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Sample records for brine disposal system

  1. Brine disposal process for Morcinek coal mine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tait, J.H.

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes the work to develop a commercial brine disposal process for the Morcinek mine, located 45 km south of the city of Katowice in Poland. Currently, brine is discharged into the Odra river and methane from the mine is released into the atmosphere. The process would use the released methane and convert a large percentage of the brine into potable water for commercial use. Thus, the proposed process has two environmental benefits. The brine salinity is about 31,100 ppm. Major brine components are Na (10,300 ppm), Ca (1,170 ppm), Mg (460 ppm), Cl (18,500 ppm) and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} (252 ppm). Present in smaller amounts are K, S, Sr, B, Ba and NO{sub 3}. The process integrates a reverse osmosis (RO) unit and a submerged combustion evaporator. Extensive studies made at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory established the pretreatment method of the brine before it enters the RO unit. Without adequate pretreatment, mineral phases in the brine would become super-saturated and would precipitate in the RO unit. The pretreatment consists of first adding sodium carbonate to increase both the pH and the carbonate concentration of the brine. This addition causes precipitation of carbonate solids containing Ca, Mg, Sr, and Ba. After filtration of these precipitates, the fluid is acidified with HCl to prevent precipitation in the RO unit as the brine increases in salinity.

  2. Integrated process for coalbed brine disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandt, H. |; Bourcier, W.L.; Jackson, K.J.

    1994-03-01

    A brine disposal process is described that converts the brine stream of a coalbed gas producing site into clean water for agricultural use, combustion products and water vapor that can be released into the atmosphere and dry solids that can be recycled for industrial consumption. The process uses a reverse osmosis unit, a submerged combustion evaporator and a pulse combustion dryer. Pretreatment of the brine feedstream is necessary to prevent fouling of the membranes of the reverse osmosis unit and to separate from the brine stream hazardous metal and other constituents that may make the permeate from the reverse osmosis unit unsuitable for agricultural or other use. A chemical modeling code is used to calculate the saturation states of solids that may precipitate and foul the reverse osmosis membranes. Sodium carbonate is added to the brine to precipitate carbonates of Ba, Ca, Mg and Sr prior to filtration, acidification, and passage into the reverse osmosis unit. Optimization of the process in terms of types and amounts of additives is possible with analysis using the modeling code. The minimum amounts of additives to prevent scaling are calculated. In a typical operation, a brine feedstream of 1,000 m{sup 3}/day (6,290 bpd) that may have a total dissolved salt concentration (TDS) of 7,000 ppm will be separated into a permeate stream of 750 m{sup 3}/day (4,718 bpd) with a TDS of 400 ppm and a concentrated brine stream of 250 m{sup 3}/day (1,573 bpd) with a TDS of 26,800 ppm. The submerged combustion evaporator will concentrate this latter stream to a concentration of 268,000 ppm and reduce the volume to 25 m{sup 3}/day (158 bpd). The pulse combustion dryer can dry the concentrated brine mixture to a low moisture salt. Energy costs to operate the reverse osmosis unit are primarily the pumping costs.

  3. West Hackberry Brine Disposal Project pre-discharge characterization. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.

    1982-01-01

    The physical, chemical and biological attributes are described for: (1) a coastal marine environment centered about a Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) brine disposal site 11.4 km off the southwest coast of Louisiana; and (2) the lower Calcasieu and Sabine estuarine systems that provide leach waters for the SPR project. A three month sampling effort, February through April 1981, and previous investigations from the study area are integrated to establish baseline information for evaluation of impacts from brine disposal in the nearshore marine waters and from freshwater withdrawal from the coastal marsh of the Chenier Plain. January data are included for some tasks that sampled while testing and mobilizing their instruments prior to the February field effort. The study addresses the areas of physical oceanography, estuarine hydrology and hydrography, water and sediment quality, benthos, nekton, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and data management.

  4. TOUGHREACT Testing in High Ionic Strength Brine Sandstone Systems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: TOUGHREACT Testing in High Ionic Strength Brine Sandstone Systems Deep saline formations and oil and gas reservoirs often contain concentrated brine solutions of ionic ...

  5. Portable brine evaporator unit, process, and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hart, Paul John; Miller, Bruce G.; Wincek, Ronald T.; Decker, Glenn E.; Johnson, David K.

    2009-04-07

    The present invention discloses a comprehensive, efficient, and cost effective portable evaporator unit, method, and system for the treatment of brine. The evaporator unit, method, and system require a pretreatment process that removes heavy metals, crude oil, and other contaminates in preparation for the evaporator unit. The pretreatment and the evaporator unit, method, and system process metals and brine at the site where they are generated (the well site). Thus, saving significant money to producers who can avoid present and future increases in transportation costs.

  6. Disposal/recovery options for brine waters from oil and gas production in New York State. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsumoto, M.R.; Atkinson, J.F.; Bunn, M.D.; Hodge, D.S.

    1996-03-01

    Produced water from oil and gas operations, or brine as it is typically referred, may be characterized as being highly saline, with total dissolved solids greater than 100 g/L. If these bribes are disposed improperly there may be severe adverse environmental effects. Thus, it is important that brine be disposed using environmentally sound methods. Unfortunately, costs for the disposal of brine water are a significant burden to oil and gas producers in New York State. These costs and the relatively low market price of oil and natural gas have contributed to the decline in gas and oil production in New York State during the past 10 years. The objectives of this study were to evaluate new and existing options for brine disposal in New York State, examine the technical and economic merits of these options, and assess environmental impacts associated with each option. Two new disposal options investigated for New York State oil and gas producers included construction of a regional brine treatment facility to treat brine prior to discharge into a receiving water and a salt production facility that utilizes produced water as a feed stock. Both options are technically feasible; however, their economic viability depends on facility size and volume of brine treated.

  7. The implications of UIC and NPDES regulations on selection of disposal options for spent geothermal brine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1982-07-01

    This document reviews and evaluates the various options for the disposal of geothermal wastewater with respect to the promulgated regulations for the protection of surface and groundwaters. The Clean Water Act of 1977 and the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments are especially important when designing disposal systems for geothermal fluids. The former promulgates regulations concerning the discharge of wastewater into surface waters, while the latter is concerned with the protection of ground water aquifers through the establishment of underground injection control (UIC) programs. There is a specific category for geothermal fluid discharge if injection is to be used as a method of disposal. Prior to February 1982, the UIC regulations required geothermal power plant to use Class III wells and direct use plants to use Class V wells. More stringent regulatory requirements, including construction specification and monitoring, are imposed on the Class III wells. On February 3, 1982, the classification of geothermal injection wells was changed from a Class III to Class V on the basis that geothermal wells do not inject for the extraction of minerals or energy, but rather they are used to inject brines, from which heat has been extracted, into formations from which they were originally taken. This reclassification implies that a substantial cost reduction will be realized for geothermal fluid injection primarily because well monitoring is no longer mandatory. The Clean Water Act of 1977 provides the legal basis for regulating the discharge of liquid effluent into the nation's surface waters, through a permitting system called the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge quantities, rates, concentrations and temperatures are regulated by the NPDES permits. These permits systems are based upon effluent guidelines developed by EPA on an industry by industry basis. For geothermal energy industry, effluent guidelines have not been formulated and are not

  8. Transportation, Aging and Disposal Canister System Performance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transportation, Aging and Disposal Canister System Performance Specification: Revision 1 Transportation, Aging and Disposal Canister System Performance Specification: Revision 1 ...

  9. Application of Generic Disposal System Models

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Two of the high priorities for UFDC disposal R&D are design concept development and disposal system modeling; these are directly addressed in the Generic Disposal Systems Analysis (GDSA) work. ...

  10. Transportation, Aging and Disposal Canister System Performance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Specification: Revision 1 | Department of Energy Transportation, Aging and Disposal Canister System Performance Specification: Revision 1 Transportation, Aging and Disposal Canister System Performance Specification: Revision 1 This document provides specifications for selected system components of the Transportation, Aging and Disposal (TAD) canister-based system. Transportation, Aging and Disposal Canister System Performance Specification: Revision 1 (6.49 MB) More Documents &

  11. Disposable telemetry cable deployment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcomb, David Joseph

    2000-01-01

    A disposable telemetry cable deployment system for facilitating information retrieval while drilling a well includes a cable spool adapted for insertion into a drill string and an unarmored fiber optic cable spooled onto the spool cable and having a downhole end and a stinger end. Connected to the cable spool is a rigid stinger which extends through a kelly of the drilling apparatus. A data transmission device for transmitting data to a data acquisition system is disposed either within or on the upper end of the rigid stinger.

  12. Simulation and economic evaluation of a solar evaporation system for concentrating sodium chloride brines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.K.; Newell, T.A. )

    1991-01-01

    An hourly simulation program has been developed for detailed modelin of an evaporation surface (ES) and an evaporation pond (EP) for reconcentration of a solar pond's (SP's) surface brine. The results are relavant to other systems in which it is desirable to concentrate a brine. The simulation results are used in three ways: first, for general comparison of brine reconcentration performance for a variety of locations; second, development of an ES design method based on long term monthly averaged weather data; and third, an economic comparison between ESs and EPs. The results show that regions with moderate to high precipitation favor ESs over EPs. Dry climates will generally favor EPs for brine reconcentration.

  13. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume III. Biological oceanography. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J.

    1983-02-01

    The Department of Energy's Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program began discharging brine into the Gulf of Mexico from its West Hackberry site near Cameron, Louisiana in May 1981. The brine originates from underground salt domes being leached with water from the Intracoastal Waterway, making available vast underground storage caverns for crude oil. The effects of brine discharge on aquatic organisms are presented in this volume. The topics covered are: benthos; nekton; phytoplankton; zooplankton; and data management.

  14. Evaluation of brine disposal from the Bryan Mound site of the strategic petroleum reserve program. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Case, Robert J.; Chittenden, Jr, Mark E.; Harper, Jr, Donald E.; Kelly, Jr, Francis J.; Loeblich, Laurel A.; McKinney, Larry D.; Minello, Thomas J.; Park, E. Taisoo; Randall, Robert E.; Slowey, J. Frank

    1981-01-01

    On March 10, 1980, the Department of Energy's Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program began leaching the Bryan Mound salt dome and discharging the resulting brine into the coastal waters off Freeport, Texas. During the months of March and April, a team of scientists and engineers from Texas A and M University conducted an intensive environmental study of the area surrounding the diffuser site. A pipeline has been laid from the Bryan Mound site to a location 12.5 statute miles (20 km) offshore. The last 3060 ft (933 m) of this pipeline is a 52-port diffuser through which brine can be discharged at a maximum rate of 680,000 barrels per day. Initially, 16 ports were open which permitted a maximum discharge rate of 350,000 barrels per day and a continuous brine discharge was achieved on March 13, 1980. The purpose of this report is to describe the findings of the project team during the intensive postdisposal study period of March and April, 1980. The major areas of investigation are physical oceanography, analysis of the discharge plume, water and sediment quality, nekton, benthos, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and data management.

  15. Evaluation of brine disposal from the Bryan Mound site of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hann, R.W. Jr.; Randall, R.E.

    1980-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the environmental conditions found by the principal investigators during the predisposal study conducted from September 1977 through February 1980 prior to the start of brine discharge in March 1980. The major areas of investigation are physical oceanography, analysis of the discharge plume, water and sediment quality, nekton, benthos, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and data management. Volume 1 describes the results of the predisposal study, and it is divided into eight chapters entitled: Physical Oceanography, Analysis of the Discharge Plume, Water and Sediment Quality, Nekton, Benthos, Zooplankton, Phytoplankton, and Data Management. Volume 2 consists of appendices which contain additional supporting data in the form of figures and tables.

  16. Generic Disposal System Modeling, Fiscal Year 2011 Progress Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The UFD Campaign is developing generic disposal system models (GDSM) of different disposal environments and waste form options. Currently, the GDSM team is investigating four main disposal environment options: mined repositories in three geologic media (salt, clay, and granite) and the deep borehole concept in crystalline rock (DOE 2010d). Further developed the individual generic disposal system (GDS) models for salt, granite, clay, and deep borehole disposal environments.

  17. Application of Generic Disposal System Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mariner, Paul; Hammond, Glenn Edward; Sevougian, S. David; Stein, Emily

    2015-11-01

    This report describes specific GDSA activities in fiscal year 2015 (FY2015) toward the development of the enhanced disposal system modeling and analysis capability for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The GDSA framework employs the PFLOTRAN thermal-hydrologic-chemical multi-physics code (Hammond et al., 2011) and the Dakota uncertainty sampling and propagation code (Adams et al., 2013). Each code is designed for massively-parallel processing in a high-performance computing (HPC) environment. Multi-physics representations in PFLOTRAN are used to simulate various coupled processes including heat flow, fluid flow, waste dissolution, radionuclide release, radionuclide decay and ingrowth, precipitation and dissolution of secondary phases, and radionuclide transport through the engineered barriers and natural geologic barriers to a well location in an overlying or underlying aquifer. Dakota is used to generate sets of representative realizations and to analyze parameter sensitivity.

  18. DISPOSAL CONTAINER HANDLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. F. Loros

    2000-06-30

    The Disposal Container Handling System receives and prepares new disposal containers (DCs) and transfers them to the Assembly Transfer System (ATS) or Canister Transfer System (CTS) for loading. The system receives the loaded DCs from ATS or CTS and welds the lids. When the welds are accepted the DCs are termed waste packages (WPs). The system may stage the WP for later transfer or transfer the WP directly to the Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System. The system can also transfer DCs/WPs to/from the Waste Package Remediation System. The Disposal Container Handling System begins with new DC preparation, which includes installing collars, tilting the DC upright, and outfitting the container for the specific fuel it is to receive. DCs and their lids are staged in the receipt area for transfer to the needed location. When called for, a DC is put on a cart and sent through an airlock into a hot cell. From this point on, all processes are done remotely. The DC transfer operation moves the DC to the ATS or CTS for loading and then receives the DC for welding. The DC welding operation receives loaded DCs directly from the waste handling lines or from interim lag storage for welding of the lids. The welding operation includes mounting the DC on a turntable, removing lid seals, and installing and welding the inner and outer lids. After the weld process and non-destructive examination are successfully completed, the WP is either staged or transferred to a tilting station. At the tilting station, the WP is tilted horizontally onto a cart and the collars removed. The cart is taken through an air lock where the WP is lifted, surveyed, decontaminated if required, and then moved into the Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System. DCs that do not meet the welding non-destructive examination criteria are transferred to the Waste Package Remediation System for weld preparation or removal of the lids. The Disposal Container Handling System is contained within the Waste Handling Building System

  19. Disposal Systems Evaluations and Tool Development - Engineered...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    conditions, thermodynamic database development for cement and clay phases, ... and potential variants according to waste form and disposal environment characteristics. ...

  20. Enhancements to Generic Disposal System Modeling Capabilities Rev2

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Contributions are described for the development of an enhanced generic disposal system modeling and analysis capability that takes advantage of high-performance computing (HPC) environments to...

  1. Evaluation of materials for systems using cooled, treated geothermal or high-saline brines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suciu, D.F.; Wikoff, P.M.

    1982-09-01

    Lack of adequate quantities of clean surface water for use in wet (evaporative) cooling systems indicates the use of high-salinity waste waters, or cooled geothermal brines, for makeup purposes. High-chloride, aerated water represents an extremely corrosive environment. In order to determine metals suitable for use in such an environment, metal coupons were exposed to aerated, treated geothermal brine salted to a chloride concentration of 10,000 and 50,000 ppM (mg/L) for periods of up to 30 days. The exposed coupons were evaluated to determine the general, pitting, and crevice corrosion characteristics of the metals. The metals exhibiting corrosion resistance at 50,000 ppM chloride were then evaluated at 100,000 and 200,000 ppM chloride. Since these were screening tests to select materials for components to be used in a cooling system, with primary emphasis on condenser tubing, several materials were exposed for 4 to 10 months in pilot cooling tower test units with heat transfer for further corrosion evaluation. The results of the screening tests indicate that ferritic stainless steels (29-4-2 and SEA-CURE) exhibit excellent corrosion resistance at all levels of chloride concentration. Copper-nickel alloys (70/30 and Monel 400) exhibited excellent corrosion resistance in the high-saline water. The 70/30 copper-nickel alloy, which showed excellent resistance to general corrosion, exhibited mild pitting in the 30-day tests. This pitting was not apparent, however, after 6 months of exposure in the pilot cooling tower tests. The nickel-base alloys exhibited excellent corrosion resistance, but their high cost prevents their use unless no other material is found feasible. Other materials tested, although unsuitable for condenser tubing material, would be suitable as tube sheet material.

  2. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-10-12

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms (IPWF)) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as 'co-disposal'. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by which to identify the disposal container and its contents. Different materials

  3. Integration of EBS Models with Generic Disposal System Models

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This report summarizes research activities on engineered barrier system (EBS) model integration with the generic disposal system model (GDSM), and used fuel degradation and radionuclide mobilization (RM) in support of the EBS evaluation and tool development within the UFD campaign.

  4. ORS 454 - Sewage Treatment and Disposal Systems | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    54 - Sewage Treatment and Disposal Systems Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: ORS 454 - Sewage Treatment and...

  5. Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel disposal Container System Description Document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N. E. Pettit

    2001-07-13

    The Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers/waste packages are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred underground through the access drifts using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container System provides long term confinement of the naval spent nuclear fuel (SNF) placed within the disposal containers, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval operations. The Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time and limits radionuclide release thereafter. The waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum credible handling and rockfall loads, limits the waste form temperature after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Each naval SNF disposal container will hold a single naval SNF canister. There will be approximately 300 naval SNF canisters, composed of long and short canisters. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinder walls and lids. An exterior label will provide a means by which to identify a disposal container and its contents. Different materials will be selected for the waste package inner and outer cylinders. The two metal cylinders, in combination with the Emplacement Drift System, drip shield, and the natural barrier will support the design philosophy of defense-in-depth. The use of materials with different properties prevents a single mode failure from breaching the waste package. The inner cylinder and inner cylinder lids will be constructed of stainless steel while the outer cylinder and outer cylinder lids will be made of high-nickel alloy.

  6. Uncanistered Spent Nuclear fuel Disposal Container System Description Document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N. E. Pettit

    2001-07-13

    The Uncanistered Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded with intact uncanistered assemblies and/or individually canistered SNF assemblies and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the access drifts, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The Uncanistered SNF Disposal Container provides long-term confinement of the commercial SNF placed inside, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. The Uncanistered SNF Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual SNF assembly temperatures after emplacement, limits the introduction of moderator into the disposal container during the criticality control period, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident.

  7. Uncanistered Spent Nuclear fuel Disposal Container System Description Document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-10-12

    The Uncanistered Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded with intact uncanistered assemblies and/or individually canistered SNF assemblies and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the access drifts, and emplaced in the emplacement drifts. The Uncanistered SNF Disposal Container provides long-term confinement of the commercial SNF placed inside, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. The Uncanistered SNF Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual SNF assembly temperatures after emplacement, limits the introduction of moderator into the disposal container during the criticality control period, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Multiple boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) disposal container designs are needed to accommodate the expected range of spent fuel assemblies and provide long-term confinement of the commercial SNF. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinder walls, outer cylinder lids (two on the top, one on the bottom), inner cylinder lids (one on the top, one on the bottom), and an internal metallic basket structure. Exterior labels will provide a means by which to identify the disposal container and its contents. The two metal cylinders, in combination with the cladding, Emplacement Drift System, drip shield, and natural barrier, will support the design philosophy of defense-in-depth. The use of materials with different

  8. System for disposing of radioactive water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gotchy, Reginald L.

    1976-01-13

    A system for reducing radioactivity released to the biosphere in the course of producing natural gas from a reservoir stimulated by the detonation of nuclear explosives therein. Tritiated water produced with the gas is separated out and returned to a nuclear chimney through a string of tubing positioned within the well casing. The tubing string is positioned within the well casing in a manner which enhances separation of the water out of the gas and minimizes entrainment of water into the gas flowing out of the chimney.

  9. Improved Water Flooding through Injection Brine Modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, Eric Partridge; Thomas, Charles Phillip; Morrow, Norman

    2003-01-01

    Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of waterflooding, by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Laboratory waterflood tests show that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery. Numerous fields in the Powder River basin have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Although many uncertainties arise in the interpretation and comparison of field production data, injection of low salinity brine appears to give higher recovery compared to brine of moderate salinity (about 7,000 ppm). Laboratory studies of the effect of brine composition on oil recovery cover a wide range of rock types and crude oils. Oil recovery increases using low salinity brine as the injection water ranged from a low of no notable increase to as much as 37.0% depending on the system being studied. Recovery increases using low salinity brine after establishing residual oil saturation (tertiary mode) ranged from no significant increase to 6.0%. Tests with two sets of reservoir cores and crude oil indicated slight improvement in recovery for low salinity brine. Crude oil type and rock type (particularly the presence and distribution of kaolinite) both play a dominant role in the effect that brine composition has on waterflood oil recovery.

  10. Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Experiments were used to examine water content in Permian salt samples including impact of variation in thermal regime on water content of evaporites and other mineral species, behavior of brine inclusions in salt, and evolution of the gas/liquid brine/salt system.

  11. Viscous heavy brines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    House, R.F.; Hoover, L.D.

    1984-07-10

    Hydroxyethyl cellulose and a sequestrant are added to a heavy brine containing one or more salts selected from calcium chloride, calcium bromide, and zinc bromide to increase the viscosity of the brine. Preferably the brine contains zinc bromide, has a density in the range from about 14.2-19.2 pounds per gallon, and the sequestrant is a polyphosphonic acid or water soluble salt thereof.

  12. Advanced biochemical processes for geothermal brines FY 1998 annual operating plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    As part of the overall Geothermal Energy Research which is aimed at the development of economical geothermal resources production systems, the aim of the Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) effort is the development of economic and environmentally acceptable methods for disposal of geothermal wastes and conversion of by-products to useful forms. Methods are being developed for dissolution, separation and immobilization of geothermal wastes suitable for disposal, usable in inert construction materials, suitable for reinjection into the reservoir formation, or used for recovery of valuable metals.

  13. Brine flow in heated geologic salt.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

    2013-03-01

    This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes' governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

  14. Optical ordance system for use in explosive ordnance disposal activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merson, J.A.; Salas, F.J.; Helsel, F.M.

    1994-01-01

    A portable hand-held solid state rod laser system and an optically-ignited detonator have been developed for use in explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) activities. Laser prototypes from Whittaker Ordnance and Universal Propulsion have been tested and evaluated. The optical detonator contains 2-(5 cyanotetrazolato) pentaamine cobalt III perchlorate (CP) as the DDT column and the explosive Octahydro 1, 3, 5, 7 -- tetranitro -- 1, 3, 5, 7 -- tetrazocine (HMX) as the output charge. The laser is designed to have an output of 150 mJ in a 500 microsecond pulse. This output allows firing through 2000 meters of optical fiber. The detonator can also be ignited with a portable laser diode source through a shorter length of fiber.

