to derive the true parameters of the lensing system. We find that the lensing system has a mass ratio of q = 0.0654 {+-} 0.0006. The Einstein crossing time of the event, t {sub E} = 44.3 {+-} 0.1 days, was sufficiently long that the light curve exhibited parallax effects. In addition, the source trajectory relative to the large caustic structure allowed the orbital motion of the lens system to be detected. Combining the parallax with the Einstein radius, we were able to derive the distance to the lens, D{sub L} = 2.8 {+-} 0.4 kpc, and the masses of the lensing objects. The primary of the lens is an M-dwarf with M {sub L,1} = 0.16 {+-} 0.03 M {sub Sun }, while the companion has M {sub L,2} = 11.0 {+-} 2.0 M {sub J}, putting it in the boundary zone between planets and brown dwarfs.

  15. Brown - leaves

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Opportunities Low Income Energy Efficiency Workgroup November 6, 2014 Sarah F. Moore, Residential Lead Courtney Dale, Residential Weatherization B O N N E V I L L E P O W...

  16. Brown - leaves

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oct 14 th * Award decision by Nov 6 th * Presentation of New Program Thurs, Nov 13 th . * Utility opt-in Nov 7 - Dec 5 th * New program launch - April 1, 2015 12 B O N N E V I L L...

  17. Large-Scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticle-Based Lubrication Additives

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Crystal structure of boric acid; borax; solid boric acid (H 3 BO 3 ); powdered boric acid; mineral oil with 1% nano-boric acid particles; individual nano-boric acid particles. ...

  18. Fabrication of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-20 vol.% Al nanocomposite powders using high energy milling and their sinterability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zawrah, M.F.; Abdel-kader, H.; Elbaly, N.E.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al nanocomposite powders were prepared via high energy ball milling. After 20 h milling, the size of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-20 vol.% Al nanocomposite particles was in the range of 23-29 nm. A uniform distribution of nanosized Al reinforcement throughout the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix, coating the particles was successfully obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There was no any sign of phase changes during the milling. A competition between the cold welding mechanism and the fracturing mechanism were found during milling and finally the above two mechanisms reached an equilibrium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The highest value of relative density was obtained for the sintered bodies at 1500 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The harness of the sintered composite was decreased while the fracture toughness was improved after addition Al into alumina. -- Abstract: In this study, alumina-based matrix nanocomposite powders reinforced with Al particles were fabricated and investigated. The sinterability of the prepared nanocomposite powder at different firing temperature was also conducted. Their mechanical properties in terms of hardness and toughness were tested. Alumina and aluminum powder mixtures were milled in a planetary ball mill for various times up to 30 h in order to produce Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-20% Al nanocomposite. The phase composition, morphological and microstructural changes during mechanical milling of the nanocomposite particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques, respectively. The crystallite size and internal strain were evaluated by XRD patterns using Scherrer methods. A uniform distribution of the Al reinforcement in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix was successfully obtained after milling the powders. The results revealed that there was no any sign of phase changes during the milling. The crystal

  19. Rapid formation of phase-clean 110 K (Bi-2223) powders derived via freeze-drying process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam

    1996-01-01

    A process for the preparation of amorphous precursor powders for Pb-doped Bi.sub.2 Sr.sub.2 Ca.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x (2223) includes a freeze-drying process incorporating a splat-freezing step. The process generally includes splat freezing a nitrate solution of Bi, Pb, Sr, Ca, and Cu to form flakes of the solution without any phase separation; grinding the frozen flakes to form a powder; freeze-drying the frozen powder; heating the dried powder to form a dry green precursor powders; denitrating the green-powders; heating the denitrated powders to form phase-clean Bi-2223 powders. The grain boundaries of the 2223 grains appear to be clean, leading to good intergrain contact between 2223 grains.

  20. Rapid formation of phase-clean 110 K (Bi-2223) powders derived via freeze-drying process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, U.

    1996-06-04

    A process for the preparation of amorphous precursor powders for Pb-doped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2} Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (2223) includes a freeze-drying process incorporating a splat-freezing step. The process generally includes splat freezing a nitrate solution of Bi, Pb, Sr, Ca, and Cu to form flakes of the solution without any phase separation; grinding the frozen flakes to form a powder; freeze-drying the frozen powder; heating the dried powder to form a dry green precursor powders; denitrating the green-powders; heating the denitrated powders to form phase-clean Bi-2223 powders. The grain boundaries of the 2223 grains appear to be clean, leading to good intergrain contact between 2223 grains. 11 figs.

  1. Additive Manufacturing - Materials by Design - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Additive Manufacturing - Materials by Design Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ... Send Message Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Industrial Partnerships Office Visit ...

  2. A HYBRID SCENARIO FOR THE FORMATION OF BROWN DWARFS AND VERY LOW MASS STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basu, Shantanu; Vorobyov, Eduard I. E-mail: eduard.vorobiev@univie.ac.at

    2012-05-01

    We present a calculation of protostellar disk formation and evolution in which gaseous clumps (essentially, the first Larson cores formed via disk fragmentation) are ejected from the disk during the early stage of evolution. This is a universal process related to the phenomenon of ejection in multiple systems of point masses. However, it occurs in our model entirely due to the interaction of compact, gravitationally bound gaseous clumps and is free from the smoothing-length uncertainty that is characteristic of models using sink particles. Clumps that survive ejection span a mass range of 0.08-0.35 M{sub Sun }, and have ejection velocities 0.8 {+-} 0.35 km s{sup -1}, which are several times greater than the escape speed. We suggest that, upon contraction, these clumps can form substellar or low-mass stellar objects with notable disks, or even close-separation very low mass binaries. In this hybrid scenario, allowing for ejection of clumps rather than finished protostars/proto-brown-dwarfs, disk formation and the low velocity dispersion of low-mass objects are naturally explained, while it is also consistent with the observation of isolated low-mass clumps that are ejection products. We conclude that clump ejection and the formation of isolated low-mass stellar and substellar objects is a common occurrence, with important implications for understanding the initial mass function, the brown dwarf desert, and the formation of stars in all environments and epochs.

  3. DISCOVERY OF A ?250 K BROWN DWARF AT 2 pc FROM THE SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luhman, K. L.

    2014-05-10

    Through a previous analysis of multi-epoch astrometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), I identified WISE J085510.83071442.5 as a new high proper motion object. By combining astrometry from WISE and the Spitzer Space Telescope, I have measured a proper motion of 8.1 0.1'' yr{sup 1} and a parallax of 0.454 0.045'' (2.20{sub ?0.20}{sup +0.24} pc) for WISE J085510.83071442.5, giving it the third highest proper motion and the fourth largest parallax of any known star or brown dwarf. It is also the coldest known brown dwarf based on its absolute magnitude at 4.5 ?m and its color in [3.6]-[4.5]. By comparing M {sub 4.5} with the values predicted by theoretical evolutionary models, I estimate an effective temperature of 225-260 K and a mass of 3-10 M {sub Jup} for the age range of 1-10 Gyr that encompasses most nearby stars.

  4. Relation between combustion heat and chemical wood composition during white and brown rot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobry, J.; Dziurzynski, A.; Rypacek, V.

    1986-01-01

    Samples of beech and spruce wood were incubated with the white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinus tigrinus and the brown rot fungi Fomitopsis pinicola and Serpula lacrymans (S. lacrimans) for four months. Decomposition (expressed as percent weight loss) and amounts of holocellulose, lignin, humic acids (HU), hymatomelanic acids (HY) and fulvo acids (FU) were determined and expressed in weight percent. Combustion heat of holocellulose and lignin was determined in healthy wood and in specimens where decomposition was greater than 50%. During white rot decomposition, combustion heat was unchanged even at high decomposition and the relative amounts of holocellulose and lignin remained the same. Total amounts of HU, HY and FU increased during the initial stages and stabilized at 20%. The content of HU plus HY was negligible even at the highest degree of decomposition. During brown rot decomposition, combustion heat was unchanged only in the initial stages, it increased continously with increasing rot. Lignin content was unchanged in the initial stages and increased after 30% weight loss. Total amounts of HU, HY and FU increased continuously, reaching higher values than in white rot decomposition; there were differences between the two species. Biosynthesis of HU plus HY began when weight loss reached 30%; there were differences in absolute and relative amounts between species. 24 references.

  5. Isolation of laccase gene-specific sequences from white rot and brown rot fungi by PCR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D`Souza, T.M.; Boominathan, K.; Reddy, C.A.

    1996-10-01

    Degenerate primers corresponding to the consensus sequences of the copper-binding regions in the N-terminal domains of known basidiomycete laccases were used to isolate laccase gene-specific sequences from strains representing nine genera of wood rot fungi. All except three gave the expected PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequences of each of the PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequence of each of the PCR products analyzed as a laccase gene sequence, suggesting the specificity of the primers. PCR products of the white rot fungi Ganoderma lucidum, Phlebia brevispora, and Trametes versicolor showed 65 to 74% nucleotide sequence similarity to each other; the similarity in deduced amino acid sequences was 83 to 91%. The PCR products of Lentinula edodes and Lentinus tigrinus, on the other hand, showed relatively low nucleotide and amino acid similarities (58 to 64 and 62 to 81%, respectively); however, these similarities were still much higher than when compared with the corresponding regions in the laccases of the ascomycete fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa. A few of the white rot fungi, as well as Gloeophyllum trabeum, a brown rot fungus, gave a 144-bp PCR fragment which had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 60 to 71%. Demonstration of laccase activity in G. trabeum and several other brown rot fungi was of particular interest because these organisms were not previously shown to produce laccases. 36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. New processing technique for DEB powder for thermal batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szwarc, R.; Walton, R.D.

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how material processing influences thermal battery performance, and how battery performance can be improved by changes in processing. This discussion is confined to the class of thermal batteries designed by Sandia Laboratories and built under the supervision of General Electric in St. Petersburg, Florida. The electrochemical system employed is: Ca/LiCl-KCl-CaCrO/sub 4//Fe. These batteries are primary reserve batteries which employ a pelletized cell design. Each cell consists of an electrolyte-depolarizer pellet sandwiched between an anode and a heat pellet. The anode employed may be one of two forms: sheet calcium disc, mechanically attached to an iron or steel backing; or a substrate disc of iron or steel on which 3 to 5 mils of calcium had been evaporated. The depolarizer-electrolyte, commonly referred to as DEB, is composed of CaCrO/sub 4/, LiCl-KCl eutectic and SiO/sub 2/ binder powder, which has been blended and pressed into pellets. The DEB pellet serves as electrolyte and as active cathode when the salt becomes molten upon battery activation. The heat pellet serves the dual purpose of providing the heat necessary to activate the battery and as the cathode current collector. The heat pellet is composed of iron powder and KClO/sub 4/. A battery is made up of one or more stacks of about 12 cells connected in series to produce a voltage of 28 to 32 volts. Since activated life requirements for batteries vary from seconds up to one hour, the battery must be well insulated to conserve the heat produced by the ignition of the heat pellets to maintain the electrolyte in a molten state. This insulation is also important to protect sensitive electronic components in contact with the battery case. Because the electrolyte, particularly LiCl, is hygroscopic, the batteries are hermetically sealed in stainless steel cans, and are manufactured in dryrooms maintained at 3% relative humidity or better.

