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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brittle material failure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Fracture of brittle multiphase materials by high energy water jets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High energy water jets are established in processing brittle, inhomogeneous materials like rocks and concrete. Despite their wide ... of application, the failure mechanisms of these materials, especially the infl...

A. Momber; R. Kovacevic

1996-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

2

Fabrication of brittle materials -- current status  

SciTech Connect

The research initiatives in the area of precision fabrication will be continued in the upcoming year. Three students, T. Bifano (PhD), P. Blake (PhD) and E. Smith (MS), finished their research programs in the last year. Sections 13 and 14 will summarize the essential results from the work of the Materials Engineering students Blake and Smith. Further details will be presented in forthcoming publications that are now in preparation. The results from Bifano`s thesis have been published in adequate detail and need not be summarized further. Three new students, S. Blackley (MS), H. Paul (PhD), and S. Smith (PhD) have joined the program and will continue the research efforts in precision fabrication. The programs for these students will be outlined in Sections 15 and 16. Because of the success of the earlier work in establishing new process models and experimental techniques for the study of diamond turning and diamond grinding, the new programs will, in part, build upon the earlier work. This is especially true for investigations concerned with brittle materials. The basic understanding of material response of nominally brittle materials during machining or grinding operations remains as a challenge. The precision fabrication of brittle materials will continue as an area of emphasis for the Precision Engineering Center.

Scattergood, R.O.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Fracture mechanics applied to the machining of brittle materials  

SciTech Connect

Research has begun on incorporating fracture mechanics into a model of the orthogonal cutting of brittle materials. Residual stresses are calculated for the machined material by a combination of Eulerian and Lagrangian finite element models and then used in the calculation of stress intensity factors by the Green`s Function Method.

Hiatt, G.D.; Strenkowski, J.S.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Fatigue and delayed brittle failure of vacuum melted and cadmium plated steel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The detrimental effect of cyanide cadmium plating on fatigue strength and delayed brittle failure performance of an ultra high strength steel is reduced effectively by using vacuum melted steel as the basis metal. This phenomenon has been related predominantly to the increased tensile ductility of the steel with comparatively low hydrogen concentration.

W. Beck; E.J. Jankowsky; W.H. Golding

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Formulation and computational aspects of plasticity and damage models with application to quasi-brittle materials  

SciTech Connect

The response of underground structures and transportation facilities under various external loadings and environments is critical for human safety as well as environmental protection. Since quasi-brittle materials such as concrete and rock are commonly used for underground construction, the constitutive modeling of these engineering materials, including post-limit behaviors, is one of the most important aspects in safety assessment. From experimental, theoretical, and computational points of view, this report considers the constitutive modeling of quasi-brittle materials in general and concentrates on concrete in particular. Based on the internal variable theory of thermodynamics, the general formulations of plasticity and damage models are given to simulate two distinct modes of microstructural changes, inelastic flow and degradation of material strength and stiffness, that identify the phenomenological nonlinear behaviors of quasi-brittle materials. The computational aspects of plasticity and damage models are explored with respect to their effects on structural analyses. Specific constitutive models are then developed in a systematic manner according to the degree of completeness. A comprehensive literature survey is made to provide the up-to-date information on prediction of structural failures, which can serve as a reference for future research.

Chen, Z.; Schreyer, H.L. [New Mexico Engineering Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Simulations of ductile flow in brittle material processing  

SciTech Connect

Research is continuing on the effects of thermal properties of the cutting tool and workpiece on the overall temperature distribution. Using an Eulerian finite element model, diamond and steel tools cutting aluminum have been simulated at various, speeds, and depths of cut. The relative magnitude of the thermal conductivity of the tool and the workpiece is believed to be a primary factor in the resulting temperature distribution in the workpiece. This effect is demonstrated in the change of maximum surface temperatures for diamond on aluminum vs. steel on aluminum. As a preliminary step toward the study of ductile flow in brittle materials, the relative thermal conductivities of diamond on polycarbonate is simulated. In this case, the maximum temperature shifts from the rake face of the tool to the surface of the machined workpiece, thus promoting ductile flow in the workpiece surface.

Luh, M.H.; Strenkowski, J.S.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Brittle Failure Design Criteria for Ductile Cast Iron Spent-Fuel  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

r r Recommendations for Ductile and Brittle Failure Design Criteria for Ductile Cast Iron Spent-Fuel Shipping Containers This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsi- bility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Refer- ence herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recom-

8

Study of brittle destruction and erosion mechanisms of carbon-based materials during plasma instabilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-based materials; Disruption; Brittle destruction 1. Introduction Carbon-based materials such as high-thermal. The C±C composites, as materials for high-heat-¯ux components, have demonstrated excellent resistance, and surface modi®cations of the plasma-facing materials. Experimental work is being carried out at the high

Harilal, S. S.

9

Failure of Mineralized Collagen Microfibrils Using Finite Element Simulation Coupled to Mechanical Quasi-brittle Damage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bone is a multiscale heterogeneous materiel of which principal function is to support the body structure and to resist mechanical loading and fractures. Bone strength does not depend only on the quantity and quality of bone which is characterized by the geometry and the shape of bones but also on the mechanical proprieties of its compounds, which have a significant influence on its deformation and failure. This work aim to use a 3D nano-scale finite element model coupled to the concept of quasi-brittle damage with the behaviour law isotropic elasticity to investigate the fracture behaviour of composite materiel collagen-mineral (mineralized collagen microfibril). Fracture stress-number of cross-links and damping capacity-number of cross-links curves were obtained under tensile loading conditions at different densities of the mineral phase. The obtained results show that number of cross-links as well as the density of mineral has an important influence on the strength of microfibrils which in turn clarify the ...

Barkaoui, Abdelwahed; Hambli, Ridha; 10.1016/j.proeng.2011.04.526

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Effect of Load Path on Mode of Failure at the Brittle-ductile Transition in Well-sorted Aggregates of St. Peter Sand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EFFECT OF LOAD PATH ON MODE OF FAILURE AT THE BRITTLE-DUCTILE TRANSITION IN WELL-SORTED AGGREGATES OF ST. PETER SAND A Thesis by GOKTURK MEHMET DILCI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2010 Major Subject: Geology EFFECT OF LOAD PATH ON MODE OF FAILURE AT THE BRITTLE-DUCTILE TRANSITION IN WELL-SORTED AGGREGATES OF ST. PETER SAND...

Dilci, Gokturk Mehmet

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

11

Large-Scale Atomistic Simulations of Material Failure  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

These simulations from 2000 examine the supersonic propagation of cracks and the formation of complex junction structures in metals. Eight simulations concerning brittle fracture, ductile failure, and shockless compression are available.

Abraham, Farid [IBM Almaden Research; Duchaineau, Mark [LLNL; Wirth, Brian [LLNL; Heidelberg,; Seager, Mark [LLNL; De La Rubia, Diaz [LLNL

12

The weakening effect of water on the brittle failure strength of sandstone  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......g. failure) or in long-term (e.g. healing) processes...enhancement and radioactive waste storage are related to the hydromechanical...resistivity of the fluid in the storage container was repeatedly...From these, specific storage capacity s and permeability......

M. Duda; J. Renner

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Brittle Failure of Ice  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...accompanied by very little global damage (Smith and Schulson...polar marine transits and to global climate (Maykut 1982; Johanessen...and are stabilized against buckling by a potential energy gradient...constructing structures, pipelines for arctic conditions. American...

Erland M. Schulson

14

LOW VELOCITY SURFACE FRACTURE PATTERNS IN BRITTLE MATERIAL: A NEWLY EVIDENCED MECHANICAL INSTABILITY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is well known to occur in brittle fracture and significant advances have recently been obtained Systems & Fracure, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette, France 2 Graduate Aerospace Laboratories (GALCIT), California Science Forum 706-709 (2012) 920-924" DOI : 10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.706-709.920 #12;Experimental

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

15

Strengthening, Crack Arrest And Multiple Cracking In Brittle Materials Using Residual Stresses.  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Embodiments include a method for forming a glass which displays visible cracking prior to failure when subjected to predetermined stress level that is greater than a predetermined minimum stress level and less than a failure stress level. The method includes determining a critical flaw size in the glass and introducing a residual stress profile to the glass so that a plurality of visible cracks are formed prior to failure when the glass is subjected to a stress that is greater than the minimum stress level and lower than the critical stress. One method for forming the residual stress profile includes performing a first ion exchange so that a first plurality of ions of a first element in the glass are exchanged with a second plurality of ions of a second element that have a larger volume than the first ions. A second ion exchange is also performed so that a plurality of the second ions in the glass are exchanged back to ions of the first element.

Green, David J. (State College, PA); Sglavo, Vincenzo M. (Roncegno, IT); Tandon, Rajan (Fremont, CA)

2003-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

16

A note on the resistance to brittle fracture in various ceramic materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The square of the ratio of the abraded bending strength, ?d..., to the unabraded bending strength, ?, is proposed as a measure of the resistance to crack propagation in ceramic materials. Data for various porcela...

Masaaki Iwatsuki; Noboru Yamamoto

1969-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Brittle Fracture Ductile to Brittle transition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FRACTURE Brittle Fracture Ductile to Brittle transition Fracture Mechanics T.L. Anderson CRC sulphur in steel Residual stress Continuity of the structure Microcracks #12;Fracture Brittle Ductile Factors affecting fracture Strain rate State of stress Temperature #12;Behaviour described Terms Used

Subramaniam, Anandh

18

TYPE B RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGE FAILURE MODES AND CONTENTS COMPLIANCE  

SciTech Connect

Type B radioactive material package failures can occur due to any one of the following: inadequate design, manufacture, and maintenance of packages, load conditions beyond those anticipated in the regulations, and improper package loading and operation. The rigorous package design evaluations performed in the certification process, robust package manufacture quality assurance programs, and demanding load conditions prescribed in the regulations are all well established. This paper focuses on the operational aspects of Type B package loading with respect to an overbatch which may cause a package failure.

Watkins, R; Steve Hensel, S; Allen Smith, A

2007-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

19

Failure Stress and Apparent Elastic Modulus of Diesel Particulate Filter Ceramics  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Three established mechanical test specimen geometries and test methods for brittle materials are adapted to DPF architecture to evaluate failure initiation stress and apparent elastic modulus of the ceramics.

20

Ris-R-1736 (EN) Cohesive laws for assessment of materials failure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Risø-R-1736 (EN) Cohesive laws for assessment of materials failure: Theory, experimental methods resistance 0J d n , (1-8) on per unit fracture surface area. rovide a way to connect the bridging law laws for assessment of materials failure: Theory, experimental methods and application #12;#12;Cohesive

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brittle material failure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Reactor Materials Program process water piping indirect failure frequency  

SciTech Connect

Following completion of the probabilistic analyses, the LOCA Definition Project has been subject to various external reviews, and as a result the need for several revisions has arisen. This report updates and summarizes the indirect failure frequency analysis for the process water piping. In this report, a conservatism of the earlier analysis is removed, supporting lower failure frequency estimates. The analysis results are also reinterpreted in light of subsequent review comments.

Daugherty, W.L.

1989-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

22

Failure in shear bands for granular materials: thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical effects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Failure in shear bands for granular materials: thermo-hydro-chemo- mechanical effects M. VEVEAKIS depends on the chemical reaction characteristics and that micro-inertia due to grain translations

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

23

Analysis of the causes of failure in high chrome oxide refractory materials from slagging gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

High Cr2O3 refractory materials are used to line the hot face of slagging gasifiers. Gasifiers are reaction chambers that convert water, oxygen, and a carbon feedstock into CO, H2, and methane at temperatures as high as 1575oC and pressures up to 1000 psi. Ash in the carbon feedstock liquefies, erodes and corrodes the gasifiers refractory liner, contributing to liner failure within a few months to two years. The failure of a refractory liner decreases a gasifiers on-line availability and causes costly system downtime and repairs. Many factors contribute to refractory lining failure, including slag penetration and corrosion, thermal cycling, gasifier environment, and mechanical loads. The results of refractory post-mortem failure analysis and how observations relate to gasifier service life will be discussed.

Bennett, J.P.; Kwong, K.-S.; Powell, C.A.; Thomas, H.; Krabbe, R.A.

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

An analysis of the causes of failure in high chrome oxide refractory materials from slagging gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

High Cr2O3 refractory materials are used to line the hot face of slagging gasifiers. Gasifiers are reaction chambers that convert water, oxygen, and a carbon feedstock into CO, H2, and methane at temperatures as high as 1575DGC and pressures up to 1000 psi. Ash in the carbon feedstock liquefies, erodes and corrodes the gasifier's refractory liner, contributing to liner failure within a few months to two years. The failure of a refractory liner decreases a gasifier's on-line availability and causes costly system downtime and repairs. Many factors contribute to refractory lining failure, including slag penetration and corrosion, thermal cycling, gasifier environment, and mechanical loads. The results of refractory post-mortem failure analysis and how observations relate to gasifier service life will be discussed.

Bennett, James P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Powell, Cynthia A.; Thomas, Hugh; Krabbe, Rick

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Failure by fracture and fatigue in 'NANO' and 'BIO'materials  

SciTech Connect

The behavior of nanostructured materials/small-volumestructures and biologi-cal/bio-implantable materials, so-called "nano"and "bio" materials, is currently much in vogue in materials science. Oneaspect of this field, which to date has received only limited attention,is their fracture and fatigue properties. In this paper, we examine twotopics in this area, namely the premature fatigue failure ofsilicon-based micron-scale structures for microelectromechanical systems(MEMS), and the fracture properties of mineralized tissue, specificallyhuman bone.

Ritchie, R.O.; Muhlstein, C.L.; Nalla, R.K.

2003-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

26

Finite element modeling and experimental study of brittle fracture in tempered martensitic steels for thermonuclear fusion applications.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this work we have studied brittle fracture in high-chromium reduced activation tempered martensitic steels foreseen as structural materials for thermonuclear fusion reactors. Developing the (more)

Mueller, Pablo Federico

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

In-Vessel Coil Material Failure Rate Estimates for ITER Design Use  

SciTech Connect

The ITER international project design teams are working to produce an engineering design for construction of this large tokamak fusion experiment. One of the design issues is ensuring proper control of the fusion plasma. In-vessel magnet coils may be needed for plasma control, especially the control of edge localized modes (ELMs) and plasma vertical stabilization (VS). These coils will be lifetime components that reside inside the ITER vacuum vessel behind the blanket modules. As such, their reliability is an important design issue since access will be time consuming if any type of repair were necessary. The following chapters give the research results and estimates of failure rates for the coil conductor and jacket materials to be used for the in-vessel coils. Copper and CuCrZr conductors, and stainless steel and Inconel jackets are examined.

L. C. Cadwallader

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Ceramics: Brittle Materials for High Temperature Structures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...both debilitating and life-threatening. Investigators...oriented toward ceramic gas turbines 28 MARCH 1975 for vehicles...size that could be in the remaining samples. In a second...in actual or simulated gas turbine environments will be examined...

Arthur L. Robinson

1975-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

29

Reliability Analysis of Brittle, Thin Walled Structures  

SciTech Connect

One emerging application for ceramics is diesel particulate filters being used order to meet EPA regulations going into effect in 2008. Diesel particulates are known to be carcinogenic and thus need to be minimized. Current systems use filters made from ceramics such as mullite and corderite. The filters are brittle and must operate at very high temperatures during a burn out cycle used to remove the soot buildup. Thus the filters are subjected to thermal shock stresses and life time reliability analysis is required. NASA GRC has developed reliability based design methods and test methods for such applications, such as CARES/Life and American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C1499 Standard Test Method for Equibiaxial Strength of Ceramics.

Jonathan A Salem and Lynn Powers

2007-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

30

FRACTURE IN DISORDERED BRITTLE MEDIA A Dissertation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FRACTURE IN DISORDERED BRITTLE MEDIA A Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School by Ashivni Shekhawat May 2013 #12;c 2013 Ashivni Shekhawat ALL RIGHTS RESERVED #12;FRACTURE IN DISORDERED- lem of brittle fracture in disordered media. Chapters 2 and 4 are concerned with various aspects

Sethna, James P.

31

Scaling Laws of Stress and Strain in Brittle Fracture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A numerical realization of an elastic beam lattice is used to obtain scaling exponents relevant to the extent of damage within the controlled, catastrophic and total regimes of mode-I brittle fracture. The relative fraction of damage at the onset of catastrophic rupture approaches a fixed value in the continuum limit. This enables disorder in a real material to be quantified through its relationship with random samples generated on the computer.

Bjorn Skjetne; Torbjorn Helle; Alex Hansen

2005-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

32

SciTech Connect: Modeling Thermally Induced Failure of Brittle...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Content: Close Send 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for pages...

33

Fragmentation of brittle plates by localized impact  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this letter we address the fragmentation of thin, brittle layers due to the impact of high-velocity projectiles. Our approach is a geometric statistical one, with lines and circles playing the role of cracks, randomly distributed over the surface. The specific probabilities employed to place the fractures come from an analysis of how the energy input propagates and dissipates over the material. The cumulative mass distributions $F(m)$ we obtain are in excellent agreement with the experimental data produced by T. Kadono [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 78}, 1444 (1997)]. Particularly, in the small mass regime we get $F(m)\\sim m^{-\\alpha}$, with $0.1<\\alpha<0.3$ for a quite broad range of dissipation strengths and total number of fragments. In addition we obtain the fractal dimension of the set of cracks and its correlation to the exponent $\\alpha$ that account for the experimental results given by Kadono and Arakawa [Phys. Rev. E {\\bf 65}, 035107(R) (2002)].

Rebeca C. Falco; Fernando Parisio

2014-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

34

Failure Stress and Apparent Elastic Modulus of Diesel Particulate...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Elastic Modulus of Diesel Particulate Filter Ceramics Three established mechanical test specimen geometries and test methods for brittle materials are adapted to DPF...

35

Brittle fracture induced by hydrides in zircaloy-4  

SciTech Connect

Zircaloy-4 is used as a cladding material in the nuclear industry for fuel elements. Its mechanical properties can be drastically affected by the presence of hydrides, which form when hydrogen content exceeds the terminal solid solubility. This change often manifests itself as a reduction in ductility (elongation and reduction in area), coupled with the evolution of the fracture mode from ductile microvoid nucleation and coalescence to intergranular fracture. It has been found, at room temperature, that Zircaloy-4 undergoes a ductile to brittle transition when the hydrogen content (hydride volume fraction) in the specimen is higher than some critical value depending on the microstructure and the hydride morphology. Heat treatment of the material can shift the transition end point from 1050 ppm wt H for the stress-relieved state to 100-150 ppm wt H for the {beta} treated state, thus strongly suggesting that there may be some relationship between the microstructure (grain size and shape) and the ductile-brittle transition. It has also been reported that for the same hydriding condition, the hydrogen absorption rate is higher for the stress-relieved and recrystallized states and lower for the {beta} treated state. This phenomenon is very important for engineering applications because it is related to the determination of the safe life. Insufficient attention has been drawn to the quantitative evaluation and the modelization of the influence of the microstructure on the ductile-brittle transition in hydrided Zircaloy-4, though there has been some general research on the boundary structural effect on intergranular fracture. The present authors attempt to modelize this influence by an upper-limit model using the results of image analysis on the microstructures and tensile tests on hydrided sheet specimens.

Bai, J.B.; Francois, D.; Prioul, C. (Lab. MSS/MAT CNRS URA 850, Ecole Centrale Paris, 92295 Chatenay Malabry Cedex (FR)); Lansiart, S. (CEA/DTA/CEREM/DTM/SRMA, C.E. Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (FR))

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

High Temperature Expansion Due to Compression Test for the Determination of a Cladding Material Failure Criterion under RIA Loading Conditions  

SciTech Connect

This paper is mainly dedicated to the development of an out-of-pile test reproducing the thermo-mechanical loading conditions encountered during the first stage of a Reactivity Initiated Accidents (RIA) transient, dominated by Pellet Clad Mechanical Interaction (PCMI). In particular, the strain-controlled clad loading under high strain rate associated with temperatures up to 600 deg. C expected during the PCMI phase is simulated by an Expansion Due to Compression (EDC) test achievable at high temperature. The use of appropriate materials for the inner pellet made it possible to achieve the tests from 20 deg. C up to 900 deg. C. The interpretation of the test data is supported by Finite Element Analysis (FEA) including parameters tuned using an inverse method coupling FEA and tests results. A deformation model, identified upon the PROMETRA (Transient Mechanical Properties) experimental database and describing the anisotropic viscoplastic behavior of Cold-Worked Stress Relieved Zircaloy-4 cladding alloys under typical RIA loading conditions, is exploited. The combined analysis of experimental results and finite element simulations provides a deeper understanding of the deformation mode (near pure hoop tension) that arises during the tests. The failure mode appears to be representative of that obtained on tubes during the PCMI stage of RIA experiments. An appropriate device is currently developed in order to reach a bi-axiality of the loading path closer to that expected during the PCMI stage (between plane-strain and equal-biaxial tension). (authors)

Le Saux, M.; Poussard, C.; Averty, X.; Sainte Catherine, C.; Carassou, S. [CEA-Saclay, DEN/DMN/SEMI, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Besson, J. [Centre des Materiaux, Mines Paris, CNRS UMR 7633, BP 87, 91003 Evry (France)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

DETECTING FAILURE EVENTS IN BUILDINGS: A NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DETECTING FAILURE EVENTS IN BUILDINGS: A NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS V. M. Heckman1 M. D the brittle fracture of welds associated with beam-column connections in instrumented buildings in real time use of a prerecorded catalog of Green's functions for an instrumented building to detect failure

Greer, Julia R.

38

Brittle to ductile transition in cleavage fracture  

SciTech Connect

The problem of interpretation of fracture transition from brittle to ductile or vice versa is the subject of study. An instrumented tapered double cantilever beam (TDCB) has been developed as a definitive tool in the study of the intrinsic mechanism in single crystalline samples. In this experiment, the crack velocity is directly proportional to actuator velocity. In experiments performed on TDCB shaped Si single crystals, oriented for cleavage on either [l brace]111[r brace] or [l brace]110[r brace] planes, a number of troubling features of jerky carck extension were encountered. Evidence suggests that nucleation of dislocation loops from crack tip is easier than moving these dislocations away from crack tip. 14 refs, 1 fig.

Argon, A.S.; Berg, Q.

1992-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

39

Fracture behavior of W based materials. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of a program to investigate the fracture properties of tungsten based materials. In particular, the role of crack velocity on crack instability was determined in a W-Fe-Ni-Co ``heavy alloy`` and pure polycrystalline tungsten. A considerable effort was expended on the development of an appropriate crack velocity gage for use on these materials. Having succeeded in that, the gage technology was employed to determine the crack velocity response to the applied level of stress intensity factor at the onset of crack instability in pre-cracked specimens. The results were also correlated to the failure mode observed in two material systems of interest. Major results include: (1) unstable crack velocity measurements on metallic specimens which require high spatial resolution require the use of brittle, insulating substrates, as opposed to the ductile, polymer based substrates employed in low spatial resolution measurements; and (2) brittle failure modes, such as cleavage, are characterized by relatively slow unstable crack velocities while evidence of high degrees of deformation are associated with failures which proceed at high unstable crack velocities. This latter behavior is consistent with the predictions of the modeling of Hack et al and may have a significant impact on the interpretation of fractographs in general.

Hack, J.E. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1991-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

40

Structural reliability of brittle materials - an analytical method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) (IIember) J r'-*rr 1967 (IR&nth) (Year) 111 A?as T p AcT Thc ir&creasin?use of britt. le, maLcrials i)a sero- spa' . appl. i c?tions a'nd a laclc of adequate prescr&t 3c&aoieledge ?s to t:heir behavior ha crentecl a serious pro'blam. Clas&ica3...

Shields, Charles Burch

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brittle material failure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Fracture characterization of clays and clay-like materials using flattened Brazilian Test  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fracture mechanics has been used for many years to study the mechanical behavior of brittle and quasi-brittle materials like concrete, rock, wood, and ceramics. To date, the application of fracture mechanics to soils has ...

Agaiby, Shehab Sherif Wissa

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Dissolving brittle stars hint at implications of ocean acidification |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sea urchins and brittle starfish on the seabed at Explorers Cove in Antarctica. The rate the starfish decay offers clues to ocean acidification. Photo courtesy of Shawn Harper. To view a larger version of the image, click on it. Sea urchins and brittle starfish on the seabed at Explorers Cove in Antarctica. The rate the starfish decay offers clues to ocean acidification. Photo courtesy of Shawn Harper. To view a larger version of the image, click on it. Sea urchins and brittle starfish on the seabed at Explorers Cove in Antarctica. The rate the starfish decay offers clues to ocean acidification. Photo courtesy of Shawn Harper. To view a larger version of the image, click on it. Dissolving brittle stars hint at implications of ocean acidification By Chelsea Leu * August 15, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint Under the sea ice of Explorers Cove, Antarctica, is a startling array of life. Brittle stars, sea urchins and scallops grow in profusion on the seafloor, a stark contrast to the icy moonscape on the continent's

43

A Stress-Based Non-Proportionality Parameter for Considering the Resistance of Slip Systems of Shear Failure Mode Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Multiaxial loading on mechanical products is very common in the automotive industry, and how to design and analyze these products for durability becomes an important, urgent task for the engineering community. Due to the complex nature of the fatigue damage mechanism for a product under multiaxial state of stresses/strains which are dependent upon the modes of loading, materials, and life, modeling this behavior has always been a challenging task for fatigue scientists and engineers around the world. As a result, many multiaxial fatigue theories have been developed. Among all the theories, an existing equivalent stress theory is considered for use for the automotive components that are typically designed to prevent Case B cracks in the high cycle fatigue regime. The focus of this paper is on the introduction of the equivalent stress model with an emphasis on characterizing a non-proportionality parameter to account for material dependent resistance of interactions between slip systems under nonproportional loading. This parameter is determined experimentally by comparing stress-life curves for two extreme loading cases, in-phase and 90o out-of-phase axial-torsional fatigue tests. However, multiaxial testing is very expensive and time consuming. As a result, an empirical formula was developed for the non-proportionality parameter, ?LTJ, based on readily available material properties.

Sean A. McKelvey; Yung-Li Lee

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Fracture mechanics and subcritical crack growth approach to model time-dependent failure in brittle rock.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Subcritical crack growth (SCG) takes place when a crack is stressed below its short-term strength. This slow fracturing process may lead to an accelerating crack (more)

Rinne, Mikael

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid brittleness Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

search results for: acid brittleness Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Acid Fumigation of Sediment Samples (From UC Davis Isotope Lab website, http:stableisotopefacility.ucdavis.edu...

46

Continuumdiscontinuum analysis of failure mechanisms around unsupported circular excavations in anisotropic clay shales  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The stability of circular excavations in clay shales is a key issue in the drilling and tunnelling industries as well as in the field of deep geological waste storage. A large body of experimental evidence indicates that the damaged zone around these cavities is influenced by strong mechanical anisotropy induced by the layered material structure. The vast majority of numerical models adopted to date to analyse the stability of openings in layered rocks have been based on continuum mechanics principles using classic shear failure theory for elasto-plastic materials. However, a number of experimental observations demonstrate that clay shales may fail in a brittle manner under low-confinement conditions such as those characterizing the near-field of the excavation. Therefore, an alternative numerical approach based on non-linear fracture mechanics principles and the discrete element method is adopted to gain new insight into the failure process of this class of geomaterials. In order to account for the influence of clay shale microstructure on its mechanical behaviour a newly developed approach to capture the anisotropy of strength is proposed. With this numerical approach, the cohesive strength parameters of the fracture model are assumed to be a function of the relative orientation between the element bonds and the layering orientation. The effectiveness of the numerical technique is quantitatively demonstrated by simulating standard rock mechanics tests on an indurated claystone, namely Opalinus Clay. Emergent strength and deformation properties, together with the simulated fracture mechanisms, are shown to be in good agreement with experimental observations. The modelling technique is then applied to the simulation of the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) around a circular tunnel in horizontally bedded Opalinus Clay. The simulated fracturing process is mainly discussed in the context of the damage mechanisms observed at the Mont Terri URL. Furthermore, the influence of in situ stress on resulting EDZ geometry is analysed together with possible implications for ground support and tunnel constructability. Modelling results highlight the importance of shear strength mobilization along bedding planes in controlling the EDZ formation process. In particular, slippage of bedding planes is shown to cause rock mass deconfinement which in turn promotes brittle failure processes in the form of spalling. The numerical technique is currently limited to two-dimensional analyses without any thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling.

A. Lisjak; G. Grasselli; T. Vietor

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Mechanism of high energy absorption by foamed materials-foamed rigid polyurethane and foamed glass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energy absorbability of foamed rigid materials, polyurethane and glass, was studied under a compressive load. The brittle materials were proved to absorb much energy in a manner similar to ductile materials. A me...

Toshio Kurauchi; Norio Sato; Osami Kamigaito

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 MAG LAB REPORTS Volume 18 No. 1 CONDENSED MATTER SCIENCE Technique development, graphene, magnetism & magnetic materials, topological insulators, quantum fl uids & solids,...

49

Common causes of material degradation in buried piping  

SciTech Connect

Buried pipe may fail for innumerable reasons. Causes can be mechanical damage/breakage, chemically initiated corrosion, or a combination. Failures may originate either internally or externally on the pipe. They may be related to flaws in the design, to excessive or unanticipated internal pressure or ground level loading, and/or to poor or uncertain installation practice. Or the pipe may simply ``wear out`` in service. Steel is strong and very forgiving in underground applications, especially with regard to backfill. However, soil support developed through densification or compaction is critical for brittle concrete and vitrified clay tile pipe, and is very important for cast iron and plastic pipe. Chemistry of the soil determines whether or not it will enhance corrosion or other types of degradation. Various causes and mechanisms for deterioration of buried pipe are indicated. Some peculiarities of the different materials of construction are characterized. Repair methods and means to circumvent special problems are described.

Jenkins, C.F.

1997-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

50

Failure analysis of a cracked diesel engine clutch spring plate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A diesel engine clutch spring plate used in a truck cracked when testing was being performed. The crack initiated from the middle of the thickness direction of the plate and propagated toward the front and the back of the plate. Fractographic studies indicate that brittle intergranular fracture was the dominant failure mechanism. Many parallel band structures were observed along the radial direction of the plate in the intergranular fracture region; a high density of secondary cracks and fine intergranular particles were found in this banded region. Metallurgical examinations indicated segregation of elongated MnS inclusions and the presence of granular vanadium carbides along the radial direction of the plate, at the location of the crack origin. Segregation of the elongated MnS inclusions leads to a reduction in toughness, and the combined segregation of inclusions and impurity elements at grain boundaries result in weakening of the boundaries. These conditions led to the intergranular brittle fracture of the clutch spring plate.

Zhiwei Yu; Xiaolei Xu

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Materials and methods are available as supplementary materials on Science Online. 16. W. Benz, A. G. W. Cameron, H. J. Melosh, Icarus 81, 113 (1989). 17. S. L. Thompson, H. S. Lauson, Technical Rep. SC-RR-710714, Sandia Nat. Labs (1972). 18. H. J. Melosh, Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 42, 2079 (2007). 19. S. Ida, R. M. Canup, G. R. Stewart, Nature 389, 353 (1997). 20. E. Kokubo, J. Makino, S. Ida, Icarus 148, 419 (2000). 21. M. M. M. Meier, A. Reufer, W. Benz, R. Wieler, Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society LXXIV, abstr. 5039 (2011). 22. C. B. Agnor, R. M. Canup, H. F. Levison, Icarus 142, 219 (1999). 23. D. P. O'Brien, A. Morbidelli, H. F. Levison, Icarus 184, 39 (2006). 24. R. M. Canup, Science 307, 546 (2005). 25. J. J. Salmon, R. M. Canup, Lunar Planet. Sci. XLIII, 2540 (2012). Acknowledgments: SPH simulation data are contained in tables S2 to S5 of the supplementary materials. Financial support

52

Numerical Modeling of Failure in Magnesium Alloys under Axial Compression and Bending for Crashworthiness Applications.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Numerical modeling of failure was performed for magnesium alloys with circular and square cross-sections under axial compression. The failure criterion was employed using material model (more)

Ali, Usman

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Stability maps to predict anomalous ductility in B2 materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

While most B2 materials are brittle, a new class of B2 (rare-earth) intermetallic compounds is observed to have large ductility. We analytically derive a necessary condition for ductility (dislocation motion) involving ...

Sun, Ruoshi

54

Fundamentals of Failure Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Optical microscopes are fundamental to any failure analysis laboratory being easy ... to use and understand. However, most professional electronic component failure analysis laboratories employ more specialised ....

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

The nascent Coso metamorphic core complex, east-central California, brittle  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

nascent Coso metamorphic core complex, east-central California, brittle nascent Coso metamorphic core complex, east-central California, brittle upper plate structure revealed by reflection seismic data Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: The nascent Coso metamorphic core complex, east-central California, brittle upper plate structure revealed by reflection seismic data Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The relationships between upper crustal faults, the brittle-ductile transition zone, and underlying magmatic features imaged by multifold seismic reflection data are consistent with the hypothesis that the Coso geothermal field, which lies within an extensional step-over between dextral faults, is a young, actively developing metamorphic core complex. The reflection images were processed using a non-linear simulated

56

Experimental study of the transition from brittle shear fractures to joints  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, could exist and that joints and shear fractures may be end members of a continuous spectrum of brittle fractures. Hybrid fractures are hypothesized to form under mixed compressive and tensile stress states and have structural characteristics...

Ramsey, Jonathan Michael

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

57

Synthesis and single crystal structure refinement of the one-layer hydrate of sodium brittle mica  

SciTech Connect

A sodium brittle mica with the ideal composition [Na{sub 4}]{sup inter}[Mg{sub 6}]{sup oct}[Si{sub 4}Al{sub 4}]{sup tet}O{sub 20}F{sub 4} was synthesized via melt synthesis in a gas tight crucible. This mica is unusual inasmuch as the known mica structure holds only room for two interlayer cations per unit cell and inasmuch as it readily hydrates despite the high layer charge while ordinary micas and brittle micas are non-swelling. The crystal structure of one-layer hydrate sodium brittle mica was determined and refined from single crystal X-ray data. Interlayer cations reside at the center of the distorted hexagonal cavities and are coordinated by the three inner basal oxygen atoms. The coordination of the interlayer cation is completed by three interlayer water molecules residing at the center of the interlayer region. The relative position of adjacent 2:1-layers thus is fixed by these octahedrally coordinated interlayer cations. Pseudo-symmetry leads to extensive twinning. In total five twin operations generate the same environment for the interlayer species and are energetically degenerate. - Graphical abstract: The sodium brittle mica has been successfully synthesized by melt synthesis and the crystal structure of the one-layer hydrate of sodium brittle mica was determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Melt synthesis yielded coarse grained sodium brittle mica which showed little disorder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sodium brittle mica hydrated completely to the state of one-layer hydrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structure of one-layer hydrate of sodium brittle mica could therefore be determined and refined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arrangement of upper and lower tetrahedral sheet encompassing interlayer cation were clarified.