  15. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Guoxiang; Spycher, Nicolas; Sonnenthal, Eric; Steefel, Carl

    2009-11-16

    This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150 C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual and modeled distillation experiments do not represent

  16. Evaluation of experimentally measured and model-calculated pH for rock-brine-CO2 systems under geologic CO2 sequestration conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Hongbo; Thompson, Christopher J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2013-11-14

    pH is an essential parameter for understanding the geochemical reactions that occur in rock-brine-CO2 systems when CO2 is injected into deep geologic formations for long-term storage. Due to a lack of reliable experimental methods, most laboratory studies conducted under geological CO2 sequestration (GCS) conditions have relied on thermodynamic modeling to estimate pH. The accuracy of these model predictions is typically uncertain. In our previous work, we have developed a method for pH determination by in-situ spectrophotometry. In the present work, we expanded the applicable pH range for this method and measured the pH of several rock-brine-CO2 systems at GCS conditions for five rock samples collected from ongoing GCS demonstration projects. Experimental measurements were compared with pH values calculated using several geochemical modeling approaches. The effect of different thermodynamic databases on the accuracy of model prediction was evaluated. Results indicate that the accuracy of model calculations is rock-dependent. For rocks comprised of carbonate and sandstone, model results generally agreed well with experimentally measured pH; however, for basalt, significant differences were observed. These discrepancies may be due to the models’ failure to fully account for certain reaction occurring between the basalt minerals the CO2-saturated brine solutions.

  17. Disposal Systems Evaluations and Tool Development - Engineered Barrier System Evaluation (Work Package LL1015080425)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blink, J A; Buscheck, T A; Halsey, W G; Wolery, T

    2010-03-19

    The Disposal Systems Evaluation Framework (DSEF) will use a logical process for developing one or more disposal system concepts (also referred to as repository system in this report) for any given waste form and geologic setting combination. In the Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) group of work packages, there are seven categories of waste forms and eight categories of geologic setting being studied. The DSEF will also establish a Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) knowledge management system to organize high-level information, data, and assumptions, thereby facilitating consistency in high-level system simulation and economic analyses. This system likely will be housed with the INL-based documentation system. Attention is given to lessons oearned from the systems used at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). Where reference material from other programs (e.g., international) is used or cited, the knowledge-management system imports the reference material directly or refer to it in bibliography form. Alternative data sets (e.g., from other programs) will also be utilized to evaluate their influence on DSEF analyses for given waste form and disposal-system combinations. The knowledge-management system can also be used to maintain the results of DSEF realizations, enabling the comparison and ranking of various waste-form/disposal-system-environment/disposal-system-design options. Finally, the UFDC knowledge-management system will be able to provide a compendium of 'templates' that can be utilized, in a labor-efficient fashion, to build parallel DSEF analyses (e.g., 'one offs'). The DSEF will not be a stand-alone, push-the-button and wait for the results, item of software. it will use osftware (probably EXCEL, initially), to guide the team members through a logical process of evaluating combinations of waste-form, disposal-syste-environment, and disposal-system design. In later stages, it will utilize software developed

  18. Disposal Systems Evaluations and Tool Development- Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Evaluation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The engineered barrier system (EBS) plays a key role in the long-term isolation of nuclear waste in geological repository environments. This report focuses on the progress made in the evaluation of EBS design concepts, assessment of clay phase stability at repository-relevant conditions, thermodynamic database development for cement and clay phases, and THMC coupled phenomena along with the development of tools and methods to examine these processes; it also documents the advancements of the Disposal System Evaluation Framework (DSEF) for the development of repository design concepts and potential variants according to waste form and disposal environment characteristics.

  19. Thickened heavy brines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    House, R.F.; Hoover, L.D.

    1983-12-13

    A thickened brine solution useful as a well servicing fluid is prepared, said solution consisting essentially of water, at least 20% by weight zinc bromide, calcium bromide, and a viscosifying amount of hydroxyethyl cellulose.

  20. Disposal systems evaluations and tool development : Engineered Barrier System (EBS) evaluation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Liu, Hui-Hai; Steefel, Carl I.; Serrano de Caro, M. A.; Caporuscio, Florie Andre; Birkholzer, Jens T.; Blink, James A.; Sutton, Mark A.; Xu, Hongwu; Buscheck, Thomas A.; Levy, Schon S.; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Sonnenthal, Eric; Halsey, William G.; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Wolery, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Key components of the nuclear fuel cycle are short-term storage and long-term disposal of nuclear waste. The latter encompasses the immobilization of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and radioactive waste streams generated by various phases of the nuclear fuel cycle, and the safe and permanent disposition of these waste forms in geological repository environments. The engineered barrier system (EBS) plays a very important role in the long-term isolation of nuclear waste in geological repository environments. EBS concepts and their interactions with the natural barrier are inherently important to the long-term performance assessment of the safety case where nuclear waste disposition needs to be evaluated for time periods of up to one million years. Making the safety case needed in the decision-making process for the recommendation and the eventual embracement of a disposal system concept requires a multi-faceted integration of knowledge and evidence-gathering to demonstrate the required confidence level in a deep geological disposal site and to evaluate long-term repository performance. The focus of this report is the following: (1) Evaluation of EBS in long-term disposal systems in deep geologic environments with emphasis on the multi-barrier concept; (2) Evaluation of key parameters in the characterization of EBS performance; (3) Identification of key knowledge gaps and uncertainties; and (4) Evaluation of tools and modeling approaches for EBS processes and performance. The above topics will be evaluated through the analysis of the following: (1) Overview of EBS concepts for various NW disposal systems; (2) Natural and man-made analogs, room chemistry, hydrochemistry of deep subsurface environments, and EBS material stability in near-field environments; (3) Reactive Transport and Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) processes in EBS; and (4) Thermal analysis toolkit, metallic barrier degradation mode survey, and development of a Disposal Systems

  1. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume V. Supporting data for estuarine hydrology, discharge plume analysis, chemical oceanography, biological oceanography, and data management. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J.

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Volume V contains appendices for the following: supporting data for estuarine hydrology and hydrography; supporting data analysis of discharge plume; supporting data for water and sediment chemistry; CTD/DO and pH profiles during biological monitoring; supporting data for nekton; and supporting data for data management.

  2. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission waste feed delivery plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, R.D.

    1998-01-08

    This document is a plan presenting the objectives, organization, and management and technical approaches for the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) Program. This WFD Plan focuses on the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project`s Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission.

  3. Wetting behavior of selected crude oil/brine/rock systems. Topical report, March 1, 1995--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, X.; Morrow, N.R.; Ma, S.

    1996-12-31

    Previous studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) and related ensembles showed that wettability and its effect on oil recovery depend on numerous complex interactions. In the present work, the wettability of COBR ensembles prepared using Prudhoe Bay crude oil, a synthetic formation brine, and Berea Sandstone was varied by systematic change in initial water saturation and length of aging time at reservoir temperature (88 C). All displacement tests were run at ambient temperature. Various degrees of water wetness were achieved and quantified by a modified Amott wettability index to water, the relative pseudo work of imbibition, and a newly defined apparent advancing dynamic contact angle. Pairs of spontaneous imbibition (oil recovery by spontaneous imbibition of water) and waterflood (oil recovery vs. pore volumes of water injected) curves were measured for each of the induced wetting states. Several trends were observed. Imbibition rate, and hence water wetness, decreased with increase in aging time and with decrease in initial water saturation. Breakthrough recoveries and final oil recovery by waterflooding increased with decrease in water wetness. Correlations between water wetness and oil recovery by waterflooding and spontaneous imbibition are presented.

  4. Performance Assessment Modeling and Sensitivity Analyses of Generic Disposal System Concepts.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sevougian, S. David; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Gardner, William Payton; Hammond, Glenn Edward; Mariner, Paul

    2014-09-01

    directly, rather than through simplified abstractions. It also a llows for complex representations of the source term, e.g., the explicit representation of many individual waste packages (i.e., meter - scale detail of an entire waste emplacement drift). This report fulfills the Generic Disposal System Analysis Work Packa ge Level 3 Milestone - Performance Assessment Modeling and Sensitivity Analyses of Generic Disposal System Concepts (M 3 FT - 1 4 SN08080 3 2 ).

  5. Brine stability study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Garland

    2015-04-15

    This is a study of the brine formulations that we were using in our testing were stable over time. The data includes charts, as well as, all of the original data from the ICP-MS runs to complete this study.

  6. System-Level Logistics for Dual Purpose Canister Disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalinina, Elena A.

    2014-06-03

    The analysis presented in this report investigated how the direct disposal of dual purpose canisters (DPCs) may be affected by the use of standard transportation aging and disposal canisters (STADs), early or late start of the repository, and the repository emplacement thermal power limits. The impacts were evaluated with regard to the availability of the DPCs for emplacement, achievable repository acceptance rates, additional storage required at an interim storage facility (ISF) and additional emplacement time compared to the corresponding repackaging scenarios, and fuel age at emplacement. The result of this analysis demonstrated that the biggest difference in the availability of UNF for emplacement between the DPC-only loading scenario and the DPCs and STADs loading scenario is for a repository start date of 2036 with a 6 kW thermal power limit. The differences are also seen in the availability of UNF for emplacement between the DPC-only loading scenario and the DPCs and STADs loading scenario for the alternative with a 6 kW thermal limit and a 2048 start date, and for the alternatives with a 10 kW thermal limit and 2036 and 2048 start dates. The alternatives with disposal of UNF in both DPCs and STADs did not require additional storage, regardless of the repository acceptance rate, as compared to the reference repackaging case. In comparison to the reference repackaging case, alternatives with the 18 kW emplacement thermal limit required little to no additional emplacement time, regardless of the repository start time, the fuel loading scenario, or the repository acceptance rate. Alternatives with the 10 kW emplacement thermal limit and the DPCs and STADs fuel loading scenario required some additional emplacement time. The most significant decrease in additional emplacement time occurred in the alternative with the 6 kW thermal limit and the 2036 repository starting date. The average fuel age at emplacement ranges from 46 to 88 years. The maximum fuel age at

  7. Disposal Systems Evaluations and Tool Development - Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Evaluation

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Disposal Systems Evaluations and Tool Development - Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Evaluation (FCRD-USED-2011-000132) Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy Used Fuel Disposition Campaign Carlos F. Jové Colón (SNL) Florie A. Caporuscio, Schön S. Levy (LANL) Mark Sutton, James A. Blink, Harris R. Greenberg, Massimiliano Fratoni, William G. Halsey, Thomas J. Wolery (LLNL) Jonny Rutqvist, Carl I. Steefel, Juan Galindez, Jens Birkholzer, Hui-Hai Liu, (LBNL) June 15 th , 2011 SAND2011-4335 P

  8. Optimization of Deep Borehole Systems for HLW Disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Driscoll, Michael; Baglietto, Emilio; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Lester, Richard; Brady, Patrick; Arnold, B. W.

    2015-09-09

    This is the final report on a project to update and improve the conceptual design of deep boreholes for high level nuclear waste disposal. The effort was concentrated on application to intact US legacy LWR fuel assemblies, but conducted in a way in which straightforward extension to other waste forms, host rock types and countries was preserved. The reference fuel design version consists of a vertical borehole drilled into granitic bedrock, with the uppermost kilometer serving as a caprock zone containing a diverse and redundant series of plugs. There follows a one to two kilometer waste canister emplacement zone having a hole diameter of approximately 40-50 cm. Individual holes are spaced 200-300 m apart to form a repository field. The choice of verticality and the use of a graphite based mud as filler between the waste canisters and the borehole wall liner was strongly influenced by the expectation that retrievability would continue to be emphasized in US and worldwide repository regulatory criteria. An advanced version was scoped out using zinc alloy cast in place to fill void space inside a disposal canister and its encapsulated fuel assembly. This excludes water and greatly improves both crush resistance and thermal conductivity. However the simpler option of using a sand fill was found adequate and is recommended for near-term use. Thermal-hydraulic modeling of the low permeability and porosity host rock and its small (≤ 1%) saline water content showed that vertical convection induced by the waste’s decay heat should not transport nuclides from the emplacement zone up to the biosphere atop the caprock. First order economic analysis indicated that borehole repositories should be cost-competitive with shallower mined repositories. It is concluded that proceeding with plans to drill a demonstration borehole to confirm expectations, and to carry out priority experiments, such as retention and replenishment of in-hole water is in order.

  9. Impacts of a high-burnup spent fuel on a geological disposal system design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, D.K.; Lee, Y.; Lee, J.Y.; Choi, H.J.; Choi, J.W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon-city (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The influence of a burnup increase of a spent nuclear fuel on a deep geological disposal system was evaluated in this study. First, the impact of a burnup increase on each aspect related to thermal and nuclear safety concerns was quantified. And then, the tunnel length, excavation volume, and the raw materials for a cast insert, copper, bentonite, and backfill needed to constitute a disposal system were comprehensively analyzed based on the spent fuel inventory to generate 1 Terawatt-year (TWa), to establish the overall effects and consequences on a geological disposal. As a result, impact of a burnup increase on the criticality safety and radiation shielding was shown to be negligible. The disposal area, however, is considerably affected because of a higher thermal load. And, it is reasonable to use a canister such as the Korean Reference Disposal Canister (KDC-1) containing 4 spent fuels up to 50 GWD/MtU, and to use a canister containing 3 spent fuels beyond 50 GWD/MtU. Although a considerable increased, 33 % in the tunnel length and 30 % in the excavation volume, was observed as the burnup increases from 50 to 60 GWD/MtU, because a decrease in the canister needs can offset an increase in the excavation volume, it can be concluded that a burnup increase of a spent fuel is not a critical concern for a geological disposal of a spent fuel. (authors)

  10. Study of the isolation system for geologic disposal of radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This study was conducted for the US Department of Energy by a Waste Isolation System Panel of the Board on Radioactive Waste Management under the National Research Council's Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources. The panel was charged to review the alternative technologies available for the isolation of radioactive waste in mined geologic repositories, evaluate the need for and possible performance benefits from these technologies as potential elements of the isolation system, and identify appropriate technical criteria for choosing among them to achieve satisfactory overall performance of a geologic repository. Information has been acquired through examination of a large body of technical literature, briefings by representatives of government agencies and their industrial and university contractors, in-depth discussions with individual experts in the field, site visits, and calculations by panel members and staff, with deliberations extending over a period of approximately two years. The panel's principal findings are given. Chapters are devoted to: the geologic waste-disposal system; waste characteristics; waste package; conceptual design of repositories; geologic hydrologic, and geochemical properties of geologic waste-disposal systems; overall performance criterion for geologic waste disposal; performance analysis of the geologic waste-disposal system; and natural analogs relevant to geologic disposal. 336 references.

  11. The deep hydrogeologic flow system underlying the Oak Ridge Reservation -- Assessing the potential for active groundwater flow and origin of the brine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nativ, R.; Halleran, A.; Hunley, A.

    1997-08-01

    The deep hydrogeologic system underlying the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) contains contaminants such as radionuclides, heavy metals, nitrates, and organic compounds. The groundwater in the deep system is saline and has been considered to be stagnant in previous studies. This study was designed to address the following questions: is groundwater in the deep system stagnant; is contaminant migration controlled by diffusion only or is advection a viable mechanism; where are the potential outlet points? On the basis of existing and newly collected data, the nature of saline groundwater flow and potential discharge into shallow, freshwater systems was assessed. Data used for this purpose included (1) spatial and temporal pressures and hydraulic heads measured in the deep system, (2) hydraulic parameters of the formations in question, (3) spatial and temporal temperature variations at depth, and (4) spatial and temporal chemical and isotopic composition of the saline groundwater. The observations suggest that the saline water contained at depth is old but not isolated (in terms of recharge and discharge) from the overlying active, freshwater-bearing units. Influx of recent water does occur. Groundwater volumes involved in this flow are likely to be small. The origin of the saline groundwater was assessed by using existing and newly acquired chemical and isotopic data. The proposed model that best fits the data is modification of residual brine from which halite has been precipitated. Other models, such as ultrafiltration and halite dissolution, were also evaluated.

  12. Explosive destruction system for disposal of chemical munitions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tschritter, Kenneth L.; Haroldsen, Brent L.; Shepodd, Timothy J.; Stofleth, Jerome H.; DiBerardo, Raymond A.

    2005-04-19

    An explosive destruction system and method for safely destroying explosively configured chemical munitions. The system comprises a sealable, gas-tight explosive containment vessel, a fragment suppression system positioned in said vessel, and shaped charge means for accessing the interior of the munition when the munition is placed within the vessel and fragment suppression system. Also provided is a means for treatment and neutralization of the munition's chemical fills, and means for heating and agitating the contents of the vessel. The system is portable, rapidly deployable and provides the capability of explosively destroying and detoxifying chemical munitions within a gas-tight enclosure so that there is no venting of toxic or hazardous chemicals during detonation.

  13. Tank Waste Remediation System retrieval and disposal mission technical baseline summary description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLaughlin, T.J.

    1998-01-06

    This document is prepared in order to support the US Department of Energy`s evaluation of readiness-to-proceed for the Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission at the Hanford Site. The Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission is one of three primary missions under the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project. The other two include programs to characterize tank waste and to provide for safe storage of the waste while it awaits treatment and disposal. The Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission includes the programs necessary to support tank waste retrieval, wastefeed, delivery, storage and disposal of immobilized waste, and closure of tank farms. This mission will enable the tank farms to be closed and turned over for final remediation. The Technical Baseline is defined as the set of science and engineering, equipment, facilities, materials, qualified staff, and enabling documentation needed to start up and complete the mission objectives. The primary purposes of this document are (1) to identify the important technical information and factors that should be used by contributors to the mission and (2) to serve as a basis for configuration management of the technical information and factors.

  14. Technique for thermodynamic crystallization temperature of brine fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, D.E.; Hubbard, J.T.

    1983-03-01

    The application of high density solids free brine fluids has proven to be technically and economically successful in hydrocarbon completion and workover operations. The use of inorganic salts such as calcium chloride, calcium bromide, zinc bromide, and sodium bromide has contributed to the development of complex salt systems. As the density and complexity of these systems becomes more detailed, the requirement for proper fluid design becomes increasingly important. When a brine solution is cooled sufficiently, a temperature is reached where the solution will be saturated. A further decrease in temperature will result in the precipitation of salt from the solution. The temperature at which this transpires, provided no super-cooling occurs, is the crystallization point of the solution. A correctly formulated solids free brine should have the optimum crystallization point for the temperature conditions it will encounter. A recently developed semiautomatic procedure constructs a cooling curve plot of each brine tested. This cooling curve plot allows the determination of the super-cooling potential, the Thermodynamic Crystallization Temperature, and the Last Crystal To Dissolve Temperature. The device provides a permanent record of the cooling curve with repeatable accuracy, which assists in the development of error free brine formulation tables, brine density, and/or crystallization point adjustments, and brine analysis.

  15. Systems Engineering Plan and project record Configuration Management Plan for the Mixed Waste Disposal Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, W.E.; Oakley, L.B.

    1993-04-01

    This document summarizes the systems engineering assessment that was performed for the Mixed Waste Disposal Initiative (MWDI) Project to determine what types of documentation are required for the success of the project. The report also identifies the documents that will make up the MWDI Project Record and describes the Configuration Management Plan describes the responsibilities and process for making changes to project documentation.

  16. Formate brines -- New fluids for drilling and completions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey, M.S.; Shipp, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The term ``formate brines`` refers broadly to three primary compounds dissolved in water -- sodium formate (NaCOOH), potassium formate (KCOOH) and cesium formate (CsCOOH). Each is chemically classified as an alkali-metal salt of formic acid. They offer properties that in many respects are superior to their predecessors, halide brines such as zinc bromide and calcium bromide, without the undesirable side effects of those more common halide brine systems. This article introduces the technology and provides an overview of published work to date regarding formates.

  17. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission phase 1 financial analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wells, M.W.

    1998-01-09

    The purpose of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Retrieval and Disposal Mission Phase 1 Financial Analysis is to provide a quantitative and qualitative cost and schedule risk analysis of HNF-1946, Tank Waste Remediation System Retrieval and Disposal Mission Initial Updated Baseline (Swita et al. 1998). The Updated Baseline (Section 3.0) is compared to the current TWRS Project Multi-Year Work Plan (MYWP) for fiscal year (FY) 1998 and target budgets for FY 1999 through FY 2011 (Section 4.1). The analysis then evaluates the executability of HNF-1946 (Sections 4.2 through 4.5) and recommends a path forward for risk mitigation (Sections 4.6, 4.7, and 5.0). A sound systems engineering approach was applied to understand and analyze the Phase 1B Retrieval and Disposal mission. Program and Level 1 Logics were decomposed to Level 8 of the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) where logic was detailed, scope was defined, detail durations and estimates prepared, and resource loaded schedules developed. Technical Basis Review (TBR) packages were prepared which include this information and, in addition, defined the enabling assumptions for each task, and the risks associated with performance. This process is discussed in Section 2.1. Detailed reviews at the subactivity within the Level 1 Logic TBR levels were conducted to provide the recommended solution to the Phase 1B Retrieval and Disposal Mission. Independent cost analysis and risk assessments were performed by members of the Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) Business Management and Chief Financial Officer organization along with specialists in risk analysis from TRW, Inc. and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems. The process evaluated technical, schedule, and cost risk by category (program specific fixed and variable, integrated program, and programmatic) based on risk certainly from high probability well defined to very low probability that is not bounded or priceable as discussed in Section 2.2. The results have been

  18. Evaluation of exposure pathways to man from disposal of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Aaberg, R.L.; Rhoads, K.C.; Hill, R.L.; Martin, J.B.

    1992-05-01

    In accordance with 10 CFR 20, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates licensees` discharges of small quantities of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. This generic study was initiated to examine the potential radiological hazard to the public resulting from exposure to radionuclides in sewage sludge during its treatment and disposal. Eleven scenarios were developed to characterize potential exposures to radioactive materials during sewer system operations and sewage sludge treatment and disposal activities and during the extended time frame following sewage sludge disposal. Two sets of deterministic dose calculations were performed; one to evaluate potential doses based on the radionuclides and quantities associated with documented case histories of sewer system contamination and a second, somewhat more conservative set, based on theoretical discharges at the maximum allowable levels for a more comprehensive list of 63 radionuclides. The results of the stochastic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were also used to develop a collective dose estimate. The collective doses for the various radionuclides and scenarios range from 0.4 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 5 (sludge incinerator effluent) to 420 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 3 (sewage treatment plant liquid effluent). None of the 22 scenario/radionuclide combinations considered have collective doses greater than 1000 person-rem/yr. However, the total collective dose from these 22 combinations was found to be about 2100 person-rem.

  19. Navy explosive ordnance disposal project: Optical ordnance system development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merson, J.A.; Salas, F.J.; Helsel, F.M.

    1996-03-01

    An optical ordnance firing system consisting of a portable hand held solid state rod laser and an optically ignited detonator has been developed for use in explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) activities. Solid state rod laser systems designed to have an output of 150 mJ in a 500 microsecond pulse have been produced and evaluated. A laser ignited detonator containing no primary explosives has been designed and fabricated. The detonator has the same functional output as an electrically fired blasting cap. The optical ordnance firing system has demonstrated the ability to reliably detonate Comp C-4 through 1000 meters of optical fiber.

  20. Disposable rabbit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Leroy C.; Trammell, David R.

    1986-01-01

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  1. Disposal rabbit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, L.C.; Trammell, D.R.