  7. Additional Resources for Tribes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Additional Resources for Tribes Additional Resources for Tribes The following tribal and federal organizations, education and training opportunities, and tribal directories provide helpful information for Indian tribes and Alaska Natives. For resources specifically related to developing and financing energy projects on tribal lands, visit the Energy Resource Library. Resource Type Additional Resources for Tribes

  8. Critical Experiments that Simulated Damp MOX Powders - Do They Meet the Need?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Blair Briggs; Dr. Ali Nouri; Dr. Claes Nordborg

    2005-09-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Working Party on Nuclear Criticality Safety (WPNCS) identified the MOX fuel manufacturing process as an area in which there is a need for additional integral benchmark data. The specific need focused on damp MOX powders. The WPNCS was ultimately asked by the NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) to provide the framework for the selection and performance of new experiments that fill the identified need. A set of criteria was established to enable uniform comparison of experimental proposals with generic MOX application data. Criteria were established for five general characteristics: (1) neutronic parameters, (2) type of experiments, (3) financial aspects, (4) schedule, and (5) other considerations. Proposals were judged most importantly on their ability to match the neutronic parameters of predetermined MOX applications. The neutronic parameters that formed the basis for comparison included core average values (not local values) for flux, fission and capture rate; detailed balance data (fission and capture) for the main isotopes (Actinides, H and O); sensitivity coefficients to important nuclear reactions (fission, capture, elastic and inelastic scatter, nu-bar, mu-bar) for all uranium and plutonium isotopes, hydrogen, and oxygen; sensitivity profiles to the main nuclear reactions for uranium and plutonium isotopes; energy of average lethargy causing fission; and the average fission group energy. The focus of this paper is on the definition of the need; the neutronics criteria established to assess which, if any, of three proposed MOX experimental programs best meet the need; and the actual assessment of the proposed experimental programs.

  9. High nitrogen corrosion resistant austenitic stainless steels made by hot isostatic compaction of gas atomized powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhodes, G.O.; Eckenrod, J.J.; Rizzo, F.J.

    1996-10-01

    A model has been developed to design austenitic stainless steels containing 25 to 28% chromium, 22% nickel, 6% manganese, 4 to 8% molybdenum, and about 0.80% nitrogen. The newly developed steels have been produced by rapid solidification powder metallurgy (P/N4) with subsequent consolidation by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). The resulting chemical compositions meet the criteria of the alloy design model, predicting a fully austenitic microstructure, a yield strength of about 620 MPa, a minimum Pitting Resistance Equivalence (PRE) number of 50, a sigma solvas temperature of less than 1,232 C, a nitrogen equilibrium partial pressure at 1,600 C of about 500 kPa, and an alloy cost factor of 0.6 or less relative to UNS N10276. The results of experimental investigations of these materials compared to the predictions of the design model are presented, in addition to evaluations of other HIP P/M processed austenitic and superaustenitic stainless steels, and nickel base corrosion resistant alloys.

  10. Report on the development of the large-bore powder gun for the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.J. Jensen

    2009-03-01

    Experiments are needed to locate phase boundaries and to provide both Hugoniot data and off-Hugoniot data (such as principle isentrope, refreezing, dynamic strength, etc.) achieved through complex loading paths. The objective of the current work was to de- velop a large bore (3.5 inch or greater) powder gun capable of accelerating projectiles to moderately high velocities exceeding 2 km/s for impact experiments. A total of 24 ex- periments were performed to measure the projectile velocity, breech strain, and projectile tilt to demonstrate the performance of the gun up to the maximum breech capacity of 16 pounds of propellant. Physics experiments using a multislug method were performed to obtain sound speed and Hugoniot for shocked cerium metal and to demonstrate the ability of the large bore gun to conduct well-defined, plate-impact experiments. In addition, six experiments were performed on the prototype containment system to examine the ability of the launcher and containment system to withstand the impact event and contain the propellant gases and impact debris postshot. The data presented here were essential for qualification of the launcher for experiments to be conducted at the U1a complex of the Nevada Test Site.

  11. Status Report: USGS coal assessment of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James A. Luppens; Timothy J. Rohrbacher; Jon E. Haacke; David C. Scott; Lee M. Osmonson

    2006-07-01

    This publication reports on the status of the current coal assessment of the Powder River Basin (PRB) in Wyoming and Montana. This slide program was presented at the Energy Information Agency's 2006 EIA Energy Outlook and Modeling Conference in Washington, DC, on March 27, 2006. The PRB coal assessment will be the first USGS coal assessment to include estimates of both regional coal resources and reserves for an entire coal basin. Extensive CBM and additional oil and gas development, especially in the Gillette coal field, have provided an unprecedented amount of down-hole geological data. Approximately 10,000 new data points have been added to the PRB database since the last assessment (2002) which will provide a more robust evaluation of the single most productive U.S. coal basin. The Gillette coal field assessment, including the mining economic evaluation, is planned for completion by the end of 2006. The geologic portion of the coal assessment work will shift to the northern and northwestern portions of the PRB before the end of 2006 while the Gillette engineering studies are finalized. 7 refs.

  12. Metastable phases in mechanically alloyed aluminum germanium powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yvon, P.J.; Schwarz, R.B.

    1993-03-01

    Aluminum and germanium form a simple eutectic system with no stable intermetallic phase, and limited mutual solubility. We report the formation of a metastable rhombohedral,{gamma}{sub 1} phase by mechanically alloying aluminum and germanium powders. This phase, which appears for compositions between 20 and 50 at. % germanium, has also been observed in rapidly quenched alloys, but there is disagreement as to its composition. By measuring the heat of crystallization as a function of composition, we determined the composition of the {gamma}{sub 1} phase to be Al{sub 70}Ge{sub 30}. We also produced Al{sub 70}Ge{sub 30} by arc melting the pure elements, followed by splat-quenching at a cooling rate in the range of 10{sup 8} K s{sup {minus}1}. This method produced two metastable phases, one of which was found to be the {gamma}{sub 1} phase obtained by mechanical alloying. The other was a monoclinic phase reported earlier in the literature as {gamma}{sub 2}.

  13. Numerical simulation of plasma heating of a composite powder particle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demetriou, M.D.; Lavine, A.S.; Ghoniem, N.M.

    1999-07-01

    The use of fine composite powder particles (composed of a ceramic core and a metallic coating) in plasma spraying processes is desirable in developing thin film coatings that possess high abrasion as well as high fracture resistance. Quantitative knowledge of the thermal behavior of a composite particle in a plasma beam is essential in optimizing the process variables to achieve uniform melting of the coating material. In this work, a numerical model is developed to analyze the in-flight thermal behavior of a spherically symmetric WC-Co composite particle travelling in an argon arc-jet DC plasma under strongly unsteady plasma conditions. The model gives quantitative as well as qualitative information about the thermal response of the heated particle. The important features that are addressed are the temperature response of the particle; the history of the location of the melting and vaporization fronts; and the physical state of the particle at the end of its flight. For the conditions investigated, it was determined that the internal conduction resistance is negligible as compared to the net external resistance. However, the presence of the ceramic base was found to affect the transient heating process since its content in the particle composition determines the time constant of the process. Another interesting observation is that proper selection of the particle injection speed and injection location can be effective means for optimizing the heating process and achieving uniform melting of the coating material.

  14. Method of making highly sinterable lanthanum chromite powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, Von L.; Singhal, Subhash C.

    1992-01-01

    A highly sinterable powder consisting essentially of LaCrO.sub.3, containing from 5 weight % to 20 weight % of a chromite of dopant Ca, Sr, Co, Ba, or Mg and a coating of a chromate of dopant Ca, Sr, Co, Ba, or Mg; is made by (1) forming a solution of La, Cr, and dopant; (2) heating their solutions; (3) forming a combined solution having a desired ratio of La, Cr, and dopant and heating to reduce solvent; (4) forming a foamed mass under vacuum; (5) burning off organic components and forming a charred material; (6) grinding the charred material; (7) heating the char at from 590.degree. C. to 950 C. in inert gas containing up to 50,000 ppm O.sub.2 to provide high specific surface area particles; (8) adding that material to a mixture of a nitrate of Cr and dopant to form a slurry; (9) grinding the particles in the slurry; (10) freeze or spray drying the slurry to provide a coating of nitrates on the particles; and (11) heating the coated particles to convert the nitrate coating to a chromate coating and provide a highly sinterable material having a high specific surface area of over 7 m.sup.2 /g.

  15. Method of making highly sinterable lanthanum chromite powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, V.L.; Singhal, S.C.

    1992-09-01

    A highly sinterable powder consisting essentially of LaCrO[sub 3], containing from 5 weight % to 20 weight % of a chromite of dopant Ca, Sr, Co, Ba, or Mg and a coating of a chromate of dopant Ca, Sr, Co, Ba, or Mg; is made by (1) forming a solution of La, Cr, and dopant; (2) heating their solutions; (3) forming a combined solution having a desired ratio of La, Cr, and dopant and heating to reduce solvent; (4) forming a foamed mass under vacuum; (5) burning off organic components and forming a charred material; (6) grinding the charred material; (7) heating the char at from 590 C to 950 C in inert gas containing up to 50,000 ppm O[sub 2] to provide high specific surface area particles; (8) adding that material to a mixture of a nitrate of Cr and dopant to form a slurry; (9) grinding the particles in the slurry; (10) freeze or spray drying the slurry to provide a coating of nitrates on the particles; and (11) heating the coated particles to convert the nitrate coating to a chromate coating and provide a highly sinterable material having a high specific surface area of over 7 m[sup 2]/g. 2 figs.

  16. Characteristics of alumina powders prepared by spray-drying of boehmite sol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varma, H.K.; Mani, T.V.; Damodaran, A.D.; Warrier, K.G. ); Balachandran, U. . Energy Technology Div.)

    1994-06-01

    Boehmite sol prepared from aluminum nitrate has been spray-dried to obtain micrometer-size spherical particles consisting of submicrometer crystallites. The spray-dried powder was further washed with solvents of varying polarities such as acetone, 2-propanol, and 2-methyl-2-propanol. Particle-size distribution, morphology, density, compaction, and sintering characteristics of powders washed with different solvents are reported. The effect of post treatments on the boehmite-sol-derived powders toward reducing agglomeration and obtaining high-density bodies is discussed.

