Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine devonian shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Methane adsorption on Devonian shales  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

METHANE ADSORPTION ON DEVONIAN SHALES A Thesis by FAN-CHANG LI Submitted to thc Office of Graclua4e Sturiics of texas AgiM Ulllvel'sliy in pari, ial fulfilhuent of t, hc requirements I'or t, hc degree of ii IAS'I'Elf OF SCIL'NCE December... 1992 Major Subject, : Chemical Engineering METHANE ADSORPTION ON DEVONIAN SHALES A Thesis l&y I'AN-CHANC LI Approved as to style and contcut by: A. T. 'vtratson (Chair of Commitl. ee) John C. Slattery (Member) Bruce . Hcrhcrt (Memhcr...

Li, Fan-Chang

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Reservoir and stimulation analysis of a Devonian Shale gas field  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The Gas Research Institute (GRI) which sponsored this work under GRI Contract No. 5084-213-0980, "Analysis of Eastern Devonian Gas Shales Production Data;" 2. Doug Terry and Joe Petty with Union Drilling, Inc. who showed great interest in this study... and enhance productivity. ~St h The Devonian Shales in the Mason County Field study area can be subdivided using gamma ray logs as follows (in descending order): Upper Devonian Undivided, Huron Shale Member of the Ohio Shale, Java Formation, Angola Shale...

Shaw, James Stanley

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Geologic analysis of Devonian Shale cores  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cleveland Cliffs Iron Company was awarded a DOE contract in December 1977 for field retrieval and laboratory analysis of cores from the Devonian shales of the following eleven states: Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, New York, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Maryland, Kentucky, Tennessee and Virginia. The purpose of this project is to explore these areas to determine the amount of natural gas being produced from the Devonian shales. The physical properties testing of the rock specimens were performed under subcontract at Michigan Technological University (MTU). The study also included LANDSAT information, geochemical research, structural sedimentary and tectonic data. Following the introduction, and background of the project this report covers the following: field retrieval procedures; laboratory procedures; geologic analysis (by state); references and appendices. (ATT)

none,

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Devonian shale gas resource assessment, Illinois basin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1980 the National Petroleum Council published a resource appraisal for Devonian shales in the Appalachian, Michigan, and Illinois basins. Their Illinois basin estimate of 86 TCFG in-place has been widely cited but never verified nor revised. The NPC estimate was based on extremely limited canister off-gas data, used a highly simplified volumetric computation, and is not useful for targeting specific areas for gas exploration. In 1994 we collected, digitized, and normalized 187 representative gamma ray-bulk density logs through the New Albany across the entire basin. Formulas were derived from core analyses and methane adsorption isotherms to estimate total organic carbon (r{sup 2}=0.95) and gas content (r{sup 2}=0.79-0.91) from shale bulk density. Total gas in place was then calculated foot-by-foot through each well, assuming normal hydrostatic pressures and assuming the shale is gas saturated at reservoir conditions. The values thus determined are similar to peak gas contents determined by canister off-gassing of fresh cores but are substantially greater than average off-gas values. Greatest error in the methodology is at low reservoir pressures (or at shallow depths), however, the shale is generally thinner in these areas so the impact on the total resource estimate is small. The total New Albany gas in place was determined by integration to be 323 TCFG. Of this, 210 TCF (67%) is in the upper black Grassy Creek Shale, 72 TCF (23%) in the middle black and gray Selmier Shale, and 31 TCF (10%) in the basal black Blocher Shale. Water production concerns suggest that only the Grassy Creek Shale is likely to be commercially exploitable.

Cluff, R.M.; Cluff, S.G.; Murphy, C.M. [Discovery Group, Inc., Denver, CO (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

5

Devonian shale gas resource assessment, Illinois basin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1980 the National Petroleum Council published a resource appraisal for Devonian shales in the Appalachian, Michigan, and Illinois basins. Their Illinois basin estimate of 86 TCFG in-place has been widely cited but never verified nor revised. The NPC estimate was based on extremely limited canister off-gas data, used a highly simplified volumetric computation, and is not useful for targeting specific areas for gas exploration. In 1994 we collected, digitized, and normalized 187 representative gamma ray-bulk density logs through the New Albany across the entire basin. Formulas were derived from core analyses and methane adsorption isotherms to estimate total organic carbon (r[sup 2]=0.95) and gas content (r[sup 2]=0.79-0.91) from shale bulk density. Total gas in place was then calculated foot-by-foot through each well, assuming normal hydrostatic pressures and assuming the shale is gas saturated at reservoir conditions. The values thus determined are similar to peak gas contents determined by canister off-gassing of fresh cores but are substantially greater than average off-gas values. Greatest error in the methodology is at low reservoir pressures (or at shallow depths), however, the shale is generally thinner in these areas so the impact on the total resource estimate is small. The total New Albany gas in place was determined by integration to be 323 TCFG. Of this, 210 TCF (67%) is in the upper black Grassy Creek Shale, 72 TCF (23%) in the middle black and gray Selmier Shale, and 31 TCF (10%) in the basal black Blocher Shale. Water production concerns suggest that only the Grassy Creek Shale is likely to be commercially exploitable.

Cluff, R.M.; Cluff, S.G.; Murphy, C.M. (Discovery Group, Inc., Denver, CO (United States))

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Reactive gases evolved during pyrolysis of Devonian oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Computer modeling of oil shale pyrolysis is an important part of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Oil Shale Program. Models containing detailed chemistry have been derived from an investigation of Colorado oil shale. We are currently attempting to use models to treat more completely reactions of nitrogen and sulfur compounds in the retort to better understand emissions. Batch retorting work on Devonian oil shale is proving particularly useful for this study of nitrogen/sulfur chemistry. Improved analytical methods have been developed to quantitatively determine reactive volatiles at the parts-per-million level. For example, the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (TQMS) is used in the chemical ionization (CI) mode to provide real-time analytical data on ammonia evolution as the shale is pyrolyzed. A heated transfer line and inlet ensure rapid and complete introduction of ammonia to the instrument by preventing water condensation. Ammonia and water release data suitable for calculating kinetic parameters have been obtained from a New Albany Shale sample. An MS/MS technique with the TQMS in the electron ionization (EI) mode allows hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, and certain trace organic sulfur compounds to be monitored during oil shale pyrolysis. Sensitivity and selectivity for these compounds have been increased by applying artificial intelligence techniques to tuning of the spectrometer. Gas evolution profiles (100 to 900/sup 0/C) are reported for hydrogen sulfide, water, ammonia, and trace sulfur species formed during pyrolysis of Devonian oil shale. Implications for retorting chemistry are discussed. 18 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

Coburn, T.T.; Crawford, R.W.; Gregg, H.R.; Oh, M.S.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Evaluation of Devonian-shale potential in Ohio  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to inform interested oil and gas operators about EGSP results as they pertain to the Devonian gas shales of the Appalachian basin in eastern Ohio. Geologic data and interpretations are summarized, and areas where the accumulation of gas may be large enough to justify commercial production are outlined. Because the data presented in this report are generalized and not suitable for evaluation of specific sites for exploration, the reader should consult the various reports cited for more detail and discussion of the data, concepts, and interpretations presented. A complete list of EGSP sponsored work pertinent to the Devonian shales in Ohio is contained as an appendix to this report. Radioactive shale zones are also mapped.

Not Available

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Characterization of an Eastern Kentucky Devonian Shales well using a naturally fractured, layered reservoir description  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of gas in place. ' Although production from the Devonian Shales began as early as 1821, only an estimated 2. 5 Tscf of gas had been produced through 1980, z with estimates of remaining recoverable gas ranging from 27 Tscf using a current technology... scenario, to 42 Tscf by applying advanced technology. ' Current production frotn the Devonian Shales of the Appalachian Basin is estimated at 0. 2 Tscf per year. ' The Devonian S hales is actively being developed in large portions of Pennsylvania, West...

Jochen, John Edward

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Plants of Devonian-Mississippian black shales, eastern interior, USA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Macrofossils of the New Albany shale and equivalents of Late Devonian of Early Mississippian age in the east-central United States are known from three main floras or assemblages. One flora is almost entirely composed of Callixylon logs, slabs, and slivers, presumed to be driftwood permineralized after burial. Callixylon fossils are most abundant in the upper part of the Clegg Creek Member of the New Albany shale (Famennian) and equivalent strata in western New York, Ohio, and contiguous areas, perhaps because these Propymnosperms reached the zenith of their development at that time. A second, and later, flora consists principally of permineralized wood pieces (phosphatized free-wood or concretions) of stems, rachises, petioles, and possibly even mid-veins of pinnules of diverse members of the Lycopsida, Sphenopsida, Cladoxylales, Coenopteridales, Progymnospermae, and Pteridospermae. The principal concentration of these stem and petiolar segments is in the Falling Run Member of Sanderson Formation of the New Albany shale on the west side of the Cincinnati arch in southern Indiana and Kentucky, and in central Kentucky in the low saddle between the Cincinnati arch proper and its southward extension as the Nashville dome. The third type of macrofossil plant assemblage is consituted of Foerstia. These plants are considered to be algal in origin and indicate no clear relationship either to distance from shore or depth of water. The main concentration is in middle and lower New Albany shale and equivalents. It is also found sparingly in West Virginia and Michigan and much farther west (one specimen from the Exshaw shale of Montana).

Cross, A.T.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Intergrated study of the Devonian-age black shales in eastern Ohio. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This integrated study of the Devonian-age shales in eastern Ohio by the Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological Survey is part of the Eastern Gas Shales Project sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The six areas of research included in the study are: (1) detailed stratigraphic mapping, (2) detailed structure mapping, (3) mineralogic and petrographic characterization, (4) geochemical characterization, (5) fracture trace and lineament analysis, and (6) a gas-show monitoring program. The data generated by the study provide a basis for assessing the most promising stratigraphic horizons for occurrences of natural gas within the Devonian shale sequence and the most favorable geographic areas of the state for natural gas exploration and should be useful in the planning and design of production-stimulation techniques. Four major radioactive units in the Devonian shale sequence are believed to be important source rocks and reservoir beds for natural gas. In order of potential for development as an unconventional gas resource, they are (1) lower and upper radioactive facies of the Huron Shale Member of the Ohio Shale, (2) upper Olentangy Shale (Rhinestreet facies equivalent), (3) Cleveland Shale Member of the Ohio Shale, and (4) lower Olentangy Shale (Marcellus facies equivalent). These primary exploration targets are recommended on the basis of areal distribution, net thickness of radioactive shale, shows of natural gas, and drilling depth to the radioactive unit. Fracture trends indicate prospective areas for Devonian shale reservoirs. Good geological prospects in the Devonian shales should be located where the fracture trends coincide with thick sequences of organic-rich highly radioactive shale.

Gray, J.D.; Struble, R.A.; Carlton, R.W.; Hodges, D.A.; Honeycutt, F.M.; Kingsbury, R.H.; Knapp, N.F.; Majchszak, F.L.; Stith, D.A.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Evaluation of massive hydraulic fracturing experiments in the Devonian Shales in Lincoln County, West Virginia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EVALUATION OF MASSIVE HYDRAULIC FRACTURING EXPERIMENTS IN THE DEVONIAN SHALES IN LINCOLN COUNTY, WEST VIRGINIA A Thesis by KAREN ELAINE HOLGATE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ALM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1987 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering EVALUATION OF MASSIVE HYDRAULIC FRACTURING EXPERIMENTS IN THE DEVONIAN SHALES IN LINCOLN COUNTY, WEST VIRGINIA A Thesis by KAREN ELAINE HDLGATE Approved...

Holgate, Karen Elaine

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Effects of stimulation/completion practices on Eastern Devonian Shale well productivity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the Devonian shale, ' then the degree of fracture density and fracture preferential direction caused by these stresses should dictate the choice of stimulation method. Young states that fracture orientation will be dictated by the in-situ stress field...EFFECTS OF STIMULATION/COMPLETION PRACTICES ON EASTERN DEVONIAN SHALE WELL PRODUCTIVITY A Thesis by TIMOTHY RAY NEARING Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

Nearing, Timothy Ray

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

The use of Devonian oil shales in the production of portland cement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Lafarge Corporation operates a cement plant at Alpena, Michigan in which Antrim shale, a Devonian oil shale, is used as part of the raw material mix. Using this precedent the authors examine the conditions and extent to which spent shale might be utilized in cement production. They conclude that the potential is limited in size and location but could provide substantial benefit to an oil shale operation meeting these criteria.

Schultz, C.W.; Lamont, W.E. [Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States); Daniel, J. [Lafarge Corp., Alpena, MI (United States)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

14

Natural gas potential of the New Albany shale group (Devonian-Mississippian) in southeastern Illinois  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Data from geologic and geochemical studies of the New Albany shale group indicate that a 19-country area of southeastern Illinois is a favorable area to explore for gas in Devonian shale. Although gas shows in the shales have been encountered in several wells drilled in this area, no attempts were made to complete or evaluate a shale gas well until 1979. It is found that conventional rotary drilling with mud base drilling fluids likely causes extensive formation damage and may account for the paucity of gas shows and completion attempts in the Devonian shales; therefore, commercial production of shale gas in Illinois probably will require novel drilling completion techniques not commonly used by local operators. 16 refs.

Cluff, R.M.; Dickerson, D.R.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Sedimentology of gas-bearing Devonian shales of the Appalachian Basin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Eastern Gas Shales Project (1976-1981) of the US DOE has generated a large amount of information on Devonian shale, especially in the western and central parts of the Appalachian Basin (Morgantown Energy Technology Center, 1980). This report summarizes this information, emphasizing the sedimentology of the shales and how it is related to gas, oil, and uranium. This information is reported in a series of statements each followed by a brief summary of supporting evidence or discussion and, where interpretations differ from our own, we include them. We believe this format is the most efficient way to learn about the gas-bearing Devonian shales of the Appalachian Basin and have organized our statements as follows: paleogeography and basin analysis; lithology and internal stratigraphy; paleontology; mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry; and gas, oil, and uranium.

Potter, P.E.; Maynard, J.B.; Pryor, W.A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and acquisition of reservoir property measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In October, a contract was awarded for the Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and Acquisition of Reservoir Property measurements from wells in the Michigan, Illinois, and Appalachian Basins. Geologic and engineering data collected through this project will provide a better understanding of the mechanisms and conditions controlling shale gas production. This report summarizes the results obtained from the various testing procedures used at each wellsite and the activities conducted at the Reservoir Testing Facility.

Locke, C.D.; Salamy, S.P.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and acquisition of reservoir property measurements. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In October, a contract was awarded for the Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and Acquisition of Reservoir Property measurements from wells in the Michigan, Illinois, and Appalachian Basins. Geologic and engineering data collected through this project will provide a better understanding of the mechanisms and conditions controlling shale gas production. This report summarizes the results obtained from the various testing procedures used at each wellsite and the activities conducted at the Reservoir Testing Facility.

Locke, C.D.; Salamy, S.P.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Devonian oil shale of the eastern United States: a major American energy resource  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The eastern Devonian oil shale resource can yield 400 billion (400 X 10/sup 9/) bbl of synthetic oil, if all surface and near-surface shales were strip or deep mined for above-ground hydroretorting. Experimental work, in equipment capable of processing up to 1 ton/h of shale, has confirmed the technical and economic feasibility of aboveground hydroretorting of oil shales. Work done to date on nearly 500 samples from 12 states indicates that the HYTORT Process can give organic carbon recoveries from 2 to 2.5 times those of conventional retorting of the Devonian shales, so that the HYTORT Process yields 25 to 30 gallons per ton on syncrude at many localities, compared with 10 to 15 gallons per ton using Fischer Assay retort methods. Criteria for inclusion of shale in estimates of recoverable resources for the HYTORT Process are: (1) organic carbon of at least 10% by weight; (2) overburden of less than 200 feet (59 meters); (3) volumetric stripping ratios of less than 2.5 to 1; and (4) stratigraphic thickness of 10 feet (3 meters) or more. Resource estimates include: Kentucky (Ohio, New Albany, and Sunbury shales), 190 billion (190 X 10/sup 9/) barrels (bbl); Ohio (Ohio and Sunbury shales), 140 billion bbl; Tennessee (Chattanooga shale), 44 billion bbl; Indiana (New Albany shale), 40 billion bbl; Michigan (Antrim shale), 5 billion bbl; and Alabama (Chattanooga shale), 4 billion bbl. Recoverable resources have not been identified in West Virginia, Georgia, Oklahoma, Illinois, Arkansas, or Missouri outcrops. Co-production of uranium and metals is a possibility in the areas favorable for syncrude production.

Matthews, R.D.; Janka, J.C.; Dennison, J.M.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Studies of the New Albany Shale (Devonian and Mississippian) and equivalent strata in Indiana  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A formation of black carbonaceous shale, later named the New Albany Shale, was first recognized in 1837 and reported in 1839 by David D. Owen. Since then, the New Albany has been the subject of numerous investigations by individuals affiliated with the Indiana Geological Survey and others. The present comprehensive investigation, involves petrology, mineralogy, stratigraphy, geomorphology, organic and inorganic geochemistry, and physical properties. The lower part of the New Albany Shale is late Middle Devonian in age, and the upper part is Early Mississippian in age.

Hasenmueller, N.R.; Woodard, G.S. (eds.)

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Devonian-Mississippian oil shale resources of Kentucky: a summary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Assessment of the oil shale resources in Kentucky has continued with 75 NX cores available where the oil shale crops out or is overlain by relatively thin cover in the area from Estill County westward to Bullitt County. In this 14 county area, the total black shale section thins across the crest of the Cincinnati arch and changes stratigraphically from that characteristic of the Ohio Shale in Estill County to that of the New Albany Shale in Bullitt County. Despite this stratigraphic transition the two high-carbon zones (greater than 8.0% carbon) can be traced across the arch. As the traverse is followed from the east, the intervening low-carbon zones thin such that at the crest of the arch, there are areas where the entire section of black shale contains more than 8% carbon. Then upon leaving the crest the two high-carbon zones separate again with one remaining at the very top of the section and one in the lower part. In the 14 county area, there are approximately 3.8 x 10/sup 5/ acres of oil shale outcrop and approximately 7.8 x 10/sup 5/ acres underlain by oil shale at relatively shallow depths.

Barron, L.S.; Robl, T.L.; Kung, J.; Obley, J.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine devonian shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

A study of the effects of stimulation on Devonian Shale gas well performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of actual production data from producing Devonian Shale gas wells throughout the Appalachian Basin. These comparisons are of limited use, however, because they fail to take into account recently developed stimulation technologies and because compari... by analysis of these data. Unfortunately, too little data are available for wells stimulated using current technologies. This study included no production data from wells stimulated by radial (tailored-pulse) fracturing methods. These data are vital...

Zuber, Michael Dean

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Modern Devonian shale gas search starting in southwestern Indiana  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The New Albany shale of southwestern Indiana is a worthwhile exploration and exploitation objective. The technical ability to enhance natural fractures is available, the drilling depths are shallow, long term gas reserves are attractive, markets are available, drilling costs are reasonable, risks are very low, multiple drilling objectives are available, and the return on investment is good. Indiana Geological Survey records are well organized, accessible, and easy to use. The paper describes the New Albany shale play, play size, early exploration, geologic setting, completion techniques, and locating prime areas.

Minihan, E.D.; Buzzard, R.D. (Minihan/Buzzard Consulting Firm, Fort Worth, TX (United States))

1995-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

23

Fractured gas reservoirs in the Devonian shale of the Illinois and Appalachian basins  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Devonian and Lower Mississippian black shale sequence of Kentucky includes the New Albany Shale of Illinois basin and the Ohio Shale of the Appalachian basin. Fractured reservoirs in the Ohio Shale contain a major gas resource, but have not been so prolific in the New Albany Shale. The authors propose two models of fractured shale reservoirs in both the Illinois and the Appalachian basins, to be tested with gas production data. (1) Where reactivated basement faults have propagated to the surface, the lack of an effective seal has prevented the development of overpressure. The resulting fracture system is entirely tectonic is origin, and served mainly as a conduit for gas migration from the basin to the surface. Gas accumulations in such reservoirs typically are small and underpressured. (2) Where basement faults have been reactivated but have not reached the surface, a seal on the fractured reservoir is preserved. In areas where thermal maturity has been adequate, overpressuring due to gas generation resulted in a major extension of the fracture system, as well as enhanced gas compression and adsorption. Such gas accumulations are relatively large. Original overpressuring has been largely lost, due both to natural depletion and to uncontrolled production. The relative thermal immaturity of the Illinois basin accounts for the scarcity of the second type of fractured reservoir and the small magnitude of the New Albany Shale gas resource.

Hamilton-Smith, T.; Walker, D.; Nuttall, B. (Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington (United States))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Relationship between bitumen maturity and organic facies in Devonian shales from the Appalachian basin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Variation in several bitumen maturity parameters was studied in a core of Devonian shale from the central Appalachian basin. Kerogens in the shales are at maturity levels equivalent to the early stages of oil generation and range in composition from Type III-IV to Type II-III. Maturity parameters based on steranes, terpanes, and n-alkanes exhibit fluctuations that are unrelated to thermal maturity changes in the core. The parameters correlate with one another to a high degree and appear to be directly or indirectly related to the organic facies of the shales. The maturity level indicated by each parameter increases with total organic carbon (TOC) content and hydrogen index value. The greatest variation occurs in rocks with TOC values below 2% and hydrogen index values below 250. The data provide a good opportunity to examine the dependency of bitumen maturity on organic facies, and they highlight a caveat to be considered during interpretation.

Daly, A.R.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Organic-matter preservation in Chattanooga Shale: revised Late Devonian correlations, Kentucky and Tennessee  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Continued interest in the carbon-rich shale of Devonian and Mississippian age in Kentucky is reflected by intensive leasing and drilling to evaluate the potential reserves of oil shale. Thicker accumulations of shale suitable for surface extraction lie along the flanks of the Cincinnati arch in both the Illinois and Appalachian basins. The shale tends to thin across the Cincinnati arch by an order of magnitude (100 versus 10 m, 330 versus 33 ft), and individual units disappear entirely. Key beds have been used with mixed success in tracing these changes. Recognition of these key beds in cores provided by a recently completed 70-core drilling program in and near the outcrop is the basis for revising earlier suggested correlations. One key bed, marked by the occurrence of the alga. Foerstia (Protosalvinia), occurs in the lower part of the lower (Huron) member of the Ohio Shale in the Appalachian basin. The Huron Member is overlain by a lithostratigraphic marker, the Three Lick Bed. The Foerstia Zone has been traced in core and outcrop to the upper part of the uppermost (Clegg Creek) member of the New Albany Shale in the Illinois basin. Discovery in this widespread continuous biostratigraphic marker at the top of the upper (Gassaway) member of the Chattanooga Shale near the designated reference section in Dekalb County, Tennessee, suggests that the Three Lick Bed of the Ohio Shales does not correlate with the unit of the Gassaway Member of the Chattanooga Shale as thought. Field relations indicate that the Three Lick Bed is absent by nondeposition, and starved-basin conditions prevailed into Early Mississippian time in this part of Tennessee.

Kepferle, R.C.; Pollock, J.D.; Barron, L.S.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2003-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

27

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2003-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

28

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2003-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

29

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of shale. At 500 psia, adsorption capacity of the Lower Huron Member of the shale is 72 scf/ton. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. The black shales of Kentucky could be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, and their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 percent (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of shale. At 500 psia, adsorption capacity of the Lower Huron Member of the shale is 72 scf/ton. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. The black shales of Kentucky could be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, and their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of shale. At 500 psia, adsorption capacity of the Lower Huron Member of the shale is 72 scf/ton. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. The black shales of Kentucky could be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, and their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2003-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

32

Coordinated study of the Devonian black shale in the Illinois Basin: Illinois, Indiana, and western Kentucky. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An evaluation of the resource potential of the Devonian shales, called the Eastern Gas Shales Project (EGSP) was begun. A study of the stratigraphy, structure, composition, and gas content of the Devonian shale in the Illinois Basin was undertaken by the State Geological Surveys of Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky, under contract to the U.S. DOE as a part of the EGSP. Certain additional data were also developed by other research organizations (including Monsanto Research Corporation-Mound Facility and Battelle-Columbus Laboratory) on cores taken from the Illinois Basin. This report, an overview of geological data on the Illinois basin and interpretations of this data resulting from the EGSP, highlights areas of potential interest as exploration targets for possible natural gas resources in the Devonian shale of the basin. The information in this report was compiled during the EGSP from open file data available at the three State Geological surveys and from new data developed on cores taken by the DOE from the basin specifically for the EGSP. The organically richest shale is found in southeastern Illinois and in most of the Indiana and Kentucky portions of the Illinois Basin. The organic-rich shales in the New Albany are thickest near the center of the basin in southeastern Illinois, southwestern Indiana, and adjacent parts of Kentucky portions of the Illinois Basin. The organic-rich shales in the New Albany are thickest near the center of the basin in southeastern Illinois, southwestern Indiana, and adjacent parts of Kentucky. Natural fractures in the shale may aid in collecting gas from a large volume of shale. These fractures may be more abundant and interconnected to a greater degree in the vicinity of major faults. Major faults along the Rough Creek Lineament and Wabash Valley Fault System cross the deeper part of the basin.

Lineback, J.A.

1980-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

33

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2003-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

34

Inorganic geochemistry of Devonian shales in southern West Virginia: geographic and stratigraphic trends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Samples of cuttings from twenty-one wells and a core from a single well in southern West Virginia were analyzed for major and minor elements: silicon, aluminum, iron, magnesium, calcium, sodium, titanium, phosphorus, manganese, sulfur, zinc, and strontium. Stratigraphic and geographic controls on elemental abundances were studied through canonical correlations, factor analyses, and trend surface analyses. The most abundant elements, silicon and aluminum, show gradual trends through the stratigraphic column of most wells, with silicon increasing and aluminum decreasing up-section. Other elements such as calcium, sulfur, and titanium change abruptly in abundance at certain stratigraphic boundaries. Important geographic trends run east-west: for instance, one can see an increase in sulfur and a decrease in titanium to the west; and a decrease in silicon from the east to the central part of the study area, then an increase further west. Although observed vertical trends in detrital minerals and geographic patterns in elemental abundances agree with the accepted view of a prograding delta complex during Late Devonian time, geographically-local, time restricted depositional processes influenced elemental percentages in subsets of the wells and the stratigraphic intervals studied. The black shales of lower Huron age do not represent simply a return of depositional conditions present in the earlier Rhinestreet time; nor do the gray shales of the Ohio Shale represent the same environmental conditions as the Big White Slate.

Hohn, M.E.; Neal, D.W.; Renton, J.J.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Demonstration projects for coalbed methane and Devonian shale gas: Final report. [None  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1979, the US Department of Energy provided the American Public Gas Association (APGA) with a grant to demonstrate the feasibility of bringing unconventional gas such as methane produced from coalbeds or Devonian Shale directly into publicly owned utility system distribution lines. In conjunction with this grant, a seven-year program was initiated where a total of sixteen wells were drilled for the purpose of providing this untapped resource to communities who distribute natural gas. While coalbed degasification ahead of coal mining was already a reality in several parts of the country, the APGA demonstration program was aimed at actual consumer use of the gas. Emphasis was therefore placed on degasification of coals with high methane gas content and on utilization of conventional oil field techniques. 13 figs.

Verrips, A.M.; Gustavson, J.B.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Tectonic and flexural significance of Middle Devonian graben-fill sequence in new Albany shale, central Kentucky  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The third tectonic phase of the Acadian orogeny began in the late Middle Devonian, and the sedimentary record of that event is largely restricted to the deeper, more proximal portions of the Appalachian foreland and Illinois intercratonic basins. Much of the intervening area, on and near the Cincinnati arch, was uplifted and subjected to erosion by movement on the peripheral bulge accompanying the initiation of the third tectonic phase. However, bulge movement also reactivated basement fault systems in Kentucky and created a series of grabens that were filled with eroded sediments and debris flows from adjacent horsts. Although rarely preserved, a buried Devonian graben along Carpenter Fork in Boyle County, central Kentucky, reveals such a sequence. The graben is bounded by upthrown blocks of Middle Devonian Boyle Dolomite, which also floors the graben. Within the graben a black-shale unit, apparently absent elsewhere, conformably overlies the Boyle and grades upward into debris-flow deposits represented by the Duffin breccia facies of the New Albany Shale. The Duffin contains clasts of the shale, as well as of chert, silicified fossils, and fine to boulder-size dolostone clasts eroded from the Boyle high on the flanks of the graben. The underlying shale also exhibits evidence of penecontemporaneous soft-sediment deformation related to the debris-flow emplacement of Boyle residue in the graben and due to later loading by the Duffin.

Barnett, S.F.; Ettensohn, F.R.; Mellon, C. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (USA))

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Stratigraphy and organic petrography of Mississippian and Devonian oil shale at the Means Project, East-Central Kentucky  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Means Oil Shale Project is under consideration for financial assistance by the US Synthetic Fuels Corporation. The project site is located in southern Montgomery County, about 45 miles east of Lexington, Kentucky. In the site area the Devonian Ohio Shale and the Mississippian Sunbury Shale are under study; these oil shales were deposited in the Appalachian Basin. The objective of the Means Project is to mine, using open pit methods, an ore zone which includes the Sunbury and upper Cleveland and which excludes the Bedford interburden. The thick lower grade oil shale below this ore zone renders the higher grade shale at the base of the Huron commercially unattractive. The oil shale at Means has been classified as a marinite, an oil shale containing abundant alginite of marine origin. Lamalginite is the dominant liptinite and comprises small, unicellular alginite with weak to moderate fluorescence at low rank and a distinctive lamellar form. Telalginite, derived from large colonial or thick-walled, unicellular algae, is common in several stratigraphic intervals.

Solomon, B.J.; Hutton, A.C.; Henstridge, D.A.; Ivanac, J.F.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Paleoecology of the Devonian-Mississippian black-shale sequence in eastern Kentucky with an atlas of some common fossils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Devonian-Mississippian black-shale sequence of eastern North America is a distinctive stratigraphic interval generally characterized by low clastic influx, high organic production in the water column, anaerobic bottom conditions, and the relative absence of fossil evidence for biologic activity. The laminated black shales which constitute most of the black-shale sequence are broken by two major sequences of interbedded greenish-gray, clayey shales which contain bioturbation and pyritized micromorph invertebrates. The black shales contain abundant evidence of life from upper parts of the water column such as fish fossils, conodonts, algae and other phytoplankton; however, there is a lack of evidence of benthic life. The rare brachiopods, crinoids, and molluscs that occur in the black shales were probably epiplanktic. A significant physical distinction between the environment in which the black sediments were deposited and that in which the greenish-gray sediments were deposited was the level of dissolved oxygen. The laminated black shales point to anaerobic conditions and the bioturbated greenish-gray shales suggest dysaerobic to marginally aerobic-dysaerobic conditions. A paleoenvironmental model in which quasi-estuarine circulation compliments and enhances the effect of a stratified water column can account for both depletion of dissolved oxygen in the bottom environments and the absence of oxygen replenishment during black-shale deposition. Periods of abundant clastic influx from fluvial environments to the east probably account for the abundance of clays in the greenish-gray shale as well as the small amounts of oxygen necessary to support the depauparate, opportunistic, benthic faunas found there. These pulses of greenish-gray clastics were short-lived and eventually were replaced by anaerobic conditions and low rates of clastic sedimentation which characterized most of black-shale deposition.

Barron, L.S.; Ettensohn, F.R.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2005-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

40

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2005-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine devonian shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library are being sampled to collect CO{sub 2} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples have been acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log has been acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 4.62 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 19 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 86 scf/ton in the Lower Huron Member of the shale. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2005-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

43

Parameter sensitivity analysis of tailored-pulse loading stimulation of Devonian gas shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An evaluation of three tailored-pulse loading parameters has been undertaken to access their importance in gas well stimulation technology. This numerical evaluation was performed using STEALTH finite-difference codes and was intended to provide a measure of the effects of various tailored-pulse load configurations on fracture development in Devonian gas shale. The three parameters considered in the sensitivity analysis were: loading rate; decay rate; and sustained peak pressures. By varying these parameters in six computations and comparing the relative differences in fracture initiation and propagation the following conclusions were drawn: (1) Fracture initiation is directly related to the loading rate aplied to the wellbore wall. Loading rates of 10, 100 and 1000 GPa/sec were modeled. (2) If yielding of the rock can be prevented or minimized, by maintaining low peak pressures in the wellbore, increasing the pulse loading rate, to say 10,000 GPa/sec or more, should initiate additional multiple fractures. (3) Fracture initiation does not appear to be related to the tailored-pulse decay rate. Fracture extension may be influenced by the rate of decay. The slower the decay rate, the longer the crack extension. (4) Fracture initiation does not appear to be improved by a high pressure plateau in the tailored-pulse. Fracture propagation may be enhanced if the maintained wellbore pressure plateau is of sufficient magnitude to extent the range of the tangential tensile stresses to greater radial distances. 26 figures, 2 tables.

Barbour, T.G.; Mihalik, G.R.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Assessment of environmental health and safety issues associated with the commercialization of unconventional gas recovery: Devonian shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to identify and examine potential public health and safety issues and the potential environmental impacts from recovery of natural gas from Devonian age shale. This document will serve as background data and information for planners within the government to assist in development of our new energy technologies in a timely and environmentally sound manner. This report describes the resource and the DOE eastern gas shales project in Section 2. Section 3 describes the new and developing recovery technologies associated with Devonian shale. An assessment of the environment, health and safety impacts associated with a typical fields is presented in Section 4. The typical field for this assessment occupies ten square miles and is developed on a 40-acre spacing (that is, there is a well in each 40-acre grid). This field thus has a total of 160 wells. Finally, Section 5 presents the conclusions and recommendations. A reference list is provided to give a greater plant. Based on the estimated plant cost and the various cases of operating income, an economic analysis was performed employing a profitability index criterion of discounted cash flow to determine an interest rate of return on the plant investment.

Not Available

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Bibliography of the paleontology and paleoecology of the Devonian-Mississippian black-shale sequence in North America  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Devonian-Mississippian black-shale sequence is one of the most prominent and well-known stratigraphic horizons in the Paleozoic of the United States, yet the paleontology and its paleoecologic and paleoenvironmental implications are poorly known. This is in larger part related to the scarcity of fossils preserved in the shale - in terms of both diversity and abundance. Nonetheless, that biota which is preserved is well-known and much described, but there is little synthesis of this data. The first step in such a synthesis is the compilation of an inclusive bibliography such as this one. This bibliography contains 1193 entries covering all the major works dealing with Devonian-Mississippian black-shale paleontology and paleoecology in North America. Articles dealing with areas of peripheral interest, such as paleogeography, paleoclimatology, ocean circulation and chemistry, and modern analogues, are also cited. In the index, the various genera, taxonomic groups, and other general topics are cross-referenced to the cited articles. It is hoped that this compilation will aid in the synthesis of paleontologic and paleoecologic data toward a better understanding of these unique rocks and their role as a source of energy.

Barron, L.S.; Ettensohn, F.R.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

The use of pre- and post-stimulation well test analysis in the evaluation of stimulation effectiveness in the Devonian Shales of the Appalachian Basin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gas wells throughout the Appalachian Basin. The analysis of pre-stimulation well tests from four wells in Pike County, KY illustrates the practical difficulties in obtaining analyzable data from Devonian Shale wells. Fig. 1 shows the location... and requires that the flow periods prior to shut-in be even longer. The Martin 1 well located in Martin County, KY illustrates the problem of an insufficient flow period in a more typical Devonian Shale well test. The Martin 1 well was studied as part...

Lancaster, David Earl

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Petrology of the Devonian gas-bearing shale along Lake Erie helps explain gas shows  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Comprehensive petrologic study of 136 thin sections of the Ohio Shale along Lake Erie, when combined with detailed stratigraphic study, helps explain the occurrence of its gas shows, most of which occur in the silty, greenish-gray, organic poor Chagrin Shale and Three Lick Bed. Both have thicker siltstone laminae and more siltstone beds than other members of the Ohio Shale and both units also contain more clayshales. The source of the gas in the Chagrin Shale and Three Lick Bed of the Ohio Shale is believed to be the bituminous-rich shales of the middle and lower parts of the underlying Huron Member of the Ohio Shale. Eleven petrographic types were recognized and extended descriptions are provided of the major ones - claystones, clayshales, mudshales, and bituminous shales plus laminated and unlaminated siltstones and very minor marlstones and sandstones. In addition three major types of lamination were identified and studied. Thirty-two shale samples were analyzed for organic carbon, whole rock hydrogen and whole rock nitrogen with a Perkin-Elmer 240 Elemental Analyzer and provided the data base for source rock evaluation of the Ohio Shale.

Broadhead, R.F.; Potter, P.E.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Evaluation of Devonian shale potential in Illinois, Indiana, and western Kentucky  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Potential natural gas resources in the New Albany Shale of the Illinois basin may be related to five key factors: relative organic content of the shale; relative thickness of the organically-rich shale; thermal maturity as related to depth of burial; presence of natural fractures; and type of organic matter. The shale that is organically richest is in southeastern Illinois and in most of the Indiana and Kentucky portions of the Illinois basin. The shales are thickest (about 400 feet) near the center of the basin in southeastern Illinois, southwestern Indiana, and adjacent parts of Kentucky. The area is deeply buried by younger rocks, and the organic matter has the highest thermal maturity. In addition, natural fault-induced fractures in the shale, which may aid in collecting gas from a larger volume of shale, may be present, since major faults along the Rough Creek Lineament and Wabash Valley Fault System cross the deeper part of the basin. Thus, this area near the basin center where the shale is thickest and rich organically and where fault-induced fractures may be present has the greatest potential for natural-gas resources. The eastern side of the basin, where the shale is organic-rich but thin, may have poor to moderate potential for additional discoveries of small gas fields similar to those found in the past. In western Illinois and the northern part of the basin, the potential is poor, because the organic content of the dominantly greenish-gray shale in this area is low. More exploration will be required to properly evaluate potential resources of natural gas that may exist in the New Albany Shale.