    1983-10-12

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  2. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission key enabling assumptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldwin, J.H.

    1998-01-09

    An overall systems approach has been applied to develop action plans to support the retrieval and immobilization waste disposal mission. The review concluded that the systems and infrastructure required to support the mission are known. Required systems are either in place or plans have been developed. An analysis of the programmatic, management and technical activities necessary to declare Readiness to Proceed with execution of the mission demonstrates that the system, people, and hardware will be on line and ready to support the private contractors. The systems approach included defining the retrieval and immobilized waste disposal mission requirements and evaluating the readiness of the TWRS contractor to supply waste feed to the private contractors in June 2002. The Phase 1 feed delivery requirements from the Private Contractor Request for Proposals were reviewed, transfer piping routes were mapped on it, existing systems were evaluated, and upgrade requirements were defined. Technical Basis Reviews were completed to define work scope in greater detail, cost estimates and associated year by year financial analyses were completed. Personnel training, qualifications, management systems and procedures were reviewed and shown to be in place and ready to support the Phase 1B mission. Key assumptions and risks that could negatively impact mission success were evaluated and appropriate mitigative actions plans were planned and scheduled.

  3. Influence of Nuclear Fuel Cycles on Uncertainty of Long Term Performance of Geologic Disposal Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Development and implementation of future advanced fuel cycles including those that recycle fuel materials, use advanced fuels different from current fuels, or partition and transmute actinide radionuclides, will impact the waste management system. The UFD Campaign can reasonably conclude that advanced fuel cycles, in combination with partitioning and transmutation, which remove actinides, will not materially alter the performance, the spread in dose results around the mean, the modeling effort to include significant features, events, and processes (FEPs) in the performance assessment, or the characterization of uncertainty associated with a geologic disposal system in the regulatory environment of the US.

  4. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission initial updated baseline summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swita, W.R.

    1998-01-09

    This document provides a summary of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Retrieval and Disposal Mission Initial Updated Baseline (scope, schedule, and cost), developed to demonstrate Readiness-to-Proceed (RTP) in support of the TWRS Phase 1B mission. This Updated Baseline is the proposed TWRS plan to execute and measure the mission work scope. This document and other supporting data demonstrate that the TWRS Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team is prepared to fully support Phase 1B by executing the following scope, schedule, and cost baseline activities: Deliver the specified initial low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) feed batches in a consistent, safe, and reliable manner to support private contractors` operations starting in June 2002; Deliver specified subsequent LAW and HLW feed batches during Phase 1B in a consistent, safe, and reliable manner; Provide for the interim storage of immobilized HLW (IHLW) products and the disposal of immobilized LAW (ILAW) products generated by the private contractors; Provide for disposal of byproduct wastes generated by the private contractors; and Provide the infrastructure to support construction and operations of the private contractors` facilities.

  5. Code System For Risk Assessment From Underground Radioactive Waste Disposal In the United Kingdom.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2000-04-18

    Version 00 The SYVAC D/2 program simulates the ground water mediated movement of radionuclides from underground facilities for the disposal of low and intermediate level wastes to the accessible environment, and provides an estimate of the subsequent radiological risk to man. The simulated timescales are usually within the range 1.0E+03 to 1.0E+07 years. SYVAC is capable of modelling both shallow disposal facilities (located in argillaceous media and overlaying an aquifer) and deep disposal facilities (inmore » a saturated environment). The software was developed for use within the UK Department of the Environment (DOE) Radioactive Waste Management Programme, as one tool in the DOE Assessment Methodology. The acronym SYVAC (System Variability Analysis Code for deep and shallow burial of radioactive waste) comes from the name of an assessment code originally obtained from the Atomic Energy of Canada (AECL) in 1982, which was found to be inappropriate for geological conditions in the UK. The development of the previous version, SYVAC A/C, was undertaken by the following private installations under UK Department of the Environment (DOE) contracts: Atkins Research & Development, Epsom, Surrey, England; Associated Nuclear Services, Epsom, Surrey, England; CAP Scientific, London, England; Electrowatt Engineering Services, Horsham, West Sussex, England; and Scicon Limited, Wavendon, Milton Kenes, England.« less

  6. Gas evolution from geopressured brines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, C.S.

    1980-06-01

    The process of gas evolution from geopressured brine is examined using as a basis the many past studies of gas evolution from liquids in porous media. A discussion of a number of speculations that have been made concerning gas evolution from geopressured brines is provided. According to one, rapid pressure reduction will cause methane gas to evolve as when one opens a champagne bottle. It has been further speculated that evolved methane gas would migrate up to form an easily producible cap. As a result of detailed analyses, it can be concluded that methane gas evolution from geopressured brines is far too small to ever form a connected gas saturation except very near to the producing well. Thus, no significant gas cap could ever form. Because of the very low solubility of methaned in brine, the process of methane gas evolution is not at all analogous to evolution of carbon dioxide from champagne. A number of other speculations and questions on gas evolution are analyzed, and procedures for completing wells and testing geopressured brine reservoirs are discussed, with the conclusion that presently used procedures will provide adequate data to enable a good evaluation of this resource.

  7. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission key enabling assumptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldwin, J.H.

    1998-01-05

    An overall systems approach has been applied to develop action plans to support the retrieval and immobilization waste disposal mission. The review concluded that the systems and infrastructure required to support the mission are known. Required systems are either in place or plans have been developed to ensure they exist when needed. The review showed that since October 1996 a robust system engineering approach to establishing integrated Technical Baselines, work breakdown structures, tank farm structure and configurations and work scope and costs has been established itself as part of the culture within TWRS. An analysis of the programmatic, management and technical activities necessary to declare readiness to proceed with execution of the mission demonstrates that the system, people and hardware will be on line and ready to support the private contractors. The systems approach included defining the retrieval and immobilized waste disposal mission requirements and evaluating the readiness of the TWRS contractor to supply waste feed to the private contractors in June 2OO2. The Phase 1 feed delivery requirements from the Private Contractor Request for Proposals were reviewed. Transfer piping routes were mapped out, existing systems were evaluated, and upgrade requirements were defined. Technical Basis Reviews were completed to define work scope in greater detail, cost estimates and associated year by year financial analyses were completed. TWRS personnel training, qualifications, management systems and procedures were reviewed and shown to be in place and ready to support the Phase 1B mission. Key assumptions and risks that could negatively impact mission success were evaluated and appropriate mitigative actions plans were planned and scheduled.

  8. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1991 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Martin, M.L.; Milligan, D.J.; Sobocinski, R.W.; Lipponer, P.P.J.; Belski, D.S.

    1993-09-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) during 1991. These BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. When excavations began at the WIPP in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. Brine studies began as part of the Site Validation Program and were formalized as a program in its own right in 1985. During nine years of observations (1982--1991), evidence has mounted that the amount of brine seeping into the WIPP excavations is limited, local, and only a small fraction of that required to produce hydrogen gas by corroding the metal in the waste drums and waste inventory. The data through 1990 is discussed in detail and summarized by Deal and others (1991). The data presented in this report describes progress made during the calendar year 1991 and focuses on four major areas: (1) quantification of the amount of brine seeping across vertical surfaces in the WIPP excavations (brine ``weeps); (2) monitoring of brine inflow, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled downward from the underground drifts (downholes), upward from the underground drifts (upholes), and from subhorizontal holes; (3) further characterization of brine geochemistry; and (4) preliminary quantification of the amount of brine that might be released by squeezing the underconsolidated clays present in the Salado Formation.

  9. State-of-the-art of liquid waste disposal for geothermal energy systems: 1979. Report PNL-2404

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Defferding, L.J.

    1980-06-01

    The state-of-the-art of geothermal liquid waste disposal is reviewed and surface and subsurface disposal methods are evaluated with respect to technical, economic, legal, and environmental factors. Three disposal techniques are currently in use at numerous geothermal sites around the world: direct discharge into surface waters; deep-well injection; and ponding for evaporation. The review shows that effluents are directly discharged into surface waters at Wairakei, New Zealand; Larderello, Italy; and Ahuachapan, El Salvador. Ponding for evaporation is employed at Cerro Prieto, Mexico. Deep-well injection is being practiced at Larderello; Ahuachapan; Otake and Hatchobaru, Japan; and at The Geysers in California. All sites except Ahuachapan (which is injecting only 30% of total plant flow) have reported difficulties with their systems. Disposal techniques used in related industries are also reviewed. The oil industry's efforts at disposal of large quantities of liquid effluents have been quite successful as long as the effluents have been treated prior to injection. This study has determined that seven liquid disposal methods - four surface and three subsurface - are viable options for use in the geothermal energy industry. However, additional research and development is needed to reduce the uncertainties and to minimize the adverse environmental impacts of disposal. (MHR)

  10. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission readiness-to-proceed guidance and requirements to deliverables crosswalk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, C.E.

    1998-01-09

    Before RL can authorize proceeding with Phase 1B, the PHMC team must demonstrate its readiness to retrieve and deliver the waste to the private contractors and to receive and dispose of the products and byproducts returned from the treatment. The PHMC team has organized their plans for providing these vitrification-support services into the Retrieval and Disposal Mission within the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program.

  11. Viscous heavy brine completion fluids. [Oil wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darlington, R.K.; Hunter, D.V.

    1982-01-01

    An activated hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) has been developed which will viscosify brines of any density up to 19.2 lb/gal containing calcium chloride, calcium bromide and/or zinc bromide. The use of activated hydroxyethyl cellulose allows preparation of viscosified brines at ambient emperature and without undissolved polymer solids. The time required to prepare a viscosified brine is greatly reduced. In addition, the rheology of brines viscosified with activated HEC can be accurately predicted allowing brines with equivalent solution rheology properties to be prepared batch after batch. 29 refs.

  12. Study of thermal-gradient-induced migration of brine inclusions in salt. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olander, D.R.

    1984-08-01

    Natural salt deposits, which are being considered for high-level waste disposal, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine (the all-liquid inclusions) migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms, which is undesirable. Therefore it is important to consider the migration of brine inclusions in salt under imposed temperature gradients to properly evaluate the performance of a future salt repository for nuclear wastes. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is nonlinear. At high axial loads, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, helium, air and argon were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large-ange grain boundaries was observed.

  13. Phosphorous adsorption and precipitation in a permeable reactive wall: Applications for wastewater disposal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, M.J.; Blowes, D.W. |; Placek, C.J. |

    1997-12-31

    A permeable reactive mixture has been developed using low cost, readily available materials that is capable of providing effective, long-term phosphorous treatment in areas impacted by on-land wastewater disposal. The reactive mixture creates a geochemical environment suitable for P-attenuation by both adsorption and precipitation reactions. Potential benefits include significant reductions in phosphorous loading to receiving groundwater and surface water systems, and the accumulation of P-mass in a finite and accessible volume of material. The mixture may be applied as a component within surface treatment systems or in subsurface applications such as horizontal or vertical permeable reactive walls. The mixture averaged > 90% treatment efficiency over 3.6 years of continuous-flow laboratory column experiments. The mixture was further evaluated at the pilot-scale to treat municipal wastewater, and the field-scale to treat a well-characterized septic system plume using an in situ funnel and gate system. Average PO{sub 4}-P concentrations in effluent exiting the reactive mixture range between 0 - 0.3 mg/L. Mineralogical analyses have isolated the phases responsible for phosphorous uptake, and discrete phosphate precipitates have been identified.

  14. The ecological relevance of transport in waste disposal systems in Western Europe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salhofer, Stefan Schneider, Felicitas; Obersteiner, Gudrun

    2007-07-01

    With the development of modern waste management systems in Western Europe, a remarkable increase in the distances for waste transportation has been observed. The question thus arises whether recycling with longer transport distances is ecologically advantageous or whether disposal without recycling is to be preferred. This situation was analysed using selected product and waste streams. This included refrigerators, paper, polyethylene films and expanded polystyrene. For each of these streams, a life cycle analysis was conducted with an emphasis on waste transport. The system boundaries were set in terms of the generation of waste to recycling or landfilling. The comparison included several scenarios with recycling and different transport distances. Landfilling was used as the reference scenario. The results obtained demonstrated how transport distances influence the ecological benefit of recycling. In the case of expanded polystyrene, the ecological boundaries are reached in practical situations, while with other materials these boundaries are far from being attained. In these cases, more complex and elaborate collection schemes, such as kerbside collection, which is economically convenient and shows the highest collection rates, can also be recommended.

  15. An Evaluation of Long-Term Performance of Liner Systems for Low-Level Waste Disposal Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arthur S. Rood; Annette L. Schafer; A. Jeffrey Sondrup

    2011-03-01

    Traditional liner systems consisting of a geosynthetic membrane underlying a waste disposal facility coupled with a leachate collection system have been proposed as a means of containing releases of low-level radioactive waste within the confines of the disposal facility and thereby eliminating migration of radionuclides into the vadose zone and groundwater. However, this type of hydraulic containment liner system is only effective as long as the leachate collection system remains functional or an overlying cover limits the total infiltration to the volumetric pore space of the disposal system. If either the leachate collection system fails, or the overlying cover becomes less effective during the 1,000s of years of facility lifetime, the liner may fill with water and release contaminated water in a preferential or focused manner. If the height of the liner extends above the waste, the waste will become submerged which could increase the release rate and concentration of the leachate. If the liner extends near land surface, there is the potential for contamination reaching land surface creating a direct exposure pathway. Alternative protective liner systems can be engineered that eliminate radionuclide releases to the vadose zone during operations and minimizing long term migration of radionuclides from the disposal facility into the vadose zone and aquifer. Non-traditional systems include waste containerization in steel or composite materials. This type of system would promote drainage of clean infiltrating water through the facility without contacting the waste. Other alternatives include geochemical barriers designed to transmit water while adsorbing radionuclides beneath the facility. Facility performance for a hypothetical disposal facility has been compared for the hydraulic and steel containerization liner alternatives. Results were compared in terms of meeting the DOE Order 435.1 low-level waste performance objective of 25 mrem/yr all-pathways dose during

  16. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines This study ...

  17. Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, and Clay Mineral...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, and Clay Mineral Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, and Clay ...

  18. Summary Results for Brine Migration Modeling Performed by LANL...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Results for Brine Migration Modeling Performed by LANL, LBNL and SNL for the Used Fuel Disposition Program Summary Results for Brine Migration Modeling Performed by LANL, LBNL and ...

  19. Raft River Geothermal Field Well Head Brine Sample

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tim Lanyk

    2015-12-18

    Raw data and data workup of assay for real-world brine sample. Brine sample was taken at the well head.

  20. Use of data obtained from core tests in the design and operation of spent brine injection wells in geopressured or geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorda, R.M.

    1980-03-01

    The effects of formation characteristics on injection well performance are reviewed. Use of data acquired from cores taken from injection horizons to predict injectivity is described. And methods for utilizing data from bench scale testing of brine and core samples to optimize injection well design are presented. Currently available methods and equipment provide data which enable the optimum design of injection wells through analysis of cores taken from injection zones. These methods also provide a means of identifying and correcting well injection problems. Methods described in this report are: bulk density measurement; porosity measurement; pore size distribution analysis; permeability measurement; formation grain size distribution analysis; core description (lithology) and composition; amount, type and distribution of clays and shales; connate water analysis; consolidatability of friable reservoir rocks; grain and pore characterization by scanning electron microscopy; grain and pore characterization by thin section analysis; permeability damage and enhancement tests; distribution of water-borne particles in porous media; and reservoir matrix acidizing effectiveness. The precise methods of obtaining this information are described, and their use in the engineering of injection wells is illustrated by examples, where applicable. (MHR)

  1. Some logistical considerations in designing a system of deep boreholes for disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, Genetha Anne; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter

    2012-09-01

    Deep boreholes could be a relatively inexpensive, safe, and rapidly deployable strategy for disposing Americas nuclear waste. To study this approach, Sandia invested in a three year LDRD project entitled %E2%80%9CRadionuclide Transport from Deep Boreholes.%E2%80%9D In the first two years, the borehole reference design and backfill analysis were completed and the supporting modeling of borehole temperature and fluid transport profiles were done. In the third year, some of the logistics of implementing a deep borehole waste disposal system were considered. This report describes what was learned in the third year of the study and draws some conclusions about the potential bottlenecks of system implementation.

  2. Progression of performance assessment modeling for the Yucca Mountain disposal system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Progression of performance assessment modeling for the Yucca Mountain disposal system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste Rob P. Rechard a,n , Michael L. Wilson b , S. David Sevougian c a Nuclear Waste Disposal Research & Analysis, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185-0747, USA b Systems Analysis/Operations Research, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1138, USA c Applied Systems Analysis & Research, Sandia National Laboratories,

  3. How temperature and pressure affect clear brines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubbard, J.T.

    1984-04-01

    The correct application of the expansivity and compressibility of brine fluids under the influence of temperature and pressure is needed to calculate the actual hydrostatic pressure in a well. Well operations can benefit by reducing unintentional overbalance, lessening fluid losses, and lowering recommended fluid densities, hence reducing fluid costs. Since the early 1970s, the effects of temperature and pressure on the density of clear brine fluids have been questioned. As early as 1973, studies were started to define density loss with increased temperature in zinc bromide brines. This article describes a continuing study, begun in 1978, which has characterized the expansivity and compressibility of single salt brine solutions, such as are used in workover and completion fluids.

  4. Property:BrineConstituents | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Chloride type brine, "The content of potassium and calcium are high, while that of lithium, boron and sulfate is very low", See table 1 of Izquierdo et al. (2006). + Chena...

  5. Hydrocarbon content of geopressured brines. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osif, T.L.

    1985-08-01

    Design Well data (bottomhole pressure minus wellhead pressure, GWR, and hydrocarbon composition) is presented as a function of producing conditions. These are examined in conjunction with the following models to attempt to deduce the reservoir brine saturation level: (1) reservoir contains gas dispersed in the pores and the gas saturation is greater than critical; (2) reservoir brine is gas-saturated; (3) bubble point below hydrostatic pressure; and (4) bubble point between hydrostatic pressure and reservoir pressure. 24 figs., 10 tabs. (ACR)

  6. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission readiness-to-proceed memorandum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boston, H.L.

    1998-01-07

    This memorandum provides a summary of PHMC [Project Hanford Management Contract] team work scope for the Phase 1 TWRS Retrieval and Disposal Mission, a declaration of readiness-to-proceed, a summary of the PHMC team readiness evaluation process, summary results of a structured independent appraisal and financial analysis including information associated with assumptions, risks, and recommendations and, a summary of program plans for the PHMC team`s component of the Phase 1 Mission.

  7. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission readiness-to-proceed memorandum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, K.N.

    1998-01-09

    This memorandum provides a summary of PHMC (Project Hanford Management Contract) team work scope for the Phase 1 TWRS Retrieval and Disposal Mission, a declaration of readiness-to proceed, a summary of the PHMC readiness evaluation process, summary results of a structured independent appraisal and financial analysis including information associated with assumptions, risks, and recommendations and, a summary of program plans for the PHMC team`s component of the Phase 1 Mission.

  8. Brine flow up a borehole caused by pressure perturbation from CO2 storage: Static and dynamic evaluations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkholzer, J.T.; Nicot, J.-P.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Zhou, Q.; Kraemer, S.; Bandilla, K.W.

    2011-05-01

    Industrial-scale storage of CO{sub 2} in saline sedimentary basins will cause zones of elevated pressure, larger than the CO{sub 2} plume itself. If permeable conduits (e.g., leaking wells) exist between the injection reservoir and overlying shallow aquifers, brine could be pushed upwards along these conduits and mix with groundwater resources. This paper discusses the potential for such brine leakage to occur in temperature- and salinity-stratified systems. Using static mass-balance calculations as well as dynamic well flow simulations, we evaluate the minimum reservoir pressure that would generate continuous migration of brine up a leaking wellbore into a freshwater aquifer. Since the brine invading the well is denser than the initial fluid in the wellbore, continuous flow only occurs if the pressure perturbation in the reservoir is large enough to overcome the increased fluid column weight after full invasion of brine into the well. If the threshold pressure is exceeded, brine flow rates are dependent on various hydraulic (and other) properties, in particular the effective permeability of the wellbore and the magnitude of pressure increase. If brine flow occurs outside of the well casing, e.g., in a permeable fracture zone between the well cement and the formation, the fluid/solute transfer between the migrating fluid and the surrounding rock units can strongly retard brine flow. At the same time, the threshold pressure for continuous flow to occur decreases compared to a case with no fluid/solute transfer.

  9. Systems engineering study: tank 241-C-103 organic skimming,storage, treatment and disposal options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klem, M.J.

    1996-10-23

    This report evaluates alternatives for pumping, storing, treating and disposing of the separable phase organic layer in Hanford Site Tank 241-C-103. The report provides safety and technology based preferences and recommendations. Two major options and several varations of these options were identified. The major options were: 1) transfer both the organic and pumpable aqueous layers to a double-shell tank as part of interim stabilization using existing salt well pumping equipment or 2) skim the organic to an above ground before interim stabilization of Tank 241-C-103. Other options to remove the organic were considered but rejected following preliminary evaluation.

  10. Recovery of energy from geothermal brine and other hot water sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wahl, III, Edward F.; Boucher, Frederic B.

    1981-01-01

    Process and system for recovery of energy from geothermal brines and other hot water sources, by direct contact heat exchange between the brine or hot water, and an immiscible working fluid, e.g. a hydrocarbon such as isobutane, in a heat exchange column, the brine or hot water therein flowing countercurrent to the flow of the working fluid. The column can be operated at subcritical, critical or above the critical pressure of the working fluid. Preferably, the column is provided with a plurality of sieve plates, and the heat exchange process and column, e.g. with respect to the design of such plates, number of plates employed, spacing between plates, area thereof, column diameter, and the like, are designed to achieve maximum throughput of brine or hot water and reduction in temperature differential at the respective stages or plates between the brine or hot water and the working fluid, and so minimize lost work and maximize efficiency, and minimize scale deposition from hot water containing fluid including salts, such as brine. Maximum throughput approximates minimum cost of electricity which can be produced by conversion of the recovered thermal energy to electrical energy.

  11. Vitrification of high level nuclear waste inside ambient temperature disposal containers using inductive heating: The SMILE system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, J.; Reich, M.; Barletta, R.

    1996-03-01

    A new approach, termed SMILE (Small Module Inductively Loaded Energy), for the vitrification of high level nuclear wastes (HLW) is described. Present vitrification systems liquefy the HLW solids and associated frit material in large high temperature melters. The molten mix is then poured into small ({approximately}1 m{sup 3}) disposal canisters, where it solidifies and cools. SMILE eliminates the separate, large high temperature melter. Instead, the BLW solids and frit melt inside the final disposal containers, using inductive heating. The contents then solidify and cool in place. The SMILE modules and the inductive heating process are designed so that the outer stainless can of the module remains at near ambient temperature during the process cycle. Module dimensions are similar to those of present disposal containers. The can is thermally insulated from the high temperature inner container by a thin layer of refractory alumina firebricks. The inner container is a graphite crucible lined with a dense alumina refractory that holds the HLW and fiit materials. After the SMILE module is loaded with a slurry of HLW and frit solids, an external multi-turn coil is energized with 30-cycle AC current. The enclosing external coil is the primary of a power transformer, with the graphite crucible acting as a single turn ``secondary.`` The induced current in the ``secondary`` heats the graphite, which in turn heats the HLW and frit materials. The first stage of the heating process is carried out at an intermediate temperature to drive off remnant liquid water and water of hydration, which takes about 1 day. The small fill/vent tube to the module is then sealed off and the interior temperature raised to the vitrification range, i.e., {approximately}1200C. Liquefaction is complete after approximately 1 day. The inductive heating then ceases and the module slowly loses heat to the environment, allowing the molten material to solidify and cool down to ambient temperature.