  17. Monitoring system for the quality assessment in additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl, Volker

    2015-03-31

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) refers to a process by which a set of digital data -representing a certain complex 3dim design - is used to grow the respective 3dim real structure equal to the corresponding design. For the powder-based EOS manufacturing process a variety of plastic and metal materials can be used. Thereby, AM is in many aspects a very powerful tool as it can help to overcome particular limitations in conventional manufacturing. AM enables more freedom of design, complex, hollow and/or lightweight structures as well as product individualisation and functional integration. As such it is a promising approach with respect to the future design and manufacturing of complex 3dim structures. On the other hand, it certainly calls for new methods and standards in view of quality assessment. In particular, when utilizing AM for the design of complex parts used in aviation and aerospace technologies, appropriate monitoring systems are mandatory. In this respect, recently, sustainable progress has been accomplished by joining the common efforts and concerns of a manufacturer Additive Manufacturing systems and respective materials (EOS), along with those of an operator of such systems (MTU Aero Engines) and experienced application engineers (Carl Metrology), using decent know how in the field of optical and infrared methods regarding non-destructive-examination (NDE). The newly developed technology is best described by a high-resolution layer by layer inspection technique, which allows for a 3D tomography-analysis of the complex part at any time during the manufacturing process. Thereby, inspection costs are kept rather low by using smart image-processing methods as well as CMOS sensors instead of infrared detectors. Moreover, results from conventional physical metallurgy may easily be correlated with the predictive results of the monitoring system which not only allows for improvements of the AM monitoring system, but finally leads to an optimisation of the quality

  18. Advanced Qualification of Additive Manufacturing Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Additive Manufacturing Workshop Advanced Qualification of Additive Manufacturing Materials (AM) Workshop Our goal is to define opportunities and research gaps within additive manufacturing (AM) and to engage the broader scientific/engineering community to discuss future research directions. thumbnail of thumbnail of Contact Institute Director Dr. Alexander V. Balatsky Institute for Materials Science (505) 665-0077 Email Deputy Director Dr. Jennifer S. Martinez Institute for Materials Science

  19. Cincinnati Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duty, Chad E.; Love, Lonnie J.

    2015-03-04

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) worked with Cincinnati Incorporated (CI) to demonstrate Big Area Additive Manufacturing which increases the speed of the additive manufacturing (AM) process by over 1000X, increases the size of parts by over 10X and shows a cost reduction of over 100X. ORNL worked with CI to transition the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology from a proof-of-principle (TRL 2-3) demonstration to a prototype product stage (TRL 7-8).

  20. Microsoft Word - Appendix I - Additional Field Implementation...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... SPPTS Solar Ponds Plume Treatment System TSS total suspended solids Additional Field Implementation Detail for Selected Monitoring Objectives U.S. Department of Energy Doc. No. ...

  1. ,"Maine Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Maine Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015"...

  2. ,"Maryland Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Maryland Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  3. ,"Nebraska Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Nebraska Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  4. ,"Wisconsin Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Wisconsin Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  5. ,"Connecticut Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Connecticut Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  6. ,"Idaho Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Idaho Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  7. ,"Tennessee Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Tennessee Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  8. ,"Pennsylvania Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Pennsylvania Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  9. ,"Nevada Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Nevada Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  10. ,"Alaska Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alaska...

  11. ,"California Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  12. ,"Oregon Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Oregon Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  13. ,"Delaware Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Delaware Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  14. ,"Arkansas Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Arkansas Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  15. ,"Louisiana Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Louisiana Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  16. ,"Missouri Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Missouri Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  17. ,"Texas Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  18. ,"Washington Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Washington Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  19. ,"Alabama Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alabama Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  20. ,"Georgia Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Georgia Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  1. ,"Virginia Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Virginia Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  2. ,"Indiana Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Indiana Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  3. ,"Minnesota Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Minnesota Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  4. ,"Massachusetts Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Massachusetts Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  5. Surface Additives for Enhanced Electrode Performance - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ...efficient and almost non-polluting, making them an attractive alternative for energy generation. Some solid oxide fuel cells burn ... High performance additives then can be ...

  6. Breaking Barriers in Polymer Additive Manufacturing (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) enables the creation of complex structures directly from a computer-aided design (CAD). There are limitations that prevent the technology from realizing ...

  7. additive manufacturuing | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Laboratory engineer Bryan Moran won an award last month for his 3D printing innovation. It could revolutionize additive manufacturing.Lawrence Livermore Lab engineer Bryan Moran...

  8. DOE Announces Additional Energy Efficiency Enforcement Action...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Counsel, Haier voluntarily identified a parts defect that had caused the freezer models to consume additional energy and took immediate steps on its own to remedy the defects. ...

  9. Advanced Qualification of Additive Manufacturing Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    To increase acceptance of additive manufacturing as a viable processing method, pathways ... Included in this Gordon style workshop will be panel discussions with the invited ...

  10. Cincinnati Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: additive manufacturing Word Cloud More ...

  11. Spraying Powder Materials by the High-Enthalpy Laminar Plasma Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khutsishvili, M.; Kikvadze, L.

    2008-03-19

    One of the most promising engineering solutions of the problem of spraying powder materials is the proposed method of plasma spraying by the laminar plasma jet. Laminar plasma flow is characterized by small jet angle divergence; the powder particles are penetrated and accelerated mainly in the axial direction. The molten powder particles are transported almost to the surface of a treated work-piece inside the laminar plasma flow in an atmosphere of the plasma-forming gas with the acceleration on the entire transfer area, which leads to an increase in the particles velocity, a decrease of their oxidability, an increase in the powder deposition efficiency, density, adhesion strength with the surface to be coated.

  12. Optimum parameters of TLD100 powder used for radiotherapy beams calibration check

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arib, M. . E-mail: mehenna.arib@comena-dz.org; Yaich, A.; Messadi, A.; Dari, F.

    2006-10-01

    External audit of the absorbed dose determination from radiotherapy machines is performed using Lithium fluoride (LiF) TLD-100. Optimal parameters needed to obtain highly accurate dosage from LiF powder was investigated, including the setup of the Harshaw 4000 reader. A linear correspondence between the thermoluminescent signal and the mass of the powder was observed, demonstrating that the dose can be evaluated with small samples of powder. The reproducibility of the thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) readings obtained with up to 10 samples from 1 capsule containing 160 mg of powder was around 1.5% (1 standard deviation [SD]). The time required for the manual evaluation of TLDs can be improved by 3 readings without loss of accuracy. Better reproducibility is achieved if the capsules are evaluated 7 days after irradiation using a nitrogen flow of 300 cc/min.

  13. Copper-base alloy for liquid phase sintering of ferrous powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, John L.; Pickus, Milton R.; Chen, Meng-Hsiu

    1978-01-01

    A copper-base alloy composition consisting essentially of 85 - 89% copper, 2 - 4% manganese, and 8 - 11% silicon and use of same in liquid phase sintering of ferrous powders.

  14. Combustion of Bulk 84% Fe/16% KCIO{sub 4} heat powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nissen, M.; Guidotti, R.A.; Berry, B.

    1996-05-01

    Fe/KClO{sub 4} pyrotechnic mixtures are used in thermal batteries to provide the heat necessary to bring the battery stack to operating temperatures of 550 to 600 C. This heat source is normally used as discs pressed from bulk powder. To evaluate the consequences associated with unexpected ignition of large amounts of heat powder, combustion of 84% Fe/16% KClO{sub 4} heat powders was conducted for various scenarios under controlled conditions and the response documented. Increasing amounts of heat powder--up to 8 lbs--were ignited in both unconfined and confined (sealed) containers in a remote area. The containers were thermocoupled and the resulting burning filmed with a standard video camera, high-speed (1,000 frames/s) film and video cameras, and an infrared video camera. A 20- minute video of the burning under the various conditions is presented.

  15. MICROLENSING DISCOVERY OF A POPULATION OF VERY TIGHT, VERY LOW MASS BINARY BROWN DWARFS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, J.-Y.; Han, C.; Udalski, A.; Sumi, T.; Gaudi, B. S.; Gould, A.; Bennett, D. P.; Dominik, M.; Beaulieu, J.-P.; Tsapras, Y.; Bozza, V.; Abe, F.; Furusawa, K.; Itow, Y.; Bond, I. A.; Ling, C. H.; Botzler, C. S.; Freeman, M.; Chote, P.; Fukui, A.; Collaboration: MOA Collaboration; OGLE Collaboration; muFUN Collaboration; MiNDSTEp Consortium; PLANET Collaboration; RoboNet Collaboration; and others

    2013-05-10

    Although many models have been proposed, the physical mechanisms responsible for the formation of low-mass brown dwarfs (BDs) are poorly understood. The multiplicity properties and minimum mass of the BD mass function provide critical empirical diagnostics of these mechanisms. We present the discovery via gravitational microlensing of two very low mass, very tight binary systems. These binaries have directly and precisely measured total system masses of 0.025 M{sub Sun} and 0.034 M{sub Sun }, and projected separations of 0.31 AU and 0.19 AU, making them the lowest-mass and tightest field BD binaries known. The discovery of a population of such binaries indicates that BD binaries can robustly form at least down to masses of {approx}0.02 M{sub Sun }. Future microlensing surveys will measure a mass-selected sample of BD binary systems, which can then be directly compared to similar samples of stellar binaries.

  16. Annual radiological environmental operating report: Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, 1992. Operations Services/Technical Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This report describes the environmental radiological monitoring program conducted by TVA in the vicinity of Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant (BFN) in 1992. The program includes the collection of samples from the environment and the determination of the concentrations of radioactive materials in the samples. Samples are taken from stations in the general area of the plant and from areas not influenced by plant operations. Station locations are selected after careful consideration of the weather patterns and projected radiation doses to the various areas around the plant. Material sampled includes air, water, milk, foods, vegetation, soil, fish, sediment, and direct radiation levels. Results from stations near the plant are compared with concentrations from control stations and with preoperational measurements to determine potential impacts of plant operations. Small amounts of Co-60 and Cs-134 were found in sediment samples downstream from the plant. This activity in stream sediment would result in no measurable increase over background in the dose to the general public.

  17. Redox Shuttle Additives | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Redox Shuttle Additives Technology available for licensing: A series of novel redox shuttle additives for lithium-ion batteries Seven-technology suite helps reduce battery costs Provides overcharge protection and increased battery safety and reliability PDF icon redox_shuttles

  18. Moving to the Powder River Basin in search of the American dream

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2007-03-15

    As the Big Three American automakers cut jobs in Michigan, Wyoming's booming but isolated coal mining industry in the Powder River Basin is trying to lure some of these dissatisfied workers. DRM has attracted workers to the benefaction plant and P & H MinePro Services working on surface mining equipment has been successful, as have Peabody's Powder River coal subsidiary and Kiewitt's Buckshin mine. 2 photos.