Not Available

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Gas potential of new Albany shale (Devonian-Mississippian) in the Illinois Basin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study to update and evaluate publicly available data relating to present and potential gas production from New Albany Shale in the Illinois basin was conducted cooperatively by the Indiana. Illinois, and Kentucky geological surveys (Illinois Basin Consortium), and was partially funded by the Gas Research Institute. Deliverables included a plate of stratigraphic cross sections and six basin-wide maps at a scale of 1:1,000,000. The New Albany Shale is an organic-rich brownish black shale present throughout the Illinois basin. Gas potential of the New Albany Shale may be great because it contains an estimated 86 tcf of natural gas and has produced modest volumes since 1858 from more than 60 fields, mostly in the southeastern part of the basin. Reservoir beds include organic-rich shales of the Grassy Creek (Shale), Clegg Creek, and Blocher (Shale) members. Limited geologic and carbon isotope data indicate that the gas is indigenous and thermogenic. T[sub max] data suggest that the gas generation begins at R[sub o] values of 0.53% and may begin at R[sub 0] values as low as 0.41% in some beds. New Albany Shale reservoirs contain both free gas in open-pore space and gas adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. Natural fracturing is essential for effective reservoir permeability. Fractures are most common near structures such as faults, flexures, and buried carbonate banks. Based on limited data, fractures and joints have preferred orientations of 45-225[degrees] and 135-315[degrees]. Commercial production requires well stimulation to connect the well bore with the natural fracture system and to prop open pressure-sensitive near-borehole fractures. Current stimulations employ hydraulic fracture treatments using nitrogen and foam, with sand as a propping agent.

Comer, J.B.; Hasenmueller, N.R. (Indiana Geological Survey, Bloomington, IN (United States)); Frankie, W.T. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)); Hamilton-Smith, T. (Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington, KY (United States))

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Biomarker and Paleontological Investigations of the Late Devonian Extinctions, Woodford Shale, Southern Oklahoma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the abundances of the algal cyst Tasmanites are elevated, while the fossils recovered from the upper Woodford Shale by this study and previous authors show an increase in diversity of brown-algae-type microfossils and low diversity benthic faunas dominated...

Nowaczewski, Vincent Stephen

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

52

Regional geological assessment of the Devonian-Mississippian shale sequence of the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan basins relative to potential storage/disposal of radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thick and regionally extensive sequence of shales and associated clastic sedimentary rocks of Late Devonian and Early Mississippian age has been considered among the nonsalt geologies for deep subsurface containment of high-level radioactive wastes. This report examines some of the regional and basin-specific characteristics of the black and associated nonblack shales of this sequence within the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan basins of the north-central and eastern United States. Principal areas where the thickness and depth of this shale sequence are sufficient to warrant further evaluation are identified, but no attempt is made to identify specific storage/disposal sites. Also identified are other areas with less promise for further study because of known potential conflicts such as geologic-hydrologic factors, competing subsurface priorities involving mineral resources and groundwater, or other parameters. Data have been compiled for each basin in an effort to indicate thickness, distribution, and depth relationships for the entire shale sequence as well as individual shale units in the sequence. Included as parts of this geologic assessment are isopach, depth information, structure contour, tectonic elements, and energy-resource maps covering the three basins. Summary evaluations are given for each basin as well as an overall general evaluation of the waste storage/disposal potential of the Devonian-Mississippian shale sequence,including recommendations for future studies to more fully characterize the shale sequence for that purpose. Based on data compiled in this cursory investigation, certain rock units have reasonable promise for radioactive waste storage/disposal and do warrant additional study.

Lomenick, T.F.; Gonzales, S.; Johnson, K.S.; Byerly, D.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Rock-eval data relating to oil-source potential of shales of New Albany group (Devonian-Mississippian) in Illinois basin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Only limited data on petroleum source rock potential of New Albany Group (Devonian-Mississippian) shales have been reported, with the exception of vitrinite reflectance and some petrographic analyses. The New Albany Group contains the thickest and most widespread continuous black shale beds in the Illinois basin. The New Albany extends from northwestern Illinois to southwestern Indiana and western Kentucky and is thought to have played a major role in petroleum generation throughout the basin. In this study, Rock-Eval pyrolysis was used to measure the petroleum-generative potential and production index of the shale. Seven geochemical logs, based on 143 core samples from across the basin, and a production index map, based on a total of 252 samples (cuttings and cores) in Illinois, were generated. Systematic variations of petroleum-generative potential of the shale were observed. The variations are related to the differences in shale lithofacies, depth, and geographic location. The upper portion of the New Albany - the Hannibal and Saverton Shales - has the lowest oil-generative potential. The Grassy Creek, Sweetland Creek, and other stratigraphically lower shales of the New Albany Group generally have good oil-generative potential. However, samples from the Hicks dome area of extreme southern Illinois are overmature and have no oil-generative potential. Source rocks that have both good oil-generative potential (> 6 kg hydrocarbons per ton of rock) and a higher production index (> 0.09) are generally located at depths of 2,500-5,300 ft.

Chou, Mei-In M.; Dickerson, D.R.; Sargent, M.L. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign (USA))

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Orientation of tectonic stresses in central Kentucky during U. Devonian/L. Mississippian times: Evidence from quartz veins (after gypsum) in NE-trending, systematic joints in shales  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Quartz replacing fibrous gypsum and anhydrite pseudomorphically (QAS; quartz after sulfate''), and preserving characteristic crack-seal'' and chickenwire'' textures, occurs in extensional veins at four locations in central KY. The veins occupy a systematic set of NE-SW-trending, vertical joints within the essentially flat-lying shales of the Renfro Member of the Mississippian Borden Formation and the Late Devonian New Albany Shale. The four QAS occurrences discovered to date are located northeast of the Borden Front. At one site in the New Albany Shale, QAS veins show clear evidence of penecontemporaneous deformation. It is proposed that at all QAS locations, gypsum precipitated in incipient joints before complete lithification of the sediment, and grew perpendicular to the fractures to form extensional veins in the soft but firm muds. The orientations of the joints now marked by QAS veins are broadly consistent with regional patterns of NE-SW-trending systematic joints and lineaments in southern IN and in central and eastern KY. These systematic fracture patterns do not correspond directly to known basement faults or rift systems, although they are consistent with modern stress directions in eastern and western KY, measured in situ in wells and by earthquake fault-plane solutions. It is proposed that this systematic trend marks the regional tectonic stress pattern characteristic of southern IN and central and eastern KY at, and since the Late Devonian. The evidence of penecontemporaneous sedimentary deformation in joints of U. Devonian age, marked and preserved by quartz replacement of early gypsum, is sufficient to show that while the systematic NE-trending joint set in KY may also be modern it is not uniquely so.

Grover, J.; Dupuis-Nouille, E.M. (Univ. of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Effect of Oxygen Co-Injected with Carbon Dioxide on Gothic Shale Caprock-CO2-Brine Interaction during Geologic Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Co-injection of oxygen, a significant component in CO2 streams produced by the oxyfuel combustion process, can cause a significant alteration of the redox state in deep geologic formations during geologic carbon sequestration. The potential impact of co-injected oxygen on the interaction between synthetic CO2-brine (0.1 M NaCl) and shale caprock (Gothic shale from the Aneth Unit in Utah) and mobilization of trace metals was investigated at ~10 MPa and ~75 °C. A range of relative volume percentages of O2 to CO2 (0, 1, 4 and 8%) were used in these experiments to address the effect of oxygen on shale-CO2-brine interaction under various conditions. Major mineral phases in Gothic shale are quartz, calcite, dolomite, montmorillonite, and pyrite. During Gothic shale-CO2-brine interaction in the presence of oxygen, pyrite oxidation occurred extensively and caused enhanced dissolution of calcite and dolomite. Pyrite oxidation and calcite dissolution subsequently resulted in the precipitation of Fe(III) oxides and gypsum (CaSO4•2H2O). In the presence of oxygen, dissolved Mn and Ni were elevated because of oxidative dissolution of pyrite. The mobility of dissolved Ba was controlled by barite (BaSO4) precipitation in the presence of oxygen. Dissolved U in the experimental brines increased to ~8–14 ?g/L, with concentrations being slightly higher in the absence of oxygen than in the presence of oxygen. Experimental and modeling results indicate the interaction between shale caprock and oxygen co-injected with CO2 during geologic carbon sequestration can exert significant impacts on brine pH, solubility of carbonate minerals, stability of sulfide minerals, and mobility of trace metals. The major impact of oxygen is most likely to occur in the zone near CO2 injection wells where impurity gases can accumulate. Oxygen in CO2-brine migrating away from the injection well will be continually consumed through the reactions with sulfide minerals in deep geologic formations.

Jung, Hun Bok; Um, Wooyong; Cantrell, Kirk J.

2013-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

56

REGIONAL DEPOSITIONAL TRENDS IN THE DEVONIAN GENESEO/BURKET BLACK SHALE BASED ON GAMMA RAY-DENSITY TRENDS.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??ABSTRACTGas shales are becoming increasingly important as new technologies are applied to enhance their production of natural gas. The Barnett, the Fayetteville, and the Haynesville… (more)

Arnold, LaMichelle

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

E-Print Network 3.0 - akinbo shale eastern Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

...29 Eastern Devonian-Mississippian Oil Shale... ... Source: Laughlin, Robert B. - Department of Physics, Stanford University...

58

Geologic and geochemical studies of the New Albany Shale Group (Devonian-Mississippian) in Illinois. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Illinois State Geological Survey is conducting geological and geochemical investigations to evaluate the potential of New Albany Group shales as a source of hydrocarbons, particularly natural gas. Geological studies include stratigraphy and structure, mineralogic and petrographic characterization; analyses of physical properties; and development of a computer-based resources evaluation system. Geochemical studies include organic carbon content and trace elements; hydrocarbon content and composition; and adsorption/desorption studies of gas through shales. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each task reported.

Bergstrom, R.E.; Shimp, N.F.

1980-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

59

Strontium isotopic study of subsurface brines from Illinois basin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The abundance of the radiogenic isotope /sup 87/Sr in a subsurface brine can be used as a tracer of brine origin, evolution, and diagenetic effects. The authors have determined the /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios of over 60 oil-field waters from the Illinois basin, where brine origin is perplexing because of the absence of any significant evaporite strata. Initially, they analyzed brines from 15 petroleum-producing sandstone and carbonate units; waters from Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, and Mississippian strata have /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios in the range 0.7079-0.7108. All but those from the Ste. Genevieve Limestone (middle Mississippian) are more radiogenic in /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr than seawater values for this interval of geologic time. The detrital source of the more radiogenic /sup 87/Sr may be the New Albany Shale group, considered to be a major petroleum source rock in the basin. The /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios of Ste. Genevieve brines apparently evolved without a contribution from fluid-shale interaction.

hetherington, E.A.; Stueber, A.M.; Pushkar, P.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Sulfide, phosphate, and minor element enrichment in the New Albany Shale (Devonian-Mississippian) of southern Indiana  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The upper part of the New Albany Shale is divided into three members, which in ascending order are: (1) the Morgan Trail Member, a laminated brownish-black shale; (2) the Camp Run Member, an interbedded brownish-black and greenish-gray shale; and (3) the Clegg Creek Member, also a laminated brownish-black shale. The Morgan Trail and Camp Run Members contain 5 to 6% total organic carbon (TOC) and 2% sulfide sulfur. Isotopic composition of sulfide in these members ranges from -5.0 to -20.0%. C/S plots indicate linear relationships between abundances of these elements characteristic of sediments deposited in a noneuxinic marine environment. The Clegg Creek Member contains 10 to 15% TOC and 2 to 6% sulfide sulfur. Isotopic composition of sulfide ranges from -5.0 to -40.0%. The most negative values are characteristic of syngenetic pyrite formed within an anoxic water column. Abundances of carbon and sulfur are higher and uncorrelated in this member, consistent with deposition in an euxinic environment. Further, DOP (degree of pyritization) values suggest that pyrite formation was generally iron limited throughout Clegg Creek deposition, but sulfur isotopes indicate that syngenetic (water column) pyrite becomes an important component in the sediment only in the upper part of the member. At the top of the Clegg Creek Member a zone of phosphate nodules and trace metal enrichment coincides with maximal TOC values. During euxinic deposition, phosphate and trace metals accumulated below the chemocline due to limited vertical circulation in the water column. Phosphate and trace metals released for organic matter during early diagenesis resulted in precipitation of metal-rich phosphate nodules.

Beier, J.A.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine devonian shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

PILOT TESTING: PRETREATMENT OPTIONS TO ALLOW RE-USE OF FRAC FLOWBACK AND PRODUCED BRINE FOR GAS SHALE RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of the A&M DOE NETL Project No. DE-FE0000847 was to develop a mobile, multifunctional water treatment capability designed specifically for “pre-treatment” of field waste brine. The project consisted of constructing s mobile “field laboratory” incorporating new technology for treating high salinity produced water and using the lab to conduct a side-by-side comparison between this new technology and that already existing in field operations. A series of four field trials were performed utilizing the mobile unit to demonstrate the effectiveness of different technology suitable for use with high salinity flow back brines and produced water. The design of the mobile unit was based on previous and current work at the Texas A&M Separation Sciences Pilot Plant. The several treatment techniques which have been found to be successful in both pilot plant and field tests had been tested to incorporate into a single multifunctional process train. Eight different components were evaluated during the trials, two types of oil and grease removal, one BTEX removal step, three micro-filters, and two different nanofilters. The performance of each technique was measured by its separation efficiency, power consumption, and ability to withstand fouling. The field trials were a success. Four different field brines were evaluated in the first trial in New York. Over 16,000 gallons of brine were processed. Using a power cost of $.10 per kWh, media pretreatment power use averaged $0.004 per barrel, solids removal $.04 per barrel and brine “softening” $.84 per barrel. Total power cost was approximately $1.00 per barrel of fluid treated. In Pennsylvania, brines collected from frac ponds were tested in two additional trials. Each of the brines was converted to an oil-free, solids-free brine with no biological activity. Brines were stable over time and would be good candidates for use as a make-up fluid in a subsequent fracturing fluid design. Reports on all of the field trials and subcontractor research have been summarized in this Final Report. Individual field trial reports and research reports are contained in the companion volume titled “Appendices”

Burnett, David

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

62

Maintenance of high TDS in pore waters above the New Albany Shale of the Illinois Basin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The TDS content of interstitial waters above the Upper Devonian New Albany Shale of the Illinois Basin, mostly sodium and chloride, increases at an average rate of 15 wt%km[sup [minus]1]. Roughly 200 My have elapsed since the youngest marine rocks of wide horizontal extent [Pennsylvania] were deposited. Regardless of the original brine-forming mechanism, the maintenance of high TDS for such a long time span is problematic because upward diffusion above the New Albany Shale should have lowered TDS if no salt dissolved above the New Albany Shale. Groundwater flow at even small rates would have lowered TDS faster than the process of diffusion alone. Calculations which take into account the effects of vertical diffusion show that the present-day salinity gradient of waters above the New Albany Shale can be explained if: (1) the salinity gradient 200 My b.p. was at least thrice as high as at the present, or (2) salt dissolved above the New Albany Shale at an average rate of about 12 m of halite column over 200 My. The code PORFLOW was used to simulate flushing of brines in a generic basin 500 km wide, 1.5 km deep [the maximum depth of the New Albany Shale], with a low basin-wide topographic gradient of 0.06%.

Ranganathan, V. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Sequence stratigraphy, depositional environments, and regional mapping of the late Devonian interval, upper Three Forks Formation, Sanish Member, and lower Bakken Shale, U.S. portion of the Williston Basin.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Cores of the Late Devonian upper Three Forks, Sanish, and lower Bakken units from eight wells were examined and described at the North Dakota core… (more)

Sesack, Steven A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Deformation of shale: mechanical properties and indicators of mechanisms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Basins, shales of Devonian age are commonly considered reservoir rocks I' or natural gas [Woodward, 1958; Lockett, 1968; Long, 1979; Gonzales and Johnson, 1985], Economic gas production from the Devonian shales of these basins is associated...] and slates [Donath, 1961], may be expected to be weak. Finally, Microstructural studies of deformed shales have been restricted by optical resolution, and the role of crystal plasticity in clays may have been overlooked. Results for the brittle and semi...

Ibanez, William Dayan

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Geochemical and Strontium Isotope Characterization of Produced Waters from Marcellus Shale Natural Gas Extraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Extraction of natural gas by hydraulic fracturing of the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale, a major gas-bearing unit in the Appalachian Basin, results in significant quantities of produced water containing high total dissolved solids (TDS). We carried out a strontium (Sr) isotope investigation to determine the utility of Sr isotopes in identifying and quantifying the interaction of Marcellus Formation produced waters with other waters in the Appalachian Basin in the event of an accidental release, and to provide information about the source of the dissolved solids. Strontium isotopic ratios of Marcellus produced waters collected over a geographic range of ?375 km from southwestern to northeastern Pennsylvania define a relatively narrow set of values (?Sr SW = +13.8 to +41.6, where ?Sr SW is the deviation of the 87Sr/86Sr ratio from that of seawater in parts per 104); this isotopic range falls above that of Middle Devonian seawater, and is distinct from most western Pennsylvania acid mine drainage and Upper Devonian Venango Group oil and gas brines. The uniformity of the isotope ratios suggests a basin-wide source of dissolved solids with a component that is more radiogenic than seawater. Mixing models indicate that Sr isotope ratios can be used to sensitively differentiate between Marcellus Formation produced water and other potential sources of TDS into ground or surface waters.

Elizabeth C. Chapman,† Rosemary C. Capo,† Brian W. Stewart,*,† Carl S. Kirby,‡ Richard W. Hammack,§

2012-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

66

Geochemical and Strontium Isotope Characterization of Produced Waters from Marcellus Shale Natural Gas Extraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Extraction of natural gas by hydraulic fracturing of the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale, a major gas-bearing unit in the Appalachian Basin, results in significant quantities of produced water containing high total dissolved solids (TDS). We carried out a strontium (Sr) isotope investigation to determine the utility of Sr isotopes in identifying and quantifying the interaction of Marcellus Formation produced waters with other waters in the Appalachian Basin in the event of an accidental release, and to provide information about the source of the dissolved solids. Strontium isotopic ratios of Marcellus produced waters collected over a geographic range of 375 km from southwestern to northeastern Pennsylvania define a relatively narrow set of values (?{sub Sr}{sup SW} = +13.8 to +41.6, where ?{sub Sr}{sup SW} is the deviation of the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio from that of seawater in parts per 10{sup 4}); this isotopic range falls above that of Middle Devonian seawater, and is distinct from most western Pennsylvania acid mine drainage and Upper Devonian Venango Group oil and gas brines. The uniformity of the isotope ratios suggests a basin-wide source of dissolved solids with a component that is more radiogenic than seawater. Mixing models indicate that Sr isotope ratios can be used to sensitively differentiate between Marcellus Formation produced water and other potential sources of TDS into ground or surface waters.

Chapman, Elizabeth C; Capo, Rosemary C.; Stewart, Brian W.; Kirby, Carl S.; Hammack, Richard W.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Edenborn, Harry M.

2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

67

New Albany shale group of Illinois  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Illinois basin's New Albany shale group consists of nine formations, with the brownish-black laminated shales being the predominant lithology in southeastern Illinois and nearby parts of Kentucky where the group reaches its maximum thickness of 460 ft. A second depositional center lies in west-central Illinois and southeastern Iowa, where the group is about 300 ft thick and the predominant lithology is bioturbated olive-gray to greenish-gray shale. A northeast-trending area of thin strata (mostly interfingering gray and black shales) separates these two depocenters. The distribution and types of lithofacies in the New Albany suggest that the shale was deposited across a shelf-slope-basin transition in a marine, stratified anoxic basin. The record of depositional events in the shale group could serve as a baseline for interpreting the history of tectonically more complex sequences such as the Appalachian basin's Devonian shales.

Cluff, R.M.; Reinbold, M.L.; Lineback, J.A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

OIL SHALE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Seyitömer, Himmeto?lu and Hat?lda? oil shale deposits. The results demonstrate that these oil shales are

Fields (in-situ Combustion Approach; M. V. Kök; G. Guner; S. Bagci?

69

Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian conodont zones in Montana, Wyoming, and South Dakota  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

shale of the Sappington Member of the Three Forks Formation at another locality in the Bridger Range. The taxonomic section includes a discussion of 34 species, which are referred to 11 genera. Two new species of Dinodus and Siphonodella are described. 2...," Hannibal, and Chouteau Formations). Related to the problem of the Kinderhookian is that of the Chattanooga Shale of Tennessee and adjacent states. HASS (51, 52) by comparison with the New York Upper Devonian conodont se- quence, firmly dated the Chattanooga...

Klapper, G.

1966-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

70

Geologic and geochemical studies of the New Albany Group (Devonian Black Shale) in Illinois to evaluate its characteristics as a source of hydrocarbons. Quarterly progress report, January 1-March 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is a detailed analysis of the lithology, stratigraphy, and structure of the New Albany Group in Illinois to determine those characteristics of lithology, thickness, regional distribution, vertical and lateral variability, and deformation that are most relevant to the occurrence of hydrocarbons. The mineralogic and petrographic properties of the New Albany Shale in Illinois are characterized. This includes the quantitative and qualitative characterization, by optical and x-ray techniques, of the inorganic mineral constituents, the dispersed organic matter, and the fabric of the shale. Not less than 49 major, minor, and trace elements are determined in 300 to 500 shale samples, which are representative cross sections of the cores taken. Organic and mineral carbon are included; total hydrogen; total sulfur and when that exceeds 0.5%, pyritic and sulfate sulfur. Also, other elements observed during normal routine analysis are reported. The character of off-gases from approximately 10-foot intervals in cores collected in the Illinois Basin is determined. In addition, the relative distribution of hydrocarbons is determined in ten specially prepared core samples, which are the same as those in previous unit. The carbon isotopic composition of methane in off-gases is determined from core samples whenever sufficient methane can be collected. This data is compared to other pertinent data such as gas composition and vitrinite reflectance for the purpose of making interpretations as to the origin and maturity of the gas. Laboratory experiments are performed to study the relative effects and significance of chemical and isotopic fractionation that occurs as gas is released from core samples. Data accumulated can be evaluated to gain a better understanding of the origin, migration, and location of natural gas associated with the shales.

Bergstrom, R.E.; Shimp, N.F.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Workshop on gas potential of New Albany shale held in conjunction with the 1995 Ioga meeting in Evansville, Indiana on March 1, 1995. Topical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This workshop is intended to provide an overview of the organic lithofacies, organic carbon content, thermal maturity, and gas potential of the Devonian and Mississippian New Albany Shale in the Illinois Basin. In addition, the reservoir characteristics and completion technology for productive organic-rich Devonian shales in the Michigan and Appalachian Basins are also reviewed. Emphasis is being placed on how proven technologies together with appropriate geologic and geochemical information can be used to explore for gas in the New Albany Shale.

NONE

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Comparison of organic-rich shales of Pennsylvanian age in Indiana with New Albany Shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Abundant black organic-rich shales occur in rocks of Pennsylvanian age in southwestern Indiana. They have not been well characterized except for a few thin intervals in small areas, the best example being at the abandoned Mecca Quarry in west-central Indiana. Although these shales are thinner and less widespread than the organic-rich shales of the New Albany Shale (Devonian and Mississippian age) they warrant characterization because of their accessibility during strip mining of underlying coals. Organic-rich shales of Pennsylvanian age contain up to 44% organic carbon and might be considered potential oil shales. Carbon to hydrogen ratios in these shales are similar to those in the New Albany. Relatively high concentrations of certain metals occur in shales of both ages, especially where phosphate is abundant, and sulfur values for both shales range from < 1 to 6%. Sulfur values are much higher for thin pyrite-rich units. Siderite nodules are common in Pennsylvania shales, but little siderite if found in the New Albany. Dolomite, commonly ferroan, and calcite in a variety of forms are the dominant carbonates in the New Albany. Some Pennsylvanian shales may contain large fossils or mica flakes, but such coarse-grained features are uncommon in the New Albany Shale.

Shaffer, N.R.; Leininger, R.K.; Ennis, M.V.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Studies of New Albany shale in western Kentucky. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The New Albany (Upper Devonian) Shale in western Kentucky can be zoned by using correlative characteristics distinguishable on wire-line logs. Wells drilled through the shale which were logged by various methods provided a basis for zonation of the subsurface members and units of the Grassy Creek, Sweetland Creek, and Blocher. Structure and isopach maps and cross sections were prepared. The Hannibal Shale and Rockford Limestone were found in limited areas; isopach maps were not made for these members. Samples of cuttings from selected wells were studied in order to identify the contact of the shale with underlying and overlying rock units. A well-site examination of cuttings through the shale section was conducted, and the presence of natural gas was observed in the field. The New Albany Shale has the potential for additional commercially marketable natural gas production. Exploratory drilling is needed to evaluate the reservoir characteristics of the New Albany Shale.

Schwalb, H.R.; Norris, R.L.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Production data analysis type curves for the Devonian Shales  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

0. 12510 0. 12187 0. 12008 0. 11880 0. 11781 0. 11699 0, 11629 0. 11566 0. 11511 0. 11460 0. 11413 0. 11370 0. 11329 0. 11291 0. 11254 0. 11220 0. 11187 0. 11156 0. 11126 0. 11097 0. 10664 0. 10367 0. 10132 0. 99362E-01 0...

Hazlett, William Gregory

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Impacts of Shale Gas Wastewater Disposal on Water Quality in Western Pennsylvania  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Impacts of Shale Gas Wastewater Disposal on Water Quality in Western Pennsylvania Nathaniel R. In Pennsylvania, oil and gas wastewater is sometimes treated at brine treatment facilities and discharged to local bioaccumulation in localized areas of shale gas wastewater disposal. INTRODUCTION The safe disposal of large

Jackson, Robert B.

76

Geochemical and isotopic variations in shallow groundwater in areas of the Fayetteville Shale development, north-central Arkansas q  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

similar to the brine in the Fayetteville Shale. Nonetheless, no spatial relationship was found between CH4. The integration of multiple geochemical and isoto- pic proxies shows no direct evidence of contamination

Jackson, Robert B.

77

Deep, water-free gas potential is upside to New Albany shale play  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The New Albany shale of the Illinois basin contains major accumulations of Devonian shale gas, comparable both to the Antrim shale of the Michigan basin and the Ohio shale of the Appalachian basin. The size of the resource originally assessed at 61 tcf has recently been increased to between 323 tcf and 528 tcf. According to the 1995 US Geological Survey appraisal, New Albany shale gas represents 52% of the undiscovered oil and gas reserves of the Illinois basin, with another 45% attributed to coalbed methane. New Albany shale gas has been developed episodically for over 140 years, resulting in production from some 40 fields in western Kentucky, 20 fields in southern Indiana, and at least 1 field in southern Illinois. The paper describes two different plays identified by a GRI study and prospective areas.

Hamilton-Smith, T. [Hamilton-Smith LLC, Lexington, KY (United States)

1998-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

78

Cathodic protection in oilfield brine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper the use of cathodic protection (CP) to mitigate internal and corrosion-related failures that occur in the produced brine phase of oilfield tanks and production vessels is discussed. Unique considerations covered include brine properties, CP system selection, installation details, monitoring, and coatings.

Turnipseed, S.P. (Chevron U.S.A. Inc., Houston, TX (US))

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Emplacement and release of brines from subsurface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Groundwater contamination by dense brines is addressed fromgroundwater contamination where dense brines might have beenbrines can become long-term sources of groundwater contamination

Hunt, James R; Flowers, Tracey C

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Bitumen accumulation in Grosmont platform complex, Upper Devonian, Alberta, Canada  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Upper Devonian Grosmont Formation, a broad carbonate platform complex in Alberta, Canada, contains an estimated 300 billion bbl of bitumen. It has been suggested that these vast reserves are related to Lower Cretaceous Athabasca oil sands. Detailed gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric studies of a wide range of biologic marker compounds confirm this suggestion. The Grosmont Formation contains bitumen of similar maturity and source to the Athabasca deposit, but it has been subjected to a greater degree of biodegradation and water washing, possibly as a result of its reservoir rock characteristics. The difference in the degree of biodegradation is manifested by the absence of bicyclic terpanes and by the reduced concentrations of the C/sub 30/ and the 22R epimers of the extended hopanes in the Grosmont bitumen. Also, the greater degree of water washing of the Grosmont bitumen is inferred from the observed distribution of the bicyclic, tricyclic, and tetracyclic terpenoid sulfides, which shows a characteristic loss of the lower molecular weight members in the carbonate bitumen. The correlation established here between the two deposits suggests that if the precursor oil has indeed undergone long-distance migration, the Paleozoic carbonates could have acted as a path for migration. Finally, the observed distribution of steranes in the Grosmont bitumen corresponds to the suggestion that the Mannville Group shales were not the major source rocks of the oil-sand and carbonate bitumen accumulations of northern Alberta. 11 figures, 6 tables.

Hoffmann, C.F.; Strausz, O.P.

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine devonian shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Late-Middle to Late Devonian (Givetian-Famennian) tectonic and stratigraphic history of central Kentucky  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Earliest Givetian deposition in central Kentucky is represented in upper parts of the Boyle and Sellersburg formations and reflects marginal-marine to shallow-marine carbonate deposition at the end of the second tectophase of the Acadian orogeny. Inception of the third tectophase of the Acadian orogeny in the area is reflected by a disconformity or angular unconformity between the Boyle and New Albany formations, by reactivation of faults on the Kentucky river and related fault zones, and by concurrent graben formation. Succeeding late Givetian deposition is represented by the equivalent Portwood and Blocher members of the New Albany. The Portwood represents localized deposition of dolomitic breccias and black shales in grabens and half grabens, paleogeographically manifest as a series of restricted coastal lagoons and estuaries in central and east-central Kentucky. In contrast, dolomitic, Blocher black shales in west-central kentucky, beyond the effects of faulting, reflect more open, platform-lagoonal conditions. Both units are carbonate rick, contain a sparse benthic fauna, and had local sources of sediment. By latest Givetian or earliest Frasnian, local basins were largely filed, and when local sediment sources were inundated by transgression, sediment starvation, represented by a major lag zone or bone bed, ensued throughout central Kentucky, while black- and gray-shale deposition continued in deeper parts of the Illinois and Appalachian basins. During the Frasnian and early Famennian, as subsidence and transgression continued, deeper water gray- and black-shale units from the Appalachian and Illinois basins slowly onlapped the Cincinnati Arch area of central Kentucky; black shales in these units are fissile and lack both carbonates and benthic fauna. At the Devonian-Mississippian transition, however, a locally developed unconformity and structurally related erosion probably reflect inception of the fourth and final tectophase of the Acadian orogeny.

Ettensohn, F.R. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences); Barnett, S.F. (Bryan Coll., Dayton, TN (United States)); Norby, R.D. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States))

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communication with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling chamber, a high-temperature gas blown into an oil shale distilling chamber passing horizontally through said oil shale in said oil shale treating chamber, thereby said oil shale is preheated in said oil shale preheating chamber, and a gaseous shale oil is distilled from said preheated oil shale in said oil shale distilling chamber; and a separator for separating by liquefaction a gaseous shale oil from a gas containing the gaseous shale oil discharged from the oil shale preheating chamber.

Shishido, T.; Sato, Y.

1984-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

83

Brining studies at Pepper Products Inc.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Department) A. B. Childers (Member) V. E. Sweat (Member) December 1988 Abstract Optimum brining conditions, causes of secondary fermentation, and salt fluctuation were investigated. Jalapeno peppers held in brine solution undergo lactic acid... fermentation, controlled by level of acidification and concentration of salt. Only brining at 7. 5% NaCl, with no added acetic acid, resulted in loss of all fermentable sugars. However, salt concentration fluctuated widely in this sample. Brining in 25...

Okoro, John Daniel

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

84

Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1991 report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) during 1991. These BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. When excavations began at the WIPP in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. Brine studies began as part of the Site Validation Program and were formalized as a program in its own right in 1985. During nine years of observations (1982--1991), evidence has mounted that the amount of brine seeping into the WIPP excavations is limited, local, and only a small fraction of that required to produce hydrogen gas by corroding the metal in the waste drums and waste inventory. The data through 1990 is discussed in detail and summarized by Deal and others (1991). The data presented in this report describes progress made during the calendar year 1991 and focuses on four major areas: (1) quantification of the amount of brine seeping across vertical surfaces in the WIPP excavations (brine ``weeps); (2) monitoring of brine inflow, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled downward from the underground drifts (downholes), upward from the underground drifts (upholes), and from subhorizontal holes; (3) further characterization of brine geochemistry; and (4) preliminary quantification of the amount of brine that might be released by squeezing the underconsolidated clays present in the Salado Formation.

Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Martin, M.L.; Milligan, D.J.; Sobocinski, R.W.; Lipponer, P.P.J. [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Belski, D.S. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.] [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Bakken and other Devonian-Mississippian petroleum source rocks, northern Rocky Mtns.-Williston basin: Depositional and burial history and maturity estimations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The three-member Devonian-Mississippian Bakken-Exshaw organic-rich shaly facies is widely distributed in the northern U.S. and southern Canadian Cordillera. Equivalent facies are also present as far south as Utah and Nevada. Paleogeographically, these rocks thin markedly or pinchout to the west approximately along the Devonian-Mississippian carbonate reef-mound belt of the Cordilleran shelf margin. Although these rocks reach maximum organic richness approximately at the Devonian-Carboniferous transition, similar but somewhat less organic-rich Bakken-like beds are also present in underlying Upper Devonian and overlying Lower Carboniferous carbonate depositional cycles. At least ten cycles are identified in the underlying Duperow and Jefferson Formations, characterized by basal organic-rich Bakken-like shale or shaly carbonate that grades upward into carbonate mound or reefal beds, overlain by evaporite or solution breccia. Cycles in the overlying Lodgepole and Mission Canyon Formations, as many as 10-12 in number, are similar except that the carbonates are composed of algal-oolith, crinoid, or mixed skeletal beds, and end-cycle evaporitic units are less prevalent in the lower cycles. These dark shaly beds are the most important source of hydrocarbon reserves in Montana and the Williston basin. Maximum net thickness of the Devonian-Mississippian organic-rich facies is in the Williston basin. However, variable thicknesses of these potential source rocks is present in parts of Montana as far west as the thrust belt. Burial history studies suggest that in some areas these rocks are probably thermally immature. However, in much of the area original burial depths are sufficient for them to reach the thermally mature stage, and therefore are of importance to further exploration efforts in the Devonian-Mississippian Madison-Duperow-Jefferson Formations.

Peterson, J.A. [Univ. of Montana, Missoula, MT (United States)

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

temperature, type of shale and oil content of shale iscontent of the shale, and shale oil content of the rock cantemperatures. Lean and Rich Shale Oil shales vary in their

Bellman Jr., R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Synthetic fuels from US oil shales: a technical and economic verification of the HYTORT Process. Quarterly report, January 1-March 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Objective is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of the HYTORT process for both Eocene and Devonian shales. The program is divided into five major task areas: laboratory program, bench-scale program, process development unit tests, process environmental assessment, and process design and economics. (DLC)

None

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

New Albany shale flash pyrolysis under hot-recycled-solid conditions: Chemistry and kinetics, II  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors are continuing a study of recycle retorting of eastern and western oil shales using burnt shale as the solid heat carrier. Stripping of adsorbed oil from solid surfaces rather than the primary pyrolysis of kerogen apparently controls the release rate of the last 10--20% of hydrocarbons. Thus, the desorption rate defines the time necessary for oil recovery from a retort and sets the minimum hold-time in the pyrolyzer. A fluidized-bed oil shale retort resembles a fluidized-bed cat cracker in this respect. Recycled burnt shale cokes oil and reduces yield. The kerogen H/C ratio sets an upper limit on yield improvements unless external hydrogen donors are introduced. Steam can react with iron compounds to add to the H-donor pool. Increased oil yield when New Albany Shale pyrolyzes under hot-recycled-solid, steam-fluidization conditions has been confirmed and compared with steam retorting of acid-leached Colorado oil shale. In addition, with retorted, but unburnt, Devonian shale present at a recycle ratio of 3, the authors obtain 50% more oil-plus-gas than with burnt shale present. Procedures to make burnt shale more like unburnt shale can realize some increase in oil yield at high recycle ratios. Reduction with H{sub 2} and carbon deposition are possibilities that the authors have tested in the laboratory and can test in the pilot retort. Also, eastern spent shale burned at a high temperature (775 C, for example) cokes less oil than does spent shale burned at a low temperature (475 C). Changes in surface area with burn temperature contribute to this effect. 15 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Coburn, T.T.; Morris, C.J.

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1990 report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during 1990. When excavations began in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. These brine occurrences were initially described as part of the Site Validation Program. Brine studies were formalized in 1985. The BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. The brine chemistry is important because it assists in understanding the origin of the brine and because it may affect possible chemical reactions in the buried waste after sealing the repository. The volume of brine and the hydrologic system that drives the brine seepage also need to be understood to assess the long-term performance of the repository. After more than eight years of observations (1982--1990), no credible evidence exists to indicate that enough naturally occurring brine will seep into the WIPP excavations to be of practical concern. The detailed observations and analyses summarized herein and in previous BSEP reports confirm the evidence apparent during casual visits to the underground workings -- that the excavations are remarkably dry.

Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Case, J.B.; Martin, M.L.; Roggenthen, W.M. [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Belski, D.S. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.] [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Devonian oil shales of the Eastern United States are a significant domestic energy resource. The overall objective of the multi-year program, initiated in October 1987 by the US Department of Energy is to perform the research necessary to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The results of the original 3-year program, which was concluded in May 1991, have been summarized in a four-volume final report published by IGT. DOE subsequently approved a 1-year extension to the program to further develop the PFH process specifically for application to beneficiated shale as feedstock. Studies have shown that beneficiated shale is the preferred feedstock for pressurized hydroretorting. The program extension is divided into the following active tasks. Task 3. testing of process improvement concepts; Task 4. beneficiation research; Task 5. operation of PFH on beneficiated shale; Task 6. environmental data and mitigation analyses; Task 7. sample procurement, preparation, and characterization; and Task 8. project management and reporting. In order to accomplish all the program objectives, the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the prime contractor, worked with four other institutions: the University of Alabama/Mineral Resources Institute (MRI), the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), the University of Nevada (UN) at Reno, and Tennessee Technological University (TTU). This report presents the work performed during the program extension from June 1, 1991 through May 31, 1992.

Roberts, M.J.; Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Schultz, C.W. (Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States)); Parekh, B.K. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States)); Misra, M. (Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States)); Bonner, W.P. (Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States))

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Improved Water Flooding through Injection Brine Modification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of waterflooding, by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Laboratory waterflood tests show that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery. Numerous fields in the Powder River basin have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Although many uncertainties arise in the interpretation and comparison of field production data, injection of low salinity brine appears to give higher recovery compared to brine of moderate salinity (about 7,000 ppm). Laboratory studies of the effect of brine composition on oil recovery cover a wide range of rock types and crude oils. Oil recovery increases using low salinity brine as the injection water ranged from a low of no notable increase to as much as 37.0% depending on the system being studied. Recovery increases using low salinity brine after establishing residual oil saturation (tertiary mode) ranged from no significant increase to 6.0%. Tests with two sets of reservoir cores and crude oil indicated slight improvement in recovery for low salinity brine. Crude oil type and rock type (particularly the presence and distribution of kaolinite) both play a dominant role in the effect that brine composition has on waterflood oil recovery.

Robertson, Eric Partridge; Thomas, Charles Phillip; Morrow, Norman; (U of Wyoming)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Clay and SHale--2004 18.1 Clay and Shale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Clay and SHale--2004 18.1 Clay and Shale By Robert l. Virta Domestic survey data and tables were). Common Clay and Shale.--In 2004, 162 companies produced common clay and shale from approximately 459 pits in 41 States and Puerto Rico. In States not reporting production, common clay and shale probably

93

Eastern gas shales bibliography selected annotations: gas, oil, uranium, etc. Citations in bituminous shales worldwide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This bibliography contains 2702 citations, most of which are annotated. They are arranged by author in numerical order with a geographical index following the listing. The work is international in scope and covers the early geological literature, continuing through 1979 with a few 1980 citations in Addendum II. Addendum I contains a listing of the reports, well logs and symposiums of the Unconventional Gas Recovery Program (UGR) through August 1979. There is an author-subject index for these publications following the listing. The second part of Addendum I is a listing of the UGR maps which also has a subject-author index following the map listing. Addendum II includes several important new titles on the Devonian shale as well as a few older citations which were not found until after the bibliography had been numbered and essentially completed. A geographic index for these citations follows this listing.

Hall, V.S. (comp.)

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Synthesis of organic geochemical data from the Eastern Gas Shales  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over 2400 core and cuttings samples of Upper Devonian shales from wells in the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan Basins have been characterized by organic geochemical methods to provide a basis for accelerating the exploitation of this unconventional, gas-rich resource. This work was part of a program initiated to provide industry with criteria for locating the best areas for future drilling and for the development of stimulation methods that will make recovery of the resource economically attractive. The geochemical assessment shows that the shale, in much of the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan Basins is source rock that is capable of generating enormous quantities of gas. In some areas the shales are also capable of generating large quantities of oil as well. The limiting factors preventing these sources from realizing most of their potential are their very low permeabilities and the paucity of potential reservoir rocks. This geochemical data synthesis gives direction to future selection of sites for stimulation research projects in the Appalachian Basin by pinpointing those areas where the greatest volumes of gas are contained in the shale matrix. Another accomplishment of the geochemical data synthesis is a new estimate of the total resource of the Appalachian Basin. The new estimate of 2500 TCF is 25 percent greater than the highest previous estimates. This gives greater incentive to government and industry to continue the search for improved stimulation methods, as well as for improved methods for locating the sites where those improved stimulation methods can be most effectively applied.

Zielinski, R.E.; McIver, R.D.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Assessment of Factors Influencing Effective CO{sub 2} Storage Capacity and Injectivity in Eastern Gas Shales  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Building upon advances in technology, production of natural gas from organic-rich shales is rapidly developing as a major hydrocarbon supply option in North America and around the world. The same technology advances that have facilitated this revolution - dense well spacing, horizontal drilling, and hydraulic fracturing - may help to facilitate enhanced gas recovery (EGR) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage in these formations. The potential storage of CO {sub 2} in shales is attracting increasing interest, especially in Appalachian Basin states that have extensive shale deposits, but limited CO{sub 2} storage capacity in conventional reservoirs. The goal of this cooperative research project was to build upon previous and on-going work to assess key factors that could influence effective EGR, CO{sub 2} storage capacity, and injectivity in selected Eastern gas shales, including the Devonian Marcellus Shale, the Devonian Ohio Shale, the Ordovician Utica and Point Pleasant shale and equivalent formations, and the late Devonian-age Antrim Shale. The project had the following objectives: (1) Analyze and synthesize geologic information and reservoir data through collaboration with selected State geological surveys, universities, and oil and gas operators; (2) improve reservoir models to perform reservoir simulations to better understand the shale characteristics that impact EGR, storage capacity and CO{sub 2} injectivity in the targeted shales; (3) Analyze results of a targeted, highly monitored, small-scale CO{sub 2} injection test and incorporate into ongoing characterization and simulation work; (4) Test and model a smart particle early warning concept that can potentially be used to inject water with uniquely labeled particles before the start of CO{sub 2} injection; (5) Identify and evaluate potential constraints to economic CO{sub 2} storage in gas shales, and propose development approaches that overcome these constraints; and (6) Complete new basin-level characterizations for the CO{sub 2} storage capacity and injectivity potential of the targeted eastern shales. In total, these Eastern gas shales cover an area of over 116 million acres, may contain an estimated 6,000 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of gas in place, and have a maximum theoretical storage capacity of over 600 million metric tons. Not all of this gas in-place will be recoverable, and economics will further limit how much will be economic to produce using EGR techniques with CO{sub 2} injection. Reservoir models were developed and simulations were conducted to characterize the potential for both CO{sub 2} storage and EGR for the target gas shale formations. Based on that, engineering costing and cash flow analyses were used to estimate economic potential based on future natural gas prices and possible financial incentives. The objective was to assume that EGR and CO{sub 2} storage activities would commence consistent with the historical development practices. Alternative CO{sub 2} injection/EGR scenarios were considered and compared to well production without CO{sub 2} injection. These simulations were conducted for specific, defined model areas in each shale gas play. The resulting outputs were estimated recovery per typical well (per 80 acres), and the estimated CO{sub 2} that would be injected and remain in the reservoir (i.e., not produced), and thus ultimately assumed to be stored. The application of this approach aggregated to the entire area of the four shale gas plays concluded that they contain nearly 1,300 Tcf of both primary production and EGR potential, of which an estimated 460 Tcf could be economic to produce with reasonable gas prices and/or modest incentives. This could facilitate the storage of nearly 50 Gt of CO{sub 2} in the Marcellus, Utica, Antrim, and Devonian Ohio shales.

Godec, Michael

2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

96

OIL SHALE DEVELOPMENT IN CHINA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper history, current status and forecast of Chinese oil shale indus-try, as well as the characteristics of some typical Chinese oil shales are given.

J. Qian; J. Wang; S. Li

97

Oil shale technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oil shale is undoubtedly an excellent energy source that has great abundance and world-wide distribution. Oil shale industries have seen ups and downs over more than 100 years, depending on the availability and price of conventional petroleum crudes. Market forces as well as environmental factors will greatly affect the interest in development of oil shale. Besides competing with conventional crude oil and natural gas, shale oil will have to compete favorably with coal-derived fuels for similar markets. Crude shale oil is obtained from oil shale by a relatively simple process called retorting. However, the process economics are greatly affected by the thermal efficiencies, the richness of shale, the mass transfer effectiveness, the conversion efficiency, the design of retort, the environmental post-treatment, etc. A great many process ideas and patents related to the oil shale pyrolysis have been developed; however, relatively few field and engineering data have been published. Due to the vast heterogeneity of oil shale and to the complexities of physicochemical process mechanisms, scientific or technological generalization of oil shale retorting is difficult to achieve. Dwindling supplied of worldwide petroleum reserves, as well as the unprecedented appetite of mankind for clean liquid fuel, has made the public concern for future energy market grow rapidly. the clean coal technology and the alternate fuel technology are currently of great significance not only to policy makers, but also to process and chemical researchers. In this book, efforts have been made to make a comprehensive text for the science and technology of oil shale utilization. Therefore, subjects dealing with the terminological definitions, geology and petrology, chemistry, characterization, process engineering, mathematical modeling, chemical reaction engineering, experimental methods, and statistical experimental design, etc. are covered in detail.

Lee, S. (Akron Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

CLAY AND SHALE--2001 18.1 CLAY AND SHALE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

operated approximately 633 clay and shale pits or quarries. The largest 20 companies, many with multiple

99

CLAY AND SHALE--2002 18.1 CLAY AND SHALE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CLAY AND SHALE--2002 18.1 CLAY AND SHALE By Robert L. Virta Domestic survey data and tables were clay, bentonite, common clay and shale, fire clay, fuller's earth, and kaolin. Ball clays consist of feldspars, biotite, and quartz. Common clay and shale contain illite and chlorite as major components. Fire

100

A Comparative Study of the Mississippian Barnett Shale, Fort Worth Basin, and Devonian Marcellus Shale, Appalachian Basin  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience hands-onASTROPHYSICSHe β- DecayBenew20-Year6APlasma APast andA

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine devonian shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

The Brine Shrimp's Butterfly Stroke  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the fluid dynamics of brine shrimp larvae swimming in this gallery of fluid motion video. Time resolved particle image velocimetry was performed using nano-particles as seeding material to measure the time dependent velocity and vorticity fields. The Reynolds number of the flow was roughly 8 and the Womerseley number (ratio of periodic forcing to viscous forcing) was about 5. Vorticity dynamics reveals the formation of a vortex ring structure at the tip of each arm at the beginning of the power stroke. This two vortex system evolves dramatically with time as the stroke progresses. The outer circulation is noted to weaken while the inner circulation strengthens over the power stroke. The gaining strength of the inner vortex correlates with the acceleration and forward movement of the larvae.

Johnson, Brennan; Dasi, Lakshmi Prasad

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Oil shale research in China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There have been continued efforts and new emergence in oil shale research in Chine since 1980. In this paper, the studies carried out in universities, academic, research and industrial laboratories in recent years are summarized. The research areas cover the chemical structure of kerogen; thermal behavior of oil shale; drying, pyrolysis and combustion of oil shale; shale oil upgrading; chemical utilization of oil shale; retorting waste water treatment and economic assessment.

Jianqiu, W.; Jialin, Q. (Beijing Graduate School, Petroleum Univ., Beijing (CN))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Characterization of interim reference shales  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurements have been made on the chemical and physical properties of two oil shales designated as interim reference oil shales by the Department of Energy. One oil shale is a Green River Formation, Parachute Creek Member, Mahogany Zone Colorado oil shale from the Anvil Points mine and the other is a Clegg Creek Member, New Albany shale from Kentucky. Material balance Fischer assays, kerogen concentrates, carbon aromaticities, thermal properties, and bulk mineralogic properties have been determined for the oil shales. The measured properties of the interim reference shales are comparable to results obtained from previous studies on similar shales. The western interim reference shale has a low carbon aromaticity, high Fischer assay conversion to oil, and a dominant carbonate mineralogy. The eastern interim reference shale has a high carbon aromaticity, low Fischer assay conversion to oil, and a dominant silicate mineralogy. Chemical and physical properties, including ASTM distillations, have been determined for shale oils produced from the interim reference shales. The distillation data were used in conjunction with API correlations to calculate a large number of shale oil properties that are required for computer models such as ASPEN. The experimental determination of many of the shale oil properties was beyond the scope of this study. Therefore, direct comparison between calculated and measured values of many properties could not be made. However, molecular weights of the shale oils were measured. In this case, there was poor agreement between measured molecular weights and those calculated from API and other published correlations. 23 refs., 12 figs., 15 tabs.

Miknis, F.P.; Sullivan, S.; Mason, G.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

The most pervasive systematic joints hosted by Devonian black shale of the Appa-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

likely imparts a meaningful permeability anisot- ropy to these hydrocarbon source rocks. Keywords: joints driven exclusively by fluid pressure generated as a consequence of hydrocarbon-related maturation supple (Lawn, 1993). In a mechanically iso- tropic and homogeneous rock the stresses near the tip of a joint

Engelder, Terry

105

Effects of reservoir geometry and permeability anisotropy on ultimate gas recovery in Devonian Shale reservoirs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for assistance and guidance during the course of my thesis research: L Dr. WL Lee for his wisdom, understanding, and technical expertise and for his insistence on striving for excellence as well as accuracy; 2. David Lancaster for his direction and his ability... Econotnic Projections for Selected Stimulated Cases, Fracture Parallel to k ?, L, =100 ft, 160-acre Well Spacing, 50-year Well Life . . 156 Economic Projections for Selected Stimulated Cases, Fracture Perpendicular to k ?, L, =100 ft, 160-acre Well...

Starnes, Lee McKennon

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

106

Microporomechanical modeling of shale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shale, a common type of sedimentary rock of significance to petroleum and reservoir engineering, has recently emerged as a crucial component in the design of sustainable carbon and nuclear waste storage solutions and as a ...

Ortega, J. Alberto (Jose Alberta Ortega Andrade)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Production of Shale Oil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Intensive pre-project feasibility and engineering studies begun in 1979 have produced an outline plan for development of a major project for production of shale oil from private lands in the Piceance Basin in western Colorado. This outline plan...

Loper, R. D.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Stimulation rationale for shale gas wells: a state-of-the-art report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Despite the large quantities of gas contained in the Devonian Shales, only a small percentage can be produced commercially by current production methods. This limited production derives both from the unique reservoir properties of the Devonian Shales and the lack of stimulation technologies specifically designed for a shale reservoir. Since October 1978 Science Applications, Inc. has been conducting a review and evaluation of various shale well stimulation techniques with the objective of defining a rationale for selecting certain treatments given certain reservoir conditions. Although this review and evaluation is ongoing and much more data will be required before a definitive rationale can be presented, the studies to date do allow for many preliminary observations and recommendations. For the hydraulic type treatments the use of low-residual-fluid treatments is highly recommended. The excellent shale well production which is frequently observed with only moderate wellbore enlargement treatments indicates that attempts to extend fractures to greater distances with massive hydraulic treatments are not warranted. Immediate research efforts should be concentrated upon limiting production damage by fracturing fluids retained in the formation, and upon improving proppant transport and placement so as to maximize fracture conductivity. Recent laboratory, numerical modeling and field studies all indicate that the gas fracturing effects of explosive/propellant type treatments are the predominate production enhancement mechanism and that these effects can be controlled and optimized with properly designed charges. Future research efforts should be focused upon the understanding, prediction and control of wellbore fracturing with tailored-pulse-loading charges. 36 references, 7 figures, 2 tables.

Young, C.; Barbour, T.; Blanton, T.L.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

January 20, 2011 Marcellus Shale 101  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Will oil shale be viable as well? Oil shale will not be economically viable anytime in the near future

Hardy, Christopher R.

110

Carcinogenicity Studies of Estonian Oil Shale Soots  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

determine the carcinogenicity of Estonian oil shale soot as well as the soot from oil shale fuel oil. All

A. Vosamae

111

Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales. Progress report, July--September 1988  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Devonian oil shales of the Eastern United States are a significant domestic energy resource. The overall objective of the 3-year program, is to perform the research necessary to develop the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The program is divided into the following eight tasks: Task 1, PFH Scoping Studies; Task 2, PFH Optimization Tests; Task 3, Testing of Process Improvement Concepts; Task 4, Beneficiation Research; Task 5, Operation of PFH on Beneficiated Shale; Task 6, Environmental Data and Mitigation Analyses; Task 7, Sample Procurement, Preparation, and Characterization; Task 8, Project Management and Reporting. In order to accomplish all the program objectives, the Institute of Gas Technology, the prime contractor, is working with six other institutions; the University of Alabama/Mineral Resources Institute, Illinois Institute of Technology, the University of Michigan, Ohio State University, Tennessee Technological University and the University of Pittsburgh. This report presents the work performed during the fourth program quarter from July 1 through September 30, 1988.

Punwani, D.V.; Lau, F.S.; Knowlton, T.M.; Akin, C.; Roberts, M.J.; Findlay, J.G.; Mensinger, M.C.; Chang, I.H.; Xiong, T.Y.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern Oil Shales. Progress report, July--September 1989  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Devonian oil shales of the Eastern United States are a significant domestic energy resource. The overall objective of the 3-year program, initiated in October 1987 is to perform the research necessary to develop the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The program is divided into the following eight tasks: Task 1, PFH Scoping Studies; Task 2, PFH Optimization Tests; Task 3, Testing of Process Improvement Concepts; Task 4, Beneficiation Research; Task 5, Operation of PFH on Beneficiated Shale; Task 6, Environmental Data and Mitigation Analyses; Task 7, Sample Procurement, Preparation, and Characterization; Task 8, Project Management and Reporting. In order to accomplish all the program objectives, the Institute of Gas Technology, the prime contractor, is working with seven other institutions; the University of Alabama/Mineral Resources Institute, Illinois Institute of Technology, the University of Michigan, the University of Nevada, Ohio State University, Tennessee Technological University and the University of Pittsburgh. This report presents the work performed during the eighth program quarter from July 1 through September 30, 1989.

Punwani, D.V.; Lau, F.S.; Knowlton, T.M. [and others

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern Oil Shales. Progress report, October--December 1988  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Devonian oil shales of the Eastern United States are a significant domestic energy resource. The overall objective of the 3-year program, initiated in October 1987 is to perform the research necessary to develop the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The program is divided into the following eight tasks: Task 1, PFH Scoping Studies; Task 2, PFH Optimization Tests; Task 3, Testing of Process Improvement Concepts; Task 4, Beneficiation Research; Task 5, Operation of PFH on Beneficiated Shale; Task 6, Environmental Data and Mitigation Analyses; Task 7, Sample Procurement, Preparation, and Characterization; Task 8, Project Management and Reporting. In order to accomplish all the program objectives, the Institute of Gas Technology, the prime contractor, is working with seven other institutions; the University of Alabama/Mineral Resources Institute, Illinois Institute of Technology, the University of Michigan, the University of Nevada, Ohio State University, Tennessee Technological University and the University of Pittsburgh. This report presents the work performed during the fifth program quarter from October 1 through December 31, 1988.

Punwani, D.V.; Lau, F.S.; Knowlton, T.M. [and others

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Porosity of coal and shale: Insights from gas adsorption and SANS/USANS techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two Pennsylvanian coal samples (Spr326 and Spr879-IN1) and two Upper Devonian-Mississippian shale samples (MM1 and MM3) from the Illinois Basin were studied with regard to their porosity and pore accessibility. Shale samples are early mature stage as indicated by vitrinite reflectance (R{sub o}) values of 0.55% for MM1 and 0.62% for MM3. The coal samples studied are of comparable maturity to the shale samples, having vitrinite reflectance of 0.52% (Spr326) and 0.62% (Spr879-IN1). Gas (N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}) adsorption and small-angle and ultrasmall-angle neutron scattering techniques (SANS/USANS) were used to understand differences in the porosity characteristics of the samples. The results demonstrate that there is a major difference in mesopore (2-50 nm) size distribution between the coal and shale samples, while there was a close similarity in micropore (<2 nm) size distribution. Micropore and mesopore volumes correlate with organic matter content in the samples. Accessibility of pores in coal is pore-size specific and can vary significantly between coal samples; also, higher accessibility corresponds to higher adsorption capacity. Accessibility of pores in shale samples is low.

Mastalerz, Maria [Indiana Geological Survey; He, Lilin [ORNL; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Rupp, John A [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Process for oil shale retorting  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Particulate oil shale is subjected to a pyrolysis with a hot, non-oxygenous gas in a pyrolysis vessel, with the products of the pyrolysis of the shale contained kerogen being withdrawn as an entrained mist of shale oil droplets in a gas for a separation of the liquid from the gas. Hot retorted shale withdrawn from the pyrolysis vessel is treated in a separate container with an oxygenous gas so as to provide combustion of residual carbon retained on the shale, producing a high temperature gas for the production of some steam and for heating the non-oxygenous gas used in the oil shale retorting process in the first vessel. The net energy recovery includes essentially complete recovery of the organic hydrocarbon material in the oil shale as a liquid shale oil, a high BTU gas, and high temperature steam.

Jones, John B. (300 Enterprise Bldg., Grand Junction, CO 80501); Kunchal, S. Kumar (300 Enterprise Bldg., Grand Junction, CO 80501)

1981-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

116

Nineteenth oil shale symposium proceedings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This book contains 23 selections. Some of the titles are: Effects of maturation on hydrocarbon recoveries from Canadian oil shale deposits; Dust and pressure generated during commercial oil shale mine blasting: Part II; The petrosix project in Brazil - An update; Pathway of some trace elements during fluidized-bed combustion of Israeli Oil Shale; and Decommissioning of the U.S. Department of Energy Anvil Points Oil Shale Research Facility.

Gary, J.H.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Oil shale retort apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A retorting apparatus including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or "rock chimneys", through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln.

Reeves, Adam A. (Grand Junction, CO); Mast, Earl L. (Norman, OK); Greaves, Melvin J. (Littleton, CO)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Oil shale: Technology status report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the status of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Oil Shale Program as of the end of FY 86. The report consists of (1) a status of oil shale development, (2) a description of the DOE Oil Shale Program, (3) an FY 86 oil shale research summary, and (4) a summary of FY 86 accomplishments. Discoveries were made in FY 86 about the physical and chemical properties and behavior of oil shales, process chemistry and kinetics, in situ retorting, advanced processes, and the environmental behavior and fate of wastes. The DOE Oil Shale Program shows an increasing emphasis on eastern US oil shales and in the development of advanced oil shale processing concepts. With the award to Foster Wheeler for the design of oil shale conceptual plants, the first step in the development of a systems analysis capability for the complete oil shale process has been taken. Unocal's Parachute Creek project, the only commercial oil shale plant operating in the United States, is operating at about 4000 bbl/day. The shale oil is upgraded at Parachute Creek for input to a conventional refinery. 67 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

Not Available

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Marcellus Shale Educational Webinar Series  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;Marcellus Shale Litigation and Legislation December 17, 2009 7 . Pennsylvania Oil and Gas Law1 Marcellus Shale Educational Webinar Series October 2009 - March 2010 Penn State Cooperative Extension #12;2 Marcellus Shale Webinar Series Planning Committee ¡ Members ­ Mark Douglass, Jefferson

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

120

Shale Play Industry Transportation Challenges,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

­ High volume commodi-es flows in and out of shale plays ¡ Sand In....Oil in excess of 50 MMT/Yr. ¡ Life of current Shale Oil & Gas explora-on trend ­ 2012) #12;Shale Play Oil Industry A Look at the Baaken ¡ 2-3 Unit Trains

Minnesota, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine devonian shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

POTENTIAL USES OF SPENT SHALE IN THE TREATMENT OF OIL SHALE RETORT WATERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

study of retorted oil shale," Lawrence Livermore Laboratoryb) using columns of spent shale. REFERENCES Burnham, Alankinetics between and oil-shale residual carbon. 1. co Effect

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Spent Shale Grouting of Abandoned In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mineral Reactions in Colorado Oil Shale," Lawrence Livermore1978. of Decomposition of Colorado Oil Shale: II. LivermoreEffects Lawrence of Steam on Oil Shale Retorting: Livermore

Fox, J.P.; Persoff, P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Brine flow in heated geologic salt.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes' governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Fractured shale reservoirs: Towards a realistic model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fractured shale reservoirs are fundamentally unconventional, which is to say that their behavior is qualitatively different from reservoirs characterized by intergranular pore space. Attempts to analyze fractured shale reservoirs are essentially misleading. Reliance on such models can have only negative results for fractured shale oil and gas exploration and development. A realistic model of fractured shale reservoirs begins with the history of the shale as a hydrocarbon source rock. Minimum levels of both kerogen concentration and thermal maturity are required for effective hydrocarbon generation. Hydrocarbon generation results in overpressuring of the shale. At some critical level of repressuring, the shale fractures in the ambient stress field. This primary natural fracture system is fundamental to the future behavior of the fractured shale gas reservoir. The fractures facilitate primary migration of oil and gas out of the shale and into the basin. In this process, all connate water is expelled, leaving the fractured shale oil-wet and saturated with oil and gas. What fluids are eventually produced from the fractured shale depends on the consequent structural and geochemical history. As long as the shale remains hot, oil production may be obtained. (e.g. Bakken Shale, Green River Shale). If the shale is significantly cooled, mainly gas will be produced (e.g. Antrim Shale, Ohio Shale, New Albany Shale). Where secondary natural fracture systems are developed and connect the shale to aquifers or to surface recharge, the fractured shale will also produce water (e.g. Antrim Shale, Indiana New Albany Shale).

Hamilton-Smith, T. [Applied Earth Science, Lexington, KY (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Portable brine evaporator unit, process, and system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention discloses a comprehensive, efficient, and cost effective portable evaporator unit, method, and system for the treatment of brine. The evaporator unit, method, and system require a pretreatment process that removes heavy metals, crude oil, and other contaminates in preparation for the evaporator unit. The pretreatment and the evaporator unit, method, and system process metals and brine at the site where they are generated (the well site). Thus, saving significant money to producers who can avoid present and future increases in transportation costs.

Hart, Paul John (Indiana, PA); Miller, Bruce G. (State College, PA); Wincek, Ronald T. (State College, PA); Decker, Glenn E. (Bellefonte, PA); Johnson, David K. (Port Matilda, PA)

2009-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

126

Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales. Annual report, June 1991--May 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Devonian oil shales of the Eastern United States are a significant domestic energy resource. The overall objective of the multi-year program, initiated in October 1987 by the US Department of Energy is to perform the research necessary to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The results of the original 3-year program, which was concluded in May 1991, have been summarized in a four-volume final report published by IGT. DOE subsequently approved a 1-year extension to the program to further develop the PFH process specifically for application to beneficiated shale as feedstock. Studies have shown that beneficiated shale is the preferred feedstock for pressurized hydroretorting. The program extension is divided into the following active tasks. Task 3. testing of process improvement concepts; Task 4. beneficiation research; Task 5. operation of PFH on beneficiated shale; Task 6. environmental data and mitigation analyses; Task 7. sample procurement, preparation, and characterization; and Task 8. project management and reporting. In order to accomplish all the program objectives, the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the prime contractor, worked with four other institutions: the University of Alabama/Mineral Resources Institute (MRI), the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), the University of Nevada (UN) at Reno, and Tennessee Technological University (TTU). This report presents the work performed during the program extension from June 1, 1991 through May 31, 1992.

Roberts, M.J.; Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Schultz, C.W. [Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States); Parekh, B.K. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States); Misra, M. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States); Bonner, W.P. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States)

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Effects of scale-up on oil and gas yields in a solid-recycle bed oil shale retorting process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluidized bed pyrolysis of oil shale in a non-hydrogen atmosphere has been shown to significantly increase oil yield in laboratory-scale reactors compared to the Fischer assay by many workers. The enhancement in oil yield by this relatively simple and efficient thermal technique has led to the development of several oil shale retorting processes based on fluidized bed and related technologies over the past fifteen years. Since 1986, the Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) has been developing one such process, KENTORT II, which is mainly tailored for the Devonian oil shales that occur in the eastern U.S. The process contains three main fluidized bed zones to pyrolyze, gasify, and combust the oil shale. A fourth fluidized bed zone serves to cool the spent shale prior to exiting the system. The autothermal process utilizes processed shale recirculation to transfer heat from the combustion to the gasification and pyrolysis zones. The CAER is currently testing the KENTORT II process in a 22.7-kg/hr process-development unit (PDU).

Carter, S.D.; Taulbee, D.N.; Vego, A. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

128

Solar retorting of oil shale  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for retorting oil shale using solar radiation. Oil shale is introduced into a first retorting chamber having a solar focus zone. There the oil shale is exposed to solar radiation and rapidly brought to a predetermined retorting temperature. Once the shale has reached this temperature, it is removed from the solar focus zone and transferred to a second retorting chamber where it is heated. In a second chamber, the oil shale is maintained at the retorting temperature, without direct exposure to solar radiation, until the retorting is complete.

Gregg, David W. (Morago, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Combustion heater for oil shale  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

1983-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

130

Combustion heater for oil shale  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA); Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Spent Shale Grouting of Abandoned In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the grout. SPENT SHALE Oil shale, which is a low-gradeMineral Reactions in Colorado Oil Shale," Lawrence Livermore1978. of Decomposition of Colorado Oil Shale: II. Livermore

Fox, J.P.; Persoff, P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

I. Canada EIA/ARI World Shale Gas and Shale Oil Resource Assessment I. CANADA SUMMARY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by this resource study. Figure I-1 illustrates certain of the major shale gas and shale oil basins in

unknown authors

133

The twentieth oil shale symposium proceedings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This book contains 20 selections. Some of the titles are: The technical contributions of John Ward Smith in oil shale research; Oil shale rubble fires: ignition and extinguishment; Fragmentation of eastern oil shale for in situ recovery; A study of thermal properties of Chinese oil shale; and Natural invasion of native plants on retorted oil shale.

Gary, J.H.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Petrographic observations suggestive of microbial mats from Rampur Shale and Bijaigarh Shale,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Petrographic observations suggestive of microbial mats from Rampur Shale and Bijaigarh Shale observations of two Vindhyan black shales (Rampur Shale of the Semri Group and Bijaigarh Shale of the Kaimur an attempt has been made to highlight possible microbial mat features from two black shale horizons (Rampur

Schieber, Juergen

135

Reservoir Characterization and Enhanced Oil Recovery Potential in Middle Devonian Dundee Limestone Reservoirs, Michigan Basin, USA.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Middle Devonian Rogers City and subjacent Dundee Limestone formations have combined oil production in excess of 375 MMBO. In general, hydrocarbon production occurs in… (more)

Abduslam, Abrahim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Gas sales starting from Indiana`s fractured New Albany shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Oil and Gas issued 138 drilling permits from Dec. 1, 1994, through July 31, 1996, in 17 counties in a growing play for gas in Devonian New Albany shale in southern Indiana. The permits are active in the form of locations, drilling wells, wells in the completion process, and wells producing gas in the dewatering stage. Geologically in southwestern Indiana the New Albany shale exploration play is found in three provinces. These are the Wabash platform, the Terre Haute reef bank, and the Vincennes basin. Exploration permits issued on each of these geologic provinces are as follows: Wabash platform 103, Terra Haute reef bank 33, and Vincennes basin two. The authors feel that the quantity and effectiveness of communication of fracturing in the shale will control gas production and water production. A rule of thumb in a desorption reservoir is that the more water a shale well makes in the beginning the more gas it will make when dewatered.

Minihan, E.D.; Buzzard, R.D. [Minihan/Buzzard Consulting Geologists, Fort Worth, TX (United States)

1996-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

137

Study of gas production potential of New Albany Shale (group) in the Illinois basin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The New Albany Shale (Devonian and Mississippian) is recognized as both a source rock and gas-producing reservoir in the Illinois basin. The first gas discovery was made in 1885, and was followed by the development of several small fields in Harrison County, Indiana, and Meade County, Kentucky. Recently, exploration for and production of New Albany gas has been encouraged by the IRS Section 29 tax credit. To identify technology gaps that have restricted the development of gas production form the shale gas resource in the basin, the Illinois Basin Consortium (IBC), composed of the Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky geological surveys, is conducting a cooperative research project with the Gas Research Institute (GRI). An earlier study of the geological and geochemical aspects of the New Albany was conducted during 1976-1978 as part of the Eastern Gas Shales Project (EGSP) sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). The current IBC/GRI study is designed to update and reinterpret EGSP data and incorporate new data obtained since 1978. During the project, relationships between gas production and basement structures are being emphasized by constructing cross sections and maps showing thickness, structure, basement features, and thermal maturity. The results of the project will be published in a comprehensive final report in 1992. The information will provide a sound geological basis for ongoing shale-gas research, exploration, and development in the basin.

Hasenmueller, N.R.; Boberg, W.S.; Comer, J.; Smidchens, Z. (Indiana Geological Survey, Bloomington (United States)); Frankie, W.T.; Lumm, D.K. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign (United States)); Hamilton-Smith, T.; Walker, J.D. (Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington (United States))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of eastern oil shales. Final report, June 1992--January 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Devonian oil shales of the Eastern United States are a significant domestic energy resource. The overall objective of the multi-year program, initiated in September 1987 by the US Department of Energy was to perform the research necessary to develop the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation and upgrading, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The program was divided into the following active tasks: Task 3 -- Testing of Process Improvement Concepts; Task 4 -- Beneficiation Research; Task 6 -- Environmental Data and Mitigation Analyses; and Task 9 -- Information Required for the National Environmental Policy Act. In order to accomplish all of the program objectives, tho Institute of Gas Technology (ICT), the prime contractor, worked with four other institutions: The University of Alabama/Mineral Resources Institute (MRI), the University of Alabama College of Engineering (UA), University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), and Tennessee Technological University (TTU). This report presents the work performed by IGT from June 1, 1992 through January 31, 1993.

Roberts, M.J.; Mensinger, M.C.; Erekson, E.J.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Schultz, C.W.; Hatcher, W.E. [Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States). Mineral Resources Inst.; Parekh, B.K. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Bonner, W.P. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States)

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Expected brine movement at potential nuclear waste repository salt sites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The BRINEMIG brine migration code predicts rates and quantities of brine migration to a waste package emplaced in a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The BRINEMIG code is an explicit time-marching finite-difference code that solves a mass balance equation and uses the Jenks equation to predict velocities of brine migration. Predictions were made for the seven potentially acceptable salt sites under consideration as locations for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Predicted total quantities of accumulated brine were on the order of 1 m/sup 3/ brine per waste package or less. Less brine accumulation is expected at domal salt sites because of the lower initial moisture contents relative to bedded salt sites. Less total accumulation of brine is predicted for spent fuel than for commercial high-level waste because of the lower temperatures generated by spent fuel. 11 refs., 36 figs., 29 tabs.

McCauley, V.S.; Raines, G.E.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Shale oil recovery process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of producing within a subterranean oil shale deposit a retort chamber containing permeable fragmented material wherein a series of explosive charges are emplaced in the deposit in a particular configuration comprising an initiating round which functions to produce an upward flexure of the overburden and to initiate fragmentation of the oil shale within the area of the retort chamber to be formed, the initiating round being followed in a predetermined time sequence by retreating lines of emplaced charges developing further fragmentation within the retort zone and continued lateral upward flexure of the overburden. The initiating round is characterized by a plurality of 5-spot patterns and the retreating lines of charges are positioned and fired along zigzag lines generally forming retreating rows of W's. Particular time delays in the firing of successive charges are disclosed.

Zerga, Daniel P. (Concord, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine devonian shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

III, "Method of Breaking Shale Oil-Water Emulsion," U. S.and Biological Treatment of Shale Oil Retort Water, DraftPA (1979). H. H. Peters, Shale Oil Waste Water Recovery by

Fox, J.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

HYDRAULIC CEMENT PREPARATION FROM LURGI SPENT SHALE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cement from spent oil shale," Vol. 10, No. 4, p. 54S,Colorado's primary oil shale resource for vertical modifiedSimulated effects of oil-shale development on the hydrology

Mehta, P.K.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS A. Levy and R.of Metals in In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts," NACE Corrosion 80,Corrosion of Oil Shale Retort Component Materials," LBL-

Bellman Jr., R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

III, "Method of Breaking Shale Oil-Water Emulsion," U. S.Waters from Green River Oil Shale," Chem. and Ind. , 1. ,Effluents from In-Situ oil Shale Processing," in Proceedings

Fox, J.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Elevated Temperature Corrosion of Oil Shale Retort Componentin In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts," NACE Corrosion 80, Paper No.6-10, 1981 CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS A.

Bellman Jr., R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is in intimate contact with oil and shale during In in-situin contact with the oil and shale. These methods and othersWaters from Green River Oil Shale," Chem. and Ind. , 1. ,

Fox, J.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Case Study: Shale Bings in Central  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and oil shale was widespread. The extraction of oil from shales began in the 1850s and developed within the region that the oil-shale bings constitute one of the eight main habi- tats in West Lothian

148

HYDRAULIC CEMENT PREPARATION FROM LURGI SPENT SHALE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hydraulic cement from spent oil shale," Vol. 10, No. 4, p.J. W. , "Colorado's primary oil shale resource for verticalSimulated effects of oil-shale development on the hydrology

Mehta, P.K.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Waters from Green River Oil Shale," Chem. and Ind. , 1. ,Effluents from In-Situ oil Shale Processing," in Proceedingsin the Treatment of Oil Shale Retort Waters," in Proceedings

Fox, J.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS A. Levy and R.of Metals in In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts," NACE Corrosion 80,Elevated Temperature Corrosion of Oil Shale Retort Component

Bellman Jr., R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Australian Shale Gas Assessment Project Reza Rezaee  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Australian Shale Gas Assessment Project Reza Rezaee Unconventional Gas Research Group, Department of Petroleum Engineering, Curtin University, Australia Shale gas is becoming an important source feet (Tcf) of technically recoverable shale gas resources. Western Australia (WA) alone

152

Apparatus for oil shale retorting  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA); Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Optimising the Use of Spent Oil Shale.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Worldwide deposits of oil shales are thought to represent ~3 trillion barrels of oil. Jordanian oil shale deposits are extensive and high quality, and could… (more)

FOSTER, HELEN,JANE

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Oil shale: The environmental challenges III  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This book presents the papers of a symposium whose purpose was to discuss the environmental and socio-economic aspects of oil shale development. Topics considered include oil shale solid waste disposal, modeling spent shale disposal, water management, assessing the effects of oil shale facilities on water quality, wastewater treatment and use at oil shale facilities, potential air emissions from oil shale retorting, the control of air pollutant emissions from oil shale facilities, oil shale air emission control, socioeconomic research, a framework for mitigation agreements, the Garfield County approach to impact mitigation, the relationship of applied industrial hygiene programs and experimental toxicology programs, and industrial hygiene programs.

Petersen, K.K.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

brine  management  or   extracted  water  management  infrastructure  or  where  nearby  fresh  water  resources  need  to  be   carefully  monitored  for  later  contamination.  

Breunig, Hanna M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Summary Results for Brine Migration Modeling Performed by LANL...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

BrineMigrationModeling More Documents & Publications Coupled Model for Heat and Water Transport in a High Level Waste Repository in Salt Establishing the Technical Basis for...

157

Oil shale, tar sands, and related materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar sand industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry of shale oil cracking; hydrogen sulfide evolution from Colorado oil shale; a possible mechanism of alkene/alkane production in oil shale retorting; oil shale retorting kinetics; kinetics of oil shale char gasification; a comparison of asphaltenes from naturally occurring shale bitumen and retorted shale oils: the influence of temperature on asphaltene structure; beneficiation of Green River oil shale by density methods; beneficiation of Green River oil shale pelletization; shell pellet heat exchange retorting: the SPHER energy-efficient process for retorting oil shale; retorted oil shale disposal research; an investigation into the potential economics of large-scale shale oil production; commercial scale refining of Paraho crude shale oil into military specification fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition; chemical characterization/physical properties of US Navy shale-II fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition: stability of oil shale-derived jet fuel; pyrolysis of shale oil residual fractions; synfuel stability: degradation mechanisms and actual findings; the chemistry of shale oil and its refined products; the reactivity of Cold Lake asphaltenes; influence of thermal processing on the properties of Cold Lake asphaltenes: the effect of distillation; thermal recovery of oil from tar sands by an energy-efficient process; and hydropyrolysis: the potential for primary upgrading of tar sand bitumen.

Stauffer, H.C.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Favorable conditions noted for Australia shale oil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

After brief descriptions of the Rundle, Condor, and Stuart/Kerosene Creek oil shale projects in Queensland, the competitive advantages of oil shale development and the state and federal governments' attitudes towards an oil shale industry in Australia are discussed. It is concluded that Australia is the ideal country in which to start an oil shale industry.

Not Available

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Bureau of Land Management Oil Shale Development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bureau of Land Management Oil Shale Development Unconventional Fuels Conference University of Utah May 17, 2011 #12;#12;Domestic Oil Shale Resources Primary oil shale resources in the U.S. are in the Green River Formation in Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado. 72 % of this oil shale resource is on Federal

Utah, University of

160

Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

Not Available

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine devonian shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

2005 Minerals Yearbook CLAY AND SHALE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2005 Minerals Yearbook CLAY AND SHALE U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey February 2007 #12;CLAY AND SHALE--2005 18.1 CLAY AND SHALE By Robert L. Virta Domestic survey data at $1.68 billion in 2004 (table 1). Common clay and shale accounted for 59% of the tonnage, and kaolin

162

Consolidation and permeability of salt in brine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The consolidation and loss of permeability of salt crystal aggregates, important in assessing the effects of water in salt repositories, has been studied as a function of several variables. The kinetic behavior was similar to that often observed in sintering and suggested the following expression for the time dependence of the void fraction: phi(t) = phi(0) - (A/B)ln(1 + Bt/z(0)/sup 3/), where A and B are rate constants and z(0) is initial average particle size. With brine present, A and phi(0) varied linearly with stress. The initial void fraction was also dependent to some extent on the particle size distribution. The rate of consolidation was most rapid in brine and least rapid in the presence of only air as the fluid. A brine containing 5 m MgCl/sub 2/ showed an intermediate rate, presumably because of the greatly reduced solubility of NaCl. A substantial wall effect was indicated by an observed increase in the void fraction of consolidated columns with distance from the top where the stress was applied and by a dependence of consolidation rate on the column height and radius. The distance through which the stress fell by a factor of phi was estimated to change inversely as the fourth power of the column diameter. With increasing temperature (to 85/sup 0/C), consolidation proceeded somewhat more rapidly and the wall effect was reduced. The permeability of the columns dropped rapidly with consolidation, decreasing with about the sixth power of the void fraction. In general, extrapolation of the results to repository conditions confirms the self-sealing properties of bedded salt as a storage medium for radioactive waste.

Shor, A.J.; Baes, C.F. Jr.; Canonico, C.M.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Oil shale retorting method and apparatus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Disclosed is an improved method and apparatus for the retorting of oil shale and the formation of spent oil shale having improved cementation properties. The improved method comprises passing feed comprising oil shale to a contacting zone wherein the feed oil shale is contacted with heat transfer medium to heat said shale to retorting temperature. The feed oil shale is substantially retorted to form fluid material having heating value and forming partially spent oil shale containing carbonaceous material. At least a portion of the partially spent oil shale is passed to a combustion zone wherein the partially spent oil shale is contacted with oxidizing gas comprising oxygen and steam to substantially combust carbonaceous material forming spent oil shale having improved cementation properties.

York, E.D.

1983-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

164

Carbon sequestration in depleted oil shale deposits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are described for sequestering carbon dioxide underground by mineralizing the carbon dioxide with coinjected fluids and minerals remaining from the extraction shale oil. In one embodiment, the oil shale of an illite-rich oil shale is heated to pyrolyze the shale underground, and carbon dioxide is provided to the remaining depleted oil shale while at an elevated temperature. Conditions are sufficient to mineralize the carbon dioxide.

Burnham, Alan K; Carroll, Susan A

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

165

Oil Shale and Other Unconventional Fuels Activities | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Naval Reserves Oil Shale and Other Unconventional Fuels Activities Oil Shale and Other Unconventional Fuels Activities The Fossil Energy program in oil shale focuses on...

166

POTENTIAL USES OF SPENT SHALE IN THE TREATMENT OF OIL SHALE RETORT WATERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pore-volume study of retorted oil shale," Lawrence LivermoreReaction kinetics between and oil-shale residual carbon. 1.Reaction kinetics between and oil-shale residual carbon. 2.

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

POTENTIAL USES OF SPENT SHALE IN THE TREATMENT OF OIL SHALE RETORT WATERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pore-volume study of retorted oil shale," Lawrence Livermoreits contact with the oil and shale. The gas condensate, onkinetics between and oil-shale residual carbon. 1. co Effect

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

POTENTIAL USES OF SPENT SHALE IN THE TREATMENT OF OIL SHALE RETORT WATERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pore-volume study of retorted oil shale," Lawrence Livermorekinetics between and oil-shale residual carbon. 1. co Effectkinetics between and oil-shale residual carbon. 2. co 2

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Eastern shale hydroretorting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of the Bench-Scale Unit (BSU) test program was to determine the effects of major process variables on conversion of organic carbon, yields and properties of oil and gas and consumption of hydrogen for hydroretorting of a specific Indiana New Albany shale. A preliminary error-propagation analysis was performed to identify possible improvements in BSU measurements that could lead to better overall material and elemental balances. A list of additional potential sources of uncertainty (primarily due to the operating procedures used) was compiled. Based on the identification of these possible sources of uncertainty, additional equipment was ordered and installed and existing operating procedures and calculation methods were modified. The result was excellent overall material balance closures (100% +/- 1%).

Roberts, M.J.; Feldkirchner, H.L.; Punwani, D.V.; Rex, R.C. Jr.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ABANDONED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

recovery Vent gas '\\Raw shale oil Recycled gas compressorThis process produces shale oil, a low BTU gas, and char,Oil Shale Process" in Oil Shale and Tar Sands, J. W. Smith

Persoff, P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Radionuclide transport in sandstones with WIPP brine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Retardation factors (R) have been measured for the transport of /sup 3/H, /sup 95m/Tc, and /sup 85/Sr in WIPP brine using St. Peter, Berea, Kayenta, and San Felipe sandstone cores. If tritium is assumed to have R=1, /sup 95m/Tc has R=1.0 to 1.3 and therefore is essentially not retarded. Strontium-85 has R = 1.0 to 1.3 on St. Peter, Berea, and Kayenta, but R=3 on San Felipe. This is attributed to sorption on the matrix material of San Felipe, which has 45 volume % matrix compared with 1 to 10 volume % for the others. Retardation factors (R/sub s/) for /sup 85/Sr calculated from static sorption measurements are unity for all the sandstones. Therefore, the static and transport results for /sup 85/Sr disagree in the case of San Felipe, but agree for St. Peter, Berea, and Kayenta.

Weed, H.C.; Bazan, F.; Fontanilla, J.; Garrison, J.; Rego, J.; Winslow, A.M.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Geochemistry of Aluminum in High Temperature Brines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective ofthis research is to provide quantitative data on the equilibrium and thermodynamic properties of aluminum minerals required to model changes in permeability and brine chemistry associated with fluid/rock interactions in the recharge, reservoir, and discharge zones of active geothermal systems. This requires a precise knowledge of the thermodynamics and speciation of aluminum in aqueous brines, spanning the temperature and fluid composition rangesencountered in active systems. The empirical and semi-empirical treatments of the solubility/hydrolysis experimental results on single aluminum mineral phases form the basis for the ultimate investigation of the behavior of complex aluminosilicate minerals. The principal objective in FY 1998 was to complete the solubility measurements on boehmite (AIOOH) inNaC1 media( 1 .O and 5.0 molal ionic strength, IOO-250°C). However, additional measurements were also made on boehmite solubility in pure NaOH solutions in order to bolster the database for fitting in-house isopiestic data on this system. Preliminary kinetic Measurements of the dissolution/precipitation of boehmite was also carried out, although these were also not planned in the earlier objective. The 1999 objectives are to incorporate these treatments into existing codes used by the geothermal industry to predict the chemistry ofthe reservoirs; these calculations will be tested for reliability against our laboratory results and field observations. Moreover, based on the success of the experimental methods developed in this program, we intend to use our unique high temperature pH easurement capabilities to make kinetic and equilibrium studies of pH-dependent aluminosilicate transformation reactions and other pH-dependent heterogeneous reactions.

Benezeth, P.; Palmer, D.A.; Wesolowski, D.J.

1999-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

173

POLYVINYLCHLORIDE WASTE WITH OIL SHALE ASH TO CAPTURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

alkaline oil shale ash. Solid heat carrier (Galoter process)-type oil shale retorting units, where the

V. Oja; A. Elenurm; I. Rohtla; E. Tearo; E. Tali

174

Zero Discharge Water Management for Horizontal Shale Gas Well Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing technology (fracking), coupled with horizontal drilling, has facilitated exploitation of huge natural gas (gas) reserves in the Devonian-age Marcellus Shale Formation (Marcellus) of the Appalachian Basin. The most-efficient technique for stimulating Marcellus gas production involves hydraulic fracturing (injection of a water-based fluid and sand mixture) along a horizontal well bore to create a series of hydraulic fractures in the Marcellus. The hydraulic fractures free the shale-trapped gas, allowing it to flow to the well bore where it is conveyed to pipelines for transport and distribution. The hydraulic fracturing process has two significant effects on the local environment. First, water withdrawals from local sources compete with the water requirements of ecosystems, domestic and recreational users, and/or agricultural and industrial uses. Second, when the injection phase is over, 10 to 30% of the injected water returns to the surface. This water consists of flowback, which occurs between the completion of fracturing and gas production, and produced water, which occurs during gas production. Collectively referred to as returned frac water (RFW), it is highly saline with varying amounts of organic contamination. It can be disposed of, either by injection into an approved underground injection well, or treated to remove contaminants so that the water meets the requirements of either surface release or recycle use. Depending on the characteristics of the RFW and the availability of satisfactory disposal alternatives, disposal can impose serious costs to the operator. In any case, large quantities of water must be transported to and from well locations, contributing to wear and tear on local roadways that were not designed to handle the heavy loads and increased traffic. The search for a way to mitigate the situation and improve the overall efficiency of shale gas production suggested a treatment method that would allow RFW to be used as make-up water for successive fracs. RFW, however, contains dissolved salts, suspended sediment and oils that may interfere with fracking fluids and/or clog fractures. This would lead to impaired well productivity. The major technical constraints to recycling RFW involves: identification of its composition, determination of industry standards for make-up water, and development of techniques to treat RFW to acceptable levels. If large scale RFW recycling becomes feasible, the industry will realize lower transportation and disposal costs, environmental conflicts, and risks of interruption in well development schedules.

Paul Ziemkiewicz; Jennifer Hause; Raymond Lovett; David Locke Harry Johnson; Doug Patchen

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

175

Production Trends of Shale Gas Wells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To obtain better well performance and improved production from shale gas reservoirs, it is important to understand the behavior of shale gas wells and to identify different flow regions in them over a period of time. It is also important...

Khan, Waqar A.

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

176

MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM A SIMULATED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Minor elements in oil shale and oil~shale products, LERCmercury to the oil shale, shale oil, and retort water. Thesemercury to spent shale, shale oil, retort water and offgas

Fox, J. P.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION UNIT FOR OIL SHALE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

combustion performance using oil shale as fuel in direct burning process. It is a steel column of 18 cm

M. Hammad; Y. Zurigat; S. Khzai; Z. Hammad; O. Mubydeem

178

Oil shale technology. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This collaborative project with industrial participants studied oil shale retorting through an integrated program of fundamental research, mathematical model development and operation of a 4-tonne-per-day solid recirculation oil shale test unit. Quarterly, project personnel presented progress and findings to a Project Guidance Committee consisting of company representatives and DOE program management. We successfully operated the test unit, developed the oil shale process (OSP) mathematical model, evaluated technical plans for process scale up and determined economics for a successful small scale commercial deployment, producing premium motor fuel, specility chemicals along with electricity co-production. In budget negotiations, DOE funding for this three year CRADA was terminated, 17 months prematurely, as of October 1993. Funds to restore the project and continue the partnership have not been secured.

NONE

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Oil shale technology and evironmental aspects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oil shale processes are a combination of mining, retorting, and upgrading facilities. This work outlines the processing steps and some design considerations required in an oil shale facility. A brief overview of above ground and in situ retorts is presented; 6 retorts are described. The development aspects which the oil shale industry is addressing to protect the environment are presented.

Scinta, J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Australian developments in oil shale processing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study gives some background on Australian oil shale deposits, briefly records some history of oil shale processing in the country and looks at the current status of the various proposals being considered to produce syncrudes from Australian oil shales. 5 refs.

Baker, G.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine devonian shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Burgess Shale: Cambrian Explosion in Full Bloom  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

4 Burgess Shale: Cambrian Explosion in Full Bloom James W. Hagadorn T he middle cambrian burgess shale is one of the world's best-known and best-studied fossil deposits. The story of the discovery in the Burgess Shale Formation of the Canadian Rockies, Charles Walcott discovered a remarkable "phyl- lopod

Hagadorn, Whitey

182

The feasibility of deep well injection for brine disposal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

feasibility. The methodology is utilized to make a preliminary evaluation of a proposed brine injection project in the Dove Creek area of King and Stonewall Counties, North Central Texas. Four known deep aquifers are modeled, using the SWIFT/486 software...

Spongberg, Martin Edward

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Integrated process for coalbed brine and methane disposal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes a technology and project to demonstrate and commercialize a brine disposal process for converting the brine stream of a coalbed gas producing site into clean water for agricultural use and dry solids that can be recycled for industrial consumption. The process also utilizes coalbed methane (CBM) released from coal mining for the combustion process thereby substantially reducing the potential for methane emissions to the atmosphere. The technology is ideally suited for the treatment and disposal of produced brines generated from the development of coal mines and coalbed methane resources worldwide. Over the next 10 to 15 years, market potential for brine elimination equipment and services is estimated to be in the range of $1 billion.

Byam, J.W. Jr.; Tait, J.H.; Brandt, H.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

184

CLAY AND SHALE--2003 18.1 CLAY AND SHALE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

%), drilling mud (22%), and iron ore pelletizing (15%); for common clay and shale, brick (55%), cement (19 Protection Agency (EPA) finalized its maximum achievable control technology (MACT) regulation/Mg of uncalcined clay or a reduction of 30% in emissions. For new batch kilns, hydrogen fluoride and hydrogen

185

Strontium isotope quantification of siderite, brine and acid mine drainage contributions to abandoned gas well discharges in the Appalachian Plateau  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Unplugged abandoned oil and gas wells in the Appalachian region can serve as conduits for the movement of waters impacted by fossil fuel extraction. Strontium isotope and geochemical analysis indicate that artesian discharges of water with high total dissolved solids (TDS) from a series of gas wells in western Pennsylvania result from the infiltration of acidic, low Fe (Fe < 10 mg/L) coal mine drainage (AMD) into shallow, siderite (iron carbonate)-cemented sandstone aquifers. The acidity from the AMD promotes dissolution of the carbonate, and metal- and sulfate-contaminated waters rise to the surface through compromised abandoned gas well casings. Strontium isotope mixing models suggest that neither upward migration of oil and gas brines from Devonian reservoirs associated with the wells nor dissolution of abundant nodular siderite present in the mine spoil through which recharge water percolates contribute significantly to the artesian gas well discharges. Natural Sr isotope composition can be a sensitive tool in the characterization of complex groundwater interactions and can be used to distinguish between inputs from deep and shallow contamination sources, as well as between groundwater and mineralogically similar but stratigraphically distinct rock units. This is of particular relevance to regions such as the Appalachian Basin, where a legacy of coal, oil and gas exploration is coupled with ongoing and future natural gas drilling into deep reservoirs.

Chapman, Elizabeth C.; Capo, Rosemary C.; Stewart, Brian W.; Hedin, Robert S.; Weaver, Theodore J.; Edenborn, Harry M.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Hydrotreating of oil from eastern oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oil shale provides one of the major fossil energy reserves for the United States. The quantity of reserves in oil shale is less than the quantity in coal, but is much greater (by at least an order of magnitude) than the quantity of crude oil reserves. With so much oil potentially available from oil shale, efforts have been made to develop techniques for its utilization. In these efforts, hydrotreating has proved to be an acceptable technique for upgrading raw shale oil to make usuable products. The present work demonstrated the use of the hydrotreating technique for upgrading an oil from Indiana New Albany oil shale.

Scinta, J.; Garner, J.W.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Sedimentology, petrology, and gas potential of the Brallier Formation: upper Devonian turbidite facies of the Central and Southern Appalachians  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Upper Devonian Brallier Formation of the central and southern Appalachian basin is a regressive sequence of siltstone turbidites interbedded with mudstones, claystones, and shales. It reaches 1000 meters in thickness and overlies basinal mudrocks and underlies deltaic sandstones and mudrocks. Facies and paleocurrent analyses indicate differences between the depositional system of the Brallier Formation and those of modern submarine fans and ancient Alpine flysch-type sequences. The Brallier system is of finer grain size and lower flow intensity. In addition, the stratigraphic transition from turbidites to deltaic sediments is gradual and differs in its facies succession from the deposits of the proximal parts of modern submarine fans. Such features as massive and pebbly sandstones, conglomerates, debris flows, and massive slump structures are absent from this transition. Paleocurrents are uniformly to the west at right angles to basin isopach, which is atypical of ancient turbidite systems. This suggests that turbidity currents had multiple point sources. The petrography and paleocurrents of the Brallier Formation indicate an eastern source of sedimentary and low-grade metasedimentary rocks with modern relief and rainfall. The depositional system of the Brallier Formation is interpreted as a series of small ephemeral turbidite lobes of low flow intensity which coalesced in time to produce a laterally extensive wedge. The lobes were fed by deltas rather than submarine canyons or upper fan channel systems. This study shows that the present-day turbidite facies model, based mainly on modern submarine fans and ancient Alpine flysch-type sequences, does not adequately describe prodeltaic turbidite systems such as the Brallier Formation. Thickly bedded siltstone bundles are common features of the Brallier Formation and are probably its best gas reservoir facies, especially when fracture porosity is well developed.

Lundegard, P.D.; Samuels, N.D.; Pryor, W.A.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Jordan ships oil shale to China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Jordan and China have signed an agreement to develop oil shale processing technology that could lead to a 200 ton/day oil shale plant in Jordan. China will process 1200 tons of Jordanian oil shale at its Fu Shun refinery. If tests are successful, China could build the demonstration plant in Jordan's Lajjun region, where the oil shale resource is estimated at 1.3 billion tons. China plans to send a team to Jordan to conduct a plant design study. A Lajjun oil shale complex could produce as much as 50,000 b/d of shale oil. An earlier 500 ton shipment of shale is said to have yielded promising results.

Not Available

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Bakken Shale Oil Production Trends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to study this Type of behavior because of scattering data, which leads to erroneous interpretation for the analysis. These production Types, especially Types I and II will give a new type curve matches for shale oil wells above or below the bubble point....

Tran, Tan

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

190

ABSORBING WIPP BRINES: A TRU WASTE DISPOSAL STRATEGY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has completed experiments involving 15 each, 250- liter experimental test containers of transuranic (TRU) heterogeneous waste immersed in two types of brine similar to those found in the underground portion of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). To dispose of the waste without removing the brine from the test containers, LANL added commercially available cross-linked polyacrylate granules to absorb the 190 liters of brine in each container, making the waste compliant for shipping to the WIPP in a Standard Waste Box (SWB). Prior to performing the absorption, LANL and the manufacturer of the absorbent conducted laboratory and field tests to determine the ratio of absorbent to brine that would fully absorb the liquid. Bench scale tests indicated a ratio of 10 parts Castile brine to one part absorbent and 6.25 parts Brine A to one part absorbent. The minimum ratio of absorbent to brine was sought because headspace in the containers was limited. However, full scale testing revealed that the ratio should be adjusted to be about 15% richer in absorbent. Additional testing showed that the absorbent would not apply more than 13.8 kPa pressure on the walls of the vessel and that the absorbent would still function normally at that pressure and would not degrade in the approximately 5e-4 Sv/hr radioactive field produced by the waste. Heat generation from the absorption was minimal. The in situ absorption created a single waste stream of 8 SWBs whereas the least complicated alternate method of disposal would have yielded at least an additional 2600 liters of mixed low level liquid waste plus about two cubic meters of mixed low level solid waste, and would have resulted in higher risk of radiation exposure to workers. The in situ absorption saved $311k in a combination of waste treatment, disposal, material and personnel costs compared to the least expensive alternative and $984k compared to the original plan.

Yeamans, D. R.; Wrights, R. S.

2002-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

191

Absorbing WIPP brines : a TRU waste disposal strategy.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has completed experiments involving 15 each, 250-liter experimental test containers of transuranic (TRU) heterogeneous waste immersed in two types of brine similar to those found in the underground portion of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). To dispose of the waste without removing the brine from the test containers, LANL added commercially available cross-linked polyacrylate granules to absorb the 190 liters of brine in each container, making the waste compliant for shipping to the WlPP in a Standard Waste Box (SWB). Prior to performing the absorption, LANL and the manufacturer of the absorbent conducted laboratory and field tests to determine the ratio of absorbent to brine that would fully absorb the liquid. Bench scale tests indicated a ratio of 10 parts Castile brine to one part absorbent and 6.25 parts Brine A to one part absorbent. The minimum ratio of absorbent to brine was sought because headspace in the containers was limited. However, full scale testing revealed that the ratio should be adjusted to be about 15% richer in absorbent. Additional testing showed that the absorbent would not apply more than 13.8 kPa pressure on the walls of the vessel and that the absorbent would still function normally at that pressure and would not degrade in the approximately 5e-4 Sv/hr radioactive field produced by the waste. Heat generation from the absorption was minimal. The in situ absorption created a single waste stream of 8 SWBs whereas the least complicated alternate method of disposal would have yielded at least an additional 2600 liters of mixed low level liquid waste plus about two cubic meters of mixed low level solid waste, and would have resulted in higher risk of radiation exposure to workers. The in situ absorption saved $3 1 lk in a combination of waste treatment, disposal, material and personnel costs compared to the least expensive alternative and $984k compared to the original plan.

Yeamans, D. R. (David R.); Wright, R. (Robert)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Transport and reduction of sulfate and immobilization of sulfide in marine black shales  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In fine-grained sediments in which the amount of reduced sulfur retained in stable phases substantially exceeds that present initially in pore waters, rates of sulfate reduction may have equaled or exceeded rates of sulfate transport, resulting in enrichment of [sup 34]S in pore waters and reduction products. Abundance and isotopic compositions of reduced sulfur compounds can be used to calculate the extent of sulfide retention and improve reconstructions of carbon-sulfur oxidation-reduction (redox) budgets. The Miocene Monterey Formation and Upper Devonian New Albany Shale represent distinct types of black shales that accumulated under different conditions of sulfate reduction. Our results suggest that the rate of sulfate reduction was controlled largely by mass transport in the Monterey and by the reduction process itself in the New Albany. Sulfide was more efficiently retained in the Monterey; thus each mole of sulfide in the New Albany represents a greater amount of sedimented organic carbon removed during sulfate reduction. 30 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Zaback, D.A.; Pratt, L.M.; Hayes, J.M. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington (United States))

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

New York Marcellus Shale: Industry boom put on hold  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Key catalysts for Marcellus Shale drilling in New York were identified. New York remains the only state in the nation with a legislative moratorium on high-volume hydraulic fracturing, as regulators and state lawmakers work to balance the advantages of potential economic benefits while protecting public drinking water resources and the environment. New York is being particularly careful to work on implementing sufficiently strict regulations to mitigate the environmental impacts Pennsylvania has already seen, such as methane gas releases, fracturing fluid releases, flowback water and brine controls, and total dissolved solids discharges. In addition to economic and environmental lessons learned, the New York Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) also acknowledges impacts to housing markets, security, and other local issues, and may impose stringent measures to mitigate potential risks to local communities. Despite the moratorium, New York has the opportunity to take advantage of increased capital investment, tax revenue generation, and job creation opportunities by increasing shale gas activity. The combination of economic benefits, industry pressure, and recent technological advances will drive the pursuit of natural gas drilling in New York. We identify four principal catalysts as follows: Catalyst 1: Pressure from Within the State. Although high-volume hydraulic fracturing has become a nationally controversial technology, shale fracturing activity is common in every U.S. state except New York. The regulatory process has delayed potential economic opportunities for state and local economies, as well as many industry stakeholders. In 2010, shale gas production accounted for $18.6 billion in federal royalty and local, state, and federal tax revenues. (1) This is expected to continue to grow substantially. The DEC is under increased pressure to open the state to the same opportunities that Alabama, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Kansas, Louisiana, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, West Virginia, and Wyoming are pursuing. Positive labor market impacts are another major economic draw. According to the Revised Draft SGEIS on the Oil, Gas and Solution Mining Regulatory Program (September 2011), hydraulic fracturing would create between 4,408 and 17,634 full-time equivalent (FTE) direct construction jobs in New York State. Indirect employment in other sectors would add an additional 29,174 FTE jobs. Furthermore, the SGEIS analysis suggests that drilling activities could add an estimated $621.9 million to $2.5 billion in employee earnings (direct and indirect) per year, depending upon how much of the shale is developed. The state would also receive direct tax receipts from leasing land, and has the potential to see an increase in generated indirect revenue. Estimates range from $31 million to $125 million per year in personal income tax receipts, and local governments would benefit from revenue sharing. Some landowner groups say the continued delay in drilling is costing tens of thousands of jobs and millions of dollars in growth for New York, especially in the economically stunted upstate. A number of New York counties near Pennsylvania, such as Chemung, NY, have experienced economic uptick from Pennsylvania drilling activity just across the border. Chemung officials reported that approximately 1,300 county residents are currently employed by the drilling industry in Pennsylvania. The Marcellus shale boom is expected to continue over the next decade and beyond. By 2015, gas drilling activity could bring 20,000 jobs to New York State alone. Other states, such as Pennsylvania and West Virginia, are also expected to see a significant increase in the number of jobs. Catalyst 2: Political Reality of the Moratorium. Oil and gas drilling has taken place in New York since the 19th century, and it remains an important industry with more than 13,000 currently active wells. The use of hydraulic fracturing in particular has been employed for decades. Yet, as technological

Mercurio, Angelique

2012-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

194

Clarification of C-S relationships of marine black shales using stable isotopic composition of reduced sulfur  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon-sulfur relationships are compared for the Miocene Monterey Formation (Santa Maria Basin, California) and the Upper Devonian New Albany Shale (Illinois Basin, Indiana). In both formations, C-S concentrations covary for samples with the lower to more intermediate organic carbon concentrations and become invariant at higher organic carbon concentrations. While the similarity of these relationships in Monterey and New Albany suggest sulfur diagenesis occurred in similar depositional environments, sulfur isotopic data clearly indicate differences in the depositional environments. In the Monterey, the most organic-rich laminated shales are characterized by isotopic enrichment of reduced S and low S ratios and indicate that sulfate reduction occurred under sulfate-limited conditions within the sediments. In the New Albany, organic-rich laminated shales exhibit isotopic depletion of reduced S coupled with low S[sub reduced]/C[sub org] and suggest sulfur diagenesis occurred under euxinic conditions. These data show that in the absence of sulfur isotopic data, misleading conclusions concerning depositional environments can be made when using C-S plots and the traditional interpretations that are associated with these types of plots.

Zaback, D.A.; Pratt, L.M. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Architecture of the Middle Devonian Kvamshesten Group, western Norway: sedimentary response to deformation above a ramp-flat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Architecture of the Middle Devonian Kvamshesten Group, western Norway: sedimentary response. ANDERSEN 1 1Department of Geology, University of Oslo, Pb 1047 Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway 2present address." Geological Survey of Norway, 7491 Trondheim, Norway Abstract: The Mid-Devonian Kvamshesten basin in western

Andersen, Torgeir Bjørge

196

Focus on the Marcellus Shale By Lisa Sumi  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shale Gas: Focus on the Marcellus Shale By Lisa Sumi FOR THE OIL & GAS ACCOUNTABILITY PROJECT on potential oil and gas development in the Marcellus Shale formation in northeastern Pennsylvania ¡ www.ogap.org #12;Shale Gas: Focus on the Marcellus Shale A REPORT COMPILED FOR THE OIL AND GAS

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

197

Conversion characteristics of 10 selected oil shales  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conversion behavior of 10 oil shale from seven foreign and three domestic deposits has been studied by combining solid- and liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements with material balance Fischer assay conversion data. The extent of aromatization of aliphatic carbons was determined. Between zero and 42% of the raw shale aliphatic carbon formed aromatic carbon during Fischer assay. For three of the shales, there was more aromatic carbon in the residue after Fisher assay than in the raw shale. Between 10 and 20% of the raw shale aliphatic carbons ended up as aliphatic carbons on the spent shale. Good correlations were found between the raw shale aliphatic carbon and carbon in the oil and between the raw shale aromatic carbon and aromatic carbon on the spent shale. Simulated distillations and molecular weight determinations were performed on the shale oils. Greater than 50% of the oil consisted of the atmospheric and vacuum gas oil boiling fractions. 14 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

Miknis, F.P.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Production of hydrogen from oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process for production of hydrogen from oil shale fines by direct introduction of the oil shale fines into a fluidized bed at temperatures about 1200/sup 0/ to about 2000/sup 0/ F. to obtain rapid heating of the oil shale. The bed is fluidized by upward passage of steam and oxygen, the steam introduced in the weight ratio of about 0.1 to about 10 on the basis of the organic carbon content of the oil shale and the oxygen introduced in less than the stoichiometric quantity for complete combustion of the organic carbonaceous kerogen content of the oil shale. Embodiments are disclosed for heat recovery from the spent shale and heat recovery from the spent shale and product gas wherein the complete process and heat recovery is carried out in a single reaction vessel. The process of this invention provides high conversion of organic carbon component of oil shale and high production of hydrogen from shale fines which when used in combination with a conventional oil shale hydroconversion process results in increased overall process efficiency of greater than 15 percent.

Schora, F. C.; Feldkirchner, H. L.; Janka, J. C.

1985-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

199

Shale Oil Value Enhancement Research  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Raw kerogen oil is rich in heteroatom-containing compounds. Heteroatoms, N, S & O, are undesirable as components of a refinery feedstock, but are the basis for product value in agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, solvents, polymers, and a host of industrial materials. An economically viable, technologically feasible process scheme was developed in this research that promises to enhance the economics of oil shale development, both in the US and elsewhere in the world, in particular Estonia. Products will compete in existing markets for products now manufactured by costly synthesis routes. A premium petroleum refinery feedstock is also produced. The technology is now ready for pilot plant engineering studies and is likely to play an important role in developing a US oil shale industry.

James W. Bunger

2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

200

Actinide (III) solubility in WIPP Brine: data summary and recommendations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solubility of actinides in the +3 oxidation state is an important input into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) performance assessment (PA) models that calculate potential actinide release from the WIPP repository. In this context, the solubility of neodymium(III) was determined as a function of pH, carbonate concentration, and WIPP brine composition. Additionally, we conducted a literature review on the solubility of +3 actinides under WIPP-related conditions. Neodymium(III) was used as a redox-invariant analog for the +3 oxidation state of americium and plutonium, which is the oxidation state that accounts for over 90% of the potential release from the WIPP through the dissolved brine release (DBR) mechanism, based on current WIPP performance assessment assumptions. These solubility data extend past studies to brine compositions that are more WIPP-relevant and cover a broader range of experimental conditions than past studies.

Borkowski, Marian; Lucchini, Jean-Francois; Richmann, Michael K.; Reed, Donald T.

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine devonian shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

ORGANIC GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND MINERALOGIC PROPERTIES OF MENGEN OIL SHALE (LUTETIAN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, lignite, and oil shale sequences. Oil shale deposit has been accumulated in shallow restricted back

unknown authors

202

Review of Emerging Resources: U.S. Shale Gas and Shale Oil Plays  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

To gain a better understanding of the potential U.S. domestic shale gas and shale oil resources, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) commissioned INTEK, Inc. to develop an assessment of onshore lower 48 states technically recoverable shale gas and shale oil resources. This paper briefly describes the scope, methodology, and key results of the report and discusses the key assumptions that underlie the results.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Developments in oil shale in 1987  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oil shale development continued at a slow pace in 1987. The continuing interest in this commodity is demonstrated by the 342 oil shale citations added to the US Department of Energy Energy Database during 1987. The Unocal project in Parachute, Colorado, produced 600,000 bbl of synfuel in 1987. An appreciable amount of 1987's activity was associated with the nonsynfuel uses of oil shale. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Knutson, C.F.; Dana, G.F.; Solti, G.; Qian, J.L.; Ball, F.D.; Hutton, A.C.; Hanna, J.; Russell, P.L.; Piper, E.M.

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

INVESTIGATIONS ON HYDRAULIC CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

20 to 40% of the oil shale, and explosively rubblizing andCEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE P.K. Mehta and P. Persoff AprilCement Manufacture from Oil Shale, U.S. Patent 2,904,445,

Mehta, P.K.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ABANDONED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Controls for a Commercial Oil Shale In~try, Vol. I, An En~Mathematical Hodel for In-Situ Shale Retorting," in SecondBriefing on In-Situ Oil Shale Technology, Lawrence Livermore

Persoff, P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Control Strategies for Abandoned in situ Oil Shale Retorts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Presented elt the TUJelfth Oil Shale Synlposittnz, Golden,for Abandoned In Situ Oil Shale Retorts P. Persoll and ]. P.Water Pollution of Spent Oil Shale Residues, EDB Lea,

Persoff, P.; Fox, J.P.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ABANDONED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Controls for a Commercial Oil Shale In~try, Vol. I, An En~in Second Briefing on In-Situ Oil Shale Technology, LawrenceReactions in Colorado Oil Shale, Lawrence Report UCRL-

Persoff, P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

INVESTIGATIONS ON HYDRAULIC CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE P.K. Mehta and P. Persoff AprilCement Manufacture from Oil Shale, U.S. Patent 2,904,445,CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE P, K, Mehta Civil Engineering

Mehta, P.K.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

INTER-MOUNTAIN BASINS SHALE BADLAND extent exaggerated for display  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INTER-MOUNTAIN BASINS SHALE BADLAND R.Rondeau extent exaggerated for display ACHNATHERUM HYMENOIDES HERBACEOUS ALLIANCE Achnatherum hymenoides Shale Barren Herbaceous Vegetation ARTEMISIA BIGELOVII SHRUBLAND ALLIANCE Leymus salinus Shale Sparse Vegetation Overview: This widespread ecological system

210

CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at the National Association of Corrosion EngineersConference, Corrosion '81, Toronto, Ontario, Canada,April 6-10, 1981 CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE

Bellman Jr., R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Challenges and strategies of shale gas development.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The objective of this paper is to help new investors and project developers identify the challenges of shale gas E&P and to enlighten them of… (more)

Lee, Sunje

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Decline Curve Analysis of Shale Oil Production.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Production of oil and gas from shale is often described as a revolution to energyproduction in North America. Since the beginning of this century… (more)

Lund, Linnea

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

INTERLABORATORY, MULTIMETHOD STUDY OF AN IN SITU PRODUCED OIL SHALE PROCESS WATER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Minor Elements in Oil Shale and Oil Shale Products. LERCfor Use 1n Oil Shale and Shale Oil. OSRD-32, 1945. Jeris, J.Water coproduced with shale oil and decanted from it is

Farrier, D.S.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

TREATMENT OF MULTIVARIATE ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH OIL SHALE TECHNOLOGY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Identified in Oil Shale and Shale Oil. list." 1. Preliminaryrisks of large scale shale oil production are sufficient tofound in oil shale and shale oil by EMIC and ETIC, has

Kland, M.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

CONTAMINATION OF GROUNDWATER BY ORGANIC POLLUTANTS LEACHED FROM IN-SITU SPENT SHALE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

decomposition of kerogen to shale oil and related by~of Oil Shale to Produce Shale Oil and Related Byproducts.Ref. 3). Chemis of Oil Shale Oil shale is a sedimentary

Amy, Gary L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

TREATMENT OF MULTIVARIATE ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH OIL SHALE TECHNOLOGY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chemicals Identified in Oil Shale and Shale Oil. list." 1.of Trace Contaminants in Oil Shale Retort Wa- ters", Am.Trace Contaminants in Oil Shale Retort Waters", in Oil Shale

Kland, M.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Characterization of DOE reference oil shales: Mahogany Zone, Parachute Creek Member, Green River Formation Oil Shale, and Clegg Creek Member, New Albany Shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurements have been made on the chemical and physical properties of two oil shales designated as reference oil shales by the Department of Energy. One oil shale is a Green River Formation, Parachute Creek Member, Mahogany Zone Colorado oil shale from the Exxon Colony mine and the other is a Clegg Creek Member, New Albany shale from Kentucky. Material balance Fischer assays, carbon aromaticities, thermal properties, and bulk mineralogic properties have been determined for the oil shales. Kerogen concentrates were prepared from both shales. The measured properties of the reference shales are comparable to results obtained from previous studies on similar shales. The western reference shale has a low carbon aromaticity, high Fischer assay conversion to oil, and a dominant carbonate mineralogy. The eastern reference shale has a high carbon aromaticity, low Fischer assay conversion to oil, and a dominant silicate mineralogy. Chemical and physical properties, including ASTM distillations, have been determined for shale oils produced from the reference shales. The distillation data were used in conjunction with API correlations to calculate a large number of shale oil properties that are required for computer models such as ASPEN. There was poor agreement between measured and calculated molecular weights for the total shale oil produced from each shale. However, measured and calculated molecular weights agreed reasonably well for true boiling point distillate fractions in the temperature range of 204 to 399/sup 0/C (400 to 750/sup 0/F). Similarly, measured and calculated viscosities of the total shale oils were in disagreement, whereas good agreement was obtained on distillate fractions for a boiling range up to 315/sup 0/C (600/sup 0/F). Thermal and dielectric properties were determined for the shales and shale oils. The dielectric properties of the reference shales and shale oils decreased with increasing frequency of the applied frequency. 42 refs., 34 figs., 24 tabs.

Miknis, F. P.; Robertson, R. E.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Method for forming an in-situ oil shale retort in differing grades of oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An in-situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The formation comprises at least one region of relatively richer oil shale and another region of relatively leaner oil shale. According to one embodiment, formation is excavated from within a retort site for forming at least one void extending horizontally across the retort site, leaving a portion of unfragmented formation including the regions of richer and leaner oil shale adjacent such a void space. A first array of vertical blast holes are drilled in the regions of richer and leaner oil shale, and a second array of blast holes are drilled at least in the region of richer oil shale. Explosive charges are placed in portions of the blast holes in the first and second arrays which extend into the richer oil shale, and separate explosive charges are placed in portions of the blast holes in the first array which extend into the leaner oil shale. This provides an array with a smaller scaled depth of burial (sdob) and closer spacing distance between explosive charges in the richer oil shale than the sdob and spacing distance of the array of explosive charges in the leaner oil shale. The explosive charges are detonated for explosively expanding the regions of richer and leaner oil shale toward the horizontal void for forming a fragmented mass of particles. Upon detonation of the explosive, greater explosive energy is provided collectively by the explosive charges in the richer oil shale, compared with the explosive energy produced by the explosive charges in the leaner oil shale, resulting in comparable fragmentation in both grades of oil shale.

Ricketts, T.E.

1984-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

219

Shale Oil Production Performance from a Stimulated Reservoir Volume.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The horizontal well with multiple transverse fractures has proven to be an effective strategy for shale gas reservoir exploitation. Some operators are successfully producing shale… (more)

Chaudhary, Anish Singh

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Secretary of Energy Advisory Board Hosts Conference Call on Shale...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Secretary of Energy Advisory Board Hosts Conference Call on Shale Gas Draft Report Secretary of Energy Advisory Board Hosts Conference Call on Shale Gas Draft Report November 10,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine devonian shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Strategic Significance of Americas Oil Shale Resource  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

II Oil Shale Resources Technology and Economics Office of Deputy Assistant Secretary for Petroleum Reserves Office of Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves U.S. Department of...

222

Characterization of Gas Shales by X-ray Raman Spectroscopy |...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Drew Pomerantz, Schlumberger Unconventional hydrocarbon resources such as gas shale and oil-bearing shale have emerged recently as economically viable sources of energy,...

223

U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1268U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1268 Published 2005Published 2005  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

within reservoirs (Water, oil, gas cap)oil, gas cap) #12;The Devonian Shale - Middle andThe Devonian, 1975)(de Witt and others, 1975) A'A #12;Oil in Devonian Shale and OriskanyOil in Devonian Shale Natural Gas Resources in Devonian Black Shales,Assessment of Undiscovered Natural Gas Resources

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

224

MID-LATE DEVONIAN CALCIFIED MARINE ALGAE AND CYANOBACTERIA, SOUTH CHINA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MID-LATE DEVONIAN CALCIFIED MARINE ALGAE AND CYANOBACTERIA, SOUTH CHINA QI FENG,1 YI-MING GONG,1 contain microfossils generally regarded as calcified algae and cyanobacteria. These are present in 61 out with differing degrees of confidence, and placed in algae, cyanobacteria or microproblematica. Algae: Halysis

Riding, Robert

225

2006 Nature Publishing Group A Devonian tetrapod-like fish and the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Š 2006 Nature Publishing Group A Devonian tetrapod-like fish and the evolution of the tetrapod body vertebrates (tetrapods) to lobe-finned fish (sarcopterygians) is well established, but the origin of major changes. Here we report the discovery of a well-preserved species of fossil sarcopterygian fish from

Bechtold, Jill

226

Geochemical evidence for possible natural migration of Marcellus Formation brine to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as the potential for contamination from toxic substances in hydraulic fracturing fluid and/or pro- duced brinesGeochemical evidence for possible natural migration of Marcellus Formation brine to shallow of stray gas, metal-rich formation brines, and hydrau- lic fracturing and/or flowback fluids to drinking

227

Pressure Buildup and Brine Migration During CO2 Storage in Multilayered Aquifers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

leakage of brine into shallow groundwater resources. Pressurized brine can also be pushed into overlying. Introduction Carbon dioxide capture combined with geologic stor- age (CCS) in suitable subsurface formations of resident brine caused by CCS operations require modeling/analysis tools of considerable complexity (Celia

Zhou, Quanlin

228

Advanced biochemical processes for geothermal brines: Current developments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A research program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) which deals with the development and application of processes for the treatment of geothermal brines and sludges has led to the identification and design of cost-efficient and environmentally friendly treatment methodology. Initially the primary goal of the processing was to convert geothermal wastes into disposable materials whose chemical composition would satisfy environmental regulations. An expansion of the r and D effort identified a combination of biochemical and chemical processes which became the basis for the development of a technology for the treatment of geothermal brines and sludges. The new technology satisfies environmental regulatory requirements and concurrently converts the geothermal brines and sludges into commercially promising products. Because the chemical composition of geothermal wastes depends on the type of the resource, the emerging technology has to be flexible so that it can be readily modified to suit the needs of a particular type of resource. Recent conceptional designs for the processing of hypersaline and low salinity brines and sludges will be discussed.

Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Bohenek, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Energy Science and Technology Div.; Bajsarowicz, V. [CET Environmental Services, Inc., Richmond, CA (United States); McCloud, M. [C.E. Holt/California Energy, Pasadena, CA (United States)

1997-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

229

Carcinogenicity Studies of Estonian Oil Shale Soots  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Several series of chronic experiments in white mice and white rats were carried out in order to determine the carcinogenicity of Estonian oil shale soot as well as the soot from oil shale fuel oil. All the investigated samples of soot showed a relatively low (from 14 to 1200 ppm) benzo

A. Vosamae

230

Fluidized bed retorting of eastern oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This topical report summarizes the conceptual design of an integrated oil shale processing plant based on fluidized bed retorting of eastern New Albany oil shale. This is the fourth design study conducted by Foster Wheeler; previous design cases employed the following technologies: Fluidized bed rotating/combustion of Colorado Mahogany zone shale. An FCC concept of fluidized bed retorting/combustion of Colorado Mahogany zone shale. Directly heated moving vertical-bed process using Colorado Mahogany zone shale. The conceptual design encompasses a grassroots facility which processes run-of-mine oil shale into a syncrude oil product and dispose of the spent shale solids. The plant has a nominal capacity of 50,000 barrels per day of syncrude product, produced from oil shale feed having a Fischer Assay of 15 gallons per ton. Design of the processing units was based on non-confidential published information and supplemental data from process licensors. Maximum use of process and cost information developed in the previous Foster Wheeler studies was employed. The integrated plant design is described in terms of the individual process units and plant support systems. The estimated total plant investment is detailed by plant section and estimates of the annual operating requirements and costs are provided. In addition, process design assumptions and uncertainties are documented and recommendations for process alternatives, which could improve the overall plant economics, are discussed. 12 refs., 17 figs., 52 tabs.

Gaire, R.J.; Mazzella, G.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Fracture Conductivity of the Eagle Ford Shale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

such as the Eagle Ford Shale. This work investigates the fracture conductivities of seven Eagle Ford Shale samples collected from an outcrop of facies B. Rough fractures were induced in the samples and laboratory experiments that closely followed the API RP-61...

Guzek, James J

2014-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

232

Chemical kinetics and oil shale process design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oil shale processes are reviewed with the goal of showing how chemical kinetics influences the design and operation of different processes for different types of oil shale. Reaction kinetics are presented for organic pyrolysis, carbon combustion, carbonate decomposition, and sulfur and nitrogen reactions.

Burnham, A.K.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Oil production enhancement through a standardized brine treatment. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to permit the environmentally safe discharge of brines produced from oil wells in Pennsylvania to the surface waters of the Commonwealth and to rapidly brings as many wells as possible into compliance with the law, the Pennsylvania Oil and Gas Association (POGAM) approached the Pennsylvania State University to develop a program designed to demonstrate that a treatment process to meet acceptable discharge conditions and effluent limitations can be standardized for all potential stripper wells brine discharge. After the initial studies, the first phase of this project was initiated. A bench-scale prototype model was developed for conducting experiments in laboratory conditions. The experiments pursued in the laboratory conditions were focused on the removal of ferrous iron from synthetically made brine. Iron was selected as the primary heavy metals for studying the efficiency of the treatment process. The results of a number of experiments in the lab were indicative of the capability of the proposed brine treatment process in the removal of iron. Concurrent with the laboratory experiments, a comprehensive and extensive kinetic study was initiated. This study was necessary to provide the required data base for process modeling. This study included the investigation of the critical pH as well as the rate and order of reactions of the studied elements: aluminum, lead, zinc, and copper. In the second phase of this project, a field-based prototype was developed to evaluate and demonstrate the treatment process effectiveness. These experiments were conducted under various conditions and included the testing on five brines from different locations with various dissolved constituents. The outcome of this research has been a software package, currently based on iron`s reactivity, to be used for design purposes. The developed computer program was refined as far as possible using the results from laboratory and field experiments.

Adewumi, A.; Watson, R.; Tian, S.; Safargar, S.; Heckman, S.; Drielinger, I.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Thermomechanical properties of selected shales  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The experimental work discussed in this report is part of an ongoing program concerning evaluation of sedimentary and other rock types as potential hosts for a geologic repository. The objectives are the development of tools and techniques for repository characterization and performance assessment in a diversity of geohydrologic settings. This phase of the program is a laboratory study that investigates fundamental thermomechanical properties of several different shales. Laboratory experiments are intrinsically related to numerical modeling and in situ field experiments, which together will be used for performance assessment.

Hansen, F.D.; Vogt, T.J.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

LLNL oil shale project review: METC third annual oil shale contractors meeting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory combines laboratory and pilot-scale experimental measurements with mathematical modeling of fundamental chemistry and physics to provide a technical base for evaluating oil shale retorting alternatives. Presented herein are results of four research areas of interest in oil shale process development: Recent Progress in Solid-Recycle Retorting and Related Laboratory and Modeling Studies; Water Generation During Pyrolysis of Oil Shale; Improved Analytical Methods and Measurements of Rapid Pyrolysis Kinetics for Western and Eastern Oil Shale; and Rate of Cracking or Degradation of Oil Vapor In Contact with Oxidized Shale. We describe operating results of a 1 tonne-per-day, continuous-loop, solid-recycle, retort processing both Western And Eastern oil shale. Sulfur chemistry, solid mixing limits, shale cooling tests and catalyst addition are all discussed. Using a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer, we measure individual species evolution with greater sensitivity and selectivity. Herein we discuss our measurements of water evolution during ramped heating of Western and Eastern oil shale. Using improved analytical techniques, we determine isothermal pyrolysis kinetics for Western and Eastern oil shale, during rapid heating, which are faster than previously thought. Finally, we discuss the rate of cracking of oil vapor in contact with oxidized shale, qualitatively using a sand fluidized bed and quantitatively using a vapor cracking apparatus. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Cena, R.J.; Coburn, T.T.; Taylor, R.W.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Shale Oil Production Performance from a Stimulated Reservoir Volume  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.1 Unconventional resources ................................................................................. 1 1.2 Oil shale and shale oil ....................................................................................... 6 1.3 Production from unconventional..., heavy oil, shale gas and shale oil. On the other hand, conventional reservoirs can be produced at economic flow rates and produce economic volumes of oil and gas without large stimulation treatments or any special recovery process. Conventional...

Chaudhary, Anish Singh

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

237

Study of composite cement containing burned oil shale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Study of composite cement containing burned oil shale Julien Ston Supervisors : Prof. Karen properties. SCMs can be by-products from various industries or of natural origin, such as shale. Oil shale correctly, give a material with some cementitious properties known as burned oil shale (BOS). This study

Dalang, Robert C.

238

Energy Transitions: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Transitions: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development A Report Transitions: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development Executive Summary In the 21st the Marcellus shale In addition to the specific questions identified for the case of Marcellus shale gas in New

Angenent, Lars T.

239

Morphological Investigations of Fibrogenic Action of Estonian Oil Shale Dust  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dust produced in the mining and processing of Estonian oil shale is given. Histological examination of

V. A. Kung

240

Location and Geology Fig 1. The Macasty black shale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Quebec, is organic-rich black shale and hosting oil and gas. It is equivalent to the Ithaca shaleLocation and Geology Fig 1. The Macasty black shale in the Anticosti Island in the Gulf of St. d13C for calcite disseminated in the black shale range from 2.6o to 2.8 / The values are lower

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine devonian shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Computational studies of two-phase cement-CO2-brine interaction in wellbore environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wellbore integrity is essential to ensuring long-term isolation of buoyant supercritical CO{sub 2} during geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. In this report, we summarize recent progress in numerical simulations of cement-brine-CO{sub 2} interactions with respect to migration of CO{sub 2} outside of casing. Using typical values for the hydrologic properties of cement, caprock (shale) and reservoir materials, we show that the capillary properties of good quality cement will prevent flow of CO{sub 2} into and through cement. Rather, CO{sub 2}, if present, is likely to be confined to the casing-cement or cement-formation interfaces. CO{sub 2} does react with the cement by diffusion from the interface into the cement, in which case it produces distinct carbonation fronts within the cement. This is consistent with observations of cement performance at the CO{sub 2}-enhanced oil recovery SACROC Unit in West Texas (Carey et al. 2007). For poor quality cement, flow through cement may occur and would produce a pattern of uniform carbonation without reaction fronts. We also consider an alternative explanation for cement carbonation reactions as due to CO{sub 2} derived from caprock. We show that carbonation reactions in cement are limited to surficial reactions when CO{sub 2} pressure is low (< 10 bars) as might be expected in many caprock environments. For the case of caprock overlying natural CO{sub 2} reservoirs for millions of years, we consider Scherer and Huet's (2009) hypothesis of diffusive steady-state between CO{sub 2} in the reservoir and in the caprock. We find that in this case, the aqueous CO{sub 2} concentration would differ little from the reservoir and would be expected to produce carbonation reaction fronts in cements that are relatively uniform as a function of depth.

Carey, James William [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lichtner, Peter C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Differential thermal analysis of the reaction properties of raw and retorted oil shale with air  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of a study to determine the kinetics of combustion of oil shale and its char by using differential thermal analysis are reported. The study indicates that Colorado oil shale and its char combustion rate is the fastest while Fushun oil shale and its char combustion rate is the slowest among the six oil shales used in this work. Oil shale samples used were Fushun oil shale, Maoming oil shale, Huang county oil shale, and Colorado oil shale.

Wang, T.F.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Oil shale program plan, FY 1989  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The oil shale program is directed to the development of advanced technologies for extracting shale oil from the large domestic resources. The overall goal is to foster development of an economically competitive and environmentally acceptable oil shale industry. A series of technology development steps must be taken by DOE, other government agencies and other governments and/or industry to achieve this goal. They include basic and applied R and D, proof-of-concept activities, first-of-a-kind field tests and associated commercial-scale activity. Activities associated with the oil shale program are designed to: Expand the technically recoverable resource base, increase recovery efficiency, reduce capital and operating costs and/or enhance environmental acceptability. In support of the overall program goal, oil shale research has two major technical goals: (1) Technology Base Development. To produce an engineering and scientific information base for industry use in designing and developing oil shale processes with reduced costs and enhanced environmental acceptability and to foster the development of novel oil shale processes and, (2) Environmental Mitigation. To develop a comprehensive data base on pollutant generation and the steps required to mitigate the impacts in a cost-effective manner. This report discusses the above goals. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Not Available

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Adsorption of pyridine by combusted oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Large volumes of solid waste material will be produced during the commercial production of shale oil. An alternative to the disposal of the solid waste product is utilization. One potential use of spent oil shale is for the stabilization of hazardous organic compounds. The objective of this study was to examine the adsorption of pyridine, commonly found in oil shale process water, by spent oil shale. The adsorption of pyridine by fresh and weathered samples of combusted New Albany Shale and Green River Formation oil shale was examined. In general, pyridine adsorption can be classified as L-type and the isotherms modeled with the Langmuir and Freundlich equations. For the combusted New Albany Shale, weathering reduced the predicted pyridine adsorption maximum and increased the amount of pyridine adsorption maximum. The pyridine adsorption isotherms were similar to those mathematically described by empirical models, the reduction in solution concentrations of pyridine was generally less than 10 mg L{sup {minus}1} at an initial concentration of 100 mg L{sup {minus}1}. 31 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Essington, M.E.; Hart, B.K.

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Nitrogen chemistry during oil shale pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Real time evolution of ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN), two major nitrogen-containing volatiles evolved during oil shale pyrolysis, was measured by means of a mass spectrometer using chemical ionization and by infrared spectroscopy. While the on-line monitoring of NH{sub 3} in oil shale pyrolysis games was possible by both techniques, HCN measurements were only possible by IR. We studied one Green River Formation oil shale and one New Albany oil shale. The ammonia from the Green River oil shale showed one broad NH{sub 3} peak maximizing at a high temperature. For both oil shales, most NH{sub 3} evolves at temperatures above oil-evolving temperature. The important factors governing ammonia salts such as Buddingtonite in Green River oil shales, the distribution of nitrogen functional groups in kerogen, and the retorting conditions. The gas phase reactions, such as NH{sub 3} decomposition and HCN conversion reactions, also play an important role in the distribution of nitrogen volatiles, especially at high temperatures. Although pyrolysis studies of model compounds suggests the primary nitrogen product from kerogen pyrolysis to be HCN at high temperatures, we found only a trace amount of HCN at oil-evolving temperatures and none at high temperatures (T {gt} 600{degree}C). 24 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Oh, Myongsook S.; Crawford, R.W.; Foster, K.G.; Alcaraz, A.

1990-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

246

Gasification characteristics of eastern oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is evaluating the gasification characteristics of Eastern oil shales as a part of a cooperative agreement between the US Department of Energy and HYCRUDE Corporation to expand the data base on moving-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales. Gasification of shale fines will improve the overall resource utilization by producing synthesis gas or hydrogen needed for the hydroretorting of oil shale and the upgrading of shale oil. Gasification characteristics of an Indiana New Albany oil shale have been determined over temperature and pressure ranges of 1600 to 1900/sup 0/F and 15 to 500 psig, respectively. Carbon conversion of over 95% was achieved within 30 minutes at gasification conditions of 1800/sup 0/F and 15 psig in a hydrogen/steam gas mixture for the Indiana New Albany oil shale. This paper presents the results of the tests conducted in a laboratory-scale batch reactor to obtain reaction rate data and in a continuous mini-bench-scale unit to obtain product yield data. 2 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Lau, F.S.; Rue, D.M.; Punwani, D.V.; Rex, R.C. Jr.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Isothermal kinetics of new Albany oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

From the development of technologies for the utilization of eastern U.S. oil shales, fluidized bed pyrolysis technology is emerging as one of the most promising in terms of oil yield, operating cost, and capital investment. Bench-scale testing of eastern shales has reached a level where scale-up represents the next logical step in the evolution of this technology. A major consideration in this development and an essential part of any fluidized bed reactor scale-up effort--isothermal kinetics-- has largely been ignored for eastern US shale with the exception of a recent study conducted by Richardson et al. with a Cleveland shale. The method of Richardson et al. was used previously by Wallman et al. with western shale and has been used most recently by Forgac, also with western shale. This method, adopted for the present study, entails injecting a charge of shale into a fluidized bed and monitoring the hydrocarbon products with a flame ionization detector (FID). Advantages of this procedure are that fluidized bed heat-up effects are simulated exactly and real-time kinetics are obtained due to the on-line FID. Other isothermal methods have suffered from heat-up and cool-down effects making it impossible to observe the kinetics at realistic operating temperatures. A major drawback of the FID approach, however, is that no differentiation between oil and gas is possible.

Carter, S.D.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

In situ retorting or oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An improved method of in situ retorting of oil shale wherein a cavern of crushed shale is created within an oil shale deposit, preferably by igniting a powerful explosion within the oil shale deposit, thereby creating a localized area or cavern of rubblized oil shale. Combustion gases are injected into the bottom of this cavern and particulate material, preferably a cracking catalyst, is deposited into a void at the top of the cavern and allowed to trickle down and fill the voids in the rubblized cavern. The oil shale is ignited at the bottom of the cavern and a combustion zone proceeds upwardly while the particulate material is caused by gas flow to percolate downwardly. A fluidized bed of particulate material is thereby formed at the combustion zone providing a controlled, evelny advancing combustion zone. This, in turn, efficiently retorts oil shale, provides increased recovery of hydrocarbon while ismultaneously producing a catalytically cracked volatile, high octane gasoline exiting from the top of the retort.

Hettinger, W.P. Jr.

1984-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

249

What is shale gas and why is it important?  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Shale gas refers to natural gas that is trapped within shale formations. Shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks that can be rich sources of petroleum and natural gas. Over the past decade, the combination of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has allowed access to large volumes of shale gas that were previously uneconomical to produce. The production of natural gas from shale formations has rejuvenated the natural gas industry in the United States.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Kerogen extraction from subterranean oil shale resources  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to methods for extracting a kerogen-based product from subsurface (oil) shale formations, wherein such methods rely on fracturing and/or rubblizing portions of said formations so as to enhance their fluid permeability, and wherein such methods further rely on chemically modifying the shale-bound kerogen so as to render it mobile. The present invention is also directed at systems for implementing at least some of the foregoing methods. Additionally, the present invention is also directed to methods of fracturing and/or rubblizing subsurface shale formations and to methods of chemically modifying kerogen in situ so as to render it mobile.

Looney, Mark Dean (Houston, TX); Lestz, Robert Steven (Missouri City, TX); Hollis, Kirk (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Craig (Los Alamos, NM); Kinkead, Scott (Los Alamos, NM); Wigand, Marcus (Los Alamos, NM)

2010-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

251

CONTAMINATION OF GROUNDWATER BY ORGANIC POLLUTANTS LEACHED FROM IN-SITU SPENT SHALE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from Characterization of Spent Shale s . , , . • • . . • ,4. Preparation of Spent Shale Samples and Procedure forof Particular Types of Spent Shale References • Appendix A.

Amy, Gary L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

CONTAMINATION OF GROUNDWATER BY ORGANIC POLLUTANTS LEACHED FROM IN-SITU SPENT SHALE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF FIGURES Areal extent of oil shale deposits in the Greencommercial in~ˇsitu oil shale facility. Possible alternativefor pyrolysis of oil shale Figure 7. Establishment of

Amy, Gary L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150 C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual and modeled distillation experiments do not represent expected conditions in an emplacement drift, but nevertheless illustrate the potential for acid-gas generation at moderate temperatures (<150 C).

Zhang, Guoxiang; Spycher, Nicolas; Sonnenthal, Eric; Steefel, Carl

2009-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

254

Characterization of a soil contaminated by oilfield brine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Brine contamination of soil is a common environmental problem associated with the onshore production of oil and gas. A site of extensive contamination in Oklahoma has been characterized using conductimetry, direct potentiometry (pH- and chloride-selective electrodes), and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (for Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+}) to determine the extent of the contamination and the efficacy of various remediation technologies.

Al-Mutairi, K.; Harris, T. [Univ. of Tulsa, OH (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

2 INVESTIGATION OF CRUDE OIL/BRINE/ROCK INTERACTION 2.1 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF CRUDE/BRINE/ROCK INTERACTION AT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as the temperature increased. The aging of low permeability cores saturated with oil had little effect in the rate44 2 INVESTIGATION OF CRUDE OIL/BRINE/ROCK INTERACTION 2.1 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF CRUDE in this section and expand the understanding of the interactions of the Spraberry reservoir rock, oil and brine

Schechter, David S.

256

Microbial communities in flowback water impoundments from hydraulic fracturing for recovery of shale gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing for natural gas extraction from shale produces waste brine known as flowback that is impounded at the surface prior to reuse and/or disposal. During impoundment, microbial activity can alter the fate of metals including radionuclides, give rise to odorous compounds, and result in biocorrosion that complicates water and waste management and increases production costs. Here, we describe the microbial ecology at multiple depths of three flowback impoundments from the Marcellus shale that were managed differently. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed that bacterial communities in the untreated and biocide-amended impoundments were depth dependent, diverse, and most similar to species within the taxa [gamma]-proteobacteria, [alpha]-proteobacteria, ?-proteobacteria, Clostridia, Synergistetes, Thermotogae, Spirochetes, and Bacteroidetes. The bacterial community in the pretreated and aerated impoundment was uniform with depth, less diverse, and most similar to known iodide-oxidizing bacteria in the [alpha]-proteobacteria. Archaea were identified only in the untreated and biocide-amended impoundments and were affiliated to the Methanomicrobia class. This is the first study of microbial communities in flowback water impoundments from hydraulic fracturing. The findings expand our knowledge of microbial diversity of an emergent and unexplored environment and may guide the management of flowback impoundments.

Mohan, Arvind Murali; Hartsock, Angela; Hammack, Richard W.; Vidic, Radisav D; Gregory, Kelvin B.

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

A Study of the Dielectric Properties of Dry and Saturated Green River Oil Shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We measured dielectric permittivity of dry and fluid-saturated Green River oil shale samples over a frequency range of 1 MHz to 1.8 GHz. Dry sample measurements were carried out between room temperature and 146 C, saturated sample measurements were carried out at room temperature. Samples obtained from the Green River formation of Wyoming and from the Anvil Points Mine in Colorado were cored both parallel and perpendicular to layering. The samples, which all had organic richness in the range of 10-45 gal/ton, showed small variations between samples and a relatively small level of anisotropy of the dielectric properties when dry. The real and imaginary part of the relative dielectric permittivity of dry rock was nearly constant over the frequency range observed, with low values for the imaginary part (loss factor). Saturation with de-ionized water and brine greatly increased the values of the real and imaginary parts of the relative permittivity, especially at the lower frequencies. Temperature effects were relatively small, with initial increases in permittivity to about 60 C, followed by slight decreases in permittivity that diminished as temperature increased. Implications of these observations for the in situ electromagnetic, or radio frequency (RF) heating of oil shale to produce oil and gas are discussed.

Sweeney, J; Roberts, J; Harben, P

2007-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

258

General screening criteria for shale gas reservoirs and production data analysis of Barnett shale.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Shale gas reservoirs are gaining importance in United States as conventional oil and gas resources are dwindling at a very fast pace. The purpose of… (more)

Deshpande, Vaibhav Prakashrao

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Oil shale mining studies and analyses of some potential unconventional uses for oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Engineering studies and literature review performed under this contract have resulted in improved understanding of oil shale mining costs, spent shale disposal costs, and potential unconventional uses for oil shale. Topics discussed include: costs of conventional mining of oil shale; a mining scenario in which a minimal-scale mine, consistent with a niche market industry, was incorporated into a mine design; a discussion on the benefits of mine opening on an accelerated schedule and quantified through discounted cash flow return on investment (DCFROI) modelling; an estimate of the costs of disposal of spent shale underground and on the surface; tabulation of potential increases in resource recovery in conjunction with underground spent shale disposal; the potential uses of oil shale as a sulfur absorbent in electric power generation; the possible use of spent shale as a soil stabilizer for road bases, quantified and evaluated for potential economic impact upon representative oil shale projects; and the feasibility of co-production of electricity and the effect of project-owned and utility-owned power generation facilities were evaluated. 24 refs., 5 figs., 19 tabs.

McCarthy, H.E.; Clayson, R.L.

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Method for retorting oil shale  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The recovery of oil from oil shale is provided in a fluidized bed by using a fluidizing medium of a binary mixture of carbon dioxide and 5 steam. The mixture with a steam concentration in the range of about 20 to 75 volume percent steam provides an increase in oil yield over that achievable by using a fluidizing gas of carbon dioxide or steam alone when the mixture contains higher steam concentrations. The operating parameters for the fluidized bed retorted are essentially the same as those utilized with other gaseous fluidizing mediums with the significant gain being in the oil yield recovered which is attributable solely to the use of the binary mixture of carbon dioxide and steam. 2 figs.

Shang, Jer-Yu; Lui, A.P.

1985-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine devonian shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Source contributions to Devonian granite magmatism near the Laurentian border, New Hampshire and Western Maine, USA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Source contributions to Devonian granite magmatism near the Laurentian border, New Hampshire complex, a suite of mainly granitic intrusions in New Hampshire and western Maine, are used to evaluate.56­15.58] and an areally dominant granite [370F2 Ma; eNd (at 370 Ma)=�7.0 to �0.6; initial 207 Pb/204 Pb=15

Solar, Gary S.

262

Multiscale strength homogenization : application to shale nanoindentation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shales are one of the most encountered materials in sedimentary basins. Because of their highly heterogeneous nature, their strength prediction for oil and gas exploitation engineering has long time been an enigma. In this ...

Gathier, Benjamin

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

HYDRAULIC CEMENT PREPARATION FROM LURGI SPENT SHALE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low cost material is needed for grouting abandoned retorts. Experimental work has shown that a hydraulic cement can be produced from Lurgi spent shale by mixing it in a 1:1 weight ratio with limestone and heating one hour at 1000°C. With 5% added gypsum, strengths up to 25.8 MPa are obtained. This cement could make an economical addition up to about 10% to spent shale grout mixes, or be used in ordinary cement applications.

Mehta, P.K.; Persoff, P.; Fox, J.P.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Pyrolysis of shale oil vacuum distillate fractions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The freezing point of US Navy jet fuel (JP-5) has been related to the amounts of large n-alkanes present in the fuel. This behavior applies to jet fuels derived from alternate fossil fuel resources, such as shale oil, coal, and tar sands, as well as those derived from petroleum. In general, jet fuels from shale oil have the highest and those from coal the lowest n-alkane content. The origin of these n-alkanes in the amounts observed, especially in shale-derived fuels, is not readily explained on the basis of literature information. Studies of the processes, particularly the ones involving thermal stress, used to produce these fuels are needed to define how the n-alkanes form from larger molecules. The information developed will significantly contribute to the selection of processes and refining techniques for future fuel production from shale oil. Carbon-13 nmr studies indicate that oil shale rock contains many long unbranched straight chain hydrocarbon groups. The shale oil derived from the rock also gives indication of considerable straight chain material with large peaks at 14, 23, 30, and 32 ppM in the C-13 nmr spectrum. Previous pyrolysis studies stressed fractions of shale crude oil residua, measured the yields of JP-5, and determined the content of potential n-alkanes in the JP-5 distillation range (4). In this work, a shale crude oil vacuum distillate (Paraho) was separated into three chemical fractions. The fractions were then subjected to nmr analysis to estimate the potential for n-alkane production and to pyrolysis studies to determine an experimental n-alkane yield.

Hazlett, R.N.; Beal, E.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Pyrolysis of shale oil vacuum distillate fractions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The freezing point of U.S. Navy jet fuel (JP-5) has been related to the amounts of large nalkanes present in the fuel. This behavior applies to jet fuels derived from alternate fossil fuel resources, such as shale oil, coal, and tar sands, as well as those derived from petroleum. In general, jet fuels from shale oil have the highest and those from coal the lowest n-alkane content. The origin of these n-alkanes in the amounts observed, especially in shale-derived fuels, is not readily explained on the basis of literature information. Studies of the processes, particularly the ones involving thermal stress, used to produce these fuels are needed to define how th n-alkanes form from larger molecules. The information developed will significantly contribute to the selection of processes and refining techniques for future fuel production from shale oil. Carbon-13 nmr studies indicate that oil shale rock contains many long unbranched straight chain hydrocarbon groups. The shale oil derived from the rock also gives indication of considerable straight chain material with large peaks at 14, 23, 30 and 32 ppm in the C-13 nmr spectrum. Previous pyrolysis studies stressed fractions of shale crude oil residua, measured the yields of JP-5, and determined the content of potential n-alkanes in the JP-5 distillation range (4). In this work, a shale crude oil vacuum distillate (Paraho) was separated into three chemical fractions. The fractions were then subjected to nmr analysis to estimate the potential for n-alkane production and to pyrolysis studies to determine an experimental n-alkane yield.

Hazlett, R.N.; Beal, E.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

SciTech Connect: Paleoecology of the Devonian-Mississippian black...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

shales contain abundant evidence of life from upper parts of the water column such as fish fossils, conodonts, algae and other phytoplankton; however, there is a lack of evidence...

267

Don Juan Pond, Antarctica: Near-surface CaCl2-brine feeding Earth's most saline  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Don Juan Pond, Antarctica: Near-surface CaCl2-brine feeding Earth's most saline lake for RSL formation, CaCl2 brines and chloride deposits in basins may provide clues to the origin of ancient,2,10­14 , the composition of the brine is unlike any other body of water in the world, as ,90% of the salt is CaCl2 1

Marchant, David R.

268

USE OF ZEEMAN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF MERCURY IN OIL SHALE GASES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Minor Elements in Oil Shale and Oil-Shale Products. LERC RIChemistry of Tar Sands and Oil Shale, ACS, New Orleans.Constituent Analysis of Oil Shale and Solvent-Refined Coal

Girvin, D.G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

INTERCOMPARISON STUDY OF ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCES IN RAW AND SPENT OIL SHALES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Minor Elements ~n Oil Shale and Oil-Shale Products. LERC RI-Analytical Chemistry of Oil Shale and Tar Sands. Advan. inH. Meglen. The Analysis of Oil-Shale Materials for Element

Fox, J.P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Raw shale dissolution as an aid in determining oil shale mineralogy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With an accurate oil shale mineralogy, one can begin to unravel the inorganic and organic aspects of retorting and combustion chemistry. We evaluated three modern elemental analysis procedures (ICP-AES, XRF, and PIXE) with the aim of improving our knowledge of the mineral matrix. A New Albany Shale (Clegg Creek Member) specimen (NA13) and a Mahogany Zone Green River Formation oil shale from Anvil Points (AP24) were the two materials analyzed. These were oil shales that we had used in our pilot retort. We set a modest goal: determination of those materials present at greater than a 1% level with a relative accuracy of {plus_minus}10%. Various total dissolution methods and pre-treatement procedures were examined. The routine ICP-AES method that we adopted had precision and accuracy that exceeded our initial goals. Partial dissolution of carbonate minerals in acetic acid was slow but highly selective. The clay mineral content of both shales was deduced from the time dependence of dissolution in 6N HCl. An Al:K ratio of 3 indicated selective HCl solubility of the clay, illite. Our eastern oil shale from Kentucky was remarkably similar in mineral composition to high-grade-zone New Albany Shale samples from Kentucky, Indiana, and Illinois that others had subjected to careful mineral analysis. A Mahogany Zone Green River Formation oil shale from the Colony Mine had slightly different minor mineral components (relative to AP24) as shown by its gas evolution profile.

Duewer, T.I.; Foster, K.G.; Coburn, T.T.

1991-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

271

Raw shale dissolution as an aid in determining oil shale mineralogy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With an accurate oil shale mineralogy, one can begin to unravel the inorganic and organic aspects of retorting and combustion chemistry. We evaluated three modern elemental analysis procedures (ICP-AES, XRF, and PIXE) with the aim of improving our knowledge of the mineral matrix. A New Albany Shale (Clegg Creek Member) specimen (NA13) and a Mahogany Zone Green River Formation oil shale from Anvil Points (AP24) were the two materials analyzed. These were oil shales that we had used in our pilot retort. We set a modest goal: determination of those materials present at greater than a 1% level with a relative accuracy of {plus minus}10%. Various total dissolution methods and pre-treatement procedures were examined. The routine ICP-AES method that we adopted had precision and accuracy that exceeded our initial goals. Partial dissolution of carbonate minerals in acetic acid was slow but highly selective. The clay mineral content of both shales was deduced from the time dependence of dissolution in 6N HCl. An Al:K ratio of 3 indicated selective HCl solubility of the clay, illite. Our eastern oil shale from Kentucky was remarkably similar in mineral composition to high-grade-zone New Albany Shale samples from Kentucky, Indiana, and Illinois that others had subjected to careful mineral analysis. A Mahogany Zone Green River Formation oil shale from the Colony Mine had slightly different minor mineral components (relative to AP24) as shown by its gas evolution profile.

Duewer, T.I.; Foster, K.G.; Coburn, T.T.

1991-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

272

Method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground formation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground oil shale formation which has previously been processed by in situ retorting such that there is provided in the formation a column of substantially intact oil shale intervening between adjacent spent retorts, which method includes the steps of back filling the spent retorts with an aqueous slurry of spent shale. The slurry is permitted to harden into a cement-like substance which stabilizes the spent retorts. Shale oil is then recovered from the intervening column of intact oil shale by retorting the column in situ, the stabilized spent retorts providing support for the newly developed retorts.

Sisemore, Clyde J. (Livermore, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

A cost-effective statistical screening method to detect oilfield brine contamination  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A statistical screening method has been developed using Tolerance Limits for barium (Ba{sup +2}) to identify contamination of a fresh-water aquifer by oilfield brines. The method requires an understanding of the local hydrochemistry of oilfield brines, inexpensive, Publicly available hydrochemical data, a single sample analysis from the suspect well and the application of a simple statistical procedure. While this method may not provide absolute evidence of oilfield brine contamination of a fresh-water aquifer, it does identify conditions where brine contamination is a strong probability over other possible sources of chlorides.

Alyanak, N.; Grace, J.T.; Campbell, M.D. [United Resources International, Houston, TX (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Retorting of oil shale followed by solvent extraction of spent shale: Experiment and kinetic analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Samples of El-Lajjun oil shale were thermally decomposed in a laboratory retort system under a slow heating rate (0.07 K/s) up to a maximum temperature of 698--773 K. After decomposition, 0.02 kg of spent shale was extracted by chloroform in a Soxhlet extraction unit for 2 h to investigate the ultimate amount of shale oil that could be produced. The retorting results indicate an increase in the oil yields from 3.24% to 9.77% of oil shale feed with retorting temperature, while the extraction results show a decrease in oil yields from 8.10% to 3.32% of spent shale. The analysis of the data according to the global first-order model for isothermal and nonisothermal conditions shows kinetic parameters close to those reported in literature.

Khraisha, Y.H.

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

PARTITIONING OF MAJOR, MINOR, AND TRACE ELEMENTS DURING SIMULATED IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING IN A CONTROLLED-STATE RETORT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

or by refin- ing and using shale Oil Mass balances and oil.shale retorting produces shale oil, mobility factors wereand retort operating shale, shale oil, retorting (LETC) con-

Fox, J. P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Northeastern Geology & Environmental Sciences, v. 30, no. 4, 2008, p. 330-343. STABLE ISOTOPE SIGNATURE OF MIDDLE DEVONIAN SEAWATER FROM HAMILTON  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SIGNATURE OF MIDDLE DEVONIAN SEAWATER FROM HAMILTON GROUP BRACHIOPODS, CENTRAL NEW YORK STATE Bruce Selleck and Drew Koff Department of Geology, 13 Oak Drive, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY 13346; bselleck the Middle Devonian Hamilton Group of Central New York State. The sample set includes multiple specimens

Soja, Constance M.

277

System for utilizing oil shale fines  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system is provided for utilizing fines of carbonaceous materials such as particles or pieces of oil shale of about one-half inch or less diameter which are rejected for use in some conventional or prior surface retorting process, which obtains maximum utilization of the energy content of the fines and which produces a waste which is relatively inert and of a size to facilitate disposal. The system includes a cyclone retort (20) which pyrolyzes the fines in the presence of heated gaseous combustion products, the cyclone retort having a first outlet (30) through which vapors can exit that can be cooled to provide oil, and having a second outlet (32) through which spent shale fines are removed. A burner (36) connected to the spent shale outlet of the cyclone retort, burns the spent shale with air, to provide hot combustion products (24) that are carried back to the cyclone retort to supply gaseous combustion products utilized therein. The burner heats the spent shale to a temperature which forms a molten slag, and the molten slag is removed from the burner into a quencher (48) that suddenly cools the molten slag to form granules that are relatively inert and of a size that is convenient to handle for disposal in the ground or in industrial processes.

Harak, Arnold E. (Laramie, WY)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during ...

O'Sullivan, Francis

279

Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during ...

O’Sullivan, Francis Martin

280

Secretary of Energy Advisory Board Subcommittee (SEAB) on Shale...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

(SEAB) on Shale Gas Production Posts Draft Report Secretary of Energy Advisory Board Subcommittee (SEAB) on Shale Gas Production Posts Draft Report November 10, 2011 - 1:12pm...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine devonian shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Material invariant properties of shales : nanoindentation and microporoelastic analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shales compose the major part of sedimentary rocks and cover most of hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs. Shale materials are probably one of the most complex natural composites, and their mechanical properties are still an ...

Delafargue, A. (Antoine), 1981-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Burngrange Nos.1 and 2 (oil Shale) Mine, Midlothian   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BURNGRANGE Nos. I AND 2 (Oil Shale) MINE, MIDLOTHIAN REPORT On the Causes of, and Circumstances attending, the Explosion and Fire which occurred on the 10th January, 1947, at the Burngrange Nos. I and 2 (Oil Shale) ...

Bryan, A. M.

1947-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Can We Accurately Model Fluid Flow in Shale?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2013 00:00 Over 20 trillion cubic meters of natural gas are trapped in shale, but many shale oil and gas producers still use models of underground fluid flow that date back to...

284

Process Design and Integration of Shale Gas to Methanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent breakthroughs in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technology have made huge reservoirs of previously untapped shale gas and shale oil formations available for use. These new resources have already made a significant impact...

Ehlinger, Victoria M.

2013-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

285

Copyright 2013 by The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. DOI: 10.1306/13391711M1023589  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale and late Devonian New Albany Shale samples were argon- ion milled be a significant contributor to the overall porosity of shale intervals. METHODS Samples of the Devonian New Albany1023589 13 SEM Observations on Ion-milled Samples of Devonian Black Shales from Indiana and New York

Polly, David

286

COLLOQUIUM: "The Environmental Footprint of Shale Gas Extraction...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM: "The Environmental Footprint of Shale Gas Extraction and Hydraulic Fracturing" Professor Robert Jackson Duke University Presentation:...

287

Economics and Politics of Shale Gas in Europe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Asia Pacific – JKM) Source: Henry Hub and NBP – Bloomberg; JKM - Platts Overall, the US shale gas revolution produced improvements along several key dimensions: 1. Climate change mitigation – U.S. CO2 emissions fell by 5.3% between 2010- 2012... entry). 18 References AMION Consulting (2014). Potential Economic Impacts of Shale Gas in the Ocean Gateway. Available at: http://www.igasplc.com/media/10851/ocean- gateway-shale-gas-impact-study.pdf Barteau, M. and S. Kota (2014). Shale...

Chyong, Chi Kong; Reiner, David M.

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Shale Oil and Gas, Frac Sand, and Watershed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

;Bakken Oil Shale scope ¡ Light, Sweet crude ­ ideal for automotive fuels and mid-size refineries (Midwest

Minnesota, University of

289

1 Pore Scale Analysis of Oil Shale/Sands Pyrolysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

quality and volume of pore space that is created when oil shale is pyrolyzed for the purpose of producing

unknown authors

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

ON OIL SHALE MINING IN THE ESTONIA DEPOSIT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

age) cut the Estonian oil shale-kukersite deposits. Two younger groups of structures are typical fault

K. Sokman; V. Kattai; R. Vaher; Y. J. Systra

291

RIS-M-2260 HEAT GRADIENT INDUCED MIGRATION OF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN ROCK SALT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RISŘ-M-2260 HEAT GRADIENT INDUCED MIGRATION OF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN ROCK SALT Mathematical treatment project. Abstract. A mathematical model for the brine migration in rock salt around an infinite line heat source is set up. The tempera- ture field around the time dependent heat source is calculated by use

292

Brine fluxes from growing sea ice A. J. Wells,1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Introduction [2] The spatiotemporal distribution of the liquid phase within sea ice, a porous array of iceBrine fluxes from growing sea ice A. J. Wells,1,2 J. S. Wettlaufer,1,2,3 and S. A. Orszag2] It is well known that brine drainage from growing sea ice has a controlling influence on its mechanical

Wettlaufer, John S.

293

Occurrence of Multiple Fluid Phases Across a Basin, in the Same Shale Gas Formation – Eagle Ford Shale Example  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shale gas and oil are playing a significant role in US energy independence by reversing declining production trends. Successful exploration and development of the Eagle Ford Shale Play requires reservoir characterization, recognition of fluid...

Tian, Yao

2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

294

Oil shale retorting and combustion system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to the extraction of energy values from l shale containing considerable concentrations of calcium carbonate in an efficient manner. The volatiles are separated from the oil shale in a retorting zone of a fluidized bed where the temperature and the concentration of oxygen are maintained at sufficiently low levels so that the volatiles are extracted from the oil shale with minimal combustion of the volatiles and with minimal calcination of the calcium carbonate. These gaseous volatiles and the calcium carbonate flow from the retorting zone into a freeboard combustion zone where the volatiles are burned in the presence of excess air. In this zone the calcination of the calcium carbonate occurs but at the expense of less BTU's than would be required by the calcination reaction in the event both the retorting and combustion steps took place simultaneously. The heat values in the products of combustion are satisfactorily recovered in a suitable heat exchange system.

Pitrolo, Augustine A. (Fairmont, WV); Mei, Joseph S. (Morgantown, WV); Shang, Jerry Y. (Fairfax, VA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Red Leaf Resources and the Commercialization of Oil Shale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Red Leaf Resources and the Commercialization of Oil Shale #12;About Red Leaf Resources 2006 Company commercial development field activities #12;Highlights Proven, Revolutionary Oil Shale Extraction Process Technology Significant Owned Oil Shale Resource #12;¡ The executive management team of Red Leaf Resources

Utah, University of

296

Shale Gas and the Environment: Critical Need for a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shale Gas and the Environment: Critical Need for a Government­University­Industry Research Initiative P o l i c y m a k e r G u i d e #12;Shale gas production is increasing at a rapid rate initiative is needed to fill critical gaps in knowledge at the interface of shale gas development

McGaughey, Alan

297

Shale Gas and the Environment: Critical Need for a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shale Gas and the Environment: Critical Need for a Government­University­Industry Research Initiative P O L I C Y M A K E R G U I D E #12;Shale gas production is increasing at a rapid rate initiative is needed to fill critical gaps in knowledge at the interface of shale gas development

McGaughey, Alan

298

SPE-163690-MS Synthetic, Geomechanical Logs for Marcellus Shale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SPE-163690-MS Synthetic, Geomechanical Logs for Marcellus Shale M. O. Eshkalak, SPE, S. D of hydrocarbons from the reservoirs, notably shale, is attributed to realizing the key fundamentals of reservoir and mineralogy is crucial in order to identify the "right" pay-zone intervals for shale gas production. Also

Mohaghegh, Shahab

299

2006 Minerals Yearbook ClaY and Shale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2006 Minerals Yearbook ClaY and Shale U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey January 2008 #12;Clay and Shale--2006 18.1 The amount of clay sold or used by domestic producers in 2006 in 2005 (table 1). Common clay and shale accounted for 59% of the tonnage, and kaolin accounted for 55

300

Evolution of Marine Invertebrates and the Burgess Shale Fossils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evolution of Marine Invertebrates and the Burgess Shale Fossils Geology 331, Paleontology #12 #12;Burgess Shale Fossils ¡ Most are soft-bodied fossils, a very rare kind of fossilization. ¡ Of today's 32 living phyla, 15 are found in the Burgess Shale. The other 17 are microscopic or too delicate

Kammer, Thomas

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine devonian shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Paleoecology of the Greater Phyllopod Bed community, Burgess Shale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Paleoecology of the Greater Phyllopod Bed community, Burgess Shale Jean-Bernard Caron , Donald A and composition, ecological attributes, and environmental influences for the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale ecosystems further suggest the Burgess Shale community was probably highly dependent on immigration from

Jackson, Don

302

Development of the Natural Gas Resources in the Marcellus Shale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Development of the Natural Gas Resources in the Marcellus Shale New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia for informational purposes only and does not support or oppose development of the Marcellus Shale natural gas information regarding shale gas well development, ancillary facilities asso- ciated with that development

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

303

Risks and Risk Governance in Unconventional Shale Gas Development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Risks and Risk Governance in Unconventional Shale Gas Development Mitchell J. Small,*, Paul C, Desert Research Institute, Reno, Nevada 89512, United States 1. INTRODUCTION The recent U.S. shale gas Issue: Understanding the Risks of Unconventional Shale Gas Development Published: July 1, 2014 A broad

Jackson, Robert B.

304

Creation and Impairment of Hydraulic Fracture Conductivity in Shale Formations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multi-stage hydraulic fracturing is the key to the success of many shale gas and shale oil reservoirs. The main objectives of hydraulic fracturing in shale are to create artificial fracture networks that are conductive for oil and gas flow...

Zhang, Junjing

2014-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

305

THE SHALE OIL BOOM: A U.S. PHENOMENON  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

June 2013 THE SHALE OIL BOOM: A U.S. PHENOMENON LEONARDO MAUGERI The Geopolitics of Energy Project material clearly cite the full source: Leonardo Maugeri. "The Shale Oil Boom: A U.S. Phenomenon" Discussion and International Affairs. #12;June 2013 THE SHALE OIL BOOM: A U.S. PHENOMENON LEONARDO MAUGERI The Geopolitics

306

The Public Health Implications of Marcellus Shale Activities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INCIDENT #12;#12;#12;Implications of the Gulf Oil Spill to Marcellus Shale Activities - EnvironmentalThe Public Health Implications of Marcellus Shale Activities Bernard D. Goldstein, MD Department using Data.FracTracker.org. #12;Drilling Rig in Rural Upshur County, WV Source: WVSORO, Modern Shale Gas

Jiang, Huiqiang

307

Brine flow up a borehole caused by pressure perturbation from CO2 storage: Static and dynamic evaluations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

brine in the wellbore up to the base of the freshwater aquifer and would thereby lead to contamination.

Birkholzer, J.T.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Shale Gas Glossary | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartment of Energyof the Americas |DOE Former Worker/EnergyFracture Fluids Shale GasShale

309

FINGERPRINTING INORGANIC ARSENIC AND ORGANOARSENIC COMPOUNDS IN IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORT AND PROCESS VOTERS USING A LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPH COUPLED WITH AN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER AS A DETECTOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

viable is the recovery of shale oil from our substantialdeposits of oil shale (1). Shale oil is recovered from oilproduce~ along with the shale oil, considerable amounts of

Fish, Richard H.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Fast Track Reservoir Modeling of Shale Formations in the Appalachian Basin. Application to Lower Huron Shale in Eastern Kentucky.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SPE 139101 Fast Track Reservoir Modeling of Shale Formations in the Appalachian Basin. Application to Lower Huron Shale in Eastern Kentucky. O. Grujic, S. D. Mohaghegh, SPE, West Virginia University, G Shale in Eastern Kentucky is presented. Unlike conventional reservoir simulation and modeling which

Mohaghegh, Shahab

311

Shale Gas Production Theory and Case Analysis We researched the process of oil recovery and shale gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shale Gas Production Theory and Case Analysis (Siemens) We researched the process of oil recovery and shale gas recovery and compare the difference between conventional and unconventional gas reservoir and recovery technologies. Then we did theoretical analysis on the shale gas production. According

Ge, Zigang

312

In cooperation with Fort Peck Tribes Office of Environmental Protection Delineation of Brine Contamination in and near the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

;#12;Delineation of Brine Contamination in and near the East Poplar Oil Field, Fort Peck Indian Reservation citation: Thamke, J.N., and Smith, B.D., 2014, Delineation of brine contamination in and near the EastIn cooperation with Fort Peck Tribes Office of Environmental Protection Delineation of Brine

Torgersen, Christian

313

SPENT SHALE AS A CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL SHALE RETORT WATER. ANNUAL REPORT FOR PERIOD OCTOBER 1, 1978 - SEPTEMBER 30, 1979.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Control Technology for Shale Oil Wastewaters,~~ inpyrolysized to produce shale oil, gas, a solid referred towaters are co-produced with shale oil and separated from it

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

SPENT SHALE AS A CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL SHALE RETORT WATER. ANNUAL REPORT FOR PERIOD OCTOBER 1, 1978 - SEPTEMBER 30, 1979.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Properties of Spent Shales. Surface Area Measurements.Carbon. Effects. ~~ co 2,and Oil~Shale Partial-pressure andWater from Green River Oil Shale, 11 Chem. Ind. 1, 485 (

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

SPENT SHALE AS A CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL SHALE RETORT WATER. ANNUAL REPORT FOR PERIOD OCTOBER 1, 1978 - SEPTEMBER 30, 1979.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of its contact with the oil and shale, this water can beWater from Green River Oil Shale, 11 Chem. Ind. 1, 485 (Effluents from In-Situ Oil Shale Processing," in Proceedings

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

SPENT SHALE AS A CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL SHALE RETORT WATER. ANNUAL REPORT FOR PERIOD OCTOBER 1, 1978 - SEPTEMBER 30, 1979.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water from Green River Oil Shale, 11 Chem. Ind. 1, 485 (Effluents from In-Situ Oil Shale Processing," in ProceedingsControl Technology for Oil Shale Retort Water," August 1978.

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Heat of combustion of retorted and burnt Colorado oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heats of combustion were measured for 12 samples of retorted and 21 samples of burnt Colorado oil shale originating from raw shales with grades that ranged from 13 to 255 cm/sup 3/ of shale oil/kg of oil shale. For the retorted shales, the authors resolve the heat of combustion into exothermic contributions from combustion of carbon residue and iron sulfides and endothermic contributions from carbonate decomposition and glass formation. Eight samples reported in the literature were included in this analysis. Variations in the first three constituents account for over 99% of the variation in the heats of combustion. For the burnt shales, account must also be taken of the partial conversion of iron sulfides to sulfates. Equations are developed for calculating the heat of combustion of retorted and burnt oil shale with a standard error of about 60 J/g. 13 refs.

Burnham, A.K.; Crawford, P.C.; Carley, J.F.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Heat of combustion of retorted and burnt Colorado oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heats of combustion were measured for 12 samples of retorted and 21 samples of burnt Colorado oil shale originating from raw shales with grades that ranged from 13 to 255 cm/sup 3/ of shale oil/kg of oil shale. For the retorted shales, the heat of combustion was resolved into exothermic contributions from combustion of carbon residue and iron sulfides and endothermic contributions from carbonate decomposition and glass formation. Eight samples reported in the literature were included in this analysis. Variations in the first three constituents account for over 99% of the variation in the heats of combustion. For the burnt shales, account must also be taken of the partial conversion of iron sulfides to sulfates. Equations are developed for calculating the heat of combustion of retorted and burnt oil shale with a standard error of about 60 J/g.

Burnham, A.K.; Carley, J.F.; Crawford, P.C.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Microbial desulfurization of Eastern oil shale: Bioreactor studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The removal of sulfur from Eastern oil shale (40 microns particle size) slurries in bioreactors by mixed microbial cultures was examined. A mixed culture that is able to remove the organic sulfur from model sulfur compounds presenting coal as well as a mixed culture isolated from oil shale enrichments were evaluated. The cultures were grown in aerobic fed-batch bioreactors where the oil shale served as the source of all nutrients except organic carbon. Glucose was added as an auxiliary carbon source. Microbial growth was monitored by plate counts, the pH was checked periodically, and oil shale samples were analyzed for sulfur content. Results show a 24% reduction in the sulfur content of the oil shale after 14 days. The settling characteristics of the oil shale in the bioreactors were examined in the presence of the microbes. Also, the mixing characteristics of the oil shale in the bioreactors were examined. 10 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Maka, A.; Akin, C.; Punwani, D.V.; Lau, F.S.; Srivastava, V.J.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Soil stabilization using oil-shale solid waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oil-shale solid wastes are evaluated for use as soil stabilizers. A laboratory study consisted of the following tests on compacted samples of soil treated with water and spent oil shale: unconfined compressive strength, moisture-density relationships, wet-dry and freeze-thaw durability, and resilient modulus. Significant increases in strength, durability, and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a silty sand with combusted western oil shale. Moderate increases in durability and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a highly plastic clay with combusted western oil shale. Solid waste from eastern oil shale appears to be feasible for soil stabilization only if limestone is added during combustion. Testing methods, results, and recommendations for mix design of spent shale-stabilized pavement subgrades are presented and the mechanisms of spent-shale cementation are discussed.

Turner, J.P. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Civil and Archeological Engineering)

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine devonian shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION UNIT FOR OIL SHALE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A fluidized bed combustion unit has been designed and installed to study the fluidized bed combustion performance using oil shale as fuel in direct burning process. It is a steel column of 18 cm inside diameter and 130 cm height fitted with a perforated plate air distributor of 611 holes, each of 1

M. Hammad; Y. Zurigat; S. Khzai; Z. Hammad; O. Mubydeem

322

Water mist injection in oil shale retorting  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Water mist is utilized to control the maximum temperature in an oil shale retort during processing. A mist of water droplets is generated and entrained in the combustion supporting gas flowing into the retort in order to distribute the liquid water droplets throughout the retort. The water droplets are vaporized in the retort in order to provide an efficient coolant for temperature control.

Galloway, T.R.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Burnham, A.K.

1980-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

323

Boomtown blues; Oil shale and Exxon's exit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper chronicles the social and cultural effects of the recent oil shale boom on the Colorado communities of Rifle, Silt, Parachute, and Grand Junction. The paper is based upon research and oral history interviews conducted throughout Colorado and in Houston and Washington, DC.

Gulliford, A. (Western New Mexico Univ., Silver City, NM (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

The brine underlying the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee, USA: Characterization, genesis, and environmental implications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The deep hydrogeologic system underlying the Oak Ridge Atomic Reservation contains brine. Its origin was assessed using existing and newly acquired chemical and isotopic data. The proposed model which best fits the data is modification of residual brine from which halite has been precipitated. Potential sources for this brine are in the Appalachian Mountains in the east, where bedded halite is documented, and where the hydraulic gradient needed to move the residual brine exists. Other models, such as ultrafiltration and halite dissolution, were also evaluated. In places, contaminants such as radionuclides, heavy metals, nitrates, and organic compounds have reached the deep system. The chemical and isotopic features of the brine were examined with respect to its potential discharge, contaminated in places, into shallow, freshwater systems. The observations suggest that whereas the origin of the salts in the brine may be very old, influx of recent water takes place. Consequently, the brine is not isolated (in terms of recharge and discharge) from the overlying active and fresh-water-bearing units. 78 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Nativ, R. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel)] [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel)

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

The Late Devonian mass extinction was unusually protracted and ecologically selective, with preferential diversity losses among reef-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the Phanerozoic (Sepkoski, 1986), with species- level extinction in the marine biosphere estimated to have beenABSTRACT The Late Devonian mass extinction was unusually protracted and ecologically selective have investigated the link between the extinction's unique character- istics and changes

Sageman, Brad

326

Eastern oil shale research involving the generation of retorted and combusted oil shale solid waste, shale oil collection, and process stream sampling and characterization: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Approximately 518 tons of New Albany oil shale were obtained from the McRae quarry in Clark County, Indiana and shipped to Golden, CO. A portion of the material was processed through a TOSCO II pilot plant retort. About 273 tons of crushed raw shale, 136 tons of retorted shale, 1500 gallons of shale oil, and 10 drums of retort water were shipped to US Department of Energy, Laramie, WY. Process conditions were documented, process streams were sampled and subjected to chemical analysis, and material balance calculations were made. 6 refs., 12 figs., 14 tabs.

Not Available

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Investigations of Near-Field Thermal-Hydrologic-Mechanical-Chemical Models for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Clay/Shale Rock  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a jurassic opalinum shale, switzerland. Clays and Clay96   1 INTRODUCTION Clay/shale has been considered asand Rupture of Heterogeneous Shale Samples by Using a Non-

Liu, H.H.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Weeks Island brine diffuser site study: baseline conditions and environmental assessment technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This technical report presents the results of a study conducted at two alternative brine diffuser sites (A and B) proposed for the Weeks Island salt dome, together with an analysis of the potential physical, chemical, and biological effects of brine disposal for this area of the Gulf of Mexico. Brine would result from either the leaching of salt domes to form or enlarge oil storage caverns, or the subsequent use of these caverns for crude oil storage in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program. Brine leached from the Weeks Island salt dome would be transported through a pipeline which would extend from the salt dome either 27 nautical miles (32 statute miles) for Site A, or 41 nautical miles (47 statute miles) for Site B, into Gulf waters. The brine would be discharged at these sites through an offshore diffuser at a sustained peak rate of 39 ft/sup 3//sec. The disposal of large quantities of brine in the Gulf could have a significant impact on the biology and water quality of the area. Physical and chemical measurements of the marine environment at Sites A and B were taken between September 1977 and July 1978 to correlate the existing environmental conditions with the estimated physical extent of tthe brine discharge as predicted by the MIT model (US Dept. of Commerce, 1977a). Measurements of wind, tide, waves, currents, and stratification (water column structure) were also obtained since the diffusion and dispersion of the brine plume are a function of the local circulation regime. These data were used to calculate both near- and far-field concentrations of brine, and may also be used in the design criteria for diffuser port configuration and verification of the plume model. Biological samples were taken to characterize the sites and to predict potential areas of impact with regard to the discharge. This sampling focused on benthic organisms and demersal fish. (DMC)

None

1980-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

329

Concentration of oil shale by froth flotation. Monthly technical letter report, May 1-31, 1983  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights of findings during May 1983, are briefly summarized. Batches of shale were ground in a 14-inch ball mill. Froth flotation of the ground shales were carried out using pine oil as a frother. Shale used was a high grade eastern shale (New Albany shale). (DMC)

Krishnan, G.

1983-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

330

The chemistry of minerals obtained from the combustion of Jordanian oil shale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The chemistry of minerals obtained from the combustion of Jordanian oil shale Awni Y. Al was performed on the spent oil shale (oil shale ash) obtained from the combustion of Jordanian oil shale process, minimal fragmentation was encountered since Jordanian oil shale contains large proportions of ash

Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

331

Two-level, horizontal free face mining system for in situ oil shale retorts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method is described for forming an in-situ oil shale retort within a retort site in a subterranean formation containing oil shale, such an in-situ oil shale retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale formed within upper, lower and side boundaries of an in-situ oil shale retort site.

Cha, C.Y.; Ricketts, T.E.

1986-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

332

Paper #194973 GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE RESERVOIR HOSTING SHALE-GAS AND OIL in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Paper #194973 GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE RESERVOIR HOSTING SHALE-GAS AND OIL a reservoir for shale-gas and oil. We examined organic-rich black shale, known as Macasty shale, of Upper SHALE-GAS AND OIL in THE SUBSURFACE OF ANTICOSTI ISLAND, CANADA Key Words: Provenance, Anticosti Island

333

Oil and Gas CDT Using noble gas isotopes to develop a mechanistic understanding of shale gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oil and Gas CDT Using noble gas isotopes to develop a mechanistic understanding of shale gas, desorbtion, tracing, migration Overview The discovery of shale gas in UK Shales demonstrates how important and no doubt will vary from shale to shale. An improved understanding of the controls on gas production from

Henderson, Gideon

334

Oil shale ash-layer thickness and char combustion kinetics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retort is being studied at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In the HRS process, raw shale is heated by mixing it with burnt retorted shale. Retorted shale is oil shale which has been heated in an oxygen deficient atmosphere to pyrolyze organic carbon, as kerogen into oil, gas, and a nonvolatile carbon rich residue, char. In the HRS retort process, the char in the spent shale is subsequently exposed to an oxygen environment. Some of the char, starting on the outer surface of the shale particle, is burned, liberating heat. In the HRS retort, the endothermic pyrolysis step is supported by heat from the exothermic char combustion step. The rate of char combustion is controlled by three resistances; the resistance of oxygen mass transfer through the gas film surrounding the solid particle, resistance to mass transfer through a ash layer which forms on the outside of the solid particles as the char is oxidized and the resistance due to the intrinsic chemical reaction rate of char and oxygen. In order to estimate the rate of combustion of the char in a typical oil shale particle, each of these resistances must be accurately estimated. We begin by modeling the influence of ash layer thickness on the over all combustion rate of oil shale char. We then present our experimental measurements of the ash layer thickness of oil shale which has been processed in the HRS retort.

Aldis, D.F.; Singleton, M.F.; Watkins, B.E.; Thorsness, C.B.; Cena, R.J.

1992-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

335

Water management practices used by Fayetteville shale gas producers.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water issues continue to play an important role in producing natural gas from shale formations. This report examines water issues relating to shale gas production in the Fayetteville Shale. In particular, the report focuses on how gas producers obtain water supplies used for drilling and hydraulically fracturing wells, how that water is transported to the well sites and stored, and how the wastewater from the wells (flowback and produced water) is managed. Last year, Argonne National Laboratory made a similar evaluation of water issues in the Marcellus Shale (Veil 2010). Gas production in the Marcellus Shale involves at least three states, many oil and gas operators, and multiple wastewater management options. Consequently, Veil (2010) provided extensive information on water. This current study is less complicated for several reasons: (1) gas production in the Fayetteville Shale is somewhat more mature and stable than production in the Marcellus Shale; (2) the Fayetteville Shale underlies a single state (Arkansas); (3) there are only a few gas producers that operate the large majority of the wells in the Fayetteville Shale; (4) much of the water management information relating to the Marcellus Shale also applies to the Fayetteville Shale, therefore, it can be referenced from Veil (2010) rather than being recreated here; and (5) the author has previously published a report on the Fayetteville Shale (Veil 2007) and has helped to develop an informational website on the Fayetteville Shale (Argonne and University of Arkansas 2008), both of these sources, which are relevant to the subject of this report, are cited as references.

Veil, J. A. (Environmental Science Division)

2011-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

336

Los Alamos environmental activities/oil shale effluents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this research are to determine the nature, magnitude, and time dependence of the major and trace element releases as functions of the raw shale mineralogy, retorting conditions, and spent shale mineral assemblages. These experimental studies will focus on retorting variable regimes characteristic of most retorting processes. As an adjunct objective, the relation of laboratory results to those obtained from both bench-scale and pilot-scale retorts, when both have been operated under similar retorting conditions, will be defined. The goal is to develop a predictive capability for spent shale chemistry as a function of the raw material feedstock and process parameters. Key accomplishments follow: completed an overview of health, environmental effects, and potential ''show stoppers'' in oil shale development; elucidated the importance of both raw material and process in the identity and behavior of spent shale wastes (Occidental raw and spent shales from the Logan Wash site); completed a balanced factorial design experiment to investigate the influence of shale type, temperature, and atmosphere on spent shale behavior; compared the behavior of spent shales from laboratory experiments with shales generated from MIS retorting by OOSI at Logan Wash, Colorado; completed a study of the partitioning of minerals, inorganics, and organics as a function of particle size in a raw shale from Anvil Points, Colorado; evaluated the application of the Los Alamos nuclear microprobe to the characterization of trace element residences in shale materials; established the use of chemometrics as a major tool for evaluating large data bases in oil shale research and for relating field and laboratory results; conceptualized and evaluated experimentally a multistaged leaching control for abandonment of underground retorts; and coordinated activities with other DOE laboratories, industry laboratories, and universities. 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Peterson, E.J.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

PAPER NO. rtos-A118 International Conference on Oil Shale: “Recent Trends In Oil Shale”, 7-9 November 2006, Amman,Jordan WORLD OIL SHALE RETORTING TECHNOLOGIES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper mainly describes the world’s commercial oil shale retorting technologies, including lump oil shale and particulate oil shale retorting technologies. Fushun Type Retorting, Petrosix Retorting, and Kiviter Retorting are illustrated as the examples of lump oil shale retorting; Galoter

Jialin Qian; Jianqiu Wang

338

A feasibility study of oil shale fired pulse combustors with applications to oil shale retorting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of the experimental investigation performed to determine the feasibility of using pulverized Colorado oil shale to fuel a bench scale pulse combustor reveal that oil shale cannot sustain pulsations when used alone as fuel. Trace amounts of propane mixed with the oil shale enabled the pulsations, however. Up to 80% of the organic material in the oil shale was consumed when it was mixed with propane in the combustor. Beyond the feasibility objectives, the operating conditions of the combustor fuel with propane and mixtures of oil shale and propane were characterized with respect to pulsation amplitude and frequency and the internal combustor wall temperature over fuel lean and fuel rich stoichiometries. Maximum pressure excursions of 12.5 kPa were experienced in the combustor. Pulsation frequencies ranged from 50 to nearly 80 Hz. Cycle resolved laser Doppler anemometry velocities were measured at the tail pipe exit plane. Injecting inert mineral matter (limestone) into the pulse combustor while using propane fuel had only a slight effect on the pulsation frequency for the feed rates tested.

Morris, G.J.; Johnson, E.K.; Zhang, G.Q.; Roach, R.A.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Hybrid electrodialysis reverse osmosis system design and its optimization for treatment of highly saline brines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The demand is rising for desalination technologies to treat highly saline brines arising from hydraulic fracturing processes and inland desalination. Interest is growing in the use of electrical desalination technologies ...

McGovern, Ronan Killian

340

Efficacy of Ultraviolet Light and Antimicrobials to Reduce Listeria monocytogenes in Chill Brines.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Chill brines used in ready-to-eat meat processing may be an important source of post-processing contamination by Listeria monocytogenes. The purpose of this study was to… (more)

Parikh, Priti P.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine devonian shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Remediation of brine-contaminated soil using calcium nitrate, gypsum, and straw.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Salt-affected soils from point source brine contamination are common in the active oil field in SE Saskatchewan. A remediation process that included dewatering by sub-surface… (more)

Nielsen, Jennifer I.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Behavior of type 304 and type 316 austenitic stainless in 55% lithium bromide heavy brine environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cylindrical tensile specimens of AISI type 304 (UNS S30400) and type 316 (UNS S31600) stainless steels (SS) were tested under constant-load conditions in 55% lithium bromide (LiBr) heavy brines at temperatures of 120 C and 140 C. Elongation and open-circuit potential (OCP) were recorded during the tensile test. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements were conducted, and the failed surface fractures were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The tested SS were subjected to stress corrosion under the test environments. Sensitivity was affected strongly by pH values. In LiBr brine of pH = 11.6, the passivation processes were more effective than in brine of pH = 6 [approximately] 8. Because of effective passivation behavior in brine of pH = 11.6, lower values of [delta]l[sub 0] were measured, indicating lower dislocation relaxation processes and high resistance to stress corrosion cracking.

Itzhak, D.; Elias, O. (Ben-Gurion Univ., Beer-Sheva (Israel). Dept. of Materials Engineering)

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

E-Print Network 3.0 - acartia tonsa brine Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for: acartia tonsa brine Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Vol. 114: 203-208,1994 MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Summary: . divergens attacking it. Ingestion rates of P, cf....

344

Seizing a species : the story of the Great Salt Lake brine shrimp harvest  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the early 1950s, C.C. "Sparkplug" Sanders began harvesting brine shrimp from Utah's Great Salt Lake. Sanders built up a small business selling their eggs, called "cysts, to aquarium stores across the country. During the ...

Wotipka, Samuel Alex

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Soils and Brine Geochemistry and Mineralogy of Hyperarid Desert Playa, Ouargla Basin,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Soils and Brine Geochemistry and Mineralogy of Hyperarid Desert Playa, Ouargla Basin, Algerian. The chemical and mineralogical specificity of this hyperarid ecosystem has been compared to other areas under

Ahmad, Sajjad

346

Secondary recovery from a stromatoporoid buildup: Devonian Duperow Formation, Ridgelawn field, Montana  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ridgelawn field is located in Richland County, Montana, in the western part of the Williston basin. It is a multiple-pay field, with production from ordovician, Devonian, and Mississippian carbonates. Discovered in 1980, the field was recently unitized in the Devonian Duperow Formation for purposes of secondary recovery by waterflood. In this part of the Williston, the Duperow consists of a repetitive succession of shoaling-upward carbonate cycles, each deposited under increasingly restricted conditions on a shallow marine shelf. Production at Ridgelaw occurs from dolomites within one of these cycles, cycle IIIa. Three separate, laterally continuous porosity zones (here termed a, b, and c, from lowest to highest) are recognized and mapped individually in the field. The reservoir has a lensoidal geometry; porous dolomite thins and grades laterally into tight carbonate. The Duperow pool at Ridgelawn is a solution gas drive reservoir. Computer log analysis of the Duperow pay interval indicates an average true porosity of 11.8% and an average initial water saturation of 17.7%. Net pay, defined as greater than 5% crossplot porosity, averages 16.6 ft across the field. Petrographic analysis and log calibration suggests that different facies in each of the three porosity zones were preferentially dolomitized to create reservoir-quality rock; each is now a sucrosic dolomite with intercrystalline porosity. Porosity can be occluded (most often in the upper two zones b and c) by both calcite and anhydrite cements. The lowermost zone, a, is related to a stromatoporoid/coralline bank, and has excellent but highly variable porosity and permeability. The two upper zones, b and c, are more finely crystalline dolomite and represent shallower water depositional facies. Maps for each zone, including porosity, porosity-feet, net pay, and water saturation were constructed and used for equity determination in the unit.

Little, L.D. (Conoco Inc., Casper, WY (USA))

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Plan for addressing issues relating to oil shale plant siting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Western Research Institute plan for addressing oil shale plant siting methodology calls for identifying the available resources such as oil shale, water, topography and transportation, and human resources. Restrictions on development are addressed: land ownership, land use, water rights, environment, socioeconomics, culture, health and safety, and other institutional restrictions. Descriptions of the technologies for development of oil shale resources are included. The impacts of oil shale development on the environment, socioeconomic structure, water availability, and other conditions are discussed. Finally, the Western Research Institute plan proposes to integrate these topics to develop a flow chart for oil shale plant siting. Western Research Institute has (1) identified relative topics for shale oil plant siting, (2) surveyed both published and unpublished information, and (3) identified data gaps and research needs. 910 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

Noridin, J. S.; Donovan, R.; Trudell, L.; Dean, J.; Blevins, A.; Harrington, L. W.; James, R.; Berdan, G.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Utilization of Estonian oil shale at power plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Estonian oil shale belongs to the carbonate class and is characterized as a solid fuel with very high mineral matter content (60--70% in dry mass), moderate moisture content (9--12%) and low heating value (LHV 8--10 MJ/kg). Estonian oil shale deposits lie in layers interlacing mineral stratas. The main constituent in mineral stratas is limestone. Organic matter is joined with sandy-clay minerals in shale layers. Estonian oil shale at power plants with total capacity of 3060 MW{sub e} is utilized in pulverized form. Oil shale utilization as fuel, with high calcium oxide and alkali metal content, at power plants is connected with intensive fouling, high temperature corrosion and wear of steam boiler`s heat transfer surfaces. Utilization of Estonian oil shale is also associated with ash residue use in national economy and as absorbent for flue gas desulfurization system.

Ots, A. [Tallin Technical Univ. (Estonia). Thermal Engineering Department

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

349

Study of thermal-gradient-induced migration of brine inclusions in salt. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Natural salt deposits, which are being considered for high-level waste disposal, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine (the all-liquid inclusions) migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms, which is undesirable. Therefore it is important to consider the migration of brine inclusions in salt under imposed temperature gradients to properly evaluate the performance of a future salt repository for nuclear wastes. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is nonlinear. At high axial loads, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, helium, air and argon were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large-ange grain boundaries was observed.

Olander, D.R.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

New Energy Efficient Method for Cleaning Oilfield Brines with Carbon Dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NEW ENERGY EFFICIENT METHOD FOR CLEANING OILFIELD BRINES WITH CARBON DIOXIDE C. T. LITTLE A. F. SEIBERT Research Engineer Technical Manager Amoco Oil Company Separations Research Program Naperville, Illinois The University of Texas Austin... dioxide to clean oilfield brines. The new treatment method, described in this work, is actually an enhancement of existing gas flotation technology. The enhancement results from the use of carbon dioxide as the sweeping gas combined with its ability...

Little, C. T.; Seibert, A. F.; Bravo, J. L.; Fair, J. R.

351

Hard-bottom macrofauna of the East Flower Garden brine seep: impact of a long term, point-source brine discharge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

canyon transect were sta- tions R6 and R7, both of which were on top of Cottonwick Rock, ap- proximately 2 m above the canyon floor. Figure 5 (p. 12) shows that salinity and sulfide at these stations were at normal marine levels. Though the total...HARD-BOT1'OM MACROFAUNA OF THE EAST FLOWER GARDEN BRINE SEEP: IMPACT OF A LONG TERM, POINT-SOURCE BRINE DISCHARGE A Thesis by STEPHEN REED GITTINGS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

Gittings, Stephen Reed

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Kansas Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs Year in Review WYear Jan FebWellheadShale Proved

353

Kentucky Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs Year in Review WYear JanFeet)CubicShale Proved

354

Montana Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs Year2per ThousandWellhead+Wellhead PriceperShale Proved

355

Pennsylvania Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing ReservoirsYear-MonthCoalbed Methane(Dollars per ThousandShale

356

Distribution and origin of ethyl-branched alkanes in a Cenomanian transgressive shale of the Western Interior  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Note Distribution and origin of ethyl-branched alkanes in a Cenomanian transgressive shale hydrocarbon fraction of the basal Graneros Shale (Cenomanian, Western Interior Seaway, USA). On the basis rights reserved. Keywords: Monoethylalkanes; Branched alkanes; Black shales; Cenomanian; Graneros Shale

Kenig, Fabien

357

Tensile strengths of problem shales and clays. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The greatest single expense faced by oil companies involved in the exploration for crude oil is that of drilling wells. The most abundant rock drilled is shale. Some of these shales cause wellbore stability problems during the drilling process. These can range from slow rate of penetration and high torque up to stuck pipe and hole abandonment. The mechanical integrity of the shale must be known when the shalers are subjected to drilling fluids to develop an effective drilling plan.

Rechner, F.J.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Western oil shale conversion using the ROPE copyright process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Western Research Institute (WRI) is continuing to develop the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) process to recover liquid hydrocarbon products from oil shale, tar sand, and other solid hydrocarbonaceous materials. The process consists of three major steps: (1) pyrolyzing the hydrocarbonaceous material at a low temperature (T {le} 400{degrees}C) with recycled product oil, (2) completing the pyrolysis of the residue at a higher temperature (T > 400{degrees}C) in the absence of product oil, and (3) combusting the solid residue and pyrolysis gas in an inclined fluidized-bed reactor to produce process heat. Many conventional processes, such as the Paraho and Union processes, do not use oil shale fines (particles smaller than 1.27 cm in diameter). The amount of shale discarded as fines from these processes can be as high as 20% of the total oil shale mined. Research conducted to date suggests that the ROPE process can significantly improve the overall oil recovery from western oil shale by processing the oil shale fines typically discarded by conventional processes. Also, if the oil shale fines are co-processed with shale oil used as the heavy recycle oil, a better quality oil will be produced that can be blended with the original shale oil to make an overall produce that is more acceptable to the refineries and easier to pipeline. Results from tests conducted in a 2-inch process development unit (PDU) and a 6-inch bench-scale unit (BSU) with western oil shale demonstrated a maximum oil yield at temperatures between 700 and 750{degrees}F (371 and 399{degrees}C). Test results also suggest that the ROPE process has a strong potential for recovering oil from oil shale fines, upgrading shale oil, and separating high-nitrogen-content oil for use as an asphalt additive. 6 refs., 10 figs., 11 tabs.

Cha, C.Y.; Fahy, L.J.; Grimes, R.W.

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Research and information needs for management of oil shale development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents information and analysis to assist BLM in clarifying oil shale research needs. It provides technical guidance on research needs in support of their regulatory responsibilities for onshore mineral activities involving oil shale. It provides an assessment of research needed to support the regulatory and managerial role of the BLM as well as others involved in the development of oil shale resources on public and Indian lands in the western United States.

Not Available

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Numerical simulations of lab-scale brine-water mixing experiments.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory-scale experiments simulating the injection of fresh water into brine in a Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) cavern were performed at Sandia National Laboratories for various conditions of injection rate and small and large injection tube diameters. The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code FLUENT was used to simulate these experiments to evaluate the predictive capability of FLUENT for brine-water mixing in an SPR cavern. The data-model comparisons show that FLUENT simulations predict the mixing plume depth reasonably well. Predictions of the near-wall brine concentrations compare very well with the experimental data. The simulated time for the mixing plume to reach the vessel wall was underpredicted for the small injection tubes but reasonable for the large injection tubes. The difference in the time to reach the wall is probably due to the three-dimensional nature of the mixing plume as it spreads out at the air-brine or oil-brine interface. The depth of the mixing plume as it spreads out along the interface was within a factor of 2 of the experimental data. The FLUENT simulation results predict the plume mixing accurately, especially the water concentration when the mixing plume reaches the wall. This parameter value is the most significant feature of the mixing process because it will determine the amount of enhanced leaching at the oil-brine interface.

Khalil, Imane; Webb, Stephen Walter

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine devonian shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Recovery of energy from geothermal brine and other hot water sources  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Process and system for recovery of energy from geothermal brines and other hot water sources, by direct contact heat exchange between the brine or hot water, and an immiscible working fluid, e.g. a hydrocarbon such as isobutane, in a heat exchange column, the brine or hot water therein flowing countercurrent to the flow of the working fluid. The column can be operated at subcritical, critical or above the critical pressure of the working fluid. Preferably, the column is provided with a plurality of sieve plates, and the heat exchange process and column, e.g. with respect to the design of such plates, number of plates employed, spacing between plates, area thereof, column diameter, and the like, are designed to achieve maximum throughput of brine or hot water and reduction in temperature differential at the respective stages or plates between the brine or hot water and the working fluid, and so minimize lost work and maximize efficiency, and minimize scale deposition from hot water containing fluid including salts, such as brine. Maximum throughput approximates minimum cost of electricity which can be produced by conversion of the recovered thermal energy to electrical energy.

Wahl, III, Edward F. (Claremont, CA); Boucher, Frederic B. (San Juan Capistrano, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program 1992--1993 report and summary of BSEP data since 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is the last one that is currently scheduled in the sequence of reports of new data, and therefore, also includes summary comments referencing important data obtained by BSEP since 1983. These BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the (WIPP) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. A project concern is that enough brine might be present after sealing and closure to generate large quantities of hydrogen gas by corroding the metal in the waste drums and waste inventory. This report describes progress made during the calendar years 1992 and 1993 and focuses on four major areas: (1) monitoring of brine inflow, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled downward from the underground drifts (downholes), upward from the underground drifts (upholes), and from subhorizontal holes from the underground drifts; (2) observations of weeps in the Air Intake Shaft (AIS); (3) further characterization of brine geochemistry; and (4) additional characterization of the hydrologic conditions in the fractured zone beneath the excavations.

Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J. [I. T. Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States); Belski, D.S. [USDOE Albuquerque Operations Office, Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Project Office

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

A Strategy for the Abandonment of Modified In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effects of steam on oil shale ing: a preliminary laboratoryInstitute to Rio Blanco Oil Shale Project, May 1977. 1~Cement, pozzolan and oil shale chemistry The chemistry of

Fox, J.P.; Persoff, P.; Moody, M.M.; Sisemore, C.J.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

ANAEROBIC FERMENTATION OF SIMULATED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORT WATER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water co produced with shale oil and decanted from it isWater from Green River Oil Shale, Chemistry and Industry,for an In-Situ Produced Oil-Shale Processin g Water, LERC

Ossio, E.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

OIL SHALE RESEARCH. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

each of retort water and shale oil, about 10 1 000 standardfrom In-Situ Retorting of Oil Shale," Energy and Environmentanic species present in shale oils process waters, gases,

,

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

WATER QUALITY EFFECTS OF LEACHATES FROM AN IN SITU OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

4, 19'70, p. 89. 24. C-b Shale Oil Venture: Hydrology, MinePiles Solid wastes from the shale-oil recovery process alsofrom a Simulated In-Situ Oil Shale Retort, Proceedings of

Fox, J. P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

OIL SHALE RESEARCH. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from In-Situ Retorting of Oil Shale," Energy and EnvironmentStudies Trace Contaminants in Oil Shale Retort Water M. J.Organic Arsenic Compounds 1n Oil Shale Process Waters R. H.

,

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Inventory of Shale Formations in the US, Including Geologic, Hydrological, and Mechanical Characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

enggeo.2013.05.021. CNX/GTI (2008). New Albany ShaleRVSP, New Albany Shale Gas Project, RVSP Seismic Projectisopach maps of the New Albany Shale, Illinois Basin. Figure

Dobson, Patrick

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

SPECIATION OF TRACE ORGANIC LIGANDS AND INORGANIC AND ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS IN OIL SHALE PROCESS WATERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

organoarsenic compounds in oi.l shale process waters using aPresented at the 13th Oil Shale Symposium, Golden, CO, April~1ETALLIC COMPOUNDS IN OIL SHALE PROCESS WATERS Richard H.

Fish, Richard H.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

WATER QUALITY EFFECTS OF LEACHATES FROM AN IN SITU OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from a Simulated In-Situ Oil Shale Retort, Proceedings ofthe 11th Oil Shale Symposium, 1978. J. W.MB_terial in Green River Oil Shale, U.S. Bur. lvlines Rept.

Fox, J. P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

ANAEROBIC FERMENTATION OF SIMULATED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORT WATER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water from Green River Oil Shale, Chemistry and Industry,an In-Situ Produced Oil-Shale Processin g Water, LERC ReportOf Simulated In-Situ Oil Shale Retort Water B.A. Ossio, J.P.

Ossio, E.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

USE OF ZEEMAN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF MERCURY IN OIL SHALE GASES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A. Robb, and T. J. Spedding. Minor Elements in Oil Shale andOil-Shale Products. LERC RI 77-1, 1977. Bertine, K. K. andFrom A Simulated In-Situ Oil Shale Retort. In: Procedings of

Girvin, D.G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

OIL SHALE RESEARCH. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from In-Situ Retorting of Oil Shale," Energy and EnvironmentTrace Contaminants in Oil Shale Retort Water M. J. Kland, A.Arsenic Compounds 1n Oil Shale Process Waters R. H. Fish,

,

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

INTERLABORATORY, MULTIMETHOD STUDY OF AN IN SITU PRODUCED OIL SHALE PROCESS WATER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A. Robb, and T. J. Spedding. Minor Elements in Oil Shale andOil Shale Products. LERC Rept. of Invest. 77-1, 1977.Significant to In Situ Oil Shale Processing. Quart. Colo.

Farrier, D.S.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM A SIMULATED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from a Simulated In-Situ Oil Shale J. P. Fox, J. J. Duvall,of elements in rich oil shales of the Green River Formation,E . • 1977; Mercury in Oil Shale from the Mahogany Zone the

Fox, J. P.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

WATER QUALITY EFFECTS OF LEACHATES FROM AN IN SITU OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stabilization of Spent Oil Shales, EPA-600/'7-'78- 021, Feb.Impact Analysis for an Oil Shale Complex at Parachute Creek,from a Simulated In-Situ Oil Shale Retort, Proceedings of

Fox, J. P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

TREATMENT OF MULTIVARIATE ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH OIL SHALE TECHNOLOGY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Trace Contaminants in Oil Shale Retort Wa- ters", Am.LBL-10850. b. and , "Trace Contaminants in Oil Shale RetortWaters", in Oil Shale Research: Characteriza- tion Studies,

Kland, M.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

OIL SHALE RESEARCH. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from In-Situ Retorting of Oil Shale," Energy and Environmentintimate contact ~lith the oil and shale, Retort waters area Control Technology for Oil Shale Retort Water J. P. Fox,

,

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

ANAEROBIC FERMENTATION OF SIMULATED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORT WATER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water from Green River Oil Shale, Chemistry and Industry,for an In-Situ Produced Oil-Shale Processin g Water, LERCOf Simulated In-Situ Oil Shale Retort Water B.A. Ossio, J.P.

Ossio, E.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

WATER QUALITY EFFECTS OF LEACHATES FROM AN IN SITU OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from a Simulated In-Situ Oil Shale Retort, Proceedingsof the 11th Oil Shale Symposium, 1978. J. W.MB_terial in Green River Oil Shale, U.S. Bur. lvlines Rept.

Fox, J. P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine devonian shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

A Strategy for the Abandonment of Modified In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effects of steam on oil shale ing: a preliminary laboratoryInstitute to Rio Blanco Oil Shale Project, May 1977. 1~OF MODIFIED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS J. P. Fox and P.

Fox, J.P.; Persoff, P.; Moody, M.M.; Sisemore, C.J.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

SPECIATION OF TRACE ORGANIC LIGANDS AND INORGANIC AND ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS IN OIL SHALE PROCESS WATERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Presented at the 13th Oil Shale Symposium, Golden, CO, April~1ETALLIC COMPOUNDS IN OIL SHALE PROCESS WATERS Richard H.compounds in the seven oil shale process waters. These

Fish, Richard H.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

OIL SHALE RESEARCH. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from In-Situ Retorting of Oil Shale," Energy and EnvironmentTrace Contaminants in Oil Shale Retort Water M. J. Kland, A.Organic Arsenic Compounds 1n Oil Shale Process Waters R. H.

,

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM A SIMULATED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from a Simulated In-Situ Oil Shale J. P. Fox, J. J. Duvall,of elements in rich oil shales of the Green River Formation,V. E . • 1977; Mercury in Oil Shale from the Mahogany Zone

Fox, J. P.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Macrurous Decapods from the Bearpaw Shale (Cretaceous: Campanian) of Northeastern Montana  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Macrurous Decapods from the Bearpaw Shale (Cretaceous: Campanian) of Northeastern Montana Rodney M THE BEARPAW SHALE (CRETACEOUS: CAMPANIAN) OF NORTHEASTERN MONTANA RODNEY M. FELDMANN, GALE A. BISHOP Shale of north- eastern Montana were studied to characterize the occurrence, preservation

Kammer, Thomas

386

Pennsylvania Energy Impacts Assessment Report 1: Marcellus Shale Natural Gas and Wind  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pennsylvania Energy Impacts Assessment Report 1: Marcellus Shale Natural Gas and Wind #12;1 Pennsylvania Energy Impacts Assessment Report 1: Marcellus Shale Natural Gas and Wind November 15, 2010 Author.....................................................................................................................3 Marcellus Shale Natural Gas

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

387

Shale Webinar Series to Start September 13th The Penn State Marcellus Education Team will be offering a new monthly Shale webinar series beginning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shale Webinar Series to Start September 13th The Penn State Marcellus Education Team will be offering a new monthly Shale webinar series beginning Thursday, September 13th from 1:00 to 2:00 PM. Tom the series with an overview of trends and updates on shale development. Tom will provide an analysis of shale

388

Unconventional oil market assessment: ex situ oil shale.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis focused on exploring the economic limitations for the development of western oil shale. The analysis was developed by scaling a known process and… (more)

Castro-Dominguez, Bernardo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Oil shale pyrolysis: benchscale experimental studies and modeling.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Oil shale is a complex material that is composed of organic matter, mineral matrix and trace amount of bound and/or unbound water. The endothermic decomposition… (more)

Tiwari, Pankaj

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Drugs and oil flow through the Eagle Ford Shale.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This report is a work of original reporting which investigates the proliferation of drug use and drug trafficking in the Eagle Ford Shale, a region… (more)

Marks, Michael Perry

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Experimental study of mechanisms of improving oil recovery in Shale.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??ABSTRACT Extensive laboratory work was done to investigate some of the important mechanisms of improving oil recovery in Shale formations. The objective of this research… (more)

Onyenwere, Emmanuel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

INVESTIGATIONS ON HYDRAULIC CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process for making hydraulic cements from spent oil shale is described in this paper. Inexpensive cement is needed to grout abandoned in-situ retorts of spent shale for subsidence control, mitigation of leaching, and strengthening the retorted mass in order to recover oil from adjacent pillars of raw shale. A hydraulic cement was produced by heating a 1:1 mixture of Lurgi spent shale and CaCO{sub 3} at 1000 C for one hour. This cement would be less expensive than ordinary portland cement and is expected to fulfill the above requirements.

Mehta, P.K.; Persoff, P.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Secretary of Energy Advisory Board Subcommittee Releases Shale...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

environmental management of shale gas, which has rapidly grown to nearly 30 percent of natural gas production in the United States. Increased transparency and a focus on best...

394

,"New York Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"2262015 9:43:21 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New York Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)"...

395

Outlook for U.S. shale oil and gas  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

2035 2040 Associated with oil Coalbed methane Tight gas Shale gas Alaska Non-associated offshore Non-associated onshore Projections History 2012 Adam Sieminski, IAEEAEA January...

396

Strategic Significance of Americas Oil Shale Resource  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Deputy Assistant Secretary for Petroleum Reserves Office of Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves U.S. Department of Energy Washington, D.C. March 2004 Strategic...

397

Department of Energy, Office of Naval Petroleum & Oil Shale Reserves  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Items that may be marked "disposrtron not Office of Naval Petroleum & Oil Shale Reserves approved" or "withdrawn" In column 10 4 Nameof Personwith whom to confer 5...

398

Attrition and abrasion models for oil shale process modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As oil shale is processed, fine particles, much smaller than the original shale are created. This process is called attrition or more accurately abrasion. In this paper, models of abrasion are presented for oil shale being processed in several unit operations. Two of these unit operations, a fluidized bed and a lift pipe are used in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Hot-Recycle-Solid (HRS) process being developed for the above ground processing of oil shale. In two reports, studies were conducted on the attrition of oil shale in unit operations which are used in the HRS process. Carley reported results for attrition in a lift pipe for oil shale which had been pre-processed either by retorting or by retorting then burning. The second paper, by Taylor and Beavers, reported results for a fluidized bed processing of oil shale. Taylor and Beavers studied raw, retorted, and shale which had been retorted and then burned. In this paper, empirical models are derived, from the experimental studies conducted on oil shale for the process occurring in the HRS process. The derived models are presented along with comparisons with experimental results.

Aldis, D.F.

1991-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

399

The technology of the New South Wales torbanite : including an introduction on oil shale.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Although the nature of the products of thermal decomposition of oil shale has attracted the attention of both scientist and industrialist, oil shale possibly ranks… (more)

Cane, Reginald Frank

1946-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Effects of low temperature preheating on the pyrolysis products from blocks of oil shale.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Oil shale is a sedimentary rock composed of inorganic and organic fractions. The inorganic minerals contained in oil shale include: dolomite, calcite, quartz, i1 lite,… (more)

Alston, David W.

1905-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine devonian shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Experimental and simulation study of improved oil recovery in shale formations.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Shale has ultra low permeability and cannot produce without hydraulic fracturing to improve the contact between reservoir matrix with wellbore. In addition, shale production declines… (more)

Morsy, Samiha

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

TREATMENT OF MULTIVARIATE ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH OIL SHALE TECHNOLOGY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Jr. and M. D. Shelby, "Chemicals Identified in Oil Shaleand Shale Oil. list." 1. Preliminary Environmental MutagenTrace Contaminants in Oil Shale Retort Wa- ters", Am. Chern.

Kland, M.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

90-day Second Report on Shale Gas Production - Secretary of Energy...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

90-day Second Report on Shale Gas Production - Secretary of Energy Advisory Board 90-day Second Report on Shale Gas Production - Secretary of Energy Advisory Board Novemeber 18,...

404

Evaluation of EOR Potential by Gas and Water Flooding in Shale Oil Reservoirs.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The demand for oil and natural gas will continue to increase for the foreseeable future; unconventional resources such as tight oil, shale gas, shale oil… (more)

Chen, Ke

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Economic viability of shale gas production in the Marcellus Shale; indicated by production rates, costs and current natural gas prices.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? The U.S. natural gas industry has changed because of the recent ability to produce natural gas from unconventional shale deposits. One of the largest… (more)

Duman, Ryan J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Trace elements in oil shale. Progress report, 1979-1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this research program is to understand the potential impact of an oil shale industry on environmental levels of trace contaminants in the region. The program involves a comprehensive study of the sources, release mechanisms, transport, fate, and effects of toxic trace chemicals, principally the trace elements, in an oil shale industry. The overall objective of the program is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements by shale and oil production and use. The baseline geochemical survey shows that stable trace elements maps can be constructed for numerous elements and that the trends observed are related to geologic and climatic factors. Shale retorted by above-ground processes tends to be very homogeneous (both in space and in time) in trace element content. Leachate studies show that significant amounts of B, F, and Mo are released from retorted shales and while B and Mo are rapidly flushed out, F is not. On the other hand, As, Se, and most other trace elements are not present in significant quantities. Significant amounts of F and B are also found in leachates of raw shales. Very large concentrations of reduced sulfur species are found in leachates of processed shale. Very high levels of B and Mo are taken up in some plants growing on processed shale with and without soil cover. There is a tendency for some trace elements to associate with specific organic fractions, indicating that organic chelation or complexation may play an important role. Many of the so-called standard methods for analyzing trace elements in oil shale-related materials are inadequate. A sampling manual is being written for the environmental scientist and practicing engineer. A new combination of methods is developed for separating the minerals in oil shale into different density fractions. Microbial investigations have tentatively identified the existence of thiobacilli in oil shale materials such as leachates. (DC)

Chappell, W R

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume III. Biological oceanography. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy's Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program began discharging brine into the Gulf of Mexico from its West Hackberry site near Cameron, Louisiana in May 1981. The brine originates from underground salt domes being leached with water from the Intracoastal Waterway, making available vast underground storage caverns for crude oil. The effects of brine discharge on aquatic organisms are presented in this volume. The topics covered are: benthos; nekton; phytoplankton; zooplankton; and data management.

DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Sorption of cesium and strontium from concentrated brines by backfill barrier materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The sorption of radionuclides from potentially intruding groundwater at a nuclear waste repository is a major chemical function of backfill barriers. In this study, various materials (including clays, zeolites and an inorganic ion exchanger) were screened for the sorption of the fission products cesium and strontium in concentrated brines. Representative brines A and B for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a proposed radioactive waste repository and test facility in bedded salt were used. Sorption properties were quantified using empirical distribution coefficients, k/sub d/. Of the materials examined, sodium titanate had the highest k/sub d/ for the sorption of Sr(II) in both brine A (k/sub d/ = 125 ml/g) and brine B(k/sub d/ = 500 to 600 ml/g). A mordenite-type zeolite was the most effective getter for Cs(I) in brine A (k/sub d = 27 ml/g), while illite yielded the highest k/sub d/ for Cs(I) in brine B (k/sub d/ = 115 ml/g). The relative merit of these k/sub d/ values is evaluated in terms of calculated estimates of breakthrough times for a backfill barrier containing the getter. Results show that a backfill mixture containing these getters is potentially an effective barrier to the migration of Sr(II) and Cs(I), although further study (especially for the sorption of cesium from brine A) is recommended. Initial mechanistic studies revealed competing ion effects which would support an ion exchange mechanism. K/sub d/'s were constant over a Sr(II) concentration range of 10/sup -11/ to 10/sup -5/ M and a Cs(I) concentration range of 10/sup -8/ to 10/sup -5/ M, supporting the choice of a linear sorption isotherm as a model for the results. Constant batch composition was shown to be attained within one week.

Winslow, C D

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

General screening criteria for shale gas reservoirs and production data analysis of Barnett shale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shale gas reservoirs are gaining importance in United States as conventional oil and gas resources are dwindling at a very fast pace. The purpose of this study is twofold. First aim is to help operators with simple screening criteria which can help...

Deshpande, Vaibhav Prakashrao

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

410

Use of data obtained from core tests in the design and operation of spent brine injection wells in geopressured or geothermal systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of formation characteristics on injection well performance are reviewed. Use of data acquired from cores taken from injection horizons to predict injectivity is described. And methods for utilizing data from bench scale testing of brine and core samples to optimize injection well design are presented. Currently available methods and equipment provide data which enable the optimum design of injection wells through analysis of cores taken from injection zones. These methods also provide a means of identifying and correcting well injection problems. Methods described in this report are: bulk density measurement; porosity measurement; pore size distribution analysis; permeability measurement; formation grain size distribution analysis; core description (lithology) and composition; amount, type and distribution of clays and shales; connate water analysis; consolidatability of friable reservoir rocks; grain and pore characterization by scanning electron microscopy; grain and pore characterization by thin section analysis; permeability damage and enhancement tests; distribution of water-borne particles in porous media; and reservoir matrix acidizing effectiveness. The precise methods of obtaining this information are described, and their use in the engineering of injection wells is illustrated by examples, where applicable. (MHR)

Jorda, R.M.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Distribution and origin of sulfur in Colorado oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The sulfur content of 1,225 samples of Green River oil shale from two core holes in the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado, ranges from nearly 0 to 4.9 weight percent. In one core hole, the average sulfur content of a sequence of oil shale 555 m thick, which represents nearly the maximum thickness of oil shale in the basin, is 0.76 weight percent. The vertical distribution of sulfur through the oil shale is cyclic. As many as 25 sulfur cycles have lateral continuity and can be traced between the core holes. Most of the sulfur resides in iron sulfides (pyrite, marcasite, and minor. pyrrhotite), and small amounts are organically bound in kerogen. In general, the concentration of sulfur correlates moderately with oil shale yield, but the degree of association ranges from quite high in the upper 90 m of the oil shale sequence to low or none in the leached zone and in illitic oil shale in the lower part of the sequence. Sulfur also correlates moderately with iron in the carbonate oil shale sequence, but no correlation was found in the illitic samples. Sulfide mineralization is believed to have occurred during early and late stages of diagenesis, and after lithification, during development of the leached zone. Significant amounts of iron found in ankeritic dolomite and in illite probably account for the lack of a strong correlation between sulfur and iron.

Dyni, J.R.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Morphological Investigations of Fibrogenic Action of Estonian Oil Shale Dust  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A review of morphological investigations carried out to clarify the pathogenicity of industrial dust produced in the mining and processing of Estonian oil shale is given. Histological examination of lungs of workers in the oil shale industry taken at necropsies showed that the inhalation of oil

V. A. Kung

413

The Models of Estimating Oil Shale Flows and Price  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The fast economical growth of Estonia in past years has set us several questions on sustainability of oil shale mining in Estonia. For how long do the oil shale resources last? What are the mining expenditures in the areas of different mining conditions and how do they change in future? Thus, in

Tauno Tammeoja; Aire Västrik

414

Water's Journey Through the Shale Gas Drilling and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water's Journey Through the Shale Gas Drilling and Production Processes in the Mid-Atlantic Region: Marcellus shale drilling in progress, Beaver Run Reservoir, Westmoreland County. Credit: Robert Donnan. Gas. This publication fo- cuses mostly on Pennsylvania because it has the most Marcellus drilling activity of any state

Lee, Dongwon

415

Market analysis of shale oil co-products. Appendices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Data are presented in these appendices on the marketing and economic potential for soda ash, aluminia, and nahcolite as by-products of shale oil production. Appendices 1 and 2 contain data on the estimated capital and operating cost of an oil shales/mineral co-products recovery facility. Appendix 3 contains the marketing research data.

Not Available

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Beneficiation and hydroretorting of low grade oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new approach to oil recovery from low grade oil shales has been developed jointly by the Mineral Resources Institute (MRI) of The University of Alabama and the HYCRUDE Corporation. The approach is based on the HYTORT process, which utilized hydrogen gas during the retorting process to enhance oil yields from many types of oil shales. The performance of the HYTORT process is further improved by combining it with MRI's froth flotation process. Taking advantage of differences in the surface properties of the kerogen and the inorganic mineral constituents of the oil shales, the MRI process can reject up to three quarters by weight of relatively kerogen-free inorganic fractions of the oil shale before HYTORT processing. The HYTORT and MRI processes are discussed. Results of tests by each process on oil shales of low to moderate inherent kerogen content are presented. Also discussed are the results of the combined processes on an Indiana New Albany oil shale. By combining the two processes, the raw shale which yielded 12 gallons of oil per ton by Fischer Assay was upgraded by flotation to a product yielding 27 gallons of Fischer Assay oil per ton. HYTORT processing of the beneficiated product recovered 54 gallons of oil per ton, an improvement in oil yield by a factor of 4.5 over the raw shale Fischer Assay.

Tippin, R.B.; Hanna, J.; Janka, J.C.; Rex, R.C. Jr.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Chemically assisted in situ recovery of oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of the research project was to investigate the feasibility of the chemically assisted in situ retort method for recovering shale oil from Colorado oil shale. The chemically assisted in situ procedure uses hydrogen chloride (HCl), steam (H{sub 2}O), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) at moderate pressure to recovery shale oil from Colorado oil shale at temperatures substantially lower than those required for the thermal decomposition of kerogen. The process had been previously examined under static, reaction-equilibrium conditions, and had been shown to achieve significant shale oil recoveries from powdered oil shale. The purpose of this research project was to determine if these results were applicable to a dynamic experiment, and achieve penetration into and recovery of shale oil from solid oil shale. Much was learned about how to perform these experiments. Corrosion, chemical stability, and temperature stability problems were discovered and overcome. Engineering and design problems were discovered and overcome. High recovery (90% of estimated Fischer Assay) was observed in one experiment. Significant recovery (30% of estimated Fischer Assay) was also observed in another experiment. Minor amounts of freed organics were observed in two more experiments. Penetration and breakthrough of solid cores was observed in six experiments.

Ramierz, W.F.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

418

Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions Francis O'Sullivan and Sergey Paltsev, and environmental effects. In turn, the greenhouse gas and atmospheric aerosol assumptions underlying climate://globalchange.mit.edu/ Printed on recycled paper #12;1 Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions Francis O

419

Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions* Francis O, monitor and verify greenhouse gas emissions and climatic impacts. This reprint is one of a series intended Environ. Res. Lett. 7 (2012) 044030 (6pp) doi:10.1088/1748-9326/7/4/044030 Shale gas production: potential

420

Physical and mechanical properties of bituminous mixtures containing oil shales  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rutting of bituminous surfaces on the Jordanian highways is a recurring problem. Highway authorities are exploring the use of extracted shale oil and oil shale fillers, which are abundant in Jordan. The main objectives of this research are to investigate the rheological properties of shale oil binders (conventional binder with various percentages of shale oil), in comparison with a conventional binder, and to investigate the ability of mixes to resist deformation. The latter is done by considering three wearing course mixes containing three different samples of oil shale fillers--which contained three different oil percentages--together with a standard mixture containing limestone filler. The Marshall design method and the immersion wheel tracking machine were adopted. It was concluded that the shale oil binders displayed inconsistent physical properties and therefore should be treated before being used. The oil shale fillers have provided mixes with higher ability to resist deformation than the standard mix, as measured by the Marshall quotients and the wheel tracking machine. The higher the percentages of oil in the oil shale fillers, the lower the ability of the mixes to resist deformation.

Katamine, N.M.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine devonian shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

History and some potentials of oil shale cement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The utilization of oil shale as a cement component is discussed. It was investigated in America and Europe during World War I. Additional development occurred in Western Europe, Russia, and China during the 1920s and 1930s. World War II provided further development incentives and a relatively mature technology was in place in Germany, Russia, and China prior to 1980. The utilization of oil shale in cement has taken a number of different paths. One approach has been to utilize the energy in the oil shale as the principal source for the cement plant and to use the combusted shale as a minor constituent of the plant's cement product. A second approach has been to use the combusted shale as a class C or cementitious fly-ash component in portland cement concrete. Other approaches utilizing eastern oil shale have been to use the combusted oil shale with additives as a specialty cement, or to cocombust the oil shale with coal and utilize the sulfur-rich combustion product.

Knutson, C.F.; Smith, R.P.; Russell, B.F. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Removal of nitrogen and sulfur from oil-shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for enhancing the removal of nitrogen and sulfur from oil-shale. The process consists of: (a) contacting the oil-shale with a sufficient amount of an aqueous base solution comprised of at least a stoichiometric amount of one or more alkali metal or alkaline-earth metal hydroxides based on the total amount of nitrogen and sulfur present in the oil-shale. Also necessary is an amount sufficient to form a two-phase liquid, solid system, a temperature from about 50/sup 0/C to about 350/sup 0/C., and pressures sufficient to maintain the solution in liquid form; (b) separating the effluents from the treated oil-shale, wherein the resulting liquid effluent contains nitrogen moieties and sulfur moieties from the oil-shale and any resulting gaseous effluent contains nitrogen moieties from the oil-shale, and (c) converting organic material of the treated oil-shale to shale-oil at a temperature from about 450/sup 0/C to about 550/sup 0/C.

Olmstead, W.N.

1986-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

423

Potential Contaminant Pathways from Hydraulically Fractured Shale to Aquifers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that fracking the shale could reduce that transport time to tens or hundreds of years. Conductive faults to reach a new equilibrium reflecting the significant changes caused by fracking the shale, which could for development. Hydraulic fracturing (fracking, the industry term for the operation; Kramer 2011) loosens

424

SPE-139032-PP Field Development Strategies for Bakken Shale Formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SPE-139032-PP Field Development Strategies for Bakken Shale Formation S.Zargari, SPE, S s a ckno wle dgm ent of S PE co p yrig ht. Abstract Bakken shale has been subjected to more attention coupled with advancements in horizontal drilling, increased the interest of oil companies for investment

Mohaghegh, Shahab

425

Bakken shale typifies horizontal drilling success  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Given the favorable production response that has been obtained from horizontal drilling in vertical- fractured reservoirs such as the Bakken shale and, more recently, the Austin chalk, industry interest in this technology has mushroomed in the U.S. Indeed, it is difficult to find a good-sized oil company these days that is not involved in a horizontal drilling project or is giving it serious consideration. In response to growing evidence of successful field applications, the realization is dawning on the investment community that horizontal drilling represents a significant technological development with positive implications for both the exploration and production business, and the oilfield services industry.

Leibman, P.R. (Petrie Parkman and Co., Denver, CO (US))

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

West Virginia Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYearTexas--StateWinterYearFeet)per Thousand(BillionShale Production

427

Natural Gas from Shale | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergy HealthCommentsAugustNational ScienceEnergy - Third QuarterNaturalShale

428

Michigan Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs Year2per Thousand Cubic Feet) Year Jan FebShale

429

Oklahoma Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing ReservoirsYear-Month WeekReservesYearYear Jan FebperShale Proved

430

New Mexico Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30 2013 Macroeconomic team:6-2015(Million Cubic Feet) NewWellheadperShale

431

North Dakota Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30 2013 Macroeconomicper Thousand Cubic Feet)3.74 3.92(Dollars perShale

432

NATURAL GAS FROM SHALE: Questions and Answers  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector General Office0-72.pdfGeorgeDoesn't32Department ofMoving AwayAvailability ofMyChallengesis shale

433

Market analysis of shale oil co-products. Summary report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study examines the potential for separating, upgrading and marketing sodium mineral co-products together with shale oil production. The co-products investigated are soda ash and alumina which are derived from the minerals nahcolite and dawsonite. Five cases were selected to reflect the variance in mineral and shale oil content in the identified resource. In the five cases examined, oil content of the shale was varied from 20 to 30 gallons per ton. Two sizes of facilities were analyzed for each resource case to determine economies of scale between a 15,000 barrel per day demonstration unit and a 50,000 barrel per day full sized plant. Three separate pieces of analysis were conducted in this study: analysis of manufacturing costs for shale oil and co-products; projection of potential world markets for alumina, soda ash, and nahcolite; and determination of economic viability and market potential for shale co-products.

Not Available

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Oil shale retorting with steam and produced gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for retorting oil shale in a vertical retort. It comprises introducing particles of oil shale into the retort, the particles of oil shale having a minimum size such that the particles are retained on a screen having openings 1/4 inch in size; contacting the particles of oil shale with hot gas to heat the particles of oil shale to a state of pyrolysis, thereby producing retort off-gas; removing the off-gas from the retort; cooling the off-gas; removing oil from the cooled off-gas; separating recycle gas from the off-gas, the recycle gas comprising steam and produced gas, the steam being present in amount, by volume, of at least 50% of the recycle gas so as to increase the yield of sand oil; and heating the recycle gas to form the hot gas.

Merrill, L.S. Jr.; Wheaton, L.D.

1991-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

435

Expectations for Oil Shale Production (released in AEO2009)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Oil shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks that contain relatively large amounts of kerogen, which can be converted into liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons (petroleum liquids, natural gas liquids, and methane) by heating the rock, usually in the absence of oxygen, to 650 to 700 degrees Fahrenheit (in situ retorting) or 900 to 950 degrees Fahrenheit (surface retorting). (Oil shale is, strictly speaking, a misnomer in that the rock is not necessarily a shale and contains no crude oil.) The richest U.S. oil shale deposits are located in Northwest Colorado, Northeast Utah, and Southwest Wyoming. Currently, those deposits are the focus of petroleum industry research and potential future production. Among the three states, the richest oil shale deposits are on federal lands in northwest Colorado.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Oil shale as an energy source in Israel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reserves, characteristics, energetics, chemistry, and technology of Israeli oil shales are described. Oil shale is the only source of energy and the only organic natural resource in Israel. Its reserves of about 12 billion tons will be enough to meet Israel`s requirements for about 80 years. The heating value of the oil shale is 1,150 kcal/kg, oil yield is 6%, and sulfur content of the oil is 5--7%. A method of oil shale processing, providing exhaustive utilization of its energy and chemical potential, developed in the Technion, is described. The principal feature of the method is a two-stage pyrolysis of the oil shale. As a result, gas and aromatic liquids are obtained. The gas may be used for energy production in a high-efficiency power unit, or as a source for chemical synthesis. The liquid products can be an excellent source for production of chemicals.

Fainberg, V.; Hetsroni, G. [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Beginning of an oil shale industry in Australia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper discusses how preparations are being made for the construction and operation of a semi commercial plant to process Australian oil shale. This plant is primarily designed to demonstrate the technical feasibility of processing these shales at low cost. Nevertheless it is expected to generate modest profits even at this demonstration level. This will be the first step in a three staged development of one of the major Australian oil shale deposits which may ultimately provide nearly 10% of Australia's anticipated oil requirements by the end of the century. In turn this development should provide the basis for a full scale oil shale industry in Australia based upon the advantageously disposed oil shale deposits there. New sources of oil are becoming critical since Australian production is declining rapidly while consumption is accelerating.

Wright, B. (Southern Pacific Petroleum NL, 143 Macquarie Street, Sydney (AU))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Assessment of industry needs for oil shale research and development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thirty-one industry people were contacted to provide input on oil shale in three subject areas. The first area of discussion dealt with industry's view of the shape of the future oil shale industry; the technology, the costs, the participants, the resources used, etc. It assessed the types and scale of the technologies that will form the industry, and how the US resource will be used. The second subject examined oil shale R D needs and priorities and potential new areas of research. The third area of discussion sought industry comments on what they felt should be the role of the DOE (and in a larger sense the US government) in fostering activities that will lead to a future commercial US oil shale shale industry.

Hackworth, J.H.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Fate of Brine Applied to Unpaved Roads at a Radioactive Waste Subsurface Disposal Area  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Between 1984 and 1993, MgCl2 brine was used to suppress dust on unpaved roads at a radioactive waste subsurface disposal area. Because Cl– might enhance corrosion of buried metals in the waste, we investigated the distribution and fate of Cl– in the vadose zone using pore water samples collected from suction lysimeters and soluble salt concentrations extracted from sediment samples. The Cl/Br mass ratio and the total dissolved Cl– concentration of pore water show that brine contamination occurs primarily within 13 m of treated roads, but can extend as much as 30 m laterally in near-surface sedimentary deposits. Within the deep vadose zone, which consists of interlayered basalt lava flows and sedimentary interbeds, brine has moved up to 110 m laterally. This lateral migration suggests formation of perched water and horizontal transport during periods of high recharge. In a few locations, brine migrated to depths of 67 m within 3 to 5 yr. Elevated Cl– concentrations were found to depths of 2 m in roadbed material. In drainage ditches along roads, where runoff accumulates and recharge of surface water is high, Cl– was flushed from the sediments in 3 to 4 yr. In areas of lower recharge, Cl– remained in the sediments after 5 yr. Vertical brine movement is directly related to surface recharge through sediments. The distribution of Cl– in pore water and sediments is consistent with estimates of vadose zone residence times and spatial distribution of surface water recharge from other investigations at the subsurface disposal area.

Larry C. Hull; Carolyn W. Bishop

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

The depth of the oil/brine interface and crude oil leaks in SPR caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Monitoring wellhead pressure evolution is the best method of detecting crude oil leaks in SPR caverns while oil/brine interface depth measurements provide additional insight. However, to fully utilize the information provided by these interface depth measurements, a thorough understanding of how the interface movement corresponds to cavern phenomena, such as salt creep, crude oil leakage, and temperature equilibration, as well as to wellhead pressure, is required. The time evolution of the oil/brine interface depth is a function of several opposing factors. Cavern closure due to salt creep and crude oil leakage, if present, move the interface upward. Brine removal and temperature equilibration of the oil/brine system move the interface downward. Therefore, the relative magnitudes of these factors determine the net direction of interface movement. Using a mass balance on the cavern fluids, coupled with a simplified salt creep model for closure in SPR caverns, the movement of the oil/brine interface has been predicted for varying cavern configurations, including both right-cylindrical and carrot-shaped caverns. Three different cavern depths and operating pressures have been investigated. In addition, the caverns were investigated at four different points in time, allowing for varying extents of temperature equilibration. Time dependent interface depth changes of a few inches to a few feet were found to be characteristic of the range of cases studied. 5 refs, 19 figs., 1 tab.

Heffelfinger, G.S.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine devonian shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Potential small-scale development of western oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several studies have been undertaken in an effort to determine ways to enhance development of western oil shale under current market conditions for energy resources. This study includes a review of the commercial potential of western oil shale products and byproducts, a review of retorting processes, an economic evaluation of a small-scale commercial operation, and a description of the environmental requirements of such an operation. Shale oil used as a blend in conventional asphalt appears to have the most potential for entering today's market. Based on present prices for conventional petroleum, other products from oil shale do not appear competitive at this time or will require considerable marketing to establish a position in the marketplace. Other uses for oil shale and spent shale, such as for sulfur sorbtion, power generation, cement, aggregate, and soil stabilization, are limited economically by transportation costs. The three-state area area consisting of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming seems reasonable for the entry of shale oil-blended asphalt into the commercial market. From a review of retorting technologies and the product characteristics from various retorting processes it was determined that the direct heating Paraho and inclined fluidized-bed processes produce a high proportion of heavy material with a high nitrogen content. The two processes are complementary in that they are each best suited to processing different size ranges of materials. An economic evaluation of a 2000-b/d shale oil facility shows that the operation is potentially viable, if the price obtained for the shale oil residue is in the top range of prices projected for this product. Environmental requirements for building and operating an oil shale processing facility are concerned with permitting, control of emissions and discharges, and monitoring. 62 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

Smith, V.; Renk, R.; Nordin, J.; Chatwin, T.; Harnsberger, M.; Fahy, L.J.; Cha, C.Y.; Smith, E.; Robertson, R.

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Effects of diagenesis on the Nd-isotopic composition of black shales from the 420 Ma Utica Shale Magnafacies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-isotopic ratios were measured in whole rock black shales with different grades of thermal maturity from the Utica/Sm that cannot be explained solely by diagenesis, implying source heterogeneity. Whole rock black shales maturation), which alters the Sm/Nd ratio of the rock, it can be argued that the different components

Basu, Asish R.

443

Ion chromatographic analysis of oil shale leachates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the present work an investigation of the use of ion chromatography to determine environmentally significant anions present in oil shale leachates was undertaken. Nadkarni et al. have used ion chromatography to separate and quantify halogen, sulfur and nitrogen species in oil shales after combustion in a Parr bomb. Potts and Potas used ion chromatography to monitor inorganic ions in cooling tower wastewater from coal gasification. Wallace and coworkers have used ion chromatography to determine anions encountered in retort wastewaters. The ions of interest in this work were the ions of sulfur oxides including sulfite (SO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}), sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}), thiosulfate (S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}), dithionite (S{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}), dithionate (S{sub 2}O{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}}), peroxyodisulfate (S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2{minus}}), and tetrathionate (S{sub 4}O{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}}), and thiocyanate (SCN{sup {minus}}), sulfide (S{sup 2{minus}}) hydrosulfide (HS{sup {minus}}), cyanide (CN{sup {minus}}), thiocyanate (SCN{sup {minus}}), and cyanate (OCN{sup {minus}}). A literature search was completed and a leaching procedure developed. 15 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Butler, N.L.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

A THERMODYNAMICS STUDY ON THE UTILIZATION OF JORDANIAN OIL SHALE IN CEMENT INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oil shale can be utilized in manufacturing the Portland cement. In addition to the utilization of the spent oil shale after combustion, it can also reduce the required temperature for the clinkering reactions. A study on the Jordanian oil shale was performed to maximize the use of oil shale in the

Awni Y. Al-otoom

445

Conversion of oil shale ash into zeolite for cadmium and lead removal from wastewater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conversion of oil shale ash into zeolite for cadmium and lead removal from wastewater Reyad; available online 29 October 2003 Abstract A by-product fly ash from oil shale processing was converted shale; Ash; Zeolite; Cadmium and lead removal 1. Introduction Oil shale exists in Jordan with large

Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

446

Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale. Report of Investigations/1989  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil-shale rocks and dust. Three areas were examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil-shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil-shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles.

Not Available

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Potential Economic Impacts of Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania: Reflections on the Perryman Group Analysis from Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Potential Economic Impacts of Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania: Reflections on the Perryman Group The exploration and development of the Marcellus Shale natural gas play has significant potential to affect in the Barnett Shale region of north Texas. The Barnett Shale play is very similar in geology to the Marcellus

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

448

Using Data-Driven Analytics to Assess the Impact of Design Parameters on Production from Shale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shale Esmaili, S., West Virginia University and Mohaghegh, S.D., Intelligent Solution Inc. and West of SPE copyright. Abstract The importance of production from Shale and its impact on the total US energy from Shale assets with different degrees of success. The notion that shale is a "statistical play" may

Mohaghegh, Shahab

449

EXPERIMENT AND NEURAL NETWORK MODEL OF PRIMARY FRAGMENTATION OF OIL SHALE IN FLUIDIZED BED  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that the fluidized bed temperature is an important factor of primary fragmentation of oil shale, and

Zhigang Cui; Xiangxin Han; Xiumin Jiang; Jianguo Liu

450

Review article Oil and gas wells and their integrity: Implications for shale and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Review article Oil and gas wells and their integrity: Implications for shale and unconventional by Elsevier Ltd. 1. Introduction The rapid expansion of shale gas and shale oil exploration and exploitation xxx Keywords: Shale Fracking Integrity Barrier Integrity Wells a b s t r a c t Data from around

Jackson, Robert B.

451

Modeling, History Matching, Forecasting and Analysis of Shale Reservoirs Performance Using Artificial Intelligence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

matching, forecasting and analyzing oil and gas production in shale reservoirs. In this new approach and analysis of oil and gas production from shale formations. Examples of three case studies in Lower Huron and New Albany shale formations (gas producing) and Bakken Shale (oil producing) is presented

Mohaghegh, Shahab

452

3D multi-scale imaging of experimental fracture generation in shale gas reservoirs.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in research and shale unconventional reservoirs that will provide you with the skills to enter the oil and gas3D multi-scale imaging of experimental fracture generation in shale gas reservoirs. Supervisory-grained organic carbon-rich rocks (shales) are increasingly being targeted as shale gas "reservoirs". Due

Henderson, Gideon

453

Modeling gas and brine migration for assessing compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the request of the WIPP Project Integration Office (WPIO) of the DOE, the WIPP Performance Assessment (PA) Department of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has completed preliminary uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration away from the undisturbed repository. This paper contains descriptions of the numerical model and simulations, including model geometries and parameter values, and a summary of major conclusions from sensitivity analyses. Because significant transport of contaminants can only occur in a fluid (gas or brine) medium, two-phase flow modeling can provide an estimate of the distance to which contaminants can migrate. Migration of gas or brine beyond the RCRA ``disposal-unit boundary`` or the Standard`s accessible environment constitutes a potential, but not certain, violation and may require additional evaluations of contaminant concentrations.

Vaughn, P. [Applied Physics, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Butcher, B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Helton, J. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Swift, P. [Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Perform research in process development for hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales: Volume 2, Expansion of the Moving-Bed Hydroretorting Data Base for Eastern oil shales  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An extensive data base was developed for six Eastern oil shales: Alabama Chattanooga, Indiana New Albany, Kentucky Sunbury, Michigan Antrim, Ohio Cleveland, and Tennessee Chattanooga shales. The data base included the hydroretorting characteristics of the six shales, as well as the retorting characteristics in the presence of synthesis gas and ionized gas. Shale gasification was also successfully demonstrated. Shale fines (20%) can produce enough hydrogen for the hydroretorting of the remaining 80% of the shale. The amount of fines tolerable in a moving bed was also determined. 16 refs., 59 figs., 43 tabs.

Not Available

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Exposure and effects of oilfield brine discharges on western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) in Nueces Bay, Texas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Discharge of oilfield brines into fresh and estuarine waters is a common disposal practice in Texas. Petroleum crude oil (PCO) extraction from underground stores includes the removal of a significant amount of water along with the oil. Several methods may be used to separate the oil and water fractions, including tank batteries, heat separation, and skimming ponds. Disposal of the resultant produced water (oilfield brine) may be accomplished by deep-well injection or discharge to surface waters. In Texas, an estimated 766,000 barrels of oilfield brine were discharged daily into tidal waters in 1979. The maximum concentration for oil and grease in these discharges permitted by the Texas Railroad Commission is 25 ppm. Several studies have shown that oilfield brines are toxic to a wide range of marine life, yet little is known about their effects on birds and mammals. Exposure to petroleum in oilfield wastes could evoke toxicological effects in some waterbird species. Avian responses to PCO exposure are highly variable, including cessation of growth, osmoregulatory impairment, endocrine dysfunction, hemolytic anemia, altered blood chemistry, cytochrome P450 induction, reduced reproductive success, and mortality. Oilfield brine discharges may soon be the largest and most pervasive source of contaminants entering Texas estuaries. Migratory and resident birds feeding in the vicinity of discharge sites may be ingesting food items contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals and salts in sufficient quantities to evoke toxicity. The present study of wintering western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) that feed and roost near discharge sites sought to examine oilfield brine exposure and effects through quantification of contaminant burdens, morphological characteristics, and cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase activities. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J. [National Biological Survey, Laurel, MD (United States); Capizzi, J.L. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); King, K.A. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Phoenix, AZ (United States); LeCaptain, L.J. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Spokane, WA (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Repassivation of 13% Cr steel dependent on brine pH  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A joint laboratory project, involving an oil production and oil well service company, investigated repassivation of martensitic 13% Cr steel. The rate at which this alloy is repassivated after losing its protective passive oxide layer to hydrochloric acid (HCI) depended on the pH of the spent acid returns. Test samples of 13% Cr cut from oilfield tubing were subjected to a fluid sequence of (1) initial brine, (2) HCI, (3) spent acid, and (4) final brine. In 9 days, the samples regained their passive oxide layers. When spent acid was taken out of the fluid sequence, the samples regained passive oxide layers in 3 days.

Skogsberg, J.W.; Walker, M.L.

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Brine transport studies in the bedded salt of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Brine flow has been measured to unheated boreholes for periods of a few days and to heated holes for two years in the WIPP facility. It is suggested that Darcy flow may dominate the observed influx of brine. Exact solutions to a linearized model for one-dimensional, radial flow are evaluated for conditions approximating the field experiments. Flow rates of the correct order of magnitude are calculated for permeabilities in the range 10/sup -21/ to 10/sup -20/ m/sup 2/ (1 to 10 nanodarcy) for both the unheated and heated cases. 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

McTigue, D.F.; Nowak, E.J.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Fluidized-bed gasification of an eastern oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The current conceptual HYTORT process design for the hydroretorting of oil shales employs moving-bed retorts that utilize shale particles larger than 3 mm. Work at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is in progress to investigate the potential of high-temperature (1100 to 1300 K) fluidized-bed gasification of shale fines (<3 mm size) using steam and oxygen as a technique for more complete utilization of the resource. Synthesis gas produced from fines gasification can be used for making some of the hydrogen needed in the HYTORT process. After completing laboratory-scale batch and continuous gasification tests with several Eastern oil shales, two tests with Indiana New Albany shale were conducted in a 0.2 m diameter fluidized-bed gasification process development unit (PDU). A conceptual gasifier design for 95% carbon conversion was completed. Gasification of 20% of the mined shale can produce the hydrogen required by the HYTORT reactor to retort 80% of the remaining shale. 12 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

Lau, F.S.; Rue, D.M.; Punwani, D.V.; Rex, R.C. Jr.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Status of LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solid oil shale retort  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have investigated the technical and economic barriers facing the introduction of an oil shale industry and we have chosen Hot-Recycled-Solid (HRS) oil shale retorting as the primary advanced technology of interest. We are investigating this approach through fundamental research, operation of a 4 tonne-per-day, HRS pilot plant and development of an Oil Shale Process (OSP) mathematical model. Over the last three years, from June 1991 to June 1993, we completed a series of runs (H10--H27) using the 4-TPD pilot plant to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the HRS process and answer key scale-up questions. With our CRADA partners, we seek to further develop the HRS technology, maintain and enhance the knowledge base gained over the past two decades through research and development by Government and industry and determine the follow on steps needed to advance the technology towards commercialization. The LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solid process has the potential to improve existing oil shale technology. It processes oil shale in minutes instead of hours, reducing plant size. It processes all oil shale, including fines rejected by other processes. It provides controls to optimize product quality for different applications. It co-generates electricity to maximize useful energy output. And, it produces negligible SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions, a non-hazardous waste shale and uses minimal water.

Baldwin, D.E.; Cena, R.J.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

460

Industrial hygiene aspects of underground oil shale mining  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Health hazards associated with underground oil shale mining are summarized in this report. Commercial oil shale mining will be conducted on a very large scale. Conventional mining techniques of drilling, blasting, mucking, loading, scaling, and roof bolting will be employed. Room-and-pillar mining will be utilized in most mines, but mining in support of MIS retorting may also be conducted. Potential health hazards to miners may include exposure to oil shale dusts, diesel exhaust, blasting products, gases released from the oil shale or mine water, noise and vibration, and poor environmental conditions. Mining in support of MIS retorting may in addition include potential exposure to oil shale retort offgases and retort liquid products. Based upon the very limited industrial hygiene surveys and sampling in experimental oil shale mines, it does not appear that oil shale mining will result in special or unique health hazards. Further animal toxicity testing data could result in reassessment if findings are unusual. Sufficient information is available to indicate that controls for dust will be required in most mining activities, ventilation will be necessary to carry away gases and vapors from blasting and diesel equipment, and a combination of engineering controls and personal protection will likely be required for control of noise. Recommendations for future research are included.

Hargis, K.M.; Jackson, J.O.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine devonian shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Formation of Thetis Deep metal-rich sediments in the absence of brines, Red Sea M.C. Pierret a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Formation of Thetis Deep metal-rich sediments in the absence of brines, Red Sea M.C. Pierret a , N October 2009 Available online 23 October 2009 Keywords: Pb­Sr­Nd isotopes REE Metal-rich sediments-rich sediments covered by brine pools. It is generally agreed that these metal-rich deposits precipitated from

Demouchy, Sylvie

462

Brine flow up a borehole caused by pressure perturbation from CO2 storage: Static and dynamic evaluations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Industrial-scale storage of CO{sub 2} in saline sedimentary basins will cause zones of elevated pressure, larger than the CO{sub 2} plume itself. If permeable conduits (e.g., leaking wells) exist between the injection reservoir and overlying shallow aquifers, brine could be pushed upwards along these conduits and mix with groundwater resources. This paper discusses the potential for such brine leakage to occur in temperature- and salinity-stratified systems. Using static mass-balance calculations as well as dynamic well flow simulations, we evaluate the minimum reservoir pressure that would generate continuous migration of brine up a leaking wellbore into a freshwater aquifer. Since the brine invading the well is denser than the initial fluid in the wellbore, continuous flow only occurs if the pressure perturbation in the reservoir is large enough to overcome the increased fluid column weight after full invasion of brine into the well. If the threshold pressure is exceeded, brine flow rates are dependent on various hydraulic (and other) properties, in particular the effective permeability of the wellbore and the magnitude of pressure increase. If brine flow occurs outside of the well casing, e.g., in a permeable fracture zone between the well cement and the formation, the fluid/solute transfer between the migrating fluid and the surrounding rock units can strongly retard brine flow. At the same time, the threshold pressure for continuous flow to occur decreases compared to a case with no fluid/solute transfer.

Birkholzer, J.T.; Nicot, J.-P.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Zhou, Q.; Kraemer, S.; Bandilla, K.W.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Validation of classical density-dependent solute transport theory for stable, high-concentration-gradient brine displacements in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-concentration-gradient brine displacements in coarse and medium sands S.J. Watson a,1 , D.A. Barry a,1 , R.J. Schotting b,*, S.M. Hassanizadeh b a School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Contaminated Land Assessment and Remediation by a brine solution, under either constant head or constant volume flux conditions. The experimental data

Hassanizadeh, S. Majid

464

Formation and character of an ancient 19-m ice cover and underlying trapped brine in an ``ice-sealed'' east  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Formation and character of an ancient 19-m ice cover and underlying trapped brine in an ``ice bed year-round. New ice-core analysis and tempera- ture data show that beneath 19 m of ice is a water°C. The ice cover thickens at both its base and surface, sealing concentrated brine beneath. The ice

Priscu, John C.

465

Brine release based on structural calculations of damage around an excavation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a large in situ experimntal circular room, brine inflow was measured over 5 years. After correcting for evaporation losses into mine ventilation air, the measurements gave data for a period of nearly 3 years. Predicted brine accumulation based on a mechanical ``snow plow`` model of the volume swept by creep-induced damage as calculated with the Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture model was found to agree with experiment. Calculation suggests the damage zone at 5 years effectively exends only some 0.7 m into the salt around the room. Also, because the mecahnical model of brine release gives an adequate explanation of the measured data, the hydrological process of brine flow appears to be rapid compared to the mechanical process of brine release.

Munson, D.E.; Jensen, A.L.; Webb, S.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); DeVries, K.L. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Short-term microbial testing of shale oil materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Paraho/Sohio Shale Oil was found to be mutagenic in the Ames assay when assayed with the frameshift strain TA98 and incorporating metabolic activation with rat liver homogenates (Aroclor induced S-9). The mutagenic activity was contributed by the organic constituents of the basic and the neutral fractions. Hydrotreatment of the shale oil abolished the mutagenic activity. Results obtained in the yeast assay supported these observations. Refined oil samples from Paraho/Sohio refinery were not mutagenic. The samples rank for their mutagenic activity as coal oils > shale oil > natural petroleum crudes.

Rao, T.K.; Epler, J.L.; Guerin, M.R.; Clark, B.R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Oil shale quarterly report, August--December 1990  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper contains four status reports on the following oil shale research projects: (1) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory 4-tonne-per-day pilot plant; (2) chemistry and kinetics of New Albany shale flash pyrolysis under Hot-Recycled-Solid (HRS) conditions; (3) modeling of shale oil cracking and coking in the HRS process; and (4) modeling and analysis of particle slip and drag in a lift pipe of the retort for the HRS process. Each project report has been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base. (CK)

Cena, R.

1991-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

468

Characterization of nitrogen compound types in hydrotreated Paraho shale oil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results from the separation and characterization of nitrogen compound types in hydrotreated Paraho shale oil samples were obtained. Two samples of Paraho shale oil were hydrotreated by Chevron Research Company such that one sample contained about 0.05 wt. percent nitrogen and the other sample contained about 0.10 wt. percent nitrogen. A separation method concentrate specific nitrogen compound types was developed. Characterization of the nitrogen types was accomplished by infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, potentiometric titration, and elemental analysis. The distribution of nitrogen compound types in both samples and in the Paraho crude shale oil is compared.

Holmes, S.A.; Latham, D.R.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Pyrolysis of shale oil residual fractions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The freezing point of JP-5, the Navy jet fuel, has been related to the n-alkane content, specifically n-hexadecane. In general, jet fuels from shale oil have the highest n-alkanes. The formation of n-alkanes in the jet fuel distillation range can be explained if large n-alkanes are present in the crude oil source. Quantities of large n-alkanes are insufficient, however, to explain the amounts found - up to 37% n-alkanes in the jet fuel range. Other possible precursors to small straight chain molecules are substituted cyclic compounds. Attack in the side chain obviously afford a path to an n-alkane. Aromatic hydrocarbons, esters, acids, amines, and ethers also have the potential to form n-alkanes if an unbranched alkyl chain is present in the molecule. Investigations showed that the best yield of the JP-5 cut comes at different times for the various fractions, but a time in the 60 to 120 min range would appear to be the optimum time for good yield at 450/sup 0/C. The longer time would be preferred with respect to lower potential n-alkane yield. None of the fractions gave n-alkane yields approaching the 37% amount found in the Shale-I JP-5. A temperature different than the 450/sup 0/C used here might affect the conversion percentage. Further the combined saturate, aromatic, and polar fractions may interact under pyrolysis conditions to give higher potential n-alkane yields than the fractions stressed independently.

Hazlett, R.N.; Beal, E.; Vetter, T.; Sonntag, R.; Moniz, W.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Detailed gravity survey over a known carbonate reef (Devonian) in Williston basin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A detailed gravity study, conducted over the Shell Golden carbonate reef located in the Winnipegosis Formation (Devonian) of the Williston basin in north-central North Dakota, indicates a massive carbonate platform with several interconnected vertical accumulations, perhaps pinnacle in nature, from this platform. This reef is found at a depth of about 2400 m (8000 ft). Because elevations and north-south positions were surveyed to /+-/3 cm (0.1 ft) and /+-/ 1 (3.3 ft), respectively, an accuracy of 0.01 mgal was obtained. Five profiles were made: three lines running east-west and two lines running north-south, forming a grid pattern over the reef. The distance between each line was 1.6 km (1.0 mi) with gravity-station spacing along each line being 0.4 km (0.25 mi). The Golden reef and most reefs of this nature throughout the North Dakota portion of the Williston basin have been interpreted to be isolated pinnacles with physical dimensions about 60-75 m (200-250 ft) thick and 0.8 km (0.5 mi) in basal diameter. However, analysis of the residual Bouguer gravity anomalies (0.2-0.5 mgal) obtained from this study indicates this reef is more complex than previously thought. The maximum thicknesses of the complex are on the order of 120-185 m (400-600 ft) with compaction anticlines also contributing to the total gravity anomaly. The modeled reef complex extends in a northeast-southwest direction and probably extends beyond the study area along that line.

Braun, S.M.

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Nonlinear Thermal Transport and Brine Convection in First Year Sea Ice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nonlinear Thermal Transport and Brine Convection in First Year Sea Ice M.J. McGuinness \\Lambda , H a programme recently set up to directly measure the thermal conductivity of young sea ice. An array of thermistors frozen into first­year Antarctic sea ice provides temperature against depth data, which is fitted

472

NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF TEMPERATURE EFFECTS DURING THE INJECTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE INTO BRINE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF TEMPERATURE EFFECTS DURING THE INJECTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE INTO BRINE for the simulation of carbon dioxide injection into geological formations is currently an intensive field of research for the balance of thermal energy, we can investigate numerically the effects of temperature variations during

Cirpka, Olaf Arie

473

Accurate Thermodynamic Model for the Calculation of H2S Solubility in Pure Water and Brines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Accurate Thermodynamic Model for the Calculation of H2S Solubility in Pure Water and Brines Zhenhao, 2007 A thermodynamic model calculating the solubility of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in pure water phase. With this specific interaction approach, this model is able to predict H2S solubility in other

Zhu, Chen

474

Analysis of hydrocarbon removal methods for the management of oilfield brines and produced waters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and globally, the petroleum industries challenge has been to develop a high-tech and cost effective method to purify the large volumes of oilfield brines and produced water. Currently, most of the produced water requires several pre- and post- treatment methods...

Furrow, Brendan Eugene

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Comparison of Emperical Decline Curve Analysis for Shale Wells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This study compares four recently developed decline curve methods and the traditional Arps or Fetkovich approach. The four methods which are empirically formulated for shale and tight gas wells are: 1. Power Law Exponential Decline (PLE). 2...

Kanfar, Mohammed Sami

2013-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

476

90-day Interim Report on Shale Gas Production - Secretary of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

reduce the environmental impact and improve the safety of shale gas production. Natural gas is a cornerstone of the U.S. economy, providing a quarter of the country's total...

477

La Revolucin del Shale Gas Profesor: Hugh Rudnick  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

................................ 36 Impacto / PreocupaciĂłn Ambiental...................................................................................... 38 Impacto Ambiental en los Procesos de ExtracciĂłn del Shale Gas.................................................................................................................. 11 Impacto en las Reservas Mundiales de Gas y Proyecciones Relevantes

Rudnick, Hugh

478

Economic analysis of shale gas wells in the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Natural gas produced from shale formations has increased dramatically in the past decade and has altered the oil and gas industry greatly. The use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has enabled the production ...

Hammond, Christopher D. (Christopher Daniel)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Implications of the U.S. Shale Revolution  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Implications of the U.S. Shale Revolution For US-Canada Energy Summit October 17, 2014 | Chicago, IL By Adam Sieminski, Administrator U.S. Energy Information Administration 0 5 10...

480

The U.S. Natural Gas and Shale Production Outlook  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Natural Gas and Shale Production Outlook for North American Gas Forum September 29, 2014 by Adam Sieminski, Administrator The U.S. has experienced a rapid increase in natural gas...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine devonian shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

West Lothian Biodiversity Action Plan: Oil Shale Bings   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This report establishes the importance of the West Lothian oil-shale bings at both a national (UK) and local (West Lothian) scale, for their contribution to local biodiversity, their historical importance, their education ...

Harvie, Barbra

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Oil shale and coal in intermontane basins of Thailand  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Mae Tip intermontane basin contains Cenozoic oil shales in beds up to 1 m (3.3 ft) thick interbedded with coal and mudstone. The oil shales contain lamosite-type alginite, and give a maximum oil yield of 122 L/MT (29.3 gal/ton). The beds are laterally continuous for at least 1.5 km (1.0 mi), but pass into mudstones toward the basin margin. The oil shales originated when peat swamps close to a steep basin margin were flooded by shallow lakes, allowing algae to replace rooted vegetation. This distinctive oil shale-coal assemblage is known from many small intermontane basins in Thailand, where locally high geothermal gradients suggest potential for hydrocarbons.

Gibling, M.R.; Srisuk, S.; Ukakimaphan, Y.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Forecasting long-term gas production from shale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oil and natural gas from deep shale formations are transforming the United States economy and its energy outlook. Back in 2005, the US Energy Information Administration published projections of United States natural gas ...

Cueto-Felgueroso, Luis

484

Assessment of Eagle Ford Shale Oil and Gas Resources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and to assess Eagle Ford shale oil and gas reserves, contingent resources, and prospective resources. I first developed a Bayesian methodology to generate probabilistic decline curves using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) that can quantify the reserves...

Gong, Xinglai

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

485

STUDY COMMISSIONED BY WEST LOTHIAN COUNCIL OIL-SHALE BINGS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;STUDY COMMISSIONED BY WEST LOTHIAN COUNCIL OIL-SHALE BINGS Dr Barbra Harvie School of Geo.....................................................................................................3 The birth of the oil industry ...........................................................................................................................3 The impact of oil on society

486

Cyclone oil shale retorting concept. [Use it all retorting process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new concept for above-ground retorting of oil shale was disclosed by A.E. Harak in US Patent No. 4,340,463, dated July 20, 1982, and assigned to the US Department of Energy. This patent titled System for Utilizing Oil Shale Fines, describes a process wherein oil shale fines of one-half inch diameter and less are pyrolyzed in an entrained-flow reactor using hot gas from a cyclone combustor. Spent shale and supplemental fuel are burned at slagging conditions in this combustor. Because of fines utilization, the designation Use It All Retorting Process (UIARP) has been adopted. A preliminary process engineering design of the UIARP, analytical tests on six samples of raw oil shale, and a preliminary technical and economic evaluation of the process were performed. The results of these investigations are summarized in this report. The patent description is included. It was concluded that such changes as deleting air preheating in the slag quench and replacing the condenser with a quench-oil scrubber are recognized as being essential. The addition of an entrained flow raw shale preheater ahead of the cyclone retort is probably required, but final acceptance is felt to be contingent on some verification that adequate reaction time cannot be obtained with only the cyclone, or possibly some other twin-cyclone configuration. Sufficient raw shale preheating could probably be done more simply in another manner, perhaps in a screw conveyor shale transporting system. Results of the technical and economic evaluations of Jacobs Engineering indicate that further investigation of the UIARP is definitely worthwhile. The projected capital and operating costs are competitive with costs of other processes as long as electric power generation and sales are part of the processing facility.

Harak, A.E.; Little, W.E.; Faulders, C.R.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Thermal decomposition of Colorado and Kentucky reference oil shales  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Isothermal pyrolysis studies have been conducted on a Green River Formation oil shale from Colorado and a New Albany oil shale from Kentucky. The conversion of kerogen to bitumen, oil, gas, and residue products was obtained for different isothermal reaction times in the temperature range of 375/degree/C to 440/degree/C (707/degree/ to 824/degree/F) using a heated sand bath reactor system. Particular attention was paid to the formation of the bitumen intermediate during decomposition of the two shales. The maximum amount of extractable bitumen in the New Albany shale was 14% or less of the original kerogen at any given temperature, indicating that direct conversion of kerogen to oil, gas, and residue products is a major pathway of conversion of this shale during pyrolysis. In contrast, a significant fraction of the Colorado oil shale kerogen was converted to the intermediate bitumen during pyrolysis. The bitumen data imply that the formation of soluble intermediates may depend on original kerogen structure and may be necessary for producing high yields by pyrolysis. 24 refs., 14 figs., 8 tabs.

Miknis, F.P.; Turner, T.F.; Ennen, L.W.; Chong, S.L.; Glaser, R.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Life-cycle analysis of shale gas and natural gas.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M. (Energy Systems); ( EVS)

2012-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

489

Technology experience and economics of oil shale mining in Estonia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The exhaustion of fuel-energy resources became an evident problem of the European continent in the 1960s. Careful utilization of their own reserves of coal, oil, and gas (Germany, France, Spain) and assigned shares of imports of these resources make up the strategy of economic development of the European countries. The expansion of oil shale utilization is the most topical problem. The experience of mining oil shale deposits in Estonia and Russia, in terms of the practice and the economic results, is reviewed in this article. The room-and-pillar method of underground mining and the open-cut technology of clearing the ground ensure the fertility of a soil. The economics of underground and open pit oil shale mines is analyzed in terms of natural, organizational, and technical factors. These analyses are used in the planning and management of oil shale mining enterprises. The perspectives of the oil shale mining industry of Estonia and the economic expediency of multiproduction are examined. Recommendations and guidelines for future industrial utilization of oil shale are given in the summary.

Fraiman, J.; Kuzmiv, I. [Estonian Oil Shale State Co., Jyhvi (Estonia). Scientific Research Center

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Investigation of oil injection into brine for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve : hydrodynamics and mixing experiments with SPR liquids.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental program was conducted to study a proposed approach for oil reintroduction in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The goal was to assess whether useful oil is rendered unusable through formation of a stable oil-brine emulsion during reintroduction of degassed oil into the brine layer in storage caverns. An earlier report (O'Hern et al., 2003) documented the first stage of the program, in which simulant liquids were used to characterize the buoyant plume that is produced when a jet of crude oil is injected downward into brine. This report documents the final two test series. In the first, the plume hydrodynamics experiments were completed using SPR oil, brine, and sludge. In the second, oil reinjection into brine was run for approximately 6 hours, and sampling of oil, sludge, and brine was performed over the next 3 months so that the long-term effects of oil-sludge mixing could be assessed. For both series, the experiment consisted of a large transparent vessel that is a scale model of the proposed oil-injection process at the SPR. For the plume hydrodynamics experiments, an oil layer was floated on top of a brine layer in the first test series and on top of a sludge layer residing above the brine in the second test series. The oil was injected downward through a tube into the brine at a prescribed depth below the oil-brine or sludge-brine interface. Flow rates were determined by scaling to match the ratio of buoyancy to momentum between the experiment and the SPR. Initially, the momentum of the flow produces a downward jet of oil below the tube end. Subsequently, the oil breaks up into droplets due to shear forces, buoyancy dominates the flow, and a plume of oil droplets rises to the interface. The interface was deflected upward by the impinging oil-brine plume. Videos of this flow were recorded for scaled flow rates that bracket the equivalent pumping rates in an SPR cavern during injection of degassed oil. Image-processing analyses were performed to quantify the penetration depth and width of the oil jet. The measured penetration depths were shallow, as predicted by penetration-depth models, in agreement with the assumption that the flow is buoyancy-dominated, rather than momentum-dominated. The turbulent penetration depth model overpredicted the measured values. Both the oil-brine and oil-sludge-brine systems produced plumes with hydrodynamic characteristics similar to the simulant liquids previously examined, except that the penetration depth was 5-10% longer for the crude oil. An unexpected observation was that centimeter-size oil 'bubbles' (thin oil shells completely filled with brine) were produced in large quantities during oil injection. The mixing experiments also u