  12. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission -- Phase 1: Financial analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickford, J.C.

    1998-01-06

    In Section 1.0, an overview of the Financial Analysis was provided and summarized in Table 1 for both the Retrieval and Disposal program and the TWRS project life cycle. A table recaps the pre-Phase 1B analysis budget requirements as discussed in previous sections. Another table in this section shows a similar build-up of costs and the impact of proposed offsets and increases to the pre-Phase 1B analysis. The issues concerning the increased requirements in FY 1998/1999 and the recommended adjustments were discussed. The Phase 1B Program as recommended is achievable. Specific recommendations are as follows: (a) Adopt the revised project baseline as presented in the cited tables; (b) Incorporate the $248.5 million in allowances for risk into the baseline; (c) Develop detailed action plans to realize the costs reduction opportunities; (d) Incorporate site indirect and benefits reduction rates into baseline; (e) Delay non-critical path scope which can be moved beyond FY 1999, as indicated: and (f) Renegotiate the Tri-Party Agreement milestones associated with the current compliance unfunded list for FY 1998.

  13. Submergible barge retrievable storage and permanent disposal system for radioactive waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsberry, Fred L.; Cawley, William E.

    1981-01-01

    A submergible barge and process for submerging and storing radioactive waste material along a seabed. A submergible barge receives individual packages of radwaste within segregated cells. The cells are formed integrally within the barge, preferably surrounded by reinforced concrete. The cells are individually sealed by a concrete decking and by concrete hatch covers. Seawater may be vented into the cells for cooling, through an integral vent arrangement. The vent ducts may be attached to pumps when the barge is bouyant. The ducts are also arranged to promote passive ventilation of the cells when the barge is submerged. Packages of the radwaste are loaded into individual cells within the barge. The cells are then sealed and the barge is towed to the designated disposal-storage site. There, the individual cells are flooded and the barge will begin descent controlled by a powered submarine control device to the seabed storage site. The submerged barge will rest on the seabed permanently or until recovered by a submarine control device.

  14. Method of removing benzene from petroleum desalter brine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, P.R.

    1993-08-17

    A method is described for removing benzene from petroleum refinery desalter effluent brine containing dispersed oil, solids, oily solids and benzene comprising contacting the brine with a sufficient amount for the purpose of flocculating oily solids of a combination of a aluminum chlorohydrate and a water soluble cationic polymer selected from the group consisting of polyamines and dialkyldiallylammonium polymers, in a ratio of from 1:10 to 100:1 at a temperature of about 250 F, separating the resulting floc from the brine; and thereafter contacting the brine with a sufficient amount for the purpose of reducing benzene levels in the brine of an oil solvent in combination with a demulsifier.

  15. Expected brine movement at potential nuclear waste repository salt sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCauley, V.S.; Raines, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    The BRINEMIG brine migration code predicts rates and quantities of brine migration to a waste package emplaced in a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The BRINEMIG code is an explicit time-marching finite-difference code that solves a mass balance equation and uses the Jenks equation to predict velocities of brine migration. Predictions were made for the seven potentially acceptable salt sites under consideration as locations for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Predicted total quantities of accumulated brine were on the order of 1 m/sup 3/ brine per waste package or less. Less brine accumulation is expected at domal salt sites because of the lower initial moisture contents relative to bedded salt sites. Less total accumulation of brine is predicted for spent fuel than for commercial high-level waste because of the lower temperatures generated by spent fuel. 11 refs., 36 figs., 29 tabs.

  16. Melter Disposal Strategic Planning Document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BURBANK, D.A.

    2000-09-25

    This document describes the proposed strategy for disposal of spent and failed melters from the tank waste treatment plant to be built by the Office of River Protection at the Hanford site in Washington. It describes program management activities, disposal and transportation systems, leachate management, permitting, and safety authorization basis approvals needed to execute the strategy.

  17. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission readiness-to-proceed guidance and requirements to deliverables crosswalk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, C.E.

    1998-01-06

    In September 1996, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) initiated the first of a two-phase program to remediate waste storage in tanks at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Initiating the first phase, RL signed contracts with two private companies who agreed to receive and vitrify a portion of the tank waste in a demonstration and to return the vitrified product and by-products to the Project Management Hanford Contract (PHMC) team for disposition. The first phase of the overall remediation effort is a demonstration of treatment concepts, and the second phase includes treatment of the remaining tank wastes. The demonstration phase, Phase 1 of the project, is further subdivided into two parts, A and B. During Phase 1A, the vitrification contractors are to establish the technical, operational, regulatory, business, and financial elements required to provide treatment services on a fixed unit price basis. Phase 1A deliverables will be evaluated by RL to determine whether it is in the best interest of the government to have one or more vitrification contractors proceed with Phase 1B, in which 6% to 13% of the tank waste would be treated in the demonstration. In addition, before RL can authorize proceeding with Phase 1B, the PHMC team must demonstrate its readiness to retrieve and deliver the waste to the private contractor(s) and to receive and dispose of the products and by-products returned from the treatment. The PHMC team has organized their plans for providing these vitrification-support services into the Retrieval and Disposal Mission within the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project. Three RL core teams were established to assist in evaluating the PHMC team`s readiness specifically in regard to three task areas: Waste feed delivery; Infrastructure and by-products delivery; and Immobilized products. The core teams each developed a set of criteria and plans to be used in evaluating the PHMC team`s readiness to proceed (RTP).

  18. Repository Reference Disposal Concepts and Thermal Load Management...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    enclosed and open mode disposal concepts, thermal analysis of open modes, a range of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) burnup, additional disposal system description, and cost estimation. ...

  19. Enterprise Assessments Targeted Assessment of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant High-Level Waste Facility Radioactive Liquid Waste Disposal System Safety Basis Change Package … May 2016

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Assessment of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant High-Level Waste Facility Radioactive Liquid Waste Disposal System Safety Basis Change Package May 2016 Office of Nuclear Safety and Environmental Assessments Office of Environment, Safety and Health Assessments Office of Enterprise Assessments U.S. Department of Energy i Table of Contents Acronyms

  20. Targeted Pressure Management During CO2 Sequestration: Optimization of Well Placement and Brine Extraction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cihan, Abdullah; Birkholzer, Jens; Bianchi, Marco

    2014-12-31

    Large-scale pressure increases resulting from carbon dioxide (CO2) injection in the subsurface can potentially impact caprock integrity, induce reactivation of critically stressed faults, and drive CO2 or brine through conductive features into shallow groundwater. Pressure management involving the extraction of native fluids from storage formations can be used to minimize pressure increases while maximizing CO2 storage. However, brine extraction requires pumping, transportation, possibly treatment, and disposal of substantial volumes of extracted brackish or saline water, all of which can be technically challenging and expensive. This paper describes a constrained differential evolution (CDE) algorithm for optimal well placement and injection/ extractionmore » control with the goal of minimizing brine extraction while achieving predefined pressure contraints. The CDE methodology was tested for a simple optimization problem whose solution can be partially obtained with a gradient-based optimization methodology. The CDE successfully estimated the true global optimum for both extraction well location and extraction rate, needed for the test problem. A more complex example application of the developed strategy was also presented for a hypothetical CO2 storage scenario in a heterogeneous reservoir consisting of a critically stressed fault nearby an injection zone. Through the CDE optimization algorithm coupled to a numerical vertically-averaged reservoir model, we successfully estimated optimal rates and locations for CO2 injection and brine extraction wells while simultaneously satisfying multiple pressure buildup constraints to avoid fault activation and caprock fracturing. The study shows that the CDE methodology is a very promising tool to solve also other optimization problems related to GCS, such as reducing ‘Area of Review’, monitoring design, reducing risk of leakage and increasing storage capacity and trapping.« less

  1. Disposable and removable nucleic acid extraction and purification cartridges for automated flow-through systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Regan, John Frederick

    2014-09-09

    Removable cartridges are used on automated flow-through systems for the purpose of extracting and purifying genetic material from complex matrices. Different types of cartridges are paired with specific automated protocols to concentrate, extract, and purifying pathogenic or human genetic material. Their flow-through nature allows large quantities sample to be processed. Matrices may be filtered using size exclusion and/or affinity filters to concentrate the pathogen of interest. Lysed material is ultimately passed through a filter to remove the insoluble material before the soluble genetic material is delivered past a silica-like membrane that binds the genetic material, where it is washed, dried, and eluted. Cartridges are inserted into the housing areas of flow-through automated instruments, which are equipped with sensors to ensure proper placement and usage of the cartridges. Properly inserted cartridges create fluid- and air-tight seals with the flow lines of an automated instrument.

  2. Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, Trace Metal and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Carbon Dioxide, Brine, Trace Metal and Organic Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Limestone Aquifer Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Geochemical Impacts of Carbon ...

  3. Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Brine and Clay Mineral...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Carbon Dioxide Brine and Clay Mineral Interactions and Determination of Contact Angles. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide ...

  4. Fate of Magnesium Chloride Brine Applied to Suppress Dust from...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Within the deep vadose zone, which consists of interlayered basalt lava flows and sedimentary interbeds, brine has moved up to 110 m laterally. This lateral migration suggests ...

  5. Origin, distribution, and movement of brine in the Permian Basin (U. S. A. ). A model for displacement of connate brine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bein, A.; Dutton, A.R. )

    1993-06-01

    Na-Cl, halite Ca-Cl, and gypsum Ca-Cl brines with salinities from 45 to >300 g/L are identified and mapped in four hydrostratigraphic units in the Permian Basin area beneath western Texas and Oklahoma and eastern New Mexico, providing spatial and lithologic constraints on the interpretation of the origin and movement of brine. Na-Cl brine is derived from meteoric water as young as 5-10 Ma that dissolved anhydrite and halite, whereas Ca-Cl brine is interpreted to be ancient, modified-connate Permian brine that now is mixing with, and being displaced by, the Na-Cl brine. Displacement fronts appear as broad mixing zones with no significant salinity gradients. Evolution of Ca-Cl brine composition from ideal evaporated sea water is attributed to dolomitization and syndepositional recycling of halite and bittern salts by intermittent influx of fresh water and sea water. Halite Ca-Cl brine in the evaporite section in the northern part of the basin differs from gypsum Ca-Cl brine in the south-central part in salinity and Na/Cl ratio and reflects segregation between halite- and gypsum-precipitating lagoons during the Permian. Ca-Cl brine moved downward through the evaporite section into the underlying Lower Permian and Pennsylvanian marine section that is now the deep-basin brine aquifer, mixing there with pre-existing sea water. Buoyancy-driven convection of brine dominated local flow for most of basin history, with regional advection governed by topographically related forces dominant only for the past 5 to 10 Ma. 71 refs., 11 figs.

  6. Reduce completion fluid costs with on-site brine tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, D.C.; Darlington, R.K.; Kinney, W.R.; Lowell, J.L.

    1982-09-01

    A newly developed field kit makes on-site brine completion fluid testing practical. Simple titration procedures are used to analyze brine for calcium, zinc, chloride and bromide with an accuracy and repeatability that compares favorably with expensive laboratory techniques. This article describes the field testing theory and details analytical procedures used.

  7. Chemical-equilibrium calculations for aqueous geothermal brines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1981-05-01

    Results from four chemical-equilibrium computer programs, REDEQL.EPAK, GEOCHEM, WATEQF, and SENECA2, have been compared with experimental solubility data for some simple systems of interest with geothermal brines. Seven test cases involving solubilities of CaCO/sub 3/, amorphous SiO/sub 2/, CaSO/sub 4/, and BaSO/sub 4/ at various temperatures from 25 to 300/sup 0/C and in NaCl or HCl solutions of 0 to 4 molal have been examined. Significant differences between calculated results and experimental data occurred in some cases. These differences were traced to inaccuracies in free-energy or equilibrium-constant data and in activity coefficients used by the programs. Although currently available chemical-equilibrium programs can give reasonable results for these calculations, considerable care must be taken in the selection of free-energy data and methods of calculating activity coefficients.

  8. DOE SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL DISPOSAL CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F. Habashi

    1998-06-26

    The DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container (SNF DC) supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the access mains, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container provides long term confinement of DOE SNF waste, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. The DOE SNF Disposal Containers provide containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limit radionuclide release thereafter. The disposal containers maintain the waste in a designated configuration, withstand maximum handling and rockfall loads, limit the individual waste canister temperatures after emplacement. The disposal containers also limit the introduction of moderator into the disposal container during the criticality control period, resist corrosion in the expected repository environment, and provide complete or limited containment of waste in the event of an accident. Multiple disposal container designs may be needed to accommodate the expected range of DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel. The disposal container will include outer and inner barrier walls and outer and inner barrier lids. Exterior labels will identify the disposal container and contents. Differing metal barriers will support the design philosophy of defense in depth. The use of materials with different failure mechanisms prevents a single mode failure from breaching the waste package. The corrosion-resistant inner barrier and inner barrier lid will be constructed of a high-nickel alloy and the corrosion-allowance outer barrier and outer barrier lid will be made of carbon steel. The DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Containers interface with the emplacement drift environment by transferring heat from the waste to the external environment and by protecting

  9. RealGasBrine v1.0 option of TOUGH+ v1.5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moridis, George

    2015-02-27

    RealGasBrine v1.0 is a numerical code that for the simulation of the behavior of gas-bearing porous and/fractured geologic media. It is an option of TOUGH+ v1.5 [Moridis, 2014], a successor to the TOUGH2 [Pruess et al., 1999; 2012] family of codes for multi-component, multiphase ?uid and heat ?ow developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. RealGasBrine v1.0 needs the TOUGH+ v1.5 core code in order to compile and execute. It is written in standard FORTRAN 95/2003, and can be run on any computational platform (workstation, PC, Macintosh) for which such compilers are available. RealGasBrine v1.0 describes the non-isothermal two- (for pure water) or three-phase (for brine) flow of an aqueous phase and a real gas mixture in a gas-bearing medium, with a particular focus in ultra-tight (such as tight-sand and shale gas) systems. Up to 12 individual real gases can be tracked, and salt can precipitate as solid halite. The capabilities of the code include coupled flow and thermal effects, real gas behavior, Darcy and non-Darcy flow, several isotherm options of gas sorption onto the grains of the porous media, complex fracture descriptions, gas solubility into water, and geomechanical effects on flow properties. RealGasBrine v1.0 allows the study of flow and transport of fluids and heat over a wide range of time frames and spatial scales not only in gas reservoirs, but also in any problem involving the flow of gases in geologic media, including the geologic storage of greenhouse gas mixtures, the behavior of geothermal reservoirs with multi-component condensable (H2O and CO2) and non-condensable gas mixtures, the transport of water and released H2 in nuclear waste storage applications, etc.

  10. Radionuclide transport in sandstones with WIPP brine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weed, H.C.; Bazan, F.; Fontanilla, J.; Garrison, J.; Rego, J.; Winslow, A.M.

    1981-02-01

    Retardation factors (R) have been measured for the transport of /sup 3/H, /sup 95m/Tc, and /sup 85/Sr in WIPP brine using St. Peter, Berea, Kayenta, and San Felipe sandstone cores. If tritium is assumed to have R=1, /sup 95m/Tc has R=1.0 to 1.3 and therefore is essentially not retarded. Strontium-85 has R = 1.0 to 1.3 on St. Peter, Berea, and Kayenta, but R=3 on San Felipe. This is attributed to sorption on the matrix material of San Felipe, which has 45 volume % matrix compared with 1 to 10 volume % for the others. Retardation factors (R/sub s/) for /sup 85/Sr calculated from static sorption measurements are unity for all the sandstones. Therefore, the static and transport results for /sup 85/Sr disagree in the case of San Felipe, but agree for St. Peter, Berea, and Kayenta.

  11. Disposal phase experimental program plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-01-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility comprises surface and subsurface facilities, including a repository mined in a bedded salt formation at a depth of 2,150 feet. It has been developed to safely and permanently isolate transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes in a deep geological disposal site. On April 12, 1996, the DOE submitted a revised Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The DOE anticipates receiving an operating permit from the NMED; this permit is required prior to the start of disposal operations. On October 29, 1996, the DOE submitted a Compliance Certification Application (CCA) to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in accordance with the WIPP land Withdrawal Act (LWA) of 1992 (Public Law 102-579) as amended, and the requirements of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR) Parts 191 and 194. The DOE plans to begin disposal operations at the WIPP in November 1997 following receipt of certification by the EPA. The disposal phase is expected to last for 35 years, and will include recertification activities no less than once every five years. This Disposal Phase Experimental Program (DPEP) Plan outlines the experimental program to be conducted during the first 5-year recertification period. It also forms the basis for longer-term activities to be carried out throughout the 35-year disposal phase. Once the WIPP has been shown to be in compliance with regulatory requirements, the disposal phase gives an opportunity to affirm the compliance status of the WIPP, enhance the operations of the WIPP and the national TRU system, and contribute to the resolution of national and international nuclear waste management technical needs. The WIPP is the first facility of its kind in the world. As such, it provides a unique opportunity to advance the technical state of the art for permanent disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes.

  12. Alternative Site Technology Deployment-Monitoring System for the U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, J.M.; Levitt, D.G.; Rawlinson, S.E.

    2001-02-01

    In December 2000, a performance monitoring facility was constructed adjacent to the U-3ax/bl mixed waste disposal unit at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Recent studies conducted in the arid southwestern United States suggest that a vegetated monolayer evapotranspiration (ET) closure cover may be more effective at isolating waste than traditional Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) multi-layered designs. The monitoring system deployed next to the U-3ax/bl disposal unit consists of eight drainage lysimeters with three surface treatments: two are left bare; two are revegetated with native species; two are being allowed to revegetate with invader species; and two are reserved for future studies. Soil used in each lysimeter is native alluvium taken from the same location as the soil used for the cover material on U-3ax/bl. The lysimeters were constructed so that any drainage to the bottom can be collected and measured. To provide a detailed evaluation of the cover performance, an ar ray of 16 sensors was installed in each lysimeter to measure soil water content, soil water potential, and soil temperature. Revegetation of the U-3ax/bl closure cover establishes a stable plant community that maximizes water loss through transpiration while at the same time, reduces water and wind erosion and ultimately restores the disposal unit to its surrounding Great Basin Desert environment.

  13. Disposal Authorization Statement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) is authorized to operate under this Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS) (Revision 1).  The revised DAS requirements ensure the facility does not pose a...

  14. Summary Results for Brine Migration Modeling Performed by LANL LBNL and SNL for the UFD Program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes laboratory and field observations and numerical modeling related to coupled processes involving brine and vapor migration in geologic salt, focusing on recent developments and studies conducted at Sandia, Los Alamos, and Berkeley National Laboratories. Interest into the disposal of heat-generating waste in salt has led to interest into water distribution and migration in both run-of-mine crushed and intact geologic salt. Ideally a fully coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical-chemical simulation is performed using numerical models with validated constitutive models and parameters. When mechanical coupling is not available, mechanical effects are prescribed in hydraulic models as source, boundary, or initial conditions. This report presents material associated with developing appropriate initial conditions for a non-mechanical hydrologic simulation of brine migration in salt. Due to the strong coupling between the mechanical and hydrologic problems, the initial saturation will be low for the excavation disturbed zone surrounding the excavation. Although most of the material in this report is not new, the author hopes it is presented in a format making it useful to other salt researchers.

  15. Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, Trace Metal and Organic Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Limestone Aquifer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bacon, Diana H.; Dai, Zhenxue; Zheng, Liange

    2014-12-31

    An important risk at CO2 storage sites is the potential for groundwater quality impacts. As part of a system to assess the potential for these impacts a geochemical scaling function has been developed, based on a detailed reactive transport model of CO2 and brine leakage into an unconfined, oxidizing carbonate aquifer. Stochastic simulations varying a number of geochemical parameters were used to generate a response surface predicting the volume of aquifer that would be impacted with respect to regulated contaminants. The brine was assumed to contain several trace metals and organic contaminants. Aquifer pH and TDS were influenced by CO2more » leakage, while trace metal concentrations were most influenced by the brine concentrations rather than adsorption or desorption on calcite. Organic plume sizes were found to be strongly influenced by biodegradation.« less

  16. ADVANCED NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE EFFECTS ON THE TREATMENT OF UNCERTAINTY IN THE LONG-TERM ASSESSMENT OF GEOLOGIC DISPOSAL SYSTEMS - EBS INPUT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutton, M; Blink, J A; Greenberg, H R; Sharma, M

    2012-04-25

    The Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign within the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technology (FCT) program has been tasked with investigating the disposal of the nation's spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level nuclear waste (HLW) for a range of potential waste forms and geologic environments. The planning, construction, and operation of a nuclear disposal facility is a long-term process that involves engineered barriers that are tailored to both the geologic environment and the waste forms being emplaced. The UFD Campaign is considering a range of fuel cycles that in turn produce a range of waste forms. The UFD Campaign is also considering a range of geologic media. These ranges could be thought of as adding uncertainty to what the disposal facility design will ultimately be; however, it may be preferable to thinking about the ranges as adding flexibility to design of a disposal facility. For example, as the overall DOE-NE program and industrial actions result in the fuel cycles that will produce waste to be disposed, and the characteristics of those wastes become clear, the disposal program retains flexibility in both the choice of geologic environment and the specific repository design. Of course, other factors also play a major role, including local and State-level acceptance of the specific site that provides the geologic environment. In contrast, the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) repository license application (LA) is based on waste forms from an open fuel cycle (PWR and BWR assemblies from an open fuel cycle). These waste forms were about 90% of the total waste, and they were the determining waste form in developing the engineered barrier system (EBS) design for the Yucca Mountain Repository design. About 10% of the repository capacity was reserved for waste from a full recycle fuel cycle in which some actinides were extracted for weapons use, and the remaining fission products and some minor actinides were encapsulated

  17. Fluid Dynamics of Carbon Dioxide Disposal into Saline Aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, Julio Enrique

    2003-12-18

    Injection of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into saline aquifers has been proposed as a means to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (geological carbon sequestration). Large-scale injection of CO{sub 2} will induce a variety of coupled physical and chemical processes, including multiphase fluid flow, fluid pressurization and changes in effective stress, solute transport, and chemical reactions between fluids and formation minerals. This work addresses some of these issues with special emphasis given to the physics of fluid flow in brine formations. An investigation of the thermophysical properties of pure carbon dioxide, water and aqueous solutions of CO{sub 2} and NaCl has been conducted. As a result, accurate representations and models for predicting the overall thermophysical behavior of the system CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O-NaCl are proposed and incorporated into the numerical simulator TOUGH2/ECO{sub 2}. The basic problem of CO{sub 2} injection into a radially symmetric brine aquifer is used to validate the results of TOUGH2/ECO2. The numerical simulator has been applied to more complex flow problem including the CO{sub 2} injection project at the Sleipner Vest Field in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea and the evaluation of fluid flow dynamics effects of CO{sub 2} injection into aquifers. Numerical simulation results show that the transport at Sleipner is dominated by buoyancy effects and that shale layers control vertical migration of CO{sub 2}. These results are in good qualitative agreement with time lapse surveys performed at the site. High-resolution numerical simulation experiments have been conducted to study the onset of instabilities (viscous fingering) during injection of CO{sub 2} into saline aquifers. The injection process can be classified as immiscible displacement of an aqueous phase by a less dense and less viscous gas phase. Under disposal conditions (supercritical CO{sub 2}) the viscosity of carbon dioxide can be less than the viscosity of the aqueous

  18. Targeted Pressure Management During CO2 Sequestration: Optimization of Well Placement and Brine Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cihan, Abdullah; Birkholzer, Jens; Bianchi, Marco

    2014-12-31

    Large-scale pressure increases resulting from carbon dioxide (CO2) injection in the subsurface can potentially impact caprock integrity, induce reactivation of critically stressed faults, and drive CO2 or brine through conductive features into shallow groundwater. Pressure management involving the extraction of native fluids from storage formations can be used to minimize pressure increases while maximizing CO2 storage. However, brine extraction requires pumping, transportation, possibly treatment, and disposal of substantial volumes of extracted brackish or saline water, all of which can be technically challenging and expensive. This paper describes a constrained differential evolution (CDE) algorithm for optimal well placement and injection/ extraction control with the goal of minimizing brine extraction while achieving predefined pressure contraints. The CDE methodology was tested for a simple optimization problem whose solution can be partially obtained with a gradient-based optimization methodology. The CDE successfully estimated the true global optimum for both extraction well location and extraction rate, needed for the test problem. A more complex example application of the developed strategy was also presented for a hypothetical CO2 storage scenario in a heterogeneous reservoir consisting of a critically stressed fault nearby an injection zone. Through the CDE optimization algorithm coupled to a numerical vertically-averaged reservoir model, we successfully estimated optimal rates and locations for CO2 injection and brine extraction wells while simultaneously satisfying multiple pressure buildup constraints to avoid fault activation and caprock fracturing. The study shows that the CDE methodology is a very promising tool to solve also other optimization problems related to GCS, such as reducing Area of Review, monitoring design, reducing risk of leakage and increasing storage capacity and trapping.