  19. Photoactive devices including porphyrinoids with coordinating additives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Yu, Eric K; Thompson, Mark E; Trinh, Cong; Whited, Matthew; Diev, Vlacheslav

    2015-05-12

    Coordinating additives are included in porphyrinoid-based materials to promote intermolecular organization and improve one or more photoelectric characteristics of the materials. The coordinating additives are selected from fullerene compounds and organic compounds having free electron pairs. Combinations of different coordinating additives can be used to tailor the characteristic properties of such porphyrinoid-based materials, including porphyrin oligomers. Bidentate ligands are one type of coordinating additive that can form coordination bonds with a central metal ion of two different porphyrinoid compounds to promote porphyrinoid alignment and/or pi-stacking. The coordinating additives can shift the absorption spectrum of a photoactive material toward higher wavelengths, increase the external quantum efficiency of the material, or both.

  20. Doping and electronic properties of GaAs grown by close-spaced vapor transport from powder sources for scalable III–V photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritenour, Andrew J.; Boucher, Jason W.; DeLancey, Robert; Greenaway, Ann L.; Aloni, Shaul; Boettcher, Shannon W.

    2014-09-01

    We report the use of a simple close-spaced vapor transport technique for the growth of high-quality epitaxial GaAs films using potentially inexpensive GaAs powders as precursors. The free carrier type and density (1016 to 1019 cm–3) of the films were adjusted by addition of Te or Zn powder to the GaAs source powder. We show using photoelectrochemical and electron beam-induced current analyses that the minority carrier diffusion lengths of the n- and p-GaAs films reached ~3 μm and ~8 μm, respectively. Hall mobilities approach those achieved for GaAs grown by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition, 1000–4200 cm2 V–1 s–1 for n-GaAs and 50–240 cm V–1 s–1 for p-GaAs depending on doping level. We conclude that the electronic quality of GaAs grown by close-spaced vapor transport is similar to that of GaAs made using conventional techniques and is thus sufficient for high-performance photovoltaic applications.

  1. Doping and electronic properties of GaAs grown by close-spaced vapor transport from powder sources for scalable III–V photovoltaics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ritenour, Andrew J.; Boucher, Jason W.; DeLancey, Robert; Greenaway, Ann L.; Aloni, Shaul; Boettcher, Shannon W.

    2014-09-01

    We report the use of a simple close-spaced vapor transport technique for the growth of high-quality epitaxial GaAs films using potentially inexpensive GaAs powders as precursors. The free carrier type and density (1016 to 1019 cm–3) of the films were adjusted by addition of Te or Zn powder to the GaAs source powder. We show using photoelectrochemical and electron beam-induced current analyses that the minority carrier diffusion lengths of the n- and p-GaAs films reached ~3 μm and ~8 μm, respectively. Hall mobilities approach those achieved for GaAs grown by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition, 1000–4200 cm2 V–1 s–1 for n-GaAsmore » and 50–240 cm V–1 s–1 for p-GaAs depending on doping level. We conclude that the electronic quality of GaAs grown by close-spaced vapor transport is similar to that of GaAs made using conventional techniques and is thus sufficient for high-performance photovoltaic applications.« less

  2. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white rot/ brown rot paradigm for wood decay fungi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Brown, Daren W.; Nagy, Laszlo G.; Floudas, Dimitris; Held, Benjamin; Levasseur, Anthony; Lombard, Vincent; Morin, Emmanuelle; Otillar, Robert; Lindquist, Erika; Sun, Hui; LaButti, Kurt; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jabbour, Dina; Luo, Hong; Baker, Scott E.; Pisabarro, Antonio; Walton, Jonathan D.; Blanchette, Robert; Henrissat, Bernard; Martin, Francis; Cullen, Dan; Hibbett, David; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2014-03-14

    Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32percent of the described fungi and include most wood decaying species, as well as pathogens and mutualistic symbionts. Wood-decaying basidiomycetes have typically been classified as either white rot or brown rot, based on the ability (in white rot only) to degrade lignin along with cellulose and hemicellulose. Prior genomic comparisons suggested that the two decay modes can be distinguished based on the presence or absence of ligninolytic class II peroxidases (PODs), as well as the abundance of enzymes acting directly on crystalline cellulose (reduced in brown rot). To assess the generality of the white rot/brown rot classification paradigm we compared the genomes of 33 basidiomycetes, including four newly sequenced wood decayers, and performed phylogenetically-informed Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of a broad range of gene families encoding plant biomass-degrading enzymes. The newly sequenced Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea genomes lack PODs, but possess diverse enzymes acting on crystalline cellulose, and they group close to the model white rot species Phanerochaete chrysosporium in the PCA. Furthermore, laboratory assays showed that both B. botryosum and J. argillacea can degrade all polymeric components of woody plant cell walls, a characteristic of white rot. We also found expansions in reducing polyketide synthase genes specific to the brown rot fungi. Our results suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. A more nuanced categorization of rot types is needed, based on an improved understanding of the genomics and biochemistry of wood decay.

  3. Preparation of powders suitable for conversion to useful .beta.-aluminas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, Peter E. D.

    1982-01-01

    A process for forming a precursor powder which, when suitably pressed and sintered forms highly pure, densified .beta.- or .beta."-alumina, comprising the steps of: (1) forming a suspension (or slurry) of Bayer-derived Al(OH).sub.3 in a water-miscible solvent; (2) adding an aqueous solution of a Mg compound, a Li compound, a Na compound or mixtures thereof to the Bayer-derived Al(OH).sub.3 suspension while agitating the mixture formed thereby, to produce a gel; (3) drying the gel at a temperature above the normal boiling point of water to produce a powder material; (4) lightly ball milling and sieving said powder material; and (5) heating the ball-milled and sieved powder material at a temperature of between 350.degree. to 900.degree. C. to form the .beta.- or .beta."-alumina precursor powder. The precursor powder, thus formed, may be subsequently isopressed at a high pressure and sintered at an elevated temperature to produce .beta.- or .beta."-alumina. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

  4. Preparation and performances of nanosized Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} powder photocatalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu Yongfa . E-mail: zhuyf@chem.tsinghua.edu.cn; Yu Fang; Man, Yi; Tian, Qingyong; He Yu; Wu Nianzu

    2005-01-15

    Nanosized-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} powder photocatalyst was successfully synthesized by using sol-gel method via TaCl{sub 5} butanol solution as a precursor. Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} species can be formed under 500 deg. C via the decomposition of the precursor. The crystalline phase of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} powder photocatalyst can be obtained after being calcined above 600 deg. C for 4h. The crystal size and particle size of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} powder photocatalyst was about 50nm. A good photocatalytic performance for the degradation of gaseous formaldehyde was obtained for the nanosized-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} powder. The Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} powder formed at 700 deg. C for 4h and at 650 deg. C for 12h showed the best performance. The calcination temperature and time play an important role in the crystallization and photocatalytical performance of nanosized-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} powder.

  5. Specific surface area and chemical reactivity of quartz powders during mechanical processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meloni, Paola; Carcangiu, Gianfranco; Delogu, Francesco

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quartz powders were submitted to mechanical processing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The specific surface area and the chemical reactivity increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A model was developed to describe the observed processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amount of powder processed at impact was estimated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The surface density of reactive centers was also estimated by using a test reaction. -- Abstract: The present work focuses on the specific surface area increase, and on the related chemical reactivity enhancement of quartz powders submitted to mechanical processing. The mechanical treatment was carried out in a suitably developed ball mill allowing the control of the frequency and energy of the impacts between ball and reactor. The specific surface area was directly measured by nitrogen physisorption, whereas electron microscopy was used to determine the size distribution of powder particles. Based on the experimental results, a simplified mathematical model was developed to describe the process of specific surface area increase on a phenomenological basis. The model permits to gain valuable information on the amount of powder processed in individual impacts. The density of reactive centers at the surface of powder particles was also estimated by using the neutralization of a free radical as a test reaction. It is shown that the surface density of reactive centers increases with the energy of collisions.

  6. About Additive Manufacturing | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Introducing Additive Manufacturing at GE Global Research Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Introducing Additive Manufacturing at GE Global Research Prabhjot Singh, manager of the Additive Manufacturing Lab at GE Global Research, describes the technology used in his lab. You Might Also Like DirectWrite_V

  7. Martin's Additions, Maryland: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Martin's Additions is a village in Montgomery County, Maryland. It falls under Maryland's 8th congressional district.12...

  8. Advanced Qualification of Additive Manufacturing Materials Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    July » Advanced Qualification of Additive Manufacturing Materials Workshop Advanced Qualification of Additive Manufacturing Materials Workshop WHEN: Jul 20, 2015 8:30 AM - Jul 21, 2015 7:30 PM WHERE: La Fonda on the Plaza Santa Fe, New Mexico SPEAKER: Multiple speakers CONTACT: Caryll Blount (505) 665-3950 CATEGORY: Science TYPE: Workshop INTERNAL: Calendar Login Event Description Invited speakers from universities and research centers, both US-based and Europe-based, will provide updates on

  9. Advanced Qualification of Additive Manufacturing Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Additive Manufacturing Workshop Poster Abstract Submission - deadline July 10, 2015 Advanced Qualification of Additive Manufacturing Materials using in situ sensors, diagnostics and modeling Contact Institute Director Dr. Alexander V. Balatsky Institute for Materials Science (505) 665-0077 Email Deputy Director Dr. Jennifer S. Martinez Institute for Materials Science (505) 665-0045 Email Deputy Director Dr. Nathan A. Mara Institute for Materials Science (505) 667 8665 Email Institute

  10. Detection of rare earth elements in Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal ash using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tran, Phuoc

    2015-10-01

    We reported our preliminary results on the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to analyze the rare earth elements contained in ash samples from Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal (PRB-coal). We have identified many elements in the lanthanide series (cerium, europium, holmium, lanthanum, lutetium, praseodymium, promethium, samarium, terbium, ytterbium) and some elements in the actinide series (actinium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, berkelium, californium) in the ash samples. In addition, various metals were also seen to present in the ash samples

  11. Effect of additives on lithium cycling efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirai, Toshiro; Yoshimatsu, Isamu; Yamaki, J. )

    1994-09-01

    Lithium cycling efficiency was evaluated for LiAsF[sub 6]-ethylene carbonate/2-methyltetrahydrofuran mixed-solvent electrolyte (LiAsF[sub 6]-EC/2MeTHF) with several additives: tetraalkylammonium chlorides with a long n-alkyl chain and three methyl groups. The ammonium chlorides with n-alkyl group longer than n-C[sub 12]H[sub 25]- increased lithium cycling efficiency. Cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) produced the best improvement in lithium cycling efficiency. A figure of merit (FOM) of lithium for 0.01 M CTAC was 46, which was 1.5 times the FOM for the corresponding additive-free electrolyte. The LiAsF[sub 6]-EC/2MeTHF with CTAC showed an increase in FOM with stack pressure, but the effect was less than that for the additive-free LiAsF[sub 6]-EC/2MeTHF. Scanning electron microscope observation showed that the addition of CTAC decreased the needle-like lithium deposition and increased particulate lithium deposition. This deposition morphology may be the main cause of the increase in FOM. The additive had no effect on rate capability for cell cycling at 3 mA/cm[sup 2] discharge and 1 mA/cm[sup 2] charge.