Kalo, Hussein; Milius, Wolfgang [Lehrstuhl fuer Anorganische Chemie I, University of Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany)] [Lehrstuhl fuer Anorganische Chemie I, University of Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Braeu, Michael [BASF Construction Chemicals GmbH, 83308 Trostberg (Germany)] [BASF Construction Chemicals GmbH, 83308 Trostberg (Germany); Breu, Josef, E-mail: Josef.Breu@uni-bayreuth.de [Lehrstuhl fuer Anorganische Chemie I, University of Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany)] [Lehrstuhl fuer Anorganische Chemie I, University of Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

58

Lifetime and failure strain prediction for material subjected to non-stationary tensile loading conditions: applications to Zircaloy - 4. [Monkman-Grant relationship  

SciTech Connect

The life fraction rule (LFR) is used to calculate the lifetime of materials subjected to stress and temperature ramp loading. The solutions for the individual nonstationary temperature and stress loading conditions can be applied to predict also the lifetime of structures loaded by superimposed ramps solely on the basis of normal 'iso'-stress rupture data. The concept is applied to tensional stress and temperature cycling as well. As compared with the peculiarities of the problem, the agreement between experiments and calculations is encouraging. 16 refs.

Bocek, M.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Method of determining elastic and plastic mechanical properties of ceramic materials using spherical indenters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention pertains a method of determining elastic and plastic mechanical properties of ceramics, intermetallics, metals, plastics and other hard, brittle materials which fracture prior to plastically deforming when loads are applied. Elastic and plastic mechanical properties of ceramic materials are determined using spherical indenters. The method is most useful for measuring and calculating the plastic and elastic deformation of hard, brittle materials with low values of elastic modulus to hardness.

Adler, Thomas A. (Corvallis, OR)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Elastic-Plastic-Brittle Transitions and Avalanches in Disordered Media Sohan Kale and Martin Ostoja-Starzewski*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Elastic-Plastic-Brittle Transitions and Avalanches in Disordered Media Sohan Kale and Martin Ostoja to simulate elastic-plastic-brittle transitions in a disordered medium is presented. The model is based, and the fracture surfaces. The model demonstrates a plastic strain avalanche behavior for perfectly plastic as well

Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brittle material failure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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61

Correlation of microseismic and chemical properties of brittle deformation in Locharbriggs sandstone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: stress corrosion, acoustic emission, silica dissolution, subcritical crack growth, deformation rate), 2268, doi:10.1029/2002JB002277, 2003. 1. Introduction [2] Water is ubiquitous in the Earth's crust of water influences the brittle deformation properties of rocks in two ways. The poroe- lastic effect

62

Measurement of the ductile to brittle transition temperature for waste tank cooling coils  

SciTech Connect

Charpy impact tests were conducted on ASTM A106 carbon steel archived from SRS waste tanks to determine the susceptibility of the cooling coils to brittle fracture during a seismic event. The highest ductile to brittle transition temperature measured was {minus}5{degree}F and, with the addition of a 30{degree}F safety factor, the minimum safe operating temperature was determined to be 25{degree}F. Calculations also showed that a pre-existing circumferential flaw that is 2.2in. long would be necessary to initiate brittle fracture of the pipe. These results demonstrate that the pipes will not be susceptible to brittle fracture if the cooling water inlet temperature is lowered to 50{degree}F. Visual observation of the inner and outer walls of the pipe showed no localized attack or significant wall thinning. A 100--200 micron zinc coating is probably the reason for the lack of corrosion. A build-up of zinc slag occurred at pipe fittings where the weld had burned through. Although no attack was observed, the slag created several crevices which have the potential to trap the chromated water and initiate localized attack.

Wiersma, B.J.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Measurement of the ductile to brittle transition temperature for waste tank cooling coils  

SciTech Connect

Charpy impact tests were conducted on ASTM A106 carbon steel archived from SRS waste tanks to determine the susceptibility of the cooling coils to brittle fracture during a seismic event. The highest ductile to brittle transition temperature measured was [minus]5[degree]F and, with the addition of a 30[degree]F safety factor, the minimum safe operating temperature was determined to be 25[degree]F. Calculations also showed that a pre-existing circumferential flaw that is 2.2in. long would be necessary to initiate brittle fracture of the pipe. These results demonstrate that the pipes will not be susceptible to brittle fracture if the cooling water inlet temperature is lowered to 50[degree]F. Visual observation of the inner and outer walls of the pipe showed no localized attack or significant wall thinning. A 100--200 micron zinc coating is probably the reason for the lack of corrosion. A build-up of zinc slag occurred at pipe fittings where the weld had burned through. Although no attack was observed, the slag created several crevices which have the potential to trap the chromated water and initiate localized attack.

Wiersma, B.J.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Studies on a brittle stem mutant of rice, Oryza sativa L. ; characterization of lignin fractions,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Studies on a brittle stem mutant of rice, Oryza sativa L. ; characterization of lignin fractions 78850 Thiverva!-Grignon SUMMARY Lignin fractions, associated p-coumaric and ferulic acids and polysaccharides have been characterized in the straw and in three lignin fractions isolated from the rice cultivar

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

65

Dissimilar-weld failure analysis and development. Comparative behavior of similar and dissimilar welds. Final report. [Welds of 2-1/4Cr-1Mo to 2-1/4Cr-1Mo using 2-1/4Cr-1Mo filler material; and austenitic to ferritic steel welds made by fusion welding alloy-800H to 2-1/4Cr-1Mo using nickel base filler metal ERNiCr-3  

SciTech Connect

The 593/sup 0/C (1100/sup 0/F) stress rupture behavior of similar metal welds (SMWs) and dissimilar metal welds (DMWs) was investigated under cyclic load and cyclic temperature conditions to provide insight into the question, ''Why do DMWs fail sooner than SMWs in the fossil fuel boilers.'' The weld joints of interest were an all ferritic steel SMW made by fusion welding 2-1/4Cr-1Mo to 2-1/4Cr-1Mo using 2-1/4Cr-1Mo filler metal and an austenitic to ferritic steel DMW made by fusion welding Alloy-800H to 2-1/4Cr-1Mo using a nickel base filler metal ERNiCr-3. The stress rupture behavior obtained on cross weld specimens was similar for both types of welds with only a 20% reduction in rupture life for the DMW. For rupture times less than 1500 hours, failures occurred in the 2-1/4Cr-1Mo base metal whereas, for rupture times greater than 1500 hours, failures occurred in the 2-1/4Cr-1Mo heat affected zone (HAZ). The HAZ failures exhibited a more brittle appearance than the base metal failures for both types of welds and it appears that the life of both joints was limited by the stress rupture properties of the HAZ. These results support the hypothesis that increased residual stresses due to abrupt changes in hardness (strength) of metals involved are the major contributors to the reduction in life of DMWs as compared to SMWs. 10 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

Busboom, H.; Ring, P.J.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Contemporary heart failure management.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The research presented within this thesis aims to add to the current knowledge regarding contemporary heart failure (HF) management. Chapter 2 describes a study collating (more)

Wasywich, Cara Anne

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Failure surface model for oil shale  

SciTech Connect

One promising means of recovering oil from oil shale is to retort the shale in situ. Currently, modified in situ technology requires the construction of extensive underground openings or retorts. The remaining media (structure left around these retorts must support the overburden and contain the retorting shale. A failure criterion for oil shale, which is presented in this paper, was developed so that regions in the retort structure where the shale may be approaching failure can be identified. This criterion, adapted from composite materials applications, is essentially a closed surface in six-dimensional stress space and makes it possible to describe the anisotropic nature of failure in layered materials. The failure surface can be defined by five parameters which are determined from five simple laboratory tests. The surface is developed for a 80 ml/kg kerogen content shale and its features are discussed in detail. The predictions of the model are found to be in agreement with the results of a large number of laboratory tests, including uniaxial and triaxial compression tests. One unique (for rocks) test series is discussed which involves the failure of thin-walled tubes under combined compression and torsion. Finally, it is shown how the model can be extended to include the variation of material properties with kerogen content and temperature.

Costin, L.S.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Brittle creep in basalt and its application to time-dependent volcano deformation M.J. Heap a,b,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-dependent, subcritical crack growth, of which stress corrosion is the most important mechanism in the Earth's brittle with the chemically active pore fluid; commonly water or some aqueous solution in the upper crust. This allows crack

69

A Materials Science Driven Pattern Generation Solution to Fracturing Computer Generated Glass for Films and Games  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

include some plastics like polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), laminated, toughened glasses, safety glasses, other ceramics, most non-metals, and some metals when subjected to low temperatures. Brittleness, ductility, malleability, plasticity, stiffness...]. Their formula accurately models the brittle materials tested: flat PMMA and glass plates of various thickness. The continuous line in Figure 26 (B) is n=1.7(V^)1/2, where n is the number of radial cracks. 26 II.3. Visual Effects Approaches to Fracturing...

Monroe, David Charles

2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

70

Brittle fracture in a periodic structure with internal potential energy. Spontaneous crack propagation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spontaneous brittle fracture is studied based on the recently introduced model (Mishuris and Slepyan, Brittle fracture in a periodic structure with internal potential energy. Proc. Roy. Soc. A, in press). A periodic structure is considered, where only the prospective crack-path layer is specified as a discrete set of alternating initially stretched and compressed bonds. A bridged crack destroying initially stretched bonds may propagate under a certain level of the internal energy without external sources. The general analytical solution with the crack speed $-$ energy relation is presented in terms of the crack-related dynamic Green's function. For the anisotropic two-line chain and lattice considered earlier in quasi-statics, the dynamic problem is examined in detail. The crack speed is found to grow unboundedly as the energy approaches its upper limit. It is revealed that the spontaneous fracture can occur in the form of a pure bridged, partially bridged or fully open crack depending on the internal energy level. Generally, the steady-state mode of the crack propagation is found to be realised, whereas an irregular growth, clustering and the crack speed oscillations are detected in a vicinity of the lower bound of the energy.

Mark Ayzenberg-Stepanenko; Gennady Mishuris; Leonid Slepyan

2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

71

France and US explain failures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... uncertain ignitions and failures early in the programme, to the small size of the "pyrotechnic" that lights the engine.

Robert Walgate; Joseph Palca

1986-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

72

Brittle to ductile transition in cleavage fracture. Final techical report, April 1, 1987--June 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

The problem of interpretation of fracture transition from brittle to ductile or vice versa is the subject of study. An instrumented tapered double cantilever beam (TDCB) has been developed as a definitive tool in the study of the intrinsic mechanism in single crystalline samples. In this experiment, the crack velocity is directly proportional to actuator velocity. In experiments performed on TDCB shaped Si single crystals, oriented for cleavage on either {l_brace}111{r_brace} or {l_brace}110{r_brace} planes, a number of troubling features of jerky carck extension were encountered. Evidence suggests that nucleation of dislocation loops from crack tip is easier than moving these dislocations away from crack tip. 14 refs, 1 fig.

Argon, A.S.; Berg, Q.

1992-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

73

Brittle dynamic fracture of crystalline cubic silicon carbide ,,3C-SiC... via molecular dynamics simulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Brittle dynamic fracture of crystalline cubic silicon carbide ,,3C-SiC... via molecular dynamics for three low-index crack surfaces, i.e., 110 , 111 , and 100 , in crystalline cubic silicon carbide 3C Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.2135896 I. INTRODUCTION Potential applications of silicon carbide Si

Southern California, University of

74

Patterns of Locoregional Failure After Exclusive IMRT for Oropharyngeal Carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the patterns of failure after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Methods and Materials: We analyzed patients treated at the University of Texas Medical Branch between May 2002 and February 2006 who met the following criteria: (1) definitive IMRT without chemotherapy for oropharyngeal SCC; (2) no pretreatment radical surgery; (3) minimal follow-up of 1 year. The location of each nodal/primary failure was co-registered to the pretreatment planning computed tomography scan and then expanded by 5 mm to a planning target volume (PTV) of the failure (PTV-f). We then investigated whether the prescription dose to the PTV-f had been appropriate for the amount of disease present before treatment and whether the PTV-f had been adequately covered. Results: A total of 50 patients were eligible. With a median follow-up of 32.6 months (range, 12.1-58.6), three local and six regional failures were observed in 8 patients. All but one failure, that had been neglected, were recorded within 14 months of the treatment end. Of the nine failures, four developed in the neck treated electively to the lowest dose level; in all of them, we could retrospectively identify initial positive lymph nodes that might have justified the subsequent failure. The remaining five failures developed in proximity of the high-dose volume. In all but one, the volume of region of interest receiving {>=}95% of the dose of the PTV-f was >95%, suggesting adequate coverage. In 1 patient, about 20% of PTV-f was outside the 95% isodose, so that marginal underdosing could not be ruled out. Conclusions: A potential cause could be identified in all the failures in the lowest dose level. The implications and possible remedies are discussed. Most failures around the high-dose region were 'true failures' with no apparent technical caus000.

Sanguineti, Giuseppe [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States)], E-mail: gsangui1@jhmi.edu; Gunn, G. Brandon [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States); Endres, Eugene J. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States); Chaljub, Gregory [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States); Cheruvu, Praveena [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States); Parker, Brent [Department of Medical Physics, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States)

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Hybrid sol-gel optical materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hybrid sol-gel materials comprise silicate sols cross-linked with linear polysilane, polygermane, or poly(silane-germane). The sol-gel materials are useful as optical identifiers in tagging and verification applications and, in a different aspect, as stable, visible light transparent non-linear optical materials. Methyl or phenyl silicones, polyaryl sulfides, polyaryl ethers, and rubbery polysilanes may be used in addition to the linear polysilane. The linear polymers cross-link with the sol to form a matrix having high optical transparency, resistance to thermooxidative aging, adherence to a variety of substrates, brittleness, and a resistance to cracking during thermal cycling.

Zeigler, J.M.

1993-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

76

Hybrid sol-gel optical materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hybrid sol-gel materials comprise silicate sols cross-linked with linear polysilane, polygermane, or poly(silane-germane). The sol-gel materials are useful as optical identifiers in tagging and verification applications and, in a different aspect, as stable, visible light transparent non-linear optical materials. Methyl or phenyl silicones, polyaryl sulfides, polyaryl ethers, and rubbery polysilanes may be used in addition to the linear polysilane. The linear polymers cross-link with the sol to form a matrix having high optical transparency, resistance to thermooxidative aging, adherence to a variety of substrates, brittleness, and a resistance to cracking during thermal cycling.

Zeigler, John M. (Albuquerque, NM)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Hybrid sol-gel optical materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hybrid sol-gel materials comprise silicate sols cross-linked with linear polysilane, polygermane, or poly(silane-germane). The sol-gel materials are useful as optical identifiers in tagging and verification applications and, in a different aspect, as stable, visible light transparent non-linear optical materials. Methyl or phenyl silicones, polyaryl sulfides, polyaryl ethers, and rubbery polysilanes may be used in addition to the linear polysilane. The linear polymers cross-link with the sol to form a matrix having high optical transparency, resistance to thermooxidative aging, adherence to a variety of substrates, brittleness, and a resistance to cracking during thermal cycling.

Zeigler, John M. (Albuquerque, NM)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Component failure data handbook  

SciTech Connect

This report presents generic component failure rates that are used in reliability and risk studies of commercial nuclear power plants. The rates are computed using plant-specific data from published probabilistic risk assessments supplemented by selected other sources. Each data source is described. For rates with four or more separate estimates among the sources, plots show the data that are combined. The method for combining data from different sources is presented. The resulting aggregated rates are listed with upper bounds that reflect the variability observed in each rate across the nuclear power plant industry. Thus, the rates are generic. Both per hour and per demand rates are included. They may be used for screening in risk assessments or for forming distributions to be updated with plant-specific data.

Gentillon, C.D.

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Boiler Stack Economizer Tube Failure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A metallurgical evaluation was performed to investigate the failure of a type 304 stainless steel tube from a boiler stack economizer. The tube had three distinct degradation mechanisms...

Ryan J. Haase; Larry D. Hanke

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Early detection of critical material degradation by means of electromagnetic multi-parametric NDE  

SciTech Connect

With an increasing number of power plants operated in excess of their original design service life an early recognition of critical material degradation in components will gain importance. Many years of reactor safety research allowed for the identification and development of electromagnetic NDE methods which detect precursors of imminent damage with high sensitivity, at elevated temperatures and in a radiation environment. Regarding low-alloy heat-resistant steel grade WB 36 (1.6368, 15NiCuMoNb5), effects of thermal and thermo-mechanical aging on mechanical-technological properties and several micromagnetic parameters have been thoroughly studied. In particular knowledge regarding the process of copper precipitation and its acceleration under thermo-mechanical load has been enhanced. Whilst the Cu-rich WB 36 steel is an excellent model material to study and understand aging effects related to neutron radiation without the challenge of handling radioactive specimens in a hot cell, actually neutron-irradiated reactor pressure vessel materials were investigated as well. The neutron fluence experienced and the resulting shift of the ductile-brittle transition temperature were determined electromagnetically, and it was shown that weld and base material can be distinguished from the cladded side of the RPV wall. Low-cycle fatigue of the austenitic stainless steel AISI 347 (1.4550, X6CrNiNb18-10) has been characterized with electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) at temperatures of up to 300 C. Time-of-flight and amplitude of the transmitted ultrasound signal were evaluated against the number of load cycles applied and observed as an indication of the imminent material failure significantly earlier than monitoring stresses or strains.

Szielasko, Klaus; Tschuncky, Ralf; Rabung, Madalina; Altpeter, Iris; Dobmann, Gerd [Fraunhofer Institute for Nondestructive Testing (IZFP), Campus E3 1, 66123 Saarbrcken (Germany); Seiler, Georg; Herrmann, Hans-Georg; Boller, Christian [Fraunhofer Institute for Nondestructive Testing (IZFP), Campus E3 1, 66123 Saarbrcken, Germany and Saarland University, Chair of NDT and Quality Assurance, Campus E3 1, 66123 Saarbrcken (Germany)

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brittle material failure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Dynamic crack response to a localized shear pulse perturbation in brittle amorphous materials: on crack surface roughening  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) provides a coherent framework to evaluate quantitatively the energy flux released at the tip of a growing crack. However, the way in which the crack chooses its path in re...

D. Bonamy; K. Ravi-Chandar

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Slope failures in Hong Kong  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the large catchment area. Summary The most abundant failures during multiple events are the Type 1 and 2 slips, or combina- Iions such as in Fig. 1 lb, and these have the most disastrous consequences. Isolated events SLOPE FAILURES IN HONG KONG 59 and...

Peter Lumb

83

Modelling the time-dependent rheological behaviour of heterogeneous brittle rocks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......failure of individual elements within the grid. Furthermore, at this early stage in...conducted at 25 MPa (Fig. 10b). Using the benefit of hindsight (i.e. looking at the final...Main I., Elphick S., Crawford B., Smart B., 2001. A constitutive law for low-temperature......

Tao Xu; Chun-an Tang; Jian Zhao; Lianchong Li; M. J. Heap

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

FRACTURE FAILURE CRITERIA OF SOFC PEN STRUCTURE  

SciTech Connect

Thermal stresses and warpage of the PEN are unavoidable due to the temperature changes from the stress-free sintering temperature to room temperature and mismatch of the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of various layers in the PEN structures of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) during the PEN manufacturing process. In the meantime, additional mechanical stresses will also be created by mechanical flattening during the stack assembly process. The porous nature of anode and cathode in the PEN structures determines presence of the initial flaws and crack on the interfaces of anode/electrolyte/cathode and in the interior of the materials. The sintering/assembling induced stresses may cause the fracture failure of PEN structure. Therefore, fracture failure criteria for SOFC PEN structures is developed in order to ensure the structural integrity of the cell and stack of SOFC. In this paper, the fracture criteria based on the relationship between the critical energy release rate and critical curvature and maximum displacement of the warped cells caused by the temperature changes as well as mechanical flattening process is established so that possible failure of SOFC PEN structures may be predicted deterministically by the measurement of the curvature and displacement of the warped cells.

Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Qu, Jianmin

2007-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

85

Failure Scenario FMEA: Theoretical and Applicative Aspects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper aims to give a new growth perspective of Failure Modes and Effects Analysis that can be called Expected Costs of Failure Scenarios. Traditional FMEA discipline has been used to evaluate Failure ... t...

E. Locatelli; N. Valsecchi; G. Maccarini

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

ynamic fracture occupies a peculiar niche in the study of materials. One of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

D ynamic fracture occupies a peculiar niche in the study of materials. One of the first things, scientists and engineers studying fracture mechanics focus on determining the critical con- ditions, created, and picoseconds to microseconds, so as to compare theory and experiment for brittle fracture. Strip fracture One

Texas at Austin. University of

87

Failure of anisotropic compressible shale  

SciTech Connect

The paper is dealing with a general, invariant, formulation of a failure condition for an anisotropic compressible rock. The invariant formulation is thought in conjunction with a general formulation of a viscoplastic constitutive equation for that rock, where this failure condition will play the role of {open_quotes}short-term{close_quotes} failure condition. The data available (due to H. Niandou and obtained at the laboratory LML Lille URA CNRS 1444 from France) were obtained in triaxial tests and provide the stress at failure for various orientations of the bedding planes with respect to the axial loading direction. We use the well known representation theorem according to which the failure function must depend not only on the invariants of the stress tensor, but also on the mixed invariants: tr M{sigma} and tr M{sigma}{sup 2}, where M = s{sub 1} {direct_product} s{sub 1} and s{sub 1} is the normal to the bedding plane. Using the data we first determine the form of the failure condition formulated in terms of stress invariants, for several orientations of the bedding planes with respect to the direction in which acts the main compressive stress, and which is defined by an angle 0. Then the coefficients of these failure conditions are made functions on this angle 0, which in turn is expressed as a function of the mixed invariants tr M{sigma}{prime} and II{sub {sigma}{prime}} (the second invariant of the stress deviator). All the coefficients involved in this generally formulated criterion are fully determined from the data.

Cazacu, O.; Cristescu, N.D. [Univ. of Flordia, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

88

Development of a tribological failure knowledge model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Many of the component failures occurring in service can be delayed by better incorporation of tribological principles into engineering design and maintenance. However, the concept of tribology has not yet penetrated successfully into the industry in ... Keywords: JDK 14, Java Swing, KBS, Protege, component failures, design practice, knowledge based systems, knowledge modelling, maintenance strategy, steam power plants, steam turbines, tribological failure, tribology, turbine failure

S. Panda; D. Mishra

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Frequent Failures of Motor Shaft in Seawater Desalination Plant: Some Case Studies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper describes some recent case studies related to shaft failures in seawater desalination plants. The results of the systematic ... include environment, design, stresses, or poor selection of the materials

Anees U. Malik; Saleh A. Al-Fozan

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Effects of soil-engineering properties on the failure mode of shallow landslides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Some landslides mobilize into flows, while others slide and deposit material immediately down slope. An index based on initial dry density and fine-grained content of soil predicted failure mode of 96 landslid...

Jonathan Peter McKenna; Paul Michael Santi; Xavier Amblard; Jacquelyn Negri

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Micromechanical Damage Models for Continuous Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reinforced plastic matrix composite, Material and Design,1995). Failure of fiber composites: a lattice green functionreinforced titanium composites, Composites Science and

Wu, Yi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Deformation and failure of zircaloy fuel sheaths under LOCA conditions  

SciTech Connect

A unified, microstructural creep law which simulates the transient creep deformation of Zircaloy at temperatures above 750 K has been used to follow the interaction of diffusional and dislocation creep with changes in material microstructure (grain size, recrystallization, phase fraction and anisotropy) under loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions. Comparison of a membrane sheath model using this creep law with a large number of tube tests (>700) in an inert environment had demonstrated good predictive capability. This model has been extended to cover other aspects affecting deformation deformation and failure of CANDU fuel sheaths such as: nonuniform structure distribution resulting from temperature profiles along the sheath length, oxidation of the fuel sheaths, cracking of the oxidized layers and localized straining, large strain failure, and failure by beryllium-assisted cracking. 13 figures, 26 references.

Sagat, S.; Sills, H.E.; Walsworth, J.A.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

A Relation to Describe Rate-Dependent Material Failure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...field conditions. This is important to theory be-cause the term a 1 appears often...simplicity and ease of manipulation. Theory permits the deduction of time offailure...primary creep, based on rate process theory for constant stress and temperature...

BARRY VOIGHT

1989-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

94

Real-Time Quantitative Imaging of Failure Events in Materials...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ceramic matrix composites used in hostile environments such as in gas turbines and hypersonic flights has been a challenge. It is now shown that sequences of microcrack damage in...

95

Failure by fracture and fatigue in "NANO" and "BIO" materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to cyclic fatigue and subcritical crack growth, micron-scalemoisture-assisted subcritical crack growth in this oxide

Ritchie, R.O.; Muhlstein, C.L.; Nalla, R.K.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Hierarchical flexural strength of enamel: transition from brittle to damage-tolerant behaviour  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Institute of Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, , Geesthacht, Germany 3 Faculty of Dentistry, University of...Daniel Laipple and Uwe Lorentz (Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht) for technical support with the FIB system. G...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Investigating Failure in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Investigating Failure in Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cells Investigating Failure in Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cells Project Summary Full Title: Investigating Failure in Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cells Project ID: 175 Principal Investigator: John Newman Brief Description: The goal of this project is to understand and mitigate fuel cell failure mechanisms. Keywords: Fuel cell, modeling Purpose This project is conducting fundamental studies of fuel cell failure mechanisms. This includes experiments aimed at meeting the DOE operation and survivability targets at low and subzero temperatures, as well as development of mathematical models and fundamental experiments to improve performance and design against failure phenomena. Performer Principal Investigator: John Newman Organization: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

98

Limitations and Failures of the Layzer Model  

SciTech Connect

We report several limitations and failure modes of the recently expanded Layzer model for hydrodynamic instabilities. The failures occur for large initial amplitudes, for stable accelerations, and for spikes in two-fluid systems.

Mikaelian, K O

2007-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

99

Near-Optimal Distributed Failure Circumscription  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Small failures should only disrupt a small part of a network. One way to do this is by marking the surrounding area as untrustworthy --- circumscribing the failure. This can be done with a distributed algorithm using ...

Beal, Jacob

2003-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

100

Near-Optimal Distributed Failure Circumscription  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Small failures should only disrupt a small part of a network. One wayto do this is by marking the surrounding area as untrustworthy ---circumscribing the failure. This can be done with a distributedalgorithm using ...

Beal, Jacob

2003-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brittle material failure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Failure modes and mechanism of cleanroom garment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to provide a fundamental understanding of the cleanroom garment failure, we interviewed the manufacturers and...

Yujin Lee; Joo Hyung Hong; Jae Yong Lee; Ick Soo Kim; Hyungsup Kim

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

The Heart Failure Bridge Clinic Quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Heart Failure Bridge Clinic Quality Improvement Project My project involved working with my mentor, Tasha Beck Freitag, CRNP, MPH, CHFN, and loosely with Deirdre Flowers, MSN-MPH, who is the heart failure case manager. The heart failure bridge clinic (HFBC), is a standalone clinic that was created

von der Heydt, Rüdiger

103

Dissimilar-metal weld failures in boiler tubing  

SciTech Connect

Both ferritic heat-resisting steels and austenitic stainless steels are used for fossil-fired boilers for central power stations. The use of these two different types of materials within the system leads to the need for a dissimilar-metal weld transition joint. Increased cyclic operation of boilers has led to a rash of failures in welds between dissimilar metals; studies have identified the causes, and improved nondestructive testing techniques permit early identification of problem areas.

Klueh, R.L.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

GROUND PLANE INSULATION FAILURE IN THE FIRST TPC SUPERCONDUCTING COIL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is WIUUTEO GROUND PLANE INSULATION FAILURE IN THE FIRST TPCOn August 27, 1980, an insulation failure occurred dt-ringby a failure uf ground plane insulation. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The

Green, M.A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Blasting of the Twin Creek`s highwall failure  

SciTech Connect

On December 26, 1994, at 1:00 a.m., the Twin Creeks Mine experienced a major highwall failure involving over 2.5 million tons. The long chain of events that led up to this failure actually started in late August when a truck driver first noticed the cracks in the highwall. Soon after, an intense survey prism monitoring program was initiated. An electronic, continuous monitor linked to Dispatch was soon in place which monitored the crack that was most likely to fail into the active pit area first. It wasn`t until early December when the graphs started showing greater increases in movement. On December 22, the acceleration curves skied-out. The 600 ft. highwall finally collapsed about three days later and left material spread 800 ft. across the bottom of the pit. Not knowing if the large overhangs above the slide would soon give away sending more material into the pit or if the numerous tension cracks on the surface would result in yet another major failure, it was only after restoring the rigid monitoring program and observing no movement that the company decided to drill and blast the overhanging material. The purpose of the blast wasn`t to cast the material into the pit, but to kick-out the toe so that the weight of material above would fall upon itself. After two months of preparation and almost three weeks of drilling and loading, the shot occurred on March 21, 1995. Approximately one million tons were successfully blasted that day, and presently they have completed mining the slough material itself and reestablished benches from the top.

Gray, C.J.; Bachmann, J.A. [Santa Fe Pacific Gold Corp., Winnemucca, NV (United States). Twin Creeks Mine

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Solar Thermal Reactor Materials Characterization  

SciTech Connect

Current research into hydrogen production through high temperature metal oxide water splitting cycles has created a need for robust high temperature materials. Such cycles are further enhanced by the use of concentrated solar energy as a power source. However, samples subjected to concentrated solar radiation exhibited lifetimes much shorter than expected. Characterization of the power and flux distributions representative of the High Flux Solar Furnace(HFSF) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory(NREL) were compared to ray trace modeling of the facility. In addition, samples of candidate reactor materials were thermally cycled at the HFSF and tensile failure testing was performed to quantify material degradation. Thermal cycling tests have been completed on super alloy Haynes 214 samples and results indicate that maximum temperature plays a significant role in reduction of strength. The number of cycles was too small to establish long term failure trends for this material due to the high ductility of the material.

Lichty, P. R.; Scott, A. M.; Perkins, C. M.; Bingham, C.; Weimer, A. W.

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Geothermal steam muffler diffusers: the Geysers, California. Failure analysis report  

SciTech Connect

The primary failure mechanism for the T304 diffusers was chloride induced stress corrosion cracking (sec.) Once SCC had progressed to a certain point, high cycle corrosion/fatigue proceeded to the final fracture. Alteration of the environment to prevent SCC is not feasible. The existing environment will also cause sulfide stress cracking (SSC) in susceptible materials; therefore, alternate materials must resist SSC as well as SCC. The very large amplitude operational stresses make heat treatment to relieve residual fabrication stress questionable for the prevention of SCC. (MHR)

McAlpin, R.; Ellis, P.F. II

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Rate dependent shear failure and the scaling effect in long rod penetration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Long rod penetration tests show a scaling effect that cannot be explained by rate dependent strength. We propose here that this scaling effect may be explained by rate dependent failure. We start by revisiting the well known result that long rod penetration efficiency depends on strain to failure of both projectile and target materials. We then make the strain to failure depend on strain rate, using the overstress concept. In this way the effective strain to failure increases with strain rate. As strain rate increases with decreasing scale, we get that penetration efficiency decreases with decreasing scale, as observed in tests. In the paper we show results of hydrocode runs that demonstrate the relation between strain rate sensitivity of strain to failure and the scaling effect in long rod penetration.

Y Partom

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Global Failure Criteria for SOFC Positive/Electrolyte/Negative (PEN) Structure  

SciTech Connect

Due to the mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients (TEC) of the various layer materials in SOFC, the internal stresses are unavoidable under temperature differential. In order to create the reliable cell and stack of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), it is necessary to develop a failure criterion for SOFC PEN structures for the initial failures occurred during cell/stack assembly. In this paper, a global failure criterion is developed for the initial design against mechanical failure of the PEN structure in high temperature SOFCs. The relationship of the critical energy release rate and critical curvature and maximum displacement of the warpage of the cells caused by the temperature differential is established so that the failure reliability of SOFC PEN structures may be determined by the measurement of the curvature and displacement of the warpaged cells.

Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Qu, Jianmin

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Test to Determine Margin-to-Failure for Hy-100 Steel with Undermatched Welds  

SciTech Connect

This test program was undertaken to determine the flaw tolerance and to quantify the strength margin-to-failure of high yield strength steel fillet welded specimens. The tests demonstrate adequate margin-to-failure for HY-100 specimens fabricated with matched welding systems. In the use of high yield (HY) steel materials in designs required to accommodate rapidly applied dynamic loads, the concern was raised where the possibility of decreased flaw tolerance and premature failure by unstable ductile tearing could limit their use. Tests were developed and conducted to demonstrate adequate margin-to-failure in HY-100 fillet and partial penetration welded structures. In addition, inelastic analytical predictions were performed to assess the accuracy of such predictive tools compared to actual test data. Results showed that adequate margin-to-failure exists when using matched welding systems.

K.R. Arpin; T.F. Trimble

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

"giant faults" does not lead to total failure, because the displacement equivalent to the fault  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

"giant faults" does not lead to total failure, because the displacement equivalent to the fault changes in physical properties by cold working seen in Fig. 1 are attributed to this accumulated nanoscale as supporting material on Science Online. 5. T. W. Duerig, A. R. Pelton, in Materials Properties Handbook

Rubloff, Gary W.

112

Contact method to allow benign failure in ceramic capacitor having self-clearing feature  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A capacitor exhibiting a benign failure mode has a first electrode layer, a first ceramic dielectric layer deposited on a surface of the first electrode, and a second electrode layer disposed on the ceramic dielectric layer, wherein selected areas of the ceramic dielectric layer have additional dielectric material of sufficient thickness to exhibit a higher dielectric breakdown voltage than the remaining majority of the dielectric layer. The added thickness of the dielectric layer in selected areas allows lead connections to be made at the selected areas of greater dielectric thickness while substantially eliminating a risk of dielectric breakdown and failure at the lead connections, whereby the benign failure mode is preserved.

Myers, John D.; Taylor, Ralph S.