  19. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: program objectives, functional requirements, and system performance criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-04-01

    At the present time, final repository criteria have not been issued by the responsible agencies. This document describes general objectives, requirements, and criteria that the DOE intends to apply in the interim to the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. These objectives, requirements, and criteria have been developed on the basis of DOE's analysis of what is needed to achieve the National objective of safe waste disposal in an environmentally acceptable and economic manner and are expected to be consistent with anticipated regulatory standards. The qualitative statements in this document address the broad issues of public and occupational health and safety, institutional acceptability, engineering feasibility, and economic considerations. A comprehensive set of criteria, general and project specific, of which these are a part, will constitute a portion of the technical basis for preparation and submittal by the DOE of formal documents to support future license applications for nuclear waste repositories.

  20. Utilizing rare earth elements as tracers in high TDS reservoir brines in CCS applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLing, Travis; Smith, William; Smith, Robert

    2014-12-31

    In this paper we report the result of research associated with the testing of a procedures necessary for utilizing natural occurring trace elements, specifically the Rare Earth Elements (REE) as geochemical tracers in Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) applications. Trace elements, particularly REE may be well suited to serve as in situ tracers for monitoring geochemical conditions and the migration of CO₂-charged waters within CCS storage systems. We have been conducting studies to determine the efficacy of using REE as a tracer and characterization tool in the laboratory, at a CCS analogue site in Soda Springs, Idaho, and at a proposed CCS reservoir at the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming. Results from field and laboratory studies have been encouraging and show that REE may be an effective tracer in CCS systems and overlying aquifers. In recent years, a series of studies using REE as a natural groundwater tracer have been conducted successfully at various locations around the globe. Additionally, REE and other trace elements have been successfully used as in situ tracers to describe the evolution of deep sedimentary Basins. Our goal has been to establish naturally occurring REE as a useful monitoring measuring and verification (MMV) tool in CCS research because formation brine chemistry will be particularly sensitive to changes in local equilibrium caused by the addition of large volumes of CO₂. Because brine within CCS target formations will have been in chemical equilibrium with the host rocks for millions of years, the addition of large volumes of CO₂ will cause reactions in the formation that will drive changes to the brine chemistry due to the pH change caused by the formation of carbonic acid. This CO₂ driven change in formation fluid chemistry will have a major impact on water rock reaction equilibrium in the formation, which will impart a change in the REE fingerprint of the brine that can measured and be used to monitor in situ

  1. Utilizing rare earth elements as tracers in high TDS reservoir brines in CCS applications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McLing, Travis; Smith, William; Smith, Robert

    2014-12-31

    In this paper we report the result of research associated with the testing of a procedures necessary for utilizing natural occurring trace elements, specifically the Rare Earth Elements (REE) as geochemical tracers in Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) applications. Trace elements, particularly REE may be well suited to serve as in situ tracers for monitoring geochemical conditions and the migration of CO₂-charged waters within CCS storage systems. We have been conducting studies to determine the efficacy of using REE as a tracer and characterization tool in the laboratory, at a CCS analogue site in Soda Springs, Idaho, and at amore » proposed CCS reservoir at the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming. Results from field and laboratory studies have been encouraging and show that REE may be an effective tracer in CCS systems and overlying aquifers. In recent years, a series of studies using REE as a natural groundwater tracer have been conducted successfully at various locations around the globe. Additionally, REE and other trace elements have been successfully used as in situ tracers to describe the evolution of deep sedimentary Basins. Our goal has been to establish naturally occurring REE as a useful monitoring measuring and verification (MMV) tool in CCS research because formation brine chemistry will be particularly sensitive to changes in local equilibrium caused by the addition of large volumes of CO₂. Because brine within CCS target formations will have been in chemical equilibrium with the host rocks for millions of years, the addition of large volumes of CO₂ will cause reactions in the formation that will drive changes to the brine chemistry due to the pH change caused by the formation of carbonic acid. This CO₂ driven change in formation fluid chemistry will have a major impact on water rock reaction equilibrium in the formation, which will impart a change in the REE fingerprint of the brine that can measured and be used to monitor in situ reservoir

  2. disposal_cell.cdr

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    With the April 24, 1997, ceremonial ground-breaking for disposal facility construction, ... the way for detailed design and subcontracting of many construction-related activities. ...

  3. Pioneering Nuclear Waste Disposal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... agen- cies, scientific advisory panels, and concerned citizens. * As a ... It also prohibited the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. In 1996, ...

  4. Actinide (III) solubility in WIPP Brine: data summary and recommendations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borkowski, Marian; Lucchini, Jean-Francois; Richmann, Michael K.; Reed, Donald T.

    2009-09-01

    The solubility of actinides in the +3 oxidation state is an important input into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) performance assessment (PA) models that calculate potential actinide release from the WIPP repository. In this context, the solubility of neodymium(III) was determined as a function of pH, carbonate concentration, and WIPP brine composition. Additionally, we conducted a literature review on the solubility of +3 actinides under WIPP-related conditions. Neodymium(III) was used as a redox-invariant analog for the +3 oxidation state of americium and plutonium, which is the oxidation state that accounts for over 90% of the potential release from the WIPP through the dissolved brine release (DBR) mechanism, based on current WIPP performance assessment assumptions. These solubility data extend past studies to brine compositions that are more WIPP-relevant and cover a broader range of experimental conditions than past studies.

  5. RealGasBrine v1.0 option of TOUGH+ v1.5

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-02-27

    RealGasBrine v1.0 is a numerical code that for the simulation of the behavior of gas-bearing porous and/fractured geologic media. It is an option of TOUGH+ v1.5 [Moridis, 2014], a successor to the TOUGH2 [Pruess et al., 1999; 2012] family of codes for multi-component, multiphase ?uid and heat ?ow developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. RealGasBrine v1.0 needs the TOUGH+ v1.5 core code in order to compile and execute. It is written in standard FORTRANmore » 95/2003, and can be run on any computational platform (workstation, PC, Macintosh) for which such compilers are available. RealGasBrine v1.0 describes the non-isothermal two- (for pure water) or three-phase (for brine) flow of an aqueous phase and a real gas mixture in a gas-bearing medium, with a particular focus in ultra-tight (such as tight-sand and shale gas) systems. Up to 12 individual real gases can be tracked, and salt can precipitate as solid halite. The capabilities of the code include coupled flow and thermal effects, real gas behavior, Darcy and non-Darcy flow, several isotherm options of gas sorption onto the grains of the porous media, complex fracture descriptions, gas solubility into water, and geomechanical effects on flow properties. RealGasBrine v1.0 allows the study of flow and transport of fluids and heat over a wide range of time frames and spatial scales not only in gas reservoirs, but also in any problem involving the flow of gases in geologic media, including the geologic storage of greenhouse gas mixtures, the behavior of geothermal reservoirs with multi-component condensable (H2O and CO2) and non-condensable gas mixtures, the transport of water and released H2 in nuclear waste storage applications, etc.« less

  6. Nevada: Geothermal Brine Brings Low-Cost Power with Big Potential...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Nevada: Geothermal Brine Brings Low-Cost Power with Big Potential Nevada: Geothermal Brine Brings Low-Cost Power with Big Potential August 21, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Utilizing a 1...

  7. Brine pH Modification Scale Control Technology. 2. A Review.pdf...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Brine pH Modification Scale Control Technology. 2. A Review.pdf Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Brine pH Modification Scale...

  8. Optimizing High Level Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dirk Gombert

    2005-09-01

    If society is ever to reap the potential benefits of nuclear energy, technologists must close the fuel-cycle completely. A closed cycle equates to a continued supply of fuel and safe reactors, but also reliable and comprehensive closure of waste issues. High level waste (HLW) disposal in borosilicate glass (BSG) is based on 1970s era evaluations. This host matrix is very adaptable to sequestering a wide variety of radionuclides found in raffinates from spent fuel reprocessing. However, it is now known that the current system is far from optimal for disposal of the diverse HLW streams, and proven alternatives are available to reduce costs by billions of dollars. The basis for HLW disposal should be reassessed to consider extensive waste form and process technology research and development efforts, which have been conducted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), international agencies and the private sector. Matching the waste form to the waste chemistry and using currently available technology could increase the waste content in waste forms to 50% or more and double processing rates. Optimization of the HLW disposal system would accelerate HLW disposition and increase repository capacity. This does not necessarily require developing new waste forms, the emphasis should be on qualifying existing matrices to demonstrate protection equal to or better than the baseline glass performance. Also, this proposed effort does not necessarily require developing new technology concepts. The emphasis is on demonstrating existing technology that is clearly better (reliability, productivity, cost) than current technology, and justifying its use in future facilities or retrofitted facilities. Higher waste processing and disposal efficiency can be realized by performing the engineering analyses and trade-studies necessary to select the most efficient methods for processing the full spectrum of wastes across the nuclear complex. This paper will describe technologies being

  9. Using DRASTIC'' to improve the accuracy of a geographical information system used for solid waste disposal facility siting: A case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padgett, D.A. . Dept. of Geography)

    1993-01-01

    Beginning in 1989, the citizens and commissioners of Alachua County, Florida began to develop a siting plan for a new solid waste disposal facility (SWDF). Through a cooperative effort with a private consulting firm, several evaluative criteria were selected and then translated into parameters for a geographical information system (GIS). Despite efforts to avoid vulnerable hydrogeology, the preferred site selected was in close proximity to the well field supplying Gainesville, Florida, home to approximately 75 percent of the county's population. The results brought forth a wave of protests from local residents claiming that leachate from the proposed SWDF would contaminate their drinking water. In this study, DRASTIC'' was applied in order to improve the accuracy and defensibility of the aquifer protection-based GIS parameters. DRASTIC'', a method for evaluating ground water contamination potential, is an acronym which stands for Depth to Water, Net Recharge, Aquifer Media, Soil Media, Topography, Impact of Vadose Zone Media, and Conductivity (Hydraulic)''.

  10. Appendix K Disposal Cell Groundwater Monitoring Plan

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    K Disposal Cell Groundwater Monitoring Plan

  11. Disposable remote zero headspace extractor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hand, Julie J.; Roberts, Mark P.

    2006-03-21

    The remote zero headspace extractor uses a sampling container inside a stainless steel vessel to perform toxicity characteristics leaching procedure to analyze volatile organic compounds. The system uses an in line filter for ease of replacement. This eliminates cleaning and disassembly of the extractor. All connections are made with quick connect fittings which can be easily replaced. After use, the bag can be removed and disposed of, and a new sampling container is inserted for the next extraction.

  12. Uranium (VI) solubility in carbonate-free ERDA-6 brine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucchini, Jean-francois; Khaing, Hnin; Reed, Donald T

    2010-01-01

    When present, uranium is usually an element of importance in a nuclear waste repository. In the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), uranium is the most prevalent actinide component by mass, with about 647 metric tons to be placed in the repository. Therefore, the chemistry of uranium, and especially its solubility in the WIPP conditions, needs to be well determined. Long-term experiments were performed to measure the solubility of uranium (VI) in carbonate-free ERDA-6 brine, a simulated WIPP brine, at pC{sub H+} values between 8 and 12.5. These data, obtained from the over-saturation approach, were the first repository-relevant data for the VI actinide oxidation state. The solubility trends observed pointed towards low uranium solubility in WIPP brines and a lack of amphotericity. At the expected pC{sub H+} in the WIPP ({approx} 9.5), measured uranium solubility approached 10{sup -7} M. The objective of these experiments was to establish a baseline solubility to further investigate the effects of carbonate complexation on uranium solubility in WIPP brines.

  13. Durability of concrete materials in high-magnesium brine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wakeley, L.D.; Poole, T.S.; Burkes, J.P.

    1994-03-01

    Cement pastes and mortars representing 11 combinations of candidate concrete materials were cast in the laboratory and monitored for susceptibility to chemical deterioration in high-magnesium brine. Mixtures were selected to include materials included in the current leading candidate concrete for seals at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Some materials were included in the experimental matrix to answer questions that had arisen during study of the concrete used for construction of the liner of the WIPP waste-handling shaft. Mixture combinations compared Class C and Class F fly ashes, presence or absence of an expansive component, and presence or absence of salt as a mixture component. Experimental conditions exposed the pastes and mortars to extreme conditions, those being very high levels of Mg ion and an effectively unlimited supply of brine. All pastes and mortars showed deterioration with brine exposure. In general, mortars deteriorated more extensively than the corresponding pastes. Two-inch cube specimens of mortar were not uniformly deteriorated, but showed obvious zoning even after a year in the brine, with a relatively unreacted zone remaining at the center of each cube. Loss of calcium from the calcium hydroxide of paste/aggregate interfaces caused measurable strength loss in the reacted zone comprising the outer portion of every mortar specimen. The current candidate mass concrete for WIPP seals includes salt as an initial component, and has a relatively closed initial microstructure. Both of these features contribute to its suitability for use in large placements within the Salado Formation.

  14. Sensitivity study of CO2 storage capacity in brine aquifers withclosed boundaries: Dependence on hydrogeologic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J.; Rutqvist, J.; Tsang, C-F.

    2007-02-07

    In large-scale geologic storage projects, the injected volumes of CO{sub 2} will displace huge volumes of native brine. If the designated storage formation is a closed system, e.g., a geologic unit that is compartmentalized by (almost) impermeable sealing units and/or sealing faults, the native brine cannot (easily) escape from the target reservoir. Thus the amount of supercritical CO{sub 2} that can be stored in such a system depends ultimately on how much pore space can be made available for the added fluid owing to the compressibility of the pore structure and the fluids. To evaluate storage capacity in such closed systems, we have conducted a modeling study simulating CO{sub 2} injection into idealized deep saline aquifers that have no (or limited) interaction with overlying, underlying, and/or adjacent units. Our focus is to evaluate the storage capacity of closed systems as a function of various reservoir parameters, hydraulic properties, compressibilities, depth, boundaries, etc. Accounting for multi-phase flow effects including dissolution of CO{sub 2} in numerical simulations, the goal is to develop simple analytical expressions that provide estimates for storage capacity and pressure buildup in such closed systems.

  15. Progress on radiometric dating of Wolfcamp brines using /sup 4/He and /sup 40/Ar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaikowski, A.; Kosanke, B.J.; Hubbard, N.

    1984-01-01

    Ground water samples (brines) from deep wells in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas are being analyzed for noble gases in an attempt to obtain radiometric ages for these brines. The brines contain radiogenic /sup 4/He and /sup 40/Ar produced from the radioactive decay of U, Th, and K. Consideration of hydrochemical data for the brines, various isotopic, chemical, and mineralogical data for the aquifer rocks and noble gas production rates allow estimating the age of the brines to be about 130 million years at two wells. At a third well interaquifer mixing has occurred and the age is presently indeterminate. 9 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  16. Specialized Disposal Sites for Different Reprocessing Plant Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Driscoll, Michael J.

    2007-07-01

    Once-through fuel cycles have one waste form: spent nuclear fuel (SNF). In contrast, the reprocessed SNF yields multiple wastes with different chemical, physical, and radionuclide characteristics. The different characteristics of each waste imply that there are potential cost and performance benefits to developing different disposal sites that match the disposal requirements of different waste. Disposal sites as defined herein may be located in different geologies or in a single repository containing multiple sections, each with different characteristics. The paper describes disposal options for specific wastes and the potential for a waste management system that better couples various reprocessing plant wastes with disposal facilities. (authors)

  17. Environmental assessment of the brine pipeline replacement for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Bryan Mound Facility in Brazoria County, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0804, for the proposed replacement of a deteriorated brine disposal pipeline from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Bryan Mound storage facility in Brazoria County, Texas, into the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, the ocean discharge outfall would be moved shoreward by locating the brine diffuser at the end of the pipeline 3.5 miles offshore at a minimum depth of 30 feet. The action would occur in a floodplain and wetlands; therefore, a floodplain/wetlands assessment has been prepared in conjunction with this EA. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 USC. 4321, et seg.). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). This FONSI also includes a Floodplain Statement of Findings in accordance with 10 CFR Part 1022.

  18. The sup 36 Cl ages of the brines in the Magadi-Natron basin, east Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaufman, A.; Margaritz, M.A.; Hollos, G. ); Paul, M.; Boaretto, E. ); Hillaire-Marcel, C. ); Taieb, M. )

    1990-10-01

    The depression in the East African Rift which includes both Lake Magadi and Lake Natron forms a closed basin within which almost all the dissolved chloride originates in precipitation, since there is no important source of very ancient sedimentary chloride. This provides an ideal setting for the evaluation of the {sup 36}Cl methodology as a geochemical and hydrological tracer. The main source of recent water, as represented by the most dilute samples measured, is characterized by a {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratio of 2.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}14}, in agreement with the calculated value expected in precipitation. Surface evaporation increases the chlorinity of the local freshwater inflow by about a factor of 110 without changing the isotopic ratio, indicating that little chloride enters the system in the form of sediment leachate. A second type of brine found in the basin occurs in a hot deep groundwater reservoir and is characterized by lower {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios (<1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}14}). By comparing this value with the 2.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}14} in recent recharge, one obtains an approximate salt accumulation age of 760 Ka which is consistent with thee time of the first appearance of the lake. These older brines also have lower {sup 18}O and {sup 2}H values which indicate that they were recharged during a climatically different era. The {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios in the inflowing waters and in the accumulated brine, together with the known age of the Lake Magadi basin, may be used to estimate the importance of the hypogene and epigene, as opposed to the meteoric, mode of {sup 36}Cl production. Such a calculation shows that the hypogene and epigene processes together contribute less than 6% of the total {sup 36}Cl present in the lake.

  19. Waste Disposal | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Disposal Waste Disposal Trucks transport debris from Oak Ridge’s cleanup sites to the onsite CERCLA disposal area, the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility. Trucks transport debris from Oak Ridge's cleanup sites to the onsite CERCLA disposal area, the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility. The low-level radiological and hazardous wastes generated from Oak Ridge's cleanup projects are disposed in the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF). The

  20. Fluid sampling and chemical modeling of geopressured brines containing methane. Final report, March 1980-February 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudak, B.; Galbraith, R.; Hansen, L.; Sverjensky, D.; Weres, O.

    1982-07-01

    The development of a flowthrough sampler capable of obtaining fluid samples from geopressured wells at temperatures up to 400/sup 0/F and pressures up to 20,000 psi is described. The sampler has been designed, fabricated from MP35N alloy, laboratory tested, and used to obtain fluid samples from a geothermal well at The Geysers, California. However, it has not yet been used in a geopressured well. The design features, test results, and operation of this device are described. Alternative sampler designs are also discussed. Another activity was to review the chemistry and geochemistry of geopressured brines and reservoirs, and to evaluate the utility of available computer codes for modeling the chemistry of geopressured brines. The thermodynamic data bases for such codes are usually the limiting factor in their application to geopressured systems, but it was concluded that existing codes can be updated with reasonable effort and can usefully explain and predict the chemical characteristics of geopressured systems, given suitable input data.

  1. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) in Hermiston, Oregon. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the Umatilla Depot Activity and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site-specific study. This independent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at UMDA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources; seismicity; and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lampe, Robert F. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1986-01-01

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  3. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  4. Waste disposal package

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  5. Advanced Membrane Filtration Technology for Cost Effective Recovery of Fresh Water from Oil & Gas Produced Brine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David B. Burnett

    2004-09-29

    Produced water is a major waste generated at the oil and natural gas wells in the state of Texas. This water could be a possible source of new fresh water to meet the growing demands of the state after treatment and purification. Treatment of brine generated in oil fields or produced water with an ultrafiltration membranes were the subject of this thesis. The characterization of ultrafiltration membranes for oil and suspended solids removal of produced water, coupled with the reverse osmosis (RO) desalination of brine were studied on lab size membrane testing equipment and a field size testing unit to test whether a viable membrane system could be used to treat produced water. Oil and suspended solids were evaluated using turbidity and oil in water measurements taken periodically. The research considered the effect of pressure and flow rate on membrane performance of produced water treatment of three commercially available membranes for oily water. The study also analyzed the flux through the membrane and any effect it had on membrane performance. The research showed that an ultrafiltration membrane provided turbidity removal of over 99% and oil removal of 78% for the produced water samples. The results indicated that the ultrafiltration membranes would be asset as one of the first steps in purifying the water. Further results on selected RO membranes showed that salt rejection of greater than 97% could be achieved with satisfactory flux and at reasonable operating cost.

  6. Pre-injection brine production for managing pressure in compartmentalized CO₂ storage reservoirs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Buscheck, Thomas A.; White, Joshua A.; Chen, Mingjie; Sun, Yunwei; Hao, Yue; Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.