  12. Additive manufacturing of materials: Opportunities and challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Love, Lonnie J.; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Peter, William H.; Watkins, Thomas R.; Pannala, Sreekanth

    2015-11-01

    Additive manufacturing (also known as 3D printing) is considered a disruptive technology for producing components with topologically optimized complex geometries as well as functionalities that are not achievable by traditional methods. The realization of the full potential of 3D printing is stifled by a lack of computational design tools, generic material feedstocks, techniques for monitoring thermomechanical processes under in situ conditions, and especially methods for minimizing anisotropic static and dynamic properties brought about by microstructural heterogeneity. In this paper, we discuss the role of interdisciplinary research involving robotics and automation, process control, multiscale characterization of microstructure and properties, and high-performance computational tools to address each of these challenges. In addition, emerging pathways to scale up additive manufacturing of structural materials to large sizes (>1 m) and higher productivities (5–20 kg/h) while maintaining mechanical performance and geometrical flexibility are also discussed.

  13. Additive manufacturing of materials: Opportunities and challenges

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Love, Lonnie J.; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Peter, William H.; Watkins, Thomas R.; Pannala, Sreekanth

    2015-11-01

    Additive manufacturing (also known as 3D printing) is considered a disruptive technology for producing components with topologically optimized complex geometries as well as functionalities that are not achievable by traditional methods. The realization of the full potential of 3D printing is stifled by a lack of computational design tools, generic material feedstocks, techniques for monitoring thermomechanical processes under in situ conditions, and especially methods for minimizing anisotropic static and dynamic properties brought about by microstructural heterogeneity. In this paper, we discuss the role of interdisciplinary research involving robotics and automation, process control, multiscale characterization of microstructure and properties, and high-performancemore » computational tools to address each of these challenges. In addition, emerging pathways to scale up additive manufacturing of structural materials to large sizes (>1 m) and higher productivities (5–20 kg/h) while maintaining mechanical performance and geometrical flexibility are also discussed.« less

  14. Packaging and Transportation of Additional Neptunium Oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watkins, R.; Jordan, J.; Hensel, S.

    2010-05-05

    The Savannah River Site's HB-Line Facility completed a second neptunium oxide production campaign in which nine (9) additional cans of neptunium oxide were produced and shipped to the Idaho National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the 9975 shipping container. These additional cans were from a different feed solution than the first fifty (50) cans of neptunium oxide that were previously produced and shipped via a Letter of Amendment to the 9975 Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) content table. This paper will address the challenges associated with demonstrating the neptunium oxide produced from the additional feed solution was equivalent to the original neptunium oxide and within the content description of the Letter of Amendment.

  15. Breaking Barriers in Polymer Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Love, Lonnie J; Duty, Chad E; Post, Brian K; Lind, Randall F; Lloyd, Peter D; Kunc, Vlastimil; Peter, William H; Blue, Craig A

    2015-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) enables the creation of complex structures directly from a computer-aided design (CAD). There are limitations that prevent the technology from realizing its full potential. AM has been criticized for being slow and expensive with limited build size. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a large scale AM system that improves upon each of these areas by more than an order of magnitude. The Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system directly converts low cost pellets into a large, three-dimensional part at a rate exceeding 25 kg/h. By breaking these traditional barriers, it is possible for polymer AM to penetrate new manufacturing markets.

  16. Stabilization of polyaniline solutions through additives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wrobleski, Debra A. (Los Alamos, NM); Benicewicz, Brian C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    A stabilized non-conductive polyaniline solution comprising from about 1 to bout 10 percent by weight polyaniline or a polyaniline derivative, from about 90 to about 99 percent by weight N-methylpyrrolidone, and from about 0.5 percent by weight to about 15 percent by weight of a solution stabilizing additive selected from the group consisting of hindered amine light stabilizers, polymeric amines, and dialkylamines, percent by weight of additive based on the total weight of polyaniline or polyaniline derivative is provided together with a method for stabilizing a polyaniline solution.

  17. Stabilization of polyaniline solutions through additives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wrobleski, D.A.; Benicewicz, B.C.

    1996-12-10

    A stabilized non-conductive polyaniline solution comprising from about 1 to about 10 percent by weight polyaniline or a polyaniline derivative, from about 90 to about 99 percent by weight N-methylpyrrolidone, and from about 0.5 percent by weight to about 15 percent by weight of a solution stabilizing additive selected from the group consisting of hindered amine light stabilizers, polymeric amines, and dialkylamines, percent by weight of additive based on the total weight of polyaniline or polyaniline derivative is provided together with a method for stabilizing a polyaniline solution. 4 figs.

  18. Redox Shuttle Additives - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Redox Shuttle Additives Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology <p align="LEFT"> <i><font color="#808285" size="1"><font color="#808285" size="1">Charge Transfer Mechanism for Li-ion Battery Overcharge Protection &mdash; The boron and fluorine additive is in the electrolyte. When the battery is

  19. Method development and validation for measuring the particle size distribution of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) powders.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Sharissa Gay

    2005-09-01

    Currently, the critical particle properties of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) that influence deflagration-to-detonation time in exploding bridge wire detonators (EBW) are not known in sufficient detail to allow development of a predictive failure model. The specific surface area (SSA) of many PETN powders has been measured using both permeametry and gas absorption methods and has been found to have a critical effect on EBW detonator performance. The permeametry measure of SSA is a function of particle shape, packed bed pore geometry, and particle size distribution (PSD). Yet there is a general lack of agreement in PSD measurements between laboratories, raising concerns regarding collaboration and complicating efforts to understand changes in EBW performance related to powder properties. Benchmarking of data between laboratories that routinely perform detailed PSD characterization of powder samples and the determination of the most appropriate method to measure each PETN powder are necessary to discern correlations between performance and powder properties and to collaborate with partnering laboratories. To this end, a comparison was made of the PSD measured by three laboratories using their own standard procedures for light scattering instruments. Three PETN powder samples with different surface areas and particle morphologies were characterized. Differences in bulk PSD data generated by each laboratory were found to result from variations in sonication of the samples during preparation. The effect of this sonication was found to depend on particle morphology of the PETN samples, being deleterious to some PETN samples and advantageous for others in moderation. Discrepancies in the submicron-sized particle characterization data were related to an instrument-specific artifact particular to one laboratory. The type of carrier fluid used by each laboratory to suspend the PETN particles for the light scattering measurement had no consistent effect on the resulting

  20. Zero discharge organic coatings, powder paint - UV curable paint - E-coat. Volume 1. Final report, June 1993-June 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leal, J.; Martin, D.R.; Spadafora, S.J.; Eng, A.T.; Stark, H.

    1995-06-01

    Zero Discharge Organic Coatings project developed powder paint, Ultraviolet (UV) curable paint, and electro- coating (E-coat) paint for military Applications. These technologies offer potential for high performance coatings with little or no volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions or hazardous waste generation. The ZDOC project focused on formulating non-toxic corrosion inhibitors into these coating technologies, and the applications development of powder coatings. Non-toxic replacements for traditional lead and chromate inhibitors were selected based on a previous NAWCADWAR investigation. Once incorporated, the performance of the coatings with and without inhibitors was compared. Also, the protective mechanisms of these inhibitors were studied. The applications development for powder coatings analyzed technologies to allow powder coating of non-conductive substrates and evaluated the use of IR energy to cure powder coatings. Inhibitors were successfully incorporated into electrocoatings and powder coatings, however corrosion performance results varied with coating formulation.

  1. Fabrication and characterization of hexagonal boron nitride powder by spray drying and calcining-nitriding technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi Xiaoliang Wang Sheng; Yang Hua; Duan Xinglong; Dong Xuebin

    2008-09-15

    Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) powder was fabricated prepared by the spray drying and calcining-nitriding technology. The effects of nitrided temperature on the phases, morphology and particle size distribution of hBN powder, were investigated. The synthesized powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Fourier transformed infrared spectrum, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrum and photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. UV-vis spectrum revealed that the product had one obvious band gap (4.7 eV) and PL spectrum showed that it had a visible emission at 457 nm ({lambda}{sub ex}=230 nm). FESEM image indicated that the particle size of the synthesized hBN was mainly in the range of 0.5-1.5 {mu}m in diameter, and 50-150 nm in thickness. The high-energy ball-milling process following 900 deg. C calcining process was very helpful to obtain fully crystallized hBN at lower temperature. - Graphical abstract: hBN powder was fabricated prepared by spray drying and calcining-nitriding technology. The results indicated that spray drying and calcining-nitriding technology assisted with high-energy ball-milling process following calcined process was a hopeful way to manufacture hBN powder with high crystallinity in industrial scale.

  2. Senior Obama Administration Officials to Join Governor Brown, Mayor Garcetti, Other Leaders in L.A. for Climate Task Force Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On Thursday, February 13th, senior Obama Administration officials will join California Governor Jerry Brown, Los Angeles Mayor Eric Garcetti and state, local and tribal leaders from across the country for a media availability at Los Angeles City Hall

  3. PI3K/Akt is involved in brown adipogenesis mediated by growth differentiation factor-5 in association with activation of the Smad pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinoi, Eiichi; Iezaki, Takashi; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Takumi; Odaka, Yoshiaki; Ozaki, Kakeru; Yoneda, Yukio

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Akt is preferentially phosphorylated in BAT and sWAT of aP2-GDF5 mice. • PI3K/Akt signaling is involved in GDF5-induced brown adipogenesis. • PI3K/Akt signaling regulates GDF5-induced Smad5 phosphorylation. - Abstract: We have previously demonstrated promotion by growth differentiation factor-5 (GDF5) of brown adipogenesis for systemic energy expenditure through a mechanism relevant to activating the bone morphological protein (BMP) receptor/mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (Smad)/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) pathway. Here, we show the involvement of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway in brown adipogenesis mediated by GDF5. Overexpression of GDF5 in cells expressing adipocyte protein-2 markedly accelerated the phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 and Akt in white and brown adipose tissues. In brown adipose tissue from heterozygous GDF5{sup Rgsc451} mutant mice expressing a dominant-negative (DN) GDF5 under obesogenic conditions, the basal phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 and Akt was significantly attenuated. Exposure to GDF5 not only promoted the phosphorylation of both Smad1/5/8 and Akt in cultured brown pre-adipocytes, but also up-regulated Pgc1a and uncoupling protein-1 expression in a manner sensitive to the PI3K/Akt inhibitor Ly294002 as well as retroviral infection with DN-Akt. GDF5 drastically promoted BMP-responsive luciferase reporter activity in a Ly294002-sensitive fashion. Both Ly294002 and DN-Akt markedly inhibited phosphorylation of Smad5 in the nuclei of brown pre-adipocytes. These results suggest that PI3K/Akt signals play a role in the GDF5-mediated brown adipogenesis through a mechanism related to activation of the Smad pathway.