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

113

NETL: Advanced Research - Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Performance Materials > Chrome Oxide Refractory High Performance Materials > Chrome Oxide Refractory Advanced Research High Performance Materials Chrome Oxide Refractory One notable NETL success is the development of a chrome oxide refractory material capable of working in slagging gasifier conditions. In this project, researchers first determined that one of the major failure mechanisms for chrome oxide refractories exposed to the intense heat and corrosive environment was spalling, or the chipping or flaking of refractory material from an exposed face. They used this information to formulate a high-chrome oxide refractory composition that resists spalling, resulting in a refractory with a longer service life in the gasifier. Inside an ultrasupercritical (USC) pulverized coal power plant, materials are exposed to temperatures up to 760°C and pressures up to 5,000 psi. Operating a USC system can improve power plant efficiency up to 47% and reduce emissions. However, finding boiler and turbine materials that can hold up under extreme conditions requires new high-temperature metal alloys and ceramic coatings, as well as computational modeling research to optimize the processing of these materials. Advanced Research Materials Development program successes in this area include the following:

114

Materialism and materiality  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Accountants and auditors in recent financial scandals have been pictured as materialistic, simply calculating consequences and ignoring duties. This paper potentially explains this apparently materialistic behaviour in what has historically been a truthtelling profession. Materiality, which drives audit priorities, has been institutionalised in accounting and auditing standards. But a materiality focus inherently implies that all amounts that are not 'materially' misstated are equally true. This leads to habitual immaterial misstatements and promotes the view that auditors do not care about truth at all. Auditors' lack of commitment to truth undermines their claim to be professionals in the classic sense.

Michael K. Shaub

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Light water reactor lower head failure analysis  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the results from a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission-sponsored research program to investigate the mode and timing of vessel lower head failure. Major objectives of the analysis were to identify plausible failure mechanisms and to develop a method for determining which failure mode would occur first in different light water reactor designs and accident conditions. Failure mechanisms, such as tube ejection, tube rupture, global vessel failure, and localized vessel creep rupture, were studied. Newly developed models and existing models were applied to predict which failure mechanism would occur first in various severe accident scenarios. So that a broader range of conditions could be considered simultaneously, calculations relied heavily on models with closed-form or simplified numerical solution techniques. Finite element techniques-were employed for analytical model verification and examining more detailed phenomena. High-temperature creep and tensile data were obtained for predicting vessel and penetration structural response.

Rempe, J.L.; Chavez, S.A.; Thinnes, G.L. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

A review of macroscopic ductile failure criteria.  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work was to describe several of the ductile failure criteria com- monly used to solve practical problems. The following failure models were considered: equivalent plastic strain, equivalent plastic strain in tension, maximum shear, Mohr- Coulomb, Wellman's tearing parameter, Johnson-Cook and BCJ MEM. The document presents the main characteristics of each failure model as well as sample failure predic- tions for simple proportional loading stress histories in three dimensions and in plane stress. Plasticity calculations prior to failure were conducted with a simple, linear hardening, J2 plasticity model. The resulting failure envelopes were plotted in prin- cipal stress space and plastic strain space, where the dependence on stress triaxiality and Lode angle are clearly visible. This information may help analysts select a ductile fracture model for a practical problem and help interpret analysis results.

Corona, Edmundo; Reedlunn, Benjamin

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Modeling Stress Strain Relationships and Predicting Failure Probabilities For Graphite Core Components  

SciTech Connect

This project will implement inelastic constitutive models that will yield the requisite stress-strain information necessary for graphite component design. Accurate knowledge of stress states (both elastic and inelastic) is required to assess how close a nuclear core component is to failure. Strain states are needed to assess deformations in order to ascertain serviceability issues relating to failure, e.g., whether too much shrinkage has taken place for the core to function properly. Failure probabilities, as opposed to safety factors, are required in order to capture the bariability in failure strength in tensile regimes. The current stress state is used to predict the probability of failure. Stochastic failure models will be developed that can accommodate possible material anisotropy. This work will also model material damage (i.e., degradation of mechanical properties) due to radiation exposure. The team will design tools for components fabricated from nuclear graphite. These tools must readily interact with finite element software--in particular, COMSOL, the software algorithm currently being utilized by the Idaho National Laboratory. For the eleastic response of graphite, the team will adopt anisotropic stress-strain relationships available in COMSO. Data from the literature will be utilized to characterize the appropriate elastic material constants.

Duffy, Stephen

2013-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

118

FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis; Fehlermglichkeits- und Einflussanalyse) als universelles Methodenmodell folgt dem Grundgedanken einer prventiven Fehlervermeidung anstelle einer nachsorgenden Fehler...

A. Gbel

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

ADVANCED COMPOSITE MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY FOR ROTORCRAFT Andrew Makeev*, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas, USA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ADVANCED COMPOSITE MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY FOR ROTORCRAFT Andrew Makeev*, University of Texas, Patz Materials & Technologies, Benicia, CA, USA Abstract Composite materials are increasingly used. In polymer-matrix composite structures, matrix-dominated failures impose severe limitations on structural

Texas at Arlington, University of

120

Old Electrochromic Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electrochromic Materials Electrochromic Materials DOE also supports the development of electrochromic coatings through several mechanisms. Three companies are engaged in development of commercial prototypes through the Electrochromics Initiative and an SBIR small business grant. LBNL and another DOE laboratory, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) perform a variety of measurements to evaluate the energy performance and durability of these prototypes . Other research activities are intended to assist the efforts of the industry in general. At LBNL, research focuses on rapid development and analysis of electrode materials. Among recent accomplishments was the production of a stoichiometric form of Li0.5Ni0.5O by laser deposition and sputtering with excellent electrochromic properties. Dr. Stuart Cogan of EIC Laboratories tested the films and declared them to have "the highest coloration efficiency of any known anodic electrochromic material." EIC will test the films in their own devices in the near future. We also work on several binary electrodes produced by cosputtering from two targets simultaneously. For example, enhanced forms of tungsten oxide produced in this way have wide application because of the prevalence of tungsten oxide in today's devices. In addition to testing durability, NREL also investigates the degradation mechanisms which lead to failure in the hope of being able to correlate accelerated testing to real time failure as well as to diagnose and correct device problems.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brittle material failure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

UTILITIES PROBLEMS AND FAILURES Electrical or plumbing failure/Flooding/Water leak/Natural gas or  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

UTILITIES PROBLEMS AND FAILURES Electrical or plumbing failure/Flooding/Water leak/Natural gas or a generator? NOTIFY the University Police. FOLLOW evacuation procedures. NOTIFY Building Safety personnel

Fernandez, Eduardo

122

UTILITIES PROBLEMS AND FAILURES Electrical or plumbing failure/Flooding/Water leak/Natural gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

UTILITIES PROBLEMS AND FAILURES Electrical or plumbing failure/Flooding/Water leak/Natural gas. . What should I do if the if the building does not have emergency lighting or a generator? NOTIFY

Fernandez, Eduardo

123

Materials for cold neutron sources: Cryogenic and irradiation effects  

SciTech Connect

Materials for the construction of cold neutron sources must satisfy a range of demands. The cryogenic temperature and irradiation create a severe environment. Candidate materials are identified and existing cold sources are briefly surveyed to determine which materials may be used. Aluminum- and magnesium-based alloys are the preferred materials. Existing data for the effects of cryogenic temperature and near-ambient irradiation on the mechanical properties of these alloys are briefly reviewed, and the very limited information on the effects of cryogenic irradiation are outlined. Generating mechanical property data under cold source operating conditions is a daunting prospect. It is clear that the cold source material will be degraded by neutron irradiation, and so the cold source must be designed as a brittle vessel. The continued effective operation of many different cold sources at a number of reactors makes it clear that this can be accomplished. 46 refs., 8 figs., 2 tab.

Alexander, D.J.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

FAILURE DISCRIMINATION BY SEMI-DEFINITE PROGRAMMING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

mining approach to cancer diagnosis [12], applied the same idea to failure discrimination for failure discriminant analysis, a classical and yet very actively studied problem in financial engineering, data-mining, support vector machine 1. Introduction Quantitative analysis of credit risk attracted more

Uryasev, Stanislav

125

Beyond Success and Failure Sandro Etalle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Beyond Success and Failure Sandro Etalle Dept. of Computer Science, Universiteit Maastricht P based on logic programming where success and failure are replaced by predicates for adequacy of the selection rule does not hold. We show that, under certain conditions, whenever there exists an adequate

van Raamsdonk, Femke

126

CLINICAL RESEARCH Heart failure/cardiomyopathy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RESEARCH Heart failure/cardiomyopathy Preserved left ventricular twist and circumferential deformation, but depressed longitudinal and radial deformation in patients with diastolic heart failure Jianwen Wang, Dirar SBakey Heart Center, The Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX 77030-2717, USA Received 27 September 2007; revised 15

Duncan, James S.

127

Diesel engine crankshaft journal bearings failures: Case study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Wear as a tribological process has major influence on the reliability and life of engine crankshaft bearings. The importance of field examinations of bearing failures due to wear is very well known. They point to the possible causes of wear and to the necessary treatment for its reduction or elimination. The paper presents the results obtained by examining 616 crankshaft bearings, damaged by different mechanisms. The bearings were installed in high-speed diesel engines, and were gathered for two years, during general repairs of the engines (overhaul), i.e. after 30005000 working hours. After the examination of the bearings, the fault tree analysis (FTA) was performed to determine the root causes for engine bearing failures. Each type of damage that was identified was illustrated with an appropriate high-resolution photograph. The investigations show that the basic and most conspicuous types of damage which cause bearing failures are abrasive, adhesive and surface fatigue wear. The paper also considers the effects of the place of installation and type of bearing material in respect to each type of wear.

Aleksandar Vencl; Aleksandar Rac

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Materials of Gasification  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to accumulate and establish a database of construction materials, coatings, refractory liners, and transitional materials that are appropriate for the hardware and scale-up facilities for atmospheric biomass and coal gasification processes. Cost, fabricability, survivability, contamination, modes of corrosion, failure modes, operational temperatures, strength, and compatibility are all areas of materials science for which relevant data would be appropriate. The goal will be an established expertise of materials for the fossil energy area within WRI. This would be an effort to narrow down the overwhelming array of materials information sources to the relevant set which provides current and accurate data for materials selection for fossil fuels processing plant. A significant amount of reference material on materials has been located, examined and compiled. The report that describes these resources is well under way. The reference material is in many forms including texts, periodicals, websites, software and expert systems. The most important part of the labor is to refine the vast array of available resources to information appropriate in content, size and reliability for the tasks conducted by WRI and its clients within the energy field. A significant has been made to collate and capture the best and most up to date references. The resources of the University of Wyoming have been used extensively as a local and assessable location of information. As such, the distribution of materials within the UW library has been added as a portion of the growing document. Literature from recent journals has been combed for all pertinent references to high temperature energy based applications. Several software packages have been examined for relevance and usefulness towards applications in coal gasification and coal fired plant. Collation of the many located resources has been ongoing. Some web-based resources have been examined.

None

2005-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

129

Telemonitoring in Patients with Heart Failure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...coordinators identified patients hospitalized for heart failure in the previous 30 days. Exclusion criteria were residence in a long-term nursing home; inability to participate in the study protocol for any reason, including a low expected probability of survival for the next 6 months owing to conditions... Studies suggest that telemonitoring for outpatients with heart failure may improve outcomes. However, this trial indicates that neither death nor hospital readmission was affected by telemonitoring. The findings do not support its use in outpatients with heart failure.

Chaudhry S.I.; Mattera J.A.; Curtis J.P.

2010-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

130

Materials Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Science Materials Science Materials Science1354608000000Materials ScienceSome of these resources are LANL-only and will require Remote Access./No/Questions? 667-5809library@lanl.gov Materials Science Some of these resources are LANL-only and will require Remote Access. Key Resources Data Sources Reference Organizations Journals Key Resources CINDAS Materials Property Databases video icon Thermophysical Properties of Matter Database (TPMD) Aerospace Structural Metals Database (ASMD) Damage Tolerant Design Handbook (DTDH) Microelectronics Packaging Materials Database (MPMD) Structural Alloys Handbook (SAH) Proquest Technology Collection Includes the Materials Science collection MRS Online Proceedings Library Papers presented at meetings of the Materials Research Society Data Sources

131

Local Failure in Resected N1 Lung Cancer: Implications for Adjuvant Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate actuarial rates of local failure in patients with pathologic N1 non-small-cell lung cancer and to identify clinical and pathologic factors associated with an increased risk of local failure after resection. Methods and Materials: All patients who underwent surgery for non-small-cell lung cancer with pathologically confirmed N1 disease at Duke University Medical Center from 1995-2008 were identified. Patients receiving any preoperative therapy or postoperative radiotherapy or with positive surgical margins were excluded. Local failure was defined as disease recurrence within the ipsilateral hilum, mediastinum, or bronchial stump/staple line. Actuarial rates of local failure were calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method. A Cox multivariate analysis was used to identify factors independently associated with a higher risk of local recurrence. Results: Among 1,559 patients who underwent surgery during the time interval, 198 met the inclusion criteria. Of these patients, 50 (25%) received adjuvant chemotherapy. Actuarial (5-year) rates of local failure, distant failure, and overall survival were 40%, 55%, and 33%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, factors associated with an increased risk of local failure included a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery approach (hazard ratio [HR], 2.5; p = 0.01), visceral pleural invasion (HR, 2.1; p = 0.04), and increasing number of positive N1 lymph nodes (HR, 1.3 per involved lymph node; p = 0.02). Chemotherapy was associated with a trend toward decreased risk of local failure that was not statistically significant (HR, 0.61; p = 0.2). Conclusions: Actuarial rates of local failure in pN1 disease are high. Further investigation of conformal postoperative radiotherapy may be warranted.

Higgins, Kristin A., E-mail: kristin.higgins@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Chino, Junzo P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Berry, Mark [Department of Surgery, Division of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Ready, Neal [Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Boyd, Jessamy [US Oncology, Dallas, TX (United States); Yoo, David S.; Kelsey, Chris R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS A VOLUME 30A, MARCH 1999--633 Fatigue-Crack Propagation Behavior of Ductile/Brittle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

subcritical crack growth in the reinforcements them- selves, thereby diminishing the bridging zone reinforcement volume fraction (20 pct Nb). It was found that resistance to fatigue-crack growth improved-reinforced composites, such bridging was quite resilient under cyclic loading conditions. The superior crack-growth

Ritchie, Robert

133

The standard theory of market failure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The theory of market failure represents a normative framework to identify instances where the level of societal welfare produced by market processes alone can be further improved. It also indicates by which ty...

Dr. Katrin Ostertag

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Sandia National Laboratories: identifying solar product failure...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

solar product failure modes Sandia R&D Funded under New DOE SunShot Program On November 27, 2013, in Energy, News, News & Events, Partnership, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy,...

135

Universitat Augsburg Failure-Sensitive Specification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

techniques like fault tree analysis (FTA) [14], failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), or preliminary as well. In this context we already formalized techniques like FTA [12][4] or FMEA. This paper presents

Reif, Wolfgang

136

NREL Test-to-Failure Protocol (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

The presentation describes the test-to-failure protocol that was developed and piloted at NREL, stressing PV modules with multiple applications of damp heat (with bias) and thermal cycling until they fail.

Hacke, P.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

U-240: Apple Remote Desktop Encryption Failure Lets Remote Users...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

0: Apple Remote Desktop Encryption Failure Lets Remote Users Obtain Potentially Sensitive Information U-240: Apple Remote Desktop Encryption Failure Lets Remote Users Obtain...

138

Reference Material  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reference Materials There are a variety of reference materials the NSSAB utilizes and have been made available on its website. Documents Fact Sheets - links to Department of Energy...

139

Materials Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Science science-innovationassetsimagesicon-science.jpg Materials Science National security depends on science and technology. The United States relies on Los Alamos...

140

The Journal of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 23 JOM The Journal of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) ISSN 1047-4838 JOM DOI 10 of Materials Science and Engineering and the Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University cycles require greater resistance of the cladding to failure, espe- cially in view of the industry

Motta, Arthur T.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brittle material failure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE Congestive Heart Failure: Condition in which the heart muscle can not pump enough  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE Congestive Heart Failure: Condition in which the heart muscle can not pump enough blood to the body to meet the organs demands. Heart muscle dilatation, muscle fibers hypertrophy, and increased heart rate are the clinical markers of disease progression as the heart attempts to compensate

142

Failure Analysis of Cracked FS-85 Tubing and ASTAR-811C End Caps  

SciTech Connect

Failure analyses were performed on cracked FS-85 tubing and ASTAR-811C and caps which had been fabricated as components of biaxial creep specimens meant to support materials testing for the NR Space program. During the failure analyses of cracked FS-85 tubing, it was determined that the failure potentially could be due to two effects: possible copper contamination from the EDM (electro-discharge machined) recast layer and/or an insufficient solution anneal. to prevent similar failures in the future, a more formal analysis should be done after each processing step to ensure the quality of the material before further processing. During machining of the ASTAR-811FC rod to form end caps for biaxial creep specimens, linear defects were observed along the center portion of the end caps. These defects were only found in material that was processed from the top portion of the ingot. The linear defects were attributed to a probable residual ingot pipe that was not removed from the ingot. During the subsequent processing of the ingot to rod, the processing temperatures were not high enough to allow self healing of the ingot's residual pipe defect. To prevent this from occurring in the future, it is necessary to ensure that complete removal of the as-melted ingot pipe is verified by suitable non-destructive evaluation (NDE).

ME Petrichek

2006-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

143

Human errors and structural failure probability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Predicting the influence of human errors on structural failure probability is the topic of this paper. There are two principal reasons for needing this information. First, if errors are present after the design of a structure is completed, as is generally the case, this will provide the engineer with a measure of what effect such errors will have on the structural safety. Second, this information is directly useful in the optimisation of quality assurance expenditures, which can effectively be used for controlling the probability of structural failure due to errors. Simplified probabilistic models are developed to integrate human errors into structural risk assessment. Numerical examples illustrate the sensitivity of structural safety to errors.

Dan M. Frangopol

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Insulation failure assessment under random energization overvoltages  

SciTech Connect

This paper offers a new simple approach to the evaluation of the risk of failure of external insulation in view of their known probabilistic nature. This is applied to EHV transmission systems subjected to energization overvoltages. The randomness, both in the applied stresses and insulation`s withstand characteristics are numerically simulated and then integrated to assess the risk of failure. Overvoltage control methods are accounted for, such as the use of pre-insertion breaker resistors, series capacitive compensation, and the installation of shunt reactors.

Mahdy, A.M.; Anis, H.I. [Cairo Univ. (Egypt)] [Cairo Univ. (Egypt); El-Morshedy, A. [Faculty of Science for Girls, Dammam (Saudi Arabia)] [Faculty of Science for Girls, Dammam (Saudi Arabia)

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Materializing energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Motivated and informed by perspectives on sustainability and design, this paper draws on a diverse body of scholarly works related to energy and materiality to articulate a perspective on energy-as-materiality and propose a design approach of ... Keywords: design, design theory, energy, materiality, sustainability

James Pierce; Eric Paulos

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Detecting a Network Failure Jon Kleinberg #  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

this notion applied in settings that range from Internet topology discovery tools to remote software agents: detecting a network failure. Suppose we want to detect events of the following form: an adversary destroys itself. Moreover, random sampling provides an e#ective way to construct such a set. Our analysis

Kleinberg, Jon

147

Reliable Communication in the Presence of Failures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, including process failures, recoveries, migration, and dynamic changes to group properties like member rankings. A review of several uses for the protocols in the ISIS system, which supports fault-tolerant resilient objects and bulletin boards, illustrates the significant simplification of higher level algorithms

Newhall, Tia

148

Commutation failures in HVDC transmission systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a formulation for the initiation or onset mechanism of commutation failures in line-commutated thyristor converters, assuming infinite (zero impedance) ac systems. A theoretical development and a parametric analysis is given. Theory validation by simulation and comparison to actual field experience data is also given.

Thio, C.V.; Davies, J.B.; Kent, K.L. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada)] [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Advanced Materials for Aircraft Engine Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...strength and long creep lives, as-HIP material...cycle fatigue (LCF) lives. LCF is a failure...landing for an aircraft turbine engine). A classic...ductility and fatigue life. Examination ofLCF-tested...the atomizer, and residual dirt from gas supply lines and...

DANIEL G. BACKMAN; JAMES C. WILLIAMS

1992-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

150

2Laser Materials Processing LISI Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and a common delimitation failure point in laser clad material. The LISI process is somewhere in between surface treatment and laser cladding. In LISI a metal or metal/ceramic mixture is pre effects experienced in cladding and welding operations. Laser Induced Surface Improvement (LISI

Davis, Lloyd M.

151

Total failure mode and effect analysis: a powerful technique for overcoming failures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the recent past, researchers and practitioners have been attempting failure prevention as one of the major enablers of attaining continuous quality improvement. For this, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) technique is adopted to reduce the probability of system failure and achieve good product quality. However, there has been no significant effort made by the researchers to overcome the pitfalls of FMEA. This practical gap is overcome by applying a technique called total failure mode and effect analysis (TFMEA). This research gap has been indicated and explored further by conducting literature review to draw synergy out of TFMEA along with the unconquered areas of the TFMEA, where TFMEA can be applied. A roadmap for implementing TFMEA has also been contributed in this paper.

C. Krishnaraj; K.M. Mohanasundram; S.R. Devadasan; N.M. Sivaram

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Scintillator material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography.

Anderson, David F. (Batavia, IL); Kross, Brian J. (Aurora, IL)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Scintillator material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography. 4 figs.

Anderson, D.F.; Kross, B.J.

1994-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

154

Scintillator material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography. 4 figs.

Anderson, D.F.; Kross, B.J.

1992-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

155

Scintillator material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography.

Anderson, David F. (Batavia, IL); Kross, Brian J. (Aurora, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Advanced Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Express Licensing Active Terahertz Metamaterial Devices Express Licensing Anion-Conducting Polymer, Composition, And Membrane Express Licensing Analysis Of Macromolecule, Liggands And Macromolecule-Lingand Complexes Express Licensing Carbon Microtubes Express Licensing Chemical Synthesis Of Chiral Conducting Polymers Express Licensing Forming Adherent Coatings Using Plasma Processing Express Licensing Hydrogen Scavengers Express Licensing Laser Welding Of Fused Quartz Express Licensing Multiple Feed Powder Splitter Negotiable Licensing Boron-10 Neutron Detectors for Helium-3 Replacement Negotiable Licensing Insensitive Extrudable Explosive Negotiable Licensing Durable Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) Express Licensing Method of Synthesis of Proton Conducting Materials

157

Critical Materials:  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

lighting. 14 (bottom) Criticality ratings of shortlisted raw 76 materials. 15 77 2. Technology Assessment and Potential 78 This section reviews the major trends within...

158

Emissions Control Failures in Passenger Cars  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 5 Emissions Control Failures in Passenger Cars Two measures of car model malfunction probability, fraction of cars over 1% CO (y-axis) and average CO concentration of all cars (x-axis), demonstrate that five 1987-89 car models (14 year-model combinations) have a malfunction probability several times that of all other models. When an automobile's emissions control system fails, it may be because that model is more prone to failure than others, according to a study conducted by the Center's Energy Analysis Program and Marc Ross of the University of Michigan. This finding goes against the conventional wisdom that improper maintenance or deliberate disabling of the emissions systems by car owners is the cause of "high-emitting" vehicles. The results may provide clean-air

159

Soft torque rotary system reduces drillstring failures  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the use of the soft torque system has significantly reduced torque fluctuations (up to 80%), torsional drillstring vibrations, and bit slip-stick conditions to help reduce drillstring failures and improve penetration rates in deep directional wells. The system was instrumental in eliminating expensive ($5-10 million) drillstring failures on Well SL 531 No. 3, a complex directional well in Mobile Bay. The soft torque rotary system attenuates and interrupts the torsional oscillations of the drillstring and thus prevents the buildup of energy in torsional waves that are reflected back and forth between the bit and the rotary table. The soft torque rotary system can be installed on any rig equipped with an independent electronically driven rotary table or top drive. The system is relatively inexpensive and easy to install.

Javanmardi, K.; Gaspard, D. (Shell Offshore Inc., New Orleans, LA (United States))

1992-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

160

Failure Rates from Certification Testing to UL and IEC Standards...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Failure Rates from Certification Testing to UL and IEC Standards for Flat Plate PV Modules Failure Rates from Certification Testing to UL and IEC Standards for Flat Plate PV...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brittle material failure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Failure Detection with Booting in Partially Synchronous Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Failure Detection with Booting in Partially Synchronous Systems Josef Widder1 , G´erard Le Lann2 implementation with respect to failure detection time, but also works during the system booting phase. 1

162

Gearbox Typical Failure Modes, Detection, and Mitigation Methods (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation was given at the AWEA Operations & Maintenance and Safety Seminar and focused on what the typical gearbox failure modes are, how to detect them using detection techniques, and strategies that help mitigate these failures.

Sheng, S.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Shock-induced interfacial failure in glass laminates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...on the kinetics of the failure process only at the inner interface...relate to the kinetics of these interrelated processes, which are not present in a...upon the delay induced by these processes. The failure wave moves faster...

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Reduce Steam Trap Failures at Chambers Works  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ultrasonic Inspection At least 2 times per year Steam Trap Surveyor Submit reports to area management, energy team, and reliability engineers for each area every month Steam Trap Team Leader Control Plan ? Process Owner agrees...Reduce Steam Trap Failures at Chambers Works GB/BB Name: Cyndi Kouba Mentor/MBB: Andrew Degraff Team Members Michael Crowley(Site Energy Lead), (Charlie) Flanigan (Aramids-maintenance), Ben Snyder (Aramids-ATO), Michael Scruggs (Central...

Kouba, C.

165

Timing analysis of PWR fuel pin failures  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses research conducted to develop and demonstrate a methodology for calculation of the time interval between receipt of the containment isolation signals and the first fuel pin failure for loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). Demonstration calculations were performed for a Babcock and Wilcox (B W) design (Oconee) and a Westinghouse (W) four-loop design (Seabrook). Sensitivity studies were performed to assess the impacts of fuel pin burnup, axial peaking factor, break size, emergency core cooling system availability, and main coolant pump trip on these times. The analysis was performed using the following codes: FRAPCON-2, for the calculation of steady-state fuel behavior; SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 and TRACPF1/MOD1, for the calculation of the transient thermal-hydraulic conditions in the reactor system; and FRAP-T6, for the calculation of transient fuel behavior. In addition to the calculation of fuel pin failure timing, this analysis provides a comparison of the predicted results of SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 and TRAC-PF1/MOD1 for large-break LOCA analysis. Using SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 thermal-hydraulic data, the shortest time intervals calculated between initiation of containment isolation and fuel pin failure are 10.4 seconds and 19.1 seconds for the B W and W plants, respectively. Using data generated by TRAC-PF1/MOD1, the shortest intervals are 10.3 seconds and 29.1 seconds for the B W and W plants, respectively. These intervals are for a double-ended, offset-shear, cold leg break, using the technical specification maximum peaking factor and applied to fuel with maximum design burnup. Using peaking factors commensurate with actual burnups would result in longer intervals for both reactor designs. This document provides appendices K and L of this report which provide plots for the timing analysis of PWR fuel pin failures for Oconee and Seabrook respectively.

Jones, K.R.; Wade, N.L.; Katsma, K.R.; Siefken, L.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Straka, M. (Halliburton NUS, Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Title: Some notes on software failure Date: 24/Oct/2001  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

mathematical technique used for oil & gas exploration is fundamentally damaged by software failure, (Hatton with a state of the art process, the product will exhibit around 1000 defects in its life-cycle of which 50 failure manifests itself in at least three important ways:- ·Process failure. Here the process

Hatton, Les

167

Consideration of common cause failures in safety systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Systems in which failure could endanger human life are termed safety-critical. The SIS (Safety Instrumented System) should be designed to meet the required safety integrity level as defined in the safety requirement specification. Moreover, the SIS design ... Keywords: IEC 61508, beta-factor-model, common cause failure, multi parameter model, probability of failure on demand

J. Brcsk; P. Holub

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Role of seepage forces on hydraulic fracturing and failure patterns  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Role of seepage forces on hydraulic fracturing and failure patterns Alexander Rozhko Thesis September 2007 #12;ii Role of seepage forces on hydraulic fracturing and failure patterns Abstract. The mechanical role of seepage forces on hydraulic fracturing and failure patterns was studied both

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

169

Failure Modes and Effects Analysis 300 Array -LRRR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is to discover critical failure areas in a system and to remove failure areas. 1. 2 This memo contains the results of the final FMEA for the 300 Array LRRR experiment was successfully deployed on the moon as a part of the Apollo 11 mission, this FMEA will not dwell in the aspects

Rathbun, Julie A.

170

NO. ~EV. NO. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis -LRRR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is to discover critical failure areas in the LRRR experiment for the critical failure areas. A TM 868 contains the results of a final FMEA for the LRRR experiment. 2. 0 SUMMARY Since an LRRR was successfully deployed on the moon as a part of the Apollo 11 mission, this FMEA

Rathbun, Julie A.

171

The SNL/MSU/DOE Fatigue of Composite Materials Database: Recent Trends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 The SNL/MSU/DOE Fatigue of Composite Materials Database: Recent Trends Daniel D. Samborsky1 in three areas are described for wind blade materials in the SNL/MSU/DOE fatigue of composite materials failure, epoxy based blade adhesives and core materials. Comparisons of fiber dominated and resin

172

Materials - Home  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

* Coatings & Lubricants * Coatings & Lubricants * Nanofluids * Deformation Joining * Recycling * Catalysts * Assessment * Illinois Center for Advanced Tribology Modeling, Simulation & Software Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles PSAT Smart Grid Student Competitions Technology Analysis Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center Working With Argonne Contact TTRDC Materials ring on liner reciprocating tester Tribology Lab: Ring-on-liner reciprocating tester. Argonne National Laboratory plays an important role in the Department of Energy's (DOE's) efforts to develop advanced materials for transportation. The materials are developed with DOE support from the EERE Office of Vehicle Technology and Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies in collaboration with worldwide industrial partners. Examples

173

Complex Materials  

SciTech Connect

Valentino Cooper uses some of the world's most powerful computing to understand how materials work at subatomic levels, studying breakthroughs such as piezoelectrics, which convert mechanical stress to electrical energy.

Cooper, Valentino

2014-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

174

Complex Materials  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Valentino Cooper uses some of the world's most powerful computing to understand how materials work at subatomic levels, studying breakthroughs such as piezoelectrics, which convert mechanical stress to electrical energy.

Cooper, Valentino

2014-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

175

NSTX Failure Modes & Effects Analysis / NSTX-FMEA-71-10 / p. 1 of 115 FAILURE MODES AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NSTX Failure Modes & Effects Analysis / NSTX-FMEA-71-10 / p. 1 of 115 NSTX FAILURE MODES AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS (FMEA) Revision 10 Dated: November 2014 Prepared By: Name/WBS Signature Name: ________________________________________________ Ron Strykowsky, NSTX Upgrade Project Manager #12;NSTX Failure Modes & Effects Analysis / NSTX-FMEA-71

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

176

MO?EE?A2?02: Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) on Xoft  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Purpose: To perform failure mode and effects analysis on Xoft the alternative Brachytherapy source. The purpose of FMEA analysis is to identify the weak links in the process and develop quality management (QM) measures to reduce the likelihood of such failures. Methods and Materials: FMEA is a strategic activity employed in various industries to recognize and evaluate potential failures of a process/product estimate the effects caused due to any failures/events and take corrective measures to reduce or eliminate the probability of occurrence of such failures. The entire process is quantified using an RPN (Risk Priority Number) score calculated as RPN = S O D where S is the severity of the event when it occurs O is the frequency of occurrence of such an event and D is the probability of detection when an event occurs. All the factors are on a scale of 1 (low) to 10 (high). The higher the RPN score the higher the risk due to the event. The RPN scores were estimated initially assuming that there were no QM measures in place and then reassessed after implementation of QA/QC procedures to evaluate the effectiveness of he QA program. Results: Four processes were analyzed and 14 failure modes identified; 4 modes with significant RPN scores above 230. A wrong dose delivery due to a calibration error had the highest RPN score of 400 when there was no QA process which reduced to 192 when QA procedures were established. The event with the next highest RPN score of 300 was source positioning error caused due to transit error which reduced to 120. Conclusion: The QA/QC procedures established for the Xoft system were found to be effective in educing RPN scores and establishment of a systematic QM program.

G Palaniswaamy; S Richardson; D Rangaraj; S Mutic

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Paradigm Shifts in Heart-Failure Therapy A Timeline  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...our understanding of heart failure to a level unimaginable today. Heart-Failure Therapy Articles in the New England Journal of Medicine. 1986. V-HeFT I. Cohn JN, Archibald DG, Ziesche S, et al. Effect of vasodilator therapy on mortality in chronic congestive heart failure. 314:1547-52. 1987. CONSENSUS... As we enter a new era of treatment for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, historical perspective is provided in a timeline (at NEJM.org) of 26 randomized, controlled trials in heart-failure treatment that have been published in the Journal since 1986.

Sacks C.A.Jarcho J.A.Curfman G.D.

2014-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

178

Materializing Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Motivated and informed by perspectives on sustainability and design, this paper draws on a diverse body of scholarly works related to energy and materiality to articulate a perspective on energy-as-materiality and propose a design approach of materializing energy. Three critical themes are presented: the intangibility of energy, the undifferentiatedness of energy, and the availability of energy. Each theme is developed through combination of critical investigation and design exploration, including the development and deployment of several novel design artifacts: Energy Mementos and The Local Energy Lamp. A framework for interacting with energy-as-materiality is proposed involving collecting, keeping, sharing, and activating energy. A number of additional concepts are also introduced, such as energy attachment, energy engagement, energy attunement, local energy and energy meta-data. Our work contributes both a broader, more integrative design perspective on energy and materiality as well as a diversity of more specific concepts and artifacts that may be of service to designers and researchers of interactive systems concerned with sustainability and energy. Author Keywords Sustainability, energy, materiality, design, design theory

James Pierce; Eric Paulos

179

Ductile failure analysis of API X65 pipes with notch-type defects using a local fracture criterion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A local failure criterion for API X65 steel is applied to predict ductile failure of full-scale API X65 pipes with simulated corrosion and gouge defects under internal pressure. The local failure criterion is the stress-modified fracture strain as a function of the stress triaxiality (defined by the ratio of the hydrostatic stress to the effective stress). Based on detailed finite element (FE) analyses with the proposed local failure criterion, burst pressures of defective pipes are estimated and compared with experimental data. For pipes with simulated corrosion defects, FE analysis with the proposed local fracture criterion indicates that predicted failure takes place after the defective pipes attain maximum loads for all cases, possibly due to the fact that the material has sufficient ductility. For pipes with simulated gouge defects, on the other hand, it is found that predicted failure takes place before global instability, and the predicted burst pressures are in good agreement with experimental data, providing confidence in the present approach.