    2014-12-31

    We present a reservoir management approach for geologic CO₂ storage that combines CO₂ injection with brine extraction. In our approach,dual-mode wells are initially used to extract formation brine and subsequently used to inject CO₂. These wells can also be used to monitor the subsurface during pre-injection brine extraction so that key data is acquired and analyzed prior to CO₂ injection. The relationship between pressure drawdown during pre-injection brine extraction and pressure buildup during CO₂ injection directly informs reservoir managers about CO₂ storage capacity. These data facilitate proactive reservoir management, and thus reduce costs and risks. The brine may be usedmore » directly as make-up brine for nearby reservoir operations; it can also be desalinated and/or treated for a variety of beneficial uses.« less

  7. Pre-injection brine production for managing pressure in compartmentalized CO₂ storage reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buscheck, Thomas A.; White, Joshua A.; Chen, Mingjie; Sun, Yunwei; Hao, Yue; Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.

    2014-12-31

    We present a reservoir management approach for geologic CO₂ storage that combines CO₂ injection with brine extraction. In our approach,dual-mode wells are initially used to extract formation brine and subsequently used to inject CO₂. These wells can also be used to monitor the subsurface during pre-injection brine extraction so that key data is acquired and analyzed prior to CO₂ injection. The relationship between pressure drawdown during pre-injection brine extraction and pressure buildup during CO₂ injection directly informs reservoir managers about CO₂ storage capacity. These data facilitate proactive reservoir management, and thus reduce costs and risks. The brine may be used directly as make-up brine for nearby reservoir operations; it can also be desalinated and/or treated for a variety of beneficial uses.

  8. Oil field waste disposal costs at commercial disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-10-01

    The exploration and production segment of the U.S. oil and gas industry generates millions of barrels of nonhazardous oil field wastes annually. In most cases, operators can dispose of their oil fields wastes at a lower cost on-site than off site and, thus, will choose on-site disposal. However, a significant quantity of oil field wastes are still sent to off-site commercial facilities for disposal. This paper provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in different states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and how much they charge. There appear to be two major off-site disposal trends. Numerous commercial disposal companies that handle oil field wastes exclusively are located in nine oil-and gas-producing states. They use the same disposal methods as those used for on-site disposal. In addition, the Railroad Commission of Texas has issued permits to allow several salt caverns to be used for disposal of oil field wastes. Twenty-two other oil- and gas-producing states contain few or no disposal companies dedicated to oil and gas industry waste. The only off-site commercial disposal companies available handle general industrial wastes or are sanitary landfills. In those states, operators needing to dispose of oil field wastes off-site must send them to a local landfill or out of state. The cost of off-site commercial disposal varies substantially, depending on the disposal method used, the state in which the disposal company is located, and the degree of competition in the area.

  9. Portsmouth Waste Disposal | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Environmental Cleanup Portsmouth Waste Disposal Portsmouth Waste Disposal Preliminary design cross section of Planned On-site Disposal Cell Preliminary design cross section of ...

  10. Community Geothermal Technology Program: Electrodeposition of minerals in geothermal brine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    Objective was to study the materials electrodeposited from geothermal brine, from the HGP-A well in Puna, Hawaii. Due to limitations, only one good set of electrodeposited material was obtained; crystallography indicates that vaterite forms first, followed by calcite and then perhaps aragonite as current density is increased. While the cost to weight ratio is reasonable, the deposition rate is very slow. More research is needed, such as reducing the brittleness. The electrodeposited material possibly could be used as building blocks, tables, benches, etc. 49 figs, 4 tabs, 7 refs.

  11. Recommendation 223: Recommendations on Additional Waste Disposal...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    3: Recommendations on Additional Waste Disposal Capacity Recommendation 223: Recommendations on Additional Waste Disposal Capacity ORSSAB's recommendations encourage DOE to...

  12. Deployment of an Alternative Closure Cover and Monitoring System at the Mixed Waste Disposal Unit U-3ax/bl at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levitt, D.G.; Fitzmaurice, T.M.

    2001-02-01

    In October 2000, final closure was initiated of U-3ax/bl, a mixed waste disposal unit at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The application of approximately 30 cm of topsoil, composed of compacted native alluvium onto an operational cover, seeding of the topsoil, installation of soil water content sensors within the cover, and deployment of a drainage lysimeter facility immediately adjacent to the disposal unit initiated closure. This closure is unique in that it required the involvement of several U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) groups: Waste Management (WM), Environmental Restoration (ER), and Technology Development (TD). Initial site characterization of the disposal unit was conducted by WM. Regulatory approval for closure of the disposal unit was obtained by ER, closure of the disposal unit was conducted by ER, and deployment of the drainage lysimeter facility was conducted by WM and ER, with funding provided by the Accelerated Site Technology Deployment ( ASTD) program, administered under TD. In addition, this closure is unique in that a monolayer closure cover, also known as an evapotranspiration (ET) cover, consisting of native alluvium, received regulatory approval instead of a traditional Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) multi-layered cover. Recent studies indicate that in the arid southwestern United States, monolayer covers may be more effective at isolating waste than layered covers because of the tendency of clay layers to desiccate and crack, and subsequently develop preferential pathways. The lysimeter facility deployed immediately adjacent to the closure cover consists of eight drainage lysimeters with three surface treatments: two were left bare; two were revegetated with native species; two were allowed to revegetate with invader species; and two are reserved for future studies. The lysimeters are constructed such that any drainage through the bottoms of the lysimeters can be measured. Sensors installed in the

  13. Pioneering Nuclear Waste Disposal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PIONEERING NUCLEAR WASTE DISPOSAL U.S. Department of Energy Carlsbad Area Office February 2000 DOE/CAO-00-3124 T h e W a s t e I s o l a t i o n P i l o t P l a n t ii Table of Contents Closing the Circle on Transuranic Waste 1 The Long Road to the WIPP 3 The need for the WIPP The National Academy of Sciences Community leaders suggest Carlsbad as the site for the WIPP Construction of the WIPP The WIPP Land Withdrawal Act Certification by the EPA The National Environmental Policy Act The Resource

  14. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  15. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1995-10-24

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide. 3 figs.

  16. A Strategy to Conduct an Analysis of the Long-Term Performance of Low-Activity Waste Glass in a Shallow Subsurface Disposal System at Hanford

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeway, James J.; Pierce, Eric M.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2014-08-04

    The federal facilities located on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State have been used extensively by the U.S. government to produce nuclear materials for the U.S. strategic defense arsenal. Currently, the Hanford Site is under the stewardship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). A large inventory of radioactive and mixed waste resulting from the production of nuclear materials has accumulated, mainly in 177 underground single- and double-shell tanks located in the central plateau of the Hanford Site (Mann et al., 2001). The DOE-EM Office of River Protection (ORP) is proceeding with plans to immobilize and permanently dispose of the low-activity waste (LAW) fraction onsite in a shallow subsurface disposal facility (the Integrated Disposal Facility [IDF]). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the engineered portion of the IDF (the source term) as part of an immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) glass testing program to support future IDF performance assessments (PAs).

  17. Environmental waste disposal contracts awarded

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental contracts awarded locally Environmental waste disposal contracts awarded locally Three small businesses with offices in Northern New Mexico awarded nuclear waste...

  18. Reduced order models for prediction of groundwater quality impacts from CO? and brine leakage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Liange; Carroll, Susan; Bianchi, Marco; Mansoor, Kayyum; Sun, Yunwei; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-12-31

    A careful assessment of the risk associated with geologic CO? storage is critical to the deployment of large-scale storage projects. A potential risk is the deterioration of groundwater quality caused by the leakage of CO? and brine leakage from deep subsurface reservoirs. In probabilistic risk assessment studies, numerical modeling is the primary tool employed to assess risk. However, the application of traditional numerical models to fully evaluate the impact of CO? leakage on groundwater can be computationally complex, demanding large processing times and resources, and involving large uncertainties. As an alternative, reduced order models (ROMs) can be used as highly efficient surrogates for the complex process-based numerical models. In this study, we represent the complex hydrogeological and geochemical conditions in a heterogeneous aquifer and subsequent risk by developing and using two separate ROMs. The first ROM is derived from a model that accounts for the heterogeneous flow and transport conditions in the presence of complex leakage functions for CO? and brine. The second ROM is obtained from models that feature similar, but simplified flow and transport conditions, and allow for a more complex representation of all relevant geochemical reactions. To quantify possible impacts to groundwater aquifers, the basic risk metric is taken as the aquifer volume in which the water quality of the aquifer may be affected by an underlying CO? storage project. The integration of the two ROMs provides an estimate of the impacted aquifer volume taking into account uncertainties in flow, transport and chemical conditions. These two ROMs can be linked in a comprehensive system level model for quantitative risk assessment of the deep storage reservoir, wellbore leakage, and shallow aquifer impacts to assess the collective risk of CO? storage projects.

  19. Reduced order models for prediction of groundwater quality impacts from CO₂ and brine leakage

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Liange; Carroll, Susan; Bianchi, Marco; Mansoor, Kayyum; Sun, Yunwei; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-12-31

    A careful assessment of the risk associated with geologic CO₂ storage is critical to the deployment of large-scale storage projects. A potential risk is the deterioration of groundwater quality caused by the leakage of CO₂ and brine leakage from deep subsurface reservoirs. In probabilistic risk assessment studies, numerical modeling is the primary tool employed to assess risk. However, the application of traditional numerical models to fully evaluate the impact of CO₂ leakage on groundwater can be computationally complex, demanding large processing times and resources, and involving large uncertainties. As an alternative, reduced order models (ROMs) can be used as highlymore » efficient surrogates for the complex process-based numerical models. In this study, we represent the complex hydrogeological and geochemical conditions in a heterogeneous aquifer and subsequent risk by developing and using two separate ROMs. The first ROM is derived from a model that accounts for the heterogeneous flow and transport conditions in the presence of complex leakage functions for CO₂ and brine. The second ROM is obtained from models that feature similar, but simplified flow and transport conditions, and allow for a more complex representation of all relevant geochemical reactions. To quantify possible impacts to groundwater aquifers, the basic risk metric is taken as the aquifer volume in which the water quality of the aquifer may be affected by an underlying CO₂ storage project. The integration of the two ROMs provides an estimate of the impacted aquifer volume taking into account uncertainties in flow, transport and chemical conditions. These two ROMs can be linked in a comprehensive system level model for quantitative risk assessment of the deep storage reservoir, wellbore leakage, and shallow aquifer impacts to assess the collective risk of CO₂ storage projects.« less

  20. Treatment and Disposal of Unanticipated 'Scavenger' Wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, W.L.

    2003-09-15

    The Savannah River Site often generates wastewater for disposal that is not included as a source to one of the site's wastewater treatment facilities that are permitted by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control. The techniques used by the SRS contract operator (Westinghouse Savannah River Company) to evaluate and treat this unanticipated 'scavenger' wastewater may benefit industries and municipalities who experience similar needs. Regulations require that scavenger wastewater be treated and not just diluted. Each of the pollutants that are present must meet effluent permit limitations and/or receiving stream water quality standards. if a scavenger wastewater is classified as 'hazardous' under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) its disposal must comply with RCRA regulations. Westinghouse Savannah River Company obtained approval from SCDHEC to dispose of scavenger wastewater under specific conditions that are included within the SRS National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit. Scavenger wastewater is analyzed in a laboratory to determine its constituency. Pollutant values are entered into spreadsheets that calculate treatment plant removal capabilities and instream concentrations. Disposal rates are computed, ensuring compliance with regulatory requirements and protection of treatment system operating units. Appropriate records are maintained in the event of an audit.

  1. Integrated Disposal Facility Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MANN, F. M.

    2003-06-03

    An environmental risk assessment associated with the disposal of projected Immobilized Low-Activity Waste, solid wastes and failed or decommissioned melters in an Integrated Disposal Facility was performed. Based on the analyses all performance objectives associated with the groundwater, air, and intruder pathways were met.

  2. Analysis of alternatives for immobilized low activity waste disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burbank, D.A.

    1997-10-28

    This report presents a study of alternative disposal system architectures and implementation strategies to provide onsite near-surface disposal capacity to receive the immobilized low-activity waste produced by the private vendors. The analysis shows that a flexible unit strategy that provides a suite of design solutions tailored to the characteristics of the immobilized low-activity waste will provide a disposal system that best meets the program goals of reducing the environmental, health, and safety impacts; meeting the schedule milestones; and minimizing the life-cycle cost of the program.

  3. Duluth co-disposal: Lessons learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Law, I.J. )

    1988-10-01

    The Western Lake Superior Sanitary District (WLSSD) was formed to combat water pollution, not handle waste disposal. In 1971, the newly formed district hired an engineering firm to design a wastewater treatment facility, which resulted in the design of a 44 million gallon per day treatment plant in Duluth, home of about 70% of the districts residents. Sewage sludge from the wastewater process would be dried and burned in multiple hearth incinerators fired with No. 2 fuel oil. Design work was well underway when the 1973 oil embargo occurred, causing oil prices to quadruple, and oil or natural gas fuel to become non-existant for this type of usage. The engineers considered such fuels as coal, wood chips, and solid waste, and recommended solid waste in the form of refuse-derived fuel (RDF). The district obtained legislative authority in 1974 to control the solid waste stream in the area. All of this delayed design and construction of the sludge disposal portion of the project, but the rest of the treatment plant remained on schedule and was completed in 1978. The co-disposal portion was designed in 1975 and construction was essentially completed by November 1979. The total co-disposal project cost was about $20 million. This paper discusses special features of this system, operating problems, initial modifications, explosion hazards, and later modifications.

  4. Low level tank waste disposal study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mullally, J.A.

    1994-09-29

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site.

  5. Hazards and scenarios examined for the Yucca Mountain disposal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hazards and scenarios examined for the Yucca Mountain disposal system for spent nuclear fuel and ... For PSHA, two expert panels were convened. The first panel consisted of six teams ...

  6. Tuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site Fact Sheet

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    This site is managed by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management under ... A lined solar evaporation pond receives the waste liquid (brine) and the softener ...

  7. Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Waste Disposal In Engineered Trench #3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamm, L. L.; Smith, F. G. III; Flach, G. P.; Hiergesell, R. A.; Butcher, B. T.

    2013-07-29

    Because Engineered Trench #3 (ET#3) will be placed in the location previously designated for Slit Trench #12 (ST#12), Solid Waste Management (SWM) requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) determine if the ST#12 limits could be employed as surrogate disposal limits for ET#3 operations. SRNL documented in this Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation (UDQE) that the use of ST#12 limits as surrogates for the new ET#3 disposal unit will provide reasonable assurance that Department of Energy (DOE) 435.1 performance objectives and measures (USDOE, 1999) will be protected. Therefore new ET#3 inventory limits as determined by a Special Analysis (SA) are not required.

  8. Defense waste salt disposal at the Savannah River Plant. [Cement-based waste form, saltstone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, C A; Dukes, M D

    1984-01-01

    A cement-based waste form, saltstone, has been designed for disposal of Savannah River Plant low-level radioactive salt waste. The disposal process includes emplacing the saltstone in engineered trenches above the water table but below grade at SRP. Design of the waste form and disposal system limits the concentration of salts and radionuclides in the groundwater so that EPA drinking water standards will not be exceeded at the perimeter of the disposal site. 10 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Paducah Waste Disposal | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Remediation Paducah Waste Disposal Paducah Waste Disposal The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is looking at options to dispose of waste that will be generated from further ...

  10. Calculation of brine properties. [Above 80/sup 0/F and for salt...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Brine saturation pressure is calculated as a percentage of the pure water saturation ... temperature and pressure and are obtained from the ASME equation-of-state for pure water. ...

  11. Recovery of Fresh Water Resources from Desalination of Brine Produced During Oil and Gas Production Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David B. Burnett; Mustafa Siddiqui

    2006-12-29

    Management and disposal of produced water is one of the most important problems associated with oil and gas (O&G) production. O&G production operations generate large volumes of brine water along with the petroleum resource. Currently, produced water is treated as a waste and is not available for any beneficial purposes for the communities where oil and gas is produced. Produced water contains different contaminants that must be removed before it can be used for any beneficial surface applications. Arid areas like west Texas produce large amount of oil, but, at the same time, have a shortage of potable water. A multidisciplinary team headed by researchers from Texas A&M University has spent more than six years is developing advanced membrane filtration processes for treating oil field produced brines The government-industry cooperative joint venture has been managed by the Global Petroleum Research Institute (GPRI). The goal of the project has been to demonstrate that treatment of oil field waste water for re-use will reduce water handling costs by 50% or greater. Our work has included (1) integrating advanced materials into existing prototype units and (2) operating short and long-term field testing with full size process trains. Testing at A&M has allowed us to upgrade our existing units with improved pre-treatment oil removal techniques and new oil tolerant RO membranes. We have also been able to perform extended testing in 'field laboratories' to gather much needed extended run time data on filter salt rejection efficiency and plugging characteristics of the process train. The Program Report describes work to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of treating produced water with a combination of different separation processes to obtain water of agricultural water quality standards. Experiments were done for the pretreatment of produced water using a new liquid-liquid centrifuge, organoclay and microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes for the

  12. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 5, Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration for undisturbed performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with applicable long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for a final compliance evaluation. This volume of the 1992 PA contains results of uncertainty and sensitivity analyses with respect to migration of gas and brine from the undisturbed repository. Additional information about the 1992 PA is provided in other volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of WIPP PA and results of a preliminary comparison with 40 CFR 191, Subpart B. Volume 2 describes the technical basis for the performance assessment, including descriptions of the linked computational models used in the Monte Carlo analyses. Volume 3 contains the reference data base and values for input parameters used in consequence and probability modeling. Volume 4 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses with respect to the EPA`s Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). Finally, guidance derived from the entire 1992 PA is presented in Volume 6. Results of the 1992 uncertainty and sensitivity analyses indicate that, conditional on the modeling assumptions and the assigned parameter-value distributions, the most important parameters for which uncertainty has the potential to affect gas and brine migration from the undisturbed repository are: initial liquid saturation in the waste, anhydrite permeability, biodegradation-reaction stoichiometry, gas-generation rates for both corrosion and biodegradation under inundated conditions, and the permeability of the long-term shaft seal.

  13. Performance Assessment and Composit Analysis Material Disposal...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Performance Assessment and Composit Analysis Material Disposal Area G Revision 4 Performance Assessment and Composit Analysis Material Disposal Area G Revision 4 Los Alamos...

  14. Recommendation 212: Evaluate additional storage and disposal...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2: Evaluate additional storage and disposal options Recommendation 212: Evaluate additional storage and disposal options The ORSSAB encourages DOE to evaluate additional storage...

  15. WIPP - Pioneering Nuclear Waste Disposal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pioneering Nuclear Waste Disposal Cover Page and Table of Contents Closing the Circle The Long Road to WIPP - Part 1 The Long Road to WIPP - Part 2 Looking to the Future Related Reading and The WIPP Team

  16. Optimization of Waste Disposal - 13338

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shephard, E.; Walter, N.; Downey, H.; Collopy, P.; Conant, J.

    2013-07-01

    From 2009 through 2011, remediation of areas of a former fuel cycle facility used for government contract work was conducted. Remediation efforts were focused on building demolition, underground pipeline removal, contaminated soil removal and removal of contaminated sediments from portions of an on-site stream. Prior to conducting the remediation field effort, planning and preparation for remediation (including strategic planning for waste characterization and disposal) was conducted during the design phase. During the remediation field effort, waste characterization and disposal practices were continuously reviewed and refined to optimize waste disposal practices. This paper discusses strategic planning for waste characterization and disposal that was employed in the design phase, and continuously reviewed and refined to optimize efficiency. (authors)

  17. Draft Geologic Disposal Requirements Basis for STAD Specification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilgen, Anastasia G.; Bryan, Charles R.; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-03-25

    This document provides the basis for requirements in the current version of Performance Specification for Standardized Transportation, Aging, and Disposal Canister Systems, (FCRD-NFST-2014-0000579) that are driven by storage and geologic disposal considerations. Performance requirements for the Standardized Transportation, Aging, and Disposal (STAD) canister are given in Section 3.1 of that report. Here, the requirements are reviewed and the rationale for each provided. Note that, while FCRD-NFST-2014-0000579 provides performance specifications for other components of the STAD storage system (e.g. storage overpack, transfer and transportation casks, and others), these have no impact on the canister performance during disposal, and are not discussed here.

  18. Standardization of DOE Disposal Facilities Waste Acceptance Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SHRADER, T.; MACBETH, P.

    2002-01-01

    On February 25, 2000, the US. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) for low-level and mixed low-level wastes (LLW/ MLLW) treatment and disposal. The ROD designated the disposal sites at Hanford and the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to dispose of LLWMLLW from sites without their own disposal facilities. DOE's Richland Operations Office (RL) and the National Nuclear Security Administration's Nevada Operations Office (NV) have been charged with effectively implementing the ROD. To accomplish this task NV and RL, assisted by their operating contractors Bechtel Nevada (BN), Fluor Hanford (FH), and Bechtel Hanford (BH) assembled a task team to systematically map out and evaluate the current waste acceptance processes and develop an integrated, standardized process for the acceptance of LLWMLLW. A structured, systematic, analytical process using the Six Sigma system identified disposal process improvements and quantified the associated efficiency gains to guide changes to be implemented. The review concluded that a unified and integrated Hanford/NTS Waste Acceptance Process would be a benefit to the DOE Complex, particularly the waste generators. The Six Sigma review developed quantitative metrics to address waste acceptance process efficiency improvements, and provides an initial look at development of comparable waste disposal cost models between the two disposal sites to allow quantification of the proposed improvements.