  4. Azimuthally sensitive hanbury brown-twiss interferometry in Au + Au collisions sqrt S sub NN = 200 GeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, J.; Adler, C.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Ahammed, Z.; Amonett, J.; Anderson, B.D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G.S.; Badyal, S.K.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L.S.; Baudot, J.; Bekele, S.; Belaga, V.V.; Bellwied, R.; Berger, J.; Bezverkhny, B.I.; Bhardwaj, S.; Bhati, A.K.; Bichsel, H.; Billmeier, A.; Bland, L.C.; Blyth, C.O.; Bonner, B.E.; Botje, M.; Boucham, A.; Brandin, A.; Bravar, A.; Cadman, R.V.; Cai, X.Z.; Caines, H.; Calderon de la Barca Sanchez, M.; Carroll, J.; Castillo, J.; Cebra, D.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, Y.; Chernenko, S.P.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Coffin, J.P.; Cormier, T.M.; Cramer, J.G.; Crawford, H.J.; Das, D.; Das, S.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Didenko, L.; Dietel, T.; Dong, W.J.; Dong, X.; Draper, J.E.; Du, F.; Dubey, A.K.; Dunin, V.B.; Dunlop, J.C.; Dutta Majumdar, M.R.; Eckardt, V.; Efimov, L.G.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Fachini, P.; Faine, V.; Faivre, J.; Fatemi, R.; Filimonov, K.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flierl, D.; Foley, K.J.; Fu, J.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gagunashvili, N.; Gans, J.; Gaudichet, L.; Geurts, F.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gonzalez, J.E.; Grachov, O.; Grebenyuk, O.; Gronstal, S.; Grosnick, D.; Guertin, S.M.; Gupta, A.; Gutierrez, T.D.; Hallman, T.J.; Hamed, A.; Hardtke, D.; Harris, J.W.; Heinz, M.; Henry, T.W.; Heppelmann, S.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Horsley, M.; Huang, H.Z.; Huang, L.S.; Hughes, E.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Janik, M.; Jiang, H.; Johnson, I.; Jones, P.G.; Judd, E.G.; Kabana, S.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Khodyrev, V.Yu.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Klay, J.; Klein, S.R.; Klyachko, A.; Koetke, D.D.; Kollegger, T.; Kopytine, M.; Kotchenda, L.; Kovalenko, A.D.; Kramer, M.; Kravtsov, V.I.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kuhn, C.; Kulikov, A.I.; Kumar, A.; Kunde, G.J.; Kunz, C.L.; Kutuev, R.Kh.; Kuznetsov, A.A.; Lamont, M.A.C.; et al.

    2004-06-30

    We present the results of a systematic study of the shape of the pion distribution in coordinate space at freeze-out in Au+Au collisions at RHIC using two-pion Hanbury Brown-Twiss (HBT) interferometry. Oscillations of the extracted HBT radii vs. emission angle indicate sources elongated perpendicular to the reaction plane. The results indicate that the pressure and expansion time of the collision system are not sufficient to completely quench its initial shape.

  5. Effects of water hardness on the toxicity of manganese to developing brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stubblefield, W.A.; Garrison, T.D.; Hockett, J.R.; Brinkman, S.F.; Davies, P.H.; McIntyre, M.W.

    1997-10-01

    Manganese is a common constituent of point and nonpoint discharges from mining and smelting activities. Available data indicate that Mn is acutely toxic at relatively high aqueous concentrations, when compared with trace metals, and its toxicity is affected by water hardness. Little information is available regarding the chronic toxicity of manganese. Early-life-stage (ELS) tests were conducted to determine the toxicity of manganese to brown trout (Salmo trutta) and to evaluate the extent to which water hardness (ranging from 30 to 450 mg/L as CaCO{sub 3}) affects the chronic toxicity of Mn. Water hardness of significantly affected Mn chronic toxicity, with toxicity decreasing with increasing hardness. Decreased survival was the predominant effect noted in the 30-mg/L hardness experiment, while significant effects on growth (as measured by changes in body weight) were observed in both the 150- and 450-mg/L hardness experiments. Twenty-five percent inhibition concentration (IC25) values, based on the combined endpoints (i.e., survival and body weight), were 4.67, 5.59, and 8.68 mg Mn/L (based on measured Mn concentration) at hardness levels of approximately 30, 150, and 450 mg/L as CaCO{sub 3}, respectively.

  6. Enhanced light absorption by mixed source black and brown carbon particles in UK winter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Shang; Aiken, Allison C.; Gorkowski, Kyle; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Cappa, Christopher D.; Williams, Leah R.; Herndon, Scott C.; Massoli, Paola; Fortner, Edward C.; Chhabra, Puneet S.; Brooks, William A.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Jayne, John T.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; China, Swarup; Sharma, Noopur; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Xu, Lu; Ng, Nga L.; Liu, Dantong; Allan, James D.; Lee, James D.; Fleming, Zoë L.; Mohr, Claudia; Zotter, Peter; Szidat, Sönke; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2015-09-30

    We report that black carbon (BC) and light-absorbing organic carbon (brown carbon, BrC) play key roles in warming the atmosphere, but the magnitude of their effects remains highly uncertain. Theoretical modelling and laboratory experiments demonstrate that coatings on BC can enhance BC’s light absorption, therefore many climate models simply assume enhanced BC absorption by a factor of ~1.5. However, recent field observations show negligible absorption enhancement, implying models may overestimate BC’s warming. Here we report direct evidence of substantial field-measured BC absorption enhancement, with the magnitude strongly depending on BC coating amount. Increases in BC coating result from a combination of changing sources and photochemical aging processes. When the influence of BrC is accounted for, observationally constrained model calculations of the BC absorption enhancement can be reconciled with the observations. In conclusion, we find that the influence of coatings on BC absorption should be treated as a source and regionally specific parameter in climate models.

  7. Spitzer IRAC mid-infrared photometry of 500-750 brown dwarf

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saumon, Didier; Leggett, Sandy K; Albert, Loic; Artigau, Etienne; Burningham, Ben; Delfosse, Xavier; Delorme, Philippe; Forveille, Thierry; Lucas, Philip W; Marley, Mark S; Pinfield, David J; Reyle, Celine; Smart, Richard L; Warren, Stephen J

    2010-10-26

    Mid-infrared data, including Spitzer warm-IRAC [3.6] and [4.5] photometry, is critical for understanding the cold population of brown dwarfs now being found, objects which have more in common with planets than stars. As effective temperature (T{sub eff}) drops from 800K to 400K, the fraction of flux emitted beyond 3 {mu}m increases rapidly, from about 40% to > 75%. This rapid increase makes a color like H-[4.5] a very sensitive temperature indicator, and it can be combined with a gravity- and metallicity-sensitive color like H-K to constrain all three of these fundamental properties, which in turn gives us mass and age for these slowly cooling objects. Determination of mid-infrared color trends also allows better exploitation of the WISE mission by the community. We use new Spitzer Cycle 6 IRAC photometry, together with published data, to present trends of color with type for L0 to T10 dwarfs. We also use the atmospheric and evolutionary models of Saumon and Marley to investigate the masses and ages of 13 very late-type T dwarfs, which have H-[4.5] > 3.2 and T{sub eff} {approx} 500K to 750K.

  8. NEW BROWN DWARF COMPANIONS TO YOUNG STARS IN SCORPIUS-CENTAURUS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janson, Markus; Jayawardhana, Ray; Bonavita, Mariangela; Girard, Julien H.; Lafreniere, David; Gizis, John; Brandeker, Alexis

    2012-10-10

    We present the discoveries of three faint companions to young stars in the Scorpius-Centaurus region, imaged with the NICI instrument on Gemini South. We have confirmed all three companions through common proper motion tests. Follow-up spectroscopy has confirmed two of them, HIP 65423 B and HIP 65517 B, to be brown dwarfs, while the third, HIP 72099 B, is more likely a very low mass star just above the hydrogen burning limit. The detection of wide companions in the mass range of {approx}40-100 M{sub jup} complements previous work in the same region, reporting detections of similarly wide companions with lower masses, in the range of {approx}10-30 M{sub jup}. Such low masses near the deuterium burning limit have raised the question of whether those objects formed like planets or stars. The existence of intermediate objects as reported here could represent a bridge between lower-mass companions and stellar companions, but in any case demonstrate that mass alone may not provide a clear-cut distinction for the formation of low-mass companions to stars.

  9. Enhanced light absorption by mixed source black and brown carbon particles in UK winter

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Shang; Aiken, Allison C.; Gorkowski, Kyle; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Cappa, Christopher D.; Williams, Leah R.; Herndon, Scott C.; Massoli, Paola; Fortner, Edward C.; Chhabra, Puneet S.; et al

    2015-09-30

    We report that black carbon (BC) and light-absorbing organic carbon (brown carbon, BrC) play key roles in warming the atmosphere, but the magnitude of their effects remains highly uncertain. Theoretical modelling and laboratory experiments demonstrate that coatings on BC can enhance BC’s light absorption, therefore many climate models simply assume enhanced BC absorption by a factor of ~1.5. However, recent field observations show negligible absorption enhancement, implying models may overestimate BC’s warming. Here we report direct evidence of substantial field-measured BC absorption enhancement, with the magnitude strongly depending on BC coating amount. Increases in BC coating result from a combinationmore » of changing sources and photochemical aging processes. When the influence of BrC is accounted for, observationally constrained model calculations of the BC absorption enhancement can be reconciled with the observations. In conclusion, we find that the influence of coatings on BC absorption should be treated as a source and regionally specific parameter in climate models.« less

  10. Size-dependent microstructures in rapidly solidified uranium-niobium powder particles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McKeown, Joseph T.; Hsiung, Luke L.; Park, Jong M.; Ryu, Ho J.; Turchi, Patrice E. A.; King, Wayne E.

    2016-06-14

    The microstructures of rapidly solidified U-6wt%Nb powder particles synthesized by centrifugal atomization were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Observed variations in microstructure are related to particle sizes. All of the powder particles exhibited a two-zone microstructure. The formation of this two-zone microstructure is described by a transition from solidification controlled by internal heat flow and high solidification rate during recalescence (micro-segregation-free or partitionless growth) to solidification controlled by external heat flow with slower solidification rates (dendritic growth with solute redistribution). The extent of partitionless solidification increased with decreasing particle size due to larger undercoolings in smallermore » particles prior to solidification. The metastable phases that formed are related to variations in Nb concentration across the particles. Lastly, the microstructures of the powders were heavily twinned.« less

  11. Total-scattering pair-distribution function of organic material from powder electron diffraction data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorelik, Tatiana E.; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Schmidt, Martin U.; Kolb, Ute

    2015-04-01

    This paper shows for the first time that pair-distribution function analyses can be carried out on organic and organo-metallic compounds from powder electron diffraction data. Different experimental setups are demonstrated, including selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and nanodiffraction in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or nanodiffraction in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) modes. The methods were demonstrated on organo-metallic complexes (chlorinated and unchlorinated copper-phthalocyanine) and on purely organic compounds (quinacridone). The PDF curves from powder electron diffraction data, called ePDF, are in good agreement with PDF curves determined from X-ray powder data demonstrating that the problems of obtaining kinematical scattering data and avoiding beam-damage of the sample are possible to resolve.