Chang-Kyun Oh; Yun-Jae Kim; Jong-Hyun Baek; Young-Pyo Kim; Woo-Sik Kim

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Clinical investigation: Regional nodal failure patterns in breast cancer patients treated with mastectomy without radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe regional nodal failure patterns in patients who had undergone mastectomy with axillary dissection to define subgroups of patients who might benefit from supplemental regional nodal radiation to the axilla or supraclavicular fossa/axillary apex. Methods and Materials: The cohort consisted of 1031 patients treated with mastectomy (including a level I-II axillary dissection) and doxorubicin-based systemic therapy without radiation on five clinical trials at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. Patient records, including pathology reports, were retrospectively reviewed. All regional recurrences (with or without distant metastasis) were recorded. Median follow-up was 116 months (range, 6-262 months). Results: Twenty-one patients recurred within the low-mid axilla (10-year actuarial rate 3%). Of these, 16 were isolated regional failures (no chest wall failure). The risk of failure in the low-mid axilla was not significantly higher for patients with increasing numbers of involved nodes, increasing percentage of involved nodes, larger nodal size or gross extranodal extension. Only 3 of 100 patients with <10 nodes examined recurred in the low-mid axilla. Seventy-seven patients had a recurrence in the supraclavicular fossa/axillary apex (10-year actuarial rate 8%). Forty-nine were isolated regional recurrences. Significant predictors of failures in this region included {>=}4 involved axillary lymph nodes, >20% involved axillary nodes, and the presence of gross extranodal extension (10-year actuarial rates 15%, 14%, and 19%, respectively, p < 0.0005). The extent of axillary dissection and the size of the largest involved node were not predictive of failure within the supraclavicular fossa/axillary apex. Conclusions: These results suggest that failure in the level I-II axilla is an uncommon occurrence after modified radical mastectomy and chemotherapy. Therefore, supplemental radiotherapy to the dissected axilla is not warranted for most patients. However, patients with {>=}4 involved axillary lymph nodes, >20% involved axillary nodes, or gross extranodal extension are at increased risk of failure in the supraclavicular fossa/axillary apex and should receive radiation to undissected regions in addition to the chest wall.

Strom, Eric A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)]. E-mail: estrom@mdanderson.org; Woodward, Wendy A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Katz, Angela [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Buchholz, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Perkins, George H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Jhingran, Anuja [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Theriault, Richard [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Singletary, Eva [Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Sahin, Aysegul [Department of Pathology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); McNeese, Marsha D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brittle material failure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Power Grid Defense Against Malicious Cascading Failure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An adversary looking to disrupt a power grid may look to target certain substations and sources of power generation to initiate a cascading failure that maximizes the number of customers without electricity. This is particularly an important concern when the enemy has the capability to launch cyber-attacks as practical concerns (i.e. avoiding disruption of service, presence of legacy systems, etc.) may hinder security. Hence, a defender can harden the security posture at certain power stations but may lack the time and resources to do this for the entire power grid. We model a power grid as a graph and introduce the cascading failure game in which both the defender and attacker choose a subset of power stations such as to minimize (maximize) the number of consumers having access to producers of power. We formalize problems for identifying both mixed and deterministic strategies for both players, prove complexity results under a variety of different scenarios, identify tractable cases, and develop algorithms f...

Shakarian, Paulo; Lindelauf, Roy

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Biomarkers and diagnostics in heart failure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Heart failure (HF) biomarkers have dramatically impacted the way HF patients are evaluated and managed. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) are the gold standard biomarkers in determining the diagnosis and prognosis of HF, and studies on natriuretic peptide-guided HF management look promising. An array of additional biomarkers has emerged, each reflecting different pathophysiological processes in the development and progression of HF: myocardial insult, inflammation and remodeling. Novel biomarkers, such as mid-regional pro atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), mid-regional pro adrenomedullin (MR-proADM), highly sensitive troponins, soluble ST2 (sST2), growth differentiation factor (GDF)-15 and Galectin-3, show potential in determining prognosis beyond the established natriuretic peptides, but their role in the clinical care of the patient is still partially defined and more studies are needed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Heart failure pathogenesis and emerging diagnostic and therapeutic interventions.

Hanna K. Gaggin; James L. Januzzi Jr.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Nuclear fuel elements made from nanophase materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nuclear reactor core fuel element is composed of nanophase high temperature materials. An array of the fuel elements in rod form are joined in an open geometry fuel cell that preferably also uses such nanophase materials for the cell structures. The particular high temperature nanophase fuel element material must have the appropriate mechanical characteristics to avoid strain related failure even at high temperatures, in the order of about 3000 F. Preferably, the reactor type is a pressurized or boiling water reactor and the nanophase material is a high temperature ceramic or ceramic composite. Nanophase metals, or nanophase metals with nanophase ceramics in a composite mixture, also have desirable characteristics, although their temperature capability is not as great as with all-ceramic nanophase material. Combinations of conventional or nanophase metals and conventional or nanophase ceramics can be employed as long as there is at least one nanophase material in the composite. The nuclear reactor so constructed has a number of high strength fuel particles, a nanophase structural material for supporting a fuel rod at high temperature, a configuration to allow passive cooling in the event of a primary cooling system failure, an ability to retain a coolable geometry even at high temperatures, an ability to resist generation of hydrogen gas, and a configuration having good nuclear, corrosion, and mechanical characteristics. 5 figs.

Heubeck, N.B.

1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

184

Materials Handbook  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... THE sub title of this handbook gives the clue to the mode of treatment of the subject matter, and so ... seventeen to 'alkalis'; in fact, a better title for the book would be "Handbook of Engineering Materials". British trade names are conspicuously few, but no doubt a ...

E. H. TRIPP

1942-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

185

Investigation into the failure cause of a double-acting, leading-edge-groove, tilting-pad thrust bearing. Final report, Feb-Aug 90  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of bench tests simulating operation and failure of a thrust bearing used in a gas turbine engine compressor development test rig. The bearing was a double acting, tilting pad with offset pivot, leading edge groove configuration using an AMS 4928 titanium collar and C18200 copper-chrome alloy pads with a No. 2 babbitt face. The bench tests successfully simulated the bearing failure and demonstrated a materials incompatibility. This was supported by visual examination, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray energy spectroscopy. A comparison of the bench test results to the compressor rig bearing failure is provided to support the report conclusions.

Peterson, B.K.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Chipping fracture resistance of dental CAD/CAM restorative materials: Part 2. Phenomenological model and the effect of indenter type  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The edge chipping resistances of six CAD/CAM dental restoration materials are analyzed and correlated to other mechanical properties. A new quadratic relationship that is based on a phenomenological model is presented. Objective The purpose of this study was to further analyze the edge chipping resistance of the brittle materials evaluated in Part 1. One objective was to determine why some force-distance trends were linear and others were nonlinear. A second objective was to account for differences in chipping resistance with indenter type. Methods Edge chipping experiments were conducted with different indenters, including some custom-made sharp conical indenters. A new force distance quadratic expression was correlated to the data and compared to the linear and power law trends. Results The new quadratic function was an excellent fit in every instance. It can account for why some materials can be fit by a linear trend, while others can be fit by the power law trend. The effects of indenter type are accounted for variations in crack initiation and by the wedging stresses once an indentation hole is created. Significance The new quadratic force edge distance function can be used with edge chipping data for all brittle materials, not just those evaluated in this study. The data trends vary from linear to nonlinear depending upon the material's hardness, fracture toughness, and elastic modulus.

G.D. Quinn; A.A. Giuseppetti; K.H. Hoffman

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

CONTAINER MATERIALS, FABRICATION AND ROBUSTNESS  

SciTech Connect

The multi-barrier 3013 container used to package plutonium-bearing materials is robust and thereby highly resistant to identified degradation modes that might cause failure. The only viable degradation mechanisms identified by a panel of technical experts were pressurization within and corrosion of the containers. Evaluations of the container materials and the fabrication processes and resulting residual stresses suggest that the multi-layered containers will mitigate the potential for degradation of the outer container and prevent the release of the container contents to the environment. Additionally, the ongoing surveillance programs and laboratory studies should detect any incipient degradation of containers in the 3013 storage inventory before an outer container is compromised.

Dunn, K.; Louthan, M.; Rawls, G.; Sindelar, R.; Zapp, P.; Mcclard, J.

2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

188

Failure assessment of composite cooler tubes in a gas boosting station  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present study describes origin and failure mechanisms of air cooled heat exchangers tubes, in a gas pressure boosting station. Hydrocarbon gas was circulating within aluminum finned tubes and cooling was done by forcing ambient air over the exterior of the tubes, made of carbon steel A-214 material. The hydrocarbon gas was contained traces of H2S and substantial level of CO2. The investigation was carried out in a station located in southern part of Iran. The process involved condensation of water and hydrocarbon along the length of tubes, resulting in a wet gas multiphase flow situation. Such type of coolers is also called composite coolers. The failure of tubes was characterized on the bases of all the available evidences and metallurgical examinations, such as analysis of tube materials, feeding gas, condensate water, and the residue inside the tubes. The processing was also simulated by Hysis-3.1 software, in order to evaluate and compare various parameters such as gas flow rate, liquid water and hydrocarbon formation, in actual and design condition. The air cooled tubes showed highest corrosion rate and was experienced leakage regularly. The results indicated that, low velocity assisted sweet corrosion caused severe pitting inside the tubes, and led to failure.

Khalil Ranjbar

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Failure analysis of a Calm buoy anchor chain system  

SciTech Connect

In 1982, Philippines-Cities Service experienced a wear failure of a cateneary anchor chain mooring used to moor a CALM type buoy. In order to explain the failure, Cities Service conducted a comprehensive failure analysis and model basin test of the failed system, and in addition, performed comparative wear tests on U3 and U4 chain. The results of the investigation indicate that interlink motion and resulting wear are an important design criteria for mooring lines.

Shoup, G.J.; Mueller, R.A.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Functional Materials for Energy | Advanced Materials | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thermoelectrics Separations Materials Catalysis Sensor Materials Polymers and Composites Carbon Fiber Related Research Chemistry and Physics at Interfaces Materials Synthesis from...

191

Component failure data handbook. Technical evaluation report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents generic component failure rates that are used in reliability and risk studies of commercial nuclear power plants. The rates are computed using plant-specific data from published probabilistic risk assessments supplemented by selected other sources. Each data source is described. For rates with four or more separate estimates among the sources, plots show the data that are combined. The method for combining data from different sources is presented. The resulting aggregated rates are listed with upper bounds that reflect the variability observed in each rate across the nuclear power plant industry. Thus, the rates are generic. Both per hour and per demand rates are included. They may be used for screening in risk assessments or for forming distributions to be updated with plant-specific data.

Gentillon, C.D.

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Failure Predictions for VHTR Core Components using a Probabilistic Contiuum Damage Mechanics Model  

SciTech Connect

The proposed work addresses the key research need for the development of constitutive models and overall failure models for graphite and high temperature structural materials, with the long-term goal being to maximize the design life of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). To this end, the capability of a Continuum Damage Mechanics (CDM) model, which has been used successfully for modeling fracture of virgin graphite, will be extended as a predictive and design tool for the core components of the very high- temperature reactor (VHTR). Specifically, irradiation and environmental effects pertinent to the VHTR will be incorporated into the model to allow fracture of graphite and ceramic components under in-reactor conditions to be modeled explicitly using the finite element method. The model uses a combined stress-based and fracture mechanics-based failure criterion, so it can simulate both the initiation and propagation of cracks. Modern imaging techniques, such as x-ray computed tomography and digital image correlation, will be used during material testing to help define the baseline material damage parameters. Monte Carlo analysis will be performed to address inherent variations in material properties, the aim being to reduce the arbitrariness and uncertainties associated with the current statistical approach. The results can potentially contribute to the current development of American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes for the design and construction of VHTR core components.

Fok, Alex

2013-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

193

Cascading Failures in Power Grid under Three Node Attack Strategies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper studies cascading failures of power grid under three node attack strategies based on...k is k ? , and ?...is a tunable parameter. We investigated the...

Sui-Min Jia; Yun-Ye Wang; Cong Feng; Zhi-Juan Jia

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Wind Turbine Gearbox Failure Modes - A Brief (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Wind turbine gearboxes are not always meeting 20-year design life. Premature failure of gearboxes increases cost of energy, turbine downtime, unplanned maintenance, gearbox replacement and rebuild, and increased warranty reserves. The problem is widespread, affects most Original Equipment Manufacturers, and is not caused by manufacturing practices. There is a need to improve gearbox reliability and reduce turbine downtime. The topics of this presentation are: GRC (Gearbox Reliability Collaborative) technical approach; Gearbox failure database; Recorded incidents summary; Top failure modes for bearings; Top failure modes for gears; GRC test gearbox; Bearing nomenclature; Test history; Real damage; Gear sets; Bearings; Observations; and Summary. 5 refs.

Sheng, S.; McDade, M.; Errichello, R.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

DOE Collects Civil Penalties for Failure to Certify | Department...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

actions against thirty-nine companies for failure to submit the required certification reports that their covered products or equipment comply with federal energy and water...

196

Reliability Models for Facility Location: The Expected Failure Cost ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reliability Models for Facility Location: The Expected Failure Cost Case. Lawrence V. Snyder (larry.snyder ***at*** lehigh.edu) Mark S. Daskin (m-daskin *

Lawrence V. Snyder

197

Failure Rates from Certification Testing to UL and IEC Standards...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Failure Rates from Certification Testing to UL and IEC Standards for Flat Plate PV Modules Larry Pratt*, Nicholas Riedel*, Martin Plass, and Michael Yamasaki CFV Solar Test...

198

White-Etching Crack Failure Overview, Tomography Analysis, and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

White-Etching Crack Failure Overview, Tomography Analysis, and Test Development Presented by Aaron Greco of Argonne National Laboratory at the Wind Turbine Tribology Seminar 2014....

199

Physics of Failure of Electrical Interconnects | Department of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ape036devoto2011p.pdf More Documents & Publications Physics of Failure of Electrical Interconnects Reliability...

200

Failure analysis of spiral finned tube on the economizer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article describes the results of an investigation about the failure of spiral finned tube on a newly designed and retrofitted low pressure economizer in a 300MW pulverized-coal-fired power plant. In order to find out the failure causes and to suggest preventive measures, phase compositions and macrostructure of the tube metal surface were investigated by X-Ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy micro-analysis. The results show that the failure was principally owing to comprehensive multiphase erosion, an interaction of the fly ash wearing, flue gas washing and sulfurous acid corrosion. Recommendations are given to minimize such failures.

ZhiYuan Liang; QinXin Zhao

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brittle material failure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Investigations of Bearing Failures Associated with White Etching...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Investigations of Bearing Failures Associated with White Etching Areas (irWEAs) in Wind Turbine Gearboxes Presented by Bob Errichello of GEARTECH at the Wind Turbine Tribology...

202

Structural Analysis of Human and Bovine Bone for Development of Synthetic Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

bones, as well as mimicking nature by developing a synthetic material to repair bones. Experimentally, bovine bone, tumor-free human bone, and cancerous human bone were studied via the small scale mechanical loading test. Failure analysis was conducted...

Jang, Eunhwa

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

203

Numerical Simulation of Matrix Reinforced Composite Materials Subjected to Compression Loads  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper reviews the most common formulations to obtain the compression strength of long fiber composites due to fiber buckling. This failure mode was first studied by Rosen (Fibre Composite Materials, pp.3...

Xavier Martinez; Sergio Oller

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

"Tablet-level Origin of Toughening in Abalone Shells and Translation to Synthetic Nanocomposite Materials"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

bio-inspired nanocomposites. In particular, the development of a nacre-like material, fabricated by 3D printing and exhibiting similar failure modes, will be presented. Then, I will discuss the nanomechanics

Ghosh, Somnath

205

Simulations of Failure via Three-Dimensional Cracking in Fuel Cladding for Advanced Nuclear Fuels  

SciTech Connect

Enhancing performance of fuel cladding and duct alloys is a key means of increasing fuel burnup. This project will address the failure of fuel cladding via three-dimensional cracking models. Researchers will develop a simulation code for the failure of the fuel cladding and validate the code through experiments. The objective is to develop an algorithm to determine the failure of fuel cladding in the form of three-dimensional cracking due to prolonged exposure under varying conditions of pressure, temperature, chemical environment, and irradiation. This project encompasses the following tasks: 1. Simulate 3D crack initiation and growth under instantaneous and/or fatigue loads using a new variant of the material point method (MPM); 2. Simulate debonding of the materials in the crack path using cohesive elements, considering normal and shear traction separation laws; 3. Determine the crack propagation path, considering damage of the materials incorporated in the cohesive elements to allow the energy release rate to be minimized; 4. Simulate the three-dimensional fatigue crack growth as a function of loading histories; 5. Verify the simulation code by comparing results to theoretical and numerical studies available in the literature; 6. Conduct experiments to observe the crack path and surface profile in unused fuel cladding and validate against simulation results; and 7. Expand the adaptive mesh refinement infrastructure parallel processing environment to allow adaptive mesh refinement at the 3D crack fronts and adaptive mesh merging in the wake of cracks. Fuel cladding is made of materials such as stainless steels and ferritic steels with added alloying elements, which increase stability and durability under irradiation. As fuel cladding is subjected to water, chemicals, fission gas, pressure, high temperatures, and irradiation while in service, understanding performance is essential. In the fast fuel used in advanced burner reactors, simulations of the nuclear fuels are critical to understand the burnup, and thus the fuel efficiency.

Lu, Hongbing; Bukkapatnam, Satish; Harimkar, Sandip; Singh, Raman; Bardenhagen, Scott

2014-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

206

Fabrication of composite materials with addition of graphene platelets.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This PhD project set out to tackle the disadvantages of brittleness and low corrosion resistance that ceramics and mild steel bear respectively by developing ceramic (more)

Liu, Jian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Functional Materials for Energy | Advanced Materials | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Storage Fuel Cells Thermoelectrics Separations Materials Catalysis Sensor Materials Polymers and Composites Carbon Fiber Related Research Chemistry and Physics at Interfaces Materials Synthesis from Atoms to Systems Materials Characterization Materials Theory and Simulation Energy Frontier Research Centers Advanced Materials Home | Science & Discovery | Advanced Materials | Research Areas | Functional Materials for Energy SHARE Functional Materials for Energy The concept of functional materials for energy occupies a very prominent position in ORNL's research and more broadly the scientific research sponsored by DOE's Basic Energy Sciences. These materials facilitate the capture and transformation of energy, the storage of energy or the efficient release and utilization of stored energy. A different kind of

208

The role of -adrenergic signaling in heart failure. : Why do betablockers have beneficial effects in heart failure?.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Background In heart failure, the heart does not pump out enough blood to satisfy the body tissues with oxygen. Well-established lines of evidence suggest that (more)

Haga, Myfrid

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Elephant butte powerplant investigation of permanent magnet generator corrosion and bearing failures. Project notes 8450-97-07. Technical memo  

SciTech Connect

This investigation and report were initiated in response to a request to determine causes for excessive corrosion and premature bearing failures on the Woodward Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG) on the three main generating units at Elephant Butte. All three main generating units were rewound using epoxy-type insulating materials between 1989 and 1991. Plant personnel reported that corrosion and failure rates seemed to accelerate after the new stator windings were installed. This report documents field testing conducted the week of March 10, 1997, to determine if stray electrical currents/voltages were causing the problems. Electrical field test results indicate that accelerated PMG bearing failure and corrosion were not caused by stray voltages or current. Tests were conducted on the main shaft in the turbine pit and on the PMG shaft and housing located atop the exciter shaft.

Price, P.; Atwater, P.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Materials Under Extremes | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home | Science & Discovery | Advanced Materials | Research Areas | Materials Under Extremes SHARE Materials Under Extremes Materials that can withstand extreme conditions such...

211

Photovoltaic Materials  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the current project was to help make the US solar industry a world leader in the manufacture of thin film photovoltaics. The overall approach was to leverage ORNLs unique characterization and processing technologies to gain a better understanding of the fundamental challenges for solar cell processing and apply that knowledge to targeted projects with industry members. ORNL has the capabilities in place and the expertise required to understand how basic material properties including defects, impurities, and grain boundaries affect the solar cell performance. ORNL also has unique processing capabilities to optimize the manufacturing process for fabrication of high efficiency and low cost solar cells. ORNL recently established the Center for Advanced Thin-film Systems (CATS), which contains a suite of optical and electrical characterization equipment specifically focused on solar cell research. Under this project, ORNL made these facilities available to industrial partners who were interested in pursuing collaborative research toward the improvement of their product or manufacturing process. Four specific projects were pursued with industrial partners: Global Solar Energy is a solar industry leader in full scale production manufacturing highly-efficient Copper Indium Gallium diSelenide (CIGS) thin film solar material, cells and products. ORNL worked with GSE to develop a scalable, non-vacuum, solution technique to deposit amorphous or nanocrystalline conducting barrier layers on untextured stainless steel substrates for fabricating high efficiency flexible CIGS PV. Ferro Corporations Electronic, Color and Glass Materials (ECGM) business unit is currently the worlds largest supplier of metallic contact materials in the crystalline solar cell marketplace. Ferros ECGM business unit has been the world's leading supplier of thick film metal pastes to the crystalline silicon PV industry for more than 30 years, and has had operational cells and modules in the field for 25 years. Under this project, Ferro leveraged world leading analytical capabilities at ORNL to characterize the paste-to-silicon interface microstructure and develop high efficiency next generation contact pastes. Ampulse Corporation is developing a revolutionary crystalline-silicon (c-Si) thin-film solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. Utilizing uniquely-textured substrates and buffer materials from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and breakthroughs in Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HW-CVD) techniques in epitaxial silicon developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Ampulse is creating a solar technology that is tunable in silicon thickness, and hence in efficiency and economics, to meet the specific requirements of multiple solar PV applications. This project focused on the development of a high rate deposition process to deposit Si, Ge, and Si1-xGex films as an alternate to hot-wire CVD. Mossey Creek Solar is a start-up company with great expertise in the solar field. The primary interest is to create and preserve jobs in the solar sector by developing high-yield, low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells using MSC-patented and -proprietary technologies. The specific goal of this project was to produce large grain formation in thin, net-shape-thickness mc-Si wafers processed with high-purity silicon powder and ORNL's plasma arc lamp melting without introducing impurities that compromise absorption coefficient and carrier lifetime. As part of this project, ORNL also added specific pieces of equipment to enhance our ability to provide unique insight for the solar industry. These capabilities include a moisture barrier measurement system, a combined physical vapor deposition and sputtering system dedicated to cadmium-containing deposits, adeep level transient spectroscopy system useful for identifying defects, an integrating sphere photoluminescence system, and a high-speed ink jet printing system. These tools were combined with others to study the effect of defects on the performance of crystalline silicon and

Duty, C.; Angelini, J.; Armstrong, B.; Bennett, C.; Evans, B.; Jellison, G. E.; Joshi, P.; List, F.; Paranthaman, P.; Parish, C.; Wereszczak, A.

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

212

Application of failure assessment diagrams to proof test analysis  

SciTech Connect

Failure Assessment Diagrams (FADs) are constructed which are applicable to a proof test analysis. The FADs are based on failure curves derived from published elastic-plastic J solutions for a wide range of structural features (e.g., structural geometries, crack shapes and sizes, and applied loads) and strain hardening rates. It is shown how failure curves can be constructed which are relatively how failure curves can be constructed which are relatively insensitive to detailed structural features. These are utilized in the construction of failure curves for use in determining the maximum construction of failure curves for use in determining the maximum flaw sizes that could just survive a proof test overload, and the critical crack size under service conditions. The application of the derived failure curves to determining the flaw screening capability conferred by proof testing is discussed. The concepts behind the developed failure curves are being incorporated into a ``state-of-the-art`` proof test guidelines handbook being developed for NASA.

Chell, G.G.; McClung, R.C. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States); Russell, D.A. [Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States). Rocketdyne Division

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

FAILURE MODES AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS Dated: May 27, 2010  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 NSTX FAILURE MODES AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS (FMEA) Revision 7 Dated: May 27, 2010 Prepared By: Name.07.13 09:11:02 -04'00' #12;NSTX Failure Modes & Effects Analysis / NSTX-FMEA-71-7 / p. 2 of 120 2 Table

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

214

LESSONS LEARNED FROM A LANDFILL SLOPE FAILURE INVOLVING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LESSONS LEARNED FROM A LANDFILL SLOPE FAILURE INVOLVING GEOSYTNTHETICS Virginia L. Wilson.L. Soderman and G.P. Raymond November 12, 1998 #12;LESSONS LEARNED FROM A LANDFILL SLOPE FAILURE INVOLVING slopes at waste containment facilities. The Geneva Landfill is located near Geneva, Ohio which

215

Energy Efficiency and Renewables: Market and Behavioral Failures  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Thursday, January 28, 2010: Policies to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency have been gaining momentum throughout the world, often justified by environmental and energy security concerns. This presentation first talks about energy efficiency options, then delves into the economic motivation for energy efficiency and renewable energy policies by articulating the classes of relevant behavioral failures and market failures. Such behavioral and market failures may vary intertemporally or atemporally; the temporal structure and the extent of the failures are the critical considerations in the development of energy policies. The talk discusses key policy instruments and assess the extent to which they are well-suited to correct for failures with different structures. http://eetd.lbl.gov/dls/lecture-01-28...

James Sweeney

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Critical Materials Workshop  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentations during the Critical Materials Workshop held on April 3, 2012 overviewing critical materials strategies

217

Critical Materials Institute  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Ames Laboratory Director Alex King talks about the goals of the Critical Materials Institute in diversifying the supply of critical materials, developing substitute materials, developing tools and techniques for recycling critical materials, and forecasting materials needs to avoid future shortages.

Alex King

2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

218

Unusual refinery boiler tube failures due to corrosion by sulfuric acid induced by steam leaks  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion by sulfuric acid in boilers is a low probability event because gas temperature and metal temperature of boiler tubes are high enough to avoid the condensation of sulfuric acid from flue gases. This degradation mechanism is frequently considered as an important cause of air preheaters materials degradation, where flue gases are cooled by heat transfer to the combustion air. Corrosion is associated to the presence of sulfuric acid, which condensates if metal temperature (or gas temperature) is below of the acid dew point. In economizer tubes, sulfuric acid corrosion is an unlikely event because flue gas and tube temperatures are normally over the acid dewpoint. In this paper, the failure analysis of generator tubes (similar to the economizer of bigger boilers) of two small oil-fired subcritical boilers is reported. It is concluded that sulfuric acid corrosion was the cause of the failure. The sulfuric acid condensation was due to the contact of flue gases containing SO{sub 3} with water-steam spray coming from leaks at the interface of rolled tube to the drum. Considering the information gathered from these two cases studied, an analysis of this failure mechanism is presented including a description of the thermodynamics condition of water leaking from the drum, and an analysis of the factors favoring it.

Lopez-Lopez, D.; Wong-Moreno, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

219

Transient failure of zircaloy cladding: State-of-the-art study and model development: Final report  

SciTech Connect

A state of the art study of transient failure of zircaloy reveals that a wide range of failure models exist, and their use in fuel analysis depends upon the type of application. Licensing analyses, for example, employ highly simplified criteria that depict cladding rupture in terms of a single response variable, usually the nominal circumferential stress, as function of temperature; while fuel behavior analyses use more detailed models with varying levels of sophistication. Some of these models, however, are ill-suited for detailed fuel rod analysis computer codes because of their dependence on case-specific parameters; others are limited in their utility because of inherent deficiencies in their theoretical treatment of the phenomena involved. Based on this study, a new zircaloy transient failure model is developed that takes account of the important variables involved in transient phenomena, namely, heating rate, strain rate, temperature, true stress, true strain, and prior condition of the cladding material. The model is particularly suited for detailed fuel rod analysis and thus was implemented in the FREY code.

Rashid, Y.R.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Failure of the Shockley-Haynes Mobility Experiment with organic semiconducting materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the teflon cylinder was 0. 20$ cm + 0. 00$ cm whioh was slight- ly smaller than the graphite rods used, This arrapgement provided an airtight seal to prevent the sublimation of iodine from the samples after pressing Small holes were drilled through...-iodine was lower than that reported, The upper limit of 3000 lb/i. n for the pressure used to 2 oompress the samples was dictated by the graphite rods used and the wall thickness of the teflon oylinders. Pressures above $000 lb/in oaused either the ends...

Boehme, Hollis Clyde

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brittle material failure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

A remote monitoring and telephone nurse coaching intervention to reduce readmissions among patients with heart failure: study protocol for the Better Effectiveness After Transition - Heart Failure (BEAT-HF) randomized controlled trial  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bonow RO: Rehospitalization for heart failure: problems andInterventional Monitoring in Heart Failure Investigators:patients with chronic heart failure. Circulation 2011, 123:

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Experience with CPV Module Failures at NREL (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

The failures and performance issues associated with three years of on-sun testing of CPV modules are discussed. Pictures of various failure mechanisms and performance issues are presented. A wide array of CPV module failures and performance issues have been experienced at NREL. Many of the modules are prototypes and have not been through qualification testing. It is assumed that the qualification test would have captured many of the problems. Internal lens soiling due to condensation is not currently captured by the qualification test. Lens temperature dependence can be built into modeling if CPV is to operate in cold locations.

Muller, M.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material, such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

224

Estimation of Failure Frequency for Type I and II High Level Waste Tanks  

SciTech Connect

The failure frequency of Type I and Type II High Level Waste tanks was calculated. The degradation mechanism that could lead to large break failure and the credits taken for steps taken to prevent large break failure were considered.

Subramanian, K.H.

2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

225

Congestive heart failure: treat the disease, not the symptom: return to normalcy/Part II--the experimental approach.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Number: Title: Congestive heart failure: treat the diseaseinvited) TITLE: Congestive heart failure: treat the diseasetreatment of congestive heart failure due to post-infarction

Buckberg, Gerald D

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Hybrid approach to failure prediction for advanced computing systems |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hybrid approach to failure prediction for advanced computing systems Hybrid approach to failure prediction for advanced computing systems January 8, 2014 Tweet EmailPrint "Fault tolerance is no longer an option but a necessity," states Franck Cappello, project manager of research on resilience at the extreme scale at Argonne National Laboratory. "And the ability to reliably predict failures can significantly reduce the overhead of fault-tolerance strategies and the recovery cost." In a special issue article in the International Journal of High Performance Computing Applications, Cappello and his colleagues at Argonne and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) discuss issues in failure prediction and present a new hybrid approach to overcome the limitations of current models. One popular way of building prediction models is to analyze log files,

227

Terrestrial Photovoltaic Module Accelerated Test-To-Failure Protocol  

SciTech Connect

This technical report documents a test-to-failure protocol that may be used to obtain quantitative information about the reliability of photovoltaic modules using accelerated testing in environmental temperature-humidity chambers.

Osterwald, C. R.

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

A two-parameter lifetime distribution with decreasing failure rate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, a new two-parameter lifetime distribution with decreasing failure rate is introduced. Various properties of the proposed distribution are discussed. The estimation of the parameters attained by the EM algorithm and their asymptotic variances ...

Rasool Tahmasbi; Sadegh Rezaei

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Module-based Failure Propagation (MFP) model for FMEA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) is one of the most important activities ... Within the field of product development domain, FMEA is regarded as a key driver for ... and cost reduction. There have been var...

Kyoung-Won Noh; Hong-Bae Jun; Jae-Hyun Lee

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Failure mode and effects analysis outputs: are they valid?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is a prospective risk assessment tool that ... this study was to explore the validity of FMEA outputs within a hospital setting in the...

Nada Atef Shebl; Bryony Dean Franklin; Nick Barber

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

WTFMEA: a technique for failure prevention through global knowledge sharing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) is a frequently employed technique to achieve continuous quality improvement through prevention of failures. Since the application of FMEA is largely restricted to design and production functions, an improved technique called Total Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (TFMEA) has been adopted in the research reported in this paper. Of late, organisations have been realising the importance of adopting Information Technology (IT) to enhance productivity in their operations. On realising its potential, IT has been tactically integrated with TFMEA to evolve a technique called Web-Based Total Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (WTFMEA). The functionality of WTFMEA has been explained using its screen outputs. The efforts made to practically validate WTFMEA are narrated. While concluding, the capabilities of WTFMEA in achieving continuous quality and productivity improvement through global knowledge sharing are enumerated. The limitations of WTFMEA and the ways of overcoming them in future are appraised.

C. Sudhahar; R. Suresh Premil Kumar; V. Senthil; S.R. Devadasan; R. Murugesh

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

The effects of training the biceps brachii muscle to failure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental study was conducted to observe the effects on the size and strength of the biceps brachii muscle of an exercise routine that trained the biceps to failure during each workout. The workout routine used ten ...

Walker, Donald L., III

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Embedding the Stable Failures Model of CSP in PVS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present an embedding of the stable failures model of CSP in the PVS theorem prover. Our work ... a previous embedding of the traces model of CSP in[6], provides a platform for...

Kun Wei; James Heather

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Selection of minimum earthquake intensity in calculating pipe failure probabilities  

SciTech Connect

In a piping reliability analysis, it is sometimes necessary to specify a minimum ground motion intensity, usually the peak acceleration, below which the ground motions are not considered as earthquakes and, hence, are neglected. The calculated probability of failure of a piping system is dependent on this selected minimum earthquake intensity chosen for the analysis. A study was conducted to determine the effects of the minimum earthquake intensity on the probability of pipe failure. The results indicated that the probability of failure of the piping system is not very sensitive to the variations of the selected minimum peak ground acceleration. However, it does have significant effects on various scenarios that make up the system failure.

Lo, T.Y.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Corrosion Failure of an In-service Economizer Tube  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This investigation was primarily aimed to examine the in-service failure of an economizer tube. Apart from preliminary visual examination, ... thickness hole in the weld region of the economizer tube. This water ...

H. Roy; P. Sharma; D. Ghosh; A. K. Shukla

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Statistical Modeling of Corrosion Failures in Natural Gas Transmission Pipelines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Natural gas pipelines are a critical component of the U.S. energy infrastructure. The safety of these pipelines plays a key role for the gas industry. Therefore, the understanding of failure characteristics and their consequences are very important...

Cobanoglu, Mustafa Murat

2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

237

Performance of wireless sensor networks under random node failures  

SciTech Connect

Networks are essential to the function of a modern society and the consequence of damages to a network can be large. Assessing network performance of a damaged network is an important step in network recovery and network design. Connectivity, distance between nodes, and alternative routes are some of the key indicators to network performance. In this paper, random geometric graph (RGG) is used with two types of node failure, uniform failure and localized failure. Since the network performance are multi-facet and assessment can be time constrained, we introduce four measures, which can be computed in polynomial time, to estimate performance of damaged RGG. Simulation experiments are conducted to investigate the deterioration of networks through a period of time. With the empirical results, the performance measures are analyzed and compared to provide understanding of different failure scenarios in a RGG.

Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hagberg, Aric [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Feng, Pan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

238

Some Studies on Automatic Generation of Structural Failure Modes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper is concerned with the following two subjects: (1)The depth-first and the width-first branching rules are compared for selecting probabilistically significant failure paths in a redundant structure. ...

Yoshisada Murotsu; Shaowen Shao

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Multi Material Paradigm  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Multi Material Paradigm Glenn S. Daehn Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University Advanced Composites (FRP) Steel Spaceframe Multi Material Concept...

240

Improvement of SRAM-based failure analysis calibrated IDDQ testing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the methodology and detail procedure of simulation based failure analysis t, echnique is explained. Chapter IV discusses the implementation of Iddq current calibration. Chapter V provides some examples supporting the failure analysis methodology . Conclusion... method that is often used to localize surface defects is by examining the hot emission spots. This process functions by detecting the excessive heat generated by the defective neighborhood during device operation. Heat sensitive liquid crystal...

Balachandran, Hariharan

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brittle material failure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessment containment failure Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Henning and Paasch 17 also adopt... A FUNCTION BASED DESIGN TOOL FOR FAILURE MODE IDENTIFICATION AND FAILURE-FREE DESIGN by SRIKESH G... ABSTRACT Knowledge of potential...

242

Integration of Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) in the Engineering Design Process.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??ABSTRACT Integration of Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) in the Engineering Design Process Hua-wei Wen Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) is one of (more)

Wen, Hua-wei

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute-on-chronic liver failure Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

liver failure, tyrosinemia type I... liver failure. Gene transfer vector - A vehicle for transferring genetic infor- mation into somatic... diseases. Artifidal livers...

244

Undercarriage Material Requirements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...grindingr softening and re-hardening burns by etching in 4 %nitric acid. 660...imperfections such as inclusions or small corrosion pits on the surfaces of typical undercarriage...failure survey described above, corrosion pits, hydrogen embrittlement, etc. which...

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Nuclear Reactor Materials and Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nuclear reactor materials and fuels can be classified into six categories: Nuclear fuel materials Nuclear clad materials Nuclear coolant materials Nuclear poison materials Nuclear moderator materials

Dr. James S. Tulenko

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Safety assessment of a robotic system handling nuclear material  

SciTech Connect

This paper outlines the use of a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis for the safety assessment of a robotic system being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The robotic system, The Weigh and Leak Check System, is to replace a manual process at the Department of Energy facility at Pantex by which nuclear material is inspected for weight and leakage. Failure Modes and Effects Analyses were completed for the robotics process to ensure that safety goals for the system had been meet. These analyses showed that the risks to people and the internal and external environment were acceptable.

Atcitty, C.B.; Robinson, D.G.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Method for forming materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A material-forming tool and a method for forming a material are described including a shank portion; a shoulder portion that releasably engages the shank portion; a pin that releasably engages the shoulder portion, wherein the pin defines a passageway; and a source of a material coupled in material flowing relation relative to the pin and wherein the material-forming tool is utilized in methodology that includes providing a first material; providing a second material, and placing the second material into contact with the first material; and locally plastically deforming the first material with the material-forming tool so as mix the first material and second material together to form a resulting material having characteristics different from the respective first and second materials.

Tolle, Charles R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Clark, Denis E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Smartt, Herschel B. (Idaho Falls, ID); Miller, Karen S. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2009-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

248

An Attempt to Calibrate and Validate a Simple Ductile Failure Model Against Axial-Torsion Experiments on Al 6061-T651.  

SciTech Connect

This report details a work in progress. We have attempted to calibrate and validate a Von Mises plasticity model with the Johnson-Cook failure criterion ( Johnson & Cook , 1985 ) against a set of experiments on various specimens of Al 6061-T651. As will be shown, the effort was not successful, despite considerable attention to detail. When the model was com- pared against axial-torsion experiments on tubes, it over predicted failure by 3 x in tension, and never predicted failure in torsion, even when the tube was twisted by 4 x further than the experiment. While this result is unfortunate, it is not surprising. Ductile failure is not well understood. In future work, we will explore whether more sophisticated material mod- els of plasticity and failure will improve the predictions. Selecting the appropriate advanced material model and interpreting the results of said model are not trivial exercises, so it is worthwhile to fully investigate the behavior of a simple plasticity model before moving on to an anisotropic yield surface or a similarly complicated model.

Reedlunn, Benjamin; Lu, Wei-Yang [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

How Tough is Human Cortical Bone? In-Situ Measurements on Realistically Short Cracks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

growth resistance of microcrakcing brittle materials. J. Am.materials (including bone), invariably results in resistance-

Koester, K. J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

NEWTON's Material Science References  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Material Science References Material Science References Do you have a great material science reference link? Please click our Ideas page. Featured Reference Links: Materials Research Society Materials Research Society The Materials Research Society has assembled many resources in its Materials Science Enthusiasts site. This site has information for the K-12 audience, general public, and materials science professionals. Material Science nanoHUB nanHUB.org is the place for nanotechnology research, education, and collaboration. There are Simulation Programs, Online Presentations, Courses, Learning Modules, Podcasts, Animations, Teaching Materials, and more. (Intened for high school and up) Materials Science Resources on the Web Materials Science Resources on the Web This site gives a good general introduction into material science. Sponsered by Iowa State, it talks about what material science is, ceramics and composites, and other topics.

251

Cautionary tales from real world failures for managing security in the cyber world  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Any field of endeavor benefits from a body of knowledge of failures that provide guidance on what to avoid. As a relatively young discipline whose failures can often be handled privately, information security professionals do not have access to the volume ... Keywords: bridges, catastrophic failure, civil engineering, failure, lessons learned

Bill Naber

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Statistical analysis of cascading failures in power grids  

SciTech Connect

We introduce a new microscopic model of cascading failures in transmission power grids. This model accounts for automatic response of the grid to load fluctuations that take place on the scale of minutes, when optimum power flow adjustments and load shedding controls are unavailable. We describe extreme events, caused by load fluctuations, which cause cascading failures of loads, generators and lines. Our model is quasi-static in the causal, discrete time and sequential resolution of individual failures. The model, in its simplest realization based on the Directed Current description of the power flow problem, is tested on three standard IEEE systems consisting of 30, 39 and 118 buses. Our statistical analysis suggests a straightforward classification of cascading and islanding phases in terms of the ratios between average number of removed loads, generators and links. The analysis also demonstrates sensitivity to variations in line capacities. Future research challenges in modeling and control of cascading outages over real-world power networks are discussed.

Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pfitzner, Rene [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turitsyn, Konstantin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Educational Material Science Games  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Material Science Games Material Science Games Do you have a great material science game? Please click our Ideas page. Featured Games: >KS2 Bitsize BBC - Materials KS2 Bitsize BBC - Materials Sponsored by the BBC, K2S Bitsize offers tons of free online science games including a section on materials. Learn about the changes in materials, changing states, heat, rocks, soils, solids, liquids, gases, and much more. Science Kids - Properties of Materials Science Kids - Properties of Materials Learn about the properties of materials as you experiment with a variety of objects in this great science activity for kids. Discover the interesting characteristics of materials; are they flexible, waterproof, strong or transparent? Characteristics of Materials - BBC Schools Characteristics of Materials - BBC Schools

254

Failure modes and effects analysis of fusion magnet systems  

SciTech Connect

A failure modes and consequence analysis of fusion magnet system is an important contributor towards enhancing the design by improving the reliability and reducing the risk associated with the operation of magnet systems. In the first part of this study, a failure mode analysis of a superconducting magnet system is performed. Building on the functional breakdown and the fault tree analysis of the Toroidal Field (TF) coils of the Next European Torus (NET), several subsystem levels are added and an overview of potential sources of failures in a magnet system is provided. The failure analysis is extended to the Poloidal Field (PF) magnet system. Furthermore, an extensive analysis of interactions within the fusion device caused by the operation of the PF magnets is presented in the form of an Interaction Matrix. A number of these interactions may have significant consequences for the TF magnet system particularly interactions triggered by electrical failures in the PF magnet system. In the second part of this study, two basic categories of electrical failures in the PF magnet system are examined: short circuits between the terminals of external PF coils, and faults with a constant voltage applied at external PF coil terminals. An electromagnetic model of the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) is used to examine the mechanical load conditions for the PF and the TF coils resulting from these fault scenarios. It is found that shorts do not pose large threats to the PF coils. Also, the type of plasma disruption has little impact on the net forces on the PF and the TF coils. 39 refs., 30 figs., 12 tabs.

Zimmermann, M; Kazimi, M S; Siu, N O; Thome, R J

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Catheter Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation in Congestive Heart Failure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of antiarrhythmic drugs is challenging, owing to the limited efficacy and potentially deleterious effects of the drugs. This finding has led to renewed interest in rate control, stimulated by reports on several important studies, particularly the Atrial Fibrillation Follow-up Investigation of Rhythm... In patients with heart failure, atrial fibrillation may exacerbate ventricular dysfunction and symptoms. In this study, catheter ablation was performed to restore sinus rhythm in patients with heart failure and refractory atrial fibrillation. The results show improvement in the left ventricular ejection fraction, symptoms, exercise capacity, and quality of life.

Hsu L.-F.; Jas P.; Sanders P.

2004-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

256

Investigation of valve failure problems in LWR power plants  

SciTech Connect

An analysis of component failures from information in the computerized Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) data bank shows that for both PWR and BWR plants the component category most responsible for approximately 19.3% of light water reactor (LWR) power plant shutdowns. This investigation by Burns and Roe, Inc. shows that the greatest cause of shutdowns in LWRs due to valve failures is leakage from valve stem packing. Both BWR plants and PWR plants have stem leakage problems (BWRs, 21% and PWRs, 34%).

None

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Progress in the Research Programs to Elucidate Axial Cracking Fuel Failure at High Burnup  

SciTech Connect

A fuel failure with an axial crack starting outside the cladding and penetrating inwards was experienced by high burnup BWR fuel rods in power ramp test. On the other hand, no fuel failure caused by power ramp test has been currently reported on PWR fuel rods at burnups higher than 50 GWd/t. Extensive research programs regarding hydrogen behaviors and mechanical performances on irradiated BWR and PWR fuel claddings have been carried out to clarify the mechanism of the axial cracking and to quantify the conditions to cause fuel failure. Hydrogen solid solubility measurement on irradiated Zircaloy-2 materials showed almost comparable results to those on unirradiated ones. Hydride re-distribution and re-orientation behaviors were tested by heating irradiated BWR claddings with Zr-liner under the conditions of applied radial heat flux (temperature gradient) and circumferential stress. Mechanical performances of BWR claddings were evaluated mainly by the internal pressurizing tests. Internal pressurization tests applying various pressurizing sequences, e.g. stepwise increase in pressure with holding intervals, were also conducted to simulate crack propagation behaviors. Some specimens demonstrated characteristic fracture surfaces similar to those observed on the failed fuel rods after the power ramp. Mechanical performances of irradiated PWR claddings were tested at temperatures of 573 to 723 K. Metallographic examination after tensile tests revealed a large number of incipient cracks within the region of cladding outer rim where a concentrated hydride layer (hydride rim) has been formed during irradiation. Crack propagation test using an expanding mandrel device demonstrated the crack propagation at 573 K but no propagation at 658 K. (authors)

Ogata, Keizo; Aomi, Masaki; Baba, Toshikazu; Kamimura, Katsuichiro [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization, 3-17-1 Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0001 (Japan); Etoh, Yoshinori [Nippon Nuclear Fuel Development Co., Ltd., 2163 Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Ito, Kunio [Grobal Nuclear Fuel - Japan Co., Ltd., 3-1 Uchikawa 2-chone, Yokosuka 239-0836 (Japan); Kido, Toshiya [Nuclear Development Corporation, 622-12 Funaishikawa, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1111 (Japan); Teshima, Hideyuki [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. 1-1, Wadasaki-cho 1-chome, Hyogo-ku, Kobe 652-8585 (Japan)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

ON-LINE THERMAL BARRIER COATING MONITORING FOR REAL-TIME FAILURE PROTECTION AND LIFE MAXIMIZATION  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization,'' to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability availability maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can therefore accelerate the degradation of substrate components materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical component and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

Dennis H. LeMieux

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating Monitoring for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Power Generation, Inc proposed a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization'', to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability availability maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can therefore accelerate the degradation of substrate components materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical component and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Power Generation, Inc. has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

Dennis H. LeMieux

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

ON-LINE THERMAL BARRIER COATING MONITORING FOR REAL-TIME FAILURE PROTECTION AND LIFE MAXIMIZATION  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization,'' to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can, therefore, accelerate the degradation of substrate component materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical components and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

Dennis H. LeMieux

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brittle material failure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating Monitoring for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization'', to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability availability maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can therefore accelerate the degradation of substrate components materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical component and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

Dennis H. LeMieux

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating Monitoring for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization'', to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land -based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability availability maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can therefore accelerate the degradation of substrate components materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical component and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems; a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization.

Dennis H. LeMieux

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

ON-LINE THERMAL BARRIER COATING MONITORING FOR REAL-TIME FAILURE PROTECTION AND LIFE MAXIMIZATION  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization,'' to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can, therefore, accelerate the degradation of substrate component materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical components and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

Dennis H. LeMieux

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Advanced Materials | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Research Areas Research Areas Research Highlights Facilities and Capabilities Science to Energy Solutions News & Awards Events and Conferences Supporting Organizations Directionally Solidified Materials Using high-temperature optical floating zone furnace to produce monocrystalline molybdenum alloy micro-pillars Home | Science & Discovery | Advanced Materials Advanced Materials | Advanced Materials SHARE ORNL has the nation's most comprehensive materials research program and is a world leader in research that supports the development of advanced materials for energy generation, storage, and use. We have core strengths in three main areas: materials synthesis, characterization, and theory. In other words, we discover and make new materials, we study their structure,

265

MATERIALS TRANSFER AGREEMENT  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MTAXX-XXX 1 MATERIAL TRANSFER AGREEMENT for Manufacturing Demonstration Facility and Carbon Fiber Technology Facility In order for the RECIPIENT to obtain materials, the RECIPIENT...

266

Material Point Methods  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Material Point Methods and Multiphysics for Fracture and Multiphase Problems Joseph Teran, UCLA and Alice Koniges, LBL Contact: jteran@math.ucla.edu Material point methods (MPM)...

267

Materials | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Materials Materials 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Vehicle Technologies Plenary...

268

Energy Materials & Processes | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in catalysts and energy materials needed to design new materials and systems for sustainable energy applications. By facilitating the development and rapid dissemination...

269

EMSL - Energy Materials & Processes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in catalysts and energy materials needed to design new materials and systems for sustainable energy applications. By facilitating the development and rapid dissemination...

270

Impact of intrinsic localized modes of atomic motion on materials properties  

SciTech Connect

Recent neutron and x-ray scattering measurements show intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) in metallic uranium and ionic sodium iodide. Here, the role ILMs play in the behavior of these materials is examined. With the thermal activation of ILMs, thermal expansion is enhanced, made more anisotropic, and, at a microscopic level, becomes inhomogeneous. Interstitial diffusion, ionic conductivity, the annealing rate of radiation damage, and void growth are all influenced by ILMs. The lattice thermal conductivity is suppressed above the ILM activation temperature while no impact is observed in the electrical conductivity. This complement of transport properties suggests that ILMs could improve thermoelectric performance. Ramifications also include thermal ratcheting, a transition from brittle to ductile fracture, and possibly a phase transformation in uranium.

Manley, M E

2010-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

271

Physica A 264 (1999) 7583 Incipient failure in sandpile models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Physica A 264 (1999) 75­83 Incipient failure in sandpile models Onuttom Narayana; , Sidney R. Nagelb aDepartment of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA bThe James Franck Institute and Department of Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA Received 13 October 1998

California at Santa Cruz, University of

272

Mobile Agents: Ten Reasons For Failure Giovanni Vigna  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mobile Agents: Ten Reasons For Failure Giovanni Vigna Reliable Software Group Department of Computer Science University of California, Santa Barbara vigna@cs.ucsb.edu Abstract Mobile agents have applications in a dynamic environment. Mobile agents pro- vide a very appealing, intuitive, and apparently

California at Santa Barbara, University of

273

An Instability Leading to Failure of Polyethylene in Uniaxial Creep  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An Instability Leading to Failure of Polyethylene in Uniaxial Creep L. J. ZAPAS and J. M. CRISSMAN model, a point of instability is pre- dicted for the uniaxial creep of high density polyethylene. From dead load experiments it has been found that the instabil- ity occurs for linear -polyethylene

274

The robustness of dynamic vehicle performance to spot weld failures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Spot welds are the dominant joining method in the vehicle assembly process. As the automated assembly process is not perfect, some spot welds may be absent when the vehicle leaves the assembly line. Furthermore, spot welds are highly susceptible to fatigue, ... Keywords: Failure, Fatigue, Finite element analysis, Robustness, Spot welds, Structural dynamics

S. Donders; M. Brughmans; L. Hermans; C. Liefooghe; H. Van der Auweraer; W. Desmet

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Internet Routing Resilience to Failures: Analysis and Implications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Internet Routing Resilience to Failures: Analysis and Implications Jian Wu Ying Zhang Z. Morley Mao Kang G. Shin University of Michigan ABSTRACT Internet interdomain routing is policy-driven, and thus phys- ical connectivity does not imply reachability. On average, routing on today's Internet works

Mao, Zhuoqing Morley

276

Failure-aware resource provisioning for hybrid Cloud infrastructure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hybrid Cloud computing is receiving increasing attention in recent days. In order to realize the full potential of the hybrid Cloud platform, an architectural framework for efficiently coupling public and private Clouds is necessary. As resource failures due to the increasing functionality and complexity of hybrid Cloud computing are inevitable, a failure-aware resource provisioning algorithm that is capable of attending to the end-users quality of service (QoS) requirements is paramount. In this paper, we propose a scalable hybrid Cloud infrastructure as well as resource provisioning policies to assure QoS targets of the users. The proposed policies take into account the workload model and the failure correlations to redirect users requests to the appropriate Cloud providers. Using real failure traces and a workload model, we evaluate the proposed resource provisioning policies to demonstrate their performance, cost as well as performancecost efficiency. Simulation results reveal that in a realistic working condition while adopting user estimates for the requests in the provisioning policies, we are able to improve the users QoS about 32% in terms of deadline violation rate and 57% in terms of slowdown with a limited cost on a public Cloud.

Bahman Javadi; Jemal Abawajy; Rajkumar Buyya

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Combining failure mode and functional resonance analyses in healthcare settings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Socio-technical systems rely on technological artefacts as well as human and professional practices in order to achieve organisational safety. From an organisational viewpoint of analysis, different safety barriers are often put in place in order to ... Keywords: failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), functional resonance analysis method (FRAM), healthcare

Mark-Alexander Sujan; Massimo Felici

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Failure Modes and Effects Analysis -LRRR PAGE ~1 Ofll 8  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analysis (FMEA) is to discover critical failure areas in a system and to remove susceptibility. This memo contains the results of a preliminary FMEA for the LRRR experiment. This analysis will be revised deployed on the moon as a part of the Apollo 11 mission, this FMEA will not dwell on the aspects

Rathbun, Julie A.

279

'Cheap grid': Leveraging system failure using stochastic computation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Traditionally, network and computation failure on a heterogeneous network are viewed as an unfortunate obstacle to reliable, efficient computation. We propose that such noise can be incorporated into the algorithm design as part of the necessary source ... Keywords: Evolutionary computing, Fault-tolerance, Genetic algorithms, Grid computing, Parallel computation, Reliable computing, Stochastic systems

Andrew Hamilton-Wright; Deborah Stacey

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Emerging Trends in Failures Involving EPS-Block Geofoam Fills  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Emerging Trends in Failures Involving EPS-Block Geofoam Fills John S. Horvath, Ph.D., P.E., M.ASCE1 Abstract: Expanded polystyrene EPS is a closed-cell polymeric "plastic" foam that, in its generic block is due to the fact that block-molded EPS is unique among geofoam products for the large and diverse

Horvath, John S.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brittle material failure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

The Market Failure of Anonymity Services Heiko Rossnagel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Market Failure of Anonymity Services Heiko Rossnagel Fraunhofer Institute for Industrial Engineering (IAO), Nobelstr.12 70569 Stuttgart, Germany heiko.rossnagel@iao.fraunhofer.de Abstract. While in the diffusion of innovations theory on the reasons for the slow diffusion of anonymity services. We conclude

Boyer, Edmond

282

Computational Analysis of Cascading Failures in Power Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of smart grid measurement and control algorithms that can mitigate a cascade. Categories and Subject. Specifically, we consider performance metrics such as the distance between failures, the length of the cascade (under different metrics) is NP-hard. Finally, for specific graphs, we develop a fast algorithm

Shepard, Kenneth

283

Production-Run Software Failure Diagnosis via Hardware Performance Counters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

production-run failures caused by se- quential and concurrency bugs with low overhead. PBI is designed based overhead are needed. The state-of-the-art diagnosis techniques use software instrumentation to sample program properties at run time and use off-line statistical analysis to identify properties most

Sheridan, Jennifer

284

MEMS Reliability: Infrastructure, Test Structures, Experiments, and Failure Modes  

SciTech Connect

The burgeoning new technology of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) shows great promise in the weapons arena. We can now conceive of micro-gyros, micro-surety systems, and micro-navigators that are extremely small and inexpensive. Do we want to use this new technology in critical applications such as nuclear weapons? This question drove us to understand the reliability and failure mechanisms of silicon surface-micromachined MEMS. Development of a testing infrastructure was a crucial step to perform reliability experiments on MEMS devices and will be reported here. In addition, reliability test structures have been designed and characterized. Many experiments were performed to investigate failure modes and specifically those in different environments (humidity, temperature, shock, vibration, and storage). A predictive reliability model for wear of rubbing surfaces in microengines was developed. The root causes of failure for operating and non-operating MEMS are discussed. The major failure mechanism for operating MEMS was wear of the polysilicon rubbing surfaces. Reliability design rules for future MEMS devices are established.

TANNER,DANELLE M.; SMITH,NORMAN F.; IRWIN,LLOYD W.; EATON,WILLIAM P.; HELGESEN,KAREN SUE; CLEMENT,J. JOSEPH; MILLER,WILLIAM M.; MILLER,SAMUEL L.; DUGGER,MICHAEL T.; WALRAVEN,JEREMY A.; PETERSON,KENNETH A.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Automatic Recovery from Disk Failure in Continuous-Media Servers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with buffer sharing. To tackle this problem, a novel pipelined rebuild algorithm is proposed to take advantage of the sequential property of track retrievals to pipeline the reading and writing processes. This pipelined rebuild without total system failure or permanent data loss. This gives the system operator more time to repair

Lui, John C.S.

286

Queueing systems subject to random server failures: an approximation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the traditional study of queueing theory, a typical ics. assumption is that the server is not subject to failures. This assumption, however, is not realistic for modeling many queueing systems in practice. Since the late 1950's, there has been...

Matis, Timothy

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

LESSONS LEARNED FROM AN IMPOUNDMENT SLOPE FAILURE INVOLVING GEOSYNTHETICS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Shearbox test, Failure, Landfill, Sedimentation pond AUTHORS: Kyle E. Nay, Environmental Specialist, Ohio of the Case The municipal solid waste landfill occupies about 5.7 ha (14 acres) in Ohio, USA. The landfill underwent final closure construction in the summer of 1994. The landfill previously accepted an average

288

Array E PCU Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis ,...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, this circuit would automatically switch power to the redundant unit. 2. 2 INVERTER MODULE ,· The Inverter the Failure Modes, Effect and Criticality Analysis on the Bendix designed Power Con- ditioning Unit resulted in IOOo/o success on all previ- ous arrays plus the following new features: I. Complete Redundancy

Rathbun, Julie A.

289

Energy-Efficient Neuronal Computation via Quantal Synaptic Failures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy-Efficient Neuronal Computation via Quantal Synaptic Failures William B Levy1 and Robert A, and many of these com- promises can be expressed in terms of energy efficiency. For example, a compromise; efficiency; energy; entropy; infor- mation theory; mutual information; optimization; quantal fail- ures

Levy, William B.

290

Metallurgy, thermal stability, and failure mode of the commercial Bi-Te-based thermoelectric modules.  

SciTech Connect

Bi-Te-based thermoelectric (TE) alloys are excellent candidates for power generation modules. We are interested in reliable TE modules for long-term use at or below 200 C. It is known that the metallurgical characteristics of TE materials and of interconnect components affect the performance of TE modules. Thus, we have conducted an extensive scientific investigation of several commercial TE modules to determine whether they meet our technical requirements. Our main focus is on the metallurgy and thermal stability of (Bi,Sb){sup 2}(Te,Se){sup 3} TE compounds and of other materials used in TE modules in the temperature range between 25 C and 200 C. Our study confirms the material suite used in the construction of TE modules. The module consists of three major components: AlN cover plates; electrical interconnects; and the TE legs, P-doped (Bi{sub 8}Sb{sub 32})(Te{sub 60}) and N-doped (Bi{sub 37}Sb{sub 3})(Te{sub 56}Se{sub 4}). The interconnect assembly contains Sn (Sb {approx} 1wt%) solder, sandwiched between Cu conductor with Ni diffusion barriers on the outside. Potential failure modes of the TE modules in this temperature range were discovered and analyzed. The results show that the metallurgical characteristics of the alloys used in the P and N legs are stable up to 200 C. However, whole TE modules are thermally unstable at temperatures above 160 C, lower than the nominal melting point of the solder suggested by the manufacture. Two failure modes were observed when they were heated above 160 C: solder melting and flowing out of the interconnect assembly; and solder reacting with the TE leg, causing dimensional swelling of the TE legs. The reaction of the solder with the TE leg occurs as the lack of a nickel diffusion barrier on the side of the TE leg where the displaced solder and/or the preexisting solder beads is directly contact the TE material. This study concludes that the present TE modules are not suitable for long-term use at temperatures above 160 C due to the reactivity between the Sn-solder and the (Bi,Sb){sup 2}(Te,Se){sup 3} TE alloys. In order to deploy a reliable TE power generator for use at or below 200 C, alternate interconnect materials must be used and/or a modified module fabrication technique must be developed.

Yang, Nancy Y. C.; Morales, Alfredo Martin

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Chapter 6: Materials  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

: Materials : Materials Material Selection Sustainable Building Materials System Integration Issues | Chapter 6 Material Selection Materials The use of durable, attractive, and environmentally responsible building materials is a key element of any high-performance building effort. The use of natural and healthy materials contributes to the well-being of the occupants and to a feeling of connection with the bounty of the natural world. Many construction materials have significant environ- mental impacts from pollutant releases, habitat destruc- tion, and depletion of natural resources. This can occur during extraction and acquisition of raw materials, pro- "Then I say the Earth belongs to duction and manufacturing processes, and transporta- tion. In addition, some construction materials can harm

292

NEWTON's Material Science Videos  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Material Science Videos Material Science Videos Do you have a great material science video? Please click our Ideas page. Featured Videos: University of Maryland - Material Science University of Maryland - Material Science The Department of Materials Science and Engineering offers a set of videos about various topics in material science to help students understand what material science is. Learn about plasma, polymers, liquid crystals and much more. LearnersTV.com - Material Science LearnersTV.com - Material Science LearnersTV.com offers a series of educational material science lectures that are available to the public for free. Learn about topics like polymers, non-crystalline solids, crystal geometry, phase diagrams, phase transformations and more. NanoWerk - Nanotechnology Videos NanoWerk - Nanotechnology Videos

293

Energetic Materials Center Energetic Materials Center  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

experimental characterization of energetic material properties and reactions; and high-speed diagnostic instruments for measuring the chemical and physical processes that occur...

294

Nuclear Materials: Reconsidering Wastes and Assets - 13193  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear industry, both in the commercial and the government sectors, has generated large quantities of material that span the spectrum of usefulness, from highly valuable ('assets') to worthless ('wastes'). In many cases, the decision parameters are clear. Transuranic waste and high level waste, for example, have no value, and is either in a final disposition path today, or - in the case of high level waste - awaiting a policy decision about final disposition. Other materials, though discardable, have intrinsic scientific or market value that may be hidden by the complexity, hazard, or cost of recovery. An informed decision process should acknowledge the asset value, or lack of value, of the complete inventory of materials, and the structure necessary to implement the range of possible options. It is important that informed decisions are made about the asset value for the variety of nuclear materials available. For example, there is a significant quantity of spent fuel available for recycle (an estimated $4 billion value in the Savannah River Site's (SRS) L area alone); in fact, SRS has already blended down more than 300 metric tons of uranium for commercial reactor use. Over 34 metric tons of surplus plutonium is also on a path to be used as commercial fuel. There are other radiological materials that are routinely handled at the site in large quantities that should be viewed as strategically important and / or commercially viable. In some cases, these materials are irreplaceable domestically, and failure to consider their recovery could jeopardize our technological leadership or national defense. The inventories of nuclear materials at SRS that have been characterized as 'waste' include isotopes of plutonium, uranium, americium, and helium. Although planning has been performed to establish the technical and regulatory bases for their discard and disposal, recovery of these materials is both economically attractive and in the national interest. (authors)

Michalske, T.A. [Savannah River National Laboratory (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Coated ceramic breeder materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A breeder material for use in a breeder blanket of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. The breeder material comprises a core material of lithium containing ceramic particles which has been coated with a neutron multiplier such as Be or BeO, which coating has a higher thermal conductivity than the core material.

Tam, Shiu-Wing (Downers Grove, IL); Johnson, Carl E. (Elk Grove, IL)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Dental Materials BIOMATERIALS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

focus is on the development of two standard methods: one for a material's resistance to microleakage will quantify a significant portion of a material's ability to resist secondary caries. The methodsDental Materials BIOMATERIALS Our goal is to provide reference materials and clinically relevant

297

Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation slides from the Energy Department webinar, Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials, held August 13, 2013.

298

Computational Chemical Materials Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: Thermal barrier coatings, wear resistance coatings, radiation resistant materials · Materials for opticalHome Computational Chemical and Materials Engineering Tahir Cagin Chemical Engineering Department to understand behavior and properties of materials as a function of ­ Chemical constitution ­ Composition

299

FRIEDRICH-ALEXANDER-UNIVERSITAT ERLANGEN-NURNBERG INSTITUT FUR ANGEWANDTE MATHEMATIK  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

toughness. Keywords crack growth · fracture energy · cohesive zone modeling · ceramic matrix composites-9131-8528503 E-mail: steinmann@ltm.uni-erlangen.de Abstract In brittle composite materials, failure mech- anisms like debonding of the matrix-fiber interface or fiber breakage can result in crack deflection and hence

Gugat, Martin

300

Puncture detecting barrier materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for continuous real-time monitoring of the integrity of protective barrier materials, particularly protective barriers against toxic, radioactive and biologically hazardous materials has been developed. Conductivity, resistivity or capacitance between conductive layers in the multilayer protective materials is measured by using leads connected to electrically conductive layers in the protective barrier material. The measured conductivity, resistivity or capacitance significantly changes upon a physical breach of the protective barrier material. 4 figs.

Hermes, R.E.; Ramsey, D.R.; Stampfer, J.F.; Macdonald, J.M.

1998-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brittle material failure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Joining of dissimilar materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of joining dissimilar materials having different ductility, involves two principal steps: Decoration of the more ductile material's surface with particles of a less ductile material to produce a composite; and, sinter-bonding the composite produced to a joining member of a less ductile material. The joining method is suitable for joining dissimilar materials that are chemically inert towards each other (e.g., metal and ceramic), while resulting in a strong bond with a sharp interface between the two materials. The joining materials may differ greatly in form or particle size. The method is applicable to various types of materials including ceramic, metal, glass, glass-ceramic, polymer, cermet, semiconductor, etc., and the materials can be in various geometrical forms, such as powders, fibers, or bulk bodies (foil, wire, plate, etc.). Composites and devices with a decorated/sintered interface are also provided.

Tucker, Michael C; Lau, Grace Y; Jacobson, Craig P

2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

302

Sensors & Materials | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sensors and Materials Argonne uses its materials and engineering expertise to develop, test, and deploy sensors and materials to detect nuclear and radiological materials, chemical...

303

Analysis of major failures in Europes power grid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Power grids are prone to failure. Time series of reliability measures such as total power loss or energy not supplied can give significant account of the underlying dynamical behavior of these systems, specially when the resulting probability distributions present remarkable features such as an algebraic tail, usually considered the footprint of self-organization and the existence of critical points. In this paper, 7years (from 2002 to 2008) of Europes transport of electricity network failure events have been analyzed and the best fit for this empirical data probability distribution is presented. With the actual span of available data and although there exists a moderate support for the power-law model, the relatively small amount of events contained in the functions tail suggests that causal factors other than self-organization or a critical state might be significantly ruling these systems dynamics.

Mart Rosas-Casals; Ricard Sol

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Boiler tube failures in municipal waste-to-energy plants  

SciTech Connect

Waste-to-energy plants experienced increased boiler tube failures when the design changed from waste-heat boilers to radiant furnace waterwalls using superheat. Fireside attack by chlorine and sulfur compounds in refuse combustion products caused many forced outages in early European plants operating at high steam temperatures and pressures. Despite conservative steam conditions in the first US plants, failures occurred. As steam temperatures increased, corrosion problems multiplied. The problems have been alleviated by covering the waterwalls with either refractory or weld overlays of nickel-based alloys and using high nickel-chromium alloys for superheater tubes. Changes in furnace design to provide uniform combustion and avoid reducing conditions in the waterwall zone and to lower the gas temperature in the superheater also have helped minimize corrosion.

Krause, H.H.; Wright, I.G. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Failure Analysis of a Compressor Blade of Gas Turbine Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The stage II compressor stator blade of a developmental gas turbine engine was found damaged during dismantling of the engine after test run. A portion of the blade was found fractured from the hub region at leading edge. A crack was also observed extending from the fractured surface towards the centre of the airfoil region of the blade. Low magnification stereo-binocular observation revealed presence of beach marks on the fractured surface indicating the blade failure in progressive mode. This observation was further confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The crack origin was at the blade hub-stem junction on the leading edge side. Presence of machining/filing marks appeared to be the reason for the fatigue crack initiation from this region. No metallurgical abnormalities were present at the crack origin. However, deep filing/machining lines were observed at the stem region of the blade attributing to the cause of failure.

Swati Biswas; M.D. Ganeshachar; Jivan Kumar; V.N. Satish Kumar

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Failure Rate Data Analysis for High Technology Components  

SciTech Connect

Understanding component reliability helps designers create more robust future designs and supports efficient and cost-effective operations of existing machines. The accelerator community can leverage the commonality of its high-vacuum and high-power systems with those of the magnetic fusion community to gain access to a larger database of reliability data. Reliability studies performed under the auspices of the International Energy Agency are the result of an international working group, which has generated a component failure rate database for fusion experiment components. The initial database work harvested published data and now analyzes operating experience data. This paper discusses the usefulness of reliability data, describes the failure rate data collection and analysis effort, discusses reliability for components with scarce data, and points out some of the intersections between magnetic fusion experiments and accelerators.

L. C. Cadwallader

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Failure analysis of a half-micron CMOS IC technology  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of recent failure analysis of an advanced, 0.5 {mu}m, fully planarized, triple metallization CMOS technology. A variety of failure analysis (FA) tools and techniques were used to localize and identify defects generated by wafer processing. These include light (photon) emission microscopy (LE), fluorescent microthermal imaging (FMI), focused ion beam cross sectioning, SEM/voltage contrast imaging, resistive contrast imaging (RCI), and e-beam testing using an IDS-5000 with an HP 82000. The defects identified included inter- and intra-metal shorts, gate oxide shorts due to plasma processing damage, and high contact resistance due to the contact etch and deposition process. Root causes of these defects were determined and corrective action was taken to improve yield and reliability.

Liang, A.Y.; Tangyunyong, P.; Bennett, R.S.; Flores, R.S. [and others

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Extending Failure Modes and Effects Analysis Approach for Reliability Analysis at the Software Architecture Design Level  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Several reliability engineering approaches have been proposed to identify and recover from failures. A well-known and mature approach is the Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) method that is usually utilized...

Hasan Sozer; Bedir Tekinerdogan; Mehmet Aksit

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

A Methodology for Weapon System Availability Assessment, incorporating Failure, Damage and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Methodology for Weapon System Availability Assessment, incorporating Failure, Damage in a hostile environment, they are particularly vulnerable in sit- uations of unavailability. Military weapon principles for weapon systems modeling that integrate both system failure and system damage, as well

Boyer, Edmond

310

Failure Modes and Causes for Swing and Lift Type Check Valves  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

HPCI Mainsteam RCIC Suppression Isolation Air Pool Support Figure 2. Relative Failure Rate by System and Valve Type for Significant 191-1996 Failures for the Ten Systems with...

311

Failure of man-made cavities in salt and surface subsidence due to sulfur mining  

SciTech Connect

An engineering data base relevant to subsidence due to sulfur mining and to structural failure of cavities in salt is established, evaluated and documented. Nineteen failure events are discussed. Based on these documented failure events, capabilities of and inputs to a mathematical model of cavity failure are determined. Two failure events are adequately documented for use in model verification studies. A conclusion of this study that is pertinent to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve is that cavity failures in dome salt are fairly rare, but that as the number of large cavities (especially those having large roof spans) increases, failures will probably be more common unless stability and failure mechanisms of cavities are better understood.

Coates, G.K.; Lee, C.A.; McClain, W.C.; Senseny, P.E.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Statistical Analysis of LifeData with Masked CauseofFailure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, a detailed Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) can be carried out in a routine manner. In reliability been pursued under the general heading of Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) when the exact causes

Basu, Sanjib

313

Failure mode and effects analysis using intuitionistic fuzzy hybrid TOPSIS approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is an effective reliability analysis technique used ... , processes, and/or designs. In traditional FMEA, prioritization of failure modes is carried out ... the risk prior...

Hu-Chen Liu; Jian-Xin You; Meng-Meng Shan; Lu-Ning Shao

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

E-Print Network 3.0 - adenine-induced renal failure Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

J. Clin. Invest. Summary: no lethality was observed in wild-type littermates. Death in Vim mice resulted from end-stage renal failure... that renal failure in Vim mice...

315

On Impedance Spectroscopy Contribution to Failure Diagnosis in Wind Turbine Generators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-fed induction generator, failure diagnosis, impedance spectroscopy. Nomenclature WT = Wind Turbine; DFIG rotor end- rings and harmonic degrading. In particular, DFIG-based WT failure diagnosis seems to become

Boyer, Edmond

316

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced heart failure Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

heart failure Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: advanced heart failure Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 UK HealthCare is pleased to...

317

E-Print Network 3.0 - abc heart failure Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

heart failure Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: abc heart failure Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Message from Peter L. Slavin, MD It was...

318

Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg, 191, 20952109 (2002) Hierarchical, Adaptive, Material Point Method for Dynamic Energy Release  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

& Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, U.S.A April 26, 2001 Abstract A crack and involving materials with history dependent properties such as plasticity or viscoelasticity effects. MPM has been used to analyze material failure problems [4], but the approach has been by modification

Utah, University of

319

Defining Human Failure Events for Petroleum Risk Analysis  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, an identification and description of barriers and human failure events (HFEs) for human reliability analysis (HRA) is performed. The barriers, called target systems, are identified from risk significant accident scenarios represented as defined situations of hazard and accident (DSHAs). This report serves as the foundation for further work to develop petroleum HFEs compatible with the SPAR-H method and intended for reuse in future HRAs.

Ronald L. Boring; Knut ien

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Ultrafiltration in Decompensated Heart Failure with Cardiorenal Syndrome  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the Aquadex System 100 (CHF Solutions) according to the manufacturer's specifications. Ultrafiltration was performed at a fluid-removal rate of 200 ml per hour. The addition of intravenous vasodilators or positive inotropic agents after randomization was prohibited unless they were deemed to be necessary... Patients with decompensated heart failure and cardiorenal syndrome were randomly assigned to ultrafiltration or diuretic therapy. Ultrafiltration was inferior to diuretics with respect to the primary end point, a bivariate measure of change in creatinine and body weight.

Bart B.A.; Goldsmith S.R.; Lee K.L.

2012-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brittle material failure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Heavy ion induced failures in a power IGBT  

SciTech Connect

Power semiconductor devices are going through a rapid evolution. Modern components, such as Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT), have become widely accepted as well-suited devices for many power electronic applications. Here, heavy-ion induced destructive failures are reported in N-channel power IGBTs. For the first time, an experimental and 2D simulation investigation shows that latchup is involved in the triggering of the device.

Lorfevre, E.; Dachs, C.; Detcheverry, C.; Palau, J.M.; Gasiot, J. [Univ. Montpellier II (France)] [Univ. Montpellier II (France); Roubaud, F. [Univ. des Antilles-Guyanne, Kourou (French Guiana)] [Univ. des Antilles-Guyanne, Kourou (French Guiana); Calvet, M.C. [Aerospatiale, Les Mureaux (France)] [Aerospatiale, Les Mureaux (France); Ecoffet, R. [Centre National d`Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse (France)] [Centre National d`Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse (France)

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Comprehensive Nuclear Materials  

SciTech Connect

This book encompasses a rich seam of current information on the vast and multidisciplinary field of nuclear materials employed in fission and prototype fusion systems. Discussion includes both historical and contemporary international research in nuclear materials, from Actinides to Zirconium alloys, from the worlds leading scientists and engineers. Synthesizes pertinent current science to support the selection, assessment, validation and engineering of materials in extreme nuclear environments. The work discusses the major classes of materials suitable for usage in nuclear fission, fusion reactors and high power accelerators, and for diverse functions in fuels, cladding, moderator and control materials, structural, functional, and waste materials.

Konings, Dr. Rudy J. M. [European Commission Joint Research Centre; Allen, Todd R. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Yamanaka, Prof. Shinsuke [Osaka University

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

LX-17 Corner-Turning and Reactive Flow Failure  

SciTech Connect

We have performed a series of highly-instrumented experiments examining corner-turning of detonation. A TATB booster is inset 15 mm into LX-17 (92.5% TATB, 7.5% kel-F) so that the detonation must turn a right angle around an air well. An optical pin located at the edge of the TATB gives the start time of the corner-turn. The breakout time on the side and back edges is measured with streak cameras. Three high-resolution X-ray images were taken on each experiment to examine the details of the detonation. We have concluded that the detonation cannot turn the corner and subsequently fails, but the shock wave continues to propagate in the unreacted explosive, leaving behind a dead zone. The detonation front farther out from the corner slowly turns and eventually reaches the air well edge 180{sup o} from its original direction. The dead zone is stable and persists 7.7 {micro}s after the corner-turn, although it has drifted into the original air well area. Our regular reactive flow computer models sometimes show temporary failure but they recover quickly and are unable to model the dead zones. We present a failure model that cuts off the reaction rate below certain detonation velocities and reproduces the qualitative features of the corner-turning failure.

Souers, P C; Andreski, H; Cook III, C F; Garza, R; Pastrone, R; Phillips, D; Roeske, F; Vitello, P; Molitoris, J

2004-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

324

Severe or serious infusion reactions occurred in 18 treatment-failure gout patients who received pegloticase  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Severe or serious infusion reactions occurred in 18 treatment-failure gout patients who received pegloticase [Puricase] while...

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

US fast reactor materials and structures program  

SciTech Connect

Materials and structures problems are central to many critical issues concerning the economic competitiveness, reliable performance, and safety of liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) power plants. The US Department of Energy has sponsored for many years a national LMFBR materials and structures program. The objectives of the program are (1) to provide the technological basis for assuring that LMFBR components and systems will be free from significant structural failures during their design lifetimes and (2) to develop materials, design methods and criteria, materials property data, and procedures - all aimed at providing for broad flexibility in LMFBR component and system design and operation. Technology areas included in the program are high-temperature structural design; seismic design; mechanical properties design data; fabrication; tribology (friction, wear, and self-welding); coolant technology (sodium and steam/water); advanced structural alloys; and nondestructive testing. It is the purpose of this study to indicate briefly for each of the program's technology areas the objective, the scope, and some significant accomplishments. Future directions for the program are also discussed.

Harms, W.O.; Purdy, C.M.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Corrosion of barrier materials in seawater environments  

SciTech Connect

A brief review has been carried out on the performance of barrier materials for low-level radioactive wastes in seawater environments. The environments include those for shallower coastal waters as well as the deep ocean (down to 3800 m). The review is mainly focused on metallic materials since they are the most common for seawater service and they have the largest data base. Information from the literature is usually pertinent to shallower coastal locations, but there is a valuable source of corrosion data obtained from several studies of metallic specimens exposed to ocean-bed conditions. In addition, the corrosion of carbon steel barriers has been evaluated for actual waste containers that were retrieved from previously-used disposal sites in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Of the metallic materials studied, carbon steel showed the least corrosion resistance. Failure by non-uniform attack in a typical waste container could occur in as little as 25 y in some ocean environments ` Penetration by local attack, such as pitting and crevice corrosion resistance was also observed for more expensive materials such as low-alloy steels, stainless steels, titanium alloys, zirconium alloys, copper alloys, nickel alloys, aluminum alloys, and lead alloys.

Heiser, J.H.; Soo, P.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Patterns of Failure After Concurrent Bevacizumab and Hypofractionated Stereotactic Radiation Therapy for Recurrent High-Grade Glioma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Concurrent bevacizumab with hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (HSRT) is safe and effective for the treatment of recurrent high-grade gliomas (HGG). The objective of this study was to characterize the patterns of failure after this treatment regimen. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four patients with recurrent enhancing HGG were previously treated on an institutional review board-approved protocol of concurrent bevacizumab and reirradiation. Patients received 30 Gy in 5 fractions to the recurrent tumor with HSRT. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed every 2 cycles, and bevacizumab was continued until clinical or radiographic tumor progression according to the criteria of Macdonald et al. MRI at the time of progression was fused to the HSRT treatment plan, and the location of recurrence was classified on the basis of volume within the 95% isodose line. Outcomes based on patient characteristics, tumor grade, recurrence pattern, and best response to treatment were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Twenty-two patients experienced either clinical or radiographic progression. Recurrent tumor was enhancing in 15 (71.4%) and nonenhancing in 6 (28.6%) patients. Eleven patients (52.4%) had recurrence within the radiation field, 5 patients (23.8%) had marginal recurrence, and 5 patients had recurrence outside the radiation field. Pattern of enhancement and location of failure did not correlate with overall survival or progression-free survival. Radiographic response was the only variable to significantly correlate with progression-free survival. Conclusions: Despite the promising initial response seen with the addition of HSRT to bevacizumab as salvage treatment for recurrent HGG, approximately half of patients ultimately still experience failure within the radiation field. The rate of local failure with the addition of HSRT seems to be lower than that seen with bevacizumab alone in the salvage setting. Our data underscore the radioresistance of HGG and the need for better salvage treatments.

Shapiro, Lauren Q. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Beal, Kathryn, E-mail: bealk@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Goenka, Anuj [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Karimi, Sasan [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Iwamoto, Fabio M. [Department of Neurology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Neurology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Yamada, Yoshiya [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Zhang, Zhigang [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Lassman, Andrew B.; Abrey, Lauren E. [Department of Neurology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Neurology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Gutin, Philip H. [Department of Neurosurgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Neurosurgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Risk-aware Attacks and Catastrophic Cascading Failures in U.S. Power Grid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Risk-aware Attacks and Catastrophic Cascading Failures in U.S. Power Grid Wenkai Wang, Qiao Cai Department, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 Abstract--The power grid network is a complex of power grid in terms of cascading failures caused by node failures. Specifically, we define three metrics

Sun, Yan Lindsay

329

THERMAL FATIGUE AND FAILURE OF ELECTRONIC POWER DEVICE SUBSTRATES. S. Pietranico1&2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. For large thermal amplitudes, the failure occurs in DBC substrates, which are copper/ceramic- 1 - THERMAL FATIGUE AND FAILURE OF ELECTRONIC POWER DEVICE SUBSTRATES. S. Pietranico1&2 , S their thermal fatigue and failure. For example, for power modules mounted on the engine of an aircraft

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

330

Background and Related Work Data Encoding for Failure-Prone Sensor Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Outline Background and Related Work Data Encoding for Failure-Prone Sensor Networks Encoding for Persistent Sensor Networks #12;Outline Background and Related Work Data Encoding for Failure-Prone Sensor Networks Outline 1 Background and Related Work Sensor Networks Failures in Sensor Networks Data Transfer

331

Ontology-Based Reuse of Failure Modes for FMEA: Methodology and Tool  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The wide application of FMEA in reliability engineering is generally appreciated, and how to identify the failure modes is the key to it. Failure modes, however, rely only on specific components rather than the system architecture, and therefore could ... Keywords: FMEA, ontology, failure modes

Guoqi Li

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Decreased T-Cell Responses to Influenza Vaccination in Patients with Heart Failure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Decreased T-Cell Responses to Influenza Vaccination in Patients with Heart Failure Orly Vardeny vaccination in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) are less vigorous than the responses of healthy strategies for influenza vaccination. Key Words: chronic heart failure, CHF, influenza vaccination, immune

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

333

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. Author manuscript Exercise training, energy metabolism, and heart failure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and heart failure Ventura-Clapier Ren eé * Signalisation et physiopathologie cardiaque INSERM : U769, IFR141 in many pathophysiological processes among which heart failure. Because endurance training improves recognized as a beneficial practice for heart failure patients. The mechanisms involved in the beneficial

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

334

Edinburgh Research Explorer Global association of air pollution and heart failure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Edinburgh Research Explorer Global association of air pollution and heart failure Citation & Mills, NL 2013, 'Global association of air pollution and heart failure: a systematic review and meta-6736(13)60898-3 1 Global association of air pollution and heart failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis Anoop

Edinburgh, University of

335

Cohesive zone modeling of dynamic failure in homogeneous and functionally  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in a continuous manner. This new concept of engineering the material microstructure and recent advances in material processing science allows one to fully integrate material and structural design considerations of thermal barrier coat- ings for aerospace applications, however, subsequent investigations have addressed

Paulino, Glaucio H.

336

A characterization of check valve degradation and failure experience in the nuclear power industry: 1991 Failures, Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

Review and characterization of check valve failures taken from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operation`s Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System was performed in accordance with part two of a three-phase project sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The analysis was performed for check valve failures occurring in 1991 and is intended to update the previous analysis performed for the time period 1984--1990. To maintain consistency and for ease of the 1991 analysis presents the same parameters and cross-correlations in essentially the same format as the 1984--1990 study. Additional data was obtained for the 1991 analysis, including information related to specific check valve type. This information is presented in a separate section of the report.

McElhaney, K.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

ARM - Public Information Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govPublicationsPublic Information Materials govPublicationsPublic Information Materials Publications Journal Articles Conference Documents Program Documents Technical Reports Publications Database Public Information Materials Image Library Videos Publication Resources Submit a Publication Publishing Procedures ARM Style Guide (PDF, 448KB) Acronyms Glossary Logos Contacts RSS for Publications Public Information Materials The ARM Climate Research Facility develops public information materials to communicate the purpose and objectives of the program to general audiences. These materials are designed to increase awareness of ARM Climate Research Facility goals and to document its scientific results to a lay audience. Public information materials include fact sheets, brochures, CDs, videos, press releases, and information packets. Approved materials are made

338

Materials/Condensed Matter  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials/Condensed Matter Print Materials/Condensed Matter Print Materials research provides the foundation on which the economic well being of our high-tech society rests. The impact of advanced materials ranges dramatically over every aspect of our modern world from the minutiae of daily life to the grand scale of our national economy. Invariably, however, breakthroughs to new technologies trace their origin both to fundamental research in the basic properties of condensed matter and to applied research aimed at manipulating properties (structural, physical, chemical, electrical, magnetic, optical, etc.). Increasingly, the frontiers of materials research include materials that are "strongly correlated," characterized by strong coupling between a material's electrons with other electrons, magnetism, or the material lattice itself. This coupling often results in novel behavior, such as superconductivity, that may lead to technologically important applications.

339

Nanostructured composite reinforced material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN); Ludtka, Gerard M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

340

Earth-Abundant Materials  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE funds research into Earth-abundant materials for thin-film solar applications in response to the issue of materials scarcity surrounding other photovoltaic (PV) technologies. Below are a list...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brittle material failure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Geopolymer Sealing Materials  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objectives: Develop and characterize field-applicable geopolymer temporary sealing materials in the laboratory and to transfer this developed material technology to geothermal drilling service companies as collaborators for field validation tests.

342

Applications of Ceramic Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of ceramic materials in science and industry is becoming increasingly widespread. As discussed in Chap. 4, ceramic materials have important advantages over metals and polymers in electronic devices at ...

Murat Bengisu

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Nanocomposites as thermoelectric materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermoelectric materials have attractive applications in electric power generation and solid-state cooling. The performance of a thermoelectric device depends on the dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) of the material, ...

Hao, Qing

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Materials Science & Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Forensics team in the Polymers and Coatings Group, MST-7. He graduated from the University of Toledo, aerogels, carbon fiber composites, damaged materials, and low density materials examining defects

345

LANL: Materials Science Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) is Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) is an interdisciplinary facility dedicated to research on current materials and those of future interest. It is a 56,000 square-foot modern facility that can be easily reconfigured to accom- modate new processes and operations. It compris- es 27 laboratories, 15 support rooms, and 60 offices. The MSL supports many distinct materi- als research topics, grouped into four focus areas: mechanical behavior, materials processing, syn- thesis, and characterization. Research within the MSL supports programs of national interest in defense, energy, and the basic sciences. The MSL is a non-classified area in the Materials Science Complex in close proximity to classified and other non-classified materials research facilities. The Materials Science

346

Optimizing Process Parameters of Screw Conveyor (Sugar Mill Boiler) Through Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) and Taguchi Method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper exhibits the failures of the boiler during the cogeneration process and provides solution to overcome the failures. The failures are frequently occurring in the screw conveyor of fuel-feeding system of...

A. Mariajayaprakash; T. Senthilvelan

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Web crippling failure using quasi-static FE models  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper presents an investigation on the use of quasi-static analyses with explicit integration to evaluate the web crippling behaviour of cold-formed steel beams. Web crippling failure occurs due to the application of transverse concentrated loads, which can be applied statically or dynamically. In the majority of the examples found in the literature, the web crippling phenomenon has been investigated by means of purely static shell finite element (SFE) models with implicit integration. In this work, the ABAQUS code was employed to implement SFE models aimed at replicating an experimental test and quasi-static analyses with an explicit integration scheme were adopted. First, a brief literature review on the topic of the numerical investigation of web crippling of cold-formed steel members is presented. Then, the paper addresses the characterisation of the quasi-static analysis concept with particular emphasis on the control of dynamic effects and the SFE model of a lipped channel beam under External Two Flange (ETF) loading is described. Several conventional parameters of standard SFE analysis, such as the SFE type, mesh selection, steel model, hardening effects due to cold-forming, residual stresses, initial imperfections and support conditions are explained, as well as additional specifications pertaining to the adoption of quasi-static analyses, such as the load rate, mass scaling, contact and friction, smoothed amplitude curves and inhibition of inertia (noise) effects. Finally, the results obtained are presented in the context of the ETF case, including loaddisplacement curves, curves of kinetic-to-internal energy ratio vs. displacement and beam deformed shapes (failure modes). It is concluded that explicit analysis leads to rigorous simulations of experimental test results, in terms of ultimate load, post-collapse loaddeflection curve and failure mechanism. The failure mode obtained with the quasi-static analysis provides a better approximation of the one observed experimentally than its non-linear static analysis counterpart. Indeed, the failure mechanism emerges considerably more clearly when the quasi-static analysis is adopted.

P. Natrio; N. Silvestre; D. Camotim

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Instructions and Materials  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The following are 2012 Program Peer Review Meeting instructions, materials and resource links for presenters and reviewers.

349

Accelerated Failure Time Regression Model with a Regression Model of Surviving Fraction: An Application to the Analysis of RPermanent EmploymentS in Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

other hand, for any given accelerated failure-time model, weconsidered improvements of accelerated failure-time models.Although representative accelerated failure-time models can

Kazuo Yamaguchi

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Why engineer porous materials?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...thermal conductivity materials (Maex et al. 2003...Hrubesh et al. 1993); materials remarkably similar to...reduce the oxygen at the cathode and oxidize the fuel...electrochemically active, have large surface...volume fraction of porous materials about 0.3 (Brandon...

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Critical Materials Workshop  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

AMO hosted a public workshop on Tuesday, April 3, 2012 in Arlington, VA to provide background information on critical materials assessment, the current research within DOE related to critical materials, and the foundational aspects of Energy Innovation Hubs. Additionally, the workshop solicited input from the critical materials community on R&D gaps that could be addressed by DOE.

352

Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Compatibility of Materials Compatibility of Materials August 13, 2013 DOE EERE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Webinar Chris San Marchi Sandia National Laboratories Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000 SAND2013-6278P 2 Webinar Objectives * Provide context for hydrogen embrittlement and hydrogen compatibility of materials - Distinguish embrittlement, compatibility and suitability - Examples of hydrogen embrittlement * Historical perspective - Previous work on hydrogen compatibility - Motivation of "Materials Guide" * Identify the landscape of materials compatibility documents

353

NEWTON's Material Science Archive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Science Archive: Materials Science Archive: Loading Most Recent Materials Science Questions: Hydrogen Compounds and Heat Conduction Weaving Carbon Nanotubes Metal as Electrical Conductor, Not Thermal Steel Changes with Age PETE, Ultraviolet Light, Benefits Strength of Yarn by Spinning Each Substance Unique Density Alloy versus Constituent Density Knowing When Material is Melted Crystalline Metal Versus Metallic Glass and Conduction Super Glue, Surgery, and Skin Silica Gel Teflon Non-Stick Property Salt Crystal Formation Lubricating Rubber Bands and Elasticity Materials for Venus Probe Crystalline Solids and Lowest Energy Sodium Polycarbonate and Salt Water Early Adhesives Surface Energy and Temperature Separating Polypropylene, Polyester, and Nylon Factors Effecting Polymer Flexibility

354

Tailored Porous Materials  

SciTech Connect

Tailoring of porous materials involves not only chemical synthetic techniques for tailoring microscopic properties such as pore size, pore shape, pore connectivity, and pore surface reactivity, but also materials processing techniques for tailoring the meso- and the macroscopic properties of bulk materials in the form of fibers, thin films and monoliths. These issues are addressed in the context of five specific classes of porous materials: oxide molecular sieves, porous coordination solids, porous carbons, sol-gel derived oxides, and porous heteropolyanion salts. Reviews of these specific areas are preceded by a presentation of background material and review of current theoretical approaches to adsorption phenomena. A concluding section outlines current research needs and opportunities.

BARTON,THOMAS J.; BULL,LUCY M.; KLEMPERER,WALTER G.; LOY,DOUGLAS A.; MCENANEY,BRIAN; MISONO,MAKOTO; MONSON,PETER A.; PEZ,GUIDO; SCHERER,GEORGE W.; VARTULI,JAMES C.; YAGHI,OMAR M.

1999-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

355

Materials Degradation in Light Water Reactors: Life After 60 | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Materials Degradation in Light Water Reactors: Life After 60 Materials Degradation in Light Water Reactors: Life After 60 Materials Degradation in Light Water Reactors: Life After 60 Nuclear reactors present a very harsh environment for components service. Components within a reactor core must tolerate high temperature water, stress, vibration, and an intense neutron field. Degradation of materials in this environment can lead to reduced performance, and in some cases, sudden failure. A recent EPRI-led study interviewed 47 US nuclear utility executives to gauge perspectives on long-term operation of nuclear reactors. Nearly 90% indicated that extensions of reactor lifetimes to beyond 60 years were likely. When polled on the most challenging issues facing further life extension, two-thirds cited plant reliability as the

356

Materials Degradation in Light Water Reactors: Life After 60 | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Materials Degradation in Light Water Reactors: Life After 60 Materials Degradation in Light Water Reactors: Life After 60 Materials Degradation in Light Water Reactors: Life After 60 Nuclear reactors present a very harsh environment for components service. Components within a reactor core must tolerate high temperature water, stress, vibration, and an intense neutron field. Degradation of materials in this environment can lead to reduced performance, and in some cases, sudden failure. A recent EPRI-led study interviewed 47 US nuclear utility executives to gauge perspectives on long-term operation of nuclear reactors. Nearly 90% indicated that extensions of reactor lifetimes to beyond 60 years were likely. When polled on the most challenging issues facing further life extension, two-thirds cited plant reliability as the

357

RHIC POWER SUPPLIES-FAILURE STATISTICS FOR RUNS 4, 5, AND 6  

SciTech Connect

The two rings in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RFIIC) require a total of 933 power supplies to supply current to highly inductive superconducting magnets. Failure statistics for the RHIC power supplies will be failure associated with the CEPS group's responsibilities. presented for the last three RHIC runs. The failures of the power supplies will be analyzed. The statistics associated with the power supply failures will be presented. Comparisons of the failure statistics for the last three RHIC runs will be shown. Improvements that have increased power supply availability will be discussed.

BRUNO,D.; GANETIS, G.; SANDBERG, J.; LOUIE, W.; HEPPNER, G.; SCHULTHEISS, C.

2007-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

358

Metallurgical failure analysis for a blade failed in a gas-turbine engine of a power plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The failed gas-turbine blades (first stage blades) (type Siemens V94.2 KWU) were acquired from TNB Research Sdn. Bhd: a subsidiary of Malaysian power-generation industry (TNB, Malaysia). The blades were sectioned for metallographic investigations. The microstructural characterization involved use of both optical as well as electron microscopes including application of EPMA technique. The Microstructures were compared for three spots selection i.e. leading edge of the blade (transverse and longitudinal), trailing edge of the blade (transverse and longitudinal), and centre (near the platform of the blade) (transverse and longitudinal). The material properties and behavior at high temperature were interpreted on the basis of the observed microstructures and the phases present in the alloy. The interpretations were related to the operating conditions of the turbine blade; and main cause of failure was found to be creep damage. Recommendations have been made for improved material performance.

Zainul Huda

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Composite Materials for Hazard Mitigation of Reactive Metal Hydrides.  

SciTech Connect

In an attempt to mitigate the hazards associated with storing large quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. The composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride. Composites with vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were also polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. The composites were found to be initially effective at reducing the amount of heat released during oxidation. However, upon cycling the composites, the mitigating behavior was lost. While the polymer composites we investigated have mitigating potential and are physically robust, they undergo a chemical change upon cycling that makes them subsequently ineffective at mitigating heat release upon oxidation of the metal hydride. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the following people who participated in this project: Ned Stetson (U.S. Department of Energy) for sponsorship and support of the project. Ken Stewart (Sandia) for building the flow-through calorimeter and cycling test stations. Isidro Ruvalcaba, Jr. (Sandia) for qualitative experiments on the interaction of sodium alanate with water. Terry Johnson (Sandia) for sharing his expertise and knowledge of metal hydrides, and sodium alanate in particular. Marcina Moreno (Sandia) for programmatic assistance. John Khalil (United Technologies Research Corp) for insight into the hazards of reactive metal hydrides and real-world accident scenario experiments. Summary In an attempt to mitigate and/or manage hazards associated with storing bulk quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials (a mixture of a mitigating polymer and a metal hydride) were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. Mitigating the hazards associated with reactive metal hydrides during an accident while finding a way to keep the original capability of the active material intact during normal use has been the focus of this work. These composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride, in this case a prepared sodium alanate (chosen as a representative reactive metal hydride). It was found that the polymerization of styrene and divinyl benzene could be initiated using AIBN in toluene at 70 degC. The resulting composite materials can be either hard or brittle solids depending on the cross-linking density. Thermal decomposition of these styrene-based composite materials is lower than neat polystyrene indicating that the chemical nature of the polymer is affected by the formation of the composite. The char-forming nature of cross-linked polystyrene is low and therefore, not an ideal polymer for hazard mitigation. To obtain composite materials containing a polymer with higher char-forming potential, siloxane-based monomers were investigated. Four vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Like the styrene materials, these composite materials exhibited thermal decomposition behavior significantly different than the neat polymers. Specifically, the thermal decomposition temperature was shifted approximately 100 degC lower than the neat polymer signifying a major chemical change to the polymer network. Thermal analysis of the cycled samples was performed on the siloxane-based composite materials. It was found that after 30 cycles the siloxane-containing polymer composite material has similar TGA/DSC-MS traces as the virgin composite material indicating that the polymer is physically intact upon cycling. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride in the form of a composite material reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. This

Pratt, Joseph William; Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel; Sartor, George B.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Reeder, Craig L.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Materials Science Division - Argonne National Laboratories, Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home Home About MSD Information Awards Visit MSD Administrative Staff Division Personnel Research Research Groups Condensed Matter Theory Emerging Materials Energy Conversion and Storage Magnetic Films Molecular Materials Neutron and X-ray Scattering Superconductivity and Magnetism Surface Chemistry Synchrotron Radiation Studies Threat Detection and Analysis Group Research Areas Careers in MSD Internal Sites Search Front Slide 1 November 2013 - Patricia Dehmer (second from right), Deputy Director of Science Programs, DOE Office of Science, joined Argonne Director Eric Isaacs(left) and Associate Laboratory Director for Physical Sciences and Engineering Peter Littlewood(second from left) to tour the recently-opened Energy Sciences Building. Among Dehmer's stops was the crystal growth

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361

Failure and Reliability Analysis for the Master Pump Shutdown System  

SciTech Connect

The Master Pump Shutdown System (MPSS) will be installed in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site to monitor and control the transfer of liquid waste between tank farms and between the 200 West and 200 East areas through the Cross-Site Transfer Line. The Safety Function provided by the MPSS is to shutdown any waste transfer process within or between tank farms if a waste leak should occur along the selected transfer route. The MPSS, which provides this Safety Class Function, is composed of Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), interconnecting wires, relays, Human to Machine Interfaces (HMI), and software. These components are defined as providing a Safety Class Function and will be designated in this report as MPSS/PLC. Input signals to the MPSS/PLC are provided by leak detection systems from each of the tank farm leak detector locations along the waste transfer route. The combination of the MPSS/PLC, leak detection system, and transfer pump controller system will be referred to as MPSS/SYS. The components addressed in this analysis are associated with the MPSS/SYS. The purpose of this failure and reliability analysis is to address the following design issues of the Project Development Specification (PDS) for the MPSS/SYS (HNF 2000a): (1) Single Component Failure Criterion, (2) System Status Upon Loss of Electrical Power, (3) Physical Separation of Safety Class cables, (4) Physical Isolation of Safety Class Wiring from General Service Wiring, and (5) Meeting the MPSS/PLC Option 1b (RPP 1999) Reliability estimate. The failure and reliability analysis examined the system on a component level basis and identified any hardware or software elements that could fail and/or prevent the system from performing its intended safety function.

BEVINS, R.R.

2000-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

362

Cellular cardiomyoplasty for a patient with heart failure  

SciTech Connect

Background: A 73-year-old man with a history of myocardial infarction and hypertension for 5 years suffered heart failure (NYHA III-IV). Methods: 2D echo indicated hypokinesia at septal, left ventricular anterior wall and apical regions. Coronary angiograms demonstrated 60% stenosis in distal left main and 99% stenosis in proximal and distal left anterior descending coronary arteries (LAD). Both proximal artery and middle left circumflex coronary artery (LC) had 90% stenosis, and diffuse stenosis of right coronary artery (RC) was found. Myocardial perfusion imaging using {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI indicated defective perfusion of left ventricular apex, anterior wall and septal region and severe reduced perfusion of posterior inferior wall. Myocardial metabolic activities ({sup 18}F-deoxyglucose) also showed comparable reductions. After exposing the heart, LAD, LC, and RC were all completely occluded and bypass procedure could not be completed. Autologous satellite cells were implanted without any complication and the patient had an uneventful recovery. Results: During the first 2 months, he remained in heart failure, and by the third month, he gradually improved and reached NYHA II. At fifth month after the procedure, significant increased ejection fraction (37.1-48.6%) and wall movement with modest reduction of left ventricular systolic diameter (48-45 mm) were observed. Imaging with {sup 18}F-deoxyglucose showed dramatic improvement in myocardial metabolic activity with similar improvement in myocardial perfusion ({sup 99m}Tc-MIBI). Conclusion: This is the first successful case of cellular cardiomyoplasty without any conjunctional procedure for patient with severe coronary heart disease and heart failure.

Zhang Fumin; Chen Yijiang; Yang Zhijian; Gao Xiang; Ma Wenzhu; Li Chuanfu; Kao, Race L

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Composite materials non-linear modelling for long fibre-reinforced laminates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An innovative computational methodology is proposed for modelling the material non-linear mechanical behaviour of FRP structures. To model a single unidirectional composite lamina, a serial-parallel (SP) continuum approach has been developed assuming ... Keywords: Composite failure, FEM, FRP, Long fibre laminates, Non-linear modelling

Fernando Rastellini; Sergio Oller; Omar Salomn; Eugenio Oate

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Outcomes after Induction Failure in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...induction failure had a rather favorable outcome. However, the long-term efficacy of this treatment approach as compared with allogeneic transplantation still needs to be determined. It is conceivable that further improvement can be made if the most effective chemotherapy is combined with a new generation... Induction chemotherapy fails to induce a complete remission in only about 2 to 3% of children with ALL. In an analysis of more than 1000 such patients, the authors defined subgroups with a favorable prognosis and those with an unfavorable prognosis.

Schrappe M.; Hunger S.P.; Pui C.-H.

2012-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

365

Weld monitor and failure detector for nuclear reactor system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Critical but inaccessible welds in a nuclear reactor system are monitored throughout the life of the reactor by providing small aperture means projecting completely through the reactor vessel wall and also through the weld or welds to be monitored. The aperture means is normally sealed from the atmosphere within the reactor. Any incipient failure or cracking of the weld will cause the environment contained within the reactor to pass into the aperture means and thence to the outer surface of the reactor vessel where its presence is readily detected.

Sutton, Jr., Harry G. (Mt. Lebanon, PA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Failure mode and effect analysis using fuzzy analytic hierarchy process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper develops an evaluation model based on failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) and fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP), to help the maintenance person for assessing the risk priority of the critical components in the paper industry to provide timely maintenance. Traditional FMEA determines risk priority number (RPN) by multiplying the scores of three factors. However the scores which are computed through traditional FMEA do not considere relative importance of the factors. The FAHP is used to compute the relative weights of the decision factors. A numerical example is used to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed model.

M. Ilangkumaran; P. Shanmugam; G. Sakthivel; K. Visagavel

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

DEVELOPMENT OF A CANDLE FILTER FAILURE SAFEGUARD DEVICE  

SciTech Connect

The full-flow mechanical safeguard device (FFMSGD) has been developed under contract to the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to address problems with the reliability of ceramic candle filter elements installed on high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) Hot Gas Cleanup (HGCU) filters. Although systems candle filters are expected to perform satisfactorily when in good operating condition, the failure of even a single filter element can increase the filter system outlet dust loading enough to potentially damage gas turbine blades, contaminate other downstream processes, and limit the availability of the power system. Filter failure safeguard devices that are installed on each individual candle filter element are envisioned as a guarantee of a candle filter system's ability to withstand some number of element failures and continue operation without these negative consequences. The intention of the FFMSGD is to provide this guarantee without incurring any significant pressure drop penalty or constraining the filter system's reverse-pulse cleaning procedures. The FFMSGD provides a clear flow path for filtered and reverse-flow cleaning gases when its filter element is intact, and activates to provide a positive mechanical seal against gas flow in either direction when its filter element breaks or fails. This activation is induced by the increase in the flow rate of gas through the device in event of filter failure. The FFMSGD is designed to be easily removed and reconditioned when the filter system is taken off line for routine maintenance. This report is intended to be issued with a companion appendix. As instructed in Section J.12 of Contract No. DE-AC26-99FT40678, all the restricted, proprietary, and patentable information (not yet disclosed through the patent application process) related to the FFMSGD and its evaluation under this contract has been included only in the appendix. This Final Report, which is available to the public, contains background information and general descriptions of the operating principles of the FFMSGD. This report also describes the results of various evaluations of the device at room temperature and in HTHP environments. This Final Report also includes discussions of commercialization issues. For clarity and completeness, all of the information contained in this Final Report has also been included in the appendix.

Todd R. Snyder

2002-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

368

SMERDON ET AL.: AUXILIARY MATERIAL Auxiliary Material  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

run [Ammann et al., 2007; hereinafter CCSM] and the GKSS ECHO-g ERIK2 run [González-Rouco et al., 2006; hereinafter ECHO-g]. The annual means of the modeled temperature fields are interpolated to 5° latitude;SMERDON ET AL.: AUXILIARY MATERIAL 2 ECHO-g simulations, respectively. The above conventions

Smerdon, Jason E.

369

Montani, Kohn, Smith and Schultz (2006), Supplemental Material Supplemental Material  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Montani, Kohn, Smith and Schultz (2006), Supplemental Material 1 Supplemental Material A. Entropy, Kohn, Smith and Schultz (2006), Supplemental Material 2 occupied, it is ambiguous whether

Smith, Matthew A.

370

Materials Science & Tech Division | Advanced Materials | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Supporting Organizations Supporting Organizations Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences Chemical Sciences Division Materials Science and Technology BES Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Program BES Materials Sciences and Engineering Program Joint Institute For Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Home | Science & Discovery | Advanced Materials | Supporting Organizations | Materials Science and Technology SHARE Materials Science and Technology Division The Materials Science and Technology Division is unique within the Department of Energy (DOE) System with mission goals that extend from fundamental materials science to applied materials science and technology. One key component of the division is a strong Basic Energy Sciences (BES) portfolio that pushes the frontiers of materials theory, synthesis

371

Nonconforming Material Process  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

11 Nonconforming Material / Product Process 11_0304 Page 1 of 6 11 Nonconforming Material / Product Process 11_0304 Page 1 of 6 EOTA - Business Process Document Title: Nonconforming Material / Product Process Document Number: P-011 Rev. 11_0304 Document Owner: Elizabeth Sousa Backup Owner: Melissa Otero Approver(s): Melissa Otero Parent Document: Q-001, Quality Manual Notify of Changes: EOTA Employees Referenced Document(s): F-015 Nonconformance Report, REG-003 Record Register, ISDP-002 Training Production Process P-011 Nonconforming Material / Product Process 11_0304 Page 2 of 6 Revision History: Rev. Description of Change A Initial Release 08_0416 Added verbiage CAR/PAR/IO to Step 2 P-011 Nonconforming Material / Product Process 11_0304 Page 3 of 6 I. Purpose To establish the process for nonconforming material to be identified, segregated and dispositioned to prevent its unintended

372

MST: Organizations: Organic Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Adhesive Bonding Adhesive Bonding Composites Encapsulation Materials Characterization Mechanical Testing Molding, Thermoforming, & Compounding Organizations Organic Materials Composite-to-metal adhesive bond Experimental/analytical study of composit-to-metal adhesive bond. The Organic Materials department in the Advanced Manufacturing and Processing Laboratory provides innovative prototype fabrication, full service small lot production, materials technology, processing expertise, and a broad range of organic material characterization and mechanical testing techniques. We encapsulate, we join and bond, we foam, we analyze and image, we build composite structures. We strive to make you, our customers, successful! We partner with you to find the right combination of materials, processing, and fixturing that will result in the highest value

373

Material Disposal Areas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Material Disposal Areas Material Disposal Areas Material Disposal Areas Material Disposal Areas, also known as MDAs, are sites where material was disposed of below the ground surface in excavated pits, trenches, or shafts. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email Material Disposal Areas at LANL The following are descriptions and status updates of each MDA at LANL. To view a current fact sheet on the MDAs, click on LA-UR-13-25837 (pdf). MDA A MDA A is a Hazard Category 2 nuclear facility comprised of a 1.25-acre, fenced, and radiologically controlled area situated on the eastern end of Delta Prime Mesa. Delta Prime Mesa is bounded by Delta Prime Canyon to the north and Los Alamos Canyon to the south.

374

The Impact of Preradiation Residual Disease Volume on Time to Locoregional Failure in Cutaneous Merkel Cell CarcinomaA TROG Substudy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This study evaluated the impact of margin status and gross residual disease in patients treated with chemoradiation therapy for high-risk stage I and II Merkel cell cancer (MCC). Methods and Materials: Data were pooled from 3 prospective trials in which patients were treated with 50 Gy in 25 fractions to the primary lesion and draining lymph nodes and 2 schedules of carboplatin based chemotherapy. Time to locoregional failure was analyzed according to the burden of disease at the time of radiation therapy, comparing patients with negative margins, involved margins, or macroscopic disease. Results: Analysis was performed on 88 patients, of whom 9 had microscopically positive resection margins and 26 had macroscopic residual disease. The majority of gross disease was confined to nodal regions. The 5-year time to locoregional failure, time to distant failure, time to progression, and disease-specific survival rates for the whole group were 73%, 69%, 62%, and 66% respectively. The hazard ratio for macroscopic disease at the primary site or the nodes was 1.25 (95% confidence interval 0.57-2.77), P=.58. Conclusions: No statistically significant differences in time to locoregional failure were identified between patients with negative margins and those with microscopic or gross residual disease. These results must, however, be interpreted with caution because of the limited sample size.

Finnigan, Renee [Division of Cancer Services, Princess Alexandra Hospital, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia)] [Division of Cancer Services, Princess Alexandra Hospital, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Hruby, George [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sydney Cancer Centre, University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sydney Cancer Centre, University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia); Wratten, Chris [Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Newcastle (Australia)] [Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Newcastle (Australia); Keller, Jacqui; Tripcony, Lee; Dickie, Graeme [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane (Australia)] [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Rischin, Danny [Department of Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia)] [Department of Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Poulsen, Michael, E-mail: michael_poulsen@health.qld.gov.au [Division of Cancer Services, Princess Alexandra Hospital, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia)] [Division of Cancer Services, Princess Alexandra Hospital, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia)

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Patterns of Failure and Treatment-Related Toxicity in Advanced Cervical Cancer Patients Treated Using Extended Field Radiotherapy With Curative Intent  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the patterns of failure and overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates in cervical cancer patients who had metastatic disease in common iliac or para-aortic lymph nodes and were treated with curative intent, using extended field radiotherapy (EFRT). Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective study involving 39 patients treated from January 1996 to June 2007, using EFRT with concurrent chemotherapy and intracavitary brachytherapy. EFRT consisted of 45 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions. Radiation to involved nodes was boosted to a total dose of 50.4 to 54 Gy. Primary tumor radiation was boosted to a dose of 80 Gy using brachytherapy. Results: Overall, 30 patients (77%) have relapsed. The 5-year OS rate was 26% (95% confidence interval [CI], 11-44). The 5-year DFS rate was 19.4% (95% CI, 8-35). Only 3 patients (7.5%) experienced treatment failure exclusively within the treatment field, and 2 patients underwent salvage treatment. Grade 3 to 4 acute bone marrow and gastrointestinal toxicities were observed in 10 (26%) and 7 (18%) patients, respectively. Conclusions: Concurrent chemotherapy and EFRT treatment was well tolerated. Most patients showed failure at multiple sites and outside the treatment field. Only 3/39 patients had failures exclusively within the treatment field, and 2 underwent salvage treatment.

Rajasooriyar, Chrishanthi, E-mail: rchrishanthi@hotmail.co [Division of Oncology, Teaching Hospital, Batticaloa (Sri Lanka); Van Dyk, Sylvia; Bernshaw, David [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Srinivas [Queensland Centre for Gynaecological Cancer, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Queensland, and School of Medicine, University of Queensland (Australia); Barkati, Maroie; Narayan, Kailash [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia)

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Absolute nuclear material assay  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

Prasad, Manoj K. (Pleasanton, CA); Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA); Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

377

ADVANCED MATERIALS Curriculum Biomaterials Materials Science I 5 CP Materials Science II 5 CP Lab Materials Science II 5 CP  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ADVANCED MATERIALS Curriculum Biomaterials Materials Science I 5 CP Materials Science II 5 CP Lab Materials Science II 5 CP Computational Methods in Materials Science 4 CP Lab Materials Science I 5 CP Physical Chemistry 4 CP General Chemistry 2 CP Synthesis of Org. & Inorg. Materials 4 CP Introductory Solid

Pfeifer, Holger

378

ADVANCED MATERIALS Curriculum Nanomaterials Materials Science I 5 CP Materials Science II 5 CP Lab Materials Science II 5 CP  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ADVANCED MATERIALS Curriculum Nanomaterials Materials Science I 5 CP Materials Science II 5 CP Lab Materials Science II 5 CP Computational Methods in Materials Science 4 CP Lab Materials Science I 5 CP Physical Chemistry 4 CP General Chemistry 2 CP Synthesis of Org. & Inorg. Materials 4 CP Introductory Solid

Pfeifer, Holger

379

Fission, Fusion Materials Facility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is shown in illustration. Materials are the immediate priority of both the fission and fusion communities. Extending the lifetime of the current fleet of light water reactors...

380

Thermoelectric materials having porosity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermoelectric material and a method of making a thermoelectric material are provided. In certain embodiments, the thermoelectric material comprises at least 10 volume percent porosity. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric material has a zT greater than about 1.2 at a temperature of about 375 K. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric material comprises a topological thermoelectric material. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric material comprises a general composition of (Bi.sub.1-xSb.sub.x).sub.u(Te.sub.1-ySe.sub.y).sub.w, wherein 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1, 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, 1.8.ltoreq.u.ltoreq.2.2, 2.8.ltoreq.w.ltoreq.3.2. In further embodiments, the thermoelectric material includes a compound having at least one group IV element and at least one group VI element. In certain embodiments, the method includes providing a powder comprising a thermoelectric composition, pressing the powder, and sintering the powder to form the thermoelectric material.

Heremans, Joseph P.; Jaworski, Christopher M.; Jovovic, Vladimir; Harris, Fred

2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brittle material failure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Materials | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

today New high-tech materials are the key to breakthroughs in biology, the environment, nuclear energy, transportation and national security. Argonne continues to make...

382

UESC Workshop Materials  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation covers the UESC Workshop Materials and is given at the Spring 2010 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting in Providence, Rhode Island.

383

Advanced Materials | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the interface of electrodes and electrolytes and using supercomputers to predict how battery systems will perform. We develop "soft" materials, including polymers and...

384

Radiation Safety Training Materials  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The following Handbooks and Standard provide recommended hazard specific training material for radiological workers at DOE facilities and for various activities.

385

Webinar: Materials Genome Initative  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Audio recording and text version of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar titled "Materials Genome Initiative," originally presented on December 2, 2014.

386

EMSL - battery materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

battery-materials en Measuring Spatial Variability of Vapor Flux to Characterize Vadose-zone VOC Sources: Flow-cell Experiments. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublications...

387

Management of Nuclear Materials  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

To establish requirements for the lifecycle management of DOE owned and/or managed accountable nuclear materials. Cancels DOE O 5660.1B.

2009-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

388

Timelines | Critical Materials Institute  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of interest to rare earths and critical materials, organized by those specific to rare earth elements, general chemistry and uses. Timelines of rare earth discovery: Discovery and...

389

Radioactive Material Transportation Practices  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

Establishes standard transportation practices for Departmental programs to use in planning and executing offsite shipments of radioactive materials including radioactive waste. Does not cancel other directives.

2002-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

390

Novel Anode Materials  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

with a variety of loadings, morphologies, and thicknesses. - Develop synchrotron tomography tools to better understand how the active materials interact with their surroundings...

391

Test-to-Failure of Crystalline Silicon Modules: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Accelerated lifetime testing of five crystalline silicon module designs was carried out according to the Terrestrial Photovoltaic Module Accelerated Test-to-Failure Protocol. This protocol compares the reliability of various module constructions on a quantitative basis. The modules under test are subdivided into three accelerated lifetime testing paths: 85..deg..C/85% relative humidity with system bias, thermal cycling between ?40..deg..C and 85..deg..C, and a path that alternates between damp heat and thermal cycling. The most severe stressor is damp heat with system bias applied to simulate the voltages that modules experience when connected in an array. Positive 600 V applied to the active layer with respect to the grounded module frame accelerates corrosion of the silver grid fingers and degrades the silicon nitride antireflective coating on the cells. Dark I-V curve fitting indicates increased series resistance and saturation current around the maximum power point; however, an improvement in junction recombination characteristics is obtained. Shunt paths and cell-metallization interface failures are seen developing in the silicon cells as determined by electroluminescence, thermal imaging, and I-V curves in the case of negative 600 V bias applied to the active layer. Ability to withstand electrolytic corrosion, moisture ingress, and ion drift under system voltage bias are differentiated.

Hacke, P.; Terwilliger, K.; Glick, S.; Trudell, D.; Bosco, N.; Johnston, S.; Kurtz, S. R.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Buckling propagation failure in semi-submersible platform columns  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

abstract The present paper aims at studying the behavior of stiffened panels from a column segment of a new generation of semi-submersible platforms up to the peak compressive load and in the post-buckling condition. Previous studies have demonstrated a strong influence of the mode and magnitude of initial geometric imperfections, as well as boundary conditions, on the structure's axial load capacity. Numericalexperimental correlation study for small-scale models was performed to define the proper numerical model to be used in more complex numerical simulations of the failure behavior of full-scale column structures. The stiffened panels were assessed to identify the buckling onset in a specific plate and its interaction with longitudinal and transversal stiffeners during the progressive column failure. Measurements of the geometric imperfection distribution of full-scale stiffened panels were collected during construction to better understand the buckling mechanism. Initial geometric imperfections were measured by means of laser-based equipment including a portable measuring system that uses laser technology with sub-millimeter accuracy.

Tiago P. Estefen; Segen F. Estefen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Prioritizing Water Pipe Replacement and Rehabilitation by Evaluating Failure Risk  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

..................................................................... 84 4.3.5.1 Exfoliation Percentage of Coating Materials ................. 84 4.3.6 Changes in EIS Characteristics of Coating Materials in Steel Pipes according to Years of Laying ........................................... 88 4....3.6.1 EIS Measurement ........................................................... 89 4.3.6.1.1 Overview of Electro-Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) Measurement ......................................... 89 4.3.6.1.2 Principles of EIS...

Lee, Sang Hyun

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

394

Recent Advances in Computational Materials Science and Multiscale Materials Modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent Advances in Computational Materials Science and Multiscale Materials Modeling Guest Editors Advances in Computational Materials Science and Multiscale Materials Modeling. These symposia provide. Professor Karel Matous Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering Department University of Notre Dame Email

Matous, Karel

395

Critical Materials Strategy Summary  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

diplomacy. As the nation's leading funder of research on the physical sciences, DOE's capabilities with respect to materials research are substantial. Topics identified for priority research attention include rare earth substitutes in magnets, batteries, photovoltaic films and phosphors; environmentally sound mining and materials processing; and recycling. The eight programs and policies address risks, con- straints and opportunities across the supply chain,

396

Critical Materials Strategy Summary  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

diplomacy. As the nation's leading funder of research on the physical sciences, DOE's capabilities with respect to materials research are substantial. Topics identified for priority research attention include rare earth substitutes in magnets, batteries, photovoltaic films and phosphors; environmentally sound mining and materials processing; and recycling. The eight programs and policies address risks, con- straints and opportunities across the supply chain,

397

MATERIAL TRACKING USING LANMAS  

SciTech Connect

LANMAS is a transaction-based nuclear material accountability software product developed to replace outdated and legacy accountability systems throughout the DOE. The core underlying purpose of LANMAS is to track nuclear materials inventory and report transactions (movement, mixing, splitting, decay, etc.) to the Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS). While LANMAS performs those functions well, there are many additional functions provided by the software product. As a material is received onto a site or created at a site, its entire lifecycle can be tracked in LANMAS complete to its termination of safeguards. There are separate functions to track material movements between and within material balance areas (MBAs). The level of detail for movements within a MBA is configurable by each site and can be as high as a site designation or as detailed as building/room/rack/row/position. Functionality exists to track the processing of materials, either as individual items or by modeling a bulk process as an individual item to track inputs and outputs from the process. In cases where sites have specialized needs, the system is designed to be flexible so that site specific functionality can be integrated into the product. This paper will demonstrate how the software can be used to input material into an account and track it to its termination of safeguards.

Armstrong, F.

2010-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

398

Nanocrystalline Heterojunction Materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Mesoporous nanocrystalline titanium dioxide heterojunction materials and methods of making the same are disclosed. In one disclosed embodiment, materials comprising a core of titanium dioxide and a shell of a molybdenum oxide exhibit a decrease in their photoadsorption energy as the size of the titanium dioxide core decreases.

Elder, Scott H. (Portland, OR); Su, Yali (Richland, WA); Gao, Yufei (Blue Bell, PA); Heald, Steve M. (Downers Grove, IL)

2004-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

399

Cybersecurity Awareness Materials  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The OCIO develops and distributes a variety of awareness material to be used during cyber awareness campaigns or as needed to address an emerging cyber threat or hot topic. These materials are available to other DOE organizations or public and private institutions to enhance or supplement site-specific awareness programs.

400

Materials Science & Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

technologies used to develop energy sources, protect the environment, preserve the national infrastructure, electronic materials, composites, biomaterials, nuclear materials and nanomaterials. The common thread and Engineering program. Effective 2014-2015 1 Updated May 2014 #12;Additionally, here are some helpful

Simons, Jack

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brittle material failure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Carbon Materials Breakout Group  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Breakout Group Process Materials Breakout Group Process * Day 2, Thursday - Review results of Day 1 and modify if needed - Identify critical R&D needs - Outline R&D plan with key milestones - Report results to plenary Carbon Materials Breakout Group * Key Results - Target: get the science right to engineer carbon materials for hydrogen storage * Integrate theory, experiment, engineering * Understand mechanisms, effects, and interactions ranging from physisorption to chemisorption - Theory * Provide "directional" guidance for experiments (and vice- versa) * Provide baseline theory to elucidate parameters affecting the number and type of binding sites and the heat of their interaction with H2 (∆H ) for a broad range of (highly) modified carbon materials

402

Vehicle Technologies Office: Propulsion Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Materials Manufacturers use propulsion (or powertrain) materials in the components that move vehicles of every size and shape. Conventional vehicles use these materials in components such as the engine, transmission, fuel system, and exhaust after-treatment systems. Electric drive vehicles use propulsion materials in their electric motors and power electronics. Developing advanced propulsion materials is essential to commercializing new, highly efficient automotive technologies that have technical requirements that existing powertrain materials cannot meet. The Vehicle Technology Office's (VTO) research in propulsion materials focuses on four areas: Materials for hybrid and electric drive systems Materials for high efficiency combustion engines Materials to enable energy recovery systems and control exhaust gases

403

Preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the US Massive Gas Injection Disruption Mitigation System Design  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of a candidate design for the ITER Disruption Mitigation System. This candidate is the Massive Gas Injection System that provides machine protection in a plasma disruption event. The FMEA was quantified with generic component failure rate data as well as some data calculated from operating facilities, and the failure events were ranked for their criticality to system operation.

Lee C. Cadwallader

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Stress Assisted Corrosion in Boiler Tubes - Failure Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Stress assisted corrosion (SAC) of carbon steel boiler tubes is one of the major causes of waterside failure in industrial boilers. SAC is a major concern for kraft recovery boilers in the pulp and paper industry as any water leak into the furnace can cause a smelt-water explosion in the boiler. Failed carbon steel boiler tubes from different kraft recovery boilers were examined to understand the role of carbon steel microstructure on crack initiation and SAC crack morphology. A number of carbon steel tubes showed a deep decarburized layer on the inner surface (water-touched) and also an unusually large grain size at the inner tube surface. SAC cracks were found to initiate in these areas with large-graineddecarburized microstructure. Tubes without such microstructure were also found to have SAC cracks. It was found that the decarburization and large grained microstructure may facilitate initiation and growth but is not necessary for SAC of carbon steel boiler tubes.

Singh, Preet M [Georgia Institute of Technology; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Yang, Dong [Georgia Institute of Technology; Mahmood, Jamshad [Georgia Institute of Technology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Deriving a mode logic using failure modes and effects analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Modes are widely used to structure the behaviour of control systems. However, derivation and verification of a mode logic for complex systems is challenging due to a large number of modes and intricate mode transitions. In this paper, we propose an approach to deriving, formalising and verifying consistency of a mode logic for fault-tolerant control systems. We propose to use failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) to systematically derive the fault tolerance part of the mode logic. We formalise the mode logic and define mode consistency properties for layered systems with reconfigurable components. We use our formalisation to develop and verify a mode-rich system by refinement in Event-B.

Yuliya Prokhorova; Linas Laibinis; Elena Troubitsyna; Kimmo Varpaaniemi; Timo Latvala

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) for wind turbines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) method has been used to study the reliability of many different power generation systems. This paper now applies that method to a wind turbine (WT) system using a proprietary software reliability analysis tool. Comparison is made between the quantitative results of an FMEA and reliability field data from real wind turbine systems and their assemblies. These results are discussed to establish relationships which are useful for future wind turbine designs. The main system studied is an existing design 2MW wind turbine with a Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG), which is then compared with a hypothetical wind turbine system using the Brushless Doubly Fed Generator (BDFG) of the same rating. The software reliability analysis tool used for these studies was Relex Reliability Studio 2007 Version 2.

H. Arabian-Hoseynabadi; H. Oraee; P.J. Tavner

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Modeling Stakeholder/Value Dependency through Mean Failure Cost  

SciTech Connect

In an earlier series of works, Boehm et al. discuss the nature of information system dependability and highlight the variability of system dependability according to stakeholders. In a recent paper, the dependency patterns of this model are analyzed. In our recent works, we presented a stakeholder dependent quantitative security model, where we quantify security for a given stakeholder by the mean of the loss incurred by the stakeholder as a result of security threats. We show how this mean can be derived from the security threat configuration (represented as a vector of probabilities that reflect the likelihood of occurrence of the various security threats). We refer to our security metric as MFC, for Mean Failure Cost. In this paper, we analyze Boehm's model from the standpoint of the proposed metric, and show whether, to what extent, and how our metric addresses the issues raised by Boehm's Stakeholder/Value definition of system dependability.

Aissa, Anis Ben [University of Tunis, Belvedere, Tunisia] [University of Tunis, Belvedere, Tunisia; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL] [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL] [ORNL; Mili, Ali [New Jersey Insitute of Technology] [New Jersey Insitute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Selected component failure rate values from fusion safety assessment tasks  

SciTech Connect

This report is a compilation of component failure rate and repair rate values that can be used in magnetic fusion safety assessment tasks. Several safety systems are examined, such as gas cleanup systems and plasma shutdown systems. Vacuum system component reliability values, including large vacuum chambers, have been reviewed. Values for water cooling system components have also been reported here. The report concludes with the examination of some equipment important to personnel safety, atmospheres, combustible gases, and airborne releases of radioactivity. These data should be useful to system designers to calculate scoping values for the availability and repair intervals for their systems, and for probabilistic safety or risk analysts to assess fusion systems for safety of the public and the workers.

Cadwallader, L.C.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Selected Component Failure Rate Values from Fusion Safety Assessment Tasks  

SciTech Connect

This report is a compilation of component failure rate and repair rate values that can be used in magnetic fusion safety assessment tasks. Several safety systems are examined, such as gas cleanup systems and plasma shutdown systems. Vacuum system component reliability values, including large vacuum chambers, have been reviewed. Values for water cooling system components have also been reported here. The report concludes with the examination of some equipment important to personnel safety, atmospheres, combustible gases, and airborne releases of radioactivity. These data should be useful to system designers to calculate scoping values for the availability and repair intervals for their systems, and for probabilistic safety or risk analysts to assess fusion systems for safety of the public and the workers.

Cadwallader, Lee Charles

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Heartbeat Model for Component Failure in Simulation of Plant Behavior  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Department of Energys Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program (LWRSP), tools and methodology for risk-informed characterization of safety margin are being developed for use in supporting decision-making on plant life extension after the first license renewal. Beginning with the traditional discussion of margin in terms of a load (a physical challenge to system or component function) and a capacity (the capability of that system or component to accommodate the challenge), we are developing the capability to characterize realistic probabilistic load and capacity spectra, reflecting both aleatory and epistemic uncertainty in system behavior. This way of thinking about margin comports with work done in the last 10 years. However, current capabilities to model in this way are limited: it is currently possible, but difficult, to validly simulate enough time histories to support quantification in realistic problems, and the treatment of environmental influences on reliability is relatively artificial in many existing applications. The INL is working on a next-generation safety analysis capability (widely referred to as R7) that will enable a much better integration of reliability-related and phenomenology-related aspects of margin. In this paper, we show how to implement cumulative damage (heartbeat) models for component reliability that lend themselves naturally to being included as part of the phenomenology simulation. Implementation of this modeling approach relies on the way in which the phenomenology simulation implements its dynamic time step management. Within this approach, component failures influence the phenomenology, and the phenomenology influences the component failures.

R. W. Youngblood; R. R. Nourgaliev; D. L. Kelly; C. L. Smith; T-N. Dinh

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute kidney failure Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Enhanced Summary: of Louisville, USA Mohamed Abou El-Ghar University of Mansoura, Egypt Abstract Graft failure of kidneys after... transplantation is most often the...

412

Argonne Researchers Shine "Light" on Origins of Wind Turbine Bearing Failures  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Researchers at DOE's Argonne National Laboratory are investigating the root cause of failures to wind turbine drivetrain components, such as bearings and gears.

413

Pediatric Intestinal Failure Associated Liver Disease is Revered with Six Months of Intravenous Fish Oil.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Pediatric intestinal failure associated liver disease (IFALD) is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Studies have suggested that when intravenous (IV) soybean oil (SO) (more)

Calkins, Kara

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Market Power and Regulatory Failure in the Montana Wholesale Electricity Market.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This work investigates market power and regulatory failures in the Montana wholesale electrical market after the implementation of deregulation in 1997. It provides a review (more)

Keogh, Ross Patrick

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Leader Election in Distributed Systems with Crash Failures Scott D. Stoller  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Leader Election in Distributed Systems with Crash Failures Scott D. Stoller Dept. of Computer ed Bully Algorithm satis es this speci cation. Keywords: leader election, synchronous, asynchronous

Stoller, Scott

416

E-Print Network 3.0 - assisted failures initiating Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 5 > >> 1 Failure Modelling in Software Architecture Design for Safety Weihang Wu Tim Kelly Summary: modelling assist the architectural design process? How can CSP be applied to...

417

E-Print Network 3.0 - antihypertensive trial failures Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

: furtheranalyses from the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering treatment to prevent Heart Attack Trial. Ann Intern... Journal of Cardiac Failure Vol. 10 No. 5 2004...

418

E-Print Network 3.0 - applying failure mode Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the failure mode space of aerospace ... Source: Stone, Robert B. - School of Mechanical, Industrial, and Manufacturing Engineering, Oregon State University Collection: Engineering...

419

The derivation of structural usage profiles for vehicles from failure statistics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A methodology is presented to derive a statistical fatigue loading profile of the total population of users of a vehicle model, from failure data recorded on the same or a previous model. The method is based on fitting a bivariate probability density function on normalised failure data. This is radically more economic than existing methods. Reasonable accuracy could be achieved, even if the failures represent only a small fraction of the total population. The two-parameter usage profile determined in this way offers a powerful approach to predict failures or derive statistically based durability test or design requirements.

Johann Wannenburg; P. Stephan Heyns

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Randomized controlled trial of two telemedicine medication reminder systems for older adults with heart failure.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Over five million Americans suffer from heart failure (HF), and many poorly manage their disease resulting in high patient burden and costs due to hospitalization. (more)

Goldstein, Carly Michelle

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brittle material failure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

E-Print Network 3.0 - alpha-mode containment failure Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

products in the conceptual stage. Currently failure identification procedures (such as FMEA, FMECA and FTA... ) and design of experiments are being used for quality control and...

422

Failure Analysis of Cap Screws in a Diesel Engine Front Gear Train  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two failures of the front gear train cap screws of a diesel engine in a marine vessel are investigated. Fractured cap screws were...

E. W. Jones; R. S. Florea; D. K. Francis

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute heart failure Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: acute heart failure Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 in nursing science: The RICH Heart...

424

Probiotic therapy for heart failure: Investigating the potential anti-hypertrophic properties of probiotics.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Heart failure patients face a five-year 50% mortality rate, due to impaired cardiac function and hypertrophy of the heart. Probiotics are live microorganisms which when (more)

Ettinger, Grace L

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Delamination Failures in Long-Term Field Aged PV Modules from...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

More Documents & Publications Thermal Cycling Combined with Dynamic Mechanical Load: Preliminary Report Failure and Degradation Modes of PV Modules in a Hot Dry...

426

Failure and Degradation Modes of PV Modules in a Hot Dry Climate...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

More Documents & Publications Thermal Cycling Combined with Dynamic Mechanical Load: Preliminary Report Delamination Failures in Long-Term Field Aged PV Modules...

427

Toward social constructivist understandings of IS success and failure: introducing a new computerized reservation system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Keywords: IS project failures, airline reservation systems, case study, critical perspective, cultural differences, power in organizations, pricing, strategic IS, transportation industry

Nathalie Mitev

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Critical Materials Hub  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Critical materials, including some rare earth elements that possess unique magnetic, catalytic, and luminescent properties, are key resources needed to manufacture products for the clean energy economy. These materials are so critical to the technologies that enable wind turbines, solar panels, electric vehicles, and energy-efficient lighting that DOE's 2010 and 2011 Critical Materials Strategy reported that supply challenges for five rare earth metalsdysprosium, neodymium, terbium, europium, and yttriumcould affect clean energy technology deployment in the coming years.1, 2

429

Fissile material detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A detector for fissile materials which provides for integrity monitoring of fissile materials and can be used for nondestructive assay to confirm the presence of a stable content of fissile material in items. The detector has a sample cavity large enough to enable assay of large items of arbitrary configuration, utilizes neutron sources fabricated in spatially extended shapes mounted on the endcaps of the sample cavity, incorporates a thermal neutron filter insert with reflector properties, and the electronics module includes a neutron multiplicity coincidence counter.

Ivanov, Alexander I. (Dubna, RU); Lushchikov, Vladislav I. (Dubna, RU); Shabalin, Eugeny P. (Dubna, RU); Maznyy, Nikita G. (Dubna, RU); Khvastunov, Michael M. (Dubna, RU); Rowland, Mark (Alamo, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Electrically conductive composite material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistent pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like. 2 figs.

Clough, R.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

1989-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

431

Material control evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Changes in the Department of Energy`s (DOE) scope of work have stimulated several laboratories and commercial companies to develop and apply technology to enhance nuclear material control. Accountability, inventory, radiation exposure, and insider protection concerns increase as many DOE facilities require increased storage. This paper summarizes a study of the existing material control technologies. The goal of the study is to identify, characterize, and quantify the trade-offs associated with using these technologies to provide real-time information on stored nuclear material that in turn supports decreasing the frequency of inventories conducted by site personnel.

Waddoups, I.G.; Anspach, D.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (US); Abbott, J.A. [EG& G Kirtland Operations, Albuquerque, NM (US)

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS SENSORS  

SciTech Connect

Providing technical means to detect, prevent, and reverse the threat of potential illicit use of radiological or nuclear materials is among the greatest challenges facing contemporary science and technology. In this short article, we provide brief description and overview of the state-of-the-art in sensor development for the detection of radioactive materials, as well as an identification of the technical needs and challenges faced by the detection community. We begin with a discussion of gamma-ray and neutron detectors and spectrometers, followed by a description of imaging sensors, active interrogation, and materials development, before closing with a brief discussion of the unique challenges posed in fielding sensor systems.

Mayo, Robert M.; Stephens, Daniel L.

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

433

A Solid breeder tokamak blanket designed for failure mode operation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to evaluate a new concept for a Tokamak type fusion reactor blanket. The design was based on using a packed bed of lithium aluminate as the breeding material with helium gas cooling. The ...