  19. PROPERTY DISPOSAL RECORDS | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PROPERTY DISPOSAL RECORDS PROPERTY DISPOSAL RECORDS These records pertain to the sales by agencies of real and personal property surplus to the needs of the Government PROPERTY DISPOSAL RECORDS (21.21 KB) More Documents & Publications ADMINISTRATIVE RECORDS SCHEDULE 4: PROPERTY DISPOSAL RECORDS (Revision 2) ADMINISTRATIVE RECORDS: PROCUREMENT, SUPPLY, AND GRANT RECORDS ADMINISTRATIVE RECORDS SCHEDULE 12: COMMUNICATIONS RECORDS

  20. Benefits and Costs of Brine Extraction for Increasing Injection Efficiency In geologic CO2 Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Casie L.; Watson, David J.; Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

    2014-12-31

    Pressure increases attendant with CO2 injection into the subsurface drive many of the risk factors associated with commercial-scale CCS projects, impacting project costs and liabilities in a number of ways. The area of elevated pressure defines the area that must be characterized and monitored; pressure drives fluid flow out of the storage reservoir along higher-permeability pathways that might exist through the caprock into overlying aquifers or hydrocarbon reservoirs; and pressure drives geomechanical changes that could potentially impact subsurface infrastructure or the integrity of the storage system itself. Pressure also limits injectivity, which can increase capital costs associated with installing additional wells to meet a given target injection rate. The ability to mitigate pressure increases in storage reservoirs could have significant value to a CCS project, but these benefits are offset by the costs of the pressure mitigation technique itself. Of particular interest for CO2 storage operators is the lifetime cost of implementing brine extraction at a CCS project site, and the relative value of benefits derived from the extraction process. This is expected to vary from site to site and from one implementation scenario to the next. Indeed, quantifying benefits against costs could allow operators to optimize their return on project investment by calculating the most effective scenario for pressure mitigation. This work builds on research recently submitted for publication by the authors examining the costs and benefits of brine extraction across operational scenarios to evaluate the effects of fluid extraction on injection rate to assess the cost effectiveness of several options for reducing the number of injection wells required. Modeling suggests that extracting at 90% of the volumetric equivalent of injection rate resulted in a 1.8% improvement in rate over a non-extraction base case; a four-fold increase in extraction rate results in a 7.6% increase in

  1. Benefits and Costs of Brine Extraction for Increasing Injection Efficiency In geologic CO2 Sequestration

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Davidson, Casie L.; Watson, David J.; Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

    2014-12-31

    Pressure increases attendant with CO2 injection into the subsurface drive many of the risk factors associated with commercial-scale CCS projects, impacting project costs and liabilities in a number of ways. The area of elevated pressure defines the area that must be characterized and monitored; pressure drives fluid flow out of the storage reservoir along higher-permeability pathways that might exist through the caprock into overlying aquifers or hydrocarbon reservoirs; and pressure drives geomechanical changes that could potentially impact subsurface infrastructure or the integrity of the storage system itself. Pressure also limits injectivity, which can increase capital costs associated with installing additionalmore » wells to meet a given target injection rate. The ability to mitigate pressure increases in storage reservoirs could have significant value to a CCS project, but these benefits are offset by the costs of the pressure mitigation technique itself. Of particular interest for CO2 storage operators is the lifetime cost of implementing brine extraction at a CCS project site, and the relative value of benefits derived from the extraction process. This is expected to vary from site to site and from one implementation scenario to the next. Indeed, quantifying benefits against costs could allow operators to optimize their return on project investment by calculating the most effective scenario for pressure mitigation. This work builds on research recently submitted for publication by the authors examining the costs and benefits of brine extraction across operational scenarios to evaluate the effects of fluid extraction on injection rate to assess the cost effectiveness of several options for reducing the number of injection wells required. Modeling suggests that extracting at 90% of the volumetric equivalent of injection rate resulted in a 1.8% improvement in rate over a non-extraction base case; a four-fold increase in extraction rate results in a 7

  2. Behavior of natural uranium, thorium, and radium isotopes in the Wolfcamp brine aquifers, Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laul, J.C.; Smith, M.R.; Hubbard, N.

    1984-10-01

    Previously reported results for Palo Duro deep brines show that Ra is highly soluble and not retarded. Relative to Ra, U and Th are highly sorbed. Uranium, like thorium, is in the +4 valence state, indicating a reducing environment. Additional data reported here support these results. However, one Wolfcamp brine sample gives somewhat different results. Radium appears to be somewhat sorbed. Uranium is largely in the +6 valence state, indicating a less reducing condition. In all brines, kinetics for sorption (/sup 228/Th) and desorption (/sup 224/Ra) are rapid. This Wolfcamp brine was tested for the effects of colloids for Ra, U, and Th concentrations. No effects were found.

  3. Summary Results for Brine Migration Modeling Performed by LANL, LBNL and SNL for the Used Fuel Disposition Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The report summarizes laboratory and field observations and numerical modeling related to coupledprocesses involving brine and vapor migration in geologic salt, focusing on recent developments and...

  4. Tank Waste Disposal Program redefinition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grygiel, M.L.; Augustine, C.A.; Cahill, M.A.; Garfield, J.S.; Johnson, M.E.; Kupfer, M.J.; Meyer, G.A.; Roecker, J.H.; Holton, L.K.; Hunter, V.L.; Triplett, M.B.

    1991-10-01

    The record of decision (ROD) (DOE 1988) on the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes, Hanford Site, Richland Washington identifies the method for disposal of double-shell tank waste and cesium and strontium capsules at the Hanford Site. The ROD also identifies the need for additional evaluations before a final decision is made on the disposal of single-shell tank waste. This document presents the results of systematic evaluation of the present technical circumstances, alternatives, and regulatory requirements in light of the values of the leaders and constitutents of the program. It recommends a three-phased approach for disposing of tank wastes. This approach allows mature technologies to be applied to the treatment of well-understood waste forms in the near term, while providing time for the development and deployment of successively more advanced pretreatment technologies. The advanced technologies will accelerate disposal by reducing the volume of waste to be vitrified. This document also recommends integration of the double-and single-shell tank waste disposal programs, provides a target schedule for implementation of the selected approach, and describes the essential elements of a program to be baselined in 1992.

  5. Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Otis, M.D.

    1994-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ``waste,`` but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity.

  6. CX-010404: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Replace Brine Disposal System Header to West Hackberry Brine Tanks, Government Furnished Equipment CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 04/22/2013 Location(s): Louisiana Offices(s): Strategic Petroleum Reserve Field Office

  7. CX-010401: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Replace Brine Disposal System Header to West Hackberry Brine Tanks CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 04/22/2013 Location(s): Louisiana Offices(s): Strategic Petroleum Reserve Field Office

  8. CX-009718: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Replace Brine Disposal System Header to Bryan Mound Brine Tank, GFE CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 12/11/2012 Location(s): Texas Offices(s): Strategic Petroleum Reserve Field Office

  9. Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leigh, Christi D.; Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from United

  10. Improving medical waste disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, L.

    1994-05-01

    This article describes the use of electron-beam irradiation, steam detoxification, and microwave disinfection systems rather than incineration to rid the waste stream of medical scraps. The topics of the article include biological waste stream sources and amounts, pyrolysis and oxidation, exhaust gas cleanup, superheated steam sterilization and detoxification.

  11. Silica separation from reinjection brines at Monte Amiata geothermal plants, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitolo, S.; Cialdella, M.L. . Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica)

    1994-06-01

    A process for the separation of silica from geothermal reinjection brines is reported, in which the phases of coagulation, sedimentation and filtration of silica are involved. The effectiveness of lime and calcium chloride as coagulating agents has been investigated and the separating operations have been set out. Attention has been focused on Monte Amiata reinjection geothermal brines, whose scaling effect causes serious problems in the operation and maintenance of reinjection facilities. The study has been conducted using different amounts of added coagulants and at different temperatures, to determine optimal operating conditions. Though calcium chloride was revealed to be effective as a coagulant of the polymeric silica fraction, lime has also proved capable of removing monomeric dissolved silica at high dosages. Investigation on the behavior of coagulated brine has revealed the feasibility of separating the coagulated silica by sedimentation and filtration.

  12. Standardization of DOE Disposal Facilities Waste Acceptance Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrader, T. A.; Macbeth, P. J.

    2002-02-26

    On February 25, 2000, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) for low-level and mixed low-level wastes (LLW/ MLLW) treatment and disposal. The ROD designated the disposal sites at Hanford and the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to dispose of LLW/MLLW from sites without their own disposal facilities. DOE's Richland Operations Office (RL) and the National Nuclear Security Administration's Nevada Operations Office (NV) have been charged with effectively implementing the ROD. To accomplish this task NV and RL, assisted by their operating contractors Bechtel Nevada (BN), Fluor Hanford (FH), and Bechtel Hanford (BH) assembled a task team to systematically map out and evaluate the current waste acceptance processes and develop an integrated, standardized process for the acceptance of LLW/MLLW. A structured, systematic, analytical process using the Six Sigma system identified dispos al process improvements and quantified the associated efficiency gains to guide changes to be implemented. The review concluded that a unified and integrated Hanford/NTS Waste Acceptance Process would be a benefit to the DOE Complex, particularly the waste generators. The Six Sigma review developed quantitative metrics to address waste acceptance process efficiency improvements, and provides an initial look at development of comparable waste disposal cost models between the two disposal sites to allow quantification of the proposed improvements.

  13. Modeling Coupled THM Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Blanco-Martin, Laura; Molins, Sergi; Trebotich, David; Birkholzer, Jens

    2015-09-01

    In this report, we present FY2015 progress by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) related to modeling of coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. This is a combined milestone report related to milestone Salt R&D Milestone “Modeling Coupled THM Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures” (M3FT-15LB0818012) and the Salt Field Testing Milestone (M3FT-15LB0819022) to support the overall objectives of the salt field test planning.

  14. ASSESSMENT OF TECHNETIUM LEACHABILITY IN CEMENT STABILIZED BASIN 43 GROUNDWATER BRINE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    COOKE GA; DUNCAN JB; LOCKREM LL

    2008-09-30

    This report is an initial report on the laboratory effort executed under RPP-PLAN-33338, Test Plan for the Assessment of Technetium Leachability in Cement-Stabilized Basin 43 Groundwater Brine. This report delineates preliminary data obtained under subcontract 21065, release 30, from the RJ Lee Group, Inc., Center for Laboratory Sciences. The report is predicated on CLS RPT-816, Draft Report: Assessment of Technetium Leachability in Cement Stabilized Basin 43 Groundwater Brine. This document will be revised on receipt of the final RJ Lee Group, Inc., Center for Laboratory Sciences report, which will contain data subjected to quality control and quality assurance criteria.

  15. Performance of CRA in concentrated brines at 130 to 180 C -- Effect of H{sub 2}S, elemental sulfur and brine composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmitt, G.; Pankoke, U.; Klemp, G.; Bruckhoff, W.; Siegmund, G.

    1997-08-01

    Failure analysis of localized corrosion at 28Cr32Ni (Alloy 28) tubing in a sour gas well prompted systematic investigations on the performance of relevant corrosion resistant alloys (CRA) in synthetic high salinity brines at high H{sub 2}S partial pressures in the absence and presence of elemental sulfur at 130 to 180 C. The CRAs included superaustenitic steels, nickel and nickel-cobalt base alloys and titanium alloys. CRAs with pitting resistance equivalents (PRE) of 39 and lower (including 28Cr32Ni) suffered in unbuffered brines from pitting and crevice corrosion already at 130 C. Alloy C276 and Ti Beta-C alloys proved complete resistance in all media tested up to 180 C. The effect of medium composition on CRA performance was studied at 130 C with respect to the presence of elemental sulfur, H{sub 2}S, iron sulfide, and CaCo{sub 3} in NaCl/CaCl{sub 2} brines with a total of 160 g/l chloride.

  16. Disposal of NORM waste in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

    1998-07-01

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approving cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  17. Transmittal Memo for Disposal Authorization Statement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group (LFRG) has conducted a review of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) 2009 performance assessment (PA) in...

  18. Z-Bed Recovery Water Disposal

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Z-Bed Recovery Water Disposal Tritium Programs Engineering Louis Boone Josh Segura ... detailed explanation of the plan to capture and dispose of Z-Bed Recovery (ZR) water. ...

  19. Disposal Practices at the Nevada Test Site 2008 | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Disposal Practices at the Nevada Test Site 2008 Disposal Practices at the Nevada Test Site 2008 Full Document and Summary Versions are available for download Disposal Practices at ...

  20. Electrochemical Apparatus with Disposable and Modifiable Parts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    research Benefits: Incorporates disposable, commercially available cuvettes Modifiable design Allows multiple experiments using a single solution Designed for interface with...

  1. Sustainable Disposal Cell Covers: Legacy Management Practices,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improvements, and Long-Term Performance | Department of Energy Sustainable Disposal Cell Covers: Legacy Management Practices, Improvements, and Long-Term Performance Sustainable Disposal Cell Covers: Legacy Management Practices, Improvements, and Long-Term Performance Sustainable Disposal Cell Covers: Legacy Management Practices, Improvements, and Long-Term Performance Sustainable Disposal Cell Covers: Legacy Management Practices, Improvements, and Long-Term Performance (882.35 KB) More

  2. REGULATIONS ON PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULE DISPOSAL AND RECYCLING.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FTHENAKIS,V.

    2001-01-29

    Environmental regulations can have a significant impact on product use, disposal, and recycling. This report summarizes the basic aspects of current federal, state and international regulations which apply to end-of-life photovoltaic (PV) modules and PV manufacturing scrap destined for disposal or recycling. It also discusses proposed regulations for electronics that may set the ground of what is to be expected in this area in the near future. In the US, several states have started programs to support the recycling of electronic equipment, and materials destined for recycling often are excepted from solid waste regulations during the collection, transfer, storage and processing stages. California regulations are described separately because they are different from those of most other states. International agreements on the movement of waste between different countries may pose barriers to cross-border shipments. Currently waste moves freely among country members of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and between the US and the four countries with which the US has bilateral agreements. However, it is expected, that the US will adopt the rules of the Basel Convention (an agreement which currently applies to 128 countries but not the US) and that the Convection's waste classification system will influence the current OECD waste-handling system. Some countries adopting the Basel Convention consider end-of-life electronics to be hazardous waste, whereas the OECD countries consider them to be non-hazardous. Also, waste management regulations potentially affecting electronics in Germany and Japan are mentioned in this report.

  3. Shaker Table Experiments with Rare Earth Elements Sorption from Geothermal Brine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Garland

    2015-07-21

    This dataset described shaker table experiments ran with sieved -50 +100 mesh media #1 in brine #1 that have 2ppm each of the 7 REE metals at different starting pH's of 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5. The experimental conditions are 2g media to 150mL of REE solution, at 70C.

  4. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-10

    Salt caverns can be formed in underground salt formations incidentally as a result of mining or intentionally to create underground chambers for product storage or waste disposal. For more than 50 years, salt caverns have been used to store hydrocarbon products. Recently, concerns over the costs and environmental effects of land disposal and incineration have sparked interest in using salt caverns for waste disposal. Countries using or considering using salt caverns for waste disposal include Canada (oil-production wastes), Mexico (purged sulfates from salt evaporators), Germany (contaminated soils and ashes), the United Kingdom (organic residues), and the Netherlands (brine purification wastes). In the US, industry and the regulatory community are pursuing the use of salt caverns for disposal of oil-field wastes. In 1988, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a regulatory determination exempting wastes generated during oil and gas exploration and production (oil-field wastes) from federal hazardous waste regulations--even though such wastes may contain hazardous constituents. At the same time, EPA urged states to tighten their oil-field waste management regulations. The resulting restrictions have generated industry interest in the use of salt caverns for potentially economical and environmentally safe oil-field waste disposal. Before the practice can be implemented commercially, however, regulators need assurance that disposing of oil-field wastes in salt caverns is technically and legally feasible and that potential health effects associated with the practice are acceptable. In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. It investigated regulatory issues; the types of oil-field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location considerations; and disposal operations, closure and remediation issues. It determined

  5. Multi-Pack Disposal Concepts for Spent Fuel (Revision 1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardin, Ernest; Matteo, Edward N.; Hadgu, Teklu

    2016-01-01

    At the initiation of the Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) R&D campaign, international geologic disposal programs and past work in the U.S. were surveyed to identify viable disposal concepts for crystalline, clay/shale, and salt host media. Concepts for disposal of commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste (HLW) from reprocessing are relatively advanced in countries such as Finland, France, and Sweden. The UFD work quickly showed that these international concepts are all “enclosed,” whereby waste packages are emplaced in direct or close contact with natural or engineered materials . Alternative “open” modes (emplacement tunnels are kept open after emplacement for extended ventilation) have been limited to the Yucca Mountain License Application Design. Thermal analysis showed that if “enclosed” concepts are constrained by peak package/buffer temperature, that waste package capacity is limited to 4 PWR assemblies (or 9 BWR) in all media except salt. This information motivated separate studies: 1) extend the peak temperature tolerance of backfill materials, which is ongoing; and 2) develop small canisters (up to 4-PWR size) that can be grouped in larger multi-pack units for convenience of storage, transportation, and possibly disposal (should the disposal concept permit larger packages). A recent result from the second line of investigation is the Task Order 18 report: Generic Design for Small Standardized Transportation, Aging and Disposal Canister Systems. This report identifies disposal concepts for the small canisters (4-PWR size) drawing heavily on previous work, and for the multi-pack (16-PWR or 36-BWR).

  6. Multi-pack Disposal Concepts for Spent Fuel (Rev. 0)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadgu, Teklu; Hardin, Ernest; Matteo, Edward N.

    2015-12-01

    At the initiation of the Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) R&D campaign, international geologic disposal programs and past work in the U.S. were surveyed to identify viable disposal concepts for crystalline, clay/shale, and salt host media (Hardin et al., 2012). Concepts for disposal of commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste (HLW) from reprocessing are relatively advanced in countries such as Finland, France, and Sweden. The UFD work quickly showed that these international concepts are all “enclosed,” whereby waste packages are emplaced in direct or close contact with natural or engineered materials . Alternative “open” modes (emplacement tunnels are kept open after emplacement for extended ventilation) have been limited to the Yucca Mountain License Application Design (CRWMS M&O, 1999). Thermal analysis showed that, if “enclosed” concepts are constrained by peak package/buffer temperature, waste package capacity is limited to 4 PWR assemblies (or 9-BWR) in all media except salt. This information motivated separate studies: 1) extend the peak temperature tolerance of backfill materials, which is ongoing; and 2) develop small canisters (up to 4-PWR size) that can be grouped in larger multi-pack units for convenience of storage, transportation, and possibly disposal (should the disposal concept permit larger packages). A recent result from the second line of investigation is the Task Order 18 report: Generic Design for Small Standardized Transportation, Aging and Disposal Canister Systems (EnergySolution, 2015). This report identifies disposal concepts for the small canisters (4-PWR size) drawing heavily on previous work, and for the multi-pack (16-PWR or 36-BWR).

  7. Repository size for deep geological disposal of partitioning and transmutation high level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishihara, Kenji; Nakayama, Shinichi; Oigawa, Hiroyuki

    2007-07-01

    In order to reveal the impact of the partitioning and transmutation (PT) technology on the geological disposal, we investigated the production and disposal of the radioactive wastes from the PT facilities including the dry reprocessing for the spent fuel from accelerator-driven system. After classifying the PT wastes according to the heat generations, the emplacement configurations in the repository were assumed for each group based on the several disposal concepts proposed for the conventional glass waste form. Then, the sizes of the repositories represented by the vault length, emplacement area and excavation volume were estimated. The repository sizes were reduced by PT technology for all disposal concepts. (authors)

  8. Countercurrent direct contact heat exchange process and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wahl, III, Edward F.; Boucher, Frederic B.

    1979-01-01

    Recovery of energy from geothermal brines and other hot water sources by direct contact heat exchange with a working fluid, such as a hydrocarbon working fluid, e.g. isobutane. The process and system consists of a plurality of stages, each stage including mixing and settling units. In the first stage, hot brine and arm working fluid are intimately mixed and passed into a settler wherein the brine settles to the bottom of the settler and the hot working fluid rises to the top. The hot working fluid is passed to a heat engine or turbine to produce work and the working fluid is then recycled back into the system. The system is comprised of a series of stages each containing a settler and mixer, and wherein the working fluid and the brine flow in a countercurrent manner through the stages to recover the heat from the brine in increments and raise the temperature of the working fluid in increments.

  9. GEOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF CO₂-BRINE-ROCK INTERACTIONS OF THE KNOX GROUP IN THE ILLINOIS BASIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoksoulian, Lois; Berger, Peter; Freiburg, Jared; Butler, Shane; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    Increased output of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide (CO₂), into the atmosphere from anthropogenic sources is of great concern. A potential technology to reduce CO₂ emissions is geologic carbon sequestration. This technology is currently being evaluated in the United States and throughout the world. The geology of the Illinois Basin exhibits outstanding potential as a carbon sequestration target, as demonstrated by the ongoing Illinois Basin – Decatur Project that is using the Mt. Simon Sandstone reservoir and Eau Claire Shale seal system to store and contain 1 million tonnes of CO₂. The Knox Group-Maquoketa Shale reservoir and seal system, located stratigraphically above the Mt. Simon Sandstone-Eau Claire Shale reservoir and seal system, has little economic value as a resource for fossil fuels or as a potable water source, making it ideal as a potential carbon sequestration target. In order for a reservoir-seal system to be effective, it must be able to contain the injected CO₂ without the potential for the release of harmful contaminants liberated by the reaction between CO₂-formation fluids and reservoir and seal rocks. This study examines portions of the Knox Group (Potosi Dolomite, Gunter Sandstone, New Richmond Sandstone) and St. Peter Sandstone, and Maquoketa Shale from various locations around the Illinois Basin. A total of 14 rock and fluid samples were exposed to simulated sequestration conditions (9101–9860 kPa [1320–1430 psi] and 32°–42°C [90°– 108°F]) for varying amounts of time (6 hours to 4 months). Knox Group reservoir rocks exhibited dissolution of dolomite in the presence of CO₂ as indicated by petrographic examination, X-ray diffraction analysis, and fluid chemistry analysis. These reactions equilibrated rapidly, and geochemical modeling confirmed that these reactions reached equilibrium within the time frames of the experiments. Pre-reaction sample mineralogy and postreaction fluid geochemistry from this

  10. Decision document for function 4.2.4 dispose waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claghorn, R.D.

    1996-09-23

    This report formally documents the planning assumptions for Function 4.2.4, Dispose Waste, to provide a basis for lower level Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Disposal Program decisions and analyses. The TWRS Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS 1996) and a supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for closure of operable units will provide the ultimate Records of Decision for the TWRS strategy at this level. However, in the interim, this decision document provides a formal basis for the TWRS Dispose Waste planning assumptions. Function 4.2.4 addresses the disposition of immobilized high-level waste (IHLW), the disposition of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW), and closure of the tank farm operable units.

  11. Decision document for function 4.2.4 dispose waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcconville, C.M.

    1996-09-23

    This report formally documents the planning assumptions for Function 4.2.4, {ital Dispose Waste} to provide a basis for lower level Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Disposal Program decisions and analyses. The TWRS Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS 1996) and a supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for closure of operable units will provide the ultimate Records of Decision for the TWRS strategy at this level. However, in the interim, this decision document provides a formal basis for the TWRS Dispose Waste planning assumptions. Function 4.2.4 addresses the disposition of immobilized high-level waste (IHLW), the disposition of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW), and closure of the tank farm operable units.

  12. Low-level waste disposal in highly populated areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowalski, E.; McCombie, C.; Issler, H.

    1989-11-01

    Nuclear-generated electricity supplies almost 40% of the demand in Switzerland (the rest being hydro-power). Allowing for a certain reserve and assuming an operational life-time of 40 years for each reactor, and taking into account wastes from decommissioning and from medicine, industry and research, the total amount of low-level radioactive waste to be disposed of is about 175,000 m{sup 3}. Since there are no unpopulated areas in Switzerland, and since Swiss Federal Law specifies that the safety of disposal may not depend upon supervision of the repository, no shallow-land burial has been foreseen, even for short-lived low-level waste. Instead, geological disposal in a mined cavern system with access through a horizontal tunnel was selected as the best way of meeting the requirements and ensuring the necessary public acceptance.

  13. Used Fuel Disposal in Crystalline Rocks. FY15 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yifeng

    2015-08-20

    The objective of the Crystalline Disposal R&D Work Package is to advance our understanding of long-term disposal of used fuel in crystalline rocks and to develop necessary experimental and computational capabilities to evaluate various disposal concepts in such media. Chapter headings are as follows: Fuel matrix degradation model and its integration with performance assessments, Investigation of thermal effects on the chemical behavior of clays, Investigation of uranium diffusion and retardation in bentonite, Long-term diffusion of U(VI) in bentonite: dependence on density, Sorption and desorption of plutonium by bentonite, Dissolution of plutonium intrinsic colloids in the presence of clay and as a function of temperature, Laboratory investigation of colloid-facilitated transport of cesium by bentonite colloids in a crystalline rock system, Development and demonstration of discrete fracture network model, Fracture continuum model and its comparison with discrete fracture network model.