  12. Total-scattering pair-distribution function of organic material from powder electron diffraction data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gorelik, Tatiana E.; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Schmidt, Martin U.; Kolb, Ute

    2015-04-01

    This paper shows for the first time that pair-distribution function analyses can be carried out on organic and organo-metallic compounds from powder electron diffraction data. Different experimental setups are demonstrated, including selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and nanodiffraction in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or nanodiffraction in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) modes. The methods were demonstrated on organo-metallic complexes (chlorinated and unchlorinated copper-phthalocyanine) and on purely organic compounds (quinacridone). The PDF curves from powder electron diffraction data, called ePDF, are in good agreement with PDF curves determined from X-ray powder data demonstrating that the problems of obtaining kinematical scattering datamore » and avoiding beam-damage of the sample are possible to resolve.« less

  13. Evolution of solidification texture during additive manufacturing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wei, H. L.; Mazumder, J.; DebRoy, T.

    2015-11-10

    Striking differences in the solidification textures of a nickel based alloy owing to changes in laser scanning pattern during additive manufacturing are examined based on theory and experimental data. Understanding and controlling texture are important because it affects mechanical and chemical properties. Solidification texture depends on the local heat flow directions and competitive grain growth in one of the six <100> preferred growth directions in face centered cubic alloys. Furthermore, the heat flow directions are examined for various laser beam scanning patterns based on numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in three dimensions. Here we show that numericalmore » modeling can not only provide a deeper understanding of the solidification growth patterns during the additive manufacturing, it also serves as a basis for customizing solidification textures which are important for properties and performance of components.« less

  14. Evolution of solidification texture during additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, H. L.; Mazumder, J.; DebRoy, T.

    2015-11-10

    Striking differences in the solidification textures of a nickel based alloy owing to changes in laser scanning pattern during additive manufacturing are examined based on theory and experimental data. Understanding and controlling texture are important because it affects mechanical and chemical properties. Solidification texture depends on the local heat flow directions and competitive grain growth in one of the six <100> preferred growth directions in face centered cubic alloys. Furthermore, the heat flow directions are examined for various laser beam scanning patterns based on numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in three dimensions. Here we show that numerical modeling can not only provide a deeper understanding of the solidification growth patterns during the additive manufacturing, it also serves as a basis for customizing solidification textures which are important for properties and performance of components.

  15. The addition of disilanes to cumulenes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Y.

    1997-10-08

    The syntheses of silicon-containing compounds and the studies of their rearrangements have been active research areas in the Barton research group. Previously, the addition of disilanes to acetylenes was studied in the group and an intramolecular 2S + 2A mechanism has been proposed. In this thesis, the work is focused on the addition of disilanes to cumulenes. The syntheses of the precursors are discussed and the possible mechanisms for their thermal, photochemical and catalytic rearrangements are proposed. Conjugated organic polymers have been studied in the group since 1985 because of their potential for exhibiting high electroconductivity, photoconductivity, strong non-linear optical response and intense fluorescence. In the second section of this dissertation, the synthesis and property studies of poly(phenylene vinylene) analogues are discussed.

  16. Vehicular fuels and additives for the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Interest in automotive fuel is resurging. Automobile fuels must increasingly deal with clean air regulations and ozone problems. Furthermore, feedstocks become heavier,as refinery production changes, as more unleaded is produced, and as an increasing number of pollution regulations must be satisfied greater attention will be paid to better mixtures, solvents, additives, and neat methanol. BCC report analyzes developments technologies, markets, players and the political/regulations aspects of this important market. Study also assesses the advantages and drawbacks of methanol, ethanol, MTBE and other additives which have their place as octane enhancers and fuel substitutes-all now deeply involved in the gasoline modification battle. Other issues addressed are subsidies, farm lobbying, imports, pricing, economics, Detroit's response, neat fuel testing projects, volatility problems vs. fewer ozone-forming hydrocarbon species, and emission ratings.

  17. Additional Resources | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Development Additional Resources Photo: DARHT's Accelerators help create the x-rays at DARHT, the world's most advanced radiography facility. Reports 2013 Stewardship Science Academic Programs Annual 2012 Stewardship Science Academic Alliances Annual 2011 Stewardship Science Academic Alliances Annual FY 2011 Stockpile Stewardship and Management Plan, Annex A (April 7, 2010) Supplement to the Stockpile Stewardship Plan, Fiscal Years 2010-2014 (December 2009) Advances in Matter Under Extreme

  18. Energetic additive manufacturing process with feed wire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harwell, Lane D.; Griffith, Michelle L.; Greene, Donald L.; Pressly, Gary A.

    2000-11-07

    A process for additive manufacture by energetic wire deposition is described. A source wire is fed into a energy beam generated melt-pool on a growth surface as the melt-pool moves over the growth surface. This process enables the rapid prototyping and manufacture of fully dense, near-net shape components, as well as cladding and welding processes. Alloys, graded materials, and other inhomogeneous materials can be grown using this process.

  19. Plasma synthesis of lithium based intercalation powders for solid polymer electrolyte batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.; Pink, Robert J.; Nelson, Lee O.

    2005-01-04

    The invention relates to a process for preparing lithium intercalation compounds by plasma reaction comprising the steps of: forming a feed solution by mixing lithium nitrate or lithium hydroxide or lithium oxide and the required metal nitrate or metal hydroxide or metal oxide and between 10-50% alcohol by weight; mixing the feed solution with O.sub.2 gas wherein the O.sub.2 gas atomizes the feed solution into fine reactant droplets, inserting the atomized feed solution into a plasma reactor to form an intercalation powder; and if desired, heating the resulting powder to from a very pure single phase product.

  20. In-situ Formation of Ti Alloys via Powder Injection Molding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Nyberg, Eric A.; Weil, K. Scott; Miller, Megan R.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a unique blend of powder injection molding (PIM) feedstock materials in which only a small volume fraction of binder (< 8%) is required; the remainder of the mixture consists of the metal powder and a solid aromatic solvent. Because of the nature of the decomposition in the binder system and the relatively small amount used, the binder can be completely removed from the molded component during heat treatment. Here, we present results from an initial study on in-situ titanium alloy formation in near-net shape components manufactured by this novel PIM technique.

  1. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Titanium Components Fabricated by a New Powder Injection Molding Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nyberg, Eric A.; Miller, Megan R.; Simmons, Kevin L.; Weil, K. Scott

    2005-05-01

    We have developed a powder injection molding (PIM) binder system for titanium that employs naphthalene as the primary constituent to facilitate easy binder removal and mitigate problems with carbon contamination. In the study presented here, we examined densification behavior, microstructure, and mechanical properties in specimens formed by this process. In general, we found that we could achieve tensile strengths comparable to wrought titanium in the PIM-formed specimens, but that maximum elongation was less than expected. Chemical and microstructural analyses suggest that use of higher purity powder and further process optimization will lead to significant improvements in ductility.

  2. A new binder for powder injection molding titanium and other reactive metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weil, K. Scott; Nyberg, Eric A.; Simmons, Kevin L.

    2006-06-26

    We have developed a new aromatic-based binder for powder injection molding (PIM) reactive metals, such as titanium, zirconium, niobium, tungsten, and molybdenum. Because of careful selection of the binder constituents, thermal removal is readily accomplished at low temperatures and short-times via vacuum sublimation. In this way the binder can be cleanly extracted from the green part prior to sintering to minimize the amount of residual carbon left in the final component. Rheological measurements indicate that powder loadings in the PIM feedstock as high as 67 vol% could be achieved using the new binder system, while still maintaining low mixing torques and injection molding pressures.

  3. Method of making metal oxide ceramic powders by using a combustible amino acid compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pederson, L.R.; Chick, L.A.; Exarhos, G.J.

    1992-05-19

    This invention is directed to the formation of homogeneous, aqueous precursor mixtures of at least one substantially soluble metal salt and a substantially soluble, combustible co-reactant compound, typically an amino acid. This produces, upon evaporation, a substantially homogeneous intermediate material having a total solids level which would support combustion. The homogeneous intermediate material essentially comprises highly dispersed or solvated metal constituents and the co-reactant compound. The intermediate material is quite flammable. A metal oxide powder results on ignition of the intermediate product which combusts same to produce the product powder.

  4. Method of making metal oxide ceramic powders by using a combustible amino acid compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pederson, Larry R.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Exarhos, Gregory J.

    1992-01-01

    This invention is directed to the formation of homogeneous, aqueous precursor mixtures of at least one substantially soluble metal salt and a substantially soluble, combustible co-reactant compound, typically an amino acid. This produces, upon evaporation, a substantially homogeneous intermediate material having a total solids level which would support combustion. The homogeneous intermediate material essentially comprises highly dispersed or solvated metal constituents and the co-reactant compound. The intermediate material is quite flammable. A metal oxide powder results on ignition of the intermediate product which combusts same to produce the product powder.

  5. Method for molding ceramic powders using a water-based gel casting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janney, Mark A.; Omatete, Ogbemi O.

    1991-07-02

    A method for molding ceramic powders comprises forming a slurry mixture including ceramic powder, a dispersant, and a monomer solution. The monomer solution includes at least one monofunctional monomer and at least one difunctional monomer, a free-radical initiator, and a aqueous solvent. The slurry mixture is transferred to a mold, and the mold containing the slurry mixture is heated to polymerize and crosslink the monomer and form a firm polymer-solvent gel matrix. The solid product any be removed from the mold and heated to first remove the solvent and subsequently remove the polymer, whereafter the product may be sintered.

  6. A New Camera for Powder Diffraction of Macromolecular Crystallography at SPring-8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miura, Keiko; Inoue, Katsuaki; Goto, Shunji; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Masaki; Ueki, Tatzuo

    2004-05-12

    A powder diffractometer of Guinier geometry was developed and tested on a beamline, BL40B2, at SPring-8. The long specimen-to-detector distance, 1,000 mm, is advantageous in recording diffraction from Bragg spacing of 20 nm or larger. The angular resolution, 0.012 degrees, was realized together with the focusing optics, the long specimen-to-detector distance and the small pixel size of Blue-type Imaging Plate detector. Such a high resolution makes the peak separation possible in the powder diffraction from microcrystals with large unit cell and low symmetry of biological macromolecules.