Chen, Franklin Fun Kun

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Thermal Performance and Reliability Characterization of Bonded Interface Materials (BIMs): Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Thermal interface materials are an important enabler for low thermal resistance and reliable electronics packaging for a wide array of applications. There is a trend towards bonded interface materials (BIMs) because of their potential for low thermal resistivity (< 1 mm2K/W). However, BIMs induce thermomechanical stresses in the package and can be prone to failures and integrity risks. Deteriorated interfaces can result in high thermal resistance in the package and degradation and/or failure of the electronics. DARPA's Thermal Management Technologies program has addressed this challenge, supporting the development of mechanically-compliant, low resistivity nano-thermal interface (NTI) materials. In this work, we describe the testing procedure and report the results of NREL's thermal performance and reliability characterization of an initial sample of four different NTI-BIMs.

DeVoto, D.; Paret, P.; Mihalic, M.; Narumanchi, S.; Bar-Cohen, A.; Matin, K.

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Public Scoping Meeting Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Public Scoping Meeting Materials Public Scoping Meeting Materials Public Scoping Meeting Materials Fact sheets, presentations, and other information from the Conversion EIS Public Scoping Meetings. The following materials were made available during the DUF6 Conversion EIS public scoping meetings held near Portsmouth, Ohio, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and Paducah, Kentucky, November - December, 2001. Notice of Intent PDF Icon Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facilities 60 KB details Presentation PDF Icon Overview: Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Management Program 5.97 MB details DUF6 Fact Sheets PDF Icon Overview of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program 174 KB details PDF Icon NEPA Activities for the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program

436

Work with Biological Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Work with Biological Materials Print Planning A complete Experiment Safety Sheet (ESS) is required before work can be done at the ALS. This ESS is either a part of the proposal...

437

Management of Nuclear Materials  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

To establish requirements and procedures for the management of nuclear materials within the Department of Energy (DOE). Cancels DOE 5660.1A. Canceled by DOE O 410.2.

1994-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

438

Toward Lighter, Stiffer Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...as additive manufacturing and three-dimensional (3D) printing offer the opportunity to tailor properties to location-specific...fabrication routes for cellular materials are exemplified by 3D printing, but considerable progress must still be made to enhance...

Tobias A. Schaedler; Alan J. Jacobsen; Wiliam B. Carter

2013-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

439

NEW MAGNETIC MATERIALS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

New, sophisticated magnetic materials can be found as essential components in computers, sensors, and actuators, and in a variety of telecommunications devices ranging from telephones to satellites. Some of th...

STANOJA STOIMENOV

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Next Generation Materials:  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

of 2 to 1 for additive manufacturing by 2020; Composite materials Fiber processing costs reduce by one-half by 2026; 6x improvement in tooling cycles for composite matrix...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brittle material failure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Materials Science & Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Aucierllo has edited 19 books, published about 450 articles, holds 14 patents, and has organized, chaired and nanocarbon thin films are providing the bases for new physics, new materials science and chemistry

442

Management of Nuclear Materials  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

To establish requirements for the lifecycle management of DOE owned and/or managed accountable nuclear materials. Cancels DOE O 410.2. Admin Chg 1 dated 4-10-2014, cancels DOE O 410.2.

2009-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

443

Materials of Construction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Conversion of coal into clean energy in any process either through direct combustion or conversion to gaseous and liquid fuels involves application of materials at high or reasonably high temperature in aggres...

W. A. Ellingson; K. Natesan; T. Vojnovich

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Electrically conductive material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrically conductive material for use in solid oxide fuel cells, electrochemical sensors for combustion exhaust, and various other applications possesses increased fracture toughness over available materials, while affording the same electrical conductivity. One embodiment of the sintered electrically conductive material consists essentially of cubic ZrO.sub.2 as a matrix and 6-19 wt. % monoclinic ZrO.sub.2 formed from particles having an average size equal to or greater than about 0.23 microns. Another embodiment of the electrically conductive material consists essentially at cubic ZrO.sub.2 as a matrix and 10-30 wt. % partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) formed from particles having an average size of approximately 3 microns.

Singh, Jitendra P. (Bollingbrook, IL); Bosak, Andrea L. (Burnam, IL); McPheeters, Charles C. (Woodridge, IL); Dees, Dennis W. (Woodridge, IL)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Electrically conductive material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrically conductive material is described for use in solid oxide fuel cells, electrochemical sensors for combustion exhaust, and various other applications possesses increased fracture toughness over available materials, while affording the same electrical conductivity. One embodiment of the sintered electrically conductive material consists essentially of cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 6-19 wt. % monoclinic ZrO[sub 2] formed from particles having an average size equal to or greater than about 0.23 microns. Another embodiment of the electrically conductive material consists essentially at cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 10-30 wt. % partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) formed from particles having an average size of approximately 3 microns. 8 figures.

Singh, J.P.; Bosak, A.L.; McPheeters, C.C.; Dees, D.W.

1993-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

446

Reversible hydrogen storage materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In accordance with the present disclosure, a process for synthesis of a complex hydride material for hydrogen storage is provided. The process includes mixing a borohydride with at least one additive agent and at least one catalyst and heating the mixture at a temperature of less than about 600.degree. C. and a pressure of H.sub.2 gas to form a complex hydride material. The complex hydride material comprises MAl.sub.xB.sub.yH.sub.z, wherein M is an alkali metal or group IIA metal, Al is the element aluminum, x is any number from 0 to 1, B is the element boron, y is a number from 0 to 13, and z is a number from 4 to 57 with the additive agent and catalyst still being present. The complex hydride material is capable of cyclic dehydrogenation and rehydrogenation and has a hydrogen capacity of at least about 4 weight percent.

Ritter, James A. (Lexington, SC); Wang, Tao (Columbia, SC); Ebner, Armin D. (Lexington, SC); Holland, Charles E. (Cayce, SC)

2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

447

Nuclear Material Packaging Manual  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

The manual provides detailed packaging requirements for protecting workers from exposure to nuclear materials stored outside of an approved engineered contamination barrier. No cancellation. Certified 11-18-10.

2008-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

448

Materials of Construction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ferrous materials are affected by residual chlorine in saline water feed of desalination plants. In stagnant C1 test solution a semilogarithmically increased corrosion rate was observed with increasing dissolv...

Prof. Dr. Anthony Delyannis; Dr. Euridike-Emmy Delyannis

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

The Materials Project:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Computing | June 2014 Energy & Environmental Technologies Berkeley Lab Materials d ata f rom: E agar T., King M. Technology R eview 1 995 What are the properties of known...

450

Hydrogen Compatible Materials Workshop  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Summary of the Hydrogen Compatible Materials Workshop held November, 3, 2010, at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, California. Summary includes the workshop agenda, an overview of the morning presentations, a discussion of the afternoon meeting, and a list of participants.

451

Bespoke Materials Surfaces  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bespoke Materials Surfaces Bespoke Materials Surfaces Background The Department of Energy (DOE) has established performance and efficiency goals for power generation systems which will improve the ability of the U.S. energy sector to produce electricity efficiently with less impact to the environment. Power systems showing the most promise for reaching these goals require corrosion resistance alloys able to perform at very high pressures and temperatures. Increasing both the

452

Verification of the EDA Concept Through an Assessment of Theoretical Failure Modes, Failure Mode Analysis, and Case Studies with Real Data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the final stage of their evaluation, Glaab etal. [9...] considered the relative magnitudes that the identified risk factors could lead to catastrophic product failure. They appreciated that conducting a class...

Helen Strickland; Beth Morgan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Deformation and fracture characteristics of spent Zircaloy fuel cladding  

SciTech Connect

For a better understanding of Zircaloy fuel-rod failure by the pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) phenomenon, a mechanistic study of deformation and fracture behavior of spent power reactor fuel cladding under simulated PCI conditions was conducted. Zircaloy-2 cladding specimens, obtained from fuel assemblies of operating power reactors, were deformed to fracture at 325/sup 0/C by internal gas pressurization in the absence of fission product simulants. Fracture characteristics and microstructures were examined via SEM, TEM, and HVEM. Numerous dislocation tangles and cell structures, observed in TEM specimens of cladding tubes that failed in a ductile manner, were consistent with SEM observations of a limited number of dimples characteristic of microvoid coalescence. A number of brittle-type failures were produced without the influence of fission product simulants. The brittle cracks occurred near the areas compressed by the Swagelok fittings of the internally pressurized tube and propagated from the outer to the inner surface. Since the outer surface was isolated and maintained under a flowing stream of pure helium, it is unlikely that the brittle-type failure was influenced by any fission product traces. SEM fractography of the brittle-type failure revealed a large area of transgranular pseudocleavage with limited areas of ductile fluting, which were similar in appearance to the surfaces produced by in-reactor PCI-type failures. A TEM evaluation of the cladding in the vicinity of the through-wall crack revealed numerous locations that contained an extensive amount of second-phase precipitate (Zr/sub 3/O). We believe that the brittle-type failures of the irradiated spent fuel cladding in the stress rupture experiments are associated with segregation of oxygen, which leads to the formation of the order structure, an immobilization of dislocations, and minimal plastic deformation in the material.

Chung, H.M.; Yaggee, F.L.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Microwave impregnation of porous materials with thermal energy storage materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for impregnating a porous, non-metallic construction material with a solid phase-change material is described. The phase-change material in finely divided form is spread onto the surface of the porous material, after which the porous material is exposed to microwave energy for a time sufficient to melt the phase-change material. The melted material is spontaneously absorbed into the pores of the porous material. A sealing chemical may also be included with the phase-change material (or applied subsequent to the phase-change material) to seal the surface of the porous material. Fire retardant chemicals may also be included with the phase-change materials. The treated construction materials are better able to absorb thermal energy and exhibit increased heat storage capacity.

Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Burrows, Richard W. (Conifer, CO)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Microwave impregnation of porous materials with thermal energy storage materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for impregnating a porous, non-metallic construction material with a solid phase-change material is described. The phase-change material in finely divided form is spread onto the surface of the porous material, after which the porous material is exposed to microwave energy for a time sufficient to melt the phase-change material. The melted material is spontaneously absorbed into the pores of the porous material. A sealing chemical may also be included with the phase-change material (or applied subsequent to the phase-change material) to seal the surface of the porous material. Fire retardant chemicals may also be included with the phase-change materials. The treated construction materials are better able to absorb thermal energy and exhibit increased heat storage capacity.

Benson, D.K.; Burrows, R.W.

1993-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

456

Midwestern Radioactive Materials Transportation Committee Agenda...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Midwestern Radioactive Materials Transportation Committee Agenda Midwestern Radioactive Materials Transportation Committee Agenda Midwestern Radioactive Materials Transportation...

457

Understanding Size Effect in Cleavage Cracking in Thin Materials  

SciTech Connect

In a specially designed tensile fracture experiment on bicrysal thin films, it was discovered that the fracture toughness of a thin film is not a material constant; rather, as the film becomes thinner it decreases much faster than the prediction of conventional theory. A detailed analysis revealed that this is caused by the mismatch of crystalline structures and, more importantly, with an appropriate crystalline orientation distribution the decrease may be suppressed. This result shed light on the fundamentals of crystal behaviors in pressurized matters. It also provides a promising solution to minimize unexpected failures in nano/micro-electromechanical systems, and therefore is of immense technological importance.

Qiao, Yu

2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

458

Organic Macromolecular High Dielectric Constant Materials: Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It will lead to a thermal effect and perhaps thermal failure of devices. ... The white light was then overlapped with the pump beam in a 2 mm quartz cuvette containing the sample, and the change in the absorbance for the signal was collected by a CCD detector (Ocean Optics). ... In many ?-conjugated organic materials, up-converted ultrafast fluorescence dynamics and anisotropy decay experiments have been applied successfully to reveal possible ultrafast processes, such as vibrational relaxation and singletsinglet annihilation, occurring in a time scale shorter than 20 ps, and to validate the presence and type of intramolecular energy and charge transfer processes. ...

Meng Guo; Teruaki Hayakawa; Masa-aki Kakimoto; Theodore Goodson; III

2011-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

459

Risk assessment of failure modes of gas diffuser liner of V94.2 siemens gas turbine by FMEA method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Failure of welding connection of gas diffuser liner and exhaust casing is one of the failure modes of V94.2 gas turbines which are happened in some power plants. This defect is one of the uncertainties of customers when they want to accept the final commissioning of this product. According to this, the risk priority of this failure evaluated by failure modes and effect analysis (FMEA) method to find out whether this failure is catastrophic for turbine performance and is harmful for humans. By using history of 110 gas turbines of this model which are used in some power plants, the severity number, occurrence number and detection number of failure determined and consequently the Risk Priority Number (RPN) of failure determined. Finally, critically matrix of potential failures is created and illustrated that failure modes are located in safe zone.

H Mirzaei Rafsanjani; A Rezaei Nasab

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

ATS materials support  

SciTech Connect

The technology based portion of the Advanced Turbine System Program (ATS) contains several subelements which address generic technology issues for land-base gas turbine systems. One subelement is the Materials/Manufacturing Technology Program which is coordinated by DOE-Oak Ridge Operations and Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) for the Department of Energy. The work in this subelement is being performed predominantly by industry with assistance from national laboratories and universities. Projects in this subelement are aimed toward hastening the incorporation of new materials and components in gas turbines. The materials manufacturing subelement was developed with input from gas turbine manufacturers, material suppliers, government laboratories and universities. Work is currently ongoing on thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), the scale-up of single-crystal airfoil manufacturing technologies, materials characterization and technology information exchange. Westinghouse Power Generation and Pratt and Whitney each have material programs to develop dependable TBCs that enable increased turbine inlet temperatures while maintaining airfoil substrate temperatures at levels to meet the ATS life goals. Howmet and PCC Airfoils each have projects to extend the capability of single-crystal complex-cored airfoil technology to larger sizes so that higher turbine inlet temperatures can be attained in land-based turbines in a cost-effective manner. Materials characterization tasks are ongoing on TBCs in support of the industrial projects. In addition, a project on long-term testing of ceramics and ceramic-matrix composites for gas turbines is being conducted in support of programs at Solar Turbines, Allison Engines, and Westinghouse Power Generation.

Karnitz, M.A.; Wright, I.G.; Ferber, M.K.; Holcomb, R.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rawlins, M.H. [Dept. of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brittle material failure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

SEM evaluation of advanced refractory failures in slagging gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

The SEM is an invaluable tool in the evaluation of advanced refractories and their failure. A reaction vessel?s refractory liner, at minimum, must protect the reaction vessel from elevated temperatures, corrosive slag and thermal cycling. To understand the failure mechanisms ARC staff had first to determine how an advanced chrome rich refractory was attacked by various components that make up a slag. Refractory cups were made from the refractory of interest and various compounds that can be found in a slag such as CaO, SiO2, Fe2O3, NaCl were placed into the test cups and fired for 24 hours at the required temperature with the desired atmosphere. The cups are prepared for examination by embedding in epoxy and cross sectioning. SEM examination revealed how various slag compositions attacked and penetrated the refractory. The slag could corrode, free refractory grains or react with the refractory and from a new compound. It was found that the only way to measure slag component penetration was with multiple elemental X-ray maps. SiO2 penetrated deeply and in many instances moved through the cup. The knowledge of slag refractory interactions gather during cup testing was applied to actual spent refractory from reaction vessels. Obtaining samples from the reaction vessel itself proved difficult due to time constraints imposed in relining. Samples were selected based on spent brick shape, color or location in the heap of spent refractory. Sample preparation affected the results dry, water or oil coolant during cutting may dissolve reaction products. The complex reactions between the slag and refractory made for very interesting and time consuming evaluation. Elemental X-ray maps at low and high magnification combined with point analysis aided in locating regions of interest. Crystals were found growing in voids and appear to be from vapor deposition. Other crystal structures are from the slag refractory interaction. Knowledge gathered from this and other supporting research resulted in a new patented refractory composition that resists slag penetration.

Collins, W.Keith; Dahlin, Cheryl L.; Bennett, James P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Rawers, James C.

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Instrument Failures for the da Vinci Surgical System: a Food and Drug Administration MAUDE Database Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reports. The majority of failures (285) were of the instrument's wrist or tool tip. Cautery problemsInstrument Failures for the da Vinci Surgical System: a Food and Drug Administration MAUDE Database Background Our goal was to analyze reported instances of the da Vinci robotic surgical system instrument

463

High Accuracy 65nm OPC Verification: Full Process Window Model vs. Critical Failure ORC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High Accuracy 65nm OPC Verification: Full Process Window Model vs. Critical Failure ORC Amandine of Mask Rule Checking (MRC) and Optical Rule Checking (ORC) have become indispensable tools for ensuring, a technique known as Critical Failure ORC (CFORC) was introduced that uses optical parameters from aerial

Boyer, Edmond

464

A network-failure-tolerant message-passing system for terascale clusters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Los Alamos Message Passing Interface (LA-MPI) is an end-to-end network-failure-tolerant message-passing system designed for terascale clusters. LA-MPI is a standard-compliant implementation of MPI designed to tolerate network-related failures including ... Keywords: MPI, fault tolerance, message passing

Richard L. Graham; Sung-Eun Choi; David J. Daniel; Nehal N. Desai; Ronald G. Minnich; Craig E. Rasmussen; L. Dean Risinger; Mitchel W. Sukalski

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Approximately optimum confidence bounds on series system reliability for exponential time to failure data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......exponential time to failure data NANCY R. MANN FRANK E. GRUBBS Rocketdyne, North American Rockwell Corporation U.S. Army Aberdeen...reliability for exponential time to failure data BY NANCY R. MANN Rocketdyne, North American Rockwell Corporation AND FRANK E. GRUBBS......

NANCY R. MANN; FRANK E. GRUBBS

1972-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

THERMAL FATIGUE AND FAILURE OF ELECTRONIC POWER DEVICE SUBSTRATES. S. Pietranico1&2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. For large thermal amplitudes, the failure occurs in DBC substrates, which are copper/ceramic in power modules, because of their good thermal conductivity. They are composed (Fig. 1) of a ceramic layer- 1 - THERMAL FATIGUE AND FAILURE OF ELECTRONIC POWER DEVICE SUBSTRATES. S. Pietranico1&2 , S

467

Dependable Systems of Systems PCE4: Models of Organisational Failure1 IST-1999-11585  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dependable Systems of Systems PCE4: Models of Organisational Failure1 DSoS IST-1999 Report Version: Deliverable (PCE4) Report Preparation Date: 1 December 2002 Classification: Public Technology" Programme (1998- 2002) #12;Dependable Systems of Systems PCE4: Models of Organisational Failure2

Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

468

Analysis of Common Cause Failure in Redundant Control Systems Using Fault Trees  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper highlights the importance of reliability studies for systems where high reliability is a must. The common cause failure concept is introduced and studied due to its relevancy. A simple hypothetical control system is used to illustrate the ... Keywords: Common Cause Failure, Fault Tree, Redundant Control, Reliability

David Bayona i Bru; Joaquim Melndez; Gabriel Olguin

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

EEMD-based wind turbine bearing failure detection using the generator stator current homopolar component  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EEMD-based wind turbine bearing failure detection using the generator stator current homopolar turbine generators for stationary and non stationary cases. Keyword: Wind turbine, induction generator on the installed equipment because they are hardly accessible or even inaccessible [1]. 1.1. Wind turbine failure

Boyer, Edmond

470

Fault tolerant control of automatically controlled vehicles in response to brake system failures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the brake system is vital. In this thesis, nonlinear failure detection filters are used for fault detection of sensors and actuators in a class of nonlinear systems. In this thesis, the effects of brake system failures in an AHS where the vehicle steering...

Hsien, Li-Wei

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

471

Modeling Coulombic failure of sea ice with leads Alexander V. Wilchinsky1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modeling Coulombic failure of sea ice with leads Alexander V. Wilchinsky1 and Daniel L. Feltham1 ice failure under lowconfinement compression is modeled with a linear Coulombic criterion that can of anisotropy we consider a simplified anisotropic sea ice model where the sea ice thickness depends

Feltham, Daniel

472

An Automatic Failure Mode and Effect Analysis Technique for Processes Defined in the Little-JIL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) information from processes modeled in the Little-JIL process definition language. Typically FMEA information is created manually by skilled experts, an approach this definition can then be used to create FMEA representations for a wide range of potential failures

Avrunin, George S.

473

Multiple failure modes analysis and weighted risk priority number evaluation in FMEA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Traditionally, failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) only considers the impact of single failure on the system. For large and complex systems, since multiple failures of components exist, assessing multiple failure modes with all possible combinations is impractical. Pickard et al. [1] introduced a useful method to simultaneously analyze multiple failures for complex systems. However, they did not indicate which failures need to be considered and how to combine them appropriately. This paper extends Pickards work by proposing a minimum cut set based method for assessing the impact of multiple failure modes. In addition, traditional FMEA is made by addressing problems in an order from the biggest risk priority number (RPN) to the smallest ones. However, one disadvantage of this approach is that it ignores the fact that three factors (Severity (S), Occurrence (O), Detection (D)) (S, O, D) have the different weights in system rather than equality. For examples, reasonable weights for factors S, O are higher than the weight of D for some non-repairable systems. In this paper, we extended the definition of RPN by multiplying it with a weight parameter, which characterize the importance of the failure causes within the system. Finally, the effectiveness of the method is demonstrated with numerical examples.

Ningcong Xiao; Hong-Zhong Huang; Yanfeng Li; Liping He; Tongdan Jin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Risk analysis of geothermal power plants using Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) technique  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Renewable energy plays a key role in the transition toward a low carbon economy and the provision of a secure supply of energy. Geothermal energy is a versatile source as a form of renewable energy that meets popular demand. Since some Geothermal Power Plants (GPPs) face various failures, the requirement of a technique for team engineering to eliminate or decrease potential failures is considerable. Because no specific published record of considering an FMEA applied to \\{GPPs\\} with common failure modes have been found already, in this paper, the utilization of Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) as a convenient technique for determining, classifying and analyzing common failures in typical \\{GPPs\\} is considered. As a result, an appropriate risk scoring of occurrence, detection and severity of failure modes and computing the Risk Priority Number (RPN) for detecting high potential failures is achieved. In order to expedite accuracy and ability to analyze the process, XFMEA software is utilized. Moreover, 5 major parts of a GPP is studied to propose a suitable approach for developing \\{GPPs\\} and increasing reliability by recommending corrective actions for each failure mode.

Hamid Reza Feili; Navid Akar; Hossein Lotfizadeh; Mohammad Bairampour; Sina Nasiri

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Failure Mode and Effect Analysis of Concrete Ties in orth America  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Summary: A failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA in systems and components is the Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), and we are applying this approach of concrete ties to take full advantage of their potential. FMEA is an efficient procedure for organizing

Barkan, Christopher P.L.

476

A Simple GSPN for Modeling Common Mode Failures in Critical Infrastructures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of electric power has major consequences on telecommunications, transportation, water, sewage, and natural gas for reliability in benign operating environments. As such, they are susceptible to cascading failures induced leading to the cascading failure. We suspect that sources of common mode faults in real-time control

Krings, Axel W.

477

Tables for Trials and Failures with PD for Designated Confidence Level  

SciTech Connect

Two attachments are provided for performance testing of sensors and other Physical Protection System (PPS) components.#2; The first attachment is a table of Trials and Failures, giving Probability of Detection (PD) for a designated confidence level and sorted by trials.#2; The second attachment contains the same data, sorted by failures.

Leach, Janice

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

An LMI approach to reliable guaranteed cost control of discrete-time systems with actuator failure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper is concerned with the reliable guaranteed cost control problem for discrete-time systems with actuator failures and a given quadratic cost function. The problem is to design a reliable guaranteed cost state feedback control law which can tolerate ... Keywords: Actuator failure, Guaranteed cost control, LMI, Reliable control

Li Yu

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Sensors and Actuators B 50 (1998) 117124 Failure analysis of microfabricated iridium ultramicroelectrodes in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sensors and Actuators B 50 (1998) 117­124 Failure analysis of microfabricated iridium 18 May 1998 Abstract This study investigates the failure mechanisms for an electrochemical sensor wafer. It has been noted that the use of these sensors during voltammetric determination of heavy metal

Kounaves, Samuel P.

480

The Impact of API Complexity on Failures: An Empirical Analysis of Proprietary and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Impact of API Complexity on Failures: An Empirical Analysis of Proprietary and Open Source Information hiding is a cornerstone principle of modern software engineering. Interfaces, or APIs, are central or development pro- ductivity. In this paper, we examined the impact of API complexity on the failure proneness

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brittle material failure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Explaining Recent Connecticut Bank Failures: Did Managerial Inefficiency Play a Role  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Explaining Recent Connecticut Bank Failures: Did Managerial Inefficiency Play a Role Stephen M. Miller The University of Connecticut and Athanasios G. Noulas* University of Macedonia August 1998 important questions about bank performance. We develop a failure-prediction model for Connecticut banks

Ahmad, Sajjad

482

Heart Failure Symposium: Promoting Knowledge and Self-Care: The Keys to  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heart Failure Symposium: Promoting Knowledge and Self-Care: The Keys to a Woman's Healthy Heart This is the Fourth Annual UConn Health Center Heart Failure Symposium. This year we will focus on women and heart disease. The program will include presentations on heart disease and healthy living for women

Kim, Duck O.

483

Original article Increased late sodium current in myocytes from a canine heart failure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Original article Increased late sodium current in myocytes from a canine heart failure model and from failing human heart Carmen R. Valdivia, William W. Chu, Jielin Pu 1 , Jason D. Foell, Robert A December 2004 Abstract Electrophysiological remodeling of ion channels in heart failure causes action

Kamp, Tim

484

ESTIMATION OF PARAMETERS OF MIXED EXPONENTIALLY DISTRIBUTED FAILURE TIME DISTRIBUTIONS FROM CENSORED LIFE TEST DATA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......encountered in many fields of applied science...early failures from production. Other references to...are assumed to have a cumulative failure probability...026 0003 002 015 030 Oil 0001 031 003 001 022...p2, ,Ps- Then the cumulative distribution function......

WILLIAM MENDENHALL; R. J. HADER

1958-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Investigations on the Failure of Economizer Tubes in a High-Pressure Boiler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article describes the results of an investigation concerning the failure of economizer tubes of a high-pressure boiler in ... . The cause of the failure of the economizer tube appears to be H2SO4 dew-point c...

M. Mobin; A. U. Malik; M. Al-Hajri

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Investigation of PVC Pipe Failure at Terrell State Hospital Final Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

At the request of Terrell State Hospital and MHMR, the Energy Systems Laboratory at Texas A&M University investigated the failure of the PVC pipes serving the chilled water loop at Terrell State Hospital. There were two PVC pipe failures where...

Wei, G.; Deng, S.; Claridge, D. E.; Turner, W. D.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Nuclear Engineering and Design 186 (1998) 379394 Failure of Zircaloy cladding under transverse plane-strain  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear Engineering and Design 186 (1998) 379­394 Failure of Zircaloy cladding under transverseersity Department of Nuclear Engineering, 231 Sackett Building, Uni6ersity Park, PA 16802­1408, USA- cated that the energy deposition limits for clad- ding failure and for fuel dispersal (established

Motta, Arthur T.

488

Rayleigh-Taylor instability and resulting failure modes of ablatively imploded inertial-fusion targets  

SciTech Connect

This article presents a theory of these instabilities and potential modes of failure caused by them. Discussions are given for the following: small amplitude growth of the outside surface instability; and modes of failure resulting from nonlinear development of the inside surface instability.

Montierth, L.; Morse, R.

1983-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

489

Issued to Kaiser-Hill Company, LLC related to Failure to Perform Required  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Issued to Kaiser-Hill Company, LLC related to Failure to Perform Issued to Kaiser-Hill Company, LLC related to Failure to Perform Required Surveillances at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, August 2, 2000 Issued to Kaiser-Hill Company, LLC related to Failure to Perform Required Surveillances at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, August 2, 2000 This letter refers to the Department of Energy's (DOE) evaluation of potential noncompliances with the requirements of 10 CFR 830.120 (Quality Assurance Rule). The potential noncompliances involved inadequate implementation of work controls, specifically failure to perform required combustible gas surveillances. The failure to fully perform the required surveillances was identified by the contractor during a comprehensive Kaiser-Hill (KHLL) Implementation Validation Review

490

NREL: Performance and Reliability R&D - Photovoltaic Module Field Failure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Photovoltaic Module Field Failure Database Photovoltaic Module Field Failure Database The PV Module Field Failure Database provides you with an opportunity to share information about failures you have observed. The information you provide will be reviewed, summarized, and then shared with the public to help spread an awareness of events being observed in the field. This will enable NREL (and the public) to gauge existing reliability of PV modules and to improve methods of testing reliability. Participation from the solar industry is vital to the accuracy and success of our analysis. Owners of small PV systems, such as those installed on residences and small commercial sites, can make a major contribution to our study. We are especially interested in learning about the types of failures you've experienced in your modules and any degradation in performance over time.

491

Determining the Cause of a Header Failure in a Natural Gas Production Facility  

SciTech Connect

An investigation was made into the premature failure of a gas-header at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) natural gas production facility. A wide variety of possible failure mechanisms were considered: design of the header, deviation from normal pipe alloy composition, physical orientation of the header, gas composition and flow rate, type of corrosion, protectiveness of the interior oxide film, time of wetness, and erosion-corrosion. The failed header was examined using metallographic techniques, scanning electron microscopy, and microanalysis. A comparison of the failure site and an analogous site that had not failed, but exhibited similar metal thinning was also performed. From these studies it was concluded that failure resulted from erosion-corrosion, and that design elements of the header and orientation with respect to gas flow contributed to the mass loss at the failure point.

Matthes, S.A.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Holcomb, G.R.

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Geothermal materials development  

SciTech Connect

Advances in the development of new materials, the commercial availabilities of which are essential for the attainment of Hydrothermal Category Level 1 and 2 Objectives, continue to be made in the Geothermal Materials Development Project. Many successes have already been accrued and the results transferred to industry. In FY 1990, the R D efforts were focused on reducing well drilling and completion costs and on mitigating corrosion in well casing. Activities on lost circulation control materials, CO{sub 2}- resistant lightweight cements, and thermally conductive corrosion and scale-resistant protective liner systems have reached the final development stages, and cost-shared field tests are planned for the FY 1991--1992 time frame. Technology transfer efforts on high temperature elastomers for use in drilling tools are continuing under Geothermal Drilling Organization (GDO) sponsorship.

Kukacka, L.E.

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Oxygen ion conducting materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

Vaughey, John (Elmhurst, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Downers Grove, IL); Carter, J. David (Bolingbrook, IL)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Ion Beam Materials Lab  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Facilities » Facilities » Ion Beam Materials Lab Ion Beam Materials Lab A new research frontier awaits! Our door is open and we thrive on mutually beneficial partnerships, collaborations that drive innovations and new technologies. April 12, 2012 Ion Beam Danfysik Implanter High Voltage Terminal. Contact Yongqiang Wang (505) 665-1596 Email Devoted to the characterization and modification of surfaces through the use of ion beams The Ion Beam Materials Laboratory (IBML) is a Los Alamos National Laboratory resource devoted to the characterization and modification of surfaces through the use of ion beams. The IBML provides and operates the core facilities, while supporting the design and implementation of specific apparati needed for experiments requested by users of the facility. The result is a facility with

495

Materials for geothermal production  

SciTech Connect

Advances in the development of new materials continue to be made in the geothermal materials project. Many successes have already been accrued and the results used commercially. In FY 1991, work was focused on reducing well drilling, fluid transport and energy conversion costs. Specific activities performed included lightweight CO{sub 2}-resistant well cements, thermally conductive and scale resistant protective liner systems, chemical systems for lost circulation control, corrosion mitigation in process components at The Geysers, and elastomer-metal bonding systems. Efforts to transfer the technologies developed in these efforts to other energy-related sectors of the economy continued and considerable success was achieved.

Kukacka, L.E.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Optical limiting materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Optical limiting materials. Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO.sub.2) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400-1100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes.

McBranch, Duncan W. (Santa Fe, NM); Mattes, Benjamin R. (Santa Fe, NM); Koskelo, Aaron C. (Los Alamos, NM); Heeger, Alan J. (Santa Barbara, CA); Robinson, Jeanne M. (Los Alamos, NM); Smilowitz, Laura B. (Los Alamos, NM); Klimov, Victor I. (Los Alamos, NM); Cha, Myoungsik (Goleta, CA); Sariciftci, N. Serdar (Santa Barbara, CA); Hummelen, Jan C. (Groningen, NL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

8 - Ceramic materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ceramic materials, manufactured from fired clay, have been used in construction since at least 4000 BC in Egypt, and represent the earliest manufactured building materials. Whilst the strict definition of ceramics includes glass, stone and cement, this chapter deals only with the traditional ceramics based on clays. The variety of traditional ceramic products used within the building industry arises from the wide range of natural and blended clays used for their production. The roof of the spectacular Sydney Opera House (Fig. 8.1) is surfaced with white ceramic tiles which reflect the changing light associated with the time of day.

Arthur Lyons

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Container for radioactive materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A container is claimed for housing a plurality of canister assemblies containing radioactive material. The several canister assemblies are stacked in a longitudinally spaced relation within a carrier to form a payload concentrically mounted within the container. The payload package includes a spacer for each canister assembly, said spacer comprising a base member longitudinally spacing adjacent canister assemblies from each other and sleeve surrounding the associated canister assembly for centering the same and conducting heat from the radioactive material in a desired flow path. 7 figures.

Fields, S.R.

1984-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

499

Safeguards for nuclear material transparency monitoring  

SciTech Connect

The US and the Russian Federation are currently engaged in negotiating or implementing several nuclear arms and nuclear material control agreements. These involve placing nuclear material in specially designed containers within controlled facilities. Some of the agreements require the removal of nuclear components from stockpile weapons. These components are placed in steel containers that are then sealed and tagged. Current strategies for monitoring the agreements involve taking neutron and gamma radiation measurements of components in their containers to monitor the presence, mass, and composition of plutonium or highly enriched uranium, as well as other attributes that indicate the use of the material in a weapon. If accurate enough to be useful, these measurements will yield data containing information about the design of the weapon being monitored. In each case, the design data are considered sensitive by one or both parties to the agreement. To prevent the disclosure of this information in a bilateral or trilateral inspection scenario, so-called information barriers have evolved. These barriers combine hardware, software, and procedural safeguards to contain the sensitive data within a protected volume, presenting to the inspector only the processed results needed for verification. Interlocks and volatile memory guard against disclosure in case of failure. Implementing these safeguards requires innovation in radiation measurement instruments and data security. Demonstrating their reliability requires independent testing to uncover any flaws in design. This study discusses the general problem and gives a proposed solution for a high resolution gamma ray detection system. It uses historical examples to illustrate the evolution of other successful systems.

MacArthur, D A; Wolford, J K

1999-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

500

Nanotube fracture during the failure of carbon nanotube/ alumina composites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-based ceramic composites, leading to improved fracture toughness. ? 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1 problem, incorporation of particulates, flakes and short/long fibers into ceramics matrix, as a second, chemical and electrical properties [3­7], motivating their use in ceramic composite materials as a fibrous