  14. Readiness Assessment Plan, Hanford 200 areas treated effluent disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulmer, F.J.

    1995-02-06

    This Readiness Assessment Plan documents Liquid Effluent Facilities review process used to establish the scope of review, documentation requirements, performance assessment, and plant readiness to begin operation of the Treated Effluent Disposal system in accordance with DOE-RLID-5480.31, Startup and Restart of Facilities Operational Readiness Review and Readiness Assessments.

  15. WIPP - Shipment & Disposal Information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shipment & Disposal Information Shipments Received As of February 11, 2014 Site Shipments Loaded Miles Argonne National Laboratory 193 331,333 Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory 5 10,955 GE Vallecitos Nuclear Center 32 44,800 Idaho National Laboratory 5,844 8,132,064 Los Alamos National Laboratory 1,344 459,648 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory 18 24,804 Nevada Test Site 48 57,312 Oak Ridge National Laboratory 131 175,933 Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site 2,045 1,446,444 Hanford

  16. Integrated Used Nuclear Fuel Storage, Transportation, and Disposal Canister

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    System - Energy Innovation Portal Storage Energy Storage Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Integrated Used Nuclear Fuel Storage, Transportation, and Disposal Canister System Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication 11-G00239_ID2603 (2).pdf (847 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Researchers at ORNL have developed an integrated system that

  17. Aerosol can waste disposal device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Michael D.; Klapperick, Robert L.; Bell, Chris

    1993-01-01

    Disclosed is a device for removing gases and liquid from containers. The ice punctures the bottom of a container for purposes of exhausting gases and liquid from the container without their escaping into the atmosphere. The device includes an inner cup or cylinder having a top portion with an open end for receiving a container and a bottom portion which may be fastened to a disposal or waste container in a substantially leak-proof manner. A piercing device is mounted in the lower portion of the inner cylinder for puncturing the can bottom placed in the inner cylinder. An outer cylinder having an open end and a closed end fits over the top portion of the inner cylinder in telescoping engagement. A force exerted on the closed end of the outer cylinder urges the bottom of a can in the inner cylinder into engagement with the piercing device in the bottom of the inner cylinder to form an opening in the can bottom, thereby permitting the contents of the can to enter the disposal container.

  18. Aerosol can waste disposal device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, M.D.; Klapperick, R.L.; Bell, C.

    1993-12-21

    Disclosed is a device for removing gases and liquid from containers. The device punctures the bottom of a container for purposes of exhausting gases and liquid from the container without their escaping into the atmosphere. The device includes an inner cup or cylinder having a top portion with an open end for receiving a container and a bottom portion which may be fastened to a disposal or waste container in a substantially leak-proof manner. A piercing device is mounted in the lower portion of the inner cylinder for puncturing the can bottom placed in the inner cylinder. An outer cylinder having an open end and a closed end fits over the top portion of the inner cylinder in telescoping engagement. A force exerted on the closed end of the outer cylinder urges the bottom of a can in the inner cylinder into engagement with the piercing device in the bottom of the inner cylinder to form an opening in the can bottom, thereby permitting the contents of the can to enter the disposal container. 7 figures.

  19. Disposal Systems Evaluations and Tool Development - Engineered...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... Exchange Capacity CSNF Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (CSNF) COEX Co-Extraction COTS ... exchanges, expert panels, review functions, training and education, etc. ...

  20. UMTRA project disposal cell cover biointrusion sensitivity assessment, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    This study provides an analysis of potential changes that may take place in a Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cell cover system as a result of plant biointrusion. Potential changes are evaluated by performing a sensitivity analysis of the relative impact of root penetrations on radon flux out of the cell cover and/or water infiltration into the cell cover. Data used in this analysis consist of existing information on vegetation growth on selected cell cover systems and information available from published studies and/or other available project research. Consistent with the scope of this paper, no new site-specific data were collected from UMTRA Project sites. Further, this paper does not focus on the issue of plant transport of radon gas or other contaminants out of the disposal cell cover though it is acknowledged that such transport has the potential to be a significant pathway for contaminants to reach the environment during portions of the design life of a disposal cell where plant growth occurs. Rather, this study was performed to evaluate the effects of physical penetration and soil drying caused by plant roots that have and are expected to continue to grow in UMTRA Project disposal cell covers. An understanding of the biological and related physical processes that take place within the cover systems of the UMTRA Project disposal cells helps the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) determine if the presence of a plant community on these cells is detrimental, beneficial, or of mixed value in terms of the cover system`s designed function. Results of this investigation provide information relevant to the formulation of a vegetation control policy.

  1. The Current Status of Radioactive Waste Management and Planning for Near Surface Disposal in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Purnomo, A. S.

    2003-02-24

    Near surface disposal has been practiced for some decades, with a wide variation in sites, types and amounts of wastes, and facility designs employed. Experience has shown that the effective and safe isolation of waste depends on the performance of the overall disposal system, which is formed by three major components or barriers: the site, the disposal facility and the waste form. Near surface disposal also rely on active institutional controls, such as monitoring and maintenance. The objective of radioactive waste disposal is to isolate waste so that it does not result in undue radiation exposure to humans and the environment. The required degree of isolation can be obtained by implementing various disposal methods, of which near surface disposal represents an option commonly used and demonstrated in several countries. In near surface disposal, the disposal facility is located on or below the ground surface, where the protective covering is generally a few meters thick. The se facilities are intended to contain low and intermediate level waste without appreciable quantities of long-lived radionuclides.

  2. Comparison of low-level waste disposal programs of DOE and selected international countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meagher, B.G. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cole, L.T. [Cole and Associates (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to examine and compare the approaches and practices of selected countries for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) with those of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The report addresses the programs for disposing of wastes into engineered LLW disposal facilities and is not intended to address in-situ options and practices associated with environmental restoration activities or the management of mill tailings and mixed LLW. The countries chosen for comparison are France, Sweden, Canada, and the United Kingdom. The countries were selected as typical examples of the LLW programs which have evolved under differing technical constraints, regulatory requirements, and political/social systems. France was the first country to demonstrate use of engineered structure-type disposal facilities. The UK has been actively disposing of LLW since 1959. Sweden has been disposing of LLW since 1983 in an intermediate-depth disposal facility rather than a near-surface disposal facility. To date, Canada has been storing its LLW but will soon begin operation of Canada`s first demonstration LLW disposal facility.

  3. Disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nobile, A.; Motyka, T.

    1991-01-01

    A plan has been established for disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydrides used in Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium production or Materials Test Facility (MTF) R D operations. The recommended plan assumes that the first tritium-exposed metal hydrides will be disposed of after startup of the Solid Waste Disposal Facility (SWDF) Expansion Project in 1992, and thus the plan is consistent with the new disposal requiremkents that will be in effect for the SWDF Expansion Project. Process beds containing tritium-exposed metal hydride powder will be disposed of without removal of the powder from the bed; however, disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydride powder that has been removed from its process vessel is also addressed.

  4. Disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nobile, A.; Motyka, T.

    1991-12-31

    A plan has been established for disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydrides used in Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium production or Materials Test Facility (MTF) R&D operations. The recommended plan assumes that the first tritium-exposed metal hydrides will be disposed of after startup of the Solid Waste Disposal Facility (SWDF) Expansion Project in 1992, and thus the plan is consistent with the new disposal requiremkents that will be in effect for the SWDF Expansion Project. Process beds containing tritium-exposed metal hydride powder will be disposed of without removal of the powder from the bed; however, disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydride powder that has been removed from its process vessel is also addressed.

  5. Method for disposing of hazardous wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burton, Frederick G.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Cline, John F.; Skiens, W. Eugene

    1995-01-01

    A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl- 2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin.

  6. Mixed waste characterization, treatment & disposal focus area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (referred to as the Mixed Waste Focus Area or MWFA) is to provide treatment systems capable of treating DOE`s mixed waste in partnership with users, and with continual participation of stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. The MWFA deals with the problem of eliminating mixed waste from current and future storage in the DOE complex. Mixed waste is waste that contains both hazardous chemical components, subject to the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and radioactive components, subject to the requirements of the Atomic Energy Act. The radioactive components include transuranic (TRU) and low-level waste (LLW). TRU waste primarily comes from the reprocessing of spent fuel and the use of plutonium in the fabrication of nuclear weapons. LLW includes radioactive waste other than uranium mill tailings, TRU, and high-level waste, including spent fuel.

  7. Recovery Act: Molecular Simulation of Dissolved Inorganic Carbons for Underground Brine CO2 Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goddard, William

    2012-11-30

    To further our understanding and develop the method for measuring the DICs under geological sequestration conditions, we studied the infrared spectra of DICs under high pressure and temperature conditions. First principles simulations of DICs in brine conditions were performed using a highly optimized ReaxFF-DIC forcefield. The thermodynamics stability of each species were determined using the 2PT method, and shown to be consistent with the Reax simulations. More importantly, we have presented the IR spectra of DIC in real brine conditions as a function of temperature and pressure. At near earth conditions, we find a breaking of the O-C-O bending modes into asymmetric and symmetric modes, separated by 100cm{sup -1} at 400K and 5 GPa. These results can now be used to calibrate FTIR laser measurements.

  8. Comparison of selected oil-field brines from fields in the Permian basin, West Texas-southeast New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, H.G. III

    1992-04-01

    Stiff diagrams of oil-field brines from the west Texas Permian basin are identifiable within the geological framework. Plotted from a simple analysis of three cations and three anions, older Paleozoic waters can be categorized as either 'pristine' or modified, usually by a later influx of Permian or early Pennsylvanian water. These different plots can be segregated by geologic province. The Permian brines differ by age and also by environment (shelf, basin, etc.).

  9. WPCF Underground Injection Control Disposal Permit Evaluation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    WPCF Underground Injection Control Disposal Permit Evaluation and Fact Sheet Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: WPCF Underground Injection...

  10. Lowman, Idaho, Disposal Site Fact Sheet

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Site Description and History The Lowman disposal site is the location of a former mechanical concentrator for sands containing rare-earth elements, uranium, and thorium. The site ...

  11. DOE Applauds Opening of Historic Disposal Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ANDREWS, Texas – DOE officials participated in an event today to celebrate the opening of the first commercial disposal facility of its kind.

  12. ADMINISTRATIVE RECORDS SCHEDULE 4: PROPERTY DISPOSAL RECORDS...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ADMINISTRATIVE RECORDS SCHEDULE 4: PROPERTY DISPOSAL RECORDS (Revision 2) These records pertain to the sales by agencies of real and personal property surplus to the needs of the ...

  13. Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow S.

    1994-11-22

    A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed, The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts, For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates.

  14. Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1994-11-22

    A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed. The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts. For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates. 54 figs.

  15. Ground-water hydraulics of the deep-basin brine aquifer, Palo Duro Basin, Texas panhandle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Deep-Basin Brine aquifer of the Palo Duro Basin (Texas Panhandle) underlies thick Permian bedded evaporites that are being evaluated as a potential high-level nuclear waste isolation repository. Potentiometric surface maps of 5 units of the Deep-Basin Brine aquifer were drawn using drill-stem test (DST) pressure data, which were analyzed by a geostatistical technique (kriging) to smooth the large variation in the data. The potentiometric surface maps indicate that the Deep-Basin Brine aquifer could be conceptually modeled as 5 aquifer units; a Lower Permian (Wolfcamp) aquifer, upper and lower Pennsylvanian aquifers, a pre-Pennsylvanian aquifer, and a Pennsylvanian to Wolfcampian granite-wash aquifer. The hydraulic head maps indicate that ground-water flow in each of the units is west to east with a minor northerly component near the Amarillo Uplift, the northern structural boundary of the basin. The Wolfcamp potentiometric surface indicates the strongest component of northerly flow. Inferred flow direction in Pennsylvanian aquifers is easterly, and in the pre-Pennsylvanian aquifer near its pinch-out in the basin center, flow is inferred to be to the north. In the granite-wash aquifer the inferred flow direction is east across the northern edge of the basin and southeast along the Amarillo Uplift.

  16. Hanford Landfill Reaches 15 Million Tons Disposed- Waste Disposal Mark Shows Success Cleaning Up River Corridor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    RICHLAND, Wash. – The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors have disposed of 15 million tons of contaminated material at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) since the facility began operations in 1996.

  17. Investigating the construction of pyramid super-structures to dispose of radioactive and hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D.J.

    1994-12-31

    Since the 1950`s, the United States and other countries have focused on utilizing {open_quotes}natural barriers{close_quotes} for disposing of dangerous radioactive and hazardous waste. The Waste Isolation Pilot Projects and Yucca Mountain Project seem practical as well as economical. However, the technical challenges involved in disposing of the waste have been underestimated. For example, geological waste disposal has difficulty in demonstrating reliability, guaranteeing protection against climatic changes or natural disasters (or combinations thereof), or ability to retrieve waste under adverse scenarios. Much has changed since the 1950`s. Technology has advanced dramatically in the areas of materials, science, and engineering. As a result, traditional approaches to waste disposal should be rethought, focusing instead on ways to apply technology breakthroughs to waste disposal problems. This paper proposes investigating the construction of fully retrievable waste disposal systems that resemble pyramid structures and rely totally on engineered barriers and preventive measurements to dispose and store radioactive and hazardous waste. This paper will describe problems currently faced by waste disposal systems that rely on natural barriers. Specific benefits demonstrated will detail the structures flexibility and durability in a number of areas.

  18. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR NON-FUEL COMPONENTS DISPOSAL CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) non-fuel components disposal container system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  19. Advanced Membrane Filtration Technology for Cost Effective Recovery of Fresh Water from Oil & Gas Produced Brine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David B. Burnett

    2005-09-29

    This study is developing a comprehensive study of what is involved in the desalination of oil field produced brine and the technical developments and regulatory changes needed to make the concept a commercial reality. It was originally based on ''conventional'' produced water treatment and reviewed (1) the basics of produced water management, (2) the potential for desalination of produced brine in order to make the resource more useful and available in areas of limited fresh water availability, and (3) the potential beneficial uses of produced water for other than oil production operations. Since we have begun however, a new area of interest has appeared that of brine water treatment at the well site. Details are discussed in this technical progress report. One way to reduce the impact of O&G operations is to treat produced brine by desalination. The main body of the report contains information showing where oil field brine is produced, its composition, and the volume available for treatment and desalination. This collection of information all relates to what the oil and gas industry refers to as ''produced water management''. It is a critical issue for the industry as produced water accounts for more than 80% of all the byproducts produced in oil and gas exploration and production. The expense of handling unwanted waste fluids draws scarce capital away for the development of new petroleum resources, decreases the economic lifetimes of existing oil and gas reservoirs, and makes environmental compliance more expensive to achieve. More than 200 million barrels of produced water are generated worldwide each day; this adds up to more than 75 billion barrels per year. For the United States, the American Petroleum Institute estimated about 18 billion barrels per year were generated from onshore wells in 1995, and similar volumes are generated today. Offshore wells in the United States generate several hundred million barrels of produced water per year. Internationally

  20. Consolidation and disposal of PWR fuel inserts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wakeman, B.H. (Virginia Electric and Power Co., Glen Allen, VA (United States))

    1992-08-01

    Design and licensing of the Surry Power Station Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation was initiated in 1982 by Virginia Power as part of a comprehensive strategy to increase spent fuel storage capacity at the Station. Designed to use large, metal dry storage casks, the Surry Installation will accommodate 84 such casks with a total storage capacity of 811 MTU of spent pressurized water reactor fuel assemblies. Virginia Power provided three storage casks for testing at the Idaho National Engineerinq Laboratory's Test Area North and the testing results have been published by the Electric Power Research Institute. Sixty-nine spent fuel assemblies were transported in truck casks from the Surry Power Station to Test Area North for testing in the three casks. Because of restrictions imposed by the cask testing equipment at Test Area North, the irradiated insert components stored in these fuel assemblies at Surry were removed prior to transport of the fuel assemblies. Retaining these insert components proved to be a problem because of a shortage of spent fuel assemblies in the spent fuel storage pool that did not already contain insert components. In 1987 Virginia Power contracted with Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc. to process and dispose of 136 irradiated insert components consisting of 125 burnable poison rod assemblies, 10 thimble plugging devices and 1 part-length rod cluster control assembly. This work was completed in August and September 1987, culminating in the disposal at the Barnwell, SC low-level radioactive waste facility of two CNS 3-55 liners containing the consolidated insert components.

  1. Generic Deep Geologic Disposal Safety Case

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Generic Deep Geologic Disposal Safety Case presents generic information that is of use in understanding potential deep geologic disposal options (e.g., salt, shale, granite, deep borehole) in the U.S. for used nuclear fuel (UNF) from reactors and high-level radioactive waste (HLW).

  2. Crystalline and Crystalline International Disposal Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, Hari S.; Chu, Shaoping; Reimus, Paul William; Makedonska, Nataliia; Hyman, Jeffrey De'Haven; Karra, Satish; Dittrich, Timothy M.

    2015-12-21

    This report presents the results of work conducted between September 2014 and July 2015 at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the crystalline disposal and crystalline international disposal work packages of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for DOE-NE’s Fuel Cycle Research and Development program.

  3. Combination gas producing and waste-water disposal well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Malinchak, Raymond M.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a waste-water disposal system for use in a gas recovery well penetrating a subterranean water-containing and methane gas-bearing coal formation. A cased bore hole penetrates the coal formation and extends downwardly therefrom into a further earth formation which has sufficient permeability to absorb the waste water entering the borehole from the coal formation. Pump means are disposed in the casing below the coal formation for pumping the water through a main conduit towards the water-absorbing earth formation. A barrier or water plug is disposed about the main conduit to prevent water flow through the casing except for through the main conduit. Bypass conduits disposed above the barrier communicate with the main conduit to provide an unpumped flow of water to the water-absorbing earth formation. One-way valves are in the main conduit and in the bypass conduits to provide flow of water therethrough only in the direction towards the water-absorbing earth formation.

  4. Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste is a framework for moving toward a sustainable program to deploy an integrated system capable of...

  5. Microsoft Word - Appendix C_DisposalCellContents.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... Total occupied volume is below 50 cy. Use 50 cy. 50.00 Brine tanks from SWTP Mixed with soil. Est. conversion factor is 0.430. 25.80 Contaminated Jersey barriers 27 each at 0.5 cy. ...

  6. DESIGN ANALYSIS FOR THE DEFENSE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Radulesscu; J.S. Tang

    2000-06-07

    The purpose of ''Design Analysis for the Defense High-Level Waste Disposal Container'' analysis is to technically define the defense high-level waste (DHLW) disposal container/waste package using the Waste Package Department's (WPD) design methods, as documented in ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' (CRWMS M&O [Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor] 2000a). The DHLW disposal container is intended for disposal of commercial high-level waste (HLW) and DHLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms), placed within disposable canisters. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-managed spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a DHLW disposal container along with HLW forms. The objective of this analysis is to demonstrate that the DHLW disposal container/waste package satisfies the project requirements, as embodied in Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document (SDD) (CRWMS M&O 1999a), and additional criteria, as identified in Waste Package Design Sensitivity Report (CRWMS M&Q 2000b, Table 4). The analysis briefly describes the analytical methods appropriate for the design of the DHLW disposal contained waste package, and summarizes the results of the calculations that illustrate the analytical methods. However, the analysis is limited to the calculations selected for the DHLW disposal container in support of the Site Recommendation (SR) (CRWMS M&O 2000b, Section 7). The scope of this analysis is restricted to the design of the codisposal waste package of the Savannah River Site (SRS) DHLW glass canisters and the Training, Research, Isotopes General Atomics (TRIGA) SNF loaded in a short 18-in.-outer diameter (OD) DOE standardized SNF canister. This waste package is representative of the waste packages that consist of the DHLW disposal container, the DHLW/HLW glass canisters, and the DOE-managed SNF in disposable canisters. The intended use of this analysis is to

  7. Large Component Removal/Disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheeler, D. M.

    2002-02-27

    This paper describes the removal and disposal of the large components from Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant. The large components discussed include the three steam generators, pressurizer, and reactor pressure vessel. Two separate Exemption Requests, which included radiological characterizations, shielding evaluations, structural evaluations and transportation plans, were prepared and issued to the DOT for approval to ship these components; the first was for the three steam generators and one pressurizer, the second was for the reactor pressure vessel. Both Exemption Requests were submitted to the DOT in November 1999. The DOT approved the Exemption Requests in May and July of 2000, respectively. The steam generators and pressurizer have been removed from Maine Yankee and shipped to the processing facility. They were removed from Maine Yankee's Containment Building, loaded onto specially designed skid assemblies, transported onto two separate barges, tied down to the barges, th en shipped 2750 miles to Memphis, Tennessee for processing. The Reactor Pressure Vessel Removal Project is currently under way and scheduled to be completed by Fall of 2002. The planning, preparation and removal of these large components has required extensive efforts in planning and implementation on the part of all parties involved.

  8. FACT SHEET: The Path Forward on Nuclear Waste Disposal | Department...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FACT SHEET: The Path Forward on Nuclear Waste Disposal FACT SHEET: The Path Forward on Nuclear Waste Disposal FACT SHEET: The Path Forward on Nuclear Waste Disposal More Documents...

  9. Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group Manual...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group Manual Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group Manual This Revision 3 of the Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility ...

  10. PILOT TESTING: PRETREATMENT OPTIONS TO ALLOW RE-USE OF FRAC FLOWBACK AND PRODUCED BRINE FOR GAS SHALE RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnett, David

    2012-12-31

    The goal of the A&M DOE NETL Project No. DE-FE0000847 was to develop a mobile, multifunctional water treatment capability designed specifically for “pre-treatment” of field waste brine. The project consisted of constructing s mobile “field laboratory” incorporating new technology for treating high salinity produced water and using the lab to conduct a side-by-side comparison between this new technology and that already existing in field operations. A series of four field trials were performed utilizing the mobile unit to demonstrate the effectiveness of different technology suitable for use with high salinity flow back brines and produced water. The design of the mobile unit was based on previous and current work at the Texas A&M Separation Sciences Pilot Plant. The several treatment techniques which have been found to be successful in both pilot plant and field tests had been tested to incorporate into a single multifunctional process train. Eight different components were evaluated during the trials, two types of oil and grease removal, one BTEX removal step, three micro-filters, and two different nanofilters. The performance of each technique was measured by its separation efficiency, power consumption, and ability to withstand fouling. The field trials were a success. Four different field brines were evaluated in the first trial in New York. Over 16,000 gallons of brine were processed. Using a power cost of $.10 per kWh, media pretreatment power use averaged $0.004 per barrel, solids removal $.04 per barrel and brine “softening” $.84 per barrel. Total power cost was approximately $1.00 per barrel of fluid treated. In Pennsylvania, brines collected from frac ponds were tested in two additional trials. Each of the brines was converted to an oil-free, solids-free brine with no biological activity. Brines were stable over time and would be good candidates for use as a make-up fluid in a subsequent fracturing fluid design. Reports on all of the field