  7. Non-aqueous spray drying as a route to ultrafine ceramic powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armor, J.N. ); Fanelli, A.J.; Marsh, G.M. ); Zambri, P.M. )

    1988-09-01

    Spray drying imparts unique powder handling features to a wide variety of dried products and is usually carried out in a heated air stream while feeding an aqueous suspension of some solid material. The present work, however, describes non-aqueous spray drying as a means of preparing fine powders of metal oxides. In this case an alcohol solvent was used in place of water and the slurry sprayed under an inert atmosphere. Using the non-aqueous technique, the product consists of distinct but loosely aggregated primary particles. Such materials have potential for use as catalysts or catalyst supports.

  8. Conversion method of powder inelastic scattering data for one-dimensional systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomiyasu, Dr. Keisuke; Fujita, Prof. Masaki; Kolesnikov, Alexander I; Bewley, Robert I.; Bull, Dr. Martyn J.; Bennington, Dr. Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    Extracting dispersive magnetic excitations from inelastic neutron scattering data usually requires large single crystals. We present a simple yet powerful method for extracting such information from polycrystalline or powder data for one-dimensional systems. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this data treatment by extracting dispersion curves from powder inelastic neutron scattering data on the one-dimensional spin-half systems: CuGeO3 and Rb2Cu2Mo3O12. For many such materials it is not possible to grow sufficiently large crystals and this method offers a quick and efficient way to study their magnetic excitations.

  9. MnO spin-wave dispersion curves from neutron powder diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodwin, Andrew L.; Dove, Martin T.; Tucker, Matthew G.; Keen, David A.

    2007-02-15

    We describe a model-independent approach for the extraction of spin-wave dispersion curves from powder neutron total scattering data. Our approach is based on a statistical analysis of real-space spin configurations to calculate spin-dynamical quantities. The RMCPROFILE implementation of the reverse Monte Carlo refinement process is used to generate a large ensemble of supercell spin configurations from MnO powder diffraction data collected at 100 K. Our analysis of these configurations gives spin-wave dispersion curves for MnO that agree well with those determined independently using neutron triple-axis spectroscopic techniques.

  10. Method for molding ceramic powders using a water-based gel casting process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jenny, Mark A.; Omalete, Ogbemi O.

    1992-09-08

    A method for molding ceramic powders comprises forming a slurry mixture including ceramic powder, a dispersant, and a monomer solution. The monomer solution includes at least one monofunctional monomer and at least one difunctional monomer, a free-radical initiator, and a aqueous solvent. The slurry mixture is transferred to a mold, and the mold containing the slurry mixture is heated to polymerize and crosslink the monomer and form a firm polymer-solvent gel matrix. The solid product may be removed from the mold and heated to first remove the solvent and subsequently remove the polymer, whereafter the product may be sintered.

  11. EARLY- AND LATE-TIME OBSERVATIONS OF SN 2008ha: ADDITIONAL CONSTRAINTS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We also present late-time imaging and spectroscopy that are consistent with this scenario. Authors: Foley, Ryan J. ; Challis, Peter J. ; Kirshner, Robert P. 1 ; Brown, Peter J. ...

  12. Electrolyte additive for improved battery performance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bellows, Richard J. (Hampton, NJ); Kantner, Edward (E. Brunswick, NJ)

    1989-04-04

    In one embodiment of the present invention, there is provided an electrochemical cell having a metal bromine couple. The cell includes an electrode structure on which to deposit the metal of the couple and a counterelectrode at which to generate bromine. A microporous membrane separates the electrode and counterelectrode. Importantly, the aqueous electrolyte comprises an aqueous metal bromide solution containing a water soluble bromine complexing agent capable of forming a water immiscible complex with bromine and an additive capable of decreasing the wettability of the microporous separators employed in such cells by such water immiscible bromine complexes.

  13. Laser Additive Manufacturing | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Revolutionizing the Age-Old Rules of Manufacturing Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Revolutionizing the Age-Old Rules of Manufacturing Learn how additive manufacturing, a 3D-printing technology, frees engineers to design the perfect jet engine. You Might Also Like IMG_0475 Innovation 24/7: We're Always

  14. Structural and spectroscopic analyses of europium doped yttrium oxyfluoride powders prepared by combustion synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rakov, Nikifor; Guimares, R. B.; Maciel, Glauco S.; Lozano B, W.

    2013-07-28

    A facile widely spread technique employed to produce low-cost high-yield oxide powders, combustion synthesis, was used to prepare yttrium oxyfluoride crystalline ceramic powders. The structure of the powders was analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction and Rietveld refinement. Samples heat treated at 700 C had a predominance of vernier orthorhombic Y{sub 6}O{sub 5}F{sub 8} phase, while samples heat treated at 800 C crystallized in stoichiometric rhombohedral YOF phase. The samples were doped with luminescent europium trivalent ions (Eu{sup 3+}) in different concentrations (115 wt.%) and Judd-Ofelt theory was used to probe the distortion from the inversion symmetry of the local crystal field and the degree of covalency between the rare-earth ion and the surrounding ligands. The luminescence lifetime was measured and the luminescence quantum efficiency (LQE) was estimated. We observed that Eu{sup 3+}:Y{sub 6}O{sub 5}F{sub 8} samples presented higher LQE in spite of the larger local crystal field anisotropy found for Eu{sup 3+}:YOF samples.

  15. Ceramic interconnectors for planar solid oxide fuel cells through tape casting of reaction sprayed powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stolten, D.; Kurbjuhn, M.; Wagner, W.

    1995-09-01

    A route to produce doped lanthanum-chromite interconnectors for application in solid oxide fuel cells is presented. Reaction spraying is applied to attain fine grained and homogeneous raw powder. A ceramic exhibiting a sintering density of 99% is attained via continuous calcination, milling, tape casting and subsequently sintering. Due to the high sintering density, gas tightness is achieved.

  16. Experimental Study Of Polyformaldehyde Propellants Seeded With Micron-Scale Aluminum Powder For Laser Propulsion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Long; Peng Jie; Hu Xiaojun; Zheng Hang; Tang Zhiping

    2010-05-06

    The propulsion performance of polyoxymethylene (POM) seeded with micron-scale aluminum (muAl) powder has been studied experimentally with CO{sub 2} lasers. The results show that the momentum coupling coefficient (C{sub m}) and specific impulse (I{sub sp}) of POM seeded with muAl powder is almost the same as pure POM at lower power density (<1centre dot7x10{sup 6} W/cm{sup 2}). At higher power density (>1centre dot7xl0{sup 6} W/cm{sup 2}), C{sub m} of POM seeded with muAl powder decreases significantly while I{sub sp} increases significantly. When this material is put into a cylindrical nozzle, the measured maximum C{sub m} and I{sub sp} can raise to 40.1 dyne/W and 1361 s, respectively. The energy usage ratio is over 100%, which indicates that the aluminum powder may react chemically with the air under the constraint condition. This conclusion was verified experimentally both in atmosphere and vacuum conditions.

  17. Characterization of MgO powders for use in thermal batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Reinhardt, W.

    1996-09-01

    Ten commercial MgO powders were evaluated for their suitability to act as a binder in the separator of thermal batteries to immobilize the electrolyte when it is molten. One brand in particular, Maglite S from Calgon, outperformed all the others. This report describes the results of a characterization study of this MgO as well as similar materials from other commercial vendors. The study objective was to define the critical properties of Maglite S MgO that are responsible for its superior performance in thermal-battery separators. Separator mixes were prepared with the various MgO powders and the resulting powders and pellets were characterized, to correlate key physical properties of these materials to select physical and chemical properties of the MgO powders used in their preparation. The MgO pore-size distribution was the only parameter that could be related to the deformation and electrolyte-leakage behavior of separator pellets. A potential replacement for the Maglite S is currently being qualified, since Maglite S MgO is no longer available.

  18. Final Report: Si and Na-SG Powder Hydrogen Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melack, John

    2013-07-15

    The primary project objective is to develop and demonstrate a controllable hydrogen generation system based on sodium silicide powder for portable fuel cell applications. This includes the development and demonstration of all balance of plant and reaction control components, which encompass water feeding, thermal management, and reaction site maximization. The appropriate manufacturing methods to readily scale production of sodium silicide will also be investigated.

  19. Beam geometry selection using sequential beam addition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popple, Richard A. Brezovich, Ivan A.; Fiveash, John B.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: The selection of optimal beam geometry has been of interest since the inception of conformal radiotherapy. The authors report on sequential beam addition, a simple beam geometry selection method, for intensity modulated radiation therapy. Methods: The sequential beam addition algorithm (SBA) requires definition of an objective function (score) and a set of candidate beam geometries (pool). In the first iteration, the optimal score is determined for each beam in the pool and the beam with the best score selected. In the next iteration, the optimal score is calculated for each beam remaining in the pool combined with the beam selected in the first iteration, and the best scoring beam is selected. The process is repeated until the desired number of beams is reached. The authors selected three treatment sites, breast, lung, and brain, and determined beam arrangements for up to 11 beams from a pool comprised of 25 equiangular transverse beams. For the brain, arrangements were additionally selected from a pool of 22 noncoplanar beams. Scores were determined for geometries comprised equiangular transverse beams (EQA), as well as two tangential beams for the breast case. Results: In all cases, SBA resulted in scores superior to EQA. The breast case had the strongest dependence on beam geometry, for which only the 7-beam EQA geometry had a score better than the two tangential beams, whereas all SBA geometries with more than two beams were superior. In the lung case, EQA and SBA scores monotonically improved with increasing number of beams; however, SBA required fewer beams to achieve scores equivalent to EQA. For the brain case, SBA with a coplanar pool was equivalent to EQA, while the noncoplanar pool resulted in slightly better scores; however, the dose-volume histograms demonstrated that the differences were not clinically significant. Conclusions: For situations in which beam geometry has a significant effect on the objective function, SBA can identify

  20. Printability of alloys for additive manufacturing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mukherjee, T.; Zuback, J. S.; De, A.; DebRoy, T.

    2016-01-22

    Although additive manufacturing (AM), or three dimensional (3D) printing, provides significant advantages over existing manufacturing techniques, metallic parts produced by AM are susceptible to distortion, lack of fusion defects and compositional changes. Here we show that the printability, or the ability of an alloy to avoid these defects, can be examined by developing and testing appropriate theories. A theoretical scaling analysis is used to test vulnerability of various alloys to thermal distortion. A theoretical kinetic model is used to examine predisposition of different alloys to AM induced compositional changes. A well-tested numerical heat transfer and fluid flow model is usedmore » to compare susceptibilities of various alloys to lack of fusion defects. These results are tested and validated with independent experimental data. Here, the findings presented in this paper are aimed at achieving distortion free, compositionally sound and well bonded metallic parts